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Sample records for anterior eye segment

  1. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

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    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  2. Morphogenesis of the anterior segment in the zebrafish eye

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    Link Brian A

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ocular anterior segment is critical for focusing incoming light onto the neural retina and for regulating intraocular pressure. It is comprised of the cornea, lens, iris, ciliary body, and highly specialized tissue at the iridocorneal angle. During development, cells from diverse embryonic lineages interact to form the anterior segment. Abnormal migration, proliferation, differentiation, or survival of these cells contribute to diseases of the anterior segment such as corneal dystrophy, lens cataract, and glaucoma. Zebrafish represent a powerful model organism for investigating the genetics and cell biology of development and disease. To lay the foundation for genetic studies of anterior segment development, we have described the morphogenesis of this structure in zebrafish. Results As in other vertebrates, the zebrafish anterior segment derives from diverse origins including surface ectoderm, periocular mesenchyme, and neuroepithelium. Similarly, the relative timing of tissue differentiation in the anterior segment is also conserved with other vertebrates. However, several morphogenic features of the zebrafish anterior segment differ with those of higher vertebrates. These include lens delamination as opposed to invagination, lack of iris muscles and ciliary folds, and altered organization in the iridocorneal angle. In addition, substantial dorsal-ventral differences exist within the zebrafish anterior segment. Conclusion Cumulatively, our anatomical findings provide a reference point to utilize zebrafish for genetic studies into the mechanisms of development and maintenance of the anterior segment.

  3. Diagnostics of anterior eye segment in cats and dogs

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    Hadži-Milić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of the anterior segment of the eye present the most frequent diagnostics implemented in ophthalmology and by most veterinary practicians as well. This paper presents the complete diagnostics in the most concise form possible. The procedure with animals is presented first, followed by the equipment, and then anamnesis. The following diagnostic methods are presented: examination in a lighted room which include an examination from a distance, taking a smear, the Schirmer tear test (STT, an examination from close by, examination in a dark room which comprises the elementary examinations, such as the use of focal lighting and examination using a direct ophthalmoscope, and special examination in a dark room, such as biomicroscopy, gonioscopy and keratoscopy. Additional examination methods are also included.

  4. Changes of the vasculature and innervation in the anterior segment of the RCS rat eye.

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    May, Christian Albrecht

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the anterior eye segment vasculature and innervation of dystrophic RCS rats, two major unique findings were observed: in the iris, young adult animals with retinal dystrophy showed an increase in substance P nerve fibres and a dilation of arterioles and capillaries. This finding continued during ageing. In the pars plana region, the surface covered by venules decreased continuously with age. In older animals, this decrease was parallelled by a local decrease of sympathetic TH-positive nerve fibres supplying these venules. For both conditions, no comparable data exists so far in the literature. They might point to a unique situation in the anterior eye segment of the dystrophic RCS rat.

  5. Application of Fourier Domain OCT Imaging Technology to the Anterior Segment of the Human Eye

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    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana; Ortiz, Sergio; Grulkowski, Ireneusz

    The anterior segment is the front part of the human eye, which forms the optical system and hence directly impacts vision. Traumatic or pathological changes in the anterior segment may lead to vision loss and, in some cases, even blindness. Since the eighteenth century, optical instrumentation for measuring and imaging the anterior segment of the human eye has been developing along with modern ophthalmology. The application of OCT to the anterior segment imaging is particularly of interest, since this could potentially provide substantial complementary information regarding the large-scale architecture of the cornea and the crystalline lens, or on small portions of tissue imaged with high spatial resolutions comparable to regular microscopy. Especially an introduction of Fourier domain detection in OCT has opened new frontiers in OCT ophthalmic applications. The resultant substantial speed improvement enables rapid image acquisition, helping to reduce artifacts due to patient motion. Thus, it is currently possible to perform high-speed, in vivo, three-dimensional volumetric imaging over large scales within a reasonable time limit and without reducing system sensitivity. This chapter describes the state-of the art OCT technology dedicated to anterior segment imaging and indicates all important parameters which are required for optimization of the performance of OCT instrument.

  6. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review.

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    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases.

  7. Curcumin, A Potential Therapeutic Candidate for Anterior Segment Eye Diseases: A Review

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    Liu, Xiu-Fen; Hao, Ji-Long; Xie, Tian; Mukhtar, Nour Jama; Zhang, Wiley; Malik, Tayyab Hamid; Lu, Cheng-Wei; Zhou, Dan-Dan

    2017-01-01

    Curcumin, the major curcuminoid of the turmeric, has been extensively used in many countries since ancient time for preventing and/or treating a multitude of diseases. This review is to illustrate the researches on the properties of curcumin and its potential therapeutic efficacy in major anterior segment eye diseases. The bio-medical potential of curcumin is restricted because of its low solubility and digestive bioavailability. This review will discuss promising research in improving curcumin bioavailability through structural modification. In vitro and in vivo research made progress in studying the beneficial effects of curcumin on major anterior segment eye diseases, including anti-angiogenesis effect in corneal diseases; anti-inflammation or anti-allergy effects in dry eye disease, conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis; anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effects in pterygium; anti-oxidative stress, anti-osmotic stress, anti-lipid peroxidation, pro-apoptosis, regulating calcium homeostasis, sequestrating free radicals, protein modification and degradation effects in cataracts; neuroprotective effects in glaucoma. Curcumin exhibited to be a potent therapeutic candidate for treating those anterior segment eye diseases. PMID:28261099

  8. Effect of Intracameral Lidocaine Anesthesia on the Anterior Segment of Rabbit Eyes

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    Hui Yang; Danying Zheng; Zhenping Zhang

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intracameral anesthesia on the anterior segment ofrabbit eyes using chinese-made lidocaine.Method: The study comprised eight eyes of four white rabbits which were divided intothree groups according to the concentration of the lidocaine given. They are 0.5%, 1%,2% lidocaine groups and balanced salt solution(BSS)control group. Each groupcontained two eyes.After 0.5 ml of the anesthetic agent was injected into the anteriorchamber and retainedthere for ten minutes, the rabbits were executed and the eye balls wereenucleated. Pathological examinations of the anterior segment, including cornea, iris andcilliary body, were carried out immediately.Result:The pathological study revealed no abnormal findings in lidocaine 0. 5% and 1%groups compared with the control group, where as in the lidocaine 2% group, muchabnormal pathological change was found, including the shrinkage of corneal endothelium,stroma edema of iris and cilliary body.Conclusion: Using intracameral anesthesia of high concentration of chinese-made lidocainewould run a risk of damaging the anterior segment of rabbit eye. But at the low concentrationusually usedin cataract surgery, no adverse effect was found.

  9. Comparison of anterior segment parameters with pentacam according to age in emmetropic eyes

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    Yasin Çınar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to compare anterior segment parametersobtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera systemaccording to age groups.Methods: 290 eyes of 145 emmetropic subjects wereincluded in the study. Subjects were divided in threeage groups. Group 1 comprised the subjects age up to20 years, Group 2 comprised the subjects age between21 and 40 and Group 3 comprised the subjects between41 years and older. In all subjects, flat keratometry (K1,steep keratometry (K2, mean corneal power (Km,maximum keratometry (Kmax, central corneal thickness(CCT, apex corneal thickness (ACT, thinnest cornealthickness (TCT, anterior chamber volume (ACV and anteriorchamber depth (ACD were obtained by using rotatingScheimpflug camera system. To eliminate operatordependent variables, automatic release mode was used.All measurements were obtained by the same examiner.Results: The study included 72 female and 73 male subjects.The mean age of the subjects was 31.37±12.29years (range, 8-65. There were no significant differencesin keratometric values between age groups. Therewas significant difference between Groups 1 and 3 andGroups 2 and 3 in the mean CCT, ACT and TCT (p<0.05.There was significant difference between the groups inthe mean ACD and ACV. There significant positive correlationbetween age and CCT (r=0.181, p=0.001, ACT(r=0.161, p=0.006 and TCT (r=0.16, p=0.006. Therewere significant negative correlations between age andACD (r=-0.376, p<0.001 and ACV (r=-0.367, p<0.001.Conclusion: In the emmetropic eyes, significant reductionwas found in ACD and ACV, while there was significantincrease in CCT, ACT and TCT by age.Key words: Corneal topography, anterior segment, emetropic eyes, pentacam

  10. [Drug delivery systems to target the anterior segment of the eye: fundamental bases and clinical applications].

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    Behar-Cohen, F

    2002-05-01

    The development of new drug delivery systems to target the anterior segment of the eye may offer many advantages: to increase the biodisponibility of the drug, to allow the penetration of drug that cannot be formulated as solutions, to obtain constant and sustained drug release, to achieve higher local concentrations without systemic effects, to target more specifically one tissue or cell type, to reduce the frequency of instillation and therefore increase the observance and comfort of the patient while reducing side effects of frequent instillation. Several approaches are developed, aiming to increase the corneal contact time by modified formulation or reservoir systems, or by increasing the tissue permeability using iontophoresis. To date, no ocular drug delivery system is ideal for all purposes. To maximize treatment efficacy, careful evaluation of the specific pathological condition, the targeted Intraocular tissue and the location of the most severe pathology must be made before selecting the method of delivery most suitable for each individual patient.

  11. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

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    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  12. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

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    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  13. 7.1 T MRI to Assess the Anterior Segment of the Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langner, Soenke; Martin, Heiner; Terwee, Thom; Koopmans, Steven A.; Krueger, Paul C.; Hosten, Norbert; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Stachs, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. Visualization of the anterior segment and biometric evaluation of the entire crystalline lens pose significant challenges for imaging techniques because of tissue-induced distortion artifacts. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the advantages of high-resolution magnetic resonanc

  14. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  15. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders: dry eye disease, blepharitis, and allergy.

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    Lemp, Michael A; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses the use of contact lenses in patients suffering from dry eye and ocular allergy. The diagnosis of dry eye is outlined along with the relationship between contact lenses, the tear film, and the ocular surface. A practical approach to the recognition and management of the dry eye patient wishing to wear contact lenses is presented. In addition, a consideration of a careful strategy to identify patients with ocular allergy and manage the use of contact lenses in these patients is developed with an emphasis on the avoidance of complications.

  16. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

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    Zhonghao Wang

    Full Text Available To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA, posterior chamber area (PCA, iris cross-section area (ICA and angle recess area (ARA were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC.All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001.Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  17. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  18. Biometry of anterior segment of human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians during accommodation imaged with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography.

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    Lin Leng

    Full Text Available To determine the biometry of anterior segment dimensions of the human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT during accommodation.Twenty pre-presbyopic volunteers, aged between 24 and 30, were recruited. The ocular anterior segment of each subject was imaged using an extended scan depth OCT under non- and 3.0 diopters (D of accommodative demands on both horizontal and vertical meridians. All the images were analyzed to yield the following parameters: pupil diameter (PD, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior and posterior surface curvatures of the crystalline lens (ASC and PSC and the lens thickness (LT. Two consecutive measurements were performed to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of this OCT. They were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (SD, a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and the coefficient of repeatability/reproducibility (CoR.There were no significant differences between two consecutive measurements on either horizontal or vertical meridians under both two different accommodative statuses (P>0.05. The ICC for all parameters ranged from 0.775 to 0.998, except for the PSC (0.550 on the horizontal meridian under the non-accommodative status. In addition, the CoR for most of the parameters were excellent (0.004% to 4.89%. In all the parameters, only PD and PSC were found different between the horizontal and vertical meridians under both accommodative statuses (P<0.05. PD, ACD, ASC and PSC under accommodative status were significantly smaller than those under the non-accommodative status, except that the PSC at the vertical meridian did not change. In addition, LT was significantly increased when accommodation.The extended scan depth OCT successfully measured the dimensions of the anterior eye during accommodation with good repeatability and reproducibility on both horizontal and vertical meridians. The asymmetry

  19. Pentacam System for the Measurement of the Anterior Segment of Myopia Eye%Pentacam系统对近视人群眼部前节的测量

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    盛豫; 黄一飞; 关娟; 王大江

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To analyze the data of ocular anterior segment of myopia eye obtained by Pentacam system. [Methods]The anterior segment of 436 myopia eyes were measured by Pentacam system and the data were obtained. The coefficient of variation(CV) was calculated. According to the data of spherical equivalent(SE) , the subjects were divided into super-high myopia group, high myopia group, moderate myopia group and mild myopia group. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. The data from the groups with different sex or different side of eyes were analyzed by using 2 independent samples tests (rank test). [Results] The change of the data from anterior tissues and eye tissues near the axis was little, While the change of the data from posterior and periphery tissues was larger. The anterior angle in the super-high myopia group was narrower than that in other groups, and there was significant difference ( P <0. 05=. There was no significant difference in thinnest corneal thickness, corneal volume and the diameter of pupil between male data and female data( P >0. 05). There was no significant difference in the data between left side and right side of eyes( P >0. 05). [Conclusion] Pentacam system for the examination of eyes is fast, useful and easy to operate, and can obtain the data at the first time. The result of the data accords with the characteristics of human anatomy and physiological change. Therefore, Pentacam system has better clinical application value.%[目的]对Pentacam系统获得的近视眼的前节各部位数据进行分析.[方法]应用Pentacam系统对436只近视眼球进行检测并获取数据,计算各部位数据的变异系数(Coefficient of variation,CV).按等效球镜数据,将人群分为超高近视组、高度近视组、中度近视组和低度近视组,数据采用单因素方差分析法(One-way ANOVA)进行分析.按性别分组及眼别分组的数据,采用两独立样本非参数检验法分析(秩和检验).[结果]眼前

  20. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

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    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  1. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

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    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  2. Anterior segment complications of retinal photocoagulation.

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    Kanski, J J

    1975-03-01

    Seven patients had anterior segment complications following xenon arc retinal photocoagulation. Irreversible keratopathy was induced in two cases; all patients showed evidence of iris injury. The absorption of radiation by the iris was considered the main factor in producing overheating of the anterior segment.

  3. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade

    OpenAIRE

    Erkan Ünsal; Kadir Eltutar; Belma Karini; Osman Kızılay

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil or gas (C3F8) internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n = 27, Group 1) and those in which gas (C3F8) was used (n = 24...

  4. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

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    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  5. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade.

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    Ünsal, Erkan; Eltutar, Kadir; Karini, Belma; Kızılay, Osman

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM) imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil or gas (C3F8) internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n = 27, Group 1) and those in which gas (C3F8) was used (n = 24, Group 2). UBM measurements were performed in the supine position before and one week after surgery. Results. In patients of Group 1, postoperative trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD) and iris-ciliary process distance (I-CPD), according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced, and postoperative mean value of scleral thickness (ST) and intraocular pressure (IOP), according to preoperative value, was found to be statistically significantly increased. In patients of Group 2, postoperative mean values of anterior chamber depth (ACD), ciliary body thickness (CBT), T-CPD, I-CPD, and IOP, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced. Preoperatively, in Group 2 patients, according to Group 1 patients, TIA and IOP were found to be statistically significantly increased. Preoperative and postoperative IOP between the measured parameters with UBM showed no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions. Gases cause more morphological changes in the anterior segment structures. It is thought that complications such as increased intraocular pressure can be seen more frequently for this reason.

  6. Evaluation of Anterior Segment's Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome

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    Ozsoy, Ercan; Demirel, Ersin Ersan; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (p = 0.625, p = 0.830, p = 0.234, and p = 0.850). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (p = 0.130, p = 0.910, and p = 0.057). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. PMID:27648303

  7. Experimental Study on the Prevention of Anterior Segment Ischemia by Preservation of Anterior Ciliary Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanna Li; Guanghuan Mai; Zhijian Wang; Xinping Yu; Huanyun Yu; Yan Guo; Xiaoming Lin; Daming Deng; Ying Kang

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of preserving anterior ciliary vessels (ACVs) on anteriorsegments of rabbit eyes undergoing tenotomy of extraocular muscles.Methods: Thirty-two adult New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four groups.Same procedures were done in both eyes in each group except that left eyes underwentpreservation of ACVs. In the first group medial and lateral recti, in the second group,superior and inferior recti, in the third group, medial, lateral and superior or inferior rectiand in the fourth group, all four recti, underwent tenotomy. Slit-lamp examination,intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, total protein and lactic acid quantification inaqueous humor were done in all eyes pre- and post-operatively. By four weeks afteroperation, the eyes were enucleated for histological examination and electron microscopy.All data were analyzed using SPSS version 10.Results: In the left eyes of both group 1 and group 2, no inflammatory response wasobserved. In the left eyes of group 3 and 4, we observed mild inflammatory response withslit-lamp examination, which disappeared in one wk. However, we did not findsignificant changes in IOP, total protein and lactic acid of aqueous humor, histology andelectron microscopic examination in these groups. In the right eyes in group 2, 3 and 4,we observed moderate to severe inflammatory changes, a few even developed anteriorsegment ischemia, appeared as decreased IOP, increased total protein and lactic acid inaqueous humor, along with pathological and electron-microscopic changes.Conclusion: Simultaneous tenotomy of three or four recti or two vertical recti on one eyemay decrease anterior segment blood flow even lead to ischemia. ACVs preservation mayprotect the blood circulation in anterior segment. Our study suggests that ACVspreservation in strabismus surgeries especially those involving multi-recti tenotomies mayprevent potential anterior segment ischemia.

  8. Assessment of Anterior Segment Changes in Pseudophakic Eyes, Using Ultrasonic Biomicroscopic Imaging, after Pars Plana Vitrectomy with Silicone Oil or Gas Tamponade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan Ünsal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the morphological changes of the anterior segment using ultrasonic biomicroscopy (UBM imaging in pseudophakic patients who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil or gas (C3F8 internal tamponade agent injection. Method. This prospective study included pseudophakic patients with planned PPV, divided into two groups according to internal tamponade agent: those in which silicone oil was used (n=27, Group 1 and those in which gas (C3F8 was used (n=24, Group 2. UBM measurements were performed in the supine position before and one week after surgery. Results. In patients of Group 1, postoperative trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (T-CPD and iris-ciliary process distance (I-CPD, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced, and postoperative mean value of scleral thickness (ST and intraocular pressure (IOP, according to preoperative value, was found to be statistically significantly increased. In patients of Group 2, postoperative mean values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, ciliary body thickness (CBT, T-CPD, I-CPD, and IOP, according to preoperative values, were found to be statistically significantly reduced. Preoperatively, in Group 2 patients, according to Group 1 patients, TIA and IOP were found to be statistically significantly increased. Preoperative and postoperative IOP between the measured parameters with UBM showed no statistically significant correlation. Conclusions. Gases cause more morphological changes in the anterior segment structures. It is thought that complications such as increased intraocular pressure can be seen more frequently for this reason.

  9. Combined anterior and posterior segment surgery in the treatment of penetrating eye injuries with small intraocular foreign body%眼球穿孔伤并眼内小异物眼前后段联合手术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石芊; 彭秀军; 刘百臣; 王桂琴

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨眼球穿孔伤并眼内小异物早期行眼前后段联合手术治疗的临床效果。方法22例(22眼)眼球穿孔伤并眼内小异物,清创缝合术后2~4 d行前后段联合手术,根据病情,选择不同术式。前段手术:前房成形、虹膜裂伤缝合、白内障摘出、人工晶状体植入;后段手术:玻璃体切除术、异物摘出、视网膜损伤部位周围激光光凝、玻璃体腔C3 F8气体或硅油填充。术后随访3~12个月。其中硅油填充眼于术后4~5个月取出硅油,观察手术效果及并发症。结果所有患者均一次手术摘出了眼内异物,一期植入人工晶状体,未发生感染性眼内炎、人工晶状体移位、葡萄膜炎、视网膜脱离、脉络膜脱离或继发性青光眼等并发症。手术前最佳矫正视力为光感~0.1,术后随访最佳矫正视力为0.05~0.8,全组22眼视力均有不同程度提高。结论眼球穿孔伤并眼内小异物早期行眼前后段联合手术治疗可取得良好的临床效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of combined anterior and posterior segment surgery in early treatment of penetrating eye injuries with small intraocular foreign body. Methods Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients suffered penetrating eye injuries with small intraocular foreign bodies underwent the combined operations of anterior and posterior eye segment 2-4 days after emergent debridement and suturing and according to their conditions different surgical procedures were preformed. Anterior segment surgery included anterior chamber forming, iris suture laceration, cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation and posterior segment surgery included vitrectomy, foreign body removal, retinal laser photocoagulation around the injury site and C3 F8 gas or silicone oil tamponade. The surgery efficacy and the complications were analyzed from 3months to 12 months. Silicone oil was removed 4-5month after operation. Results Intraocular foreign

  10. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  11. Unilateral persistent fetal vasculature coexisting with anterior segment dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khokhar, Sudarshan; Gupta, Shikha; Arora, Tarun; Gogia, Varun; Dada, Tanuj

    2013-08-01

    Persistent fetal vasculature (PFV) is a common congenital developmental anomaly of the eye which results from failure of the embryological primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature to regress by the time of birth (Int Ophthalmol Clin 48: 53-62, 2008). Typically, it is divided into anterior, posterior or combined types and is characterized by the presence of a vascular stalk located between the optic disc and the posterior lens capsule (Int Ophthalmol Clin 48: 53-62, 2008). Although it has been reported to manifest itself differently, in our case it presented in a microphthalmic eye as anterior segment dysgenesis with broad-based mid-peripheral synechiae, posterior embryotoxon, iridoschisis, ectropion uveae, hypotony and subluxated cataractous lens with a taut anterior hyaloid face which are rare associations with PFV.

  12. 25G玻璃体切割系统在眼前节手术中的应用进展%25-gauge vitrectomy system for the surgery of eye anterior segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张影影; 张立贵

    2012-01-01

    25 G经结膜无缝合玻璃体切割系统的出现,标志着微创玻璃体切割手术取得了突破性进展,该系统在一些眼底疾病的治疗中已取得令人满意的疗效,随着对其不断改进,目前已逐步应用到眼前节手术中,尤其在儿童白内障手术中经角巩膜缘或扁平部行后囊膜切开联合前段玻璃体切割术更突显其微创优势.本文就25 G玻璃体切割系统的工作原理和优点、在眼前节手术中的临床应用及其潜在并发症等作一综述.%One of the most revolutionary developments in vitreoretinal surgery is 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy.Its use in the treatment of retina diseases has achieved signifcant effects.With the improvement of surgical technique,it has been developed for application to the operation of eye anterior segment,especially for pediatric cataract surgery,during which posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy are performed via a corneoscleral limbal or pars plana approach with it.This paper summaries the principle,advantages,indications and the potential accomplications of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system for the surgery of eye anterior segment.

  13. The Role of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in the Pathomechanism of the Age-Related Ocular Diseases and Other Pathologies of the Anterior and Posterior Eye Segments in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) form under normal physiological conditions and may have both beneficial and harmful role. We search the literature and current knowledge in the aspect of ROS participation in the pathogenesis of anterior and posterior eye segment diseases in adults. ROS take part in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and granular corneal dystrophy type 2, stimulating apoptosis of corneal cells. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma stimulating apoptotic and inflammatory pathways on the level of the trabecular meshwork and promoting retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and glial dysfunction in the posterior eye segment. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. ROS induce apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells. ROS promote apoptosis of vascular and neuronal cells and stimulate inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the course of diabetic retinopathy. ROS are associated with the pathophysiological parainflammation and autophagy process in the course of the age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26881021

  14. 采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪检测的健康人眼前段结构相关参数间的关系%Relationship among related parameters of healthy human eye anterior segment structure detected by anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 刘杏; 王涛; 钟毅敏; 李媚; 何明光

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyze the relationship among parameters of healthy human eye anterior segment structure detected by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and to explore the effect of age on these parameters. Methods AS-OCT was performed in 211 healthy people (211 eyes) to measure the parameters of anterior segment structure, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber horizontal diameter (ACHD), anatomy anterior chamber depth (AACD), lens thickness (LT), ciliary band length (CBL) , lens position (LP) and iris thickness (IT). These parameters were compared between men and women. Relationship among the parameters was analyzed, and effect of age on anterior segment structure biometric values was evaluated. Results The values of ACD, ACHD, AACD, CBL, IT and LP were significantly higher in male than those in female[ACD: (2.87±0.38) mm vs (2.66±0.40) mm; ACHD: (11.73±0.43) mm vs (11.53±0.36) mm;AACD: (3.09±0.19) mm vs (3.00±0.19) mm;CBL: (0.20± 0.09) mm vs (0.17±0.09) mm;iT: (0.36±0.08) mm vs (0.34±0.08) mm; LP: (5.11±0.26) mm vs (4.91± 0.28) ram; all P0.05). ACHD was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.148, P=0.032). LT was positively correlated with age (r=0.646, P=0.000). LT was negatively correlated with ACD (r=-0.714, P=0.000). LT had no significant effect on LP using regression analysis. Conclusions The anterior segments biometric structure of female is narrower than that of male. With aging, the narrowing of ACD is resulted from LT increment. And LP of healthy eyes does not change with aging and LT increment.%目的 采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)测量健康人的眼前段各参数,并分析参数间的关系以及年龄对其的影响.方法 采用AS-OCT扫描211例健康人(211只眼)眼前段结构,并测量前房深度(ACD)、前房横径(ACHD)、解剖前房深度(AACD)、晶状体厚度(LT)、睫状体带长度(CBL)、晶状体位置(LP)和虹膜厚度(IT).对各参数进行性别间的比较,

  15. 高速枪击伤后兔眼前节组织结构改变%Morpholoigical changes in the anterior segment of rabbits' eyes injured by high-speed bullets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂闯; 陈穗桦; 李俊杰; 杨丽萍

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究眼钝挫伤的损伤机制的实验动物模中多以重力为主要致伤因素,文中以高速枪弹击伤制作兔眼眼前节动物损伤模型,探讨高速枪弹钝挫伤损伤机制. 方法 实验组12只新西兰兔用汽步枪以90m/s的速度射发TB弹(平均质量0.20122g)击中左眼角膜中央区,对照组2只新西兰兔不致伤(单眼处理).裂隙灯下观察伤后3h、6h、1d、3d、7d、14d6个时相点眼前节组织的病理改变. 结果 致伤后球结膜水肿逐渐加重,第3天开始缓解;角膜损伤严重,雾状混浊2周后才稍有好转,同时,周边可见大量新生血管长入;前房可见大量新鲜出血,实验结束时仍未吸收;瞳孔呈外伤性散大,10只实验兔眼出现不可逆的瞳孔变形;晶体浑浊. 结论 高速枪弹钝挫伤可对眼前节造成严重的损伤.%Objective Most researchers study the mechanism of contusion injury by building animal trial models, particularly the gravity-injury animal model. Clinical samples show that the gravity of projection is not the most critical factor of injury. Thus, we built an animal model of high-speed bullet injury in rabbits to observe the damage and changes in the anterior segment and investigate the mechanism of high-speed contusion injury. Methods A total of 14 eyes of 14 healthy New Zealand rabbits weighing 2.0 - 3.0 kg were included in this study. Contusion injury was inflicted upon 12 left eyes of the rabbits with plastic bullets (mean weight 0.20122 g) from an air rifle at a speed of 90 m/s. The other 2 of the control group were not injured and received unilateral treatment. Pathological changes in the anterior segment were observed under the slit-lamp at 3h,6h, 1 d, 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d after the injury. Results Gradual deterioration of bulbar conjunctiva edema was observed after the injury, and alleviation began at 3 d. The corneal was damaged seriously and improved slightly only at 14 d, with obvious peripheral neovascularization

  16. Recent developments in nanotechnology to overcome the challenges in topical drug delivery to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    The present study is aimed at reviewing the eye structure, challenges faced by ocular drug delivery, familiarity with nanotechnology and approaches of this science in the area of ophthalmology as well as mechanisms of designing a local system for effective drug delivery to the eye tissue.

  17. Pupil Tracking for Real-Time Motion Corrected Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Nankivil, Derek; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability. Several groups have demonstrated real-time tracking for motion-compensated in vivo OCT retinal imaging, but these techniques are not applicable in the anterior segment. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost pupil tracking system integrated into a custom swept-source OCT system for real-time motion-compensated anterior segment volumetric imaging. Pupil oculography hardware coaxial with the swept-source OCT system enabled fast detection and tracking of the pupil centroid. The pupil tracking ASOCT system with a field of view of 15 x 15 mm achieved diffraction-limited imaging over a lateral tracking range of +/- 2.5 mm and was able to correct eye motion at up to 22 Hz. Pupil tracking ASOCT offers a novel real-time motion compensation approach that may facilitate accurate and reproducible anterior segment imaging. PMID:27574800

  18. Novel mutations in PXDN cause microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Alex; Lao, Richard; Ling-Fung Tang, Paul; Wan, Eunice; Mayer, Wasima; Bardakjian, Tanya; Shaw, Gary M; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schneider, Adele; Slavotinek, Anne

    2015-03-01

    We used exome sequencing to study a non-consanguineous family with two children who had anterior segment dysgenesis, sclerocornea, microphthalmia, hypotonia and developmental delays. Sanger sequencing verified two Peroxidasin (PXDN) mutations in both sibs--a maternally inherited, nonsense mutation, c.1021C>T predicting p.(Arg341*), and a paternally inherited, 23-basepair deletion causing a frameshift and premature protein truncation, c.2375_2397del23, predicting p.(Leu792Hisfs*67). We re-examined exome data from 20 other patients with structural eye defects and identified two additional PXDN mutations in a sporadic male with bilateral microphthalmia, cataracts and anterior segment dysgenesis--a maternally inherited, frameshift mutation, c.1192delT, predicting p.(Tyr398Thrfs*40) and a paternally inherited, missense substitution that was predicted to be deleterious, c.947 A>C, predicting p.(Gln316Pro). Mutations in PXDN were previously reported in three families with congenital cataracts, microcornea, sclerocornea and developmental glaucoma. The gene is expressed in corneal epithelium and is secreted into the extracellular matrix. Defective peroxidasin has been shown to impair sulfilimine bond formation in collagen IV, a constituent of the basement membrane, implying that the eye defects result because of loss of basement membrane integrity in the developing eye. Our finding of a broader phenotype than previously appreciated for PXDN mutations is typical for exome-sequencing studies, which have proven to be highly effective for mutation detection in patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that PXDN sequencing should be considered in microphthalmia with anterior segment dysgenesis.

  19. The complementary benefit of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in penetrating keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenerel NM

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nursal Melda Yenerel,1 Raciha Beril Kucumen,2 Ebru Gorgun3 1Haydarpasa Numune Research and Training Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Yeditepe University Medical Faculty, Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Dunya Goz Eye Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the utility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT assessment in the pre- and postsurgical management of full-thickness corneal grafts. Methods: Seventy eyes of 58 patients who had penetrating keratoplasty were included in the study. High resolution AS-OCT scans of the cornea and the anterior segment were performed before and after transplantation in 17 eyes with the VisanteTM optical coherence tomography. Fifty-three eyes were examined in the late postoperative period. Results: The mean follow-up was 4.3 years (range, 1–15 years. Six different graft–host junctions were identified. Three patients with graft rejection, four patients with anterior synechia, and three patients with corneal ulcer were evaluated. Preoperative evaluation of eyes with semiopaque and totally opaque corneas revealed important information about anterior segment structures additional to slit-lamp findings. Conclusion: AS-OCT is a useful complementary tool for the evaluation of penetrating corneal transplantation surgery and in the management of its postoperative complications. Keywords: anterior segment optical coherence tomography, imaging techniques, penetrating keratoplasty

  20. Effects of age on ocular anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bing; ZHOU Xing-tao; HUANG David; CHU Ren-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Older subjects tend to have smaller ocular anterior segment. The present study aimed to measure anterior segment dimensions with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and quantitatively assess the effect of age and other factors.Results Sixty-six eyes of 33 normal subjects (aged 22-65 years, 19 Asians, 14 Caucasians) were enrolled. For every 1 year of age, corneal diameter was 0.033 mm narrower (P <0.01), anterior chamber width was 0.031 mm narrower (P <0.01), corneal vault was 0.016 mm lower (P<0.01), and anterior chamber depth was 0.025 mm lower (P<0.01). Asian eyes had smaller corneal diameter (P=0.035) and anterior chamber width (P=0.015) compared with those of Caucasian eyes. Body height showed positive correlation with corneal diameter (0.039 mm per centimeter of height, P <0.01) and corneal vault (0.024 mm per centimetre of height, P <0.01). Gender did not have an independent effect on anterior segment dimensions.Conclusions Anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lens.

  1. 飞秒激光制瓣LASIK术后眼前节参数的变化%Changes of the parameters of anterior segment of eyes after femtosecond laser LASIK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡正再; 张薇; 王志军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the changes of the parameters of anterior segment of eyes after femtosecond laser LASIK.Methods In this prospective clinic study,50 eyes of 25 patients who underwent femtosecond laser laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) were included.The corneal endothelium density,anterior chamber depth,anterior chamber angle width,posterior corneal surface height (4 mm diameter),distance between pupil center and corneal vertex,pupil diameter under light and dark environment were compared before and 6 months or more after surgery.Distance between pupil center and corneal vertex using absolute value.Data were analyzed using paired t test.Results After surgery,comeal endothelium density (2 829.7±227.2 cells/mm2 vs.2 716.4±255.2 cells/mm2),anterior chamber depth(3.18±0.19 mm vs.3.08±0.21 mm),anterior chamber angle width (39.39°±3.90°,37.92° ±3.76°) decreased (t=3.077,11.079,5.241,P<0.01).The differences of posterior corneal surface height (4 mm diameter),pupil diameter under light and dark environment before and after surgery were insignificant.The distance between pupil center and corneal vertex on X axis increased (0.11±0.10 mm vs.0.14±0.12 mm,t=-3.318,P<0.01).The distance between pupil center and corneal vertex on Y axis increase (0.11±0.08 mm vs.0.15±0.11 mm,t=-4.157,P<0.01).Conclusion The parameters of anterior segment of eyes after femtosecond laser LASIK changed obviously,especially for the distance between pupil center and corneal vertex.Maybe this change is important in guiding the following surgery.%目的 分析飞秒激光制瓣LASIK术后眼前节各参数(前房深度、前房角宽度、4 mm范围角膜后表面最高值、瞳孔中心与角膜顶点距离)的变化.方法 前瞻性临床研究.接受飞秒制瓣LASIK手术的患者25例(50眼),记录并分析术前和术后6个月以上中央角膜内皮细胞计数、前房深度、前房角宽度、4 mm范围角膜后表面最高值、瞳孔中心与角膜顶点距离、明

  2. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  3. Ocular Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Anterior Eye Injuries in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fer, Dan M.; Law, Jennifer; Wells, Julia

    2017-01-01

    While Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is not a first-line modality to evaluate anterior eye structures terrestrially, it is a resource already available on the International Space Station (ISS) that can be used in medical contingencies that involve the anterior eye. With remote guidance and subject matter expert (SME) support from the ground, a minimally trained crewmember can now use OCT to evaluate anterior eye pathologies on orbit. OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye in real time. Terrestrially, it has been used to evaluate macular pathologies and glaucoma. Since 2013, OCT has been used onboard the ISS as one part of a suite of hardware to evaluate the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure risk faced by astronauts, specifically assessing changes in the retina and choroid during space flight. The Anterior Segment Module (ASM), an add-on lens, was also flown for research studies, providing an opportunity to evaluate the anterior eye in real time if clinically indicated. Anterior eye pathologies that could be evaluated using OCT were identified. These included corneal abrasions and ulcers, scleritis, and acute angle closure glaucoma. A remote guider script was written to provide ground specialists with step-by-step instructions to guide ISS crewmembers, who do not get trained on the ASM, to evaluate the anterior eye. The instructions were tested on novice subjects and/or operators, whose feedback was incorporated iteratively. The final remote guider script was reviewed by SME optometrists and NASA flight surgeons. The novel application of OCT technology to space flight allows for the acquisition of objective data to diagnose anterior eye pathologies when other modalities are not available. This demonstrates the versatility of OCT and highlights the advantages of using existing hardware and remote guidance skills to expand clinical capabilities in space flight.

  4. Intraocular lens movement in anterior segment imaging system and pseudoaccommodation in eyes after phacoemulcification%人工晶体在前节OCT中的位移表现与伪调节力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 卢奕; 汪琳

    2008-01-01

    目的 分析人工晶状体植入后生理状态下,在眼内的前后位移度及其和伪凋节力的关系.方法 选择病人46例(46只眼)行白内障超声乳化联合单焦点一体式折叠人工晶状体植入术,检测和分析术后人工晶状体在眼前节OCT图像中的位移表现,记录不同度数镜片附加时的前房深度和瞳孔直径变化值,测量患者术眼的伪凋节力,并进行相关性分析.平均随访(5.2±1.6)个月.结果 78.26%(36/46)术眼屈光矫正后近视力≥Jr5;患者术眼术后平均伪凋节力为(1.08±0.71)D.眼前节OCT图像显示附加负值镜片时人工晶状体向前位移,前房变浅,附加正值镜片时人工晶状体向后位移,前房变深,前房深度变化值为(0.26±0.09)mm;不同度数镜片附加时瞳孔直径变化值为(0.58±0.28)mm.伪凋节力与前房深度变化呈正相关(r=0.8267,P<0.01),与瞳孔直径变化亦呈正相关(r=0.6724,P<0.01).结论 白内障术后人工晶状体在生理状态下位置可前后移动,视近时睫状肌收缩、人工晶状体向前移动,是IOL眼产生伪凋节力的重要机制之一;瞳孔收缩也可部分补偿调节力.%Objective To evaluate the relationship between the position shift of posterior chamber in traocular lenses (PC IOLs) in physical condition and the amplitude of pseudoaccommodation in eyes after pacoemulcification.Methods This study analyzed 46 eyes of 46 patients after cataract surgery and PC IOLs implantation 3 months after surgery. The position shift of the IOL and radius of pupil were measured by anterior segment imaging system with different diopter spectacle plus. Pseudoaccommodation amplitude was also calculated. The relationship among pseudoaccommodation.IOL movement and pupil radius was analyzed. Results There were 78.26%(36/46 ) patients whose near visual acuity with best distance correction ≥ Jr5.With negative spectacles, IOLs moved forwards, with positive spectacles, IOLs moved backwards. The mean ACD

  5. Measurement of anterior chamber volume with rotating scheimpflug camera and anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shu-ning; WANG Xiao-zhen; WU Ge-wei; MU Da-peng; WANG Jian; WANG Ning-li

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of anterior segment parameters plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements with rotating scheimpflug camera (RSC) and to examine agreement with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods Thirty nine healthy normal subjects were recruited from the Eye Center of Tongren Hospital. ACV was measured using RSC and AS-OCT in a randomly selected eye for each subject. For RSC measurements, both automatic and manual ACV measurements and 2 independent operators' ACV measurements were obtained. All subjects were invited for 3 visits within a week to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of ACV measurement by RSC. Agreement was evaluated between RSC and AS-OCT. Results Good repeatability and reproducibility were found for both automatic and manual ACV measurements obtained by RSC. For intrasession repeatability, coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for automatic were 3.52% and 0.98; the values for manual were 3.44% and 0.97, respectively. For intersession reproducibility, the respective CVw and ICC values were 3.96% and 0.96. Good agreement was also found in 2 operators for both automatic and manual ACV measurements; nevertheless, poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT (95% confidence interval (CI) for agreement of automatic RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were -96.3 to 72.8 μl and 95% CI for agreement of manual RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were between -41.7 to 10.1 μl). Conclusions Both RSC automatic and manual ACV measurements showed good repeatability and reproducibility, and showed comparable agreement between 2 independent operators, but poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT.

  6. Swept source OCT imaging of human anterior segment at 200 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnowski, Karol; Gora, Michalina; Kaluzny, Bartlomiej; Huber, Robert; Szkulmowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Andrzej; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2009-02-01

    We present applicability of the high speed swept-source optical coherence tomography for in vivo imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. Three dimensional imaging of the cornea with reduced motion artifacts is possible by using swept source with Fourier domain mode locking operating at 200kHz with 1300nm central wavelength. High imaging speeds allow for assessment of anterior and posterior corneal topography and generation of thickness and elevation maps.

  7. High-resolution spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography in type 1 boston keratoprosthesis

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the results of imaging using high-resolution, Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to evaluate patients with a type 1 Boston Keratoprosthesis (KPro). Methods: We performed a retrospective comparative study of patients in whom we implanted the Boston KPro. A total of 26 eyes of 23 patients from the Cornea Service at the University of California Davis Eye Center were included. Subjects were evaluated with the Spectralis AS-OCT (Heidelberg Engi...

  8. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca Adıyeke, Seda; Karaca, Ibrahim; Yıldırım, Suna; Adıyeke, Mehmet; Uyar, İbrahim; Türe, Gamze

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1) and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2). Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone) levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001). The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560). Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively). Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552), weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351) and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393). Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342) and central corneal thickness (r=0.303), and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562) and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502). Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels. PMID:28182154

  9. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Karaca Adıyeke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1 and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2. Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001. The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560. Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively. Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552, weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351 and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393. Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342 and central corneal thickness (r=0.303, and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562 and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502. Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels.

  10. The observation of anterior segment morphological changes in eyes with primary angle closure after LPI by using UBM%原发性前房角关闭行LPI后眼前节形态学的UBM观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨杨; 宋胜仿; 刘世纯; 李春华; 张永烨; 吕莎

    2014-01-01

    peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC). Methods From March 2012 to March 2013, 28 patients (48 eyes) who diagnosed with PAC and underwent LPI in our hospital, are regarded as the research object. By using the UBM, the following issues are observed on the superior temporal, above, below, bitamporal, and nasal side of the eyeball at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months with the preoperative and postoperative of LPI:AOD500, TIA, TCPD, ICPD, ILA, ILCD, ITl, IT2, IT3 and ACD were included. Results AOD500, TIA were increased significantly(P 0.05). TCPD was increased significantly, compared to before LPI(P 0.05 ); and postoperative 1 week were more than the others after sur-gery (P> 0.05). ILA were decreased (P 0.05). ILCD were increased after LPI (P 0.05). IT1, IT2, IT3 were decreased in the postoperation com-pared to preoperation (P 0.05). Average ILA and average ILCD correlation shown that the two were highly negative correlation on every time points Conclusion The peripheral anterior chamber of PAC patients after the LPI were obviously deepened, the iris bombe and pupillary block were relieved after LPI. In addition, TCPD was increased, but the anterior segment morphology in the 3 months of postoperation was not stable, indi-vidual reference of which had some degree of retrograde. Therefore, long-term follow-up is necessary after LPI .

  11. Automatic Measurement of Central Cornea Thickness of Eye Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Image%眼前节光学相干层析图像中央角膜厚度自动测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒鹏; 孙延奎; 田小林

    2012-01-01

    为了自动获取所需医学参数,辅助医生诊断,提出了一种基于边缘检测和随机抽样一致性的中央角膜厚度自动测量方法.采用边缘检测算子获得眼前节组织光学相干层析图像中的初始边缘,然后利用随机抽样一致性算法对初始中央角膜上边缘进行圆弧拟合,进一步提取中央角膜下边缘并采用相同方法进行圆弧拟合,根据得到的中央角膜上下边缘计算中央角膜厚度.实验结果表明,该算法能排除图像中时常出现的中央亮线干扰,实时而准确地提取中央角膜上下边缘,得到的中央角膜厚度计算结果与人工分析基本一致,具有良好的应用价值和商业前景.%To obtain quantitative parameters automatically and help medical diagnosis, automatic measurement of central cornea thickness based on edge detection and random sample consensus (RANSAC) is employed. The initial edge in the eye anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) image is obtained with an edge detector. Upper and lower edges of the central cornea are extraxted using the RANSAC circle fitting method. The central cornea thickness is then computed based on the edges. Experiments show that the proposed method can avoid the effect of light beam crossing, and good results comparable to manual analysis can be obtained in real time, indicating that the method has potential applications in the future.

  12. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Scheimpflug imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alime Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS using Scheimpflug imaging. Methods: Forty-three PXS patients and 43 healthy control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Anterior segment parameters were measured using a Scheimpflug system. Results: Considering the PXS and control groups, the mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point (536 ± 31 and 560 ± 31 µm, respectively, p=0.001, at the center of the pupil (534 ± 31 and 558 ± 33 µm, respectively, p=0.001, and at the thinnest point (528 ± 30 and 546 ± 27 µm, respectively, p=0.005 were significantly thinner in PXS patients. Visual acuity was significantly lower (0.52 ± 0.37 versus 0.88 ± 0.23, p<0.001 and axial length was significantly longer (23.9 ± 0.70 mm versus 23.2 ± 0.90 mm, p=0.001 in the PXS eyes than in the control eyes. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of keratometry, anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, corneal volume, and anterior chamber volume between the PXS and control eyes. Conclusions: The patients with PXS had thinner corneas, worse visual acuity, and longer axial length compared with those in the healthy controls.

  13. Outcomes of Phacoemulsification with Anterior Chamber Maintainer in Vitrectomized Eyes

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    Elif Betül Türkoğlu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the outcomes of phacoemulsification with anterior chamber maintainer in vitrectomized eyes with complicated cataract. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Twenty eyes of 20 patients who developed complicated cataract after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV were included in the study. Phacoemulsification with clear corneal incision and foldable intraocular lens implantation was performed. In group 1, anterior chamber maintainer (ACM was used during phacoemusification and in group 2, ACM was not used. Pre- and postoperative visual acuities as well as per- and postoperative complications were reviewed retrospectively. Re sults: Anterior chamber maintainer was used during the surgery in 12 (60% cases and was not used in 8 (40% cases. Phacoemulsification was performed 16.5±9.2 (4-40 months after PPV. Best-corrected visual acuities were between hand motions and 0.4 preoperatively and between counting fingers from 1 meter and 1.0 postoperatively in group 1. Best-corrected visual acuities were between hand motions and 0.1 preoperatively and between counting fingers from 1 meter and 0.8 postoperatively in group 2. Posterior capsule was ruptured in 1 eye peroperatively in group 1. In group 2, phacoemulsification was more difficult due to deep anterior chamber in 8 eyes and intraoperative complications were iris sphincter rupture in 1 eye and posterior capsule rupture in 1 eye. Mild corneal edema in 7 (58.3% eyes, fibrin reaction in 2 (16.6%, intraocular lens decentralization in 1 (8.3% and posterior capsule opacification in 4 (33.3% eyes were the postoperative complications in group 1. Mild corneal edema in 5 (62.5% eyes, fibrin reaction in 1 (12.5% and posterior capsule opacification in 2 (25% eyes were the postoperative complications in group 2. Dis cus si on: Complicated cataracts which may develop after PPV can be treated safely with phacoemulsification. Continuous irrigation during the surgery may provide a stable anterior chamber and prevents

  14. 抗VEGF药物在眼前节疾病围手术期研究及应用%Anti VEGF drugs for Eye anterior segment disease in perioperative research and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭红林

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of anti VEGF drugs in the perioperative period of the patients with anterior segment disease.Methods: According to different treatment methods, 90 patients with anterior segment disease were divided into observation group and control group (45 cases). The patients in the two groups were treated by operation, and the observation group was treated with anti VEGF drugs, and the clinical efficacy of the two groups were compared.Results: After treatment, the two groups of IOP were significantly lower than before treatment, and the observation group after treatment, 30d, 90d, 7d were significantly lower than the control group,P<0.05. The effective rate of the observation group was 98%, significantly higher than the control group of 88.46%, P<0.05.Conclusion: The use of anti VEGF drugs in the treatment of patients with anterior segment disease can effectively inhibit the generation and proliferation of new blood vessels in the retina and iris.%目的:探讨抗VEGF药物在眼前节疾病围术期中的应用效果。方法根据治疗方法的不同,将90例眼前节疾病患者分为观察组和对照组(每组45例),两组患者均行手术治疗,观察组在此基础上加用抗VEGF药物,比较两组患者的临床疗效。结果治疗后,两组的眼压水平均较治疗前显著降低,且观察组治疗后7d、30d、90d的眼压水平均显著低于对照组,P<0.05。观察组治疗有效率为98.0%,显著高于对照组的88.46%,P<0.05。结论对行手术治疗的眼前节疾病患者应用抗VEGF药物,能够有效抑制视网膜及虹膜上新生血管的生成与增殖,提高手术疗效。

  15. Anterior Segment Imaging in Ocular Surface Squamous Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. Ong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in anterior segment imaging have transformed the way ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN is diagnosed and monitored. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM has been reported to be useful primarily in the assessment of intraocular invasion and metastasis. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM shows enlarged and irregular nuclei with hyperreflective cells in OSSN lesions and this has been found to correlate with histopathology findings. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT demonstrates thickened hyperreflective epithelium with an abrupt transition between abnormal and normal epithelium in OSSN lesions and this has also been shown to mimic histopathology findings. Although there are limitations to each of these imaging modalities, they can be useful adjunctive tools in the diagnosis of OSSN and could greatly assist the clinician in the management of OSSN patients. Nevertheless, anterior segment imaging has not replaced histopathology’s role as the gold standard in confirming diagnosis.

  16. Effects of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with Pentacam in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effects of topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with a Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in healthy young adults. Methods: Anterior segment analyses of 25 eyes from 25 young adults (Group 1, before and after 45 min of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride application, were performed. For a control group (cycloplegia-free, Group 2, 24 eyes of 24 age- and sex-matched healthy cases were evaluated twice at 45 min intervals. The results obtained from the groups were compared statistically. Results: The mean ages of the groups were 23.04 ± 3.42 (range, 18-29 and 22.4 ± 2.05 (range, 18-27 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.259. In Group 1, measurements between the two analyses were significantly different for the values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and anterior chamber volume (ACV (p<0.05, whereas no statistical difference was found for the central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry (K1, K2 measurements. In Group 2, none of these parameters were statistically different between the two analyses. Conclusions: Topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride caused an increase in the ACD and ACV values, and a decrease in the ACA value. However, it had no significant effect on the CCT and keratometry measurements. It is important to consider these effects when using the Pentacam device on young adults with cycloplegia and when applying it for various reasons.

  17. Effect of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in angle closure eyes with or without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Golshan; Moghimi, Sasan; Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-21

    Purpose. To evaluate the anatomic effects of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods. A total of 62 eyes of 58 patients underwent cataract surgery in Farabi Rye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were examined postoperatively on day 1, week 1, and week 6. Indentation gonioscopy and AS-OCT were performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measures were angle and anterior segment parameters by AS-OCT and amount of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) by gonioscopy. Thirty-five eyes had PAS =180 degrees (group 1) and 27 eyes had >180-degree synechial closure (group 2). Results. Mean age of the patients was 64.3±9.0 years. The mean extent of PAS was significantly reduced from 45.9 to 32.2 degrees (p180 degrees.

  18. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Two sibling snow leopards, a male and a female, with bilateral anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), are reported. Both snow leopards also had colobomas of both upper eyelids. All eyes exhibited a central corneal opacity associated with a defect in posterior corneal stroma, endothelium and Descemet...... remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  19. CASE OF BILATERAL ANTERIOR SEGMENT TUBERCULOSIS

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    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important cause of uveitis in our country. India has been declared the country with the highest tuberculosis burden with 25 % of the cases . (1 This is especially true in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana which have a high percentage of affected patients. However , tuberculous uveitis is usually a unilateral presen tation. We report a case of bilateral uveitis of tuberculous origin in a 55 year old woman. She presented with different tuberculous manifestations in the two eyes. While the RE showed non granulomatous uveitis with sclerosing keratitis , the LE showed gran ulomatous uveitis with mutton fat keratic precipitates. Systemic examination revealed an enlarged lymph node which was positive for tuberculosis on biopsy. She was hence diagnosed as extra pulmonary tuberculosis and was treated with ATT regimen. In this pa tient , uveitis was the initial manifestation and resulted in a systemic diagnosis.

  20. Anterior and posterior centers jointly regulate Bombyx embryo body segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hajime

    2012-11-15

    Insect embryo segmentation is largely divided into long and short germ types. In the long germ type, each segment primordium is represented on a large embryonic rudiment of the blastoderm, and segmental patterning occurs nearly simultaneously in the syncytium. In the short germ type, however, only anterior segments are represented in the small embryonic rudiment, usually located on the egg posterior, and the rest of the segments are added sequentially from the posterior growth zone in a cellular context. The long germ type is thought to have evolved from the short germ type. It is proposed that this transition, which appears to have occurred multiple times over the course of evolution, was realized through the acquisition of a localized anterior instruction center. Here, I examined the early segmentation process in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran insect, in which the mechanisms of anterior-posterior (AP) axis formation have not been well analyzed. In this insect, both the long germ and short germ features have been reported. The mRNAs for two key genes involved in insect AP axis formation, orthodenticle (Bm-otd) and caudal (Bm-cad), are localized maternally in the germ anlage, where they act as anterior and posterior instruction centers, respectively. RNAi studies indicate that, while Bm-cad affects the formation of all the even skipped (Bm-eve) stripes, there is also anterior Bm-eve stripe formation activity that involves Bm-otd. Thus, there is redundancy in Bm-eve stripe formation activity that must be coordinated. Some genetic interactions, identified either experimentally or hypothetically, are also introduced, which might enable robust AP formation in this organism.

  1. Evaluation the value of Pentacam anterial segment analysis system in the study of anterior segment of the eye before and after laser periphery iridectomy%Pentacam眼前节分析系统在激光周边虹膜切除术前后眼前节结构评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴慧娟; 任泽钦; 鲍永珍; 侯宪如; 胡亦文

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the anterior segment parameters in early primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and primary angle closure (PAC) eyes before and after neodymium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser periphery iridectomy (LPI) by using Pentacam system. Methods Self-coutrol study. Sixty one eyes of 33 patients were recruited into this study. The images of the anterior segment of the eye were captured and the parameters[I.e. The anterior chamber ( AC ) volume, the central AC depth, the peripherial AC depth, the peripherial AC angle and the pupil size]were measured by the Pentaeam system pre-operatively and 1 week after laser treatment. Results The Pentacam system clearly showed the structure changes of the anterior segment after LPI ( I. E. The convex configuration of the iris was flattened and the peripherial AC depth was deepened). The average AC volume( t = 15. 928 ), the peripherial AC depth( t =- 17. 399, - 10. 629, - 12. 576, - 14. 474 ) and the peripherial AC angle( t = - 5. 087 ) were increased significantly (P <0. 01 ) after LPI. The AC volume was (74. 10 ± 16.35 ) mm3 before LPI and (94. 10 ±18.42) mm3 after LPI, and the increases of peripherial AC depth were 0. 17 mm (nasal) and 0. 29 mm (temporal). There was no statistical significant changes in the AC depth before and after LPI. Conclusion In patients with PACG and PAC, the changes of AC after LPI can be demonstrated by the Pentacam qualitatively and quantitatively.%目的 评价Pentacam 眼前节分析系统的临床应用价值.方法 自身对照研究.33例(61只眼)原发性闭角型青光眼和原发性房角关闭患者,在接受掺钕钇铝石榴石激光周边虹膜切除术前及术后,应用Pentacam眼前节分析系统进行眼前节摄像和图像分析,同时分别测定患者眼前房相关量化指标.激光周边虹膜切除术前后各检测参数的变化比较采用配对t检验.结果 Pentacam眼前节分析系统能够清晰显示激光治疗前后眼前节结构变化,如

  2. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Cumba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80 μm. Nine months later, SR reidentified SSLs. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in SSL placement, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 were calculated. Results. In 84% of quadrants, SR’s SSL placements during 2 sessions were within 80 μm in both the X- and Y-axes, and in 77% of quadrants, SR and AZC were within 80 μm in both axes. In adjudicated images, 90% of all quadrants were within 80 μm, 88% in nonopen-angle eyes, and 92% in open-angle eyes. The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients (with and without adjudication were above 0.9 for TISA750 and AOD750 for all quadrants. Conclusions. Reproducible identification of the SSL from images obtained with FD-ASOCT is possible. The ability to identify the SSL allows reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle using TISA750 and AOD750.

  3. Corneal sensitivity and correlations between decreased sensitivity and anterior segment pathology in ocular leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-02-01

    Leprosy is one of the leading causes of corneal hyposensitivity. In this article the corneal sensitivity of 143 leprosy patients was examined, and correlations between corneal hyposensitivity and anterior segment pathology were detected. Twenty four healthy volunteers were examined as controls. Various degrees of corneal loss of sensitivity were found in 46.2% of leprosy patients. Lagophthalmos, chronic lepromatous granulomatous uveitis, iris atrophy, and social blindness were found 4.5-16.6 times more frequently in eyes which developed severe corneal hyposensitivity.

  4. 急性闭角型青光眼对侧眼与可疑原发房角关闭眼的前节参数比较%Comparison of anterior segment parameters between fellow eyes of unilateral acute angle closure glaucoma and primary angle closure suspects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭竞敏; 许小兰; 张虹; 王军明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨原发闭角型青光眼单侧急性发作( acute angle closure glaucoma,AACG)的对侧眼、可疑原发房角关闭眼(primary angle closure suspects,PACS)和正常眼的前节生物学参数差异。  方法:采用光学相干断层扫描( optical coherence tomography,OCT)和 Pentacam 三维眼前节分析诊断系统(pentacam scheimpflug system,Pentacam)完成26例26眼AACG对侧眼及与之年龄、性别匹配的28例28眼PACS和34例34眼正常眼的前节扫描。采用Pentacam获得以下参数:中央角膜厚度( CCT)、角膜容积( CV)、瞳孔直径( PD)、中央前房深度( CACD)、周边前房深度( PACD)、前房容积( CV )和房角度数( ACA )。应用图像处理软件和OCT测量虹膜厚度(IT750,IT2000),面积(IS)、体积(IV)和房角开放距离500( AOD500)进行。  结果:角膜参数(CCT,CV),PD、虹膜参数(IT750,IT2000, IS,IV)无统计学差异( P>0.05)。与 AACG 对侧眼和PACS比较,正常人CACD和PACD更深, ACV更大, ACA和AOD500更宽敞( P0.05)。以AACG对侧眼作为房角关闭好发的诊断标准,上述前房参数的受试者工作特征曲线下面积均小于0.7。  结论:AACG对侧眼和PACS的前节生物学参数无显著差异,以此作为房角关闭好发的诊断精准度较低。%AIM: To explore the differences of anterior segment parameters in the patients with fellow eyes of unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma ( AACG ) , primary angle-closure suspects ( PACS) and normal group. METHODS: Twenty-six eyes of 26 patients with fellow eyes of AACG, 28 eyes of 28 age- and gender-matched PACS and 34 normal eyes were imaged using optical coherence tomography ( OCT) and pentacam scheimpflug system ( Pentacam ) . Anatomical parameters including central corneal thickness ( CCT ) , corneal volume ( CV ) , pupillary diameter ( PD ) , central anterior chamber depth ( CACD ) , peripheral anterior chamber depth ( PACD ) , anterior chamber volume ( ACV ) and anterior chamber angle

  5. Characterization of the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye

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    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular lesions are frequently associated with different parasitic infections. The classes of infection include protozoa, nematodes, cestodes, and ectoparasites. Ocular parasitic infections can manifest in any part of the eye; the disease manifestations are frequently characterized as either posterior or anterior eye disease. Parasite-induced lesions may be due to damage directly caused by the parasite, indirect pathology caused by toxic products or the immune response initiated by infectious parasitism. This review characterized the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions can reduce ocular morbidity. The method of the literature search was conducted on PubMed, Elsevier Scopus database, and Google Scholar with no limitation on the year of publication databases. It was limited to English articles published for ocular lesions in clinical studies and was focused on parasitic infections of the eye.

  6. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior Toxic anterior segment syndrome

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    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em conclusão notou-se que o foco principal deve ser a prevenção, pois o tratamento busca apenas suprimir a resposta inflamatória secundária. O tratamento nos casos de STSA consiste em intensa instilação de esteróides tópicos com seguimento rigoroso e controle de complicações tardias como o glaucoma.Toxic anterior segment syndrome is acute inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in extracellular damage with necrosis and apoptosis during an immune response. We have the report of a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS, in which the authors seek to emphasize the most common causes of the appearance of these syndrome. They point out the care that must be taken in the process of sterilization of surgical material, in addition to reviewing the best conduct when faced with these cases. In conclusion, it was noted that the main focus should be on prevention, as treatment only seeks to suppress the secondary inflammatory response. Treatment in cases of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS consists of intense instillation of topical steroids with strict follow-up and control of late complications such as glaucoma.

  7. Morphology of functioning trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

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    Mayuri B Khamar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To image trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and to correlate the bleb morphologic features at one month postoperatively with bleb function at six months. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study included 56 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with MMC, followed up for minimum of six months. Postoperatively, bleb imaging was done using AS-OCT at one and six month. Bleb morphology was assessed for bleb wall reflectivity, bleb pattern in multiform reflectivity, visibility of drainage route and presence of hyper-reflectivity area. Bleb function was considered successful if IOP was <18 mmHg without medication at six month. Bleb morphology one month postoperatively was correlated with bleb function at six months. Results: At six months successful bleb function was noted in 44 (81.5% eyes. Morphology of bleb at one month showed uniform bleb wall reflectivity in 6 eyes (11% and multiform wall reflectivity in 48 eyes (89%. In eyes with multiform wall reflectivity, microcysts with multiple layers was seen in 26 eyes (48%, microcysts with subconjunctival separation in 12 eyes (22% and only microcyst in 10 eyes (19%. When bleb features at one month were correlated with the bleb function at six months, logistic regression analysis revealed that blebs with multiform reflectivity with multiple internal layers with microcysts were associated with higher chances of success (P < 0.001. Conclusion : AS-OCT demonstrated early bleb morphological features that may be used to predict the functioning of a bleb. Multiform bleb wall reflectivity with a pattern of multiple internal layers and microcysts was associated with increased chances of success of a bleb.

  8. Prevalence of Corneal Astigmatism and Anterior Segmental Biometry Characteristics Before Surgery in Chinese Congenital Cataract Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Duoru; Chen, Jingjing; Liu, Zhenzhen; Wu, Xiaohang; Long, Erping; Luo, Lixia; Lin, Zhuoling; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hui; Liu, Jinchao; Chen, Weirong; Lin, Haotian; Liu, Yizhi

    2016-02-25

    The prevalence and the distribution characteristics of corneal astigmatism (CA) and anterior segment biometry before surgery in Chinese congenital cataract (CC) patients are not completely understood. This study involved 400 CC patients from the Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center enrolled from February 2011 to August 2015. Data on CA, keratometry, central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured by the Pentacam Scheimpflug System. The mean age of patients was 54.27 months, and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.53:1. The mean CA was 2.03 diopters (D), and 39.25% of subjects had CA values ≥2 D. The most frequent (71.8%) diagnosis was with-the-rule astigmatism. Oblique astigmatism was present in 16.2% of cases, and 12% of cases had against-the-rule astigmatism. The mean keratometry measurement of cataractous eyes in bilateral patients was significantly larger than that in unilateral patients. Girls had a larger mean keratometry but a thinner CCT than did boys. The CA, CCT, and ACD of cataractous eyes were significantly larger than those of non-cataractous eyes in unilateral patients. The CA, mean keratometry, CCT, and ACD in CC patients varied with age, gender, and laterality. Fully understanding these characteristics may help inform guidelines and treatment decisions in CC patients.

  9. Anterior segment study with the pentacam scheimpflug camera in refractive surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Myopic eyes had steeper corneas than hyperopic eyes and anterior chamber measurements were significantly higher in the myopic eyes. In myopic eyes, AE max and PE max and K max measurements were higher, and ACD measurements were lower in the astigmatic groups.

  10. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment.

  11. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters using pentacam in silicone oil-injected patients after pars plana vitrectomy

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    Burcu Çalik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate anterior segment changes with Pentacam Scheimpflug camera after pars plana vitrectomy (PPV and silicone oil injection. Materials and Methods: In all, 44 eyes of 44 patients who underwent PPV by one surgeon were evaluated with Pentacam preoperatively, first week, and first month after surgery. The patients were divided into two groups, eyes with silicone injection after PPV and eyes with PPV and no endotamponade. Main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and central corneal thickness (CCT obtained with pentacam. Results: Each group consisted of 22 patients. In both groups no significant difference was detected among preop and postop changes in ACV and ACA values ( p > 0.05. The increase in ACD in silicone oil-injected group and the decrease in ACD in PPV group at postop 1 week were statistically significant ( p < 0.05. The increase in CCT in silicone oil-injected group at postop 1 week and then decrease in postop 1 month were also significant ( p < 0.05. Surgically induced astigmatism (SIA was 3.7 Dioptry (D in silicone oil-injected group and 2.4 D in PPV group at postop 1 week. SIA decreased to 1.7 D and 1.5 D, respectively, at postop 1 month. Changes in SIA were significant ( p < 0.05. Conclusion: PPV effects cornea and anterior segment. Changes in cornea and anterior segment after PPV seem to return to preoperative values among 1 month after surgery.

  12. A and B mode ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation of lens and posterior segment of dogs eyes with cataract

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    Bianca C. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the lens and posterior segment is an indispensable step in the preoperative evaluation of dogs with cataracts, since ophthalmoscopy is not feasible when there is opacification of the lens. This study evaluated the echographic conditions of cataractous lens and fundus of the eye in dogs affected by cataracts. The study was conducted in 30 dogs (56 eyes, 10 males and 20 females, with different types of cataracts at different stages of development. Echography in A and B modes, simultaneously, was carried out for the examination of the lens and posterior segment. The examinations revealed anterior cortical, posterior cortical and nuclear cataract in 12 eyes (21.4%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular in 23 eyes (41%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical and posterior capsular cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical and nuclear cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular cataract in five eyes (8.9%, and anterior cortical cataract in seven eyes (12.5%. Abnormal ultrasonographic alterations were observed in the posterior segment in 26 eyes evaluated (46.4%. Vitreal degeneration was detected in 12 eyes (21.4%, images of vitreal exudate or hemorrhage in seven eyes (12.5%, persistence of hyaloid artery in four eyes (7.1% and lens subluxation in three eyes (5.3%. The results obtained reiterate the importance of ultrasonography in canine patients presented for cataract surgery given that alterations of the posterior segment are difficult to identify in a clinical examination when the lens is opacified.A ultrassonografia do segmento posterior do bulbo do olho é etapa indispensável na avaliação de cães com catarata que serão submetidos à facectomia, uma vez que a oftalmoscopia não é factível quando há opacificação da lente, notadamente nas cataratas maduras. Este estudo avaliou as condições ecográficas da lente cataratogênica e do fundo de olho de c

  13. Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Johnny P.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Liu, Liang; Pechauer, Alex D.; Huang, David; Liu, Gangjun

    2015-12-01

    A custom-built dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a central wavelength of 1310 nm was used to image the anterior eye from the cornea to the lens. An electrically tunable lens was utilized to dynamically control the positions of focusing planes over the imaging range of 10 mm. The B-scan images were acquired consecutively at the same position but with different focus settings. The B-scan images were then registered and averaged after filtering the out-of-focus regions using a Gaussian window. By fusing images obtained at different depth focus locations, high-resolution and high signal-strength images were obtained over the entire imaging depth. In vivo imaging of human anterior segment was demonstrated. The performance of the system was compared with two commercial OCT systems. The human eye ciliary body was better visualized with the dynamic-focusing SS-OCT system than using the commercial 840 and 1310 nm OCT systems. The sulcus-to-sulcus distance was measured, and the result agreed with that acquired with ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  14. The relationship between the morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the predictability of surgical clipping and guide the steam shaping of microcatheters in endovascular embolization by analyzing the association of morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery(ACA) with formation and classification of anterior

  15. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4 years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69 and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75. Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86 and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85. Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  16. Evaluation of Changes in Anterior Segment Configuration by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy after Phacoemulsification and Foldable Intraocular Lens Implantation

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    ilhami Salcan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify the configuration changes in anterior segment structures after cataract extraction using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Material and Method: 33 eyes of 33 patients (21 male, 12 female; mean age: 69.0±8.3 years with senile or presenile cataracts undergoing cataract surgery were prospectively studied. UBM was performed for each patient before and 1 month after surgery. At each UBM examination, axial images of the anterior chamber and radial sections of the angle in four quadrants were obtained. The measurements were performed by using the calipers included in the equipment software and UBM Pro2000® software. Results: After cataract surgery, we determined statistically significant increases in anterior chamber depth and angle parameters (p=0.001. We found that the postoperative increases in anterior chamber depth, angle recess area, angle opening distance 250 and angle opening distance 500 were 1.3, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, when compared with the preoperative levels. Decreases in acceleration and increases in y-intercept were determined in 4 quadrants postoperatively by of linear regression analysis of anterior chamber angle and these were also statistically significant (p=0.001. Discussion: UBM gives both qualitative and quantitative valuable information about anterior segment structures. We think that UBM may be a useful tool for evaluation of patients with cataract and occludable and/or narrow angles undergoing cataract surgery for therapeutic purpose. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 200-6

  17. A case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft

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    Miyake T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Miyake,1 Shota Kojima,1 Tetsuya Sugiyama,2 Mari Ueki,1 Jun Sugasawa,1 Hidehiro Oku,1 Kensuke Tajiri,1 Yuka Shigemura,3 Koichi Ueda,3 Atsuko Harada,4 Mami Yamasaki,4 Takumi Yamanaka,4 Hidetsuna Utsunomiya,5 Tsunehiko Ikeda1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, 2Nakano Eye Clinic of Kyoto Medical Co-operative, Kyoto, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, 4Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Takatsuki General Hospital, Takatsuki City, 5Department of Radiological Science, International University of Health and Welfare, Graduate School, Fukuoka, Japan Introduction: The incidence of facial cleft is rare and ranges between 1.43 and 4.85 per 100,000 births. To date, there have been few reports of detailed ophthalmologic examinations performed in cases of facial cleft. Here, we report a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft. Case report: A 9-day-old female infant was delivered by cesarian section at 34 weeks of gestational age (the second baby of twins and weighed 2,276 g upon presentation. She had a facial cleft and ectrodactyly at birth. Right eye-dominant blepharophimosis was obvious. Examination of the right eye revealed inferior corneal opacity with vascularization, downward corectopia, and optic-nerve hypoplasia. The corneal diameter was 8 mm in both eyes, and tonometry by use of a Tono-Pen® XL (Reichert Technologies, Depew, NY, USA handheld applanation tonometer revealed that her intraocular pressure was 11–22 mmHg (Oculus Dexter and 8 mmHg (Oculus Sinister. B-mode echo revealed no differences in axial length between her right and left eyes. When she was 15–16 months old, we attempted to examine her eyes before she underwent plastic surgery under general anesthesia. She had a small optic disc in both eyes and the right-eye disc was tilted. After undergoing canthotomy, gonioscopy and ultrasound

  18. The long-term anterior segment configuration after pediatric cataract surgery and the association with secondary glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding; Gong, Xian-hui; Xie, He; Zhu, Xue-ning; Li, Jin; Zhao, Yun-e

    2017-01-01

    Secondary glaucoma constitutes major sight-threatening complication of pediatric cataract surgery, yet the etiology remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the long-term anterior segment configuration and the association with secondary glaucoma in pediatric pseudophakia. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was performed on 40 eyes of 26 children underwent pediatric cataract surgery and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle-opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), central corneal thickness (CCT), structural abnormities, IOL position, IOP, and incidence of glaucoma were evaluated. High insertion of iris, in which the iris root is attached more anteriorly than normal, was seen in 13 eyes (32.50%). IOL was located in the capsular bag in 19 eyes and in the ciliary sulcus in 21 eyes. Logistic regression analysis identified high insertion of iris (OR 3.40, 95% CI 1.03–11.17, p = 0.03) and IOL implantation in sulcus (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.07–4.85, p = 0.04) as independent risk factors for glaucoma. The presence of high insertion of iris and IOL implantation in ciliary sulcus may increase the long-term risk of the development of secondary glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. PMID:28220849

  19. 前后段联合手术及硅油填充治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离的疗效观察%The therapeutic effect of combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟奇; 张责华; 胡一骏; 郑建龙

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia. Methods The clinical data of 48 high myopia patients (48 eyes) with macular hole retinal detachment were retrospectively analyzed. Retinal detachment was mainly at the posterior pole; macular hole was confirmed by non-contact Hruby lens and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Phacoemulsification combined with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade were performed to all patients, of which 41 had undergone internal limiting membrane peeling, and 23 had intraocular lens implanting. The oil had been removed 3.5-48.0 months after the first surgery and OCT had been performed before the removal. The follow-up period after the removal of the silicon oil was more than 1 year. Results The edge of the macular hole could not be seen under the non-contact Hruby lens 1 week after the surgery in all but 5 patients, and the visual acuity improved. The silicon oil had been removed in all of the 48 patients; the OCT scan before the removal showed that the closed macular holes can be in U shape (8 eyes), V shape (6 eyes) or W shape (23 eyes). About 13-38 months after the oil removal, retinal detachment recurred in 2 patients with the W-shaped holes. At the end of the follow-up period, 16 patients (33.3%) had U or V-shaped macular holes, and 32 patients (66.7%) had W-shaped macular holes. The rate of retinal reattachment was 100%. Conclusion Combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade is effective on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia.%目的 观察前后段联合手术及硅油充填治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离临床疗效.方法 回顾分析前后段联合手术及硅油充填治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离患者48例48只眼的临床资料.患者均有高度近视史,视网膜脱离以后极部为主.裂隙灯

  20. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  1. [Biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrich, W; Höh, H; Kreiner, C F

    1990-06-01

    The biocompatibility and pharmacokinetics of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) 2% (Adatocel) and Tylose 2% (MH 1000) were investigated. A modified anterior chamber implantation test on the rabbit eye is suitable for testing both the biocompatibility and the pharmacokinetics of visco-surgical substances. Both substances were well tolerated. From the fourth day onward, HPMC was no longer detectable in the anterior chamber by infrared spectroscopy.

  2. TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME (TASS WITH SEVERE PIGMENT DISPERSION

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    Stephen Sudhakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clinically analyze the cases of TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated cataract surgery in a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all eyes developing TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated Cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes including visual acuity, intraocular pressure and complications were recorded at 1st post-operative day, 7th post-operative day and after six weeks of follow up visits. RESULTS: TASS with severe pigment dis pension was recorded in five out of 1060 patients. All cases were females. Phacoemulsification with foldable IOL was done in 2 patients and Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with in bag posterior chamber IOL was done in three patients. All patients had pain which was less severe when compared to the amount of inflammation. Visual acuity ranged from 6/36 to perception of light. All the five patients had rim to rim corneal edema which was seen from the first post-operative day and persisted at six weeks follow up. Pupils were dilated and fixed in all patients. Intraocular pressure was raised in four out of five patients who poorly responded to medical treatment. Dense pigment clumps were seen in the corneal endothelium and on the surgical wound site after one week in three out of five patients and increased at 6 weeks of follow up. Visual acuity did not improve in any of the patient even with treatment. The reduced visual acuity was due to worsening corneal edema and dense pigment clumping in corneal endothelium. CONCLUSION: TASS with severe pigment dispersion has more complication than routine TASS. The complication are due to dense pigment clumping in cornea and angle of anterior chamber causing corneal endothelial de-compensation and raised Intraocular pressure, which persisted even after the inflammation subsided. Although the

  3. Anterior Segment OpticalCoherence Tomography: Assisted Topographic Corneal Epithelial Thickness Distribution Imaging of a Keratoconus Patient

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    A. John Kanellopoulos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate safety, efficacy and ease of measurement of epithelial thickness in a keratoconic patient based on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Methods: A 25-year-old male patient, previously diagnosed with keratoconus, with highly asymmetric manifestation among the two eyes, was subjected to AS-OCT corneal epithelial imaging. We investigated epithelial thickness and epithelial topographic thickness distribution. Results: Mean epithelial thickness was 51.97 ± 0.70 for the less affected right eye (OD, and 55.65 ± 1.22 for the more affected left eye (OS. Topographic epithelial thickness variability for the OD was 1.53 ± 0.21 μm, while for the OS it was 9.80 ± 0.41 μm. Conclusions: This case further supports our previous findings with high-frequency ultrasound measurements of the increase in overall epithelial thickness in keratoconic eyes in comparison with normal eyes. AS-OCT further offers ease of use and possibly higher predictability of measurement. This case report, based on AS-OCT imaging, verifies increased overall epithelial thickness in keratoconic eyes, as introduced by a previous study [Kanellopoulos et al.: Clin Ophthalmol 2012;6:789-800], based on high-frequency scanning ultrasound biomicroscopy imaging.

  4. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

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    Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 mm2 (ARA500, ARA750), trabecular iris angle (TIA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), were obtained before the surgery. These parameters were compared to evaluate whether the outcome of the surgery differed among the patients after the surgery. The width of the trabecular cleft was also measured for both groups. Results. The reduction of IOP and number of medications was found to be statistically significant in both groups (p ACV, and angle parameters such as AOD 500/750, TISA 500/750, ARA 500/750, and TIA500 showed significantly greater changes from the preoperative values to postoperative 1st month values in combined Trabectome-cataract surgery group (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups for the width of the trabecular cleft (p = 0.7). Conclusion. Anterior chamber angle parameters measured with swept source AS-OCT may be useful for evaluating glaucoma patients before and after Trabectome surgery with or without cataract surgery. PMID:27795855

  5. Gluteus minimus: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior and posterior segments during gait.

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    Semciw, Adam I; Green, Rodney A; Murley, George S; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-02-01

    Gluteus minimus is believed to consist of two structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior and posterior); however there is a lack of electromyography (EMG) research that attempts to verify current theoretical knowledge of this muscle. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the function of gluteus minimus during gait, and to determine whether anterior and posterior segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire intramuscular EMG electrodes were inserted into anterior and posterior gluteus minimus segments of fifteen healthy volunteers (9 males) according to previously verified guidelines. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle with independent t-tests. The relative contribution of each segment to the maximum resisted trials was compared with Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Anterior and posterior segments were contracting at different relative intensities for three of the five maximum resisted trials (effect size = 0.39 to 0.62, P gait cycle (effect size = 0.96 to 1.03, P phase (effect size = 0.83, P = 0.034). Gluteus minimus is therefore composed of functionally independent segments. These results build on contemporary theoretical knowledge and may signify hip stabilising roles for each segment across different phases of the gait cycle.

  6. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

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    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  7. Light microscopic evaluation and scanning electron microscopic analysis of horse eyes following deep anterior lamellar keratectomy.

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    Martins, Bianca C; Brooks, Dennis E; Plummer, Caryn E; Samuelson, Don A; Mangan, Brendan G; Laus, José L

    2013-07-01

    OBJECTIVE  To describe the technique of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with Descemet's membrane (DM) exposure in horse eyes. Also, to compare the efficacy and safety of viscodissection and big-bubble techniques for DALK. ANIMALS STUDIED  Thirty-four ex vivo horse eyes. PROCEDURE  Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty was performed in 34 ex vivo horse eyes. Two groups (Group V--viscodissection--2% sodium hyaluronate; Group A--air--big-bubble) of 17 eyes were studied. Other than the substance used, the surgical technique was similar for both groups. Nonperforated eyes were submitted for light microscopic histologic evaluation and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. RESULTS  Group V--Perforations occurred in 18% of the eyes during surgery. Light microscopy revealed exposure of DM in 28% of the eyes with mean thickness of the remaining stroma being 70.4 μm. Group A--Perforations occurred in 42% of the eyes. Light microscopy revealed exposure of DM in 60% of the eyes with mean thickness of the remaining stroma being 23.3 μm. No significant differences in safety, efficacy and thickness of the remaining stroma (including all eyes or excluding those with DM exposure) were observed. SEM of the surgical site revealed a more even surface in those eyes with DM exposure compared to eyes with thicker remaining stroma in both groups. CONCLUSIONs  We describe two DALK techniques (viscodissection and big-bubble) for use in horses. No significant differences in safety, efficacy and thickness of the remaining stroma were observed. However, a nonsignificant trend toward the big-bubble technique being more efficacious but less safe was observed.

  8. Imaging of a Severe Case of Acute Hydrops in a Patient with Keratoconus Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Hiroki Ueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the clinical and diagnostic findings of a patient with acute hydrops using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Methods: The AS-OCT findings of a 43-year-old patient with acute hydrops associated with keratoconus were examined. At the initial examination and during follow-up, evaluation of the anterior segment was performed. Results: The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, pain, and redness in the right eye. The symptoms, clinical presentation, and topographical findings of the right eye confirmed the diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops. Changes in the stroma and Descemet’s membrane during the healing process of acute hydrops could be demonstrated by high-resolution AS-OCT. The use of contact lenses was improved at the last follow-up visit after 8 months and increased visual acuity to 20/20 with correction. Conclusions: AS-OCT is a useful tool for studying the morphologic features of acute hydrops.

  9. Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface evaluated by high-definition spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography

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    Alzaga Fernandez AG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana G Alzaga Fernandez,* Nathan M Radcliffe,* Kimberly C Sippel, Mark I Rosenblatt, Priyanka Sood, Christopher E Starr, Jessica B Ciralsky, Donald J D'Amico, Szilárd KissDepartment of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this work and both are considered principal authorsBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resolution offered by two different, recently commercially available high-resolution, spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT instruments allows for detailed anatomic characterization of the critical device-donor cornea interface in eyes implanted with the Boston type I permanent keratoprosthesis.Methods: Eighteen eyes of 17 patients implanted with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis were included in this retrospective case series. All eyes were quantitatively evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT while a subset (five eyes was also qualitatively imaged using the Spectralis Anterior Segment Module. Images from these instruments were analyzed for evidence of epithelial migration onto the anterior surface of the keratoprosthesis front plate, and presence of a vertical gap between the posterior surface of the front plate and the underlying carrier donor corneal tissue. Quantitative data was obtained utilizing the caliper function on the Cirrus HD-OCT.Results: The mean duration between AS-OCT imaging and keratoprosthesis placement was 29 months. As assessed by the Cirrus HD-OCT, 83% of eyes exhibited epithelial migration over the edge of the front plate. Fifty-six percent of the keratoprosthesis devices displayed good apposition of the device with the carrier corneal donor tissue. When a vertical gap was present (44% of eyes, the mean gap was 40 (range 8–104 microns. The Spectralis Anterior Segment Module also displayed sufficient resolution to allow for similar characterization of the device

  10. Evaluation of Anterior Segment Parameter Changes Using the Sirius after Uneventful Phacoemulsification

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    Şimşek, Ali; Çapkın, Musa; Bilak, Şemsettin; Güler, Mete; Reyhan, Ali Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central corneal thickness (CCT), horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID), pupil diameter (PD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Methods A total of 132 eyes of 132 patients (87 men and 45 women) that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation were prospectively studied. The mean age of the patients was 63.68 ± 12.51 years. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively with the Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system. The ACD, CV, ACA, ACV, CCT, HVID, and PD measurements were recorded. IOP was measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer, which was corrected for CCT of the Sirius device using Ehlers' formula. Results The preoperative mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 2.79 ± 0.45 mm, 124.73 ± 25.72 mm3, 42.09 ± 7.490, 523.87 ± 41.97 microns, 55.37 ± 4.89 mm3, 3.98 ± 1.23 mm, 11.72 ± 0.67 mm, and 14.74 ± 2.59 mmHg, respectively. Three months postoperatively, the mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 3.45 ± 0.6 mm, 162.52 ± 23.79 mm3, 51.46 ± 5.630, 526.21 ± 44.45 microns, 56.23 ± 5.12 mm3, 2.87 ± 0.45 mm, 11.91 ± 0.75 mm, and 12.02 ± 1.83 mmHg, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in mean postoperative ACD, ACV, ACA, CV, and HVID compared with the corresponding preoperative values (p < 0.05). CCT remained stable after surgery. Postoperative PD and IOP were significantly decreased compared to corresponding preoperative values (p < 0.05). Conclusions Preoperative measurements by the Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system might help surgeons to predict postoperative changes resulting from phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. This is a

  11. Gluteus medius: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior, middle and posterior segments during gait.

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    Semciw, Adam I; Pizzari, Tania; Murley, George S; Green, Rodney A

    2013-08-01

    Previous electromyographic (EMG) studies of gluteus medius (GMed) have not accurately quantified the function of the three proposed structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior, middle and posterior). Therefore this study used anatomically verified locations for intramuscular electrode recordings in three segments of GMed to determine whether the segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire electrodes were inserted into each segment of GMed in 15 healthy individuals. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle using ANOVA. The relative contributions of each segment to the MVIC trials were compared with non-parametric tests. All segments showed a biphasic response during the stance phase of gait. There were no differences in amplitude variables (% MVIC) between segments, but the anterior segment had a later peak during both the first and second bursts.For the MVIC trials, there were significant differences in amplitude between segments in four of the five test positions. These data indicate that GMed is composed of three functionally independent segments. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of the role of GMed.

  12. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome following Phacoemulsification Secondary to Overdose of Intracameral Gentamicin

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    Yaran Koban

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that was caused by inadvertent anterior chamber and cornea stromal injection with high dose gentamicin following cataract surgery. Methods. Case report. Results. We report a 72-year-old female patient who developed TASS that was caused by high dose gentamicin (20 mg/0.5 mL, which was inadvertently used during the formation of the anterior chamber and hydration of the corneal incision. Unlike previous cases, hyphema and hemorrhagic fibrinous reaction were seen in the anterior chamber. Despite treatment, bullous keratopathy developed and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The excised corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. Conclusions. Subconjunctival gentamicin is highly toxic to the corneal endothelium and anterior chamber structures. Including it on the surgical table carries a potentially serious risk for contamination of the anterior chamber.

  13. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome following Phacoemulsification Secondary to Overdose of Intracameral Gentamicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koban, Yaran; Genc, Selim; Cagatay, Halil Huseyin; Ekinci, Metin; Gecer, Melin; Yazar, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To report a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) that was caused by inadvertent anterior chamber and cornea stromal injection with high dose gentamicin following cataract surgery. Methods. Case report. Results. We report a 72-year-old female patient who developed TASS that was caused by high dose gentamicin (20 mg/0.5 mL), which was inadvertently used during the formation of the anterior chamber and hydration of the corneal incision. Unlike previous cases, hyphema and hemorrhagic fibrinous reaction were seen in the anterior chamber. Despite treatment, bullous keratopathy developed and penetrating keratoplasty was performed. The excised corneal button was sent for histopathological examination. Conclusions. Subconjunctival gentamicin is highly toxic to the corneal endothelium and anterior chamber structures. Including it on the surgical table carries a potentially serious risk for contamination of the anterior chamber. PMID:25574173

  14. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma

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    Mark A. Babizhayev

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  15. Anterior segment intraocular metallic foreign body causing chronic hypopyon uveitis

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    Mete, Güler; Turgut, Yılmaz; Osman, Arslanhan; Gülşen, Ülkü; Hakan, Artaş

    2010-01-01

    Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) is a common association of penetrating ocular trauma. Early diagnosis and removal of IOFBs especially if they are metallic is very important to determine further management and the final result of treatment. Missed IOFB may present in different clinical aspects that may limit its detection and symptoms may only become apparent after a prolonged period of time. We report a case of a missed metallic intraocular foreign body in the anterior chamber over a 2-year p...

  16. Characterization of T-lymphocytes in the anterior uvea of eyes with chronic equine recurrent uveitis.

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    Gilger, B C; Malok, E; Cutter, K V; Stewart, T; Horohov, D W; Allen, J B

    1999-10-01

    Equine recurrent uveitis (ERU), a chronic, recurrent inflammation primarily of the anterior uveal tract, is the most common cause of blindness in horses. Recently, T-lymphocytes have been found to be the most numerous cell type to infiltrate the anterior uveal of horses with ERU. In the present study, we characterized the T-lymphocyte population in the anterior uveal tract of eyes of horses with chronic ERU by evaluating the microscopic appearance (histopathologic features), the T-lymphocyte subsets, and the relative levels and amounts of T-lymphocyte cytokine mRNA in the anterior uvea. Seven inflamed eyes (from six horses with chronic ERU) and 5 normal eyes (from five horses with nonocular problems) were studied. After clinical examination, the eyes were removed, ocular fluids were aspirated, and anterior uveal tissues (iris and ciliary body) were processed for histologic and molecular (RNA isolation) analyses. Histologic examination by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and immunohistochemistry evaluating T-lymphocyte subsets (anti-CD4, CD8, CD5) were performed for each sample. RNA samples were analyzed for levels of messenger (m) RNA specific for interleukin (IL)-2, 4, and interferon-gamma (IFNgamma) by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Eyes with ERU exhibited characteristic clinical signs, including corneal edema, aqueous flare, posterior synechia, corpora nigra degeneration, and cataract formation. Histologically, infiltration of the uveal tract with lymphocytes, plasma cells, and macrophages was most evident in the ciliary body and base of the iris. Loss of tissue structure (destruction) was most evident in the ciliary processes. Infiltrating lymphocytes were predominantly CD4+ T-cells (e.g. 48% CD4+ and 18% CD8+ in the ciliary body stroma), as determined by immunohistochemistry. Few inflammatory cells were observed in the normal eyes. The QRT-PCR results revealed increased transcription of IL-2 and IFNgamma and low

  17. Measurement of Scleral Thickness in Humans Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherent Tomography.

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    Hetal D Buckhurst

    Full Text Available Anterior segment optical coherent tomography (AS-OCT, Visante; Zeiss is used to examine meridional variation in anterior scleral thickness (AST and its association with refractive error, ethnicity and gender. Scleral cross-sections of 74 individuals (28 males; 46 females; aged between 18-40 years (27.7±5.3 were sampled twice in random order in 8 meridians: [superior (S, inferior (I, nasal (N, temporal (T, superior-temporal (ST, superior-nasal (SN, inferior-temporal (IT and inferior-nasal (IN]. AST was measured in 1mm anterior-to-posterior increments (designated the A-P distance from the scleral spur (SS over a 6mm distance. Axial length and refractive error were measured with a Zeiss IOLMaster biometer and an open-view binocular Shin-Nippon autorefractor. Intra- and inter-observer variability of AST was assessed for each of the 8 meridians. Mixed repeated measures ANOVAs tested meridional and A-P distance differences in AST with refractive error, gender and ethnicity. Only right eye data were analysed. AST (mean±SD across all meridians and A-P distances was 725±46 μm. Meridian SN was the thinnest (662±57 μm and I the thickest (806±60 μm. Significant differences were found between all meridians (p<0.001, except S:ST, IT:IN, IT:N and IN:N. Significant differences between A-P distances were found except between SS and 6 mm and between 2 and 4 mm. AST measurements at 1mm (682±48 μm were the thinnest and at 6mm (818±49 μm the thickest (p<0.001; a significant interaction occurred between meridians and A-P distances (p<0.001. AST was significantly greater (p<0.001 in male subjects but no significant differences were found between refractive error or ethnicity. Significant variations in AST occur with regard to meridian and distance from the SS and may have utility in selecting optimum sites for pharmaceutical or surgical intervention.

  18. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

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    Ezgi Akar; Mehmet Ufuk Akmil; Merih İş

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males) who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of inter...

  19. Anterior Segment Tomography with the Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Eduardo B. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical acquisition method to examine biological tissues. In recent years, OCT has become an important imaging technology used in diagnosing and following macular pathologies. Further development enabled application of optical coherence tomography in evaluation of the integrity of the nerve fiber layer, optic nerve cupping, anterior chamber angle, or corneal topography. In this manuscript we overview the use of OCT in the clinical practice to enable corneal, iris, ciliary body, and angle evaluation and diagnostics.

  20. Review of application of mass spectrometry for analyses of anterior eye proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; Elsobky; Ashley; M; Crane; Michael; Margolis; Teresia; A; Carreon; Sanjoy; K; Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Proteins have important functional roles in the body, which can be altered in disease states. The eye is a complex organ rich in proteins; in particular, the anterior eye is very sophisticated in function and is most commonly involved in ophthalmic diseases. Proteomics, the large scale study of proteins, has greatly impacted our knowledge and understanding of gene function in the post-genomic period. The most significant breakthrough in proteomics has been mass spectrometric identification of proteins, which extends analysis far beyond the mere display of proteins that classical techniques provide. Mass spectrometry functions as a "mass analyzer" which simplifies the identification and quantification of proteins extracted from biological tissue. Mass spectrometric analysis of the anterior eye proteome provides a differential display for protein comparison of normal and diseased tissue. In this article wepresent the key proteomic findings in the recent literature related to the cornea, aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork, iris, ciliary body and lens. Through this we identified unique proteins specific to diseases related to the anterior eye.

  1. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters and possible influencing factors in normal subjects using a dual Scheimpflug analyzer.

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    Xiaogang Wang

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate normal anterior segment parameters and analyze the possible influencing factors using a dual Scheimpflug system. SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. DESIGN: A prospective observational case series. METHODS: A total of 153 normal subjects (153 eyes were studied. The anterior segment parameters, including the central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, pupil diameter (PD, keratoconus prediction index (KPI, simulated keratometry (SimK values, anterior instantaneous curvature (AIC, posterior axial curvature (PAC, corneal eccentricity, total corneal power (TCP, axial curvature (AC, total corneal wavefront (TCW, high order aberration (HOA, and spherical aberration (SA, were determined using a dual Scheimpflug analyzer. RESULTS: The CCT and ACD were both negatively correlated with age (r = -0.203, p = 0.012; r = -0.589, p<0.001. There was no significant difference in the refractive indices of AIC and SimK. Compared with the negative correlation of HOA and SA (r = -0.358, p<0.001, a positive correlation was found between TCW and HOA (r = 0.561, p<0.001. Unlike the decreased tendency of AC, the TCP increased gradually from the center to the periphery in the central 8 mm diameter. TCP showed a significant correlation with AC in the analyzed area. CONCLUSIONS: AIC and SimK provide different information in clinic, but the refractive indices of them showed no difference in this healthy study population, and age should be considered when using CCT and ACD values.

  2. Anterior Segment Alterations and Comparative Aqueous Humor Proteomics in the Buphthalmic Rabbit (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

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    Edward, Deepak P.; Bouhenni, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. Methods Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. Results The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet’s membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. Conclusions Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals. PMID:22253484

  3. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhai; Lu, Weicong; Savini, Giacomo; Chen, Hao; Wang, Chengfang; Yu, Xinxin; Bao, Fangjun; Wang, Qinmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan) and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and aqueous depth (AD). Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59 ± 27.37 μm, 3.70 ± 0.30 mm, and 3.16 ± 0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14 ± 26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71 ± 0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17 ± 0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45 ± 6.07 μm, P < 0.05). The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic. PMID:27403339

  4. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

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    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  5. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tandogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%, exposure times (10 and 60 seconds, and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc., and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery.

  6. 白内障超声乳化摘出术后OCT测量的眼前节结构改变%The changes of ocular anterior segment configuration following phacoemulsification determined by anterior segment OCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑虔

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a main blinding eye disease worldwide,follwed by glaucoma.Expension of lens volume occurs in early stage of age-related cataractous eyes,which is a risk factor of Primary angle-closure glaucoma,and phacoemulsification is a feasible approach to remove it.However,how to select the timing of operation and determine the prognosis is the major challenge for ophthalmologists.In order to evaluate the influence of phacoemulsification on ocular anterior segment configuration,we collected the information of 17 articles that quantitatively analyzed the ocular anterior segment parameter changes after phacoemulsification,determined by anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT).Total 866 eyes that received phacoemulsification for age-related cataract were included in the following-up duration for 6 months,and the results showed that the mean anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber volume (ACV),anterior chamber angle (ACA),angle opening distance 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AODS00),angle opening distance 750 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD750),trabecular-iris space area 500 μm from scleral spur (TISA500),trabecular-iris space area 750 μm from scleral spur(TISA750),and angle recess area 750 μm anterior to the scleral spur (ARA 750) were increased,but the mean anterior chamber width (ACW) and iris thickness measured at 750 μm (IT750) were not significantly changed,while the postoperative iris curvature (I-Curv),iris cross-sectional area and convex hull of iris segments were decreased after phacoemulsification.In addition,the postoperative ACD,TISA500 showed positive correlations to preoperative lens thickness,and the ACD and AOD500 in 3 months after operation were positively correlated to the preoperative lens value (LV).This systematic review concluded that phacoemulsification could be used for the treatment of glaucoma by relieving pupillary block,reducing the iris oppression,deepening the anterior chamber and opening anterior chamber angle.%目前,白内

  7. Evaluation the value of Pentacam segment analysis system in the study of eye anterior segment before and after prophylactic laser periphery iridotomy%Pentacam眼前节分析系统在预防性激光虹膜周边切除评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章玉群; 田琳璐; 章翼; 赵东升

    2013-01-01

    目的:以首次发作急性闭角型青光眼的对侧眼为研究对象,采用Pentacam眼前节分析系统观察预防性激光虹膜周边切除(laser peripheral iridotomy,LPI)前后眼前节结构变化,评估LPI的有效性和安全性.方法:急性原发性闭角型青光眼50例50眼的对侧眼行氩激光联合Nd:YAG激光预防性激光周边虹膜切除,检查治疗前及治疗后1d;6mo的眼内压(intraocular pressure,IOP),以Pentacam测量中央角膜厚度(central corneal thickness,CCT)、中央前房深度(central anterior chamber depth,CACD)、周边前房深度(peripheral anterior chamber depth,PACD)、前房容积(anterior chamber volume,ACV)、前房角(anterior chamber angle,ACA)、瞳孔直径(pupil diameter,PD)、晶状体厚度(lens thickness,LT),IOL-Master测量眼轴长度(axial length,AL),并估算晶状体在眼内的相对位置(relative position of the lens,RPL).结果:Pentacam 图像清晰显示凸出的虹膜变平坦,前房角加深.治疗前与治疗后1d;6mo的眼压无显著变化.CCT值分别为548.02 ±20.22,549.32±21.78,551.34±26.37mm.CACD值分别为1.65±0.28,1.72±0.31,1.71±0.23mm.PD值分别为2.32±0.55,2.20±0.39,2.38±0.40mm.LT值分别为1.90±0.55,1.82±0.39,1.98±0.40mm.眼AL分别为23.08±1.05,22.91±1.12,22.94±0.96.RPL值分别为0.118±0.035,0.126±0.041,0.121±0.028.治疗前后均无统计学差异.PACD值分别为颞侧(0.88±0.31,1.19±0.25,1.17±0.30mm),上方(0.83±0.32,1.01±0.42,1.02±0.36mm),鼻侧(0.80±0.42,0.95±0.21,0.94±0.24mm),下方(0.83 ±0.34,1.13 ± 0.14,1.12± 0.25mm);ACV值分别为57.06±18.43,80.65±20.02,81.43 ±17.21mm3;ACA值分别为27.02° ±6.65°,30.41°±5.87°,31.52°±6.98°,治疗前与治疗后均有统计学差异,治疗后1d与6mo无统计学差异.结论:LPI能明显增加急性闭角型青光眼对侧眼的周边前房深度和前房容积.Pentacam眼前节分析系统能直观定量反映LPI对于急性闭角型青光眼对侧眼的眼前节三维结构变化.

  8. orthodenticle/otx ortholog expression in the anterior brain and eyes of Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buresi, Auxane; Baratte, Sébastien; Da Silva, Corinne; Bonnaud, Laure

    2012-01-01

    The origin of cerebral structures is a major issue in both developmental and evolutionary biology. Among Lophotrochozoans, cephalopods present both a derived nervous system and an original body plan, therefore they constitute a key model to study the evolution of nervous system and molecular processes that control the neural organization. We characterized a partial sequence of an ortholog of otx2 in Sepia officinalis embryos, a gene specific to the anterior nervous system and eye development. By in situ hybridization, we assessed the expression pattern of otx2 during S. officinalis organogenesis and we showed that otx is expressed (1) in the eyes, from early to late developmental stages as observed in other species (2) in the nervous system during late developmental stages. The otx ortholog does not appear to be required for the precocious emergence of the nervous ganglia in cephalopods and is later expressed only in the most anterior ganglia of the future brain. Finally, otx expression becomes restricted to localized part of the brain, where it could be involved in the functional specification of the central nervous system of S. officinalis. These results suggest a conserved involvement of otx in eye maturation and development of the anterior neural structures in S. officinalis.

  9. Immunohistochemical observation of anterior subcapsular cataract in eye with spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Kumi; Okada, Yuka; Saika, Shizuya

    2010-03-01

    We report the histological findings of secondary cataract in an eye with a spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma to obtain keys to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon. During phacoemulsification, opacified anterior capsule was obtained, fixed in formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections of the specimen were histologically observed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed extracellular matrix accumulation in the extracted fibrous anterior subcapsular opacification. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of fibrous collagen types and cellular fibronectin. Presumed lens cells amid matrix were positively labeled for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and phospho-Smad2. Histology of the fibrous anterior subcapsular opacification tissue showed the possibility of epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the lens epithelial cells in the secondary cataract following a spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma.

  10. The muscle pattern of the Drosophila abdomen depends on a subdivision of the anterior compartment of each segment

    OpenAIRE

    Krzemień, Joanna; Fabre, Caroline C. G.; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    In the past, segments were defined by landmarks such as muscle attachments, notably by Snodgrass, the king of insect anatomists. Here, we show how an objective definition of a segment, based on developmental compartments, can help explain the dorsal abdomen of adult Drosophila. The anterior (A) compartment of each segment is subdivided into two domains of cells, each responding differently to Hedgehog. The anterior of these domains is non-neurogenic and clones lacking Notch develop normally; ...

  11. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea.

  12. Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusinowitz Steven

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a blinding disease usually associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP. In some families, abnormal anterior segment development contributes to glaucoma. The genes causing anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in most of these families are not identified and the affected developmental processes are poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs participate in various developmental processes. We tested the importance of Bmp4 gene dosage for ocular development and developmental glaucoma. Results Bmp4+/- mice have anterior segment abnormalities including malformed, absent or blocked trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal drainage structures. Mice with severe drainage structure abnormalities, over 80% or more of their angle's extent, have elevated IOP. The penetrance and severity of abnormalities is strongly influenced by genetic background, being most severe on the C57BL/6J background and absent on some other backgrounds. On the C57BL/6J background there is also persistence of the hyaloid vasculature, diminished numbers of inner retinal cells, and absence of the optic nerve. Conclusions We demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of BMP4 results in anterior segment dysgenesis and elevated IOP. The abnormalities are similar to those in human patients with developmental glaucoma. Thus, BMP4 is a strong candidate to contribute to Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and other developmental conditions associated with human glaucoma. BMP4 also participates in posterior segment development and wild-type levels are usually critical for optic nerve development on the C57BL/6J background. Bmp4+/- mice are useful for studying various components of ocular development, and may allow identification of strain specific modifiers affecting a variety of ocular phenotypes.

  13. Descemet’s scroll in syphilitic interstitial keratitis: a case report with anterior segment evaluation and a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasetsuwan N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ngamjit Kasetsuwan,1,2 Usanee Reinprayoon,1,2 Patchima Chantaren2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2Ophthalmology Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with Descemet’s scrolls, as well as its characteristic findings in an anterior segment investigation in relation to the histopathologic findings from a literature review. Case presentation: A case report of a 64-year-old woman with syphilitic infection presented with band keratopathy and retrocorneal scrolls. Slit-lamp photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and ultrasound biomicroscopy were performed. Four previous reports were reviewed to describe the pathogenesis, natural history, and histopathologic and immunohistologic findings of the Descemet’s scroll. Results: The spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 and 20/30 in the right and left eyes, respectively. The scrolls appeared as a translucent web extending from Descemet’s membrane into the anterior chamber. Confocal microscopy showed decreased endothelial cell density, pleomorphism, polymegathism, and hyperreflective fibrocellular rods with central hollow. The AS-OCT and ultrasound biomicroscopy showed rod-shaped retrocorneal scrolls. The corneal thickness was 494 microns, as measured by AS-OCT. The corneal lesion remained stable during the 6-year follow-up period without the need for keratoplasty, while the previous literature reported spontaneous and postoperative corneal decompensation. Conclusion: We present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with rare Descemet’s scrolls featuring relatively good visual acuity. Although we did not obtain the corneal tissue for examination, the anterior segment investigation provides insight into the underlying histopathology and natural disease history. The central hollow and cellular component seen

  14. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

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    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  15. Anterior Displacement of Lamina Cribrosa during Valsalva Maneuver in Young Healthy Eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Woo Kim

    Full Text Available To investigate lamina cribrosa (LC displacement during the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes using enhanced depth imaging (EDI spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.Forty-eight eyes of 48 young healthy volunteers (age range: 20-34 years underwent intraocular pressure (IOP measurement by Goldmann applanation tonometry as well as Cirrus HD-OCT scans before and during the Valsalva maneuver. The optic nerve head (ONH parameters (average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, rim area, disc area, average C/D ratio, vertical C/D ratio, cup volume, anterior LC depth (LCD, subfoveal and peripapillary choroidal thickness, and neural canal opening diameter were measured on compensated OCT and compared during Valsalva challenge. The subjects were asked to take a five-minute break after each Valsalva maneuver.During the Valsalva maneuver, the IOP significantly increased, from 12.7 ± 3.0 mmHg to 16.0 ± 3.2 mmHg (P 0.05.The Valsalva maneuver induced anterior displacement of the LC, but did not alter the choroidal thickness or ONH morphology. The data describe the positional characteristics of the LC in response to the Valsalva maneuver in young healthy eyes.

  16. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasunao; Ishiguro; Masanobu; Hyodo; Takehito; Fujiwara; Yasunaru; Sakuma; Nobuyuki; Hojo; Koichi; Mizuta; Hideo; Kawarasaki; Alan; T; Lefor; Yoshikazu; Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son,who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years.The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation.With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery,we found the right anterior segmental duct(RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct,and the catheter passed into the RASD.After repairing the inci...

  17. Keraring Intrastromal Segment Depth Measured by Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavia, Carlo; D'Amelio, Savino

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate agreement between measured and intended distance of Keraring (Mediphacos, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) intracorneal ring segments from the anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Methods. Twenty-six Keraring ICRS implanted in 24 keratoconic eyes were examined. The distance from the Keraring apex to the anterior corneal surface and the distance from the inner and the outer corners to the posterior corneal surface were measured 3 months postoperatively using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. Agreement between measured distance and intended distance was assessed by calculating the absolute differences and 95% limits of agreement (95% LoA). Results. The mean absolute difference was significantly lower (p < 0.001) for the measurements taken at the inner corner (23.54 ± 15.90 μm) than that for those taken at the apex (108.92 ± 62.72 μm) and the outer corner (108.35 ± 56.99 μm). The measurements taken at the inner corner were within ±25 and ±50 μm of the intended distance in 15/26 (57.7%) and 24/26 (92.3%) cases, respectively, and showed the narrowest 95% LoA with the intended distance (−57.61 to 55.15 μm). Conclusions. The distance of the inner corner from the posterior corneal surface showed the best agreement with the intended distance. This measurement is suitable for determining whether the actual Keraring depth matches the intended depth. PMID:28261495

  18. Corneal sensitivity and correlations between decreased sensitivity and anterior segment pathology in ocular leprosy.

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçorlu, M A; Cakiner, T; Saylan, T

    1991-01-01

    Leprosy is one of the leading causes of corneal hyposensitivity. In this article the corneal sensitivity of 143 leprosy patients was examined, and correlations between corneal hyposensitivity and anterior segment pathology were detected. Twenty four healthy volunteers were examined as controls. Various degrees of corneal loss of sensitivity were found in 46.2% of leprosy patients. Lagophthalmos, chronic lepromatous granulomatous uveitis, iris atrophy, and social blindness were found 4.5-16.6 ...

  19. Anterior corneal and internal contributions to peripheral aberrations of human eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchison, David A.

    2004-03-01

    Anterior corneal and internal component contributions to overall peripheral aberrations of five human eyes were determined, based on corneal topography and overall aberration measurements. Anterior corneal position and orientation (tilt) were referenced to the line of sight. Ray tracing was performed through the anterior cornea for 6-mm-diameter pupils at angles out to 40° in both the temporal and the nasal visual fields. In general, both component and overall Zernike aberrations were greater for the nasal than for the temporal visual field. In general, the anterior corneal aberration components were considerably higher than the overall aberrations across the visual field and were balanced to a considerable degree by the internal ocular aberration components. The component and overall levels of Zernike third-order aberrations showed linear trends away from the fixation axis, and the component levels of Zernike fourth-order aberrations showed quadratic trends away from the fixation axis. The second-order, but not higher-order, aberration components were susceptible to the choice of image radius of curvature, while disregarding corneal position and orientation affected second- and higher-order aberration components.

  20. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  1. Anterior maxillary osteotomy: A technical note for superior repositioning: A bird wing segment

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    V Sadesh Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single piece bird wing osteotectomy segment during anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method thereby reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and gives good perfusion to the anterior segment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences composing of 20 patients in which male: female ratio was 8:12, with a mean age of 25-30 years. This bird wing segment technique is performed following presurgical orthodontics under the guidance of clinical assessment of the gummy smile with an incisal show when the lip is at repose (vertical maxillary excess, especially for the calculated amount of superior repositioning. It is calculated by subtracting 2 mm from the total amount of an incisor show when the lip is at repose. The normal incisal show when the lip is at repose is 2 mm. After conventional primary AMO cut was performed, the precise calculated. Results: All our cases were tested positive for pulp vitality, no relapse, and minimal edema and with no changes in the bite or dentoalveolar relation followed until 1 year postoperatively indicating a good perfusion to the anterior segment and all the patients were satisfied esthetically and free of complaints. Conclusion: This simple technique allows the precise amount of calculated bone removal in a single piece from the nasal floor markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method there by reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and maintains good perfusion.

  2. The changes of inflammatory cytokines and their clinical significance in patients of inferior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction with anterior ST-segment depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of Hs-CRP,Fib,IL-6,TNF-α,MDA,SOD,and analyze the correlation between the level of plasma inflammatory cytokines and clinical significance in patients with anterior ST-segment depression.Methods We chose 360 patients with inferior ST Segment elavation acute myocardial infarction from May 2007 to Sep 2012 in emergency department of

  3. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. Materials and Methods: Participants: Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. Observation Procedures: Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer′s classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 µ (AOD 250 and 500 µ (AOD 500 from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD. The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 2 or less and "open angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 3 and 4. Main Outcome Measures: The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. Results: One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy ( P < 0.001. The Pearson correlation coefficient between all UBM parameters and gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58±49 µ, 102±84 µ and 653±124 respectively, while it was 176±47 µ, 291±62 µ and 883±94 µ in eyes with open angles ( P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: The angle width estimated by gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.

  4. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively ...

  5. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental le fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Tue Lindberg; Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I.......83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment...... osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral...

  6. Deep Learning Guided Partitioned Shape Model for Anterior Visual Pathway Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Idrees, Rabia; Biggs, Elijah; Alsharid, Mohammad A; Avery, Robert A; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of cranial nerve systems, such as the anterior visual pathway (AVP), from MRI sequences is challenging due to their thin long architecture, structural variations along the path, and low contrast with adjacent anatomic structures. Segmentation of a pathologic AVP (e.g., with low-grade gliomas) poses additional challenges. In this work, we propose a fully automated partitioned shape model segmentation mechanism for AVP steered by multiple MRI sequences and deep learning features. Employing deep learning feature representation, this framework presents a joint partitioned statistical shape model able to deal with healthy and pathological AVP. The deep learning assistance is particularly useful in the poor contrast regions, such as optic tracts and pathological areas. Our main contributions are: 1) a fast and robust shape localization method using conditional space deep learning, 2) a volumetric multiscale curvelet transform-based intensity normalization method for robust statistical model, and 3) optimally partitioned statistical shape and appearance models based on regional shape variations for greater local flexibility. Our method was evaluated on MRI sequences obtained from 165 pediatric subjects. A mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.779 was obtained for the segmentation of the entire AVP (optic nerve only =0.791 ) using the leave-one-out validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed localized shape and sparse appearance-based learning approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art segmentation approaches and is as robust as the manual segmentation.

  7. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome after Foldable Artiflex Iris-Fixated Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation

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    Lucien A. M. van Philips

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS developed in four cases after uneventful implantation of a foldable iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL. Two cases occurred sequentially in one patient. The TASS subsided without complications in all cases after intensive topical steroid treatment. A multitude of possible causes is considered for the occurrence of these TASS cases. From the sterilization and cleaning of surgical instruments to the possibility of endotoxines in ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD. These rare cases should alert the surgeon to the possibility of TASS after pIOL implantation.

  8. Adjustable muscle plication: a new surgical technique for strabismic patients with high risk for anterior segment ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Laria; David; P.Pi?ero

    2015-01-01

    <正>INTRODUCTION Anterior ciliary arteries provide 70%of the vascular supply of the anterior segment.A significant interruption of the vascular flow of these arteries increases the risk for anterior ischemia.Although the frequency of this special condition is low after strabismus surgery(1:13 000)[1],its effects may involve substantial visual problems[2].We report the successful outcome of a new surgical approach for strabismus management in a case of high risk for anterior ischemia.Specifically,we show the correction of the horizontal ocular deviation by means of an adjustable muscle

  9. Visualization of Tear Clearance Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Polymethylmethacrylate Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Kamao, Tomoyuki; Sakane, Yuri; Goto, Tomoko; Shiraishi, Atsushi; Ohashi, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    We previously reported 2 new methods, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and polymethylmethacrylate particles suspended in fluorescein solution (PPF), for the evaluation of tear clearance and rapid tear flow after blinking (tear Krehbiel flow). Here, we investigated age-related OCT tear clearance and tear film thickness (TFT) and the potential correlation of OCT tear clearance and PPF velocity indicative of tear Krehbiel flow. Normal subjects separated into young and older groups received 5 μL of saline solution into the lower conjunctival sac, and an image of the central lower eyelid tear meniscus was captured by AS-OCT immediately and 30 seconds after natural blinking. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured, and their percentage decrease was defined as OCT clearance rate. A Spectralis OCT Anterior Segment Module captured the central corneal tear film layer for TFT measurements. OCT clearance rates were significantly higher in young versus older subjects (P = 0.0002). When all subjects were analyzed, age was significantly and negatively correlated with TMH clearance rate (r = -0.4928, P = 0.0003) and TMA clearance rate (r = -0.4596, P = 0.0008). TFT values were significantly and negatively correlated with age (r = -0.6662, P clearance rates and PPF velocity (TMH rate: r = 0.2926, P = 0.0392; TMA rate: r = 0.3274, P = 0.0205). AS-OCT and PPF might be novel techniques for quantitative evaluation of tear clearance and Krehbiel flow.

  10. Ultraviolet absorption by contact lenses and the significance on the ocular anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that both acute and chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure can lead to various ophthalmic pathologic conditions in the anterior segment. Several scientific studies have demonstrated that after UV exposure, the unprotected cornea is vulnerable to damage in the epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cellular layers. DNA damage, apoptosis, and altered protease expression are all examples of harmful changes that can occur within the cornea after irradiation. Beyond the cornea, damage associated with UV exposure, such as decreased antioxidant levels and increased reactive oxygen species production, has been noted in the aqueous humor and crystalline lens. Ultraviolet-blocking contact lenses have the potential to provide protection against such exposure to harmful UV radiation. Experimental use of UV-absorbing contact lenses prevented detrimental cellular changes to the cornea and maintained corneal clarity after UV exposure. Additionally, studies suggest that shielding the aqueous humor and crystalline lens from irradiation with UV-absorbing contact lenses aids in protection against precataractous changes. Despite ongoing research, to date, neither chronic nor clinical studies have been performed in humans to demonstrate that wearing UV-blocking contact lenses reduces the risk of developing cataracts or other ocular disorders within the anterior segment. This article will discuss the impact of UV exposure on ocular tissue and the need for adequate UV protection, with particular emphasis on UV-blocking contact lenses.

  11. Observation of posterior corneal vesicles with in vivo confocal microscopy and anterior segment OCT

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    Ryou Watanabe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ryou Watanabe, Toru Nakazawa, Nobuo FuseDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAbstract: The histopathology of posterior corneal vesicles (PCV has not yet been revealed. A 15-year-old girl, who was diagnosed by slit-lamp microscopy as PCV, was examined using specular microscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, and anterior segment OCT (optical coherence tomography. Anterior segment OCT showed that the thickness of both corneas was within normal limits. At the same time, in vivo confocal microscopy revealed endothelial cells in the rounded dark areas, acellular hyporeflective layers on the Descemet’s membrane, and hyperreflective linear lesions. These findings were not reported previously by slit-lamp and specular microscopy. The abnormal findings only existed at the Descemet’s membrane and corneal endothelial layer. Previous reports dealing with posterior polymorphous dystrophy (PPMD examined using in vivo confocal microscopy reported almost the same findings, suggesting that PCV and PPMD may be the same at the microstructural level.Keywords: cornea, Descemet’s membrane, imaging

  12. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Ochronosis

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    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM findings of two patients with ocular ochronosis secondary due to alkaptonuria. Materials and Methods. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, including IVCM (HRT II/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT (Topcon 3D spectral-domain OCT 2000, Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ, USA, corneal topography (Pentacam, OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, and anterior segment photography, were performed. Results. Biomicroscopic examination showed bilateral darkly pigmented lesions of the nasal and temporal conjunctiva and episclera in both patients. In vivo confocal microscopy of the lesions revealed prominent degenerative changes, including vacuoles and fragmentation of collagen fibers in the affected conjunctival lamina propria and episclera. Hyperreflective pigment granules in different shapes were demonstrated in the substantia propria beneath the basement membrane. AS-OCT of Case 1 demonstrated hyporeflective areas. Fundus examination was within normal limits in both patients, except tilted optic discs with peripapillary atrophy in one of the patients. Corneal topography, thickness, and macular OCT were normal bilaterally in both cases. Conclusion. The degenerative and anatomic changes due to ochronotic pigment deposition in alkaptonuria can be demonstrated in detail with IVCM and AS-OCT. Confocal microscopic analysis in ocular ochronosis may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression.

  13. Computational modeling of drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye: effects of device variables and positions.

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    Jooybar, Elaheh; Abdekhodaie, Mohammad J; Farhadi, Fatolla; Cheng, Yu-Ling

    2014-09-01

    A computational model was developed to simulate drug distribution in the posterior segment of the eye after intravitreal injection and ocular implantation. The effects of important factors in intravitreal injection such as injection time, needle gauge and needle angle on the ocular drug distribution were studied. Also, the influences of the position and the type of implant on the concentration profile in the posterior segment were investigated. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted to describe the 3D convective-diffusive transport. The geometrical model was constructed based on the human eye dimensions. To simulate intravitreal injection, unlike previous studies which considered the initial shape of the injected drug solution as a sphere or cylinder, the more accurate shape was obtained by level-set method in COMSOL. The results showed that in intravitreal injection the drug concentration profile and its maximum value depended on the injection time, needle gauge and penetration angle of the needle. Considering the actual shape of the injected solution was found necessary to obtain the real concentration profile. In implant insertion, the vitreous cavity received more drugs after intraocular implantation, but this method was more invasive compared to the periocular delivery. Locating the implant in posterior or anterior regions had a significant effect on local drug concentrations. Also, the shape of implant influenced on concentration profile inside the eye. The presented model is useful for optimizing the administration variables to ensure optimum therapeutic benefits. Predicting and quantifying different factors help to reduce the possibility of tissue toxicity and to improve the treatment efficiency.

  14. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  15. Anterior segment biometry using ultrasound biomicroscopy and the Artemis-2 very high frequency ultrasound scanner

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    Al-Farhan HM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Haya M Al-Farhan, Reem N AlMutairiKing Saud University, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaPurpose: To compare the precision of anterior chamber angle (ACA and anterior chamber depth (ACD measurements taken with ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and the Artemis-2 Very High Frequency Ultrasound Scanner (VHFUS in normal subjects.Design: Prospective study.Methods: We randomly selected one eye from each of 59 normal subjects in this study. Two subjects dropped out of the study; the associated data were excluded from analysis. ACA and ACD measurements were obtained using the VHFUS and the UBM. The results were compared statistically using repeated-measures analysis of variance for the intraobserver repeatability, unpaired t-test, and limits of agreement.Results: The average ACA values for the UBM and the VHFUS (±standard deviation were 41.83° ± 5.03° and 33.36° ± 6.03°, respectively. The average ACD values were 2.96 ± 0.34 mm and 2.87 ± 0.31 mm. The intraobserver repeatability analysis of variance P-values for ACA and ACD measurements using UBM were 0.10 and 0.68, respectively; for the Artemis-2 VHFUS, the respective values were 0.68 and 0.09. The difference in ACA measurements was statistically significant (t = 8.41; P < 0.0001, while the difference in ACD values was not (t = 1.51; P < 0.13. The mean ACA difference was 8.50° ± 2.50°, and the limits of agreement were +13.30° to −3.60°. The mean ACD difference was 0.09 ± 0.27 mm, and the limits of agreement ranged from 0.61 mm to −0.43 mm. The mean difference percentage of ACD was 3.1% for both instruments.Conclusion: In case of the ACD, both instruments can be used interchangeably; however, with the ACA instruments, they cannot be used interchangeably.Keywords: anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, Artemis-2 VHF scanner, ultrasound biomicroscope, normal eyes

  16. A New Potential Cause in the Development of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Fibrin Glue

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present a potential cause for toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS. Materials and Methods: We report 4 cases of TASS that occurred following uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Results: The 4 cases were the first consecutive 2 cases of 2 different surgery days, 5 months apart. The most prominent sign of TASS was limbus-to-limbus corneal edema. Pain and/or intraocular pressure rise were also common. All surgical and presurgical procedures were checked after the first outbreak, whereas the second outbreak required further investigation. Fibrin glue remnants from preceding pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting were found to be the potential cause. Despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, corneal edema did not resolve in 2 patients who underwent keratoplasty. Conclusion: TASS is a sight-threatening condition which requires thorough investigation for prevention of new cases. All steps must be carefully revised. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 280-3

  17. Role of anterior segment optical coherence tomogram in Descemet′s membrane detachment

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    Sonia Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Descemet′s membrane detachment (DD is a rare but serious complication of intraocular surgery. In rare cases where corneal edema is severe and we may not be able to visualize DD on slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherence tomogram (AS-OCT would be helpful. We describe two patients with DD, highlighting the role of AS-OCT in early diagnosis and management of patients with DD. One of the patients had DD with rolled in edge, which could only be visualized with AS-OCT. In such a situation, AS-OCT can identify the edge of detachment and show the exact position of the rolled edge, which can allow us to plan the surgical strategy to unroll the DD.

  18. Anterior segment changes following intravitreal bevacizumab injection for treatment of neovascular glaucoma

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    Canut MI

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available MI Canut1, A Alvarez2, J Nadal3, R Abreu4, JA Abreu5, JS Pulido61Glaucoma Section, 2Barraquer Ophthalmology Centre, 3Retina and Vitreous Unit, Macula Section, Institut Universitari Barraquer, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 4Retina and Vitreous Unit, University Hospital of La Candelaria, Tenerife 5Glaucoma Section, University Hospital of the Canary Islands, Tenerife, Spain; 6Retina and Vitreous Unit, Ophthalmology Department, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to describe anterior segment changes in a prospective, interventional, noncomparative case series of patients with neovascular glaucoma secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy treated with intravitreal bevacizumab.Methods: Five consecutive patients with neovascular glaucoma and a refractory, symptomatic elevation of intraocular pressure and pronounced anterior segment congestion received intravitreal bevacizumab 1.25 mg/0.05 mL. Follow-up examinations were performed at 4–16 weeks by the same specialists, with testing performed at hour 48, week 1, and months 1, 3, and 6 after intravitreal bevacizumab.Results: We observed a significant difference (P = 0.021 between initial and mean neovascularization at three months in all the quadrants. At three months, median intraocular pressure was 19 ± 5.38 (range 12–26 mmHg. In three of the five cases, diode laser cyclophotocoagulation was required, and in one case a trabeculectomy was performed. One patient showed complete synechial angle closure 48 hours after treatment which required cyclodestructive procedures to normalize intraocular pressure.Conclusion: Intravitreal bevacizumab achieves complete regression of neovascularization in neovascular glaucoma secondary to proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and this regression is stable when associated with treatment of the underlying disease and should be investigated more thoroughly as an adjunct in the management of neovascular

  19. Evaluation of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Halil Hüseyin Çağatay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT in Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD. A patient who developed DMD after uneventful cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation is presented in this case report. At the follow-up examination after cataract surgery, slit-lamp evaluation showed stromal striae, but it was impossible to diagnose the DMD due to the corneal edema. ASOCT imaging of the cornea revealed a DMD, and the patient underwent intracameral air injection to the anterior chamber through the site which was identified as intact by ASOCT. Follow-up ASOCT imaging revealed the reattachment of the Descemet’s membrane and reduced corneal thickness. If DMD is suspected in any cases, ASOCT can be useful to document and follow the postsurgical detachment of DMD and also to determine the site, configuration, and extent of the DMD, thus guiding the treatment method and monitoring the treatment outcome. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 407-9

  20. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  1. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty of dog eyes using the big-bubble technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Ji Yoon; Jeong, Manbok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the feasibility of corneal transplantation using the big-bubble technique (BBT) to perform deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in three dogs. After the cornea was trephined 750 µm, 4 mL of air was injected, and the blanched stroma was removed to expose Descemet's membrane (DM). The donor corneal button, which was gently stripped off the DM, was sutured onto the bare DM of the recipient cornea. The dogs received topical antibiotics every 6 h for 7 days and 2% cyclosporine ointment every 12 h for 1 month. The eyes were examined post-operatively at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 150 days. The central portion of the transplanted cornea stayed transparent while corneal haze developed around the transplanted margin. Menace response was normal even though the transplanted cornea was edematous until 3 weeks after surgery. A marginal haze was rarely observed between the donor and recipient corneas at 150 days after the operation. A spotted haze developed in the central part of the deep stroma near the DM. Upon histopathological examination, the stroma and epithelium of the donor cornea had normal structures. Corneal transplantation using DALK with BBT can be performed in dogs preserving the healthy endothelium. PMID:26645335

  2. A red-eye detector for iris segmentation using shape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Changpeng; Huang, Xinyu; Tokuta, Alade; Yang, Ruigang

    2013-05-01

    In iris recognition systems, it is essential to accurately locate the pupil and the iris. Among segmentation algorithms for systems utilizing near-infrared light, some make the assumption that the pupil is darker than the rest of the image. For this class of algorithms, the red eye effect, which makes the pupil region brighter than the iris, could damage their performance. Other segmentation algorithms use edge information to fit circles, yet noisy images make them inaccurate. Therefore, it is desirable to use different segmentation algorithms for images with and without the red eye effect. In this paper, we introduce a novel method which distinguishes iris images exhibiting the red eye effect from those with a dark pupil. Our detector starts with a 2D darkness map of the iris image, and generates a customized shape context descriptor from the estimated pupil region. The descriptor is then compared with the reference descriptor, generated from a number of training images with dark pupils. The distance to the reference descriptor is used to define how close the estimated pupil region is from a dark pupil. Tests with images captured with our own acquisition system shows the proposed pupil detector is highly effective.

  3. Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Laina G; Mitchel, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye-gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

  4. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elton; Lik; Tong; Tay; Vernon; Khet; Yau; Yong; Boon; Ang; Lim; Stelson; Sia; Elizabeth; Poh; Ying; Wong; Leonard; Wei; Leon; Yip

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT(SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments.METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects(33 eyes)were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic.Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other’s analyses of OCT images.RESULTS: Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively(P <0.01). The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k =0.31(95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k =0.35(95%CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k =0.21(95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k =0.17(95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51(95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18(95% CI: 0.08-0.45).CONCLUSION: Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  5. Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint

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    Tue Lindberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A or dismounted perioperatively (group B. Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results: Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4° (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°. Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5° (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°. There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. Conclusions: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.

  6. The muscle pattern of the Drosophila abdomen depends on a subdivision of the anterior compartment of each segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemien, Joanna; Fabre, Caroline C G; Casal, José; Lawrence, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    In the past, segments were defined by landmarks such as muscle attachments, notably by Snodgrass, the king of insect anatomists. Here, we show how an objective definition of a segment, based on developmental compartments, can help explain the dorsal abdomen of adult Drosophila. The anterior (A) compartment of each segment is subdivided into two domains of cells, each responding differently to Hedgehog. The anterior of these domains is non-neurogenic and clones lacking Notch develop normally; this domain can express stripe and form muscle attachments. The posterior domain is neurogenic and clones lacking Notch do not form cuticle; this domain is unable to express stripe or form muscle attachments. The posterior (P) compartment does not form muscle attachments. Our in vivo films indicate that early in the pupa the anterior domain of the A compartment expresses stripe in a narrowing zone that attracts the extending myotubes and resolves into the attachment sites for the dorsal abdominal muscles. We map the tendon cells precisely and show that all are confined to the anterior domain of A. It follows that the dorsal abdominal muscles are intersegmental, spanning from one anterior domain to the next. This view is tested and supported by clones that change cell identity or express stripe ectopically. It seems that growing myotubes originate in posterior A and extend forwards and backwards until they encounter and attach to anterior A cells. The dorsal adult muscles are polarised in the anteroposterior axis: we disprove the hypothesis that muscle orientation depends on genes that define planar cell polarity in the epidermis.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticles: a strategy to target the choroidal layer in the posterior segment of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaccini, Martina; Pedicini, Lucia; De Matienzo, Guglielma; Chiellini, Federica; Dente, Luciana; Raffa, Vittoria

    2017-01-01

    Despite the higher rate of blindness due to population aging, minimally invasive and selective drug delivery to the eye still remains an open challenge, especially in the posterior segment. The retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid are posterior segment cell layers, which may be affected by several diseases. In particular, damages to the choroid are associated with poor prognosis in the most severe pathologies. A drug delivery approach, able to target the choroid, is still missing. Recently, we demonstrated that intravitreally injected magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) are able to rapidly and persistently localise within the RPE in an autonomous manner. In this work we functionalised the MNP surface with the vascular endothelial growth factor, a bioactive molecule capable of transcytosis from the RPE towards more posterior layers. Such functionalisation successfully addressed the MNPs to the choroid, while MNP functionalised with a control polypeptide (poly-L-lysine) showed the same localisation pattern of the naked MNP particles. These data suggest that the combination of MNP with different bioactive molecules could represent a powerful strategy for cell-specific targeting of the eye posterior segment. PMID:28256525

  8. Embolization for the treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm: a report of 48 cases

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    Qing-dong GUO; Liu, Wei; Fu, Luo-An; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Xi; Jing HU; Fei, Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Objective To summarize the experience and method of endovascular treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm with detachable coils.Methods Forty-eight patients with unilateral A1 anterior communicating artery aneurysm(23 males and 25 females,age ranged from 32 to 72 years with mean of 53.4,hospitalized in Xijing hospital from Jan.2009 to Apr.2010) were involved in present study.All of the aneurysms were measured with rotational digital subtraction angiography(RDS...

  9. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

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    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  10. The use of chromatic information for motion segmentation: differences between psychophysical and eye-movement measures.

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    Dobkins, Karen R; Sampath, Vanitha

    2008-01-01

    Previous psychophysical studies have shown that chromatic (red/green) information can be used as a segmentation cue for motion integration. We investigated the mechanisms mediating this phenomenon by comparing chromatic effects (and, for comparison, luminance effects) on motion integration between two measures: (i) directional eye movements with the notion that these responses are mediated mainly by low-level motion mechanisms, and (ii) psychophysical reports, with the notion that subjects' reports should employ higher-level (attention-based) mechanisms if available. To quantify chromatic (and luminance) effects on motion integration, coherent motion thresholds were obtained for two conditions, one in which the signal and noise dots were the same 'red' or 'green' chromaticity (or the same 'bright' or 'dark' luminance), referred to as homogeneous, and the other in which the signal and noise dots were of different chromaticities (or luminances), referred to as heterogeneous. 'Benefit ratios' (theta(HOM)/theta(HET)) were then computed, with values significantly greater than 1.0 indicating that chromatic (or luminance) information serves as a segmentation cue for motion integration. The results revealed a high and significant chromatic benefit ratio when the measure was based on psychophysical report, but not when it was based on an eye-movement measure. By contrast, luminance benefit ratios were roughly the same (and significant) for both measures. For comparison to adults, eye-movement data were also obtained from 3-month-old infants. Infants showed marginally significant benefit ratios in the luminance, but not in the chromatic, condition. In total, these results suggest that the use of chromatic information as a segmentation cue for motion integration relies on higher-level mechanisms, whereas luminance information works mainly through low-level motion mechanisms.

  11. Relationship of A1 segment hypoplasia to anterior communicating artery aneurysm morphology and risk factors for aneurysm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldo, Lorenzo; McCutcheon, Brandon A; Murphy, Meghan E; Bydon, Mohamad; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2016-09-30

    OBJECTIVE Hypoplasia of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery is frequently observed in patients with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The effect of this anatomical variant on ACoA aneurysm morphology is not well understood. METHODS Digital subtraction angiography images were reviewed for 204 patients presenting to the authors' institution with either a ruptured or an unruptured ACoA aneurysm. The ratio of the width of the larger A1 segment to the smaller A1 segment was calculated. Patients with an A1 ratio greater than 2 were categorized as having A1 segment hypoplasia. The relationship of A1 segment hypoplasia to both patient and aneurysm characteristics was then assessed. RESULTS Of 204 patients that presented with an ACoA aneurysm, 34 (16.7%) were found to have a hypoplastic A1. Patients with A1 segment hypoplasia were less likely to have a history of smoking (44.1% vs 62.9%, p = 0.0410). ACoA aneurysms occurring in the setting of a hypoplastic A1 were also found to have a larger maximum diameter (mean 7.7 vs 6.0 mm, p = 0.0084). When considered as a continuous variable, increasing A1 ratio was associated with decreasing aneurysm dome-to-neck ratio (p = 0.0289). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of A1 segment hypoplasia between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms (18.9% vs 10.7%; p = 0.1605). CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that a hypoplastic A1 may affect the morphology of ACoA aneurysms. In addition, the relative lack of traditional risk factors for aneurysm formation in patients with A1 segment hypoplasia argues for the importance of hemodynamic factors in the formation of ACoA aneurysms in this anatomical setting.

  12. Extensive molecular differences between anterior- and posterior-half-sclerotomes underlie somite polarity and spinal nerve segmentation

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    Keynes Roger J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polarization of somite-derived sclerotomes into anterior and posterior halves underlies vertebral morphogenesis and spinal nerve segmentation. To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo. Results Several hundred genes are differentially-expressed between the two sclerotome halves, showing that a marked degree of molecular heterogeneity underpins the development of somite polarity. Conclusion We have identified a set of genes that warrant further investigation as regulators of somite polarity and vertebral morphogenesis, as well as repellents of spinal axon growth. Moreover the results indicate that, unlike the posterior half-sclerotome, the central region of the anterior-half-sclerotome does not contribute bone and cartilage to the vertebral column, being associated instead with the development of the segmented spinal nerves.

  13. Biomechanical Evaluation of Different Fixation Methods for Mandibular Anterior Segmental Osteotomy Using Finite Element Analysis, Part One: Superior Repositioning Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Yeliz; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to comparatively evaluate the mechanical behavior of 3 different fixation methods following various amounts of superior repositioning of mandibular anterior segment. In this study, 3 different rigid fixation configurations comprising double right L, double left L, or double I miniplates with monocortical screws were compared under vertical, horizontal, and oblique load conditions by means of finite element analysis. A three-dimensional finite element model of a fully dentate mandible was generated. A 3 and 5 mm superior repositioning of mandibular anterior segmental osteotomy were simulated. Three different finite element models corresponding to different fixation configurations were created for each superior repositioning. The von Mises stress values on fixation appliances and principal maximum stresses (Pmax) on bony structures were predicted by finite element analysis. The results have demonstrated that double right L configuration provides better stability with less stress fields in comparison with other fixation configurations used in this study.

  14. Embolization for the treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm: a report of 48 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-dong GUO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To summarize the experience and method of endovascular treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm with detachable coils.Methods Forty-eight patients with unilateral A1 anterior communicating artery aneurysm(23 males and 25 females,age ranged from 32 to 72 years with mean of 53.4,hospitalized in Xijing hospital from Jan.2009 to Apr.2010 were involved in present study.All of the aneurysms were measured with rotational digital subtraction angiography(RDSA and image post-processing techniques,and they were embolized with Guglielmi detachable coils(GDCs.The patency of the parent arteries was monitored by catheterization in both carotid arteries in the process of treatment.Stent-assisted,balloon remodeling,microcatheter and microwire assisted techniques were used in the treatment of wide-necked aneurysm to keep patency of parent arteries.Cerebral angiography was performed in 38 cases 6 months after the operation to observe the patency of embolized aneurysms and anterior communicating arteries.Results Of the 48 cases,total occlusion was achieved in 39(81.3%,more than 90% occlusion was achieved in 6(12.5%,and 3(6.3% with less than 90% occlusion;1 had hemorrhage during embolization,3 had anterior communicating artery occlusion,and 2 had contralateral internal carotid artery compensation after anterior communicating artery occlusion.No re-bleeding was found during the 6 months follow-up period.Cerebral angiography showed total occlusion of aneurysms and patency of anterior communicating arteries in 38 cases during re-examination.Conclusion The anterior communicating arteries should be kept patent in embolization treatment of the major unilateral blood supply anterior communicating artery aneurysms,and it is helpful to use microcatheter or microwire assisted techniques.

  15. The application of ocular anterior segment optical coherence tomography after operation of ocular penetraing injury%眼前段OCT在眼球穿孔伤术后的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟; 盛智超; 胡竹林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluat the application of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in the imaging of postoperative ocular penetrating injuries. Methods Thirty-six successive cases (36 eyes) with ocular penetrating injury in our hospital were examined by ASOCT after surgery to observe and analyze stuctural changes of cornea and anterior chamber angle by anterior segment biomicroscopy. Results The results of ASOCT showed that swollen and cloudy corneas with disordered stroma and irregular surfaces in 21 eyes, lacerated chamber angles in 5 eyes, synechial and closed chamber angles in 12 eyes, iris adhered to the wounds in 8 eyes, broken anterior lens capsules and overflowed cortices in 12 eyes and shallow cyclodialyses in 3 eyes. Conclusion ASOCT has good clinical value in evaluating injury degree in postoperative penetrating injury eyeballs and predicating the prognosis for recovery.%目的 评估眼前段OCT在眼球穿孔伤术后的应用价值.方法 连续收集我院所收治的眼球穿孔伤36例(36眼),术后进行眼前段裂隙灯显微镜检查,观察分析角膜,前房角等组织结构的变化.结果 眼前段OCT显示出:21眼角膜水肿浑浊,实质层结构紊乱,表面不规则;5眼房角撕裂,12眼房角粘连关闭;8眼虹膜粘连于伤口;2眼晶状体前囊破裂,皮质溢出;3眼睫状体浅脱离.结论 眼前段OCT对眼球穿孔伤术后评估眼球损伤程度,预后恢复等有较好的临床应用价值.

  16. Zebrafish-a new animal models of anterior segment embryonic development and diseases basic reserch%斑马鱼在眼前节胚胎发育和疾病研究中的应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝永娜; 魏瑞华; 赵少贞

    2012-01-01

    In recent years,zebrafish has become ideall animal models of human disease with its unique characteristics,such as small body,fecundity,fast development and growth,embryo transparency,and so on.Furthermore,the structure and gene of zebrafish eye are highly conservative with human eye,which make ophthalmologists to pay close attention to zebrafish.This review focus on the studies and applications on zebrafish embryonic development of anterior segment,including the morphogenesis of cornea,lens and anterior chamber,and diseases of anterior segment (corneal diseases,cataract,glaucoma).%近年来,斑马鱼凭借其体型小、繁殖力强、生长发育快、胚胎透明等独特的生物学特性,成为人类疾病动物模型的理想选择,加之与人类眼部结构和基因的高度保守性,使斑马鱼受到眼科学领域工作者的关注.本文主要对斑马鱼在眼前节胚胎发育,包括角膜、晶状体和前房的形态发生,以及眼前节疾病(角膜病、白内障、青光眼等)方面的研究和应用作一综述.

  17. Eye contact reveals a relationship between Neuroticism and anterior EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Allik, Jüri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    Although anterior functional brain asymmetry has been linked to individual differences in affect and motivation, its relations with the Five Factor Model personality traits remain unclear. We investigated anterior EEG alpha-activity asymmetry in response to variable degrees of social contact induced by different gaze directions of a "live" model. Neuroticism was negatively related to the anterior EEG asymmetry scores in response to direct gaze, indicating that higher levels of Neuroticism were associated with avoidance-related, relative right-sided functional brain asymmetry. Neuroticism was also related to behavioral direct gaze avoidance and subjective averted gaze preference. These relationships arose primarily from the Withdrawal aspect factor, suggesting that two subdomains of Neuroticism may be differentially related to approach-avoidance tendencies. These findings demonstrate that experimental manipulations of social contact can reveal personality related differences in anterior EEG asymmetry responsiveness, offering a motivationally salient alternative to resting state measures.

  18. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

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    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    with secondary anterior segment alterations. Data collected from the charts were: age, gender, kind of allergy, time of disease, time that complication appeared after treatment in our Service, side effects and ocular complications. RESULTS: Complications of anterior segment that caused reduction in visual acuity were: shield ulcers, 5 cases; cataract, 3 cases; corneal opacity, 6 cases; ocular perforation, 2 cases and keratoconus 13 cases. There were 7 surgeries: 2 tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, 4 optic keratoplasty, 4 optic penetrating keratoplasty and one superficial keratectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis should be treated in order to prevent ocular complications like keratitis, keratoconus, opacities and cataract.

  19. Both the anterior and posterior eyes function as photoreceptors for photoperiodic termination of diapause in the two-spotted spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuichi; Numata, Hideharu; Shiga, Sakiko; Goto, Shin G

    2014-02-01

    Photoreceptors involved in photoperiodism in insects and mites can be either the retinal photoreceptors in the visual system or nonvisual extraretinal photoreceptors. Mites with no eyes have a clear photoperiodic response, suggesting the involvement of extraretinal photoreceptors in mite photoperiodism. In mites equipped with eyes, however, it is not known whether the retinal or extraretinal photoreceptors are involved in photoperiodism. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae possesses two pairs of eyes. Adult females of this species terminate diapause in response to long days. To investigate whether the eyes function as photoperiodic photoreceptors in T. urticae, their eyes were ablated using a laser ablation system. Mites with their eyes intact terminated diapause under long days after low temperature exposure, whereas they remained in diapause under short days. Under constant darkness, they did not terminate diapause. When all eyes were removed, the mites remained in diapause even when they were maintained under long days. In contrast, the mites showed clear photoperiodic response when only the anterior or posterior eyes were removed. These results indicate that both the anterior and posterior eyes function as photoreceptors in photoperiodic termination of diapause in T. urticae.

  20. Comparison of immersion ultrasonography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of traumatic phacoceles

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    Harikrishna Vodapalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular trauma in the elderly can result in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens into the subconjunctival space (phacocele. Although rare, this presentation can be missed, especially if the patient presents several days after the injury and if the lid is not everted on examination. While a careful clinical examination is adequate in the diagnosis, imaging techniques can be put to use for the accurate location of the associated sclera rupture. We report three cases of post-traumatic phacocele wherein ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was compared to the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and B-scan ultrasonography (B-scan, in order to establish the best imaging tool for this condition. We concluded, based on image quality, that UBM could be the imaging modality of choice to aid in the diagnosis of phacocele.

  1. Doenças do segmento anterior ocular associadas a lentes de contato Contact lens-associated ocular anterior segment diseases

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    Murilo Barreto Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de lentes de contato cada vez mais confortáveis e toleráveis favoreceu não só a ampliação das indicações, mas também o aumento do número de seus usuários. Como conseqüência deste fato as complicações associadas ao uso de lentes de contato são cada vez mais comuns, e representam um problema de grande prevalência na prática clínica. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar as principais doenças e alterações do segmento anterior e superfície ocular associadas ao uso de lentes de contato.Nowadays, contact lenses have shown a larger variety of options in order to meet the needs of different patients. They have become more frequent in the clinical practice and, consequently, the complications related to contact lenses have been more common. This review attempted to describe the main alterations and diseases of the cornea and anterior segment associated with contact lens wearers.

  2. Development of Extended-Depth Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Applications in Ophthalmic Imaging of the Anterior and Posterior Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalla, Al-Hafeez Zahir

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that provides micron-scale resolution of tissue micro-structure over depth ranges of several millimeters. This imaging technique has had a profound effect on the field of ophthalmology, wherein it has become the standard of care for the diagnosis of many retinal pathologies. Applications of OCT in the anterior eye, as well as for imaging of coronary arteries and the gastro-intestinal tract, have also shown promise, but have not yet achieved widespread clinical use. The usable imaging depth of OCT systems is most often limited by one of three factors: optical attenuation, inherent imaging range, or depth-of-focus. The first of these, optical attenuation, stems from the limitation that OCT only detects singly-scattered light. Thus, beyond a certain penetration depth into turbid media, essentially all of the incident light will have been multiply scattered, and can no longer be used for OCT imaging. For many applications (especially retinal imaging), optical attenuation is the most restrictive of the three imaging depth limitations. However, for some applications, especially anterior segment, cardiovascular (catheter-based) and GI (endoscopic) imaging, the usable imaging depth is often not limited by optical attenuation, but rather by the inherent imaging depth of the OCT systems. This inherent imaging depth, which is specific to only Fourier Domain OCT, arises due to two factors: sensitivity fall-off and the complex conjugate ambiguity. Finally, due to the trade-off between lateral resolution and axial depth-of-focus inherent in diffractive optical systems, additional depth limitations sometimes arises in either high lateral resolution or extended depth OCT imaging systems. The depth-of-focus limitation is most apparent in applications such as adaptive optics (AO-) OCT imaging of the retina, and extended depth imaging of the ocular anterior segment. In this dissertation, techniques for

  3. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E G; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd; Olson, Charles W

    2011-01-01

    a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than...

  4. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

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    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  5. Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia

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    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS, after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.

  6. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

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    Jeroni Nadal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p=0.015 at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60. Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%, vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%, transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%, and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%. No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  7. 超声生物显微镜观察弹性开放襻前房型人工晶状体对眼前段结构的影响%The influence of flexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens on the structure of ocular anterior segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟蓉; 刘奕志; 陈秀琦; 程冰; 刘玉华

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety offlexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens (FOAC-IOL). Methods By ultrasound biomicroscopy, the positions of the haptics of FOAC-IOL in 20 patients (20 eyes) and the relationships of the haptics with iris and anterior chamber angle structures were observed postoperatively to evaluate the impact of these lenses on the structures of ocular anterior segment. Follow-up duration was from 6 to 20 months. Results Among 40 IOL′s haptics, twenty-six haptics were fixed at the recess of the chamber angle ;and other fourteen haptics penetrated the iris and invaded into the ciliary stroma, which caused recurrent uveitis. There was 1 eye with eccentric lens. There were 8 eyes with anterior synechiae of iris, which were related to the haptics of intraocular lens. Conclusions Ultrasound biomicroscopy works well in dynamic observation of the influence of intraocular lens on ocular anterior segment. The haptics of flexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens should be modified.%目的 评价弹性开放襻一体型前房型人工晶状体(anterchamberintraocularlens,AC-IOL)植入术的疗效及其安全性。方法 应用超声生物显微镜观察20例(20只眼)弹性开放襻一体型AC-IOL植入术后患者IOL襻的位置,以及其与虹膜及房角结构的关系,从而评价IOL对眼前段结构的影响。随访时间6~20个月。结果 40个IOL襻中,26个襻固定于房角隐窝;14个襻(8只眼)穿过虹膜侵入至睫状体实质内,并伴有反复发作的葡萄膜炎。术后8只眼虹膜前粘连与IOL襻有关。结论超声生物显微镜检查是动态了解IOL对眼前段结构影响的有效方法。AC-IOL襻的设计有待进一步改进。

  8. Advancement of maxillary anterior segment by distraction osteogenesis for severe maxillary retrusion in cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng; Yang Minlie; Zhao Zhenmin; Sun Xiaomei; Yin Ningbei; Wang Yongqian; Song Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis (MASDO) is a recently used method for correction of severe maxillary retrusion in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients.In this article,we evaluated the feasibility of MASDO using rigid external distraction (RED) and rapid orthodontic tooth movement to correct severe maxillary retrusion in CLP patients.Methods Fourteen male and five female complete CLP patients between the ages of 18 and 22 years (mean age 19.7 years) at the time of distraction,with severe maxillary retrusion,were treated with the rigid external distraction (RED) device after maxillary anterior osteotomy.Rapid orthodontic tooth movement was started one week after the MASDO.Standard profile photographic,cephalometric films were obtained preoperatively and after therapy.Sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and Sella-nasion-point B (SNB) angles were measured to reflect changes in maxillary and mandibular position,and the distance between anterior nasal spine and posterior nasal spine (ANS-PNS) was measured to represent the maxillary dental arch length.Results The SNA angle increased from an average of 74.6° (range 73.0°-78.0°),preoperatively,to 83.4° (range 78.6°-88.0°) after the RED was removed (P <0.01).All cases of severe maxillary retrusion were improved.Nine patients' profiles became harmonious after therapy.One patient had a bimaxillary protrusion deformity and needed further surgery.The regenerate alveolar crest and edentulous space on both segments was almost completely eliminated after rapid orthodontic tooth movement.Conclusion MASDO with the RED system and rapid orthodontic tooth movement is a successful way of correcting severe maxillary retrusion in CLP patients.

  9. Morphological expression of the anterior spinal artery and the intracranial segment of the vertebral artery: a direct anatomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, L; Forero, P; Quintero, I

    2013-01-01

    Given its importance for clinical diagnosis and management, the purpose of this study was to determine the morphological expression of the intracranial segment of both vertebral and spinal arteries. Ninety-five fresh cadaveric specimens autopsied at the Instituto de Medicina Legal of Bucaramanga (Colombia) were perfused with polyester resins at the vertebrobasilar vascular bed, by canalizing the proximal segment of the internal carotids and vertebral arteries. The intracranial segment of the vertebral arteries (VA) had a length of 33.2±5.2 mm and a caliber of 3.03±0.81 mm. The left vertebral artery had a caliber of 3.12±0.85 mm, this being greater than the caliber of the right artery in 59.6% of the cases. The VA junction was seen at the level of the ponto-medullary sulcus in 44.2%, above this level in 30.5%, and below it in 25.3%. The distance from the origin of the anterior spinal branches (ASBs) to the VA junction was 7.34±2.71 mm, with a greater distance corresponding to the right ASBs, a difference that did not reach statistical significance (p=0.32). The anterior spinal arteries (ASA) had a bilateral origin in 65.3% of the cases, with the caliber being balanced in 37 (39%) and dominant at the right side in 15.8%. A right unilateral origin of the ASA was observed in 13.7% and a left unilateral origin in 9.5% of the specimens. There is disagreement in the literature as to the level of the junction of the two vertebral arteries. The unilateral origin of the spinal arteries is more frequent than most prior studies have indicated.

  10. ROLE OF B-SCAN USG AS ESSENTIAL ADJUVANT TO UNMASK POSTERIOR SEGMENT PATHOLOGY IN PATIENTS WITH MATURE CATARACT IN A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE

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    Sooraj Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: to evaluate the nature of intraocular pathologies in patients with mature cataract with help of B-scan ultrasonography. METHOD: in a prospective observational study included 100 eyes with mature cataract during period from April 2013 to February 2014 in a tertiary eye care centre at Bhopal. RESULT: Out of 100 eyes with mature cataract, 52 were females and 48 males. 27 eyes(27% were shown to have some ultrasonically detectable posterior segment pathology. 9 eyes with RD, 5 eyes with PVD. vitreous hemorrhage, asteroid hyalosis were detected in 1eye (1% respectively. coloboma choroid/disc were detected in 2 eyes (2%. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of hidden posterior segment pathologies by B-scan helps the surgeon in explaining prognosis and expected outcome of surgery to patients.

  11. 前节OCT在瞳孔残膜诊治中的应用%The Value of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Persistent Pupillary Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    玛琮

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the value of anterior segment optical coherence tomography when diagnose and treat persistent pupillary membrane.Method:12 cases(24 eyes)of persistent pupillary membrane were underwent anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination both with or without the irradiation of light.Summarize the character of all the result.Design the treatment for the patients according to the results of examination as well as patient's age,visual acuity and the character of the membrane.Result:It showed a active reflect signal of the patients underwent the AS-OCT examination. It could detect the changes of the membrane under the condition of dark and light. The membranes showed no interfere effect on the movement of the pupils and no contact to the surface of lens. 8 cases(16 eyes)were treated of membrane resection,and 4 cases(8 eyes)underwent radiation treatment. Most of the patients received a better acuity or quantity of visual.Conclusion:AS-OCT can detect the shape of the membranes under the condition of dark and light,and provides information to determine the best chose for the patients in clinical practice.%  目的:探讨前节 OCT 在瞳孔残膜诊治中的应用价值。方法:采用光照射与暗光下对12例(24只眼)瞳孔残膜患者进行前节OCT 检查,总结其特点,根据检查结果,结合患者年龄、视力、残膜致密形态及致密程度制定治疗方案。结果:瞳孔残膜在 OCT 检查中表现为高信号,通过光照射与暗光下 OCT 检查结果的对比,12例(24只眼)瞳孔残膜与晶状体表面均无粘连,8例(16只眼)采用手术切除,4例(8只眼)行激光治疗,治疗后大部分患者视力或视觉质量有不同程度提高。结论:前节 OCT 能清楚显示瞳孔残膜,根据光照射与暗光下 OCT 检查可以进一步了解残膜与晶状体表面有无粘连,为治疗方案的选择提供依据,具有一定的临床实用价值。

  12. Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho; Patrícia Marback; Luciene Barbosa de Sousa; Mauro Campos; Luiz Antonio Vieira

    2003-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A alergia ocular é condição que pode ocasionar sintomas de coceira, ardor e lacrimejamento, podendo também ser ameaçadora para visão. A fisiopatologia envolve mecanismos de hipersensibilidade imunológica. Devido a fatores imunológicos, o segmento anterior destes pacientes está mais suscetível a alterações que ameaçam a acuidade visual, tais como: opacidades corneanas, ceratocone e catarata. MÉTODOS: Foram revistos, retrospectivamente, 186 pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite alérgica ...

  13. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  14. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture

  15. Combined anterior and posterior decompression and short segment fixation for unstable burst fractures in the dorso lumbar region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani P

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorso lumbar segment of spine (D10 to L2 is an unstable zone between fixed dorsal and mobile lumbar spine. A combined anterior and posterior approach with short segment stabilization was found most appropriate. Thirty cases were treated over a period of 4 years and 6 months. There were 26 male and 4 female patients with mean age of 32.6 years. L1 vertebra was fractured in 17 cases, D1 in 8 cases, D11 in 4 cases and D10 in one case. 14 cases had total neurological deficit, 9 cases had partial and 7 had no neurological deficit. We have used three column classification of Denis to assess the cases. Seven patients returned to regular physical work, 5 had restricted physical work, 5 remained in full time light job and 9 patients were unable to return to original job but did some work. Most had flaccid paraplegia but 4 patients were completely disabled due to spastic paraplegia. Neurological recovery occurred in all the patients with partial paralysis, and appeared to be dependent on initial kyphosis. The overall recovery rate varied from 50% to 90%. There is no correlation between canal compromise and severity of injury. Neurological injury occured at the time of trauma, rather than as a result of pressure of fragment in the canal. No strong conclusion could be drawn to say that the results of surgery were superior to non-operative treatment.

  16. Review of integrated neuromusculoskeletal release and the novel application of a segmental anterior/posterior approach in the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danto, Jay B

    2003-12-01

    Integrated neuromusculoskeletal release (INR) using a segmental anterior/posterior approach is an osteopathic manipulative treatment technique that is easily learned and applied. The segmental anterior/posterior approach to INR was developed as a practical osteopathic manipulative treatment procedure for the inpatient setting, but also has equal efficacy in the outpatient setting. It builds on the principles of INR and myofascial release techniques, as well as other techniques. This approach focuses on both the anterior and posterior connectivity of the body through the neuromusculoskeletal system and uses this connectivity to effectively treat somatic dysfunctions. The principles of INR are discussed, as well as the role of INR in the diagnosis and treatment of somatic dysfunctions in the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral regions.

  17. Prevalence and Distribution of Segmentation Errors in Macular Ganglion Cell Analysis of Healthy Eyes Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan A Alshareef

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency of different types of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT scan artifacts and errors in ganglion cell algorithm (GCA in healthy eyes.Infrared image, color-coded map and each of the 128 horizontal b-scans acquired in the macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer scans using the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA macular cube 512 × 128 protocol in 30 healthy normal eyes were evaluated. The frequency and pattern of each artifact was determined. Deviation of the segmentation line was classified into mild (less than 10 microns, moderate (10-50 microns and severe (more than 50 microns. Each deviation, if present, was noted as upward or downward deviation. Each artifact was further described as per location on the scan and zones in the total scan area.A total of 1029 (26.8% out of total 3840 scans had scan errors. The most common scan error was segmentation error (100%, followed by degraded images (6.70%, blink artifacts (0.09% and out of register artifacts (3.3%. Misidentification of the inner retinal layers was most frequent (62%. Upward Deviation of the segmentation line (47.91% and severe deviation (40.3% were more often noted. Artifacts were mostly located in the central scan area (16.8%. The average number of scans with artifacts per eye was 34.3% and was not related to signal strength on Spearman correlation (p = 0.36.This study reveals that image artifacts and scan errors in SD-OCT GCA analysis are common and frequently involve segmentation errors. These errors may affect inner retinal thickness measurements in a clinically significant manner. Careful review of scans for artifacts is important when using this feature of SD-OCT device.

  18. Foxc1 and Foxc2 in the Neural Crest Are Required for Ocular Anterior Segment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seungwoon; Chen, Lisheng; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhao, Demin; Schultz, Kathryn M.; Sasman, Amy; Liu, Ting; Zhang, Hao F.; Gage, Philip J.; Kume, Tsutomu

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The large Forkhead (Fox) transcription factor family has essential roles in development, and mutations cause a wide range of ocular and nonocular disease. One member, Foxc2 is expressed in neural crest (NC)-derived periocular mesenchymal cells of the developing murine eye; however, its precise role in the development, establishment, and maintenance of the ocular surface has yet to be investigated. Methods To specifically delete Foxc2 from NC-derived cells, conditional knockout mice for Foxc2 (NC-Foxc2−/−) were generated by crossing Foxc2F mice with Wnt1-Cre mice. Similarly, we also generated compound NC-specific mutations of Foxc2 and a closely related gene, Foxc1 (NC-Foxc1−/−;NC-Foxc2−/−) in mice. Results Neural crest-Foxc2−/− mice show abnormal thickness in the peripheral-to-central corneal stroma and limbus and displaced pupils with irregular iris. The neural crest-specific mutation in Foxc2 also leads to ectopic neovascularization in the cornea, as well as impaired ocular epithelial cell identity and corneal conjunctivalization. Compound, NC-specific Foxc1; Foxc2 homozygous mutant mice have more severe defects in structures of the ocular surface, such as the cornea and eyelids, accompanied by significant declines in the expression of another key developmental factor, Pitx2, and its downstream effector Dkk2, which antagonizes canonical Wnt signaling. Conclusions The neural crest-Foxc2 mutation is associated with corneal conjunctivalization, ectopic corneal neovascularization, and disrupted ocular epithelial cell identity. Furthermore, Foxc2 and Foxc1 cooperatively function in NC-derived mesenchymal cells to ensure proper morphogenesis of the ocular surface via the regulation of Wnt signaling. Together, Foxc2 is required in the NC lineage for mesenchymal-epithelial interactions in corneal and ocular surface development. PMID:28253399

  19. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r=0.26, P<0.01, and lens position (age adjusted; r=-0.31, P<0.01 were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.05, all. Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r=0.41, P<0.01. Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  20. 光学相干断层扫描技术在眼前节结构应用的新进展%Progression in application of optical coherence tomography in ocular anterior segment examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏

    2014-01-01

    光学相干断层扫描技术(OCT)是一种利用光的干涉原理来成像眼部结构的方法,最初用于眼后节的测量和检查,但随着OCT技术的进展,目前已广泛用于眼前节各组织的测量和检查.眼前节光学相干断层扫描技术(AS-OCT)可将角膜、前房、瞳孔、虹膜等眼前节组织结构显示于一张图像上,并可用于准分子激光角膜原位磨镶术术后角膜前后表面情况和角膜曲率的测定,青光眼患者房角、虹膜、睫状体的观察,抗青光眼术后功能性滤过泡的动态变化以及眼外伤患者的眼前节组织结构变化等.AS-OCT检测具有非接触、分辨率高、检测快捷、可定量分析等特点,因此是眼前节组织的检测的有力工具.就AS-OCT技术在眼科的临床应用、优缺点及展望进行综述.%Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technology that imaging the ocular structure by the interference of light.OCT is invented and applied in the examine and measure of the retina and choroid.However,the development of spectrum domain make the study of ocular anterior segment structure possible.Anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) can image the tissue structures of the cornea,anterior chamber,pupil,iris,etc.on the same picture.Also,AS-OCT can be used to measure the corneal surface and curvature after excimer laser in situ keratomileusis,the examination of the angle,iris,ciliary body in glaumatous eyes,the observation of dynamic alteration of the filtering bleb following antiglaucoma surgery and the evaluation of ocular anterior segment tissue after eye trauma.AS-OCT examined at a non-contact,non-invasive way with higher resolution and higher speed.In addition,AS-OCT offers the quantitative analysis of the ocular anterior segment.The clinical application,advantages and disadvantages,prospect of AS-OCT in ophthalmology were reviewed in this paper.

  1. Six3, a medaka homologue of the Drosophila homeobox gene sine oculis is expressed in the anterior embryonic shield and the developing eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, F; Köster, R W; Carl, M; Krone, A; Wittbrodt, J

    1998-06-01

    homologue Six3 (Oliver, G., Mailhos, A., Wehr, R., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Gruss, P., 1995. Six3, a murine homologue of the sine oculis gene, demarcates the most anterior border of the developing neural plate and is expressed during eye development. Development 121, 4045-4055). sine oculis (so) is essential for the development of the larval and adult visual system (Cheyette, B.N.R., Green, P.J., Martin, K., Garren, H., Hartenstein, V., Zipursky, S.L., 1994. The Drosophila sine oculis locus encodes a homeodomain-containing protein required for the development of the entire visual system. Neuron l2, 977-996). Six3 is expressed in the anterior neural plate and optic vesicles, lens, olfactory placodes and ventral forebrain (Oliver, G., Mailhos, A., Wehr, R., Copeland, N.G., Jenkins, N.A., Gruss, P., 1995. Six3, a murine homologue of the sine oculis gene, demarcates the most anterior border of the developing neural plate and is expressed during eye development. Development 121, 4045-4055). Overexpression of mouse Six3 gene in medaka fish embryos (Orvzias latipes) results in the formation of an ectopic lens, indicating that Six3 activity can trigger the genetic pathway leading to lens formation (Oliver, G., Loosli, F., Koster, R., Wittbrodt, J., Gruss, P., 1996. Ectopic lens induction in fish in response to the murine homeobox gene Six3. Mech. Dev. 60, 233-239). We isolated the medaka Six3 homologue and analyzed its expression pattern in the medaka embryo. It is expressed initially in the anterior embryonic shield and later in the developing eye and prosencephalon. The early localized expression of Six3 suggests a role in the regionalization of the rostral head.

  2. Efficacy and safety of out-of-hospital intravenous metoprolol administration in anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: insights from the METOCARD-CNIC trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos, Alonso; García Lunar, Inés; García Ruiz, José María; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fernández Jiménez, Rodrigo; Huertas, Pilar; García Álvarez, Ana; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Bravo, Jesús; Flores Arias, José; Barreiro, María V.; Chayán Zas, Luisa; Corral, Ervigio; Fuster, Valentín; Sánchez Brunete, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We seek to examine the efficacy and safety of prereperfusion emergency medical services (EMS)–administered intravenous metoprolol in anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing eventual primary angioplasty. This is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction trial population, who all eventually received oral metoprolol within 12 to 24 hours. We studied patients receiving intravenous metoprol...

  3. Applications of anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology%眼前段相干光断层成像术在眼科的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰松; 王宁利

    2008-01-01

    The background,technical characteristics and operation procedures of anterior segment optical coherence tomography(OCT)are introduced.The ophthalmic applications of this technique are summarized.The initial studies showed that anterior segment OCT can be a promising tool for the observation of image and analysis of the cornea,the imaging and biological measuring of the anterior chamber,the observation of image and quantitative evaluation of the anterior chamber angle,the observation of image and assessment of phakic intraocular lenses,the observation of image and evaluation of trabeculectomy blebs as well as the observation of ocular accommodation.%本文介绍了眼前段相干光断层成像术(OCT)产生的背景、技术特点及测量方法,并对其在眼科的应用进行综述.初步的研究结果显示眼前段OCT在角膜成像和分析、前房成像和活体测量、前房角成像和定量分析、有晶状体眼人工晶状体成像和位置测量、小梁切除术后滤过泡的成像和分析以及眼的调节观察等方面均具有良好的应用前景.

  4. Application of Pentacam Anterior Segment Analysis System on diagnosis of keratoconus%Pentacam眼前节分析在圆锥角膜诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐漫; 孙荔; 刘永珍; 卢迪; 徐艳春; 陈蕾

    2015-01-01

    Pentacam三维眼前节分析系统可合成眼前节从角膜前表面到晶状体后表面的三维图像,通过测量分析系统检测的角膜前后表面曲率、角膜前后表面高度、后表面屈光度、角膜厚度、角膜体积、角膜散光度等,在圆锥角膜,特别是早期圆锥角膜的诊断中有重要作用.%Pentacam Anterior Segment Analysis System shows a 3D image which synthesize from the front surface of the cornea to the post surface of the lens.Anterior and posterior corneal curvature, anterior and posterior corneal elevation, posterior refractive power, corneal astigmatism, corneal volume and corneal thickness measured by the Pentacam Anterior Segment Analysis System play the important roles in diagnosing keratoconus, particular in diagnosing early keratoconus.

  5. Mutation analysis of the genes associated with anterior segment dysgenesis, microcornea and microphthalmia in 257 patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xueshan; Jia, Xiaoyun; Li, Shiqiang; Li, Miaoling; Guo, Xiangming; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2015-10-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the development of glaucoma; however, the exact genetic defects remain to be identified in the majority of patients. Glaucoma is frequently observed in patients with anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), microcornea or microphthalmia. The present study aimed to detect the potential mutations in the genes associated with ASD, microcornea and microphthalmia in 257 patients with glaucoma. Variants in 43 of the 46 genes, which are associated with ASD, microcornea or microphthalmia, were available in whole‑exome sequencing. Candidate variants in the 43 genes were selected following multi‑step bioinformatic analysis and were subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Confirmed variants were further validated by segregation analysis and analysis of controls. Overall, 70 candidate variants were selected from whole‑exome sequencing, of which 53 (75.7%) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 of the 53 were considered potentially pathogenic based on bioinformatic analysis and analysis of controls. Of the 27, 6 were identified in BEST1, 4 in EYA1, 3 in GDF6, 2 in BMP4, 2 in CRYBA4, 2 in HCCS, and 1 in each of CRYAA, CRYGC, CRYGD, COL4A1, FOXC1, GJA8, PITX2 and SHH. The 27 variants were detected in 28 of 257 (10.9%) patients, including 11 of 125 patients with primary open‑angle glaucoma and 17 of 132 patients with primary angle‑closure glaucoma. Variants in these genes may be a potential risk factor for primary glaucoma. Careful clinical observation and analysis of additional patients in different populations are expected to further these findings.

  6. Evaluation of Filtering Bleb Function after Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C Using Biomicroscopy, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Güven Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze and assess compatibility of trabeculectomy filtering bleb characteristics and appearances using biomicroscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients who underwent glaucoma filtering surgery with mitomycin C in our clinic between 2009 and 2013 were evaluated. Morphological appearances of the blebs on slit-lamp biomicroscopy were defined according to the Moorfields bleb classification system. For the internal tissue assessment of blebs, AS-OCT and IVCM were performed. Bleb biometric parameters such as length, height and bleb wall thickness were assessed by AS-OCT; conjunctival epithelial-stromal cyst, structural network of conjunctival stroma and vascularisation were examined with IVCM. The relation between biomicroscopic morphological staging and bleb characteristics detected on AS-OCT and IVCM were assessed. Results: The mean age of the 28 patients (16 male, 12 female was 57.2±15.9 (19 to 79 years. The mean time elapsed between surgery and examination was 29.2±19.2 (6 to 68 months. According to biomicroscopic appearance, 17 (60.7% blebs were functional (13 diffuse, 4 microcystic, whereas 11 (39.3% blebs were non-functional (9 flat, 2 encapsulated. In the comparison of non-functional and functional blebs, functional blebs were found to be superior in terms of biometric parameters on AS-OCT assessment (p<0.05. Higher number of epithelial and stromal cysts and less vascularisation were detected by IVCM in functional blebs when compared with non-functional blebs (p<0.05. Conclusion: Biomicroscopic appearances and characteristics on AS-OCT and IVCM of filtration blebs are consistent with each other. Besides biomicroscopic examination, which is an easy and practical method for determining bleb morphology, cross-sectional images obtained by AS-OCT and IVCM provide objective data regarding internal structure and

  7. Quantitative changes of anterior segment before and after implantable collamer lens implantation for high myopia with Pentacam anterior segment system%Pentacam评估高度近视有晶状体眼人工晶状体植入术前后眼前节形态的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周远香

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)量化分析高度近视患者行ICL植入术手术前后眼前节形态的改变,评估手术的安全性、有效性。  方法:收集我院2011-09/2013-02高度近视眼行ICL植入手术的患者21例39眼,术后随访6~12mo。通过Pentacam分别测量术前;术后1wk;1,6mo的中央前房深度( ACD)、前房角度(ACA)、前房容积(ACV);记录术后1wk;1,6mo的ICL拱高(ICL-vault);记录术前裸眼视力(pre-UCVA)、最佳矫正视力( BCVA)、术后裸眼视力( post-UCVA)以及眼压值。使用SPSS18.0统计软件分析各项指标,术前、术后的资料均采用配对t检验进行统计学分析。  结果:术前;术后1wk;1,6mo 的ACD分别是3.27±0.22,3.02±0.33,2.98±0.31,2.98±0.32mm, ACA分别是(40.39±5.40)°,(26.70±4.47)°,(26.96±4.48)°,(26.95±4.45)°, ACV分别是207.74±25.43,122.87±17.58,128.05±17.84, ;128.64±17.50mm 3。术后1wk;1,6mo的拱高分别是0.49±0.13,0.46±0.13,0.46±0.14mm。术前与术后3个不同时段的ACD,ACA,ACV的值相比,其均存在统计学差异( P  结论:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)分析发现ICL术后前房变浅,房角变窄,前房容积变小,但人工晶状体与透明晶状体之间仍拥有安全的间隙,ICL植入术治疗高度近视眼安全、有效,但远期疗效有待进一步观察。%•AlM: To analyze the quantitative changes of anterior segment by Pentacam anterior segment system and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness after implantable collamer lens ( lCL) implantation for high myopia. •METHODS:Twenty- one patients with 39 eyes were implanted lCL in our hospital from September 2011 to February 2013. The follow-up was 6 ~ 12mo. Central anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) , anterior chamber angle ( ACA) , anterior chamber volume ( ACV) were measured by Pentacam preoperatively, 1wk, 1 and 6mo postoperatively. The distance between crystal lens and lOL ( lCL- vault ) were measured at

  8. Fusion of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Portion Cervical Decompression%颈前路融合术后相邻节段退变120例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占蓓蕾; 叶舟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨颈椎前路减压融合术后相邻节段退变的因果关系。方法:对237例患者行前路椎间节段减压植骨融合术(87例),椎体次全切除减压植骨融合术(109例),椎间节段减压、椎体次全切除减压植骨融合术(41例)。通过影像学检查,观察不同手术方法术后相邻节段退变发生情况。结果:术后随访时间2.6~13年,平均6.8年;发生相邻节段明显退变的120例(50.6%),头侧相邻节段退变发生率明显高于尾侧邻近节段(P<0.05),其中27例(22.2%)需2次翻修手术。结论:颈椎前路融合术后可导致颈椎相邻节段的退变。%Objective To investigate the result of anterior cervical decompression and fusion of adjacent segment degeneration after causality. Methods among 237 patients(87 cases) weretreated with anterior decom-pression and interbody fusion intervertebral segments, 109cases with subtotal excision of the vertebral body with decompression and interbody fusion,and 41 cases with intervertebral segmental decompression, vertebral body subtotal resection decompression and interbody fusion.By imaging examination, different surgical methods and postoperative adjacent segment degeneration were observed. Results Postoperative follow-up at time of 2.6~13 years, averaging 6.8 years; showed significantly degeneration of adjacent segments in 120 cases (50.6%), the cranial adjacent segment degeneration rate significantly higher than that of the caudal adjacent segment (P<0.05), among them,27 cases (22.2%)needed 2 times of revision surgery. Conclusion The anterior cervical fu-sion surgery can lead to cervical vertebral adjacent segment degeneration.

  9. AS-OCT测量眼前节虹膜参数可重复性研究%Reproducibility of iris parameters measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑策; 谢晓玲; 陈文霞; 张铭志

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) on the measurement of iris parameters.Methods In this cross-sectional study,105 consecutive subjects,mean age was 48.5 years (range:24-67),(50 normal open angle subjects and 55 angle-closure subjects) were recruited.One eye from each subject was randomly selected for imaging by AS-OCT using anterior segment single protocol.For intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility,a single observer acquired two sets of images followed by a third set of images acquired by a second observer.AS-OCT images were measured using custom software to determine iris parameters,including iris thickness,iris area and iris curvature.The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC),limits of agreement (LOA;mean of differences± 1.96SD of differences),and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated as items of intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.Results The mean and standard deviation of iris thickness,iris area and iris curvature,in open angle group,were 0.40±0.05mm,1.67±0.24 mm2 and 0.18±0.12 mm,respectively;and in angle-closure group,were 0.42±0.04 mm,1.62±0.25 mm2 and 0.25±0.11 mm,respectively.In open angle group,ICC of intraobserver and interobserver measurement was from 0.865 to 0.982.In angle-closure group,the range of ICC was from 0.875 to 0.948.Conclusions The reproducibility of iris parameters measurements with the AS-OCT is good in both open angle and angle closure eyes.%目的 评估使用眼前节光学相干断层成像术(AS-OCT)定量测量虹膜参数的可重复性.方法 横断面研究.对2013年1月至2015年1月在汕头国际眼科中心共纳入受试者105名,平均年龄48.5岁(24~67岁).分为房角开放(50名受试者)和房角关闭(55名受试者)两组.采用AS-OCT的眼前节单线扫描模式,使用自编程图像处理软件定量测量AS-OCT影像的虹膜参数,包括虹膜厚度,虹膜体积和虹膜曲度.先由

  10. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

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    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  11. Ultrasound biomicroscopy in the comparison of the anterior segment morphometry before and after pars plana vitrectomy Biomicroscopia ultra-sônica na comparação da morfometria do segmento anterior antes e após vitrectomia "pars plana"

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    Flavio de Andrade Marigo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine if pars plana vitrectomy induces long-term changes in the anterior segment anatomy by means of ultrasound biomicroscopy. METHODS: A prospective case series study was undertaken of consecutive patients referred to a tertiary eye care centre for pars plana vitrectomy as the only procedure. Twenty eyes of 20 patients undergoing pars plana vitrectomy alone were studied by ultrasound biomicroscopy. Silicone oil or scleral buckle was not used in any of the included cases. The following morphometric parameters were compared before and after 3 months of surgery: anterior chamber depth, angle-opening distance at 500 µm from the scleral spur, trabecular-ciliary process distance, ciliary body thickness at 1, 2 and 3 millimeters from the scleral spur and measurement of the supraciliary space thickness, when fluid was detected. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the preoperative and the postoperative morphometric parameters. CONCLUSION: Uncomplicated pars plana vitrectomy does not induce any long-term change on anterior segment morphometry. Based on these findings, the normal long-term pattern to be expected after pars plana vitrectomy is the conservation of the preoperative morphometry.OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar, por meio da biometria ultra-sônica (UBM, se a vitrectomia via "pars plana" pode induzir alterações permanentes na anatomia do segmento anterior. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado estudo prospectivo, analisando-se uma série consecutiva de pacientes, encaminhados para um centro de referência terciário para serem submetidos a vitrectomia via "pars plana" como único procedimento. Vinte olhos de 20 pacientes a serem submetidos a vitrectomia como único procedimento foram estudados pela biomicroscopia ultra-sônica. Óleo de silicone ou introflexão escleral não foram usados em nenhum dos casos incluídos. Os seguintes parâmetros morfométricos foram comparados antes e

  12. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis.

  13. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciller, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cillerruiz@unil.ch [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Sznitman, Raphael [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munier, Francis L. [Unit of Pediatric Ocular Oncology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  14. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Incidence and clinical outcomes of patients requiring anterior versus posterior repeat cervical fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bydon

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions : Patients undergoing an anterior revision surgery for ASD after ACDF have higher rates of postoperative radiculopathy and redevelopment of ASD when compared with posteriorly approached patients. Patients receiving posterior revision surgery had higher intraoperative blood loss, hospitalizations, and postoperative complications such as wound infections and discharge to rehabilitation, but had a statistically lower chance of redevelopment of ASD requiring secondary revision surgery. This may be due to the fact that posterior revision surgeries involved more levels fused. This study provides one of the longest and most comprehensive follow-ups of this challenging patient population. Prospective studies comparing surgical approaches and techniques are needed to corroborate our findings.

  15. Short-term variation of central corneal thickness and axial anterior chamber depth of healthy eyes using Scheimpflug photography via the Oculus Pentacam*

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    S. D. Mathebula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term variation and intra-subject repeatabil-ity of  human central corneal thickness (CCT and axial anterior chamber depth (AACD measure-ments obtained using the Oculus Pentacam. Forty consecutive images of the right eye of the anteriorsegment of 10 young and healthy individuals were measured with the Pentacam. Measurements of CCT and AACD were ob-tained from these images and means, standard deviations,variances and repeatability of the measurements were investigated. Both parameters (CCTand AACD showed small variation with good orexcellent repeatability for all eyes. The inter-subject or overall means and standard deviations for CCT and AACD of the 10 right eyes were 0.555 ±0.05 millimeters (or 555 ± 50 microns and 3.206± 0.04 millimeters, respectively. The individual or intra-subject averages for samples of CCT and AACD measurements are also provided in this paper. Univariate normality of the data was explored with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and ShapiroWilks tests and we found that generally the data was normally distributed although there were some exceptions. Based on the results of this study, the Oculus Pentacam appears to provide repeatable and reliable measures for both CCT and AACD in young,normal eyes. Further research is, however, needed to determine short-term variation and repeatability of CCT and AACD with the Pentacam in more com-plicated eyes with, say, corneal scarring or ectasia or where refractive surgery may be an issue.

  16. The imaging characteristics and comparative analysis of 1310 nm study of real-time Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT%1310 nm傅里叶域眼前节OCT的成像特点及与其他两种OCT的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 赵镇南; 李喜琪; 姜春晖; 孙兴怀; 史国华; 钱韶红

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the imaging ability of different anterior optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems.Methods It was a cross-sectional study.Six normal volunteers (12 eyes,24 directions) were involved in this cross-sectional study.Three different OCT systems were used to acquire images of their eyes.The important structures:scleral spur,Schlemm's canal,anterior segment angle recess and Schwalbe line were defined.The trabecular-iris angle (TIA500),angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),the area of the trabeculo-iris space at 500 μm (TISA500),the widest diameter of Schlemm's canal,and the area and circumference of Schlemm's canal were measured if possible.Results Using real-time Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT,the scleral spur,Schlemm's canal,anterior segment angle recess and the Schwalbe line were defined in 8 eyes (67%) 13 positions (54%),12 eyes (100%) 22 positions (92%),12 eyes (100%) 24 positions (100%),and 6 eyes (50%) 9 positions (38%),respectively.Using RTV-ue 100 OCT,Schlemm's canal and the Schwalbe line could be defined in 8 eyes (67%) 8 positions (33%) and 10 eyes (83%) 19 positions (79%),respectively.The scleral spur and anterior segment angle recess could not be seen.The scleral spur and anterior segment angle recess were defined in 12 eyes (100%) 21 positions (88%) and 12 eyes (100%) 24positions (100%),respectively using Visante OCT,but Schwalbe's line and Schlemm's canal could not be defined.There was a significant difference in their ability to define important structures (scleral spur,P<0.01; Schlemm's canal,P<0.01; anterior segment angle recess,P<0.01; and Schwalbe line,P<0.01).The TIA500,AOD500 and TISA500 measured by Real-time Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT and Visante OCT were similar,and the area and widest diameter of Schlemm's canal measured by Real-time Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT and RTV-ue 100 OCT were also similar.The differences were not significant.Conclusion All three

  17. Significant relationship between local angle at fused segments and C2-7 angle: Average duration of longer than 20 years after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The authors have focused their attention to the radiological durability of cervical sagittal alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF using autologous bone grafting. Materials and Methods : Among the patients who underwent ACDF with trans-unco-discal (TUD approach between 1976 and 1997, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females made return visits for a clinical evaluation. Patients with trauma or previously treated by anterior cervical fusion or by posterior decompression were excluded from the present study. Clinical evaluation included adjacent segment degeneration (ASD, osseous fusion, local angle at the fused segments and C2-7 angle of cervical spine. Results : The duration after ACDF ranged from 13 to 34 years with an average of 21.3 ± 7.0 years. A single level fusion was done on 8 patients, 2 levels on 11 patients, 3 levels on 2 patients, and 4 levels on 1 patient. Imaging studies indicated that 12 of the 22 patients (54.5% were graded as having symptomatic ASD. Osseous bony fusion at ACDF was recognized in all cases. None of the patients demonstrated kyphotic malalignment of the cervical spine. Average degrees of local angle at the fused segments and the C2-7 angle were 7.06 and 17.6, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the local at the fused segments and C2-7 angles. Conclusions : Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was durable long after ACDF when the local angle at the fused segments was well stabilized.

  18. 20G 23G玻璃体切除术后眼前节形态学变化临床研究%Morphologic changes in the anterior segment after 20-, 23-G pars plana vitrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹海; 王颖; 李鹤一; 曹蕾; 张沈夏; 高明宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate morphologic changes in anterior segment and the influencing factors for the changes after 20-, 23-G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) by Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM).Methods One hundred and thirty-one patients (133 eyes) who underwent primary PPV and 3 months follow-up after surgery in our hospital from January 2013 to February 2014 were enrolled in this prospective study.The patients were divided in 20-G group and 23-G group.UBM was applied to determine the tomographic features of anterior segment before and 1 week and 3 months after the surgery.The pre-and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber depth (ACD),parameters of anterior chamber angle, iris and ciliary body in 2 groups were assessed.Results The morphologic changes in anterior segment after surgery included: (1) ciliary body detachment (CBD) (2) anterior chamber angle closure (3) vitreous incarceration (4) anterior hyaloids proliferation (5) ciliary body atrophy.Forty-six of 86 eyes in 20G group presented morphologic changes after surgery compared with 22 of 47 eyes in 23G group.Vitreous incarceration was significantly higher in 23Ggroup (P =0.003).The proportion of CBD in 23G group was also higher than that in 20G, but there are no statistical significance within two groups (P =0.062).The other morphologic changes between 2 group were not statistical difference (P =0.098, 0.172, 1.000).The postoperative ACD of 20G group were deeper than that of 23G group, but the statistical difference were not significant (P =0.162, 0.301).The postoperative IOP of 20G group were significantly higher than that of 23G group in lweek (P =0.05) and sustained higher till 3 months after surgery.The incidence of CBD was significant difference among different diseases (P =0.041), CBD most frequently occurred in eyes of patients with proliferation diabetic retinopathy (PDR) or retinal vascular obstructive diseases (RVO).PDR was an influencing factor for postoperative CBD (Spearman analysis, r

  19. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

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    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  20. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  1. Pentacam of the anterior segment after implantation of iris-fixated lens%应用Pentacam三维眼前段分析仪对虹膜夹型人工晶状体植入术后的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤欣; 邢晓杰

    2008-01-01

    目的 应用Pentacam术后追踪测量虹膜夹型有晶状体眼人工晶状体(PIOL)中央和周边部与角膜内皮和自然晶体之间的距离,倾斜度、偏心值以及前房深度的变化,评价其在前房的位置.方法 收集自2006年1月以来接受虹膜夹型人晶状体植入术的22例33只眼.术后6个月全部患者行Pentacam检查,测量VRSM50和VRSM60两组不同类型虹膜夹型PIOL中央和周边部与角膜内皮和自然晶体之间的距离,并测量术后1d、1、3及6个月人工晶状体的偏心量、倾斜度及前房深度值.结果 角膜内皮至PIOL光学部前表面距离为(1.94±0.36)mm.PIOL后表面与自然晶状体间的距离为(0.76±0.12)mm.分别比较各组在不同时期的平均偏心量与平均倾斜度,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).在术后1d、1、3及6个月,比较2组的平均偏心量与平均倾斜度,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 Pentacam三维眼前段分析仪为PIOL植入术后提供高质量的Scheimpflug摄像,可以为有晶状体眼前房型人工晶状体提供精确的眼内定位,在这一方面具有重要的临床应用价值.%Objective To evaluate intraocular dimensions of the anterior segment and examine decentration,tilt and anterior chamber depth (ACD)of myopic phakic eyes after implantation of iris-fixated lenses.Methods Thirty-three myopic eyes that received a iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) were assessed.The eyes were randomized into VRSM50 and VRSM60 2 groups based on PIOL type.Distances between the cornea and the PIOL-optic edge and between the PIOL optic and the crystalline lens were evaluated using Scheimpflug photography 6 months postoperatively.The degree of IOL decentration, tilt and ACD was measured 1 day and 1,3and 6 months after surgery.Results The average postoperative distance between the central corneal endothelium and the anterior surface of the PIOL wasl.94±0.36 mm.The distance between the crystalline lens and posterior surface of the PIOL

  2. 频域眼前段光学相干断层扫描对周边虹膜切除术前后前房角的研究%Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle before and after iridectomy by spectral domain-anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁永刚; 梁纳; 马胜生; 郑东健

    2014-01-01

    目的 应用频域眼前段光学相干断层扫描(OCT)分析周边虹膜切除术前后前房角的变化.方法 原发性前房角关闭者32例(40只眼)行周边虹膜切除术,术前、术后2d、2个月使用频域眼前段OCT进行前房角测量,比较500 μm/750 μm前房角角度(ACA500/ACA750)和500 μm/750μm前房角开放距离(AOD500/AOD750)等指标.结果 各指标在术前、术后差异有统计学意义,术后2d、2个月相应指标差异无统计学意义.结论 原发性前房角关闭行周边虹膜切除术后前房角增宽,可缓解瞳孔阻滞,预防前房角进一步关闭,频域眼前段OCT可进行术前术后的非接触检查,实现前房的生物统计学测量.%Objective To evaluate the change of the anterior chamber angle before and after iridectomy by spectral domain-anterior segment optical coherence tomography(SD-AS OCT).Methods The clinical trial was carried out in 40 eyes of 32 cases with primary angle closure(PAC).500μm/750μm anterior chamber angle (ACA500/ACA750) and 500μm/750μm angle opening distance (AOD500/AOD750) were imaged with SD-AS OCT before and after iridectomy.Results There were statistical significant differences between preoperation and post-operation in ACAS00/ACA750 and AODS00/AOD750.No significant differences of above indexes were found between 2 days and 2 months after surgery.Conclusion The anterior chamber angle becomes wider in PAC patient after iridectomy.This improvement can relieve pupil block and prevent further chamber angle closure.SD-AS OCT can be used to carry out a noncontact biometrical measurement of anterior chamber before and after surgery.

  3. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area

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    Collins, Jessica A.; Koski, Jessica E.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL), referred to here as the “anterior temporal face area”. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), as well as a control region in early visual cortex (EVC). Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes. PMID:27199711

  4. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL, referred to here as the anterior temporal face area. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area and the occipital face area, as well as a control region in early visual cortex. Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes.1IntroductionOver a decade of neuroimaging work has characterized the neural basis of face perception and identified several nodes that preferentially respond to faces relative to other objects (Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000; Nancy Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006. Most of this work has focused on the fusiform face area (FFA and the occipital face area (OFA (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Pitcher, Walsh, Yovel, & Duchaine, 2007, however an emerging literature has implicated an anterior temporal face area, on the ventral surface of the right anterior temporal lobes (vATLs in or near perirhinal cortex, in facial processing (Avidan et al., 2013; Pinsk et al., 2009; Rajimehr, Young, & Tootell, 2009; Tsao

  5. Comparison of anterior segment parameters with Lenstar 900 and Sirius system%Sirius系统与Lenstar 900测量眼前节参数的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艳; 韦伟; 张长宁

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较两种非接触眼生物测量仪Lenstar 900( LS900)和Sirius眼前节分析系统测量眼前节有关参数的异同。  方法:对近视患者54例87眼分别采用LS900及Sirius系统测量角膜中央厚度( central corneal thickness, CCT)、前房深度(aqueous depth, ACD)、角膜平K(flat keratometry, FK)、角膜陡 K(steep keratometry,SK)、白到白(white to white, WTW)。采用配对 t 检验、Pearson 相关和 Bland-Altman图分析和评估。  结果:Sirius系统检测的CCT和ACD大于LS900,而FK、SK和 WTW 小于 LS900,差值的均值分别为-6.11±6.32μm;-0.09±0.07 mm;0.18±0.25 D;0.21±0.36 D 和0.25±0.39mm,差异有统计学意义(P  结论:LS900和Sirius系统对眼前节参数的检测具有良好的相关性和一致性,但也存在一定差异。这可能与Lenstar和Sirius测量方式并不一致有关,因此还有待进一步研究。%AlM: To compare the anterior segment measurements derived from optical low coherence reflectometer ( Lenstar LS900 ) and combined Scheimpflug - Placido disk topographer ( Sirius) . METHODS: ln this study, we enrolled healthy myopic subjects 54 ( 87 eyes ) . The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), flat keratometry ( FK) readings , steep keratometry ( SK ) readings and white to white ( WTW ) were measured by LS900 and Sirius. Evaluation and analysis were performed using paired t tests, the Pearson correlation, and Bland-Altman analyses. RESULTS: The CCT and ACD measurements were significantly lower whereas FK, SK and WTW measurements were higher with LS900 (P CONCLUSlON: Anterior segment parameters evaluated with LS900 and Sirius systemare correlated well and achieve good agreement. However, there are significantly statistical differences which may be caused by the different measurement modes, so they may not be interchangeable use under certain clinical circumstances.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTERIOR SEGMENT OPHTHALMOLOGIC LESIONS IDENTIFIED IN FREE-RANGING DOLPHINS AND THOSE UNDER HUMAN CARE.

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    Colitz, Carmen M H; Walsh, Michael T; McCulloch, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. Although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. The cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. Typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. One hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from different geographic areas; they included Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Pacific bottle nose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus gilli), Indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Indopacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), and roughtooth dolphins (Steno bredanensis). These animals were examined at least once, although most were examined numerous times over many years; lesions were categorized and are described. Seventy-seven eyes from 47 animals were normal. Medial keratopathy was the most common lesion and identified in 180 eyes from 97 animals, with 83 affected bilaterally. Horizontal keratopathy was identified in 69 eyes from 41 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally. Axial keratopathy and nonspecific axial opacities were identified in 67 eyes from 44 animals, with 21 affected bilaterally. Seventy-eight eyes from 50 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally, had more than one type of corneal lesion. Cataracts were identified in 32 eyes from 19 animals, with 13 affected bilaterally. Traumatic injuries were also common and involved eyelids and cornea. Sixteen eyes from 11 animals were blind; five dolphins were blind bilaterally due to phthisis bulbi secondary to corneal perforation or severe trauma. None of the diseases had a sex predisposition; however, medial keratopathy was significantly more common as a bilateral presentation than as a unilateral presentation. Cetaceans under human care with impaired sight can use echolocation; however, ocular health

  7. Changes in segmentation and setation along the anterior/posterior axis of the homonomous trunk limbs of a remipede (Crustacea, Arthropoda

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    Viacheslav N. Ivanenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the segmentation and setation at different developmental stages of the homonomous trunk limbs of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis Yager, 1987 collected in anchialine caves of the Yucatan Peninsula. Most homonomous trunk limbs originate ventrolaterally and are composed of two protopodal segments, three exopodal segments and four endopodal segments; contralateral limb pairs are united by a sternal bar. However, the last few posterior limbs originate ventrally, are smaller sized, and have regressively fewer segments, suggesting that limb development passes through several intermediate steps beginning with a limb bud. A terminal stage of development is proposed for specimens on which the posterior somite bears a simple bilobate limb bud, and the adjacent somite bears a limb with a protopod comprised of a coxapod and basipod, and with three exopodal and four endopodal segments. On each trunk limb there are 20 serially homologous groups of setae, and the numbers of setae on different limbs usually varies. These groups of setae are arranged linearly and are identified based on the morphology of the setae and their position on the segments. The number of setae in these groups increases gradually from the anterior homonomous limb to a maximum between limbs 8–12; the number then decreases sharply on the more posterior limbs. Changes in the number of setae, which reach a maximum between trunk limbs 8–12, differ from changes in segmentation which vary only over the last few posterior trunk limbs. Following a vector analysis that identified a spatial pattern for these 20 groups of setae among the different homonomous limbs, the hypothesis was confirmed that the number of setae in any given group and any given limb is correlated with the group, with the position of the somite along the body axis, and with the number of somites present on the specimens. This is the first vector analysis used to analyze a pattern of developmental

  8. Inter-Segmental Coordination Pattern in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency during a Single-Step Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Razeghi, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Sina; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Piroozi, Soraya; Rojhani Shirazi, Zahra; Rafiee, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is a debilitating pathology which may alter lower limb coordination pattern in both intact and affected lower extremities during activities of daily living. Emerging evidence supports the notion that kinematic variables may not be a good indicator to differentiate patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during step descent task. The aim of the present study was to examine alterations in kinematics as well as coordination patterns and coordination variability of both limbs of these patients during a single step descent task. Continuous relative phase technique was used to measure coordination pattern and coordination variability between a group of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (n = 23) and a healthy control group (n = 23). A third order polynomial Curve fitting was utilized to provide a curve that best fitted to the data points of coordination pattern and coordination variability of the healthy control group. This was considered as a reference to compare to that of patient group using nonlinear regression analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated an altered coordination pattern of the supporting shank-thigh and the stepping foot-shank couplings in anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects. It was further noticed that there was an increased coordination variability in foot-shank and shank-thigh couplings of both supporting and stepping legs. There was no significant difference in the hip, knee and ankle joints kinematics in either side of these patients. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals showed altered strategies in both intact and affected legs, with increased coordination variability. Kinematic data did not indicate any significant difference between the two groups. It could be concluded that more sophisticated dynamic approach such as continuous relative phase would uncover discrepancies between the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals.

  9. 基于谱域OCT图像的人眼前节生物学参数自动测量%Automated biometry of human ocular anterior segment based on spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思思; 朱德喜; 马庆凯; 沈梅晓

    2016-01-01

    ocular anterior segment.However,the measurement of the dimension of anterior segment from the OCT image with high speed and precision is a challenge at present.The software of automatic data processing is still lack in analyzing spectral domain OCT.Objective This study was to perform the automatic biometry and data processing of human ocular anterior segment OCT image by using self-developed automatic detection software and evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of this method.Methods Twenty eyes of 10 normal subjects were included in Eye Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University from June to July 2013.The OCT image of anterior eye segments were obtained with custom-made ultra-long scan depth OCT under the informed consent.Anautomatic software algorithm was developed for the biometric measurement on these OCT images,including boundary segmentation,image registration and optical correction of OCT images.The boundary segmentation algorithm utilized the axial gradient information of OCT images and the shortest path search principal based on the dynamic programming to optimize edge finding.Central corneal thickness (CCT),anterior chamber depth (ACD),pupil diameter (PD),lens thickness (LT),radius of lens anterior curvatures (LAC) and radius of lens of posterior curvatures (LPC) were automatically and manually measured,and the validity of automatic detection algorithm was assessed by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between the automatic and manual measurements,and the repeatability was validated by calculating the coefficient of repeatability (COR) between repeated measurement.This study was approved by the Ethic Committee of Wenzhou Medical University and informed consent was obtained from all subjects.Results There were no significant differences in the results of CCT,ACD,PD,LT,LAC and LPC between the automatic and manual measurements (P =0.205,0.167,0.285,0.127,0.102,0.074).The results were consistent between automatic and manual measurements (all at

  10. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  11. Clinical Research Progress of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome%眼前节毒性反应综合征的临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昞莉

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome ( TASS ) is a rare and sterile postoperative inflammatory reaction, which is different from infectious inflammation.It is belong to particular postoperative inflammatory reaction, with typical clinical features and serious secondary complications.Its causes have been identified to relate to poisonous substance accessing the anterior chamber, such as intraocular irrigating solutions, preservative, disinfectant used in disinfecting equipment, bacterial endotoxin,metal ion on the surface of instrument,viscoelastic materials of denaturation, impurity in steam sterilization, antibiotic, anesthetic and intraocular lens etc.In recent years,with the improvement of anterior segment surgery,TASS has emerged in large numbers.This article reviewed the toxic anterior segment syndrome, including of the clinical manifestation, pathology characteristic, etiopathogenisis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%眼前节毒性反应综合征(TASS)是一种少见的、无菌性的术后炎性反应,属于特殊类型的术后炎症,具有典型的临床特征并可引起严重的继发性反应.TASS发生与多种进入眼前房物质的毒性作用有关,如眼内灌注液、防腐剂、消毒设备使用的消毒剂、细菌内毒素、器械表面的金属离子残渣、变性的黏弹剂、高压蒸气杂质、抗生素、麻醉药物以及使用的人工晶体等.近年来,随着眼前节手术的发展,本病有逐渐增加的趋势.现TASS的从临床表现、病理特征、病因、诊断和鉴别诊断、治疗及预防措施等方面对其予以综述.

  12. Ultrasund biomicroscopy diagnosis of anterior segment tumors%超声生物显微镜诊断眼前节肿瘤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文利; 胡士敏; 朱晓青; 王兰; 郑邦和

    2000-01-01

    目的 了解跟前节常见肿瘤的超声生物显微镜表现特点.方法 应用超声生物显微镜对55例常见眼前节肿瘤~虹膜囊、虹膜色素痣、睫状体肿瘤进行观察.结果 超块生物显微镜表现:虹膜囊肿为边界清晰的圆形或椭圆形囊样病变,内部为无回声区;虹膜色不痣为边界清晰的局限隆起,可为梭形、半球形等,内部回声均匀且与虹膜组织基本相同;睫状体肿瘤表现为睫状体局限隆起,可为半球形或蘑茹显微镜对虹膜肿瘤可明确鉴别实性或囊性,睫状体肿瘤的基底中亦可详尽观察,超声生物显微镜是一种新的无创评估眼前节肿瘤的诊断方法.%Objective To investigate the character of anterior segment tumor by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM).Methods UBM was used to diagnose 55 patients of anterior segment tumors,such as iris cyst ,iris nevi and ciliary bdy tumors.Results UBM showed iris cyst was circular or ellipse with Smooth surface and thin wall,but no renectivify.iris nevus was of anteriorly convex shape in fusifarm or semicircles ,its superficaial layer can rcoeCtS as Snne 3s ihs.Ciliary body tumors was of anteriorly convex shape in semircle or mushroom,its renectivlty was not even,namely the reflectivity gets stronger near the probeand nice versa, and may be associated with iris cyst and supcraciliary cffusion.Conclusions Diffexentiation between solid and cystic lesion was easily achicvcd by UBM,the margins of ciliary body tumors could be roofe accurately defined UBN, proved a new noninvasive technique in the evaluation of anterior tumors.

  13. The role of a high pull headgear in counteracting side effects from intrusion of the maxillary anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, E; Burstone, C J; Prahl-Andersen, B; Aartman, I H A

    2004-08-01

    Intrusion of incisors is often the preferred treatment of a deep overbite. This study focuses on deep overbite correction by intrusion of maxillary incisors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether high-pull headgear wear can prevent steepening of the buccal segment, extrusion of the buccal segment, maintain arch width, and increase the rate of incisor intrusion. The number of patients needed for this study was calculated to be 20. Patients were between nine and 14 years of age and assigned to one of two groups. In each group, intrusion of maxillary incisors was performed. Patients in one group wore a high-pull headgear at night, and patients in the other group did not. For each patient, a lateral head film, impressions with a wax bite in centric occlusion, and intraoral photographs were taken at the beginning and end of intrusion. This study demonstrated that high-pull headgear had no effect on steepening and extrusion of the buccal segments or on the rate of intrusion but did have an effect on narrowing of the buccal segments. By performing intrusion as described in this study, no statistically significant side effects were observed in the buccal segments, whereas a statistically significant amount of incisor intrusion of 2.24 mm in the no-headgear group and 2.37 mm in the headgear group was observed.

  14. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical decompression and fusion: analysis of risk factors on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yanbin; Sun Yu; Zhou Feifei; Wang Shaobo; Zhang Fengshan; Pan Shengfa

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is common after cervical fusion.The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for ASD on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods Patients included in this study had received revision surgeries after developing symptomatic ASD following anterior decompression and fusion.A control group that had not developed ASD was matched 1:1 by follow-up time and fusion segments.Plate-to-disc distances (PDDs),developmental cervical canal stenosis on X-ray,cervical disc degeneration grading,and cervical disc bulge impingements on preoperative MRI were measured and compared between the ASD group and the control group.Results Thirty-four patients with complete radiographic data were included in the ASD group.The causative segments of ASD included nine cases of C3-4,18 cases of C4-5,three cases of C5-6,and four cases of C6-7.The ASD occurred at the upper adjacent segments in 26 patients and at the lower adjacent segments in eight patients.PDD distributions were similar between the ASD group and the control group.Developmental cervical canal stenosis was a risk factor for ASD,with an odd ratio value of 2.88.Preoperative cervical disc degenerations on MRI were similar between the ASD group and the control group.In the upper-level ASD group,the disc bulge impingement was (19.7±9.7)%,which was significantly higher than that of the control group of (11.8±4.8)%.Conclusions ASD was more likely to develop above the index level of fusion.Developmental cervical canal stenosis and greater disc bulge impingement may be risk factors for the development of ASD.

  15. 玻璃体切除术后无晶状体眼前房灌注下人工晶状体悬吊术%Intraocular lens ciliary sulcus suspension in aphakic vitrectomized eyes under anterior chamber perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 梁军; 张伟

    2015-01-01

    aphakic period and stable posterior segment condition was maintained at least 6 months. All the surgical procedures were operated by one surgeon, and were that the foldable IOL was implanted and sutured to ciliary sulcus through 3 mm limbal incision under 25 G anterior chamber perfusion. The follow-up after the surgery was more than 3 months. The value of VA, BCVA, intraocular pressure (IOP), the number of corneal endothelium cells (NCEC), the condition of IOL location and complications in all patients were recorded. The statistical analysis was paired t test. Results The postoperative uncorrected VA reached from LogMar 3. 32 to LogMar 0. 097 that was better than the preoperative VA at 3 to 6 months after the surgery (P0. 01). The NCEC 3 months after the surgery was (1789 ± 321)/ mm2 and compared with preoperative (1837 ± 289)/mm2, the difference was not statistically significant (P >0. 01). The IOL location was at the center in 29 eyes (93. 54%), mildly eccentric in 1 eye (3. 23%), and slightly tilt in 1 eye (3. 23%). A transient vitreous hemorrhage occurred in 1 eye after the surgery. Conclusion Suture fixation to ciliary sulcus of a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) through 3. 0 mm limbal incision with the 25 G anterior chamber perfusion for aphakic eye after vitrectomy combined with lensectomy is safe with stable IOP.

  16. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography study of pearl-like lesions in the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soliman W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wael Soliman*, Ehab I Wasfi*, Omar M AliDepartment of Ophthalmology, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt*These authors contributed equally to this workAim: To study the morphological pattern of pearl-like lesions in the anterior chambers of children before and after management using anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, observational cross-sectional study of patients presenting with peculiar pearl-like lesions in the anterior chamber of their eyes. 1 mL of betamethasone sodium phosphate (2 mg/mL and betamethasone dipropionate (5 mg/mL was injected subconjunctivally. Follow-ups of all patients were conducted for a period of 6 weeks. Anterior segment imaging was done using SD-OCT and also photo slit lamp before and after management.Results: Twelve eyes of 12 patients were included in this study. These patients presented with pearl-like lesions in the anterior chamber with signs of anterior uveitis. There was no history of ocular injury or tuberculosis in any patients. Six weeks after subconjunctival steroid injection, all patients achieved mean best-corrected visual acuity, which changed from 0.2 (range 0.1–0.4 to 0.5 (range 0.4–0.8, and the severity of iritis decreased. SD-OCT showed that the lesions at presentation appeared as a globular noncystic mass attached to the back of the cornea, encroaching on the angle of the eye, and attached to the anterior surface of the iris at some points.Conclusion: SD-OCT for imaging the anterior segment allowed us to exclude the cystic nature of this pearly lesion. Some similarities may exist between these pearly lesions and superficial phlyctenular keratitis, which may support the immunological and inflammatory origin of these lesions.Keywords: pearl-like lesions, anterior chamber, phlycten, anterior segment OCT

  17. Biomechanical Evaluation of Different Fixation Methods for Mandibular Anterior Segmental Osteotomy Using Finite Element Analysis, Part Two: Superior Repositioning Surgery With Bone Allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinç, Yeliz; Erkmen, Erkan; Kurt, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the biomechanical behavior of different fixation methods used to fix the mandibular anterior segment following various amounts of superior repositioning was evaluated by using Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The three-dimensional finite element models representing 3 and 5 mm superior repositioning were generated. The gap in between segments was assumed to be filled by block bone allograft and resignated to be in perfect contact with the mandible and segmented bone. Six different finite element models with 2 distinct mobilization rate including 3 different fixation configurations, double right L (DRL), double left L (DLL), or double I (DI) miniplates with monocortical screws, correspondingly were created. A comparative evaluation has been made under vertical, horizontal and oblique loads. The von Mises and principal maximum stress (Pmax) values were calculated by finite element solver programme. The first part of our ongoing Finite Element Analysis research has been addressed to the mechanical behavior of the same fixation configurations in nongrafted models. In comparison with the findings of the first part of the study, it was concluded that bone graft offers superior mechanical stability without any limitation of mobilization and less stress on the fixative appliances as well as in the bone.

  18. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Spierer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  19. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful. PMID:27462251

  20. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  1. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  2. Endovascular repair of ruptured aneurysm arising from fenestration of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kazuto; Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with an aneurysm arising from a fenestration of horizontal portion (A(1)) of the anterior cerebral artery manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Coil embolization was conducted and the aneurysm was occluded easily. Most reported cases of these types of aneurysms underwent direct surgery. Aneurysm arising from the A(1) fenestration is rare, but the present case shows that coil embolization can be an effective treatment modality. Three-dimensional rotational angiography and aneurysmography were helpful to characterize this complicated vascular structure.

  3. 可植入胶原聚合透镜植入术后早期眼前段观察%Observation of anterior segment after implantation of implantable collamer lens in early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗静; 刘磊; 李新宇; 王虎杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the anterior segment after implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) in early stage.Methods 65 eyes of 37 patients with high myopia who accepted ICL implantation were enrolled in this study.Anterior chamber volume (ACV),anterior chamber depth (ACD),iridocorneal angle,intraocular pressure (IOP) and endothelial cell density were measured at pre-operation,1 month and 6 months after surgery,and measurements were analyzed by statistical analysis.Results After surgeries,the ACD,iridocorneal angles and ACV decreased statistically significantly,and there were no statistical differences between measurements of 1 month and 6 months after surgery; the IOP measured at postoperative 1 month was lower than before and achieved stable state during postoperative 6 months; The endothelial cell density decreased about 4.75% and 6.87% respectively at postoperative 1 month and 6 months (P < 0.05) ; The mean central vault were (412.61 ± 192.94) μm and (365.69 ± 179.75) μm respectively at postoperative 1 month and 6 months,the ICLs had no contact with lens.Conclusion In the early period after implantation of ICL,the anterior segment morphology changed significantly,but these indexes were stable and no closure of iridocorneal angle or increasing of IOP were observed in the follow-up 6 months,therefore,long time follow-up is still required.%目的 观察有晶状体眼可植入胶原聚合透镜(ICL)植入术后早期的眼前段形态.方法 随机选取接受ICL植入术的高度近视37例(65只眼),测量患者术前、术后1个月和6个月的前房深度、前房角、前房容积、眼压和角膜内皮细胞密度,并对测量结果进行统计学分析.结果 术后前房深度、前房角和前房容积均较术前显著减小,术后1个月和术后6个月相比差异无统计学意义.术后1个月时眼压较术前稍有降低,术后6个月时恢复至术前水平;术后1个月和6个月患眼角膜内皮细胞密度较术前分别降低4

  4. Adjacent segment degeneration after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion: disc space distraction and its impact on clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Kong, Fanlong; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to find whether excessive distraction of the disc space for cage insertion was a risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients who underwent ACDF for single-level cervical disc herniation between June 2006 and November 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up disc height (DH), sagittal segmental alignment (SSA), and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS) were measured and compared between the ASD group and non-ASD group. In 116 patients, ASD was radiographically proven in 28 (24.1%) patients. The clinical outcomes were significantly improved compared to the preoperative scores in both groups. However, the postoperative and final follow-up DH of the ASD group were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group (p<0.05). In addition, the postoperative DH was significantly correlated with the postoperative or final follow-up SSA (p<0.05). However, postoperative DH was not found to significantly correlate with postoperative or final follow-up SACS (p=0.072 and p=0.096, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative DH was the most significant risk factor for ASD. The clinical outcomes of ACDF for single-level degenerative cervical disc disease were satisfactory. Postoperative DH (the distracted distance) had the greatest impact on the incidence of ASD. Excessive disc space distraction is a considerable risk factor for the development of radiographic ASD.

  5. Comparison of anterior segment changes resulted from accommodation before and after LASIK in myopia%近视眼LASIK手术前后调节所致眼前段结构变化的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周少博; 李辉; 洪海峰; 谭娟

    2014-01-01

    divided into two groups:low to moderate myopic group (>-6.0D),and high myopic group (≤-6.0D).Anterior segment measurements were performed by anterior segment optic coherence tomography (OCT) in undominant eye under three different accommodative state of relax (0.0 D) and 3.0 D before LASIK and one week,one month,and 3 months after LASIK.The changes in posterior corneal curvature (PCC),anterior chamber depth (ACD),lens thickness (LT),pupil diameter (PD) with accommodation at different time after LASIK were compared with those measured before LASIK.Results There were no significant differences between preoperative PCC,ACD,LT,PD and those of post-operation at the state of non-accommodated in both groups (all P >0.05).Compared with pre-operation,the mean changes of LT induced by 3.0D accommodation were significantly decreased in both groups at 1 week postoperatively (all P <0.05).There were no significant differences between preoperative alteration in anterior segment induced by accommodation and 1-month postoperative alteration in both groups (all P >0.05).Changes of LT were significantly increased in 3 months after surgery in high myopia.Conclusions The changes of LT induced by accommodation in myopia seem to be decreased in the early days after LASIK and may recover or even increase at one to three months,which may be the mechanism that accommodative function changes after LASIK.

  6. 正常人眼前段组织与房角开放度数的关系%Relationship between Structure of Anterior Segment Tissue and Open Angle in Normal Subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 刘杏; 王涛; 李媚; 李彬彬; 何明光

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] To study the relationship between structure of anterior segment tissues and open angle(AA) in normal subjects.[Methods] A total of 211 eyes from 211 normal subjects were enrolled,whose anterior chambers and lens were scanned using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).The measuring items included AA,anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber horizontal diameter (ACHD),anatomical anterior chamber depth (AACD),ciliary band length (CBL),iris thickness (IT),lens thickness (LT),lens position (LP) and lens anterior apex position (LAAP).The relationship between the 8 biometric parameters and AA was analyzed using linear correlation,respectively.[Results] The mean of AA was (40 ± 17)°,with (44 ± 18)° in male,and (37 ± 16)° in female.The difference of AA between male and female was statistically significant (t = 2.893,P = 0.004).There was significant correlation between AA and ACD (r = 0.721,P = 0.000),LT (r = -0.545,P = 0.000),CBL (r = 0.615,P = 0.000),LAAP (r = -0.717,P = 0.000),LP (r = 0.557,P = 0.000),and ACHD (r = 0.175,P = 0.011).There was no significant correlation between AA and AACD (r = 0.130,P = 0.059),IT (r = 0.129,P = 0.061).[Conclusion] The AA of females was narrower than that of males.In normal subjects,the most important factors which determine AA are the lens,the location of the peripheral iris and ciliary body.%[目的] 分析正常人房角开放度数(AA)与眼前段结构的关系. [方法] 收集211例(211只眼)正常人,采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)扫描其前房和晶状体,并测量前房深度(ACD)、前房横径(ACHD)、解剖前房深度(AACD)、睫状体带长度(CBL)、虹膜厚度(IT)、晶状体厚度(LT)、晶状体位置(LP)以及晶状体前极的位置(LAAP).采用直线相关分析这8个参数与AA的关系. [结果] AA的均值为(40 ± 17)°,男性(44 ± 18)°,女性(37 ± 16)°,比较差异有统计学意义(t = 2.893,P = 0.004).AA

  7. 角膜塑形术后眼前节形态及调节功能%Anterior segment biometry and accommodative function after orthokeratology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟根; 张莎莎; 邵一磊; 袁一民; 沈梅晓; 瞿佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in accommodative response and anterior segment biometry during accommodation in young progressive myopes who wear overnight orthokeratology lenses.Methods Eighteen children (age:14.4±2.6 years) were enrolled in this prospective experimental study and were tested before wearing orthokeratology (OK) lenses and after wearing them for three months.Using a Badal optical system,the refractive error of each subject was corrected before and after lens wear,and then accommodative stimuli of 3 D and 5 D were presented.A custom-built optical coherence tomographer (OCT) with a long scan depth was used to image the entire anterior segment through the pupil,and to obtain the anterior segment biometry including pupil diameter (PD),anterior chamber depth (ACD),lens thickness (LT) and the lens anterior surface's radius of curvature (LAC).An auto-refractometer (WAM-5500) was used to measure ocular refraction during accommodation,which was used to calculate the accommodative response.The measurements of anterior segment biometry and accommodative response were repeated twice under each accommodative state.Results After wearing orthokeratology lenses for one to three months,an improvement in the accommodative response was evident under both the 3 D (1.72±0.59 D vs.2.42±0.84 D) and 5 D (3.09±0.63 D vs.3.61±0.86 D) accommodative states (paired t-test,t=2.84,2.12,P<0.05).During accommodation,△PD,△ACD,△LT,and △LAC changed obviously.Compared with baseline (before wearing OK lenses),accommodation-related changes in △ACD (3 D:-0.11±0.04 mm vs.-0.16±0.06 mm,t=3.88,P<0.01;5 D:-0.15±0.05 mm vs.-0.20±0.07 mm,t=2.37,P<0.05),△LAC (3 D:-2.60±0.79 mm vs.-3.81±1.08 mm,t=3.96,P<0.01;5 D:-3.57±1.14 mm vs.-4.32±1.36 mm,t=2.08,P<0.05) and △LT (3 D:0.22±0.13 mm vs.0.27±0.06 mm,t=-1.94,P<0.05;5 D:0.26± 0.09 mm vs.0.30±0.10 mm,t=-1.99,P<0.05) showed statistically significant increases.Conclusion After wearing orthokeratology

  8. Robust automatic segmentation of corneal layer boundaries in SDOCT images using graph theory and dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocca, Francesco; Chiu, Stephanie J; McNabb, Ryan P; Kuo, Anthony N; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2011-06-01

    Segmentation of anatomical structures in corneal images is crucial for the diagnosis and study of anterior segment diseases. However, manual segmentation is a time-consuming and subjective process. This paper presents an automatic approach for segmenting corneal layer boundaries in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography images using graph theory and dynamic programming. Our approach is robust to the low-SNR and different artifact types that can appear in clinical corneal images. We show that our method segments three corneal layer boundaries in normal adult eyes more accurately compared to an expert grader than a second grader-even in the presence of significant imaging outliers.

  9. 应用临时人工角膜行前后节联合手术治疗严重眼外伤%Combined anterior and posterior segments surgery using temporary keratoprosthesis for severe ocular injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兴荣; 温莹; 毕宏生

    2008-01-01

    Objective To compare the effectiveness of combined vitrectomy with penetrating keratoplasty using temporary keratoprosthesis for different types of severe ocular injuries. Method 20cases (21eyes) including 11 ocular explosive injuries and 9 ocular penetrating injuries were underwent combined surgery .The preoperative visual acuity was from light perception to hand movement. With temporary keratoprosthesis pars plana vitrectomy, cataract excision, foreign body removal ,reattachment of retina and partial penetrating keratoplasty was performed .The follow-up period was from 3~36 months, the mean follow-up time was 17 months. Analysis was focused on visual acuity (VA), intraocular pressure, anatomic results and complications. Result 19 eyes including 100% ocular explosive injuries and 78% ocular penetrating injuries retained anatomic integrity of eyeball. 11 cases (52%) got the final postoperative VA 0.05 or better, 9 eyes were explosive injuries, the other 2 eyes were penetrating injuries. The severe complications including intraocular hypotension and retinal redetachment were all occurred in the cases with ocular penetrating injuries. Conclusion Temporary keratoprosthesis used in the combined surgeries of anterior and posterior ocular segments is proved to be an unique effective method for treatment of severe ocular injuries.Prognosis of ocular explosive injuries is better than ocular penetrating injuries.%目的 比较应用临时人工角膜行玻璃体切割联合穿透性角膜移植术治疗不同类型严重眼外伤的临床效果.方法 对伴有严重角膜混浊的眼外伤患者20例(21只眼),包括爆炸伤11例(12只眼)、眼球穿通伤9例(9只眼).术前视力为光感~眼前手动,采用临时人工角膜代替病变角膜完成闭合式玻璃体切割、白内障切除、球内异物取出、视网膜复位等眼内操作后,再用新鲜供体角膜置换人工角膜.术后随访3~36个月,平均17月,随访视力、眼压、眼球解

  10. The reproducibility of mechanism categories of angle closure using ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography%根据超声生物显微镜和眼前节OCT图像对房角关闭机制进行分型的一致性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烨; 唐炘; 王宁利

    2016-01-01

    Background Angle closure is the pathological basis of primary angle-closure disease (PACD).Understanding different types of angle closure mechanisms is significant for evaluation of risk factors,prevention,diagnosis and treatment of PACD.Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) is commonly used for investigating the types of angle closure mechanisms in clinical works.However,UBM is a contact examination,which limits its application.Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is a non-contact examination of anterior segment imaging,through which qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the anterior chamber angle can be made.Objective This study was to investigate the reproducibility of mechanism categories of angle closure based on AS-OCT images and UBM images.Methods Cross-sectional study was performed.PACD outpatients from September to October in 2013 in Beijing Tongren Hospital were enrolled and received both UBM and AS-OCT examinations.UBM images were obtained in superior,inferior,nasal and temporal quadrants of the anterior chamber.AS-OCT images were obtained in the "anterior segment quadrant" mode at 0-180,45-225,90-270,and 135-315 degree meridians.UBM and ASOCT images were categorized into three dominant angle closure mechanisms:pupil block,anterior located ciliary body and thick peripheral iris roll,separately.And the same mechanism of at least two UBM/AS-OCT images of one eye was defined as the angle closure mechanism of this eye.If both eyes of one PACD patient were eligible for inclusion,the right eye was selected for analysis.The reproducibility of two examinations was evaluated by Kappa coefficients.Results Finally 40 PACD patients (40 eyes,27 right eyes and 13 left eyes) were enrolled for analysis.Based on UBM images,12 eyes (30.0%) were classified as pupil block,23 eyes (57.5%) as anterior located ciliary body and 5 eyes (12.5%) as thick peripheral iris roll.Based on AS-OCT,12 eyes (30.0%) were classified as pupil block,21 eyes (52.5

  11. An unusual variant of the common trunk of the fronto-orbital and frontopolar arteries associated with a ruptured aneurysm of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Aso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common trunk of the fronto-orbital artery (FOA and frontopolar artery (FPA arising from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA associated with a ruptured aneurysm (AN, is rare. Case Description: The patient was a 52-year-old man who suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an elongated and tortuous left A1 segment of the ACA and a saccular AN arising from the left A1 segment of the ACA at the origin of the cortical branch, defining its location just on the midline and behind the anterior communicating artery. This vessel had two branches. One branch ran along the inferior surface of the ipsilateral frontal lobe, and the other branch ran anteriorly and medially along the surface of the left hemisphere toward the frontal pole. The anomalous artery was interpreted as a common trunk of the FOA and FPA. Bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The anomalous artery arose from the A1 segment of the ACA at the origin of the AN, and the recurrent artery of Heubner branched off the anomalous artery. The AN was successfully obliterated, clipping with a bayonet-shaped Yasargil titanium clip. Complete AN occlusion and patency of both the A1 and the common trunk of the FOA and FPA, were confirmed intraoperatively by indocyanine green angiography. Conclusions: Recognizing this variant preoperatively, could be helpful in preventing the complications of surgery.

  12. 应用25G玻璃体切除术治疗白内障术后眼前段拥挤征%25-Gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for crowded anterior segment after cataract surgery.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 荣翱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system(25GTSV)on the treatment of crowded anterior segment(CAS)after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.Methods 15 cases(15 eyes)of CAS after cataract surgery were treated with posterior capsulotomy and anterior segment vitrectomy with 25GTSV.The follow-up periods were 6 ~ 12months[(8.0 ± 1.5)months].The visual acuity,intraocular pressure(IOP)and the depth of anterior chamber were recorded,the condition of cornea,pupil,intraocular lens and complication were observed.Results All operations were successful.The visual acuity of all cases were improved in different degree after treatment.The best corrected visual acuity before treatment,1 week after treatment and at the end of the followup period was(0.05 ± 0.02),(0.2 ± 0.1)and(0.4 ± 0.1)respectively.There were significant difference before and after treatment(t =0.00,P =0.00).The mean IOP 1 week after treatment and at the end of the follow-up period was(17.3 ± 1.8)mmHg and(16.5 ± 1.3)mmHg respectively.They were lower obviously than the mean IOP before surgery which was(40.1 ± 7.5)mmHg.There were significant difference between them(t =0.00,P =0.00).The mean depth of anterior chamber before treatment,1 week after treatment and at the end of the follow-up period was(0.69 ±0.17)mm,(2.7 1 ±0.43)mm and(2.85 ±0.52)mm respectively.There were significant difference before and after treatment(t =0.00,P =0.00).After surgery,the edema of cornea disappeared,the pupil is round and a round hyalomere with diameter of 3.0 ~ 4.0 mmwas formed at the center of lens ' posterior capsule in all eyes.No obvious complications were observed intraoperatively and postoperatively.Conclusion 25GTSV with micro-incision can release and cure CAS after cataract surgery effectively and safely.%目的 评价25G经结膜无缝合玻璃体切除手术系统(25G TSV)在白内障行超声乳化联合人工晶状体植入术后眼前

  13. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  14. Depth evaluation of intended vs actual intacs intrastromal ring segments using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, R; Barbara, A; Naftali, M

    2016-01-01

    PurposeEvaluation of actual vs intended intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) implantation depth as measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT)MethodsProspective study evaluating 30 Intacs segments implanted manually in 19 eyes of 15 patients suffering from keratoconus. Segment depth evaluation was performed using anterior segment OCT. Measurements were performed above and below the segment at 3 points in relation to the incision site. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS software for ANOVA, matched t-test, and GLIMMIX procedure.ResultsIntacs segment depth was 153-μm shallower than intended (58% vs 80%). Segment layout demonstrated the proximal and distal portions to be 13-μm shallower and 12-μm deeper (on average), respectively. Intacs segment thickness does not influence implantation depth. Intacs segments implanted in the same eye do not share similar implantation depths. Stromal compression is likely to occur.ConclusionIntacs are implanted at a shallower depth than intended. The 'pocketing' stage prior to implantation most likely has a stronger effect on the segment's final implantation depth than does the incisions' depth.

  15. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  16. The flexure of on-eye rigid gas permeable contact lenses and its relationship with anterior corneal surface%硬性透气性角膜接触镜的形变与角膜形态的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江秀; 于青; 张和宁; 董世奇; 叶盛; 张晨昊

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGPCL)在眼表面的形状稳定性及角膜形态对其的影响.方法 22名志愿者42只眼,用鹰式角膜地形图测量角膜像差后给予验配RGPCL,同样仪器测量RGPCL的像差后派发给志愿者,连续配戴1个月后回访,分别测量戴镜状态下以及摘镜30 min后的角膜地形图.采用配对t检验、W检验及相关分析对数据进行分析.结果 RGPCL戴到眼表面后,主要表现为离焦C4增加,右眼为离体(1.003 ±0.131) μm,在体(1.065 ±0.160) μm(P =0.015);左眼为离体(1.003±0.130) μm,在体1.069(0.851,1.594)μm,(P =0.017),水平/垂直散光C5变负,右眼为离体(0.072±0.083) μm,在体(-0.312 ±0.232)μm(P<0.001);左眼为离体(0.066±0.056) μm,在体(-0.349±0.242)μm(P< 0.001),以及球差C12增加,右眼为离体(0.264±0.039)μm,在体(0.295±0.048) μm (P<0.001);左眼为离体(0.266±0.035) μm,在体0.290(0.215,0.471) μm(P <0.001).角膜像差在戴镜前后发生改变的像差项有C4,C5,C7和C8等.在体RGPCL像差C4、C5、C12均与相应的戴镜前角膜像差呈正相关(右眼:r=0.557、0.596、0.581,P<0.01,左眼:r=0.684、0.497、0.543,P<0.01).结论 RGPCL戴在眼表面后,镜片前表面有一定程度的变平,球差增加,并且出现趋向于角膜的散光.RGPCL的配适不宜过于平坦.%Objective To investigate the effect of corneal irregularity on on-eye rigid gas permeable(RGP) contact lenses and the corneal shape changed by RGP contact lenses.Methods Corneal topographywas taken for 42 bare eyes of 22 subjects before and 1 month after wearing of the RGP contact lens.Off-eye and on-eye wavefront aberrations of the anterior surface of the RGP contact lens were also measured by corneal topography for the same 42 eyes.Zernike aberrations of the RGP contact lens were examined and compared to those of baseline anterior corneal surface.Results For bare eyes,C4,C5,C7 and C8 were significantly different from the baseline 30 minutes

  17. 颈椎间盘置换及前路椎间融合治疗单节段颈椎间盘突出症:谁更多影响邻近节段发生退变?%Anterior cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for treating single segment cervical disc herniation:which has greater effects on adjacent segment degeneration?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 盛伟斌; 张健; 邓强; 郭海龙

    2016-01-01

    背景:有研究表明,颈椎间盘置换及前路固定融合治疗颈椎病可以取得较好的临床效果,但是哪种术式在避免邻近节段退变方面更具优势尚无定论。目的:比较颈椎间盘置换与前路固定融合治疗单节段颈椎间盘突出症对邻近节段的近期影响。方法:收集2009年1月至2012年12月以“颈椎间盘突出症”为诊断收入院并行单节段颈椎间盘置换或颈前路椎间盘切除融合患者178例的临床资料,进行回顾性分析,其中前路固定融合组116例,颈椎间盘置换组62例。结果与结论:①评价:两组患者末次随访时目测类比评分、日本骨科协会评估治疗评分、颈椎功能障碍指数均较治疗前明显改善(P 0.05)。前路固定融合组术后3个月时手术节段基本融合,活动度丧失,末次随访时邻近上位节段活动度与邻近下位节段活动度明显增加,且上位节段活动度增加的度数较下位节段大(P 0.05). At 3 months after surgery, in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group, surgical segment was confluent, and range of motion lost. During final fol ow-up, range of motion of adjacent upper segment and adjacent lower segment was significantly increased, and the increased range of motion in the upper segment was bigger than that of the lower segment (P < 0.05). (3) During final fol ow-up, X-ray films and MRI images revealed the number of degenerated adjacent segment was more in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group than in the anterior cervical disc replacement group (P <0.05). The number of degenerated middle and upper segments was more than that of the lower segment in both groups (P < 0.05). (4) The findings confirmed that anterior cervical disc replacement or anterior cervical decompression and fusion for treating cervical disc herniation could effectively relieve nerve symptoms of patients. However, compared with the anterior cervical disc

  18. COMPARISON OF DRY EYES IN POST- MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT SYMPTOMS OF DRY EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : PURPOSE: This study was done to evaluate the relationship between menopause and dry eyes, to assess the severity of dry eyes in symptomatic post-menopausal women and to validate Ocular Surface Disease Index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, cross sectional group comprised of 293 postmenopausal patients attending the postmenopausal clinic in Gynecology Out Patient Department and fulfilling our selection criteria. After noting the detailed history and demography, the Allergan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score was done. Visual acuity was assessed on Snellen’s chart and anterior segment evaluation was done with slit lamp biomicroscope. Dry eye evaluation was done with Schirmer and Tear film Break-Up Time (tBUT tests. RESULTS: The important ocular findings in postmenopausal women were foreign-body sensation and grittiness, hyperaemia, mucoid discharge and fluctuating or blurry vision. The overall prevalence of dry eye in symptomatic post-menopausal women was 82.97% which was statistically significant. (p<0.00 CONCLUSION: Results from the present study reveal that dry eye symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of dry eye in post-menopausal women with symptoms has significant association. Hence, examination for dry eye should be an integral part of the postmenopausal women especially those having dry eye symptoms.

  19. Comparatire study of anterior segment parameters measurement by OCT, Orbscan, and A-scan ultrasound%眼前节相干光断层扫描仪与Orbscan Ⅱ及超声法眼前节生物测量对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞辰久; 宋晓虹; 王丽娅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To compare the accuracy of anterior segment OCT with Orbscan and A ultra-sound in measuring anterior segment parameters.Methods Anterior segment parameters in 66 eyes of 33 my-opic patients were measured with OCT, Orbscan and A-scan ultrasound.The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD)were acquired by the three methods, corneal diameter( W to W ), anterior cham-ber width,pupil diameter,and anterior chamber angle were measured by OCT and Orbscan.Results The CCTs were (532.32±35.26)μm,(538.45±38.31 )μm,and (555.82±37.63)μm,measured by AS-OCT, Orbscan,and A-scan ultrasound.There were significant differences between each of them (P <0.01 ),and also positive correlations were found.The ACD were ( 3.19±0.21 )mm, ( 3.08±0.24 )mm, and( 3.27±0.23 )mm, re-spectively measured by OCT, Orbcan and ultrasound.There were significant differences between each of them. Pupil diameterwere(5.5±0.93)mm,and(4.5±0.75)mm measured by OCT and Orbscan, The difference was(-1.00±0.68)mm,asignificantdifferencewasfound(t=1195,P=0.000),95%CI(0.84,1.17). Thedifferenceofanteriorcham-beranglewere 1.58° inposition 180° (P=0.119)and 2.89° in position 0° (P<0.01)measure by OCT and Orbscan.Conclusion The CCT was thinner obtained by OCT than by Orbscan and A-scan ultrasound,ACD was deeper than by Orbscan and more close to A-scan ultrasound.The anterior chamber angle were similar in both instruments. AS-OCT provide noncontact,rapid,simple and accurate anterior segment parameters and furthermore a clear ante-rior segment image.It is a useful instrument in measuring anterior segment parameters.%目的 比较眼前节相干光断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)与Orbscan Ⅱ以及超声法眼的节生物测量结果,为临床应用提供参考:方法对33例(66只眼)近视眼患者分别行AS-OCT,Orbscan Ⅱ以及A型超声测量仪(DGH550和DGH4000)进行眼前节生物测量,获取角膜中央厚度(CCT),前房深度(ACD),角膜直径,瞳孔直径以及前房角

  20. Misdiagnosis induced intraocular lens dislocation in anterior megalophthalmos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-wei; XU Wen; ZHU Ya-nan; LI Jin-yu; ZHANG Li; YAO Ke

    2012-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos (AM) is an uncommon developmental anomaly of the anterior segment of the eye with a constellation of findings that includes enlarged cornea,deep anterior chamber,posterior positioning of the iris and lens,iris stroma atrophy,hypoplasia of iris dilator,pupil displacement,large capsular bag,lens subluxation,prematurely cataract and the tendency to retinal detachment.AM,especially when symptoms are mild,is not an easy disease to diagnose.We present 3 AM cases that were misdiagnosed as congenital cataract with weak zonule and megalocornea.Intraocular lenses (IOLs) dislocated after standard cataract surgeries and subsequent surgery (replacing the dislocated IOLs with iris-claw intraocular lenses) achieved satisfactory outcome.Although rare,AM should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarged cornea and we recommend implanting Artisan lens in AM patients.

  1. Surgical treatment of eye injuries in five-year survey period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Eye injuries represent one of the biggest problems in eye surgery all around the world, including our country. Treatment of eye injuries demands highly skilled personnel and adequate technical equipment. Objective: To show a total number of eye injuries, including the surgical methods used for their treatment. Methods: In our study, retrospective analysis of all performed surgical methods used in treatment of hospitalized patients in our Clinic during 2000-2004 was carried out. A special attention was paid to pars plana vitrectomy, together with combined anterior-posterior segment procedures. Results: During 2000-2004, a total of 347 pars plana vitrectomy, and 27 traumatic retinal detachments (conventional methods were performed. In addition, 314 patients with contusion trauma of the eyes were treated. Out of 297 patients with penetrant eye injuries, 196 (66% had intraocular foreign bodies (IOFB, and 101 (34% were without IOFB. A total number of endophthalmitis was 34 (8.73%. The number of combined anterior-posterior segment operations during this period was 227. Conclusion: Vitreoretinal operations are the most prevailing in treatment of serious eye injuries. Pars plana vitrectomy is also the most common method of surgical treatment of eye injuries.

  2. The Primary Study of Changes of the Structure of Ocular Anterior Segment after Trabeculectomy with Ultrasound Biomicroscopy%超声生物显微镜对原发性闭角型青光眼小梁切除手术前后眼前节结构改变的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘雪; 李平华

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用超声生物显微镜(UBM)分别观察急、慢性原发性闭角型青光眼小梁切除手术前后眼前节结构的改变.方法 对26例33眼急性闭角型青光眼和25例37眼慢性闭角型青光眼分别于小梁切除手术前和手术后1个月应用UBM进行眼前节结构的测量.结果 急性闭角型青光眼房角开放距离 (AOD)、房角开放度数 (AA)、虹膜晶状体接触距离(ILCD)、虹膜晶体夹角(θ2)、虹膜悬韧带距离(IZD)手术前后比较有统计学差异(P<0.05),术前3眼发现睫状体脱离.慢性闭角型青光眼ILCD、θ2、IZD手术前后比较有统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 UBM对原发性闭角型青光眼患者小梁切除手术后眼前节结构的改变能进行精确测量,对探讨青光眼发病机制、防止并发症发生、判断手术预后均有较大的实用价值.%Objective To observe the changes of the structure of ocular anterior segment after trabeculectomy with ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM) in acute angle-closure glaucoma(ACAG) and chronic angle-closure glaucoma(CACG).Methods 26 patients(33 eyes)of acute angle-closure glaucoma and 25 patients(37 eyes)of chronic angle-closure glaucoma were underwent trabeculectomy.The structure of ocular anterior segment were separately observed and measured by using UBM before and after surgery.Results In ACAG patients,there were statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative angle opening distance(AOD),open angle(AA),iris-lens contact distance(ILCD),iris-lens angle(θ2),iris-zonular distance(IZD) (P<0.05),and there were 3 eyes with ciliary body detachment before surgery.In CACG patients,there were statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative ILCD,θ2,IZD(P<0.05).Conclusions UBM is an exactly tool to mea-sure the changes of the structure of ocular anterior segment after trabeculectomy.It posses higher diagnostic value in discussing mechanism of glaucoma

  3. Research progress on anterior segment optical coherence tomography in glaucoma%眼前节相干光断层扫描在青光眼中的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵黎; 李青松; 柯梅青; 张兴儒

    2014-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second blindness disease in the world, and there are more primary angle closed glaucoma in China.The anatomy changes of the anterior chamber have close relationships with the development of glaucoma. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography ( AS-OCT) has the advantages of fast, non-contact, high resolution and accurate quantitative measurement, which provides a kind of important method for finding the pathogenesis of primary angle closed glaucoma, for early diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma, and for the postoperative evaluation of glaucoma.%青光眼是世界第二位致盲性眼病,我国以原发性闭角型青光眼较多。前房解剖结构的改变与青光眼的发展有密切的关系。眼前段光学相干断层成像技术( anterior segment optical coherence tomography , AS-OCT )具有检查快速、非接触、高分辨率、精确定量化测量等特点,为原发闭角型青光眼房角关闭的发病机制、早期诊断和治疗、青光眼术后评价等方面提供了一种重要的方法。

  4. Lenstar LS900与IOLMaster测量眼前节生物参数及人工晶状体度数的比较%Comparison of anterior segment biometry and intraocular lens power measured by Lenstar LS900 and IOLMaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶向彧; 纪建丽; 张广斌; 王乐; 毛益辉; 何雪洪

    2011-01-01

    目的 精确的眼生物测量对人工晶状体(intraocular lens,IOL)度数计算至关重要,尤其是眼轴及角膜曲率的测量.本研究将对比新一代光学低相干反射生物测量仪Lenstar LS900 (Haag-Streit)与IOLMaster对眼前节参数及IOL测算的差异.方法 应用Lenstar LS900和IOLMaster分别对30例(60眼)老年性白内障患者进行眼轴长度、前房深度、角膜曲率和散光轴方面的测量比较;分别利用2种设备计算IOL度数,均选用SRK/T计算公式和SA60AT(Alcon)IOL,在确定同一度数的前提下比较目标屈光度的差异.结果 Lenstar LS900和IOLMaster测量眼轴长度、前房深度、平均角膜曲率、陡峭轴角膜曲率之间差异均无统计学意义(均为P>0.05),且均具有良好的相关性(相关系数分别为0.999、0.955、0.936、0.845),而两种设备测得陡峭轴之间相关欠佳(r =0.579).Lenstar LS900和IOLMaster所获得的术后目标屈光度值分别为(-0.02±0.17)D和(-0.07±0.23)D,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).Bland-Altman分析显示,2种设备获得的目标屈光值具有良好的一致性.结论 Lenstar LS900和IOLMaster两种设备测量眼前节参数及IOL度数具有良好的一致性.同时,Lenstar LS900还可以快速、准确的为白内障患者和屈光医师提供更多的眼生物参数.%Objective To compare the difference of anterior segment biometry and intraocular lens (IOL) power measured by a new noncontact optical biometer Lenstar LS9O0 (Haag-Streit) using optical low-coherence reflectometry and IOLMaster. Methods Biometry measurements in 60 eyes of 30 patients scheduled for cataract surgery by the same examiner with Lenstar LS900 and IOLMaster, the axial length (AL) .anterior chamber depth (ACD) and keratometric (K) were compared,IOL power for AcrySof SA60AT( Alcon) measure by two devices using SRK/T formulas was calculated, and the difference of targeted diopter under same IOL power was compared. Results There was no statistical

  5. Development of optoelectronic hardware: program complex for the analysis of hypoxia in the anterior eye camera in persons wearing contact lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topakova, Anastassia A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Gar'kavenko, Victor V.; Levchenko, Julia S.; Lazarenko, Victor I.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorimetry of eye is a perspective technique for research and diagnostics in ophthalmology. It is connected to the structural and functional characteristics of eye that is, actually, the optical system allowing transferring the radiation both for excitation and for registration of fluorescence in different eye's compartments: cornea, lens, vitreous body, and fundus of the eye. At present, different models of ophthalmologic fluorophotometers for the analysis of eye fluorescence as well as more advanced models - scanning fluorophotometers - are offered. Assessment of corneal status in persons wearing contact lenses or in patients with pathological changes (i.e. diabetes mellitus) would give us an opportunity to identify the initial manifestations of corneal pathology at the pre-symptomatic phase. In this paper, we present data on the compact spectrofluorimeter with UV LEDs-induced excitation as well as the method for assessing hypoxic alterations in the eye limb zone caused by contact lenses wearing. We demonstrate dependence of autofluorescence spectra on the contact lenses types and duration of their permanent wearing.

  6. A tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia Simplifying ectasia screening with corneal and anterior segment tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno de Freitas Valbon; Rodrigo Teixeira Santos; Isaac Ramos; Ana Laura Canedo; Leonardo Nogueira; Renato Ambrósio Jr

    2013-01-01

    Descrevemos a importância da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia. Esta descrição da interpretação clínica dos índices da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior (Pentacam - Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany) neste relato de caso, demonstra a relevância de uma nova tecnologia na avaliação da córnea e segmento anterior na suspeita de ceratocone. O diagnóstico de ceratocone foi excluído pela análise dos índices tomográficos de ectasia. D...

  7. Comparison of ultrasound biomicroscopy and CT in diagnosis of anterior segment intraocular foreign body%超声活体显微镜和CT诊断眼前段异物的对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李舒茵; 史大鹏

    2008-01-01

    Objective To report the appearance of anterior segment intraocular foreign body in ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM)and CT. To investigate the advantage and disadvantage of these two imaging methods and to evaluate the value of combining application of these methods in the diagnosis of anterior segment intraocular foreign body. Methods It was a comparative study. Forty-four cases of suspected anterior segment intraoeular foreign body were simultaneously examined by UBM and CT from July 2000 to Mav 2007,the results were compared with the operation results.Results In 44 cases examined by CT,foreign bodies in 40 cases showed high density shadows,including iron,copper,stone and other foreign bodies:2 cases showed slightly high density shadow,which were identified as plastics;in 2 cases,the foreign bodies could not be detected by CT,which were bamboo pick and Chinese chestnut sting. It wasdifficuItv to locate the foreign body exactly and to detect the complications of anterior segment intraocular foreign body by using CT.All 44 cases of anterior segment intraocular foreign body showed strong echo spot with acoustic shadow in the UBM.UBM could provide the exact location of foreign body and could detect all complications. But the examining procedure of UBM was complicated,the examining screen was relativelynarrow and the examination was time-consuming. Condusion In suspected anterior segment intraocular foreign body,CT examination should be performed first to detect the position and the nature of foreign body,then UBM could be used to obtain the exact position of foreign body and to detect the complications.(Chin J Ophthalmol,2008,44:229-232)%目的 探讨超声活体显微镜(UBM)和CT两种不同成像方法 对眼前段异物诊断的优缺点及联合应用的价值.方法 为比较研究,收集2000年7月至2007年5月共44例疑诊为眼前段异物的患者同时行UBM和CT检查的资料,并与其手术结果 相对照.结果 CT扫描发现其中40例表现为高密

  8. 眼前节相干光断层扫描在原发性闭角型青光眼诊治中的应用%Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for the evaluation of primary angle closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杏; 李媚

    2013-01-01

    眼前节相干光断层扫描(AS-OCT)是继超声生物显微镜(UBM)后又一种眼前段成像检测手段,其为无创性、非接触性,分辨率较UBM高.可测量包括角膜、前房、前房角、虹膜、晶状体等多个眼前段结构参数.本文评价了AS-OCT在原发性闭角型青光眼(PACG)诊治中利用AS-OCT了解PACG和正常人眼前段生物学参数的差异,了解周边虹膜切开(或切除)术后、小梁切除术后、白内障手术后PACG的眼前段结构性参数的变化,以及对小梁切除术后滤过泡功能进行评估等,强调AS-OCT在PACG的诊断、发病机制、治疗观察中具有重要的临床应用价值.%Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) is an imaging instrument developped after ultrasound biomi-croscopy (UBM). Moreover, AS-OCT is a non-invasive and non-contact instrument with a higher resolution than UBM. AS-OCT offers anterior segment images of the cornea, anterior chamber, anterior chamber angle, iris and lens. In this article, the value of AS-OCT is e-valuated in the diagnosis and treatment of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), including the application of AS-OCT in observing the differences between PACG and normal controls, the changes in anterior segment configuration after peripheral iridectomy/trabeculec-tomy/ cataract surgery in PACG, and the morphology of filtering blebs after trabeculectomy. The present study showed that AS-OCT would play an important role in the diagnosis, treatment choice and pathogenesis study of PACG.

  9. The application of AS-OCT in the quantification study of anterior segment changes in patients with early stage PACG following LPI%原发性闭角型青光眼早期干预后眼前段结构改变定量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方敏; 葛坚; 王梅; 林明楷; 卓业鸿; 凌运兰; 张秀兰; 蔡小于; 金陈进

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用光学成像系统一前段OCT(Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographv.AS-OCT)量化评价原发性闭角犁青光眼患者(Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma,PACG)早期干预后眼前段结构的改变.方法 对确诊的早期PACG患者36例(60只眼)予以激光周边虹膜切开术(Laser Peripheral Iri-dotomy,LPI)进行早期干预;采用AS-OCT量化评价干预后眼前段结构的改变.对视力、眼压、房角开放情况及眼前段结构包括AOD500(巩膜突前500μm的房角开放距离)、前房轴深、晶状体厚度等进行观察,随访时间3个月.结果 术后视力无明显变化,术后眼压较术前下降,差异有统计学意义(t=3.506,P<0.01).术后房角增宽,AOD500增加,差异有统计学意义(t=-8.34,P<0.01),术后前房轴深加深,差异有统计学意义,(t-2.909,P<0.01),术后晶状体厚度增加,差异有统计学意义(t-3.701,P<0.01 o结论AS-OCT的精确定量能够发现LPI术后眼前段结构的细微改变,是研究原发性闭角型青光眼早期于预的有力辅助工具.%Objeetive To quantify the clinical features and the anatomical changes following laser pe-ripheral iridotomy(LPI)in early stage PACG with AS-OCT.Methods 36 early stage PACG patients(60 eyes) were evaluated using gonioscopy and AS-OCT.Anterior segment configuration including angle opening dis-tance at 500 micron anterior to the scleral spur, AOD500,anterior chamber depth,ACD,lens thickness, LT were determined.The following-up was 3 months.Results After LPI, visual acuity changed little after LPI, in-traocular pressure reduced(t =3.506, P <0.01 ), AODS00 became wider(t =-8.34, P <0.01 ), ACD deepened(t =-2.909,P <0.01 )and the lens became thicker(t =-3.701 ,P <0.01 ).Conclusions AS-OCT can make precise quantifying discriminations in the anterior segment changes in early stage PACG patients following LPI, AS-OCT can be a useful high quality instrument in PACG study.

  10. Age-Related Change and Gender Difference in Ocular Anterior Segment Parameters%眼前段生物结构参数的年龄相关性改变与性别差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹏; 孔祥斌; 晏世刚; 黄玉娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较30岁以上正常人不同年龄段眼前段生物结构参数的变化及性别差异,为闭角型青光眼的发病机制提供证据。方法选择474例眼科门诊检查正常者为研究对象,均30岁以上,其中男213例,女261例。采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪,获取眼前段水平图像,用中山房角分析软件进行图片分析获得眼前段结构参数[包括房角宽度(angle open distance,AOD500)、虹膜面积、前房深度及前房容积],按年龄、性别进行分组,采用 stata12.0进行数据处理及分析。结果各年龄段 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积及虹膜面积比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.001);男性 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积及虹膜面积均显著高于女性(P <0.001)。30~55岁年龄段,AOD500变化最大,而55岁后 AOD500变化相对平缓;男性前房容积在50岁前变化相对明显,50岁后变化相对平缓,而女性前房容积变化明显且均匀。结论30以上正常人 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积均随年龄增加呈递减趋势,而虹膜面积随年龄增加呈递增趋势;女性较男性更易患闭角型青光眼。%Objective To investigate the age-related change and gender difference in ocular an-terior segment parameters in persons older than 30 years,and to provide evidence for the patho-genesis of angle-closure glaucoma.Methods A total of 474 normal subjects older than 30 years (213 males and 261 females)were selected in this study.The anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT)was performed to obtain the anterior segment images,and the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to obtain the ocular anterior segment parameters,including angle opening distance at 500 μm(AOD500),iris area,anterior chamber depth and anterior cham-ber volume.These subjects were divided into different age and gender groups.Data were analyzed using Stata12.0.Results There were significant

  11. 原发性急性闭角型青光眼周边虹膜切除和滤过性手术前后眼前段结构参数对比分析%Anterior segment optical coherence tomography changes after iridectomy or trabeculectomy in angle-closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李媚; 刘杏; 钟毅敏; 曹丹; 杨晔; 曾阳发

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in antenor segment configuration after peripheral iridectomy (PD or trabeculectomy (Trab) in acute primary angle closure glaucoma (APACG). Methods FiRy-seven eyes of 57 patients with APACG were successive collected. PI was performed to those patients with the clock hours of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) 6, while Trab was performed to those patients with the clock hours of PAS >6. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) examination was performed before and 3 months after PI/Trab to compare central anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular iris area (TISA), angle recess area (ARA), anterior chamber width (ACW), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and crystalline lens rise (CLR). Results There were no differences in mean age (P 0.862) and male/female ratio (P=0.380) between the 2 groups. After surgery, AOD, TISA, ARA, ACA and ACV increased significantly (P <0.001~0.044), while no changes were found in ACD, ACW and CLR (P=0.102~0.609) in PI group. In Trab group, ACV increased significantly postoperation (P <0.001) while other parameters shown no changes. Conclusions Both surgery of PI and Trab can increase ACV; PI can improve the anterior angle parameters in APACG, but Trab surgery shows no changes of those parameters.%目的 观察原发性急性闭角型青光眼(acute primary angle closure glaucoma,APACG)周边虹膜切除(peripheral iridectomy,PI)和小梁切除术(Trabeculectomy,Trab)手术前后眼前段结构参数的改变.方法 临床病例对照研究.对2009年6~12月在中山大学眼科中心连续性收集57例57只眼APACG患者,周边虹膜粘连(peripheral anterior synechiae,PAS)范围≤6个钟点者行PI术,PAS范围>6个钟点者行小梁切除术,术前及术后3月行眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(anterior segment optical coherence tomograph,AS-OCT)眼前段扫描.比较两组组内及组间术前及术后的中央前房深度(central anterior chamber

  12. 眼前节内眼模拟手术诱发血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型%Rat model of blood-ocular barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular analogic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢茂松; 郑永征; 徐国兴

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立眼前节内眼模拟手术诱发血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型.方法 清洁级健康成年雄性Sprague-Dawley大鼠150只,随机分为对照组和模型组,每组75只.按1 ml/kg的剂量腹腔注射盐酸氯胺酮-盐酸甲苯噻嗪混合液麻醉大鼠.磷酸盐缓冲液灌注袋连接三通管.三通管一端连接24G静脉留置针,手术显微镜下在3点时钟位从角巩缘前透明角膜30°斜行穿刺入前房,退出针头,留置套管;另一端连接24G静脉留置针套管,与测压计相连测量大鼠眼压.大鼠眼压波动于0~12 mm Hg(1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa)之间,波动30次/min,重复60次.采用氧氟沙星滴眼液滴眼.建模后第1、2、3、5、7天,采用免疫组织化学法检测大鼠白蛋白;定量检测大鼠房水、视网膜中伊凡思蓝(EB)浓度.结果 免疫组织化学染色结果显示,建模后第1、2、3、5、7天对照组白蛋白阳性染色均局限于虹膜和视网膜血管内,脉络膜弥漫性着色.建模后第1天,模型组白蛋白阳性染色主要位于虹膜和视网膜神经层血管周围;建模后第2、3天,阳性染色扩散到虹膜和视网膜全层;建模后第5、7天,阳性染色主要局限于虹膜和视网膜血管内.模型组房水中EB浓度在建模后第1、2、3、5天,均较对照组高(t=25.781,37.433,25.150,19.171;P<0.01);建模后第7天,与对照组接近(t=1.303,P=0.209).模型组视网膜EB浓度在建模后第1、2、3天,均较对照组高(t=11.997,14.622,23.014;P<0.01);建模后第5、7天,与对照组接近(t=2.027,0.756; P=0.058,0.459).结论 通过模拟眼前节内眼手术损伤因素,可建立内眼手术诱发的血眼屏障破坏的大鼠动物模型.%Objective To establish a rat model of blood ocular barrier breakdown induced by anterior segment intraocular analogic surgery. Methods One hundred and fifty healthy adult male rats were randomly divided into control group and model group,75 rats in each group.The rats were

  13. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  14. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  15. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  16. Changes of anterior segment after early implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for correction of high myopia%ICL植入术治疗高度近视术后早期眼前节形态的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎冬平; 刘磊; 李新宇; 栗静; 王虎杰; 杨硕

    2014-01-01

    目的:我们应用眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)测量有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体( ICL )植入术手术前后前节形态指标,评价有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术的安全性及稳定性。  方法:选取行有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术治疗的高度近视患者48例90眼,术后随访6mo。 Pentacam眼前节全景分析仪测量各时间点的中央前房深度( ACD)、3∶00位前房角( ICA)、角膜像差( CA)、角膜曲率( K)和角膜厚度(CCT)等指标。使用SPSS 19.0统计软件,描述术前术后各指标的分布特征,采用配对t检验对各指标进行手术前后的差异性比较。  结果:所有观察指标各时间点均呈正态分布。 ACD、3∶00位ICA较术前降低( P<0.05)。 CA中,总像差( CTA )及低阶像差( CLOA)较术前无统计差异( P>0.05),高阶像差(CHOA)则较术前有所增加(P<0.05);K略有减小(P<0.05)。 CCT较术前比较均无统计学差异( P>0.05)。对于术后有统计学意义变化的指标,均在术后1 mo时即达到稳定状态。  结论:应用眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam )观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术眼前节形态的变化主要有ICA变窄, ACD变小, CHOA增加, K减小,尚在安全范围内,6 mo随访中各值均保持稳定,未出现并发症,但远期效果需进一步随访观察。%AIM:To evaluate safety and stability of ICL implantation treatment of high myopia through the observation of anterior segment parameters such as ACD and ICA over time pre-and post-operation changes by Pentacam. METHODS:According to the proposed inclusion criteria, 90 eyes (48 patients) with high myopia who accepted ICL implantation treatment were selected.The mean follow-ups are 6 months.Anterior segment parameters such as ACD, ICA ( 3'clock ) , corneal aberration ( CA ) , K-value and CCT were

  17. Automated detection of inflammatory cells in whole anterior chamber of a uveitis mouse from swept-source optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Cell grading in a rodent anterior chamber is essential for anterior inflammation evaluation in preclinical vision research. This paper describes a computerized method for detection and counting of the anterior chamber cells from swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of a experimental rodent model of uveitis. The volumetric anterior segment OCT data is obtained from 100 kHz SS-OCT imaging of mouse eye in vivo. For the OCT cross-sections, each OCT structural image is de-speckled and binarized. After removal of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens structures connected to the binary image border, an area thresholding is then employed for each labeled region to isolate only celllike objects in the anterior chamber, followed by roundness estimation of the objects to identify potential cell candidates in the data. Eventually, the cell candidates are counted and graded as total number of cells in the anterior chamber.

  18. Short-term variation in ocular anterior chamber angle using Scheimpflug photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate short-term variation of ocular Anterior Chamber Angle (ACA within and across the different meridians of young, healthy eyes.Method: Scheimpflug photography (via an  Oculus Pentacam was used to repeatedly measure the anterior segment of the right eyes of three young females, all aged 22 years.  For each individual, ten consecutive maps were determined over a short time period and each map contained information for the chamber angles of different meridians across the eye involved, roughly at 70 intervals.  Each meridian in an eye was thus measured 10 times in total permitting analysis of short-term variation both within and across the meridians concerned.  Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods used to understand short-term variation of ACA included meridional plots of medians andlower and upper quartiles (Q1 and Q3 and various polar plots (of raw observations, of means and 95%confidence regions, and of standard deviations.Results: Over, at least, short periods of time, Scheimpflug photography provided fairly repeatable results for ACA both within and across the meridians of the eyes involved.  However, occasionally outliers increased variability for some meridians.  While short-term variation within meridians was relatively small assuming exclusion of a limitednumber of outliers, variation across the meridians of specific eyes was greater (probably relating to the usual anatomical structure of eyes with ACA in the inferior quadrants being mostly larger than that for the superior quadrants.  Friedman ANOVA confirmed for each of the three eyes concerned thamedian ACA was significantly different across thvarious meridians.Conclusion: Scheimpflug photography allows for comprehensive, non-invasive and rapid measurement of ACA through 3600.  Repeatability of measurements appears satisfactory over the short-term, despite potential limitations relating to this photo-graphic method for measuring ACA.  The

  19. Endophthalmitis after tooth extraction in a patient with previous perforating eye injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurel, Tevfik; Onaran, Zafer; Ogurel, Reyhan; Örnek, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this stuty is to describe a case of endophthalmitis after tooth extraction in a patient with previous perforating eye injury. 50 years old male patient attempted to our clinic with complaints of sudden severe pain, reduced vision, light sensitivity and redness in the right eye. The patient stated that severe pain in his eye began approximately 12 hours following tooth extraction. The patient's ocular examination revealed a visual acuity of hand motion in the right eye. Anterior segment examination of the right eye showed intense conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, a fine keraticprespitat and corneal edema. Dental procedures of the patients who had recently underwent ocular surgery or trauma should be done in a more controlled manner under anti -infective therapy or should be postponed in elective procedures.

  20. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong, K.C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-08-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed.

  1. Evaluation of Corneal Stromal Demarcation Line after Two Different Protocols of Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Procedures Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Bilge Ozgurhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the depth of corneal stromal demarcation line using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy after two different protocols of accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures (CXL. Methods. Patients with keratoconus were divided into two groups. Peschke CXL device (Peschke CCL-VARIO Meditrade GmbH applied UVA light with an intended irradiance of 18.0 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes after applying riboflavin for 20 minutes (group 1 and 30 minutes (group 2. One month postoperatively, corneal stromal demarcation line was measured using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy. Results. This study enrolled 34 eyes of 34 patients (17 eyes in group 1 and 17 eyes in group 2. The mean depth of the corneal stromal demarcation line was 208.64±18.41 μm in group 1 and 240.37±18.89 μm in group 2 measured with AS OCT, while it was 210.29±18.66 μm in group 1 and 239.37±20.07 μm in group 2 measured with confocal microscopy. Corneal stromal demarcation line depth measured with AS OCT or confocal microscopy was significantly deeper in group 2 than group 1 (P<0.01. Conclusion. The group in which riboflavin was applied for 30 minutes showed significantly deeper corneal stromal demarcation line than the group in which riboflavin was applied for 20 minutes.

  2. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  3. Clinical observation and analysis of adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical fusion%颈椎前路融合术后相邻节段退变的临床观察与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义生; 邓俊森

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study whether the anterior cervical fusion inevitably lead to the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) . [Methods] From 1986.1 to 1999. 12, a total of 346 patients with cervical degenerative disease underwent the surgery of enlarged decompression with circular saw and auto iliac bone grafting. Among them there were 1 segment in 55 patients, 2 segments in 223 patients and 3 segments in 68 patients. The two motion segments adjacent to the fused segment and interval from the fused segment were evaluated respectively for imaging changes and divided the results into groups for statistical test. [Results] The patients were followed up for 13. 5 (4.1 ~ 18) years on average. Total 156 cases (45. 1% ) had obvious adjacent segment degeneration, 23 cases (6. 6% ) had obvious interval segment degeneration. The interval segment degeneration was less than that of adjacent segment degeneration, and the comparative differences had statistically significance (P 0.05 ) . [ Conclusion] The anterior cervical fusion accelerated the occurrence of ASD. The incidence of cephalic adjacent segment ASD was higher than that of tail side adjacent segments. The incidences of postoperative ASD in single segment and several segment fusion have no significant differences.%[目的]研究颈椎前路融合术是否必然导致邻近节段退变(adjacent segment degeneration,ASD).[方法]1986~1999年,共346例采用“环锯法前路扩大脊髓减压+椎体间植骨内固定术”治疗颈椎退变性疾病,其中,1个间隙55例,2个间隙223例,3个间隙68例.分别评定融合节段头、尾侧相邻间隙及间隔间隙的影像学表现,对结果分组进行统计学检验.[结果]术后随访13.5 (4.1 ~18)年,发生邻近节段明显退变的156例(45.1%),间隔节段明显退变的23例(6.6%).间隔节段退变明显少于邻近节段退变,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).单纯头侧邻近节段发生ASD 84例,单纯尾侧邻近节段发生ASD 27例,头

  4. Analysis of adjacent segment degeneration of patients with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion%颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后邻近节段退变情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志龙; 张晓星; 王令; 李邦春

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后融合椎体邻近节段退变的影响因素.方法 选取250例行颈椎前路减压植骨融合内固定手术治疗的患者作为研究对象,观察术后邻近节段退变的发生情况,对退变患者组与无退变患者组各项观察指标进行统计学比较.结果 共72例(75个节段)(28.8%)发生术后邻近节段退变,椎间盘退变程度按评分,1分48例,2分21例,3分3例;退变组术前D值(1.26±1.30)mm、术后D值(3.76±3.10)mm,明显小于无退变组的(1.90±1.30)mm与(5.85±3.04)mm(P0.05).结论 颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后融合椎体邻近节段退变发生率较高;颈椎前凸程度较小、且手术对颈椎前凸程度改善较小是导致邻近节段退变发生的重要影响因素.%Objective To analyze the influeneing factors of adjacent segment degeneration of patients with anterior cervical discectolny and fusion. Methods Totally 250 cases of anterior cervical discectolny and fusion were selected for study. The incidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed and the indexes of degeneration group and non-degeneration group were compared statistically. Results There were 72 cases (75 segment) of adjacent segment degeneration( 28.8% ) ,including 48 cases of degradation score of 1, 21 cases of degradation score of 2,3 cases of degradation score of 3. The preoperative D value of degradation group was ( 1.26 ± 1.30 ) mm, while ( 3.76 + 3.10) mm after operation, indicating significantly lower than that of non-degradation group ( P < 0.05 ).The postoperative D value of degradation group increased by ( 2.5 + 3.21 ) mm,notably lower than that of non-degradation group (3.95 ± 3.13) mm ( P < 0.05 ) . The age, gender distribution, JOA score and Cobb' s angle of the two groups had no statistical difference( P < 0.05). Conclusion The incident rate of adjacent segment degeneration in patients with anterior cervical diseectolny and fusion is high. The small degree of

  5. The preliminary research of normal structure of ocular anterior segment with 20.0 MHz ultrasound%20.0 MHz超声对正常活体眼前节结构检测的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琴; 刘薇; 成仲夏

    2000-01-01

    目的 探讨高频超声对眼前节结构的检测价值,为进一步研究眼前节组织疾病奠定基础.方法 用20.0 MHz高频探头对30例正常人眼的眼前节结构进行测量.结果 20.0 MHz高频超声能清楚地观察角膜、虹膜、晶状体、睫状体、前房等结构.角膜呈一条弧形的高回声,中央厚度为(O·383±O.031)mm:前房为无回声,前房深度为(2.241±0.256)mm;虹膜呈短条状高回声,厚度为(O.419±O.044)mm;晶状体前囊膜呈弧形高回声,晶状体内部为无回声,晶状体厚度为(3.533±0.185)mm;睫状体为类似三角形的中高回声,最厚处厚度为(1.131±0.094)mm.结论 20.0 MHz高频超声可无创性、清晰地观察正常眼的眼前节结构,对青光眼、角膜、巩膜、虹膜、晶状体、睫状体疾病的诊断有较大价值.%Objective To investigate the normal structure of ocular anterior segment with 20.0MHz ultrasound.Methods The structres of ocular anterior segment in thirty normal humen were measured with 20.0MHz high frequency ultrasound probe.Results The conea,iris,lens,ciliary body, and the anterior chambet was clearly viewed and measured with 20.0 MHz high frequency ultrasound.An intense curving echo was seen in the conea, which central thickness was(0.383±0.031)mm. No echo was seen in the anterior chamber, which death was(2.241±0.256)mm.A short strip echo was seen in the iris, which thickness was(0.419±O.044) mm.The intense curving echo was seen in the whole lens.No echo was seen in the interior part of the lens. The thickness of the 1ens was(3.533±0.185)mm. A medium triangularlike echo was seen in the ciliary body. The most thickest pan was(1.131±0.094)mm. Conclusions The normal structure of ocular anterior segment can be clearly Observed by 20.0 MHz high frequency ultrasound without injury.The method is very valuable in the diagnosis of diseases ocular diseases, such as glaucoma, conea, sclera, iris, lense and the ciliary body.

  6. Non-fusion segment disease after the anterior cervical arthrodesis:a retrospective study%颈椎前路融合术后非融合节段退变性疾病的回顾性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炳路; 宋科冉; 陈巧灵; 陈增海; 王大鹏; 王慧; 金培; 唐家广

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and causes of non-fusion segment disease ( NFSD ), both adjacent and non-adjacent to the fused segment, after the anterior cervical arthrodesis.Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Between January 1998 and January 2011, 171 patients who had anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the intervertebral disc herniation and cervical spondylosis were followed clinically. There were 97 males and 74 females, and the average age at the operation was ( 51.90 ± 9.28 ) years ( range: 31 - 72 years ). We evaluated the correlation between the incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease and the following clinical parameters ( age at the operation, fusion levels ) and radiological parameters ( preoperative and postoperative cervical spine alignment, Pavlov’s ratio at the C5 level, and preoperative existence of a non-fusion segment degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging ).Results Of the 171 patients reviewed, 16 patients had non-fusion segment disease ( 9.36% ), 12 patients had adjacent segment disease and 4 had non-adjacent segment disease. Postoperative cervical lordosis in the non-fusion segment disease group was signiifcantly smaller than that of the disease-free group [ ( 7.38 ± 12.37 ) ° vs. ( 17.26 ± 9.75 ) °,P < 0.001 ]. Fusion levels in the NFSD group were 1.63 whereas 2.27 in disease-free group (P = 0.002 ). The incidence of disc degeneration in non-fused segments was more severe in the NFSD group than in the disease-free group [ ( 2.63 ± 0.62 )vs. ( 1.62 ± 0.99 ), P = 0.008 ].Conclusions The incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease after the anterior cervical arthrodesis has multifactorial causes. Postoperative cervical lordosis, disc degeneration in non-fusion segments, and the number of fusion levels are all factors in the incidence of NFSD.%目的:探讨颈椎前路减压融合术后非融合节段病变( non-fusion segment disease,NFSD )的发生率和

  7. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  8. Anterior segment changes during accommodation in myopia with OCT%OCT测量近视眼在不同调节状态下眼前段结构变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周少博; 李辉; 谭娟; 洪海峰

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate anterior segment changes during accommodation in different degree of myopia with OCT.METHODS: Sixty myopes with the age from 18 to 39 years were enrolled in this study and were divided into two groups: low to moderate myopia group (>-6. 0D), and high myopia group (≤-6. OD). Anterior segment measurements were performed by anterior segment optic coherence tomography ( OCT) under three different accommodative state of relax (0.0 D), 3. 00D and 5. 00D. The posterior corneal curvature (PCC), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), pupil diameter (PD) were compared at different accommodative state using repeated measures ANOVA.RESULTS:Low to moderate myopia group comprised 32 myopes with the mean age 29. 34 ± 4. 65 years, mean spherical equivalent -3. 72± 1. 05D; High myopia group comprised 28 myopes with the mean age 29. 57 ± 5. 89 years, mean spherical equivalent -7.05±0.85D; With the accommodation relaxed (0D), there was no difference between the low to moderate myopia group and high myopia group both in PCC and LT, ACD was 2. 92 ± 0.23mm in high myoia and 2. 67 ± 0. 19mm in low to moderate myopia (t=-4. 637, P=0.000). Pupil diameter was 6.21 ±0. 56mm in low to moderate myopia and 5.95± 0.42mm in high myopia (t= 2. 011, P= 0. 049). With the accommodation increased, ACD decreased significantly,LT increased significantly, and PD decreased significantly in both groups(all P 0.05).CONCLUSION: Anterior segment OCT can find the alteration of ACD, LT and PD with accommodation. During accommodation, the cornea is stable. However, with the accommodation increased, ACD, greater changes happened in LT and PD using anterior segment OCT.%目的:探讨不同程度近视眼在不同调节状态下OCT(optic coherence tomography,OCT)测量的眼前段结构的变化.方法:招募60例近视患者,年龄:18~39岁,按近视程度分为轻中度近视组和高度近视组,用眼前段OCT对测试眼分别在调节放松(0D)、诱发3.00D和5.00D

  9. Visualization of the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber of the mouse eye in vivo using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua; Ni, Yang; Xu, Baishen; Zhao, Chen; Shen, Yi; Du, Chixin; Jiang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    We report on a phase-based method for accurately measuring the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber in vivo. Using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography with optimized scanning protocols and equations for compensating bulk motion and environmental vibrations, a high sensitivity of 0.9 μm/s minimal velocity is demonstrated at a wide detection band of 0 to 380 Hz. The pulsatile relative motion between cornea and crystalline lens in rodents is visualized and quantified. The relative motion is most likely caused by respiration (1.6 Hz) and heartbeat (6.6 Hz). The velocity amplitude of the relative motion is 10.3±2.4 μm/s. The displacement amplitudes at the respiratory and cardiac frequencies are 202.5±64.9 and 179.9±49.4 nm, respectively. The potential applications of the measurement technique can be found in the evaluation of intraocular pressure and the measurement of biomechanical properties of the ocular tissue, which are important in several ocular diseases.

  10. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

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    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  11. 大脑前动脉A1段形态学特点与前交通动脉瘤的关系%The relationship between the morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文峰; 张龙; 李伟光; 张国忠; 何小艳; 王刚; 李明洲; 漆松涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To improve the predictability of surgical clipping and guide the steam shaping of mi-crocatheters in endovascular embolization by analyzing the association of morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (ACA) with formation and classification of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (ACoAA). Methods Digital subtraction angiography data of 264 cases of ACoAA and 296 cases of other cerebral vascular diseases were analyzed retrospectively. The morphology of A1 segment of ACA was divided into four different patterns including "arc" pattern (type Ⅰ a; convex shape, type Ⅰ b: concave shape), "S" pattern (type Ⅱ a: inverse lateral "s" shape, type Ⅱ b: lateral "s" shape), approximate straight-line shape (type Ⅲ ) and non-development. According to the direction of aneurysm protrusion, the ACoAA were divided into 5 types including anterior-inferior type, anterior-superior type, posterior-superior type, posterior-inferior type and complicated type. Results Among 264 ACoAA patients, the morphology of A1 segment of ACA was type I a in 158 sides, type Ⅰ b in 11, type Ⅱ a in 35, type lib in 87, type Ⅲ in 171 and absence in 66. The morphology of A1 segment of ACA in 296 patients with other cerebral vascular diseases was type Ⅰ a in 195 sides, type Ⅰ b in 20, type Ⅱ a in 47, type Ⅱ b in 74, type Ⅲ in 217 and absence in 39. The no-visualization of Al segment of ACA occurred was more frequent in the ACoAA group than in control group (x2 = 11.482, P = 0.001). The direction of ACoAA in 264 patients were anterior-superior type in 121 cases, anterior-inferior type in 105, complicated type in 16, posterior-inferior type in 12 and posterior-superior type in 10. The correlation between the morphology of dominant A1 segment of ACA and direction of ACoAA was significant x2 = 221.859, P = 0.000; C - 0.619, P = 0.000). The direction of ACoAA was downward at the type Ⅰ a/ type Ⅱ a, upward at type Ⅰ b/ type Ⅱ b, upward or downward

  12. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  13. Severe anterior uveitis associated with idiopathic dacryoadenitis in diabetes mellitus patient

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    Takahashi YY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Takahashi¹, Hirohiko Kakizaki¹, Akihiro Ichinose², Masayoshi Iwaki¹¹Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; ²Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: A 38-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus complained of acute visual loss in the left eye (20/200 and swollen left upper eyelid. Slit lamp examination of the left eye revealed ciliary injection, posterior synechia iritis, numerous inflammatory cells, and fibrin exudates in the anterior chamber. T1-weighted enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left lacrimal gland enhancement with inflammatory spread to the left anterior ocular segment. Blood examination showed increased blood sugar but the other components were within normal limits. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day × 3 days under a blood sugar control regimen in consultation with an endocrinologist, after which additional peribulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg was performed. Resolution of the anterior uveitis and the dacryoadenitis was obtained after 2 months and there was no recurrence 1 year after the therapy. This is a rare case of severe anterior uveitis caused by idiopathic dacryoadenitis in a patient with diabetes mellitus.Keywords: anterior uveitis, idiopathic dacryoadenitis, diabetes mellitus, magnetic resonance imaging, steroid

  14. 超声乳化白内障吸出术对急性原发性闭角型青光眼眼前段的影响%Effects of anterior segment after phacoemulsification in patients with acute primary angle closure glaucoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃洋; 赵岐; 钟兴武

    2011-01-01

    目的 使用Pentacam三维前房分析仪和眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)观察超声乳化白内障吸出术对急性原发性闭角型青光眼(APACG)患者眼前段的影响.方法 收集2010年7月至12月于中山大学附属中山医院眼科就诊的伴有白内障APACG的病例共39例(39眼).常规行超声乳化白内障吸出联合人工晶体(IOL)植入术.术前和术后3个月使用Pentacam和AS-OCT测量眼前段参数.结果 术后3个月,APACG患者眼压由术前(33.08±5.21)mm Hg降至(16.36±3.44)mm Hg(1mm Hg=0.133 kPa,t=20.644,P=0.000),中央前房深度由(1.79±0.20)mm增至(3.41±0.38) mm (t=36.191,P=0.000),周边前房深度由(0.82±0.12) mm加深至(1.81 ±0.20) mm (t=40.732,P=0.000),前房容积自(74.10±9.94) mm增加至(149.72± 17.12) mm (t=54.921,P=0.000),下方前房角自(24.03±3.50).加宽至( 43.29±3.92).(t=55.489,P=0.000),鼻侧前房角自(23.02±2.96)°加宽至(42.36±4.61).(t=43.291,P=0.000),上方前房角自(21.62±3.04).加宽至(39.66±3.53).( t=43.511,P=0.000),颞侧前房角自(22.88±2.87).加宽至(41.21±3.81).(t=44.930,P=0.000).瞳孔直径由术前(3.06±1.32)mm缩小至术后的(3.00±1.21)mm,但差异无统计学意义(t=1.177,P=0.247).结论 超声乳化白内障吸出术可改善APACG患者眼前段结构的狭窄.Pentacam和AS-OCT可简便快捷和非接触地观察眼前段,有良好的应用前景.%Objective To investigate the morphological changes of anterior segment in patients with acute primary angle closure glaucoma (APACG) after phacoemulsification using the Pentacam three-dimension anterior chamber analysis system and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT).Methods Thirty- nine APACG patients (39 eyes) accompanied with cataract were treated with phacoemulsification from July 2010 to December 2010 in Zhongshan Hospital.All the patients were examined by Pentacam and AS-OCT preoperation and 3 months postoperation.Outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP

  15. Surgery of eye injuries in an eight-year period

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    Vukosavljević Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Eye injuries constitute a leading problem in eye surgery worldwide, as well as at our department. Their treatment is very complex, and requires a wide surgical knowledge and surgical skills supported by the material and the equipment. Aim. To analyze the results of vitreoretinal surgery on 647 patients with severe penetrating eye injuries in the period from 1991 to 1998. Methods. The study included a retrospective analysis of the treatment of 647 injuries, out of which 500 were penetrating, and 147 were severe contusion injuries. Attention was payed to the penetrating injuries with intraocular foreign body (IOFB, to the number of the performed pars plana vitrectomies (VPP, to the number of the extirpated foreign bodies, as well as to the number of the conventional retinal ablation surgeries. Also significant proved the consequences of contusion injuries, and the method of their complete surgical management - the surgery combined with the implantation of intraocular lens, as well as their functional results. Results. Inside the said period, 558 VPPs were performed, 60 conventional retinal ablation surgeries, and 29 combined anterior/posterior segment surgeries. VPP was applied in 286 (51.3% of the cases with penetrating injuries with IOFB, and in 58 (10.4% of the cases with contusion injuries. VPP in one eye was applied in 464 (83% of the cases, in both eyes in 65 (11.8% of the cases, and in a single eye in 29 (5.2% of the cases. Following VPP, silicone oil tamponade was done in 352 (63% of the cases, air tamponade in 123 (22% of the cases, and Ringer-BSS tamponade in 83 (15% of the cases. Laser photocoagulation (LFC was performed in 484 (87% of the cases, cryocoagulation in 45 (8%, while neither of them was done in 29 (5% of the cases. In all of the cases of the conventional retinal ablation (n = 60, a placement of a serclage was applied and exocryocoagulation was performed, while in the 52 cases a placement of a scleral flap was

  16. The clinical practice of pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration in sundenly positive vitreous pressure during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment%经睫状体平坦部穿刺抽吸玻璃体液在眼前节内眼术中突发玻璃体正性压力下应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兴育; 马千丽; 杨新光; 张璐; 陈曦

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summary the clinical practice experience of pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment,to give suggestion to ophthalmologist in front of positive vitreous pressure.Methods A retrospective clinical study.The data of 24 patients (25 cases) who received pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration during intraocular operation of ocular anterior segment from December 2010 to March 2012 in Xi' an NO.4 hospital were collected.One of them had this practice in two time operations.Analysis the patients' sex,average age,preoperative diagnosis,operation mode,preoperative and postoperative intraocular pressure,puncture time,puncture related complications.Results The ratio of male and female was 1:2; average age was 60.0±10.4; in all cases,the first diagnosis was glaucoma in 21 cases,4 cases was cataract;the operation mode included:14 cases with glaucoma surgery,3 cases underwent phacoemulsification,4 cases underwent phacoemulsification combined with anterior vitrectomy,1 case underwent phacoemulsification combined with pars plana vitretomy,3 cases underwent anti-glaucoma and phacoemulsification combined with anterior vitrectomy; the average intraocular pressure of those cases with maximum drugs was 32.50±13.41mmHg,average intraocular pressure was 21.95±10.69 mmHg within the first day of postoperative; par plana anterior vitreous aspiration was likely to practice in any operation steps; two cases had complication,one was little vitreous hemorrhage,one was posterior capsular rupture.Conclusions Positive vitreous pressure is an occasionally thorny issue during intraocular operation in ocular anterior segment.Pars plana anterior vitreous aspiration can be quickly relieved clinical symptoms,make operation turn the comer.The clinical practice have some risk,ophthalmic should pay attention to operation and reduce complications.%目的 研究总结经睫状体平坦部穿刺抽吸玻璃体液在眼前节内眼手术中

  17. Mapping molecular differences and extracellular matrix gene expression in segmental outflow pathways of the human ocular trabecular meshwork.

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    Janice A Vranka

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the primary risk factor for glaucoma, and lowering IOP remains the only effective treatment for glaucoma. The trabecular meshwork (TM in the anterior chamber of the eye regulates IOP by generating resistance to aqueous humor outflow. Aqueous humor outflow is segmental, but molecular differences between high and low outflow regions of the TM are poorly understood. In this study, flow regions of the TM were characterized using fluorescent tracers and PCR arrays. Anterior segments from human donor eyes were perfused at physiological pressure in an ex vivo organ culture system. Fluorescently-labeled microspheres of various sizes were perfused into anterior segments to label flow regions. Actively perfused microspheres were segmentally distributed, whereas microspheres soaked passively into anterior segments uniformly labeled the TM and surrounding tissues with no apparent segmentation. Cell-tracker quantum dots (20 nm were localized to the outer uveal and corneoscleral TM, whereas larger, modified microspheres (200 nm localized throughout the TM layers and Schlemm's canal. Distribution of fluorescent tracers demonstrated a variable labeling pattern on both a macro- and micro-scale. Quantitative PCR arrays allowed identification of a variety of extracellular matrix genes differentially expressed in high and low flow regions of the TM. Several collagen genes (COL16A1, COL4A2, COL6A1 and 2 and MMPs (1, 2, 3 were enriched in high, whereas COL15A1, and MMP16 were enriched in low flow regions. Matrix metalloproteinase activity was similar in high and low regions using a quantitative FRET peptide assay, whereas protein levels in tissues showed modest regional differences. These gene and protein differences across regions of the TM provide further evidence for a molecular basis of segmental flow routes within the aqueous outflow pathway. New insight into the molecular mechanisms of segmental aqueous outflow may aid in

  18. 前路减压植骨融合术后颈椎相邻节段生物力学变化%Biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹飞; 郭丽; 朱庆三; 赵东旭; 巩固; 李然; 赵昆池; 王迎智

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF).Methods EB composite resin was used to mimic the fuion effect after anterior cervical decompression.The motion range and biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments were measured.Results Under the same torque of 2.0 Nm,the motion range of the adjacent segments was from 4.3 to 8.0 degrees,which was not significantly different from that before fusion (P >0.05).Increasing the torque gradually to let the samples reach their normal range of motion,the range of motion of the adjacent segments increased significantly.There are significant differences of them after and before fusion (P < 0.05).Conclusion If people keep the normal range of motion of cervical spine after ACDF,their adjacent segment's movement will increase significantly.This might be the main cause of the degeneration after fusion.By limiting the neck movement can reduce,or even avoid postoperative degeneration.%目的 观察颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后相邻节段生物力学变化.方法 采用EB复合树脂黏合的方法模拟颈椎前路减压植骨术后融合的效果,检测颈椎融合前、后相邻节段运动范围及生物力学的变化.结果 在2.0 Nm力矩不变的情况下,融合节段相邻间隙的运动范围为4.3°~8.0°,与融合前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);加大力矩使融合后的颈椎尽量达到术前正常运动范围时融合节段相邻间隙运动范围明显增加,与融合前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 颈椎融合术后如果仍要达到术前正常的运动范围,其相邻节段的运动范围明显增加,这可能是造成其退变的主要原因.限制颈部术后活动可以减少、甚至避免术后退变的发生.

  19. 经前路颈椎椎体次全切除钛网置入融合后相邻节段的退变%Adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟鹏飞; 刘伟; 孙志明; 张学利

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, the researchers have studied the adjacent segment degeneration after cervical fusion. Several studies concerned the adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the correlative factors of adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. METHODS:122 patients were included in the study from 126 patients who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion that operated by the same treatment team and involved a single vertebral body and the two plates between February 2009 and February 2012. The final fol ow-up period was 3 years. According to the degeneration progress of adjacent segment degeneration, these patients were divided into non-progression group and progression group. The gender, age, preoperative adjacent segment degeneration, cervical range of motion, upper and lower vertebral range of motion, surgical segment, titanium mesh subsidence, plate-to-disc distance, and cervical curvature index were compared between two groups. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the correlative factors of adjacent segment degeneration. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) There were significant differences in preoperative adjacent segment degeneration, postoperative cervical range of motion, postoperative upper and lower vertebral range of motion, and postoperative cervical curvature index (P  目的:探讨经前路椎体次全切除钛网椎间置入融合后相邻节段退变的相关因素。  方法:纳入2009年2月至2012年2月行经前路椎体次全切除钛网椎间置入融合的患者共126例,其中资料完整的122例纳入研究。均由同一治疗组完成,且手术均涉及单个椎体及2个间盘。终末随访期为3年。根据术前及术后相邻节段退变程度,分为非相邻节段退变进展组和相邻节段退变进展组,比较2组患者的性别、年龄、术前相邻节段退变、颈椎活动度、术椎

  20. 青光眼暗室激发试验的眼前节相关因素分析%The correlative factors of darkroom provocative test in anterior segment parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王忠浩; 李媚; 蔡小于; 梁轩伟; 刘杏

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析房角狭窄患者暗室激发试验阳性者的相关眼前节结构参数.方法 回顾性系列病例研究.分析260例房角狭窄患者的暗室试验结果和超声生物显微镜(UBM)眼前节结构参数.其中男性36例,女性224例,平均年龄(59.6±9.3)岁.眼前节结构参数包括前房深度(ACD)、瞳孔直径(PD)、晶状体矢高(LV)、周边虹膜厚度(IT)、虹膜膨隆度(IC)、房角开放距离(AOD)、小梁网睫状突夹角(TCPA)及房角接触性关闭的象限数(NPAC).用单因素和多因素Logistic回归分析青光眼暗室激发试验阳性的相关因素.结果 260例房角狭窄者青光眼暗室激发试验的阳性率为27.3% (71/206),男性阳性率(41.7%,15/36)大于女性(25.0%,56/224),差异有统计学意义(x2=4.340,P=0.037).单因素分析表明,男性(OR =2.14)、AOD(OR=0.98)、IT(OR=1.68)、NPAC(OR=2.24)是暗室试验阳性的相关因素;多因素Logistic回归分析表明,IT(OR=1.47)、NPAC(OR=1.70)是暗室试验阳性的独立相关因素.结论 房角和虹膜参数与房角狭窄者的青光眼暗室激发试验阳性结果相关,IT和NPAC是暗室激发试验阳性的独立相关因素.%Objective To investigate the correlative anterior segment parameters of positive darkroom provocative test in patients with narrow anterior chamber angles.Methods It was a retrospective case series study.Two hundred and sixty patients [36 males and 224 females,mean age (59.6 ± 9.3) years] with narrow anterior chamber angles underwent darkroom provocative test and UBM scan were analyzed retrospectively.Anterior segment parameters including anterior chamber depth (ACD),pupil diameter (PD),lens vault (LV),peripheral iris thickness (IT),iris convex (IC),anterior chamber angle open distance (AOD),trabecular-meshwork ciliary process angle (TCPA) and the number of appositional angle closure (NPAC) were quantitatively analyzed.Correlative factors of positive results were analysis by both single factor and multiple

  1. What is a segment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Patel, Nipam H

    2013-12-17

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that 'segmentation' be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures.

  2. Effects of benzydamine eye drops on the rabbit's eye reaction to surgical, physical, and chemical stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazzoli, L.; Bonora, A.; Luparini, M.R.; Durando, L.; Ciarniello, M.G.; Cioli, V.; Bonomi, L.

    The effects of benzydamine eye drops on the ocular reaction to different irritating stimuli in rabbits are reported. Benzydamine at the concentration of 0.1% reduces inflammatory tissue changes induced by AgNO3 burning of the cornea and inhibits the blood-aqueous barrier breakdown due to peripheral iridectomy or laser irradiation of the iris. Benzydamine reduces the aqueous PGE2 concentration to a similar extent as a 0.5% commercially available eye drop formulation of piroxicam. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro results demonstrating that benzydamine is devoid of any effects on PG synthesis. The possibility that PGE2 reduction is an indirect effect due to other biochemical activities of benzydamine is discussed. In the normal eye benzydamine manifests a local anaesthetic effect which is not accompanied by irritative changes in the anterior segment of the eye, changes in the intraocular pressure or pupillary size. It is suggested that in the clinical use of benzydamine eye drops the local anaesthetic activity may contribute to reducing both the neurogenic component of ocular inflammation and acute pain following injuries to the eye.

  3. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis.

  4. 改进的上颌前部骨切开术矫治上颌前突及其术后的美学评价%Esthetic evaluation after modified anterior segmental osteotomy on maxillary protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴中兴; 李祖兵; 东耀峻; 叶翁三杰; 杨学文; 李智

    2009-01-01

    Objective The main goals of orthognathic surgery are to achieve funetional occlusion and improve patient's profile.The unintended nasal change in association with anterior maxillary osteotomy is always a challenging.The purpose of this study was to improve the anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy resulting in less post-operative unintended nasal change.Methods Thirty-two patients with maxillary protrusion underwent modified anterior subapical maxillary osteotomy.The design of the modified approach was based on the anterior mandibular subapical osteotomy.The horizontal osteotomy connecting the vertical osteotomy lines on both right and left sides was performed inferior to the piriform aperture and 3 mm over the apex.The integrity of piriform aperture was maximally preserved.Lateral cephalograms,lateral and frontal photographs taken pre-and post-operatively were analyzed.All the patients were followed up for at least 6 months.Results All thirty-two patients were satisfied with esthetic outcome.The upper lip protrusions and tooth exposure improved significantly.Cephalometric and photograph analysis showed that the ratio of upper lip to maxillary ineisor retractionwas 0.64:1.00,and the nasolabial angle and philtrum length were significantly increased(P<0.05)while vermilion length was decreased.The height of nasal tip and nasal width(alarbase to alarbase)were not significantly changed.Conclusion The modified anterior subapical maxillary osteotomy is a simple procedure leading to no significant postoperative nasal change.It provides a promising alternative in the treatment of maxillary protrusion.%目的 探讨矫治上颌前突的改进术式,以避免传统术式往往发生的继发鼻部形态改变,并可保证美容效果.方法 改进方式是根据下颌前部根尖下骨切开术的原则,在梨状孔下缘下方的前颌骨面、沿各上前牙根尖上3 mm做切骨标志点,将其相连即水平骨切开线,线两端与左右垂直骨切开线相连,呈"

  5. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  6. Adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion follow-up%颈椎前路融合术后邻近节段退变情况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的通过观察分析前路颈椎间盘切除融合术(anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,ACDF)术后随访患者的影像学资料,探讨邻近节段病变的发生时间和发生率。方法分析2008年以来本科收治的94例施行 ACDF 手术并获得完整随访的患者,其中男性51例,女性43例;年龄28~70岁,平均50.5岁。融合节段:单节段42例,上节段30例,三节段22例。术前均常规行颈椎正、侧位 X 线、MRI 检查。术后评定患者神经功能恢复情况,根据 Kellgren 分级标准对临近节段颈椎间盘退变情况进行 X 线评价。结果94例患者随访时间12~45个月,平均随访时间为29.1月。术后患者神经功能改善明显,JOA 评分较术前提高5.8,改善率为64.3%,有效率为100%。临近节段颈椎间盘退变情况的 X 线评估显示,有19例发生临近节段的退变,其中12例有轻度退变表现,7例出现较严重退变表现,邻近节段退变发生率为20.2%。退变发生时间为术后5~40个月,平均为18.7±4.79个月。结论 ACDF 治疗颈椎间盘退行性疾病有良好的疗效,术后邻近节段发生退变时间为18.7±4.79月,随访29.1个月邻近节段退变发生率为20.2%。%Objective To study the clinical efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion(ACDF) for cervical spondylosis , also the rate and occurrence time of adjacent segment degeneration.Methods 94 cases (male: 51, female: 43, average age: 50.5, ranging from 28 to 70)of cervical spondylosis admitted to our department since 2008 were analyzed in this study.42 patients were performed with single-level ACDF, 30 patients with double-level ACDF,and 22 patients with three-level ACDF. The cervical anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray and MRI examination were performed before the operation.Neurological functional recovery was assessed after operation. X -ray was used to evaluate the degree of adjacent segment degeneration according to

  7. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  8. Discussion on application of optical coherence tomography for anterior segment imaging%光学相干断层扫描技术眼前节成像的应用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静; 吴强; 王晓刚

    2015-01-01

    It is very important for ophthalmic clinical diagnosis and research to obtain anterior segment information by non-invasive means. With the progress of science and technology, the application of optical coherence tomography ( OCT ) on clinical practice and scientific research of ophthalmology has been widely accepted . It not only can achieve precise imaging of an organization structure, but also can do some quantitative analysis for the assessment of clinical treatment and follow-up as an irreplaceable information.%通过无创性手段获得眼前节组织结构信息,对于眼科临床诊断及科研尤为重要。随着科技的进步,光学相干断层扫描技术( optical coherence tomography,OCT)在眼科临床及科研的应用已经得到广泛认可。目前不仅可以实现组织结构的精细成像,并可以进行对应的量化分析,为临床治疗的评估、随访观察提供不可替代的信息。

  9. Lenstar、Pentacam与Sirius测量白内障患者眼前节生物参数的比较%Comparison of anterior ocular segment measurements for cataracts using Lenstar, Pentacam and Sirius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦海; 李坚; 鲁伟聪; 程丹; 邓军; 王勤美

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences and agreements among measurements of cataractous eyes using Lenstar LS900 biometer,Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug photography and a Sirius Scheimpflug-Placido disc topographer.The following measurements were taken:central corneal thickness (CCT),anterior chamber depth from the corneal endothelium to the anterior lens capsule (ACDendo),anterior chamber depth from the corneal epithelium to the anterior lens capsule (ACDepi) and mean keratometry (Kin).Methods In this prospective clinical study,CCT,ACD (including ACDendo and ACDepi) and the Km of 40 eyes were randomly obtained by Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius.All measurements included the 3 methods which were compared using a repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA),with a Bonferroni multiple comparison correction.Bland-Altman analyses were used to evaluate the agreement between the devices.Results The mean CCTs obtained by Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius were 528.18±29.12 μm,533.21±27.02 μm and 534.48±26.15 μm,respectively.The mean ACDendo obtained by Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius were 2.54±0.41 mm,2.54±0.43 mm and 2.57±0.43 mm,respectively.The mean ACDepi obtained by Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius were 3.07±0.41 mm,3.08±0.42 mm and 3.10±0.43 mm,respectively.The mean Km obtained by Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius were 44.05±1.69 D,43.99±1.65 D and 43.93±1.63 D,respectively.There were significant differences among the results of these three methods in CCT (F=11.641,P<0.01),ACDendo (F=9.961,P<0.01),ACDepi (F=12.539,P<0.01),and Km (F=4.186,P<0.05).The Bland-Altman plot analyses showed that the three devices had comparable results for CCT,ACD and Km.For the maximum absolute values of 95% limits of agreement (LoA) were 26.41 μm,0.12 mm,0.12 mm and 0.61 D respectively.Conclusion Lenstar,Pentacam and Sirius demonstrated high agreement for CCT,ACD and corneal curvature measurements in cataractous eyes.%目的 评估新型光学低相干反射仪Lenstar、Pentacam眼前节

  10. Effect of Word Segmentation Cues on Japanese-Chinese Bilingual's Chinese Reading:Evidence from Eye Movements%词切分对日-汉双语者汉语阅读影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 顾俊娟; 曹玉肖; 闫国利

    2011-01-01

    text reading; spacing information in mixed Kanji-Hiragana text was redundant, since the visually salient Kanji characters served as effective cues by themselves. Therefore, Japanese readers are considered to be very familiar with those visual cues provided by the text during reading.Although Japanese text has no interword spaces, the mixed text can provide readers effective visual word segmentation cues. However, there is no such cue in normal unspaced Chinese text. Therefore, we predicted that interword spaced Chinese text would have a similar facilitatory effect for Japanese students as it did for American students, considering interword spaces could help them to demarcate Chinese words. That is to say,their reading performance under the word spaced condition would be better than that under unspaced condition.Two experiments were conducted including normal text, word, nonword and character segmentation conditions using spaces or highlighting as the visual segmentation cue. Twenty-four Japanese-Chinese bilinguals participated in these two experiments. An EyeLink 2000 eye tracker (SR Research, Canada) was used to record their right eye movements, sampling every two milliseconds.Same results were observed in the two experiments. No significant difference was found between word segmentation and normal text conditions on total number of fixations and total sentence reading time for global analyses. However, the local analyses of eye movement measures showed that Japanese students required shorter total reading time and fewer total fixations in the word segmentation condition than in the normal text condition. The results suggested that sentences with word segmentation cues were as easy to read as normal sentences for Japanese students. Thus, word segmentation may facilitate Chinese word recognition for Japanese students.%以24名日-汉双语者为被试,采用EyeLink2000眼动仪,通过两个实验来探讨词切分对日-汉双语者汉语句子阅读的影响.实验

  11. The changes of inflammatory cytokines and their clinical significance in patients of inferior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction with anterior ST-segment depression%急性下壁ST段抬高性心肌梗死合并前壁导联ST段压低患者炎性因子改变及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明; 曾玉杰

    2014-01-01

    目的 分析炎性因子水平与急性下壁心肌梗死有无前壁导联ST段压低之间的相关性及其临床意义.方法 选取北京安贞医院2007年5月至2012年9月急诊危重症中心因急性下壁ST段抬高性心肌梗死入院的患者360例,所有患者均急诊行PCI治疗,并观察罪犯血管以外冠脉病变的情况.所有患者根据有无前壁导联ST压低分为对照组180例和前壁ST段压低组180例.所有患者均于入院即刻取静脉血8ml,分离血浆,通过生物化学和ELISA方法检测血浆超敏C反应蛋白(Hs-CRP)、纤维蛋白原(Fib)、白细胞介素6(IL-6)、肿瘤坏死因子(TNF-α)、丙二醛(MDA)、过氧化物岐化酶(SOD)的变化,并分析血浆炎性因子水平与有无前壁ST段压低急性下壁心肌梗死相关性.结果 与对照组比较,前壁导联ST段压低患者双支病变、3支病变的比例更高(P<0.01);血浆Hs-CRP、Fib、IL-6、TNF-α水平升高更显著(P<0.01),脂质过氧化产物MDA含量更高(P<0.01),抗氧化物质SOD含量更低(P<0.01).结论 血浆炎症因子及脂质过氧化程度可在一定程度上反映冠脉病变的程度,对疾病的严重程度具有一定的预测价值.%Objective To investigate the level of Hs-CRP,Fib,IL-6,TNF-α,MDA,SOD,and analyse the correlation between the level of plasma inflammatory cytokines and clinical significance in patients with anterior ST-segment depression.Methods We choosed 360 patients with inferior ST Segment elavation acute myocardial infarction from May 2007 to Sep 2012 in rescue Center of Anzhen Hospital,in Anzhen Hospital,and all the patients received percutaneous coronary intervention treatment and the vascular lesions besides culprit vessel were observed.All the patients were divided into two groups:control group(n =180) and anterior ST-segment depression group (n =180).8ml venous blood was obtained from all the patients,and then plasma were separated.The level of plasma Hs-CRP,Fib,IL-6,TNF

  12. 闭角型青光眼合并白内障患者人工晶状体植入术后眼前节变化的观察%The change in the ocular anterior segment of patients with angle-closure glaucoma combined with cataract after IOL implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽飞; 何锐; 方爱武

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes in the anatomical structure of the ocular anterior segment in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) combined with cataract pre-and post-operatively using four different types of measurements,and to evaluate the clinical application value of the those equipments.Methods Thirty eyes of 26 patients that fit the inclusion criteria with typical PACG combined with cataract were selected.Cataract phacoemulsification with IOL implantation was performed.Measurements of the ocular anterior segment were taken pre-and 3 months post-operatively with UBM,Visante OCT,Pentacam and IOL-Master.The changes of the parameters of the anterior segment obtained by these types of instruments pre-and post-operatively were analyzed,and compared the differences among the four different measuring systems.The SPSS 16.0 statistical software was used for the data process and analysis,P <0.05 indicating statistical significance.Results 1.The four different types of measuring methods showed that all patients had a significant increase in the central anterior chamber depth (ACD) post-operatively compared with that pre-operatively (t =-29.583,t =-28.478,t =-27.588,t =-24.075,P <0.01); statistical significance also existed in the difference among the four types of methods (F =20.036,P <0.01; F =20.012,P <0.01).2.Statistically significant difference existed in the AOD500 (Angle Open Distance 500) preand 3 months post-operatively measured by UBM and Visante OCT (t =-17.781,P <0.01;t =-18.313,P <0.01),with no significant difference between the measurement of the two measuring system either per-or post-operatively (t =-1.252,P =0.221; t =-0.059,P =0.953).3.Statistically significant difference existed in the Trabecular-Iris Angle at 500μm (TIA500) pre-and post-operatively measured by UBM and Visante OCT (t =-17.623,P <0.01; t =-17.016,P <0.01; t =-14.688,P <0.01),the angle degree was also statistically significantly different pre-and post

  13. 玻璃体切割联合眼内全视网膜光凝对 PDR合并虹膜新生血管的视网膜供血影响%Retinal blood supply changes after vitrectomy combined with panretinal photocoagulation in PDR patients with anterior segment neovascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 石兴东; 胡博杰; 边领斋; 李筱荣

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate hemodynamic alterations of retrobulbar vessels in proliferative diabetic retinopathy ( PDR) patients with anterior segment neovascularization, before and 3mo after vitrectomy combined with panretinal photocoagulation and to explore the clinical significance. ●METHODS: Color Doppler flow imaging ( CDFl ) was used for measurement of blood flow velocities and resistive indexes ( Rl ) of the ophthalmic artery ( OA ) , short posterior ciliary arteries ( sPCA ) and central retinal artery ( CRA ) in 21 eyes of 21 PDR patients with anterior segment neovascularization. CDFl parameters were obtained before and 3mo after vitrectomy combined with panretinal photocoagulation ( PRP) . ● RESULTS: Peak systolic velocity ( PSV ) and end diastolic velocity ( EVD ) of CRA were significantly increased after surgeries, Rl were decreased significantly (P0. 05). ●CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy combined with panretinal photocoagulation might increase the velocity of CRA, decrease Rl and improve ocular blood supply postoperatively. lt may delay or prevent the process of neovascular glaucoma.%目的:探讨玻璃体切割联合眼内全视网膜光凝对增殖性糖尿病视网膜病变( proliferative diabetic retinopathy,PDR)合并虹膜新生血管( iris neovascularization,NVI)患者视网膜供血的影响及其临床价值。  方法:采用彩色多普勒超声血流显像技术( color doppler flow imaging,CDFI)检测21例21眼PDR合并NVI患者行玻璃体切割联合眼内光凝术前、术后3 mo视网膜中央动脉( central retinal artery, CRA )、睫状后短动脉( shot posterior ciliary artery, sPCA )、眼动脉( ophthalmic artery, OA)的收缩期峰值流速( peak systolic velocity,PSV)、舒张末期血流速度( end diastolic velocity, EDV )、阻力指数( resistance index,RI)的变化。  结果:玻璃体切割联合眼内全视网膜光凝术后3 mo CRA的PSV、EDV较术前明显升高,而RI值下降,有统计学差异( P0.05)。  结

  14. Anterior cervical discectomy combined with corpectomy treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myeiopathy%颈椎前路两种手术方式治疗多节段脊髓型颈椎病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩陈; 申才良; 董福龙; 郑军; 汪卫兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate of two different anterior cervical surgical treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy clinical efficacy. Methods Selected three or more segments accumulated of the spinal cord-type cervical spondylosis of 36 patients, of which 18 cases were treated with a single sub-segment corpectomy internal fixation + other disc excision alone bone graft and internal fixation( A group ), which was segmental decompression and bone graft fixation; 18 patients with two or more vertebral bodies and fusion with subtotal long segment plate fixation( B group ), which was long segment decompression and bone graft fixation. Two groups were compared with operative time , operative blood loss, hospital stay, fusion rate, neurological improvement rate and cervical physiological curvature of the situation. Results Operation time, blood loss, hospital stay in A group were lower than those in B group( P <0. 05 ). Internal fixations of both groups had not problem postoperative. Cobb’s angle compared with preoperative improvement between the two groups was statistically significant( P < 0. 05 ) ; B group anglec loss rate of postoperative follow-up was higher than that in A group( P <0. 05 ); Bone graft fusion occurred after 6 months in two groups, JOA scores had improvement in the two groups and there was no statistically significant ( P >0. 05 ). Conclusion Both methods attain good clinical results; Anterior cervical discectomy combined with corpectomy treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myeiopathy , with relatively less blood loss, shorter operative time,less trauma, retain more vertebral bone.which is a good operation method.%目的 评价颈椎前路分节段减压植骨内固定术和长节段减压植骨固定术治疗多节段脊髓型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 选择累及≥3个节段的脊髓型颈椎病患者36例,其中18例采用分节段单个椎体次全切除植骨内固定+其它椎间盘单独切除植骨内固

  15. 新型三维眼前节分析仪Sirius和Pentacam测量准分子激光角膜原位磨镶术后眼前节参数的对比研究%Comparison of anterior segment measuring parameters in myopia after laser in situ keratomileusis between Sirius and Pentacam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐真; 黄锦海; 成拾明; 冯一帆; 王勤美

    2013-01-01

    者的结果一致性欠佳,95%CI为-27.70~6.20 mm3. 结论 Sirius和Pentacam测量LASIK术后眼前房参数结果的重复性和稳定性好,此外两种方法测量的角膜曲率、角膜厚度和ACD具有很好的一致性,两种测量结果的差异在临床上可以接受,二者可以互相替代使用,但在测量角膜最薄点位置及ACV时两种方法的测量结果差异较大,临床上相互替代使用时需谨慎.%Background Sirius system,a new Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido topography,improved the capability of imaging the anterior eye segment significantly.However,the study of assessing the repeatability and agreement between Sirius and Pentacam is still lack up to now.Objective This study was to evaluate the repeatability and agreement of the anterior ocular segment measuring parameters by Sirius and Pentacam in myopia received laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).Methods Thirty-five myopic eyes of 35 patients received LASIK were included in School of Optometry and Ophthalmology Eye Hospital from 2010 May through 2010 July.Corneal power flat keratometry (Kf),step keratometry (Ks),mean keratometry (Km),thinnest corneal thickness(TCT),the location of TCT,anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) were measured by Sirius and Pentacam in all the eyes,respectively.The repeatability of the measuring results were evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Cronbach's coefficient alpha (CoA),and the agreement of measuring parameters between Sirius and Pentacam was analyzed using Bland-Altman plot.Results Both Sirius and Pentacam demonstrated high intraobserver repeatability,with all ICC and CoA more than 0.90.No significant differences were found in Kf values and Ks values between the two methods (t =-1.533,-1.750,P>0.05).Km value was (39.14 ± 1.95) D by Sirius measurement,which was sígnificantly higher than (39.05 ± 1.91) D by Pentacam measurement (t =3.572,P =0.001).The TCT was (457.6 ± 40.9) μm by Sirius method,showing a

  16. Hydrogel iontophoresis for gentamicin administration to the rabbit eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat-Binstock, Esther; Raiskup, Frederik; Frucht-Pery, Joseph; Domb, Abraham J.

    2005-04-01

    Iontophoresis (IONT) is a non-invasive technique in which a low electric current is used to enhance the penetration of charged molecules into tissue. This technique has been used in various fields of medicine, mostly in transdermal drug delivery. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and the distribution profile of gentamicin using corneal IONT on infected and healthy rabbit eyes. Corneal iontophoresis of gentamicin sulfate was studied using drug-loaded disposable hydrogel probes mounted on a portable iontophoretic device, applying a low current for 60 seconds. This study confirmed that a triple iontophoretic treatment of gentamicin for only 60 seconds (0.5mA) significantly reduces the count of pseudomonas in the infected cornea to a non-infectious level. Peak gentamicin concentrations at the healthy corneas (363.1 +/- 127.3 μg/g) and at the aqueous humor (29.4 +/- 17.4 μg/ml) were reached immediately and two hours after a single iontophoretic treatment, respectively. The concentration versus time profile of gentamicin following iontophoresis revealed a gentamicin half life of 2.07 h in the anterior chamber, and a clearance of 1.73 μl/min from the anterior chamber to the posterior segments of the eye. This study indicates that a short iontophoretic treatment using gentamicin-loaded hydrogels has a potential clinical value in treating corneal infections, by increasing drug penetration to the eye and maintaining therapeutic levels for more than eight hours.

  17. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  18. Eye Injuries

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    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  19. Eye Wear

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    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  20. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  1. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  2. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis

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    Sugahara M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis

  3. Accurate and Fast Iris Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. AnnaPoorani,

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris segmentation approach for noisy iris is proposed in this paper. The proposed approach comprises of specular reflection removal, pupil localization, iris localization and eyelid localization. Reflection map computation is devised to get the reflection ROI of eye image using adaptive threshold technique. Bilinear interpolation is used to fill these reflection points in the eye image. Variant of edge-based segmentation technique is adopted to detect the pupil boundary from the eye image. Gradient based heuristic approach is devised to detect the iris boundary from theeye image. Eyelid localization is designed to detect the eyelids using the edge detection and curve fitting. Feature sequence combined into spatial domain segments the iris texture patterns properly. Empirical results show that the proposed approach is effective and suitable to deal with the noisy eye image for iris segmentation.

  4. 词切分对老年人阅读效率促进作用的眼动心理%Effect of word segmentation on older adults:evidence from eye movements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 曹玉肖; 顾俊娟; 闫国利

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of word segmentation on older adults. Methods 18 older adults were selected in the research , their eye movements were recorded with SR research EyeLink 2000 eyetracker. Sentences were constructed with 4 types of spacing: normal unspaced condition, single character spaced condition (text with spaces between every character), word spaced condition (text with spaces between words) and nonword spaced condition (text with spaces between characters that yielded nonwords). Results Global fixation counts and total reading time measures indicated that there were no significant difference between word spaced and normal unspaced condition; Older adults had shorter time and less fixation counts in word spaced reading than those in normal unspaced reading. Conclusions Sentences with word spaced format are as easy to read for the elders as unspaced text The word segmentation might facilitate reading for readers.%目的 探讨词切分对老年人汉语句子阅读的影响.方法 以18名老年人为被试,采用EyeLink2000眼动仪,实验分四种词切分方式:正常条件、词间空格条件、非词空格条件和字间空格条件.结果 (1)词间空格条件下平均注视时间显著少于正常条件;非词空格和字间空格条件下的阅读时间显著少于正常条件;(2)总句子阅读时间和总注视次数在正常条件和词间空格条件差异不显著.结论 老年人在阅读词间空格的文本和正常文本一样容易;插入词空格可促进老年人阅读中的词汇识别.

  5. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

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    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  6. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

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    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  7. Early Diagnosis of Keratoconus with Orbscan- Ⅱ Anterior System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新宇; 刘磊; 邱良秀

    2002-01-01

    Summary: Orbscan- Ⅱ anterior system was used for early diagnosis of keratoconus. 48 Eyes of 24patients with suspicious keratoconus were examined by Orbscan-Ⅱ anterior system from Dec.1999 to Dec. 2000 and followed up. The values of Diff and anterior chamber depth (ACD) wererecorded. Results indicated that values of Diff and ACD were increased in 4 eyes of 2 patients withkeratoconus trend during follow-up. Taking advantage of Orbscan- Ⅱ anterior system to observethe values of Diff and ACD can early diagnose the sub-clinical keratoconus. The values of Diff andACD can sensitively report the progression of keratoconus.

  8. 颈前路螺钉矢状角对相邻节段影响的生物力学研究%A biomechanical study of effects of anterior cervical screw sagittal angle on adjacent segments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆兆华; 赵峰; 苏维成; 赵晓勇; 赵彦涛; 李忠海

    2015-01-01

    目的:采用三维有限元方法分析颈前路螺钉矢状角( sagittal screw angle,SSA )对相邻节段生物力学的影响,判断 SSA 是否是引起邻近节段病的危险因素。方法基于健康成年男性 C3~7节段 CT 图像建立颈椎有限元模型。模拟颈前路 C5椎体次全切除、C4~6钢板内固定术,按照 SSA (0°,0°)(5°,5°)(10°,10°)分别建模,计算在不同的 SSA 下,C4上终板、C6下终板以及钢板的应力变化情况。结果 C4上终板在前屈时前方区域所受应力最大,随着 SSA 的增加,C4上终板整体所受的最大应力逐渐减小,SSA 增大10°后,C4上终板前方区域的最大应力减小12.67%。C6下终板在前屈时前方区域所受应力最大,随着 SSA 的增加,C6下终板整体所受的最大应力逐渐减小,SSA 增大10°后,C6下终板前方区域的最大应力减小7.99%。钢板在前屈和后伸时其最大应力均较集中于中部区域,并且显著高于上部及下部区域,随着 SSA 的增加,钢板受到的应力会逐渐增加。结论在颈椎前路融合内固定手术中,增大 SSA,可增加钢板承受的应力,同时降低邻近节段终板的应力,从而减少邻近节段病的发生。%Objective To analyze effects of different screw sagittal angles ( SSA ) on the stress of adjacent levels, and determine whether SSA is a risk factor of adjacent segment disease ( ASD ).Methods A three-dimensional ifnite element ( FE ) model of intact C3-7 segments was developed and validated based on healthy males. C5 anterior corpectomy and allograft interbody fusion with a rigid anterior screw-plate construction was created from C4 to C6. Three additional FE models were developed from the fusion model corresponding to 3 different combinations of SSA: ( 0°, 0° ), ( 5°, 5° ), and ( 10°, 10° ). Von Mises stress on the C4 superior end-plate, C6 inferior end-plate and screw-plate were analyzed.Results The largest stress

  9. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  10. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

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    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  11. Obtaining Thickness Maps of Corneal Layers Using the Optimal Algorithm for Intracorneal Layer Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Hossein; Kafieh, Rahele; Kazemian Jahromi, Mahdi; Jorjandi, Sahar; Mehri Dehnavi, Alireza; Hajizadeh, Fedra; Peyman, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is one of the most informative methodologies in ophthalmology and provides cross sectional images from anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Corneal diseases can be diagnosed by these images and corneal thickness maps can also assist in the treatment and diagnosis. The need for automatic segmentation of cross sectional images is inevitable since manual segmentation is time consuming and imprecise. In this paper, segmentation methods such as Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM), Graph Cut, and Level Set are used for automatic segmentation of three clinically important corneal layer boundaries on OCT images. Using the segmentation of the boundaries in three-dimensional corneal data, we obtained thickness maps of the layers which are created by these borders. Mean and standard deviation of the thickness values for normal subjects in epithelial, stromal, and whole cornea are calculated in central, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal zones (centered on the center of pupil). To evaluate our approach, the automatic boundary results are compared with the boundaries segmented manually by two corneal specialists. The quantitative results show that GMM method segments the desired boundaries with the best accuracy.

  12. 眼外导光照明视网膜光凝联合前房注气在白内障玻璃体视网膜术中应用%Microscopically eye light illumination, retinal laser photocoagulation combined with gas anterior chamber tamponade in cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气在白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术中的疗效及可行性.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2014年7月在唐山市眼科医院就治的47例(47只眼)合并晶状体后囊破裂的眼内异物患者实施白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术.其中周边视网膜格子样变性39只眼,视网膜裂孔者7只眼,玻璃体积血30只眼,视网膜脱离7只眼,锯齿缘解离2只眼.实施白内障摘除、玻璃体切除、视网膜光凝、人工晶状体植入、眼内注气术,术中显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气.术后观察视力、人工晶状体、视网膜情况及并发症.术后随访6~11个月,平均(6.14±2.15)月.结果 47例患者中,42只眼充填C3F8,5只眼充填硅油.44只眼视力不同程度改善.41只眼人工晶状体正位,1只眼人工晶状体略偏斜.3只眼发生孔源性视网膜脱离.8只眼继发性青光眼,药物治疗1周至2周眼压恢复正常.2只眼角膜内皮面增生膜生长.结论 显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气在白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术中操作方便,安全可靠,减少了手术并发症发生,有很好的实用价值.此术式是白内障玻璃体视网膜联合手术的有力补充.%Objective To study the clinical efficacy and feasibility associated with microscopically eye light illumination,retinal laser photocoagulation combined with gas anterior chamber tamponade in the cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery.Methods It was a retrospective analysis of 47 cases (47 eyes) with intraocular foreign bodies and lens capsule rupture was performed cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery.Among 47 cases,peripheral lattice retinal degeneration in 39 eyes,peripheral retinal tear in 7 eyes,vitreous hemorrhage in 30 eyes,retinal detachment in 7 eyes,retinal serrated edge disintegrate in 2 eyes.The patients were performed cataract

  13. Quantitative observation on changes of anterior segment by ultrasound biomicroscopy after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation%UBM量化观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术前后眼前节形态的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞娜; 郑广瑛; 王松田; 王洁; 赵建国; 郭红亮; 赵丽君

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective is to study the safety and effectiveness of implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular contact lens (ICL) by observing the changes in anterior segment using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods It was a perspective study. The study sampled 30 high myopia patients (30 eyes) who were treated with posterior chamber phakic ICL implant. Central anterior chamber depth (ACD), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), angle opening distance (AOD500), trabecular-ciliary processes distance (TCPD) and iris-ciliary processes distance (ICPD) were measured using UBM preoperatively,3 months and 1 year postoperatively. The distance from ICL to the central surface of lens and peripheral lens and intra-ocular pressure were measured postoperatively and examined using slit-lamp biomicroscope. Oneway ANOVA was used to analyze the distance between peripheral surface of ICL and the lens. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni were conducted. Results Preoperatively, 3 months and 1 year postoperatively, ACD were(3. 16 ± 0. 08 ) mm, ( 2. 76 ± 0. 13 ) mm, (2. 74 ± 0. 14) mm; AOD500 were (0.45 + 0.04) mm, (0.41 ± 0.04) mm, (0.41 ±0.03) mm; TIA were (35.00 ±3. 24)°, (32.47 ±3.56) °, (32. 40 ± 3. 23 ) °, respectively. There were significant difference in TIA, ACD and AOD ( P <0. 05) between preoperative and postoperative data. There was no significant difference between the two postoperative periods tested. TCPD and ICPD showed no significant difference between various time points ( F =0. 49, F =0. 57 ; P > 0. 05 ). Conclusions The decrease in ACD depth and correction in TIA and AOD were the noticeable changes observed in morphological structure of the ocular anterior segment after the ICL treatment. The incidence of complication did not increase as the result of the minor changes in morph structure during the course of the study. However, the long-term effects would require further long-term observation.%目的 应用超声生物显微镜(UBM)对

  14. Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lopez de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and coefficient of variation (COV. Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81 for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT (0.78, corneal thickness average out (0.79, and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60. Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10% for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device.

  15. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  16. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  17. Difference in Outcomes between First-Operated vs. Fellow-Operated Eyes in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Trabeculectomies.

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    Younhea Jung

    Full Text Available To compare the course and outcome of first- and fellow-operated eyes in patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies and to investigate the factors associated with the difference.Preoperative characteristics, including the interval between surgeries, were compared between the first- and fellow-operated eyes in 42 patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies. Postoperative intraocular pressure and bleb vascularity, using postoperative anterior segment photos, were compared at various time points between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Surgical success was evaluated at 1 year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Factors affecting the difference between the first and fellow eyes were analyzed.There was no significant difference in success or failure rates at 1 year postoperatively and at the final follow-up between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Early postoperative IOP and the degree of bleb vascularity were higher in the fellow-operated eyes (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively at week 1 postoperative. The difference in IOP between the first- and fellow-operated eyes was greater in patients whose interval between surgeries was shorter than 3 weeks (P = 0.026.In patients undergoing bilateral trabeculectomies, early postoperative IOP was higher in the fellow-operated eyes than the first-operated eyes; the difference was greater when the interval between surgeries was shorter. The first-operated eye may influence the early postoperative inflammatory response in the fellow-operated eye. Our findings have clinical implications for planning treatment of patients who may need bilateral surgery.

  18. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Rupesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated appropriately. The present article will assist ophthalmologists in accurately diagnosing anterior uveitis, improving the quality of care rendered to patients with anterior uveitis, minimizing the adverse effects of anterior uveitis, developing a decision-making strategy for management of patients at risk of permanent visual loss from anterior uveitis, informing and educating patients and other healthcare practitioners about the visual complications, risk factors, and treatment options associated with anterior uveitis.

  19. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

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    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  20. Effects of Word Segmentation on Hindi-English Bilinguals' Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements%词切分对印-英双语者阅读影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 曹玉肖; 顾俊娟; 闫国利; 臧传丽

    2012-01-01

    India has two official languages: Hindi and English. They are both spaced alphabetic languages. Hindi is also the mother tongue. In the present study, we investigated the role of space information through two-official-language readers. We examined how word discriminability affected the pattern of eye movements in the course of reading unspaced text in two alphabetic languages. We carried out three conditions ( 1 ) the normally condition, (2) the alternating gray unspaced condition, (3) the unspaced condition. We, therefore, predict that ( 1 ) the unspaced text may have a greater interfering effect on Hindi and English reading, (2) the alternating gray unspaced condition is an obvious visual cue for readers during reading. To study the effect of word segmentation on Hindi-English bilinguals' reading, 25 Indian University students who were bilinguals of Hindi-English participated in the research, and their eye movements were recorded with an SR research EyeLink 2000 eyetracker. In Experiment 1, Hindi sentences were constructed with 3 types of spacing: ( 1 ) normally written sentences, ( 2 ) alternating gray unspaced sentences, (3) unspaced sentences. In Experiment 2, we used three types of sentences as in Experiment 1 to make three different types of English sentences to investigate the role of space information in English reading. The trends of data from two experiments were very similar. Global fixation counts and total reading time measures indicated that ( 1 ) The efficiency of Hindi reading under the normally written condition was better than the alternating gray unspaced condition and the unspaced condition; (2) The efficiency of English reading under the normally written condition was best, the alternating gray unspaced condition is better than the unspaced condition. The results of the present study suggest that spacing information plays an important role for both Hindi and English reading. Under the alternating

  1. Sistemas de transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho: bases fundamentais e aplicações Drug delivery systems for the posterior segment of the eye: fundamental basis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do segmento posterior do olho são responsáveis pela maioria dos casos de cegueira irreversível no mundo inteiro. Este cenário estimula o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento para estas doenças. O sucesso no tratamento visa, essencialmente, o transporte de doses efetivas de drogas diretamente para os locais a serem tratados. Devido às dificuldades encontradas no transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho, pesquisas têm sido realizadas no sentido de desenvolver sistemas de administração intra-oculares que permitam liberar concentrações terapêuticas das drogas por período prolongado. Tais sistemas podem proporcionar inúmeras vantagens, como: aumentar a biodisponibilidade e a concentração local da droga, atingir especificamente um tipo de tecido ou célula, reduzir a freqüência de injeções intra-oculares. Tais vantagens podem aumentar o conforto do paciente e reduzir as complicações observadas com a utilização das injeções intra-oculares. Diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas têm sido desenvolvidos com as finalidades acima descritas. Estes sistemas podem ser compostos por polímeros biodegradáveis ou não-biodegradáveis ou serem formulações lipídicas. Os sistemas de transporte de drogas são representados, principalmente, pelas micro e nanopartículas e pelos implantes, sendo eles compostos por diferentes polímeros; pelos lipossomos, que são compostos por lípides e emulsionantes; e pela iontoforese, que se baseia na aplicação de corrente elétrica. Nesta revisão, as principais características dos diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas serão descritas, expondo suas potencialidades de aplicação clínica.The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly

  2. A novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao (陶亮); Juanjuan Gu (顾涓涓); Zhenquan Zhuang (庄镇泉)

    2003-01-01

    Based on geometrical facial features and image segmentation, we present a novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes in grayscale or color still images with complex background. Firstly, a determination criterion of eye location is established by the prior knowledge of geometrical facial features. Secondly,a range of threshold values that would separate eye blocks from others in a segmented face image (I.e.,a binary image) are estimated. Thirdly, with the progressive increase of the threshold by an appropriate step in that range, once two eye blocks appear from the segmented image, they will be detected by the determination criterion of eye location. Finally, the 2D correlation coefficient is used as a symmetry similarity measure to check the factuality of the two detected eyes. To avoid the background interference, skin color segmentation can be applied in order to enhance the accuracy of eye detection. The experimental results demonstrate the high efficiency of the algorithm and correct localization rate.

  3. Surveying of Pressure in Posterior Chamber and Pressure Difference Between Anterior and Posterior Chambers of Rabbit Eye in Vivo%正常兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值的在体监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红芳; 杨红玉; 刘志成

    2011-01-01

    目的 寻求一种眼后房穿刺方法,并在体测量兔眼的前、后房压强差.方法 利用高精度压力传感器与空气差压传感器,采用"从角巩膜缘外周1~1.5mm处进针穿透巩膜,使针水平滑行于虹膜下而进入后房"的扎针方法,实现在体连续监测正常兔眼麻醉状态下的后房压强与前后房压强差值.结果 麻醉状态下兔眼后房压强的范围在839.93~2662.48Pa;前、后房压强差范围是46.15~85.52Pa,均值为59.73Pa,变化周期为11.17min.结论 扎针方法测量兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值对眼球损伤较小,监测到的正常兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值均在合理可信的范围内.监测方法的可行性为青光眼前后房压强差值的在体监测提供了新的思路.%Objective To find a proper method of puncturing into the posterior chamber of the rabbit eye and to measure the pressure in posterior chamber and the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers in vivo. Methods With the help of the high-accuracy pressure and pressure difference sensors, the pressure in posterior chamber and the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers were measured continuously in normal rabbit eyes with anesthesia in vivo. The needle directly punctured into the posterior chamber at 1 to 1.5 millimeters away from the cornea-sclera limbus, penetrated the sclera, and then slided horizontally the needle underneath the iris. Results The pressure value in posterior chamber was from 839. 93 Pa to 2662. 48 Pa, while the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers was from 46. 15 Pa to 85. 52 Pa with its average value 59. 73 Pa and the wave period was about 11. 17 min. Conclusions The puncture method for surveying the pressure of rabbit ' s chambers does less hurt to the eye-ball and the experimental data of the pressures in posterior chamber and pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers. are authentic and

  4. Study on the safety of eye anterior tissues during plasmin and hyaluronidase inducing posterior vitreous detachment in pigs%纤溶酶和透明质酸酶在诱导猪玻璃体后脱离中对眼前部组织的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雪霞; 吴海洋; 陶海

    2007-01-01

    目的:研究纤溶酶和透明质酸酶玻璃体内注射诱导猪玻璃体后脱离对眼前部组织的影响,探讨其眼前部组织的安全性.方法:15只健康无眼疾贵州小型香猪,分为A,B,C组,每组5只,每只1眼为实验眼,另1眼为对照眼,实验组与对照组各15眼.实验眼玻璃体内注射酶,A组50U(0.1mL)透明质酸酶,B组0.5U(0.1mL)纤溶酶,C组0.5U(0.05mL)纤溶酶+50U(0.05mL)透明质酸酶,对照眼注射等量BSS液.注射前后分别行裂隙灯显微镜、间接眼底镜、Sch(o)tz眼压计临床检查.7d后摘除眼球,行组织学检查.眼前部组织角膜、虹膜做光镜观察,睫状体、晶状体上皮做透射电镜超微结构的研究.结果:7d后A,B,C组实验眼及各组对照眼无明显眼内炎症反应,术前术后眼压变化差异无统计学意义.实验眼光镜观察角膜、虹膜组织结构无明显异常,电镜观察晶状体、睫状体上皮,细胞形态规则,结构清晰,胞膜完整,周界清楚,连接紧密,对照眼光镜及电镜观察组织结构与实验眼无差异.结论:0.5U纤溶酶和50U透明质酸酶猪玻璃体内注射诱导玻璃体后脱离中安全,无眼前部组织的毒性病理变化.%· AIM: To evaluate the safety of eye anterior tissue when plasmin (Pm) and hyaluronidase (HS) are injected into pigs'vitreouses to induce posterior vitreous detachment(PVD).· METHODS: 15 pigs without ocular diseases were randomly assigned to groups A,B,C (5 in each group). For each pig, one eye was experimental, the other eye was control. The experimental eye received intravitreal injection with enzyme:group A: 50U(0.1mL) HS; group B: 0.5U(0.1mL) Pm; group C: 0.5U(0.05mL) Pm combined with 50U(0.05mL) HS; while the control eye received intravitreal injection with equivalent dose of balanced salt solution (BSS). Postoperative reactions in the eyes were carefully observed by clinical examinations such as slit-lamp microscopy and direct and indirect ophthalmoscopy and measurement of

  5. 人工颈椎间盘置换与前路颈椎间盘切除融合后邻近节段椎间盘应力分布的有限元对比%Comparison of stress distribution of adjacent segments after artificial cervical disc replacement versus anterior cervical discectomy and fusion:a finite element analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘雅普; 侯秀伟; 吴广良; 夏虹

    2016-01-01

    背景:通过前期的临床随访研究发现,前路颈椎融合后邻近节段椎间盘退变速度要快于人工颈椎间盘置换,人工颈椎间盘置换相较于前路颈椎融合可以保持良好的置换节段活动度,是否置换后邻近椎间盘的应力情况与融合之间存在着差异需要进一步研究。目的:对比人工颈椎间盘置换与前路颈椎间盘切除融合后邻近节段椎间盘的应力分布情况。方法:选择1名30岁健康男性志愿者,人工颈椎间盘和颈椎前路钢板实物进行薄层CT扫描,通过Mimics 10.01及Geomagic Studio.v11软件重建出三维图像,将以上三维数据导入Abaqus 6.9有限元分析软件中进行网格划分、赋值、应力分析。利用有限元方法分析模拟人工颈椎间盘置换及前路颈椎间盘切除融合后邻近节段椎间盘的应力变化。结果与结论:①在相同的预载荷条件下,前屈、后伸、侧屈等运动状态时前路颈椎间盘切除融合后邻近节段椎间盘的应力明显大于正常人相应节段椎间盘应力;而人工椎间盘植入后与正常人相比,在前屈、后伸、侧屈等运动状态时邻近节段椎间盘的应力差异无显著性意义;②前路颈椎间盘切除融合组与人工颈椎间盘置换组相比较,融合组术后邻近节段椎间盘的应力较置换组增大10.3%-51.6%;③有限元分析方法发现,前路颈椎间盘切除融合后邻近节段椎间盘应力大于人工颈椎间盘置换组,随着随访时间的延长,相较于传统前路减压融合,人工颈椎间盘置换可能将更好地发挥其对邻近节段椎间盘的保护作用。%BACKGROUND:Previous clinical fol ow-up study showed that disc degeneration of adjacent segment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion was faster than that of artificial cervical disc replacement. Compared with the anterior cervical discectomy and fusion, artificial cervical disc replacement can maintain a

  6. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  7. Facts About Pink Eye

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    ... Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most ... treatment depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves ...

  8. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  9. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  10. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  11. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  12. 颈椎前路融合致邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因探讨%Causes of adjacent segments disc degeneration caused by anterior cervical fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克非; 刘伟; 于长水; 袁绍辉; 潘琦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颈椎前路融合后邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因及其防治办法.方法 对实施颈椎前路融合术的126例颈椎间盘突出症患者进行回顾性分析,归纳可能导致颈椎前路融合术后临近椎间盘退变突出的原因.结果 随访时间最短10个月,最长10年,平均7.8年.37例颈椎间盘突出症患者发生临近节段椎间盘退变加重,其中7例患者再次手术.结论 颈椎前路融合后邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因可能为临近节段原有退变加重,椎间融合后生物力学改变,临近节段应力集中.%To investigate the causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine and search for the way of prevention.Methods A retrospective study was given to 126 patients who underwent an anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine, the causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine were analyzed. Results The follow-up time was from 10 months to 10 years, average 7.8 years. Thirty-seven patients occurred the aggravation of adjacent intervertebral discs degeneration, in which 7 patients underwent reoperation. Conclusion The possible causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine is that the aggravation of original degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc, the alteration of biomechanics after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine induces the stress concentration of the adjacent intervertebral disc.

  13. Endothelial keratoplasty for corneal decompensation leaded by a dexamethasone implant dislocation in anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pacella

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX largely showed his safety and efficacy for the treatment of cases of macular edema. Even if uncommon, delivery dislocation in anterior chamber has been described in Literaure as complication of the injection procedure, leading to irreversible endothelial cell loss in the majority of cases. We report a case of a 66-year-old man with pain and vision loss in his left eye. The anamnesis revealed a recent intravitreal injection of DEX implant for a persistent cystoid macular edema related to central retinal vein occlusion. Anterior segment examination showed corneal edema and the rod implant adherent to corneal endothelium. A large peripheral iridectomy was evident with retroillumination and IOL appeared good centered in the bag. The implant was removed but corneal decompensation was irreversible. One month later, an endothelial keratoplasty was successfully performed restoring corneal transparency. DEX intravitreal implant can migrate from vitreous cavity to anterior chamber and lead to irreversible corneal decompensation by mechanical and chemical toxicity on corneal endothelium. Removeal of the implant is necessary to avoid total endothelial decompensation. Despite this, in some cases endothelial keratoplasty had to be performed.

  14. Clinical Effectiveness and Influence on Adjacent Segments Degeneration after Single-level Anterior Cervical Fusion%单节段颈椎前路减压融合术对邻近节段退变的影响及疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兆君; 邱玉金; 刘文华; 李军磊; 曹亮波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and influence on adjacent segments degenera-tion after single-level anterior cervical fusion.Methods A retrospective study was given to 40 patients who underwent single-level anterior cervical fusion from Aug.2007 to Dec.2010 and 40 patients with cervical spondylosis of the same age for the same period(imaging showed only a single segment lesions ) underwent conservative therapypatient .The disc degeneration were evaluated using intervertebral disc height and disc Pfirrmann MRI degeneration score .The clinical ef-fectiveness were evaluated using cervical JOA score ,the neck disability index(NDI) .Results The surgical group and conservative group had a statistically significant difference (P0.05) in cervi-cal JOA score and NDI than 1 week after that.Conclusion Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion can lead to degener-ation at the adjacent segment,but the clinical effectiveness are worthy of recognition .%  目的探讨单节段颈椎前路减压融合术对邻近节段退变的影响及手术疗效.方法回顾性分析2007年8月~2010年12月我科收治的40例行单节段颈椎前路减压融合术患者及同期同年龄段颈椎病(影像学显示仅单节段病变)且行保守治疗的患者资料.采用椎间隙高度及椎间盘Pfirrmann MRI退变评分作为评价椎间盘退变指标;采用颈椎JOA评分、颈椎功能障碍指数(NDI)作为手术疗效评价指标.结果术后24个月时,与对照组相比,手术组邻近节段椎间隙高度明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论颈椎前路减压融合术后邻近节段易发生退变,但疗效值得肯定.

  15. Assessment of the anterior chamber parameters after laser iridotomy in primary angle close suspect using Pentacam and gonioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Alireza; Barazandeh, Behzad; Ahmadi, Sina; Haghi, Alireza; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi; Abolbashari, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the changes in the anterior segment parameters of the subjects with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) before and after laser iridotomy (LI) using the Pentacam and gonioscopy. METHODS Forty-eight eyes of 48 PACS were included. Anterior chamber angle (ACA), central anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded from the Pentacam before and one month after LI. ACA was graded according to Shaffer classification using the Goldmann gonioscopy. RESULTS ACA increased significantly from 25.59±4.41 to 26.46±4.33 degrees (P=0.009) and ACV changed from 85.97±16.07mm3 to 99.25±15.83mm3 (P=0.000). The changes in ACD, CCT and intraocular pressure were non-significant (P>0.05). Gonioscopy showed significant widening of the Shaffer angle in 4 quadrants (P<0.001). CONCLUSION Pentacam can serve as the objective instrument in assessing the efficacy of LI. PMID:24195049

  16. Anterior diffuse scleritis diagnosed as conjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. P. Mashige

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case of anterior diffuse scleritis that initially was diagnosed as conjunctivitis. Anterior diffuse scleritis (ADS is a potentially vision-threatening inflammation of the sclera whose etiology may include autoimmune and systemic conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and tuberculosis. The signs and symptoms of ADS include pain, tearing, tenderness, redness, painful sensitivity to light and decreased visual acuity. Ocular and physical examinations including blood tests to rule out underlying causes are important. Medications such as corticosteroids, non-steroidal anti-inflam-matory drugs and possibly immune-suppressants are used in the management of ADS. If care is not taken, ADS can be mis-diagnosed as conjunctivitis because the redness is similar in both conditions. Such mis-diagnosis can be sight-threatening and therefore it is essential that primary eye care practitioners are cautious in all diagnoses of red eye conditions. (S Afr Optom 2012 71(1 51-54

  17. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  18. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  19. The Dkk1 dose is critical for eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieven, Oliver; Rüther, Ulrich

    2011-07-01

    During mammalian ocular development, several signaling pathways control the spatiotemporal highly defined realization of the three-dimensional eye architecture. Given the complexity of these inductive signals, the developing eye is a sensitive organ for several diseases. In this study, we investigated a Dkk1+/- haploinsufficiency during eye development, resulting in coloboma and anterior eye defects, two common developmental eye disorders. Dkk1 impacts eye development from a defined developmental time point on, and is critical for lens separation from the surface ectoderm via β-catenin mediated Pdgfrα and E-cadherin expression. Dkk1 does not impact the dorso ventral retina patterning in general but is critical for Shh dependent Pax2 extension into the midline region. The described results also indicate that the retinal Dkk1 dose is critical for important steps during eye development, such as optic fissure closure and cornea formation. Further analysis of the relationship between Dkk1 and Shh signaling revealed that Dkk1 and Shh coordinatively control anterior head formation and eye induction. During eye development itself, retinal Dkk1 activation is depending on cilia mediated Gli3 regulation. Therefore, our data essentially improve the knowledge of coloboma and anterior eye defects, which are common human eye developmental defects.

  20. Medical Management of Combat Laser Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-01

    damage may significantly degrade vision due to increased light scatter from opacities or due to gross rupture. In addition, iritis (intraocular...intraocular inflammation ( iritis ). The anterior chamber should be examined for blood. Snellen Acuity A "standard" eye chart (for distance or near) is used to...Patch onlY the eye with the injured cornea. Any associated iritis and its attendant pain can be treated with pupillary dilation using cyclogel 1%, one

  1. Automatic segmentation of seven retinal layers in SDOCT images congruent with expert manual segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Stephanie J; Li, Xiao T; Nicholas, Peter; Toth, Cynthia A; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina

    2010-08-30

    Segmentation of anatomical and pathological structures in ophthalmic images is crucial for the diagnosis and study of ocular diseases. However, manual segmentation is often a time-consuming and subjective process. This paper presents an automatic approach for segmenting retinal layers in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography images using graph theory and dynamic programming. Results show that this method accurately segments eight retinal layer boundaries in normal adult eyes more closely to an expert grader as compared to a second expert grader.

  2. The sugery for adjacent segment degenerative disease after previous anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion%颈前路椎体次全切除融合术后邻近节段病的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 贺石生; 丁悦; 顾广飞; 李忠海; 溪铁胜

    2012-01-01

    颈前路椎体次全切除融合术(anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion,ACCF)是治疗神经根及脊髓型颈椎病的有效方法,但随之而来的邻近节段退变问题成为广泛关注的焦点.既往文献报告引起症状的邻近节段退变的发生率达7%~17%,部分患者需要手术干预[1].1997年8月~2007年8月对42例ACCF后邻近节段退变性疾病患者行再手术治疗,总结如下.

  3. 5D imaging via light sheet microscopy reveals cell dynamics during the eye-antenna disc primordium formation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu Shan; Ku, Hui Yu; Tsai, Yun Chi; Chang, Chin Hao; Pao, Sih Hua; Sun, Y. Henry; Chiou, Arthur

    2017-03-01

    5D images of engrailed (en) and eye gone (eyg) gene expressions during the course of the eye-antenna disc primordium (EADP) formation of Drosophila embryos from embryonic stages 13 through 16 were recorded via light sheet microscopy and analyzed to reveal the cell dynamics involved in the development of the EADP. Detailed analysis of the time-lapsed images revealed the process of EADP formation and its invagination trajectory, which involved an inversion of the EADP anterior-posterior axis relative to the body. Furthermore, analysis of the en-expression pattern in the EADP provided strong evidence that the EADP is derived from one of the en-expressing head segments.

  4. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...... and analysed possible segments in the market. Results show that the statistical model used identified two segments - a segment of so-called "fish lovers" and another segment called "traditionalists". The "fish lovers" are very fond of eating fish and they actually prefer fish to other dishes...

  5. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  6. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV. Materials and Methods: In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months. The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic. None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8 of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Conclusion: Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  7. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  8. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  9. Oxidative stress and its downstream signaling in aging eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinazo-Durán MD

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available María Dolores Pinazo-Durán,1,* Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,2,* Jose Javier García-Medina,1,3,* Vicente Zanón-Moreno,1,4 Carlo Nucci,5 Rosa Dolz-Marco,2 Sebastián Martínez-Castillo,2 Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Maria Isabel López-Gálvez,6,* David J Galarreta,6,* Manuel Díaz-Llópis4,*1Ophthalmic Research Unit "Santiago Grisolía", Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Macula Section, The University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital Reina Sofia, Murcia, Spain; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 5University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 6Instituto de Oftalmobiología Aplicada (IOBA, Valladolid, Spain *Members of the Spanish Net of Ocular Pathology of the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Madrid, OFTAREDBackground: Oxidative stress (OS and its biomarkers are the biochemical end point of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the ability of the antioxidant (AOX biological systems to fight against oxidative injury.Objective: We reviewed the role of OS and its downstream signaling in aging eyes.Methods: A search of the literature and current knowledge on the physiological and pathological mechanisms of OS were revisited in relation to the eyes and the aging process. Most prevalent ocular diseases have been analyzed herein in relation to OS and nutraceutic supplements, such as dry-eye disorders, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy.Results: Clinical, biochemical, and molecular data from anterior and posterior eye segment diseases point to OS as the common pathogenic mechanism in the majority of these ocular disorders, many of which are pathologies causing visual impairment, blindness, and subsequent loss of life quality. Studies with nutraceutic supplements in aging eye-related pathologies have also been reviewed.Conclusion: OS, nutritional status, and nutraceutic supplements have

  10. Anterior uveitis following eyebrow epilation with alexandrite laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabela Y

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Yunus Karabela,1 Mustafa Eliaçik2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Esenler Hospital, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kadiköy Medipol Hospital, Istanbul Medipol University, Istanbul, Turkey Abstract: Ocular tissues are known to be sensitive to damage from exposure to laser emissions. This study reports the case of a female patient with acute unilateral anterior uveitis caused by alexandrite laser-assisted hair removal of the eyebrows. We report a 38-year-old female who presented with unilateral eye pain, redness, and photophobia after receiving alexandrite (755 nm laser epilation of both eyebrows. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes. Right eye examination was normal. Left eye examination showed conjunctival injection and 2+/3+ cells in the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure and fundus examination were normal. Topical steroids and cycloplegic drops were prescribed for 3 weeks. At the end of the 3-week follow-up, best corrected visual acuity was 20/20, and intraocular pressure and fundus examination were normal in both eyes. The left eye was white, and the anterior chamber was clear. The patient continues to be monitored. In conclusion, without adequate protective eyewear, laser hair removal of the eyebrows with alexandrite laser can lead to ocular damage. Keywords: uveitis, laser exposure, photothermolysis, laser hair removal, photoepilation

  11. Analysis of Schwalbe′s Line (Limbal Smooth Zone by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography in Human Eye Bank Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark P Breazzano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Implantation of intraocular devices may become critical as they decrease in size in the future. Therefore, it is desirable to evaluate the relationship between radial location and Schwalbe′s line (smooth zone by examining its width with scanning electron microscopy (SEM and to correlate this with observations by optical coherence tomography (OCT. Methods: Full corneoscleral rings were obtained from twenty-six formalin-fixed human phakic donor eyes. SEM of each eye yielded a complete montage of the smooth zone, from which the area was measured, and width was determined in each quadrant. In three different eyes, time domain anterior segment OCT (Visante, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA and spectral domain OCT (Cirrus 4.0, Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA, USA were used to further characterize Schwalbe′s line. Results: The overall smooth zone width was 79±22 μm, (n=15 ranging from 43 to 115 μm. The superior quadrant (103±8 μm, n=19, demonstrated significantly wider smooth zone than both the nasal (71±5 μm, n=19, P0.05. SEM findings of the smooth zone were correlated with visualization of Schwalbe′s line by Cirrus and Visante OCT imaging. Conclusion: The smooth zone appears widest superiorly and thinnest inferonasally, suggesting that as glaucoma surgical devices become smaller, their placement could be targeted clinically by using OCT with preference to the superior quadrant, to minimize damage to the corneal endothelium.

  12. Is ultrasonography essential before surgery in eyes with advanced cataracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Amjad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. Aim: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. Setting: Tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. Results: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6% had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1% was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P=0.003 and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P=0.001 were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P=0.000, iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P=0.000, inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P=0.002, elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P=0.004, and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P=0.004 were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5% without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.

  13. Clinical Observation on Preservation of Lens Anterior Capsule in Reduction of Complications Associated with Silicone Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongming Song; Yannian Hui; Lin Wang; Xiaoyan Cao; Qianying Gao

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To observe the effect of preservation of anterior capsule on the incidence of complications associated with silicone oil. Methods: 82 patients(82 eyes) accepted trans pars plana vitrectomy(TPPV) combined with lensectomy of whom , 30 eyes with preservation of anterior capsule(PAC) and 52eyes with no preservation of anterior capsule (NPAC). Analysis of the incidence of complications associated with use of oil. Results:The incidence rate was 50.0 % in NPAC group, and 23.3 % in PAC group( P < 0. 025 ). There were seconda'y glaucoma (21. 1% ), band keratopathy ( 13.5 % ) and corneal decompensation(9.6 % ) in NPAC group, while there was none of them in PAC group. Conclusions: Preservation of anterior capsule is an eftective method to reduce the complications associated with silicone oil. Eye Science 2001; 17:39 ~ 41.

  14. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  15. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  16. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  18. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  19. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  20. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  2. Intervention of laser periphery iridectomy to posterior iris bowing in high myopic eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-tao; WANG Ning-li; LI Shu-ning

    2012-01-01

    Background For some high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing,laser periphery iridectomy should be performed pre-operation to prevent pupil block glaucoma if these patients would have phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct high myopia.So we had the opportunity to analysis the influence of laser iridectomy on posterior iris bowing.Methods Eighteen high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing (11 males and 7 females) were involved in the study in Beijing Tongren Eye Center from March 2008 to July 2008.Phakic intraocular lens were implanted to correct their ametropia.The mean age was (32±6) years (range,25-40 years).The center anterior chamber depth,the pupil diameter,the posterior iris bowing depth and the anterior chamber angle were measured with anterior segment coherence tomography (AS-OCT) under the normal condition,myosis condition induced by 2% pilocarpine,laser periphery iridectomy after myosis,and 2% pilocarpine eluting condition respectively.Results There was no significant difference of center anterior chamber depth under the four conditions (P=0.512).The pupil constricted after pilocarpine (P=0.001).After laser iridectomy performed and pilocarpine eluted,posterior iris bowing depth reduced more than that in normal condition (P=0.003).The anterior chamber angle reduced significantly after laser periphery iridectomy and pilocarpine eluted (P=0.012).Conclusion Laser periphery iridectomy can reduce the posterior iris bowing,which might be due to the change in aqueous circulate pathway.

  3. Graves' disease presenting as unilateral anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monigari, Naresh; Deshpande, Anirudda; Nalabothu, Murali; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-03-19

    We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with 1-day history of sudden diminution of vision in the right eye. Examination showed unilateral exophthalmos with restricted eyeball movement on upward gaze in the right eye. MRI of the orbit showed no evidence of compression of the optic nerve on the right side. Visual-evoked potential showed prolonged P100 in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed swollen optic disc and para papillary nerve fibre layer splinter haemorrhages with corresponding altitudinal field defect on perimetry suggestive of anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

  4. A prospective study demonstrating the effect of 5% povidone-iodine application for anterior segment intraocular surgery in Paraguay Estudio prospectivo demostrando el efecto de la instilación de yodo povidona al 5% previo a cirugía de segmento anterior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena P. Quiroga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora in cataract surgery patients and the effect of presurgical irrigation with 5% povidone-iodine solution. METHODS: Three samples from the inferior conjunctival fornix of the eye to be operated were obtained at baseline before washing (T0 with 10 ml 5% povidone-iodine solution, immediately after washing (T1, and upon completion of surgery (T2. Bacteria from the samples were inoculated in blood agar, chocolate agar, and thioglycolate broth. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients (n=224 eyes with a mean age of 67 ± 13 years were included in the study. Bacteria from the (T0 samples were successfully grown in 73.2% of the thioglycolate agars, 21.0% of the blood agars, and 19.2% of the chocolate agars. Compared with T1 samples, the use of povidone-iodine wash translated into a 60.8% reduction (from 73.2% to 12.5% in colonization of the conjunctiva (pOBJETIVO: Determinar la flora bacteriana de la conjuntiva en los pacientes a ser sometidos a cirugía de catarata y el efecto del lavado prequirúrgico con yodo povidona al 5% sobre dichos microorganismos. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron 3 muestras del fondo de saco conjuntival del ojo a ser operado de catarata antes (T0 de la irrigación de la conjuntiva con 10 ml de yodo povidona al 5%, como control, inmediatamente después (T1 y al término de la cirugía (T2. Se realizaron cultivos en agar sangre, agar chocolate y en caldo de tioglicolato. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron en el estudio 221 pacientes (n=24 ojos con un promedio de edad de 67 ± 13 años. El porcentaje de crecimiento bacteriano en (T0 fue de 73,2% en tioglicolato, 21% en agar sangre y 19,2 % en agar chocolate. Al compararlo con (T1 el efecto de la yodo povidona se tradujo en una reducción del 60,8% (de 73,2% a 12,5% en la colonización conjuntival (p<0.001. Entre las muestras de los tiempos T1 y T2 no hubo diferencia significativa en cuanto al crecimiento bacteriano. CONCLUSIÓN: El lavado conjuntival con

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  6. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  7. Fingerprint Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jomaa, Diala

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, a new algorithm has been proposed to segment the foreground of the fingerprint from the image under consideration. The algorithm uses three features, mean, variance and coherence. Based on these features, a rule system is built to help the algorithm to efficiently segment the image. In addition, the proposed algorithm combine split and merge with modified Otsu. Both enhancements techniques such as Gaussian filter and histogram equalization are applied to enhance and improve th...

  8. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region.

  9. Comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for the treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy%前路椎间盘切除减压融合与椎体次全切除减压融合治疗多节段颈椎病疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 朱天亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较前路椎间盘减压融合( ACDF)与前路椎体次全切除减压融合( ACCF)治疗多节段颈椎病的效果。方法将138例多节段脊髓型颈椎病患者按照治疗方式的不同分为观察组(行ACDF治疗)和对照组(行ACCF治疗),比较两组手术时间、术中出血量、术后住院时间、术前与术后6个月颈椎总活动度、颈椎曲度、颈椎节段性高度及JOA评分。结果手术时间:观察组(128.3±32.4)min,对照组(163.2±43.6)min;术中出血量:观察组(161.4±122.5)ml,对照组(319.2±308.7)ml;以上指标观察组均少于对照组(P0.05)。术后颈椎曲度:观察组23.5°±7.4°,对照组16.1°±7.2°;椎间节段性高度:观察组5.6°±0.4°,对照组4.7°±0.8°;以上指标两组比较差异有统计学意义(P0. 05 ) . Postoperative cervical curvature: the observation group was 23. 5° ± 7. 4°, the control group was 16. 1° ± 7. 2°;intervertebral segmental height:observation group was 5. 6° ± 0. 4°, the control group was 4. 7° ± 0. 8°; between these indicators there were statistically significant differences between groups ( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusions Compared with ACCF, ACDF has shorter operative time, less blood loss, cervical physiological curvature and height of intervertebral segment recovered well, but there is no statistically significant differences on postoperative hospital stay time, postoperative JOA score and cervical total activity.

  10. 单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤的栓塞治疗(附48例报告)%Embolization for the treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm: a report of 48 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆东; 刘伟; 付洛安; 张磊; 张学析; 胡晶; 费舟

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结使用可脱弹簧圈栓塞治疗48例单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤的经验和方法.方法 2009年1月-2010年4月西京医院收治的单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤患者48例,其中男23例,女25例,年龄32~72岁,平均53.4岁.全部动脉瘤均在术中应用旋转成像图像后处理技术,并采用弹簧圈进行动脉瘤内栓塞治疗,采用双侧颈动脉置管技术监测栓塞术中载瘤动脉通畅情况.对宽颈动脉瘤采用支架辅助技术,球囊辅助瘤颈重塑形技术,微导管、微导丝辅助技术保持载瘤动脉通畅.其中38例术后6个月复查全脑血管造影,了解已栓塞动脉瘤及前交通动脉通畅情况.结果 48例患者中动脉瘤致密栓塞39例(81.25%),90%以上栓塞6例(12.50%),90%以下栓塞3例(6.25%);术中出血 1例(2.08%),前交通动脉闭塞3例(6.25%),前交通动脉闭塞后对侧代偿2例(4.17%).随访均无再出血,38例复查全脑血管造影见动脉瘤栓塞致密、前交通动脉血流通畅.结论 单侧主供血前交通动脉瘤栓塞治疗术中应注意保持前交通动脉通畅,使用微导管或微导丝置于瘤颈处辅助栓塞有一定帮助.%Objective To summarize the experience and method of endovascular treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm with detachable coils. Methods Forty-eight patients with unilateral Al anterior communicating artery aneurysm (23 males and 25 females, age ranged from 32 to 72 years with mean of 53.4, hospitalized in Xijing hospital from Jan. 2009 to Apr. 2010) were involved in present study. All of the aneurysms were measured with rotational digital subtraction angiography (RDSA) and image post-processing techniques, and they were embolized with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). The patency of the parent arteries was monitored by catheterization in both carotid arteries in the process of treatment Stent-assisted, balloon remodeling, microcatheter and microwire assisted techniques were used

  11. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  12. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  13. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  14. Segmentation of moving images by the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, K

    1997-08-01

    New segments appearing in an image sequence or spontaneously accelerated segments are band limited by the visual system due to a nonperfect tracking of these segments by eye movements. In spite of this band limitation and acceleration of segments, a coarse segmentation (initial segmentation phase) can be performed by the visual system. This is interesting for the development of purely automatic segmentation algorithms for multimedia applications. In this paper the segmentation of the visual system is modelled and used in an automatic coarse initial segmentation. A suitable model for motion processing based on a spectral representation is presented and applied to the segmentation of synthetic and real image sequences with band limited and accelerated moving foreground and background segments.

  15. Comparative analysis on biological measurement of anterior segment structure in some Fuzhou colleges and primary students%福州市部分大学生和小学生眼前节结构生物测量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙堂胜; 过贵元; 吴生泉; 薛建设

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate relation between the part of the anatomy structure of the anterior segment and age in some Fuzhou students. Methods The ciliary body, iris, anterior chamber angle and other relevant data of 54 primary school students and 51 college students in Fuzhou were detected with an ultrasound biomicroseopy (UBM),and statistical analysis was underwent. Results The data in primary students group were CPD (160.53 ±17. 78),CT (90.01 ±34. 30),ICPD (23. 11 ±3. 33), IDt (35.95 ±6. 60),ID2 (52.81 ±9.94),θ3 (39.23 ±7.46) ,θ4 (56.02 ±6.75), and TCPD (151.27 ±23. 11) respectively. The data in college students group were CPD (214. 64 ± 15. 25), CT (99. 13 ±17. 80),ICPD (27.92 ±9.00),IDl (40.72±6.43),ID2 (56.57 ±9. 13),θ3 (43.73 ±6. 93),θ4 (60. 15 ±10.48),and TCPD (176.82 ± 28.06 ) respectively. There were highly significant differences in CPD, ID1,θ3, TCPD (P < 0. 01) between the primary and college students. Conclusion Significant changes occur in the development process of anterior segment and ciliary body structure,which closely related to the occurrence and development of myopia.%目的 探讨福州市部分大学生和小学生眼前节部分解剖结构随年龄增长的发展趋势.方法 采用美国产超声生物显微镜(ultrasound biomicroscopy,UBM)检测福州市54名小学生及51名大学生的睫状体、虹膜及房角等相关数据,并进行统计学分析.结果 小学生组:CPD值(160.53±17.78),CT值(90.01±34.30),ICPD值(23.11±3.33),ID1值(35.95±6.60),ID2值(52.81±9.94),θ3值(39.23±7.46),θ4值(56.02±6.75),TCPD值(151.27±23.11);大学生CPD值(214.64±15.25),CT值(99.13±17.80),ICPD值(27.92±9.00),ID1值(40.72±6.43),ID2值(56.57±9.13),θ3值(43.73±6.93),θ4值(60.15±10.48),TCPD值(176.82+28.06).其中在大学生和小学生之间,CPD、ID1、θ3、和TCPD指标均存在极显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 在人体发育过程中,与睫状体相关的眼前节结构部分指标改变明显,这些指

  16. Clinical research on segmental invisible technique with mini-implant for en-masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth%片段隐形矫治器结合微种植体内收上前牙的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽飞; 黄一慧; 弓国梁; 林新平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of segmental invisible technique with mini-implant for en-masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth on the aspect of vertical and torque in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion. Methods Twelve subjects with upper dental alveolar bone protrusion were selected for this study. Arch-dimension variables were evaluated by cephalometric and dental models before and after orthodontic retraction. All data were analyzed by SPSS 20. 0 software. Results For vertical control, U1E-PP was increased by 0. 78 mm, U1AP-PP was decreased by 0. 29 mm, while the change of U1CR-PP showed no significant difference ( P>0. 05). For sagittal control, all the anterior teeth showed a decreased torque with canine displaying uprighting. Conclusion Segmen-tal invisible technique with mini-implant is efficient in the vertical and torque control of anterior teeth in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion, and it can demonstrate invisible and aesthetic orthodontic effects.%目的:评估片段隐形矫治器结合微种植体矫治前突患者时对上前牙垂直向和转矩方面的控制效果。方法选取12例双牙槽前突患者,通过测量治疗前后X线头颅定位侧位片上颌前牙矢状向与垂直向的变化值,以及模型上的转矩变化值,使用SPSS 20.0软件进行统计分析。结果治疗后上切牙切缘至腭平面距离U1E-PP增加0.78 mm,上切牙根尖点至腭平面距离U1AP-PP减小0.29 mm,上切牙阻抗中心至腭平面距离U1CR-PP的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05),上切牙阻抗中心的位置基本不变;治疗后的上前牙转矩值减少,尖牙出现直立趋势。结论片段隐形矫治技术治疗前突患者对其上前牙的垂直向和转矩控制较好,总体获得了良好的治疗效果,并且在治疗期间充分发挥了隐形、美观的矫治效果。

  17. Individual eye model based on wavefront aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Huanqing; Wang, Zhaoqi; Zhao, Qiuling; Quan, Wei; Wang, Yan

    2005-03-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore, the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There are four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high-order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software-ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  18. Iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia moves posteriorly with mydriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruysberg, L.P.J.; Doors, M.; Berendschot, T.T.; Brabander, J. De; Webers, C.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the physiological characteristics of eyes implanted with iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs), which are increasingly being used for the correction of higher myopic and hyperopic refractive errors. METHODS: In a case series of 20 patients (39 eyes), t

  19. Prolonged increase in tear meniscus height by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahara Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagahara,1 Shizuka Koh,1 Kohji Nishida,1 Hitoshi Watanabe1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the increase in tear meniscus height (TMH induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lens (CL.Methods: Ten healthy subjects wearing high-water-content CLs received topical instillation of two ophthalmic solutions – 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. Lower TMH was measured at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after instillation by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.Results: TMH increased significantly (P<0.001 at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after instillation of saline compared with the baseline values. After instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, TMH significantly increased (P<0.05 at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with the baseline values. Increases in TMH after diquafosol instillation were significantly greater (P<0.05 at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes than increases in TMH after saline instillation.Conclusion: Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases TMH for up to 60 minutes in eyes with high-water-content CLs. Keywords: diquafosol ophthalmic solution, tear meniscus height, dry eye, contact lenses, tear film

  20. Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J; Park, Susanna S; Morse, Lawrence S; Schwartz, Daniel M; Fraser, Scott E; Werner, John S

    2013-08-27

    Detailed visualization of microvascular changes in the human retina is clinically limited by the capabilities of angiography imaging, a 2D fundus photograph that requires an intravenous injection of fluorescent dye. Whereas current angiography methods enable visualization of some retinal capillary detail, they do not adequately reveal the choriocapillaris or other microvascular features beneath the retina. We have developed a noninvasive microvascular imaging technique called phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT), which identifies vasculature three dimensionally through analysis of data acquired with OCT systems. The pvOCT imaging method is not only capable of generating capillary perfusion maps for the retina, but it can also use the 3D capabilities to segment the data in depth to isolate vasculature in different layers of the retina and choroid. This paper demonstrates some of the capabilities of pvOCT imaging of the anterior layers of choroidal vasculature of a healthy normal eye as well as of eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The pvOCT data presented permit digital segmentation to produce 2D depth-resolved images of the retinal vasculature, the choriocapillaris, and the vessels in Sattler's and Haller's layers. Comparisons are presented between en face projections of pvOCT data within the superficial choroid and clinical angiography images for regions of GA. Abnormalities and vascular dropout observed within the choriocapillaris for pvOCT are compared with regional GA progression. The capability of pvOCT imaging of the microvasculature of the choriocapillaris and the anterior choroidal vasculature has the potential to become a unique tool to evaluate therapies and understand the underlying mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration progression.

  1. Posterior single segment anterolateral decompression and anterior column reconstruction for type Denis B thoracolumbar burst fractures%后路单节段侧前方减压前柱重建术治疗Denis B型胸腰椎爆裂骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高志朝; 王梅; 张妙林; 孟永俊; 祝卫民; 张春

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and clinical effect of the posterior single segment anterolateral decompression and anterior column reconstruction in the treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures. Methods A retrospective study was done on 21 patients with type Denis B thorocalumbar burst fractures who were treated by posterior approach minimal incision pedicle SCreW fixation,single segment anterolateral decompression and titanium mesh and bone graft from August 2007 to August 2009.There were 15 males and six males at mean age of 35.6 years(range,23-50 years).The involved segments included T12 in six patients,L1 in 11,L2 in three,and L3 in one.The preoperative spinal canal enemachment rate was 62.5%and the anterior-middle vertebral compression of all patients was less than 50%.CT scanning showed normal vertebral body and inferior endplate structure.The fracture reduction,graft fusion,neurological function recovery,correction loss,lumbar activities and adjacent lumbar disc degeneration were observed through preoperative,immediate postoperative and final follow up X-ray,CT and neurological examinations. Results The operation duration was 1.5-3.2 hours(average 2.1hours),with the bleeding of 350-1 000 ml(average 580 ml).All the patients were followed up for 4-26months(average 10.3 months),which showed that the vertebral fusion time was 4-6 months,with no loss of the vertebral height,implant breakage,loosening or extrusion.The nerve function was improved for 1-2 grades. Conclusions With correct selection of the indications,the posterior single segment anterolateral decompression and anterior column reconstruction is a reliable fixation,for it takes advantages of simple operation,minor trauma,less fusion segments and fast recovery.%目的 探讨后路小切口单节段侧前方减压前柱重建术治疗Denis B犁胸腰椎爆裂骨折的可行性及临床疗效.方法 回顾性分析2007年8月-2009年8月采用经后路小切口椎弓根钉内同定、单间

  2. THERAPY OF FIBRINOUS PLASTIC ANTERIOR UVEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Onishchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the efficacy of modified pupillary massage technique using cycloplegic agent Appamide Plus in the treatment of anterior uveitis. Patients and methods. 45 patients (25 men and 20 women aged 21‑69 with endogenous uveitis (51 eyes were enrolled in the study. Etiology of uveitis was identified in 57.7 % of cases: herpes simplex virus (22.2 %; systemic disorders — rheumatoid arthritis, Reiter syndrome, Bechterew’s disease, psoriasis (17.7 %; local infection — purulent periodontitis or sinusitis (11 %. Patients were divided into two groups. Group I received basic therapy in combination with traditional pupillary massage. Group II received basic therapy in combination with modified pupillary massage using Appamide Plus (muscarinic receptor antagonist and alpha adrenergic agonist and plasma exchange with cell mass ozonation. Results. Inflammation of the uveal tract was prevented in all patients. In group I (traditional pupil massage, posterior synechiae persisted in 26 % of cases. In group II (pupil massage using Appamide Plus, anterior chamber humor was transparent, posterior synechiae were broken, normal pupillary response was re-established. Additionally, inflammatory exudate in the anterior chamber and endothelial precipitates resolved by 3.3 days earlier than in group I (р < 0.05. Visual outcomes were also better in Appamide Plus group. T cell-mediated immunity study revealed initial CD3+ cell and T cell subpopulation deficiency. Relative and absolute references of T cells and their subpopulations tended to decrease even when uveitis signs reduced. Conclusions. T cell-mediated immunity depression is probably due to pharmacotherapy. Appamide Plus eye drops are highly effective for therapeutic mydriasis and pupillary massage in the course of anterior uveitis treatment to prevent synechiae formation in enlarged or small pupil.

  3. Eye in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  4. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  5. A ROBUST EYE LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wencong; Li Xin; Yao Peng; Li Bin; Zhuang Zhenquan

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of face alignment affects greatly the performance of a face recognition system.Since the face alignment is usually conducted using eye positions, the algorithm for accurate eye localization is essential for the accurate face recognition. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for eye localization. First, the proper AdaBoost detection is adaptively trained to segment the region based on the special gray distribution in the region. After that, a fast radial symmetry operator is used to precisely locate the center of eyes. Experimental results show that the method can accurately locate the eyes, and it is robust to the variations of face poses, illuminations, expressions, and accessories.

  6. Constructal approach to bio-engineering: the ocular anterior chamber temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Dolcino, Daniela; Astori, Maria Rosa; Massa, Eugenio; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the pressure inside the eyes anterior chamber, namedintraocular pressure (IOP), in relation to the biomechanical properties of corneas. The approach used was based on the constructal law, recently introduced in vision analysis. Results were expressed as the relation between the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber and the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The IOP, the elastic properties of the cornea, and the related refractive properties of the eye were demonstrated to be dependent on the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber. These results could lead to new perspectives for experimental analysis of the IOP in relation to the properties of the cornea.

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  8. 颈椎前路减压人工颈椎间盘置换术与融合术治疗单节段颈椎间盘突出症的短期疗效比较%Clinical outcome of Discover artificial cervical disc replacement versus anterior cervical decompression and fusion for single segment cervical disc herniation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卡哈尔·艾肯木; 楚戈; 王振斌; 陈继征; 顾文飞; 胡雅斌; 涂来勇; 赵疆; 项泽文

    2014-01-01

    Background: The curative effect of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is satisfactory for the patients with symptomatic cervical disc herniation. However, it can result in stress increase in adjacent segments and speed up the degen-eration of adjacent segments. Artificial cervical disc replacement (ACDR), a typical non-fusion surgical treatment, may be an alternative to ACDF for cervical disc herniation. Objective:To compare the clinical outcomes between ACDR and ACDF for single segmental cervical disc herniation. Methods:From January 2009 to February 2012, 61 patients with single segmental cervical disc herniation were treated in our hospital. Of them, 26 received Discover ACDF (arthroplasty group) and 35 underwent single-level ACDF (fusion group). Visual analogue scale (VAS) neck/arm pain score, Japanese Orthopedics Association (JOA) score and flexion-exten-sion range of motion of operative and adjacent segments were evaluated preoperatively and 1 week and 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Complications and secondary treatment were recorded. Results:A total of 52 patients (29 in arthroplasty group and 23 in fusion group) were followed up. The average follow-up pe-riod was 15.3 months (range, 12-24 months). The VAS scores of neck pain and upper limb pain and JOA score were signifi-cantly improved during follow up as compared with preoperative ones in all patients (P0.05). In arthroplasty group, there was no significant difference in range of motion of opera-tive and adjacent segments before and after treatment (P>0.05). The rate of fusion achievement was 90.5%. In arthroplasy group, prosthesis antedisplacement (<3 mm) in 2 patients at 6 months after surgery, and cerebrospinal fluid leakage oc-curred 1 patient. In fusion group, adjacent segment disease occurred in one patient who underwent secondary operation. Conclusions:Discover cervical disc replacement is a feasible alternative to ACDF for patients with persistent symptomatic cervical disc

  9. Changes of ocular anterior segment on morphology after implantation of the implantable collamer lens for high myopia%有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术后眼前节形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容维宁; 孙燕; 郭慧青; 徐惠芳; 贾沁; 梁静; 殷莉; 周玲婕; 盛迅伦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect on anterior chamber angle,corneal endothelial and adjacent tissue after implantation of phakic posterior chamber implantable collamer lens (PPC-ICL) for the correction of high myopia.Methods In this prospective,nonrandomized clinical study,106 consecutive eyes of 58 patients with high myopic received ICL implantation between January 2011 and June 2013 in the Ningxia Eye Hospital.Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),intraocular pressure,corneal endothelial cell count were measured preoperatively and at 1 month,6 months and 12 months postoperatively.The ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was used to observe the depth of anterior chamber (ACD) vault,angle opening distance 500 microns from the scleral spur (AOD500),trabecular-iris angle (TIA) at point 2,4,8 and 10 respectively.The repeated measurement ANOVA was used to analyzed statistical data.Results The postoperative UCVA was equally or higher compare with preoperative BCVA in all patients.Intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cell count were no statistically significant difference between pre-and postoperative (P>0.05).The postoperaive ACD,AOD500 and TIA value were decreased significantly than preoperative at 1 month (F=12.372,21.393,22.076,21.154,21.763,19.471,19.823,19.836,19.247,P<0.05).But there were no statistically significant difference of ACD,AOD500,vault and TIA between 1-month and 6-month,12-month postoperatively.No pupillary block glaucoma or anterior capsule opacification occurred during the follow-up.Conclusion The structure of anterior chamber angle was stable and corneal endothelial cell was no obvious decrease postoperatively during 1 year follow-up.%目的 观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体(PPC-ICL)植入术治疗高度近视后眼前节形态学变化,探讨PPC-ICL植入术对前房角、角膜内皮以及邻近组织的影响.方法 前瞻性研究.收集2011年1月至2013年6月在宁夏眼科医院行PPC-ICL

  10. Multi-View Algorithm for Face, Eyes and Eye State Detection in Human Image- Study Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latesh Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For fatigue detection such as in the application of driver‟s fatigue monitoring system, the eye state analysis is one of the important and deciding steps to determine the fatigue of driver‟s eyes. In this study, algorithms for face detection, eye detection and eye state analysis have been studied and presented as well as an efficient algorithm for detection of face, eyes have been proposed. Firstly the efficient algorithm for face detection method has been presented which find the face area in the human images. Then, novel algorithms for detection of eye region and eye state are introduced. In this paper we propose a multi-view based eye state detection to determine the state of the eye. With the help of skin color model, the algorithm detects the face regions in an YCbCr color model. By applying the skin segmentation which normally separates the skin and non-skin pixels of the images, it detects the face regions of the image under various lighting and noise conditions. Then from these face regions, the eye regions are extracted within those extracted face regions. Our proposed algorithms are fast and robust as there is not pattern match.

  11. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  12. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  14. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  15. Outcomes of Cataract Surgery in Vitrectomized Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Koçak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the intraoperative complications and postoperative visual outcomes of phacoemulsification surgery for the secondary cataract in vitrectomized eyes. Ma te ri al and Met hod: We retrospectively evaluated 51 previously vitrectomized eyes of 51 patients who had undergone phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (PHACO+IOL implantation surgery. PHACO+IOL surgery was performed in our clinic between October 2008 and May 2011. Intraoperative complications and postoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA outcomes were analyzed. Re sults: In this study, 31 out of 51 eyes had posterior subcapsular cataract. Cataract surgery was performed after a mean of 21.39±26.4 (6- 120, median 10.75 months following PPV. Mean preoperative and postoperative BCVA was measured to be 1.52±0.88 logMAR and 0.74±0.73 logMAR, respectively. In 25 eyes which had been filled with silicon oil, mean BCVA was 1.95±0.91 logMAR preoperatively and 1.15±0.84 logMAR postoperatively. In 18 (35.3% eyes which had been filled with sulfur hexafluoride tamponade, mean BCVA was 1.17±0.47 logMAR preoperatively and 0.38±3.6 logMAR postoperatively. Peroperative zonular dialysis with instable deep anterior chamber occurred in two eyes, and posterior capsular tear occurred in one eye. Four eyes had Nd:YAG capsulotomy due to the posterior capsular opacity during the follow-up period. Dis cus si on: Despite the well-known difficulties encountered in vitrectomized eyes such as zonular weakness, increased mobility of the lens-iris diaphragm, posterior capsular instability and posterior capsular plaques, phacoemulsification in vitrectomized eyes proved to be a safe surgery, and increase in visual acuity can be achieved. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 23-6

  16. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). III. Adult compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, T E

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of ommatidial diameters and interommatidial angles, as determined by measuring the angles between the optic axes of adjacent ommatidia, are mapped across the surface of the compound eyes of a variety of species selected for different adult behaviors, developmental histories, and taxonomic positions. The size of the visual fields, prey capture foveas, foveas composed of large dorsal ommatidia, and other specializations in the numbers of ommatidia that view various directions in the visual field are discussed in relation to adult behavior. Advanced species have less resemblance between their larval and adult eyes than primitive species. In contrast to their larvae, adults increase the monocular resolution of each eye at the expense of binocular vision. Most species have foveas which view in approximately the anterior direction, instead of in a region of binocular overlap, and many species have foveal bands which view along the horizon. Some advanced perching species, which approach their prey and other odonates from below, have an additional vertical foveal band that views along a vertical plane from the anterior direction to a more dorsal direction. The most unusual foveal band is seen in active flying species. The large dorsal ommatidia of the migratory Anax junius, which cover approximately one third of the eye surface, view a narrow region of the visual field that extends along a plane from the most lateral direction of one eye to a dorsal direction, and continues without interruption to the most lateral direction of the other eye.

  17. Neural Network Approach for Eye Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Vijayalaxmi,; Sreehari, S

    2012-01-01

    Driving support systems, such as car navigation systems are becoming common and they support driver in several aspects. Non-intrusive method of detecting Fatigue and drowsiness based on eye-blink count and eye directed instruction controlhelps the driver to prevent from collision caused by drowsy driving. Eye detection and tracking under various conditions such as illumination, background, face alignment and facial expression makes the problem complex.Neural Network based algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect the eyes efficiently. In the proposed algorithm, first the neural Network is trained to reject the non-eye regionbased on images with features of eyes and the images with features of non-eye using Gabor filter and Support Vector Machines to reduce the dimension and classify efficiently. In the algorithm, first the face is segmented using L*a*btransform color space, then eyes are detected using HSV and Neural Network approach. The algorithm is tested on nearly 100 images of different persons under...

  18. Effect of primary iris and ciliary body cyst on anterior chamber angle in patients with shallow anterior chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-hong WANG; Yu-feng YAO

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of primary iris and/or ciliary body cysts in eyes with shallow anterior chamber and their effect on the narrowing of the anterior chamber angle.Methods:Among the general physical check-up population,subjects with shallow anterior chambers,as judged by van Herick technique,were recruited for further investigation.Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was used to detect and measure the cysts located in the iris and/or ciliary body,the anterior chamber depth (ACD),the angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA).A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the ocular biometry,including lens thickness,axial length,lens/axial length factor (LAF),and relative lens position (RLP).The effect of the cyst on narrowing the corresponding anterior chamber angle and the entire angle was evaluated by the UBM images,ocular biometry,and gonioscopic grading.The eye with unilateral cyst was compared with the eye without the cyst for further analysis.Results:Among the 727 subjects with shallow anterior chamber,primary iris and ciliary body cysts were detected in 250 (34.4%) patients; among them 96 (38.4%) patients showed unilateral single cyst,21 (8.4%) patients had unilateral double cysts,and 42 (16.8%) patients manifested unilateral multiple and multi-quadrants cysts.Plateau iris configuration was found in 140 of 361 (38.8%) eyes with cysts.The mean size of total cysts was (0.6547±0.2319) mm.In evaluation of the effect of the cyst size and location on narrowing the corresponding angle to their position,the proportion of the cysts causing corresponding angle narrowing or closure among the cysts larger than 0.8 mm (113/121,93.4%) was found to be significantly higher than that of the cysts smaller than 0.8 mm (373/801,46.6%),and a significant higher proportion was also found in the cysts located at iridociliary sulcus (354/437,81.0%) than in that at the pars plicata (131/484,27.1%).In evaluating the effect

  19. Unilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbst, Kristina; Sander, Birgit; Lund-Andersen, Henrik;

    2013-01-01

    and red colors were significantly reduced in the NAION-affected eyes, compared with the fellow non-affected eyes. When comparing the affected eyes with the healthy control eyes, the post-illumination responses were not significantly different. In addition, the post-illumination pupil responses after blue...

  20. A study of the cellular response in the anterior segment of the eye to the surface of the collagen intraocular contact lens after ICL implantation in rabbit eyes%胶原性眼内接触镜植入兔眼术后细胞学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜臻晟; 盛耀华; 祝肇荣; 高金榜

    2002-01-01

    目的:通过观察以胶原材料为主体的ICL植入兔眼内后的组织细胞学反应,评定胶原的生物相容性.方法:20只新西兰白兔,被分为ICL植入组、手术对照组和空白对照组.分别于术后第14天和第28天,切取每个眼的前段组织和ICL.脱水固定后,采用HE染色光镜及透射、扫描电镜技术进行ICL表面和眼前段组织细胞形态学检查.结果:ICL植入组在术后早期眼前段组织中以大量吞噬细胞浸润为主,巨噬细胞功能活跃,成纤维细胞较少.后期巨噬细胞数量减少,成纤维细胞增多.手术对照组在术后早期眼前段组织中有较多巨噬细胞存在,后期成纤维细胞显著增多,且有纤维组织形成.结论:ICL植入术后,炎症细胞变化情况显示为典型的异物肉芽肿性炎症过程.胶原性ICL具有优良的眼内生物相容性.

  1. Anterior Segment Findings in Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Pierangela; Mora, Paolo; Ungaro, Nicola; Gandolfi, Stefano A.; Orsoni, Jelka G.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency is a rare but vision threatening disorder in the developed world, which can lead to blindness for severe keratomalacia with cornea scarring and perforation or night blindness due to impaired dark adaptation. Conversely, the disease is quite common in developing countries, as a consequence of chronic malnutrition. The correct diagnosis and therapy with prompt vitamin A supplementation avoid blindness. We report a series of 3 local cases with different age and causes for vitamin A deficiency. The diagnostic workup, therapy, and prognosis are discussed. PMID:26509090

  2. [Segmental neurofibromatosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulaica, A; Peteiro, C; Pereiro, M; Pereiro Ferreiros, M; Quintas, C; Toribio, J

    1989-01-01

    Four cases of segmental neurofibromatosis (SNF) are reported. It is a rare entity considered to be a localized variant of neurofibromatosis (NF)-Riccardi's type V. Two cases are male and two female. The lesions are located to the head in a patient and the other three cases in the trunk. No family history nor transmission to progeny were manifested. The rest of the organs are undamaged.

  3. The construction of individual eye model based on eye's wavefront aberration measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Qi; Guo, Huan-Qing

    2005-08-01

    Based on the widely used Gullstrand-Le Grand eye model, the individual human eye model has been established here, which has individual corneal data, anterior chamber depth and the eyeball depth. Furthermore the foremost thing is that the wavefront aberration calculated from the individual eye model is equal to the eye's wavefront aberration measured with the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor. There were four main steps to build the model. Firstly, the corneal topography instrument was used to measure the corneal surfaces and depth. And in order to input cornea into the optical model, high order aspheric surface-Zernike Fringe Sag surface was chosen to fit the corneal surfaces. Secondly, the Hartmann-shack wavefront sensor, which can offer the Zernike polynomials to describe the wavefront aberration, was built to measure the wavefront aberration of the eye. Thirdly, the eye's axial lengths among every part were measured with A-ultrasonic technology. Then the data were input into the optical design software -ZEMAX and the crystalline lens's shapes were optimized with the aberration as the merit function. The individual eye model, which has the same wavefront aberrations with the real eye, is established.

  4. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics.

  5. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  6. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    study was to identify human GIB (hGIB) in the normal human eye and investigate the pattern of expression in patients with eye diseases involving hGIB-rich cells. METHODS: Human GIB mRNA was identified in the human retina by means of in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. Antibodies against...... hGIB were obtained and immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections of normal and pathological eyes. Donor eyes from patients with descemetization of the cornea, Fuchs' corneal endothelial dystrophy, age-related macular degeneration, malignant choroidal melanoma......, retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  7. The frequency of chemical injuries of the eye in a tertiary referral centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chemical injuries can occur under various circumstances and may cause serious damage to the anterior segment of the eye. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of chemical injuries treated in a tertiary referral centre. Methods. The medical records of consecutive patients admitted for the chemical injury of the eye to the Clinic for Eye Diseases in Belgrade between January 1999 and December 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in order to obtain data about proportions of injuries, demographical characteristics of patients, circumstances under which injuries happened, the chemicals involved, the severity of injury according to the Roper-Hall classification and the length of hospitalization. Results. Out of a total of 60,868 hospitalized patients, 148 (2.43/1,000 were treated for chemical injury of the eye, with the highest incidence observed during summer months. Men were over five times more often affected (84.5% and most of the injured individuals belonged to the working-age population (mean age 44.4±16.2 years. The most common causative agents were alkalis (73.0%, while acids (18.2% and other substances (8.8% were less common. None of 35.1% patients for whom data were obtained used any protection while handling the chemicals. The vast majority of injuries were graded as grade II (31.1% and III (42.6% and the most severe ones were caused by alkalis. An average length of hospitalization was 17.7±24.1 days and correlated with the severity of injury. Conclusion. Chemical injuries are relatively common problem in the Emergency Ophthalmology. Constant education and usage of adequate protective equipment should be advised in order to prevent serious complications.

  8. Retropupillary fixation of iris-claw lens in visual rehabilitation of aphakic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Jayamadhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Surgical outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens. Aims: To evaluate the various indications, intra and post-operative complications, and visual outcome of retropupillary fixation of iris claw lens in aphakic eyes. Settings and Design: The study design is a retrospective study at a tertiary eye care center. Methods: Review of medical records of 61 aphakic eyes of 61 patients, who were rehabilitated with retropupillary fixation of an iris claw lens, with a follow-up duration of at least 1 year. Statistical Analysis Used: Data analysis was performed using paired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Mean preoperative uncorrected visual acuity was 1.66 ± 0.3 LogMAR and postoperative acuity at 1 year was 0.53 ± 0.5 LogMAR (P = 0.00001. Preoperative distant best-corrected visual acuity was 0.30 ± 0.48 LogMAR and postoperative acuity at 1 year was 0.27 ± 0.46 LogMAR (P = 0.07. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 1.43 ± 1.94 D and postoperatively was 1.85 ± 2.16 D (P = 0.0127. Mean endothelial cell count was 2353.52 ± 614 cells/mm2 preoperatively which decreased to 2200 ± 728 cells/mm2 at 1 year follow-up (P = 0.006. There was no significant difference in central macular thickness and intraocular pressure pre and post-surgery. Complications included ovalization of pupil in 9.83%, hypotony in 1.63%, toxic anterior segment syndrome in 1.63%, cystoid macular edema in 11.47%, epiretinal membrane in 3.27%, and iris atrophy in 6.55%. Conclusion: Iris claw is a safe and an effective method of rehabilitating aphakic eyes.

  9. Late spontaneous resolution of a double anterior chamber post deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Passani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old healthy male underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with big-bubble technique for treatment of keratoconus in his right eye. One week after surgery, he presented with detachment of the endothelium-Descemet complex with formation of a double anterior chamber, despite the apparent absence of an intraoperative Descemet membrane rupture. A subsequent intervention with the intent to relocate the corneal graft button was not effective, because the detachment appeared again one day later. The authors hypothesized that, at the time of the stromal dissection with big bubble technique, a small amount of air penetrated into the anterior chamber, creating a false pathway through the trabecular meshwork. The aqueous humor then penetrated the graft flowing through the false pathway, causing the endothelium-Descemet detachment. The persistence of that pathway, even after the intervention of graft repositioning, caused the failure of the latter procedure and persistence of the double chamber. We decided to wait and observe. The double anterior chamber spontaneously resolved in approximately three months.

  10. Impact of graft height on zygapophyseal joint pressure and range of motion adjacent to segment following cervical anterior fusion%颈椎前路融合术中植骨块的高度对邻近节段关节突压力及椎间位移的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗春山; 欧阳北平; 梁栋柱; 陆廷盛; 姚书耽; 赵国权

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss impact of graft height on zygapophyseal joint pressure and range of motion of adjacent segments following the cervical anterior fusion and to guide the choice of optimal graft height in clinic. Methods Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric cervical spines were used in this series, specimens were tested in five conditions, normal(specimens with intact discs)and different graft height(120%, 140%,160%of mean height) after Smith-Robinson discectomy between the fifth and sixth cervical vertebrae. Each specimens were subjected to flexion-extension. Lateral bending and axial rotation in material test system (BOSE ELECTROFORCE) were adopted to measure zygapophyseal joint pressure and rotation of the fourth to fifth segments and the sixth to seventh segments. Finally, The data for each state was used to determine the statistical significance of differences. Results The height of bone graft had little effect on the zygapophysial joints pressure values in neutral position with no statistical significance noted among each groups(P>0.05); The zygapophysial joints pressure value was the highest increase in extension position,but 120%M increased minimum of zygapophysial joints pressure value, and statistical significance were noted among each groups(P0.05), and statistical significance were noted in others groups(P0.05). Conclusion The appropriate graft height after single discectomy may be 120%mean height.%目的:探讨颈椎前路融合术中植骨块的高度对邻近节段关节突压力及活动度的影响,为临床上选择适宜的植骨高度提供依据。方法采用8例新鲜成人尸体颈椎标本,对完整状态,C5/6节段椎间隙减压术后(100%M、120%M、140%M、160%M)5组,于BOSE机加载下行三维运动,并测量颈C4/5,C6/7关节突压力值及C4/5,C6/7三维运动范围;最后将结果行多重比较分析。结果中立位状态下,关节突压力值各组无显著差异,P>0.05;后伸状态下,关节突压力

  11. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  12. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. ...

  13. 北方林区冰雪路面直线段驾驶员眼动规律研究%DRIVERS EYE MOVEMENT RESEARCH ABOUT STRAIGHT SEGMENT OF SNOW-COVERED ROAD IN NORTH FOREST REGION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨锋; 朱守林; 高明星

    2014-01-01

    The snow-covered road has some basic characteristics in the north-forest such as low level,small short line-of-sight and road surface adhesion,small plane curve radius,vertical curve change drastically.It make the drivers have been a strong sense of higher physical and psychological pressure.In this paper,the authors analysed 6 drivers'eye movement data about 25 blink,fixation and Saccade,found the same periodic change about average blink continuous time and average pupil-area change rate,found average saccade amplitude had significant changes in the long distance.Also determined the length of straight-line roads which made the drivers feel the most comfortable on their eye-moving,for the next research of physiological change rule to provide theoretical reference.%林区冰雪道路具有等级低、视距短、路面附着力小、平曲线半径小、纵曲线变化剧烈等基本特征,给木材生产运输的驾驶员带来了较大的生理和心理压力.本文以北方林区冰雪道路上6名驾驶员的眼动实驾试验数据为基础,分析了驾驶员在不同直线长度下的冰雪道路上的眨眼、注视和扫视行为,得出了驾驶员在冰雪道路上行车时的平均眨眼持续时间、平均瞳孔面积变化率呈现相似的周期性变化规律,平均扫视幅度在中长距离上具有显著变化规律,确定了在北方林区冰雪路面上驾驶员的最佳视觉舒适性直线段长度,为下一步研究驾驶员的生理指标变化规律提供理论参考.

  14. Surgical treatment for ruptured anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONG Xiao-guang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA aneurysm is an extremely raretumor, which can cause severe results after ruptured. This article retrospectively analyzed the clinical symptoms, imaging manifestations, surgical approaches, endovascular therapy and postoperative outcomes of 12 cases with AICA aneurysms, so as to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods Clinical data of patients with AICA aneurysms, who were treated in our hospital between June 2004 and June 2012, were carefully collected and studied. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS scores were used to evaluate the patients' living status. Results There were 12 patients (the average age was 54 years old with 13 ruptured aneurysms, accounting for 0.19% of all aneurysms (6467 cases treated in the same period. CT showed simple subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in 6 patients, simple ventricular hemorrhage in 1 patient and SAH complicated with ventricular hemorrhage in 5 patients. According to Hunt-Hess Grade, 2 patients were classified as Grade Ⅰ; 7 were Grade Ⅱ; 3 were Grade Ⅲ. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA showed there were 10 saccular aneurysms and 3 fusiform aneurysms. Three aneurysms were located in the proximal segment of AICA (the junction of AICA and basilar artery, 3 premeatal segment (first bifurcation of AICA, 3 meatal and 4 postmeatal. The mean diameter was 3.90 mm. Three patients with 4 aneurysms were treated with microsurgery, of which clipping was carried out in 2 patients with 3 aneurysms and trapping in 1 case. Other 9 patients were treated with endovascular therapy, of which 2 cases underwent coil embolization, 3 stent-assisted coil, and 4 parent artery occlusion (PAO. Postoperative complications included facial paralysis (1 case, dysphagia and coughing when drinking (1 case and contralateral hemianopia in both eyes (1 case. Follow-up was available in all of these cases for a mean of 36.41 months, with GOS scores 3 in 1 case, 4 in 2 cases and 5 in 9

  15. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  16. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  17. Facetas em dentes anteriores

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Helena Rafaela Lourenço Martins

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A presente revisão bibliográfica aborda as facetas estéticas em dentes anteriores, pela crescente valorização de um sorriso esteticamente agradável, facto que faz com que as pessoas procurem cada vez mais alternativas de tratamento para melhorar a aparência do seu sorriso. Os dentes anteriores são decisivos na aparência estética e, c...

  18. 经前路椎体次全切钛笼置入锁定钢板螺丝钉内固定治疗相邻两节段脊髓型颈椎病%Adjacent Two Segments Anterior Subtotal Titanium Cage into the ;Locking Plate Screw Fixation for the Treatment of Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    青祖宏; 刘明; 高巍; 何蔚; 刘杨; 李永焕

    2013-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical efficacy of the anterior corpectomy cut with titanium cage and locking plate screw fixation for the treatment of two adjacent cervical spondylotic myelopathy.Method August 2010~December 2012,Anterior corpectomy cut with titanium cage and locking plate screw fixation for the treatment of adjacent two segments cervical spondylotic myelopathy 25 cases,including 18 men and 7 women patients,aged 33~75 years,mean 56.5 years.In 25 patients with varying degrees of symptoms of spinal cord compression. There are 9 cases(C4/C5). There are 15 cases(C5/C6).There are 1 case(C6/C7).Observed lateral cervical spine,cervical hyperextension flexion X-rays and cervical MR, before and after surg ery and follow-up phase,so as to learn spinal cord compression,cervical stability and postoperative cervical height,curvature,titanium cage plate screw position and cervical fusion. Compared preoperative to postoperative and follow-up,pain visual analog scale (VAS) and the Japan Orthopaedics Association (JOA) pain score.Results Operative time (120±30) min,blood loss (150±50)ml.The surgery does not appear related complications.The followed up time are 2~24 months (mean 12.5 months). Nerve function significantly improved.JOA score increased from preoperative 6.2±1.1 to the last follow-up 14.3±1.5,with an average improvement rate was (82.3±11.4)%.VAS average score is 2.1 points.The follow-up period is not found that the titanium cage shift,loose screws and lesion spinal cord compression phenomenon.Conclusion Anterior corpectomy cut with titanium cage and locking plate screw fixation for the treatment of two adjacent segments of cervical spondylotic myelopathy,effectively relieve nerve compression of the spinal cord,quickly restored cervical curvature and height,reconstruction of spinal stability,shorter operative time,less bleeding, and less damage.It has created favorable conditions for the rehabilitation of neurological function in patients,which is an

  19. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  20. Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in Anterior Chamber Ointment Globule after Phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad M. Mansour

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 2 cases of anterior chamber ointment with evidence of progressive endothelial cell loss. In both cases, an anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT was similar to an OCT of a tobramycin-dexamethasone ointment placed on a pen tip. An anterior segment OCT also demonstrated the direct contact of the globule with the corneal endothelium. A gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis documented the similarity to tobramycin-dexamethasone ointment in 1 case. Anterior segment OCT can help in confirming the diagnosis. Corneal endothelial injury is a continuous process, and its clinical manifestation is related to the size of the globule, the initial endothelium count, and the duration of ointment contact, which is related to supine positioning. It is advisable to avoid ointments in the immediate postoperative period, especially in corneal wounds larger than 3 mm.

  1. Segmental masseteric flap for dynamic reanimation of facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeo, Marco; Lim, Yee Jun; Fogg, Quentin; Morley, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    The masseter muscle is one of the major chewing muscles and contributes to define facial contour. It is an important landmark for aesthetic and functional surgery and has been used for facial palsy reanimation or as source of donor motor nerve. We present an anatomic study to evaluate the possibility of using a muscle subunit for dynamic eye reanimation. Sixteen head halves were dissected under magnification to study the neurovascular distribution and determine safe muscle subunits; areas of safe/dangerous dissection were investigated. Once isolated, the arc of rotation of the muscular subunit was measured on fresh body to verify the reach to the lateral canthus. The patterns of neurovascular distribution and areas of safe dissection were identified; the anterior third of the muscle represents an ideal subunit with constant nerve and artery distribution. The muscle is too short to reach the lateral canthus; a fascia graft extension is needed. The information provided identified the main neurovascular branches and confirms the feasibility of a dynamic segmental flap. The need of efficient motor units for facial reanimation demands for different surgical options. A detailed anatomic description of the neurovascular bundle is mandatory to safely raise a functional motor subunit.

  2. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  3. Segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion for treating multilevel cervical myelopathy: Comparison of fusion rates among three methods%颈前路分节段减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病:3种方法移植骨融合率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文; 徐盛明; 王新伟; 张涛; 刘百峰

    2007-01-01

    院时间均明显少于/短于长节段减压组(P<0.05),平均住院费用明显高于长节段减压组(P<0.05).分节段减压组、三间隙减压组和长节段减压组术后JOA评分提高分数和植骨融合率相近(P>0.05).结论:综合植骨融合率、神经功能恢复情况、手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间多种因素,3种术式中以颈前路分节段减压植骨融合术为治疗多节段颈椎病的手术方式较佳方案.%BACKGROUND:As a traditional treatment for multilevel cervical myelopathy,nterior long-segmental decompression has the shortcomings of great operative trauma,high difficulty,low fusion rate,etc.,which can affect the postoperative efficacy.OBJ ECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical effects of three different anterior surgeries on multilevel cervical myelopathy.DESIGN:A comparative observation.SETTING:Department of Orthopaedics,Changzheog Hospital,the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-six patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy of 3 consecutive segments,who were surgically treated,were selected from the Department of Orthopaedics,Changzheng Hospital,the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from June 1999 to June 2003,including 25 males and 11 females,35-62 years of age,the disease course ranged from 3 to 26 months. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging esults,they were diagnosed as multilevel cervical myelopathy,and they were not suffering from consecutive ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and ossification of ligamenta flava. Informed contents were obtained from all the patients and their relatives.METHODS:All the patients were grafted with utologous bone. Autologous ilium or cancellous bone excluding vertebral body was filled into titan net or Cage,which were made of titan and characterized by high intensity,tolerance to decay,good biocompatibility,etc. According to the operative manner,the patients were divided into 3 groups:① two

  4. Comments on the eyes of tardigrades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greven, Hartmut

    2007-12-01

    A survey is given on the scarce information on the visual organs (eyes or ocelli) of Tardigrada. Many Eutardigrada and some Arthrotardigrada, namely the Echiniscidae, possess inverse pigment-cup ocelli, which are located in the outer lobe of the brain, and probably are of cerebral origin. Occurrence of such organs in tardigrades, suggested as being eyeless, has never been checked. Depending on the species, response to light (photokinesis) is negative, positive or indifferent, and may change during the ontogeny. The tardigrade eyes of the two eutardigrades examined up to now comprise a single pigment cup cell, one or two microvillous (rhabdomeric) sensory cells and ciliary sensory cell(s). In the eyes of the eutardigrade Milnesium tardigradum the cilia are differentiated in an outer branching segment and an inner (dendritic) segment. Because of the scarcity of information on the tardigrade eyes, their homology with the visual organs of other bilaterians is currently difficult to establish and further comparative studies are needed. Thus, the significance of these eyes for the evolution of arthropod visual systems is unclear yet.

  5. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the pre-and intra ocular tissues, have been attempted to increase the bioavailability and the duration of therapeutic action of ocular drug. Certain new approaches to increase the ocular bioavailability, duration of the drug action and to reduce the undesirable side effects are by using drug carriers that regulate pre-corneal drug loss and improve the corneal contact time. Many of these systems prolong ocular bioavailability but do not control drug penetration through the cornea. Consequently, the drug concentration at the site of action might remain inadequate. Therefore, it is necessary to develop safer, efficacious and more acceptable ocular therapeutic system. The ocular bioavailability of the drugs can be improved by prolonging their residence time in the cul-de-sac and by increasing their corneal permeability. There are various new dosage forms like in-situ gel, collagen shield, etc.

  6. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with multi-segmental renal infarction: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yung-Nien

    2011-01-01

    A 36-year-old diabetic man came to our institution presenting with constant left flank pain. Left renal embolic infarction was found by abdominal computed tomography. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was noted on 12-lead electrocardiogram. Emergent coronary angiography revealed large thrombus burdens with complete occlusion at the left anterior descending artery ostium, which may be the embolic origin. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with acute flank pain and multiple segmental renal infarction is an unusual presentation. High vigilance may prevent delay of the "golden hour" to treat acute myocardial infarction.

  7. Expression of engrailed-family genes in the jumping bristletail and discussion on the primitive pattern of insect segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Yasutaka; Sakuma, Masashi; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2015-09-01

    It has been shown that segmentation in the short-germ insects proceeds by a two-step mechanism. The anterior region is simultaneously segmented in a manner similar to that in Drosophila, which is apparently unique to insects, and the rest of the posterior region is segmented sequentially by a mechanism involving a segmentation clock, which is derived from the common ancestor of arthropods. In order to propose the evolutionary scenario of insect segmentation, we examined segmentation in the jumping bristletail, the basalmost extant insect. Using probes for engrailed-family genes for in situ hybridization, we found no sign of simultaneous segmentation in the anterior region of the jumping bristletail embryos. All segments except the anteriormost segment are formed sequentially. This condition shown in the jumping bristletail embryos may represent the primitive pattern of insect segmentation. The intercalating formation of the intercalary segment is assumed to be a synapomorphic trait shared among all insects after the branching of the jumping bristletail.

  8. Relationship between Refractive Error and Ocular Biomet-rics in Twin Children:the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Decai Wang; Bin Liu; Shengsong Huang; Wenyong Huang; Mingguang He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:.A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in children from the Guangzhou twin eye study.Methods:.Twin participants aged 7-15 years were selected from Guangzhou Twin Eye Study..Ocular examinations included vi-sual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, autore-fraction under cycloplegia, and anterior segment, media, and fundus examination...Axial length (AL),..anterior cham ber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature radius were measured us-ing partial coherence laser interferometry. A multivariate linear regression model was used for statistical analysis.Results:.Twin children from Guangzhou city showed a de-creased spherical equivalent with age,.whereas both AL and ACD were increased and corneal curvature radius remained unchanged. When adjusted by age and gender, the data from 77% of twins presenting with spherical equivalent changes in-dicated that these were caused by predictable variables. (R2=0.77, P<0.001). Primary factors affecting children's refraction included axial length (β=-0.97,P<0.001), ACD (β=0.33,P<0.001), and curvature radius (β=2.10,P<0.001). Girls had a higher tendency for myopic status than did boys (β=-0.26,P<0.001)..Age exerted no effect upon the changes in refraction (β=-0.01, P=0.25).Conclusion:.Refraction is correlated with ocular biometrics. Refractive status is largely determined by axial length as the major factor. (Eye Science 2014; 29:129-133)

  9. An efficient iris segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

    2011-10-01

    Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

  10. Comparison of corneal measurements in keratoconic eyes using rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Naderan; Saeed; Shoar; Morteza; Naderan; Mohammad; Amin; Kamaleddin; Mohammad; Taher; Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the anterior segment measurements obtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera(Pentacam) and Scanning-slit topography(Orbscan IIz) in keratoconic eyes.METHODS: A total of 121 patients, 71 males(58.7%)and 50 females(41.3%)(214 eyes) with the diagnosis of keratoconus(KC) were enrolled in this study. Following diagnosis of KC by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, central corneal thickness(CCT), thinnest corneal thickness(TCT), anterior chamber depth(ACD),and pupil diameter(PD) were measured by a single examiner using successive instrumentation by Pentacam and Orbscan.RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two instruments for the measurement of CCT and TCT. In contrast, scanning-slit topography measured ACD(3.46±0.40 mm vs 3.38±0.33 mm, P =0.019) and PD(4.97 ±1.26 mm vs 4.08 ±1.19 mm, P <0.001) significantly larger than rotating Scheimpflug camera.The two devices made similar measurements for CCT(95% CI:-2.94 to5.06, P =0.602). However, the mean difference for TCT was-6.28(95% CI:-10.51 to-2.06, P =0.004) showing a thinner measurement by Orbscan than by Pentacam. In terms of the ACD, the mean difference was 0.08 mm(95%CI: 0.04 to 0.12, P <0.001) with Orbscan giving a slightly larger value than Pentacam. Similarly, Orbscan measurement for PD was longer than Pentacam(95% CI:0.68 to 1.08, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: A good agreement was found between Pentacam and Orbscan concerning CCT measurement while comparing scanning-slit topography and rotatingScheimpflug camera there was an underestimation for TCT and overestimation for ACD and PD.

  11. Functional analysis of the role of eyes absent and sine oculis in the developing eye of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Akira; Kurita, Kazuki; Terasawa, Taiki; Nakamura, Taro; Bando, Tetsuya; Moriyama, Yoshiyuki; Mito, Taro; Noji, Sumihare; Ohuchi, Hideyo

    2012-02-01

    In the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, a hemimetabolous insect, the compound eyes begin to form in the embryo and increase 5-6 fold in size during the postembryonic development of the nymphal stage. Retinal stem cells in the anteroventral proliferation zone (AVPZ) of the nymphal eye proliferate to increase retinal progenitors, which then differentiate to form new ommatidia in the anterior region of the eye. However, mechanisms underlying this type of eye formation have not been well elucidated yet. Here, we found that the homologues of the retinal determination transcription factor genes of eyes absent (eya) and sine oculis (so) are expressed during the cricket embryonic eye formation. eya is also expressed intensely in the AVPZ of the nymphal eye. To explore their functions, we performed knockdown by RNA interference (RNAi). Knockdown of Gb'eya resulted in loss of the embryonic eye. In the nymphal eye, RNAi against Gb'eya or Gb'so impaired retinal morphology by apparently transforming cornea structures into head cuticle. These results imply that Gb'eya and Gb'so are essential for the differentiation of the retinal progenitor cells and maintaining retinal structures during eye development.

  12. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  13. Novel Facial Features Segmentation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for facial features extractions is proposed. The facial features we segment are the two eyes, nose and mouth. The algorithm is based on an improved Gabor wavelets edge detector, morphological approach to detect the face region and facial features regions, and an improved T-shape face mask to locate the extract location of facial features. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against facial expression, illumination, and can be also effective if the person wearing glasses, and so on.

  14. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  15. Comparison of tear film tests, ocular staining, impression cytool gy for three conditions:dry eye, anterior blepharitis, season al allergic conjunctivitis%干眼症和前睑缘炎及季节性过敏性结膜炎中三种检测方法结果的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mutlu Acar; Volkan Yaylalı; Ahmet çevik Tufan; Cem Yıldırım

    2013-01-01

    AIM:To compare three clinically similar patient groups and a control group in terms of tear function tests, ocular surface staining and conjunctival impression cytology. METHODS: This was a single-centre, prospective, double-blind, randomised and controlled trial.The study includes 20 dry eye patients with Schirmer 1 scores less than 10mm and a tear film break-up time ( TBUT) less than 10s, 20 anterior blepharitis patients with drying and crusting of the eyelashes, 20 seasonal allergic conjunctivitis patients with papillary hypertrophy of the upper eyelid tarsal conjunctiva and 20 control group patients. The Schirmer scores, TBUT scores, ocular surface staini ng ( as graded by the Oxford scheme scale) , goblet cell density ( as observed using impression cytology and metaplasia scores for all patients evaluated by the Nelson grading scheme) were compa red. RESULTS: Significant differences were identified between these patient groups and the control group in terms of tear functions tests, ocular surface-staining scores, goblet cell density and metaplasia scores (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: Inflammatory response against these three diseases was demonstrated to cause damage in parallel to the severity of the local inflammation they generate on the ocular surface.We confirmed that this damage has very serious effects, especially on conjunctival goblet cell density and metaplasia. We believe that the degree of this loss in goblet cells is correlated with clinical findings.%目的:比较三组临床患者和对照组患者的泪液功能测试,眼表染色以及结膜印象细胞学检测的结果。方法:这是一个单中心,前瞻性,双盲,随机对照试验。研究包括泪液分泌分数小于10 mm和泪膜破裂时间( TBUT )小于10 s的20例干眼症患者,有干燥和结痂睫毛的20例前睑缘炎患者,上眼睑睑板结膜乳头肥大的20例季节性过敏性结膜炎患者和20例对照组患者。比较泪液分泌的分数,泪膜破裂

  16. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  18. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  19. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  20. Extraction of Iron from the Rabbit Anterior Chamber with Reverse Iontophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoubin Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular siderosis is a common eye disease caused by retention of an iron-containing intraocular foreign body in the eye. Iron-containing intraocular foreign bodies may cause severe inflammatory reaction and affect visual function. Currently the optimal treatment method of ocular siderosis is a moot point. This study used the reverse iontophoresis technique to noninvasively extract iron from the rabbit anterior chamber. By slit lamp observation and histological examination, reverse iontophoresis treatment has a good effect on ocular siderosis. Reverse iontophoresis seems to be a noninvasive and promising approach to extract iron from the anterior chamber to treat ocular siderosis.

  1. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  3. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G [Mount Kisco, NY; Marcella, James A [Rochester, MN; Ohmacht, Martin [Yorktown Heights, NY

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  4. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  5. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  6. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  7. Triple procedure in posterior segment intraocular foreign body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Rajvardhan

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three patients with intraocular foreign bodies and traumatic cataracts underwent single stage pars plana lensectomy with anterior capsule preservation, vitrectomy, removal of the foreign body, and intraocular lens implantation. The preserved anterior capsule permitted support for the placement of an intraocular lens in the posterior chamber in the ciliary sulcus. The procedure enabled early visual rehabilitation. This procedure seems useful in the management of posterior segment intraocular foreign body associated with cataract.

  8. Keratitis after Implantation of Intrastromal Corneal Rings with Spontaneous Extrusion of the Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ibáñez-Alperte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bacterial keratitis in a patient with a history of intrastromal corneal ring segments (INTACS® implantation to correct keratoconus. Methods: The patient’s history, clinical presentation, pathological analysis and therapeutic management were reviewed. Results: A 36-year-old-man was referred to our department due to decreased vision and intense pain in his left eye, 40 days after INTACS® implantation for keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination revealed epithelial defects and stromal infiltrates in the lower channel without evidence of the inferior ring. The anterior chamber also showed a significant fibrin reaction to hypopyon. A low-tension suture was removed at the site of the incision. Microbiological study of the conjunctival swab was positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis, but the corneal culture was sterile. The patient was treated with topical fortified and systemic antibiotics. The infection slowly resolved, leaving opacity at the inferior segment site. Conclusions: Infectious keratitis following INTACS implantation is an infrequent complication that can have important consequences without suitable and early therapeutic management.

  9. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation.

  10. Corneal Topographic and Aberrometric Measurements Obtained with a Multidiagnostic Device in Healthy Eyes: Intrasession Repeatability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the intrasession repeatability of corneal curvature, eccentricity, and aberrometric measurements obtained with a multidiagnostic device in healthy eyes. Methods. This study enrolled 107 eyes of 107 patients ranging in age from 23 to 65 years. All of them underwent a complete anterior segment examination with the VX120 system (Visionix-Luneau Technologies, Chartres, France. Three consecutive measurements were obtained. The within-subject standard deviation (Sw, intrasubject precision (1.96×Sw, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC were calculated. Results. All Sw for corneal power measurements were below 0.26 D, with ICC above 0.982. The Sw for corneal astigmatism at different areas (3, 5, and 7 mm was below 0.21 D, with ICC above 0.913. Concerning the axis of astigmatism, its Sw was below 11.27°, with ICC above 0.975. The Sw and ICC for corneal eccentricity were 0.067 and 0.957, respectively. The Sw and ICC for high-order aberration root mean square (RMS were 0.048 µm and 0.901, respectively. For 3rd- and 4th-order aberrometric parameters, all Sw were below 0.037 µm and all ICC were higher than 0.84, except for quadrafoil RMS (ICC: 0.689. Conclusions. The multidiagnostic device evalu