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Sample records for anterior eye segment

  1. Normalizing videos of anterior eye segment surgeries.

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    Quellec, Gwénolé; Charriére, Katia; Lamard, Mathieu; Cochener, Béatrice; Cazuguel, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Anterior eye segment surgeries are usually video-recorded. If we are able to efficiently analyze surgical videos in real-time, new decision support tools will emerge. The main anatomical landmarks in these videos are the pupil boundaries and the limbus, but segmenting them is challenging due to the variety of colors and textures in the pupil, the iris, the sclera and the lids. In this paper, we present a solution to reliably normalize the center and the scale in videos, without explicitly segmenting these landmarks. First, a robust solution to track the pupil center is presented: it uses the fact that the pupil boundaries, the limbus and the sclera / lid interface are concentric. Second, a solution to estimate the zoom level is presented: it relies on the illumination pattern reflected on the cornea. The proposed solution was assessed in a dataset of 186 real-live cataract surgery videos. The distance between the true and estimated pupil centers was equal to 8.0 ± 6.9% of the limbus radius. The correlation between the estimated zoom level and the true limbus size in images was high: R = 0.834.

  2. The anterior segment of the eye in diabetes

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    Adeoti CO

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available CO Adeoti1, MA Isawumi1, AO Ashaye2, BV Olomola11Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria; 2Ophthalmology Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaPurpose: A prospective study to examine the anterior segment of the eye in patients with diabetes mellitus.Materials and methods: The anterior segments of the eyes of 181 patients with diabetes mellitus were examined. The commonest finding in the lids was warts, followed by poliosis and chalazia, and, in the conjunctiva, tortuous conjunctival vessels inferiorly (36.50%, pterygium (14.92%, and pingueculum (14.37%. Corneal sensitivity was reduced in 25 (13.80% patients. Iris atrophy was the commonest finding in the iris. Dilatation of the pupil was delayed in 34 (18.79% patients. Cataract was found in 119 (65.75% patients. Forty-one (22.65% patients had intraocular pressure greater than 21 mmHg. Seven (3.87% patients, four (2.21% patients, and one (0.55% patient had seventh, third, and fourth palsy, respectively. No patient had sixth nerve palsy.Conclusion: Primary care physicians and other allied health care professionals who are first in contact with patients are enjoined to familiarize themselves with the anterior segment features of diabetes mellitus and take necessary action when they are detected.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, eye, anterior segment

  3. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

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    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  4. Diagnostics of anterior eye segment in cats and dogs

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    Hadži-Milić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of the anterior segment of the eye present the most frequent diagnostics implemented in ophthalmology and by most veterinary practicians as well. This paper presents the complete diagnostics in the most concise form possible. The procedure with animals is presented first, followed by the equipment, and then anamnesis. The following diagnostic methods are presented: examination in a lighted room which include an examination from a distance, taking a smear, the Schirmer tear test (STT, an examination from close by, examination in a dark room which comprises the elementary examinations, such as the use of focal lighting and examination using a direct ophthalmoscope, and special examination in a dark room, such as biomicroscopy, gonioscopy and keratoscopy. Additional examination methods are also included.

  5. Molecular Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment of the Eye

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    Luis Fernando Hernandez-Zimbron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the current knowledge about the age-related processes in the anterior segment of the eye at a biological, clinical, and molecular level. Methods. We reviewed the available published literature that addresses the aging process of the anterior segment of the eye and its associated molecular and physiological events. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase using the MeSH terms “eye,” “anterior segment,” and “age.” We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1 “Eye” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment ageing” and (2 “Anterior segment” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment” AND “molecular changes” AND “age.” Results. Among the principal causes of age-dependent alterations in the anterior segment of the eye, we found the mutation of the TGF-β gene and loss of autophagy in addition to oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases. Conclusions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding some of the molecular mechanisms related to aging in the anterior segment of the eye. We also introduce and propose potential roles of autophagy, an important mechanism responsible for maintaining homeostasis and proteostasis under stress conditions in the anterior segment during aging.

  6. Molecular Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment of the Eye

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    Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Martínez-Báez, Blanca Elizabeth; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To examine the current knowledge about the age-related processes in the anterior segment of the eye at a biological, clinical, and molecular level. Methods We reviewed the available published literature that addresses the aging process of the anterior segment of the eye and its associated molecular and physiological events. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase using the MeSH terms “eye,” “anterior segment,” and “age.” We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1) “Eye” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment ageing” and (2) “Anterior segment” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment” AND “molecular changes” AND “age.” Results. Among the principal causes of age-dependent alterations in the anterior segment of the eye, we found the mutation of the TGF-β gene and loss of autophagy in addition to oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases. Conclusions In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding some of the molecular mechanisms related to aging in the anterior segment of the eye. We also introduce and propose potential roles of autophagy, an important mechanism responsible for maintaining homeostasis and proteostasis under stress conditions in the anterior segment during aging. PMID:29147580

  7. Comparison of anterior segment parameters between the acute primary angle closure eye and the fellow eye.

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    Lee, Jong Rak; Sung, Kyung Rim; Han, Seungbong

    2014-05-20

    To investigate features of the anterior segment (AS) of the affected eye compared to the fellow eye within the same patient in acute primary angle closure (APAC). Thirty-six patients with unilateral APAC were imaged with AS optical coherence tomography (OCT) before medical or laser treatment for the acute attack. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), iris curvature (IC), iris thickness at 750 μm from the scleral spur (IT750), lens vault (LV), anterior chamber area (ACA), and iris area were estimated by using ImageJ software (version 1.46). Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to find the associated factors with the prediction of APAC. When compared to fellow eyes, affected eyes showed significantly shallower ACD (1.90 ± 0.24 and 1.55 ± 0.30 mm, respectively; P APAC. Greater LV was the most prominent feature of affected eyes compared to fellow eyes in APAC patients when assessed by AS OCT. This may play a role in the development of acute attack in primary angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Automatic correction of rotating ultrasound bio microscopy acquisitions for the segmentation of the eye anterior segment.

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    Maindron, C; Le Loir, M; Cochener, B; Lamard, M

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rotating 3D probe prototype in order to acquire the anterior segment of the eye in three dimensions. The acquisition accuracy has to be sufficient to allow for the use of automatic segmentation of the provided data, and thus generate a 3D structure of the eye, for which it could be easier to obtain measurements than in 2D images. We have created an image post processing scheme in order to compensate for vibrations and eye movements during acquisition that are associated with increased noise. These tools have been applied to 92 volume datasets acquired on 21 patients in pre-operative conditions. Acquisition noise was reduced by 97% in specific conditions with respect to data acquired without correction.

  9. Anterior Segment Dimensions Following Laser Iridotomy in Acute Primary Angle Closure and Fellow Eyes.

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    Moghimi, Sasan; Bijani, Faezeh; Chen, Rebecca; Yasseri, Mehdi; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2018-02-01

    To compare the change in anterior segment morphology after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in acute primary angle closure (APAC) and their fellow eyes. Prospective, fellow eye-matched case series. In this study 42 individuals with unilateral episode of APAC were enrolled and the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) images were obtained in both eyes at baseline and at 6 weeks after LPI. A linear mixed-effects model was used to compare changes in anterior chamber and angle variables with consideration of laterality as the random effect and pupil diameter as the fixed effect. APAC eyes had smaller angle parameters (P = .013 for all), less central anterior chamber depth (cACD) (P APAC and fellow eyes. cACD (P = .003) and ACA (P APAC eyes. However, there was no significant change in cACD (P = .190) and LV (P = .430) in fellow eyes. In both APAC eyes and fellow eyes, iris curvature decreased after LPI (P APAC eyes and their fellow eyes, LPI resulted in significant anterior chamber angle widening and increased anterior chamber area. In APAC eyes, the iris flattened, cACD deepened, and the lens shifted posteriorly after resolution of the attack. However, in fellow eyes, the increase in ACA was mainly owing to decreased iris curvature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of anterior segment parameters under photopic and scotopic conditions in Indian eyes using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

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    Dacosta Shaun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the anterior segment parameters in photopic and scotopic conditions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT in Indian eyes. Materials and Methods: One hundred eyes of 100 normal subjects of both sexes, aged 19 to 76 years, underwent anterior segment evaluation by AS OCT (VisanteTM OCT. Central corneal thickness (CCT, central anterior chamber depth (ACD, pupil diameter (PD and the temporal and nasal peripheral irido-corneal angles were assessed in photopic and scotopic conditions. These anterior segment parameters were stratified for age, sex and refractive error. Results: Mean values of the parameters measured in photopic and scotopic conditions respectively were as follows: ACD (mm 2.88 ± 0.32, 2.89 ± 0.32 (P = 0.10; nasal angle (degrees 28.80 ± 5.91, 22.28 ± 7.50 (P < 0.001; temporal angle (degrees 29.95 ± 6.74, 22.82 ± 8.43 (P < 0.001; pupil diameter (mm 4.08 ± 0.91, 4.68 ± 0.92 (P < 0.001; CCT (µm 519 ± 33.88, 519 ± 33.88. Conclusions: There was no significant difference in the ACD in photopic and scotopic conditions. While the nasal and temporal angles showed a significant decrease, the pupil diameter showed a significant increase in scotopic conditions. Mean central ACD decreased with age and was shallower in females than in males. It was highest in myopes and lowest in hypermetropes. CCT was not influenced by photopic and scotopic conditions.

  11. Influence of anterior segment biometric parameters on the anterior chamber angle width in eyes with angle closure.

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    Matsuki, Takaaki; Hirose, Fumitaka; Ito, Shin-Ichiro; Hata, Masayuki; Hirami, Yasuhiko; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2015-02-01

    To predict angle narrowing in eyes with angle closure in a Japanese population using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) quantitative parameters. AS-OCT was used to examine 118 eyes of 118 patients with angle closure and 40 eyes of 40 patients with open angle under dark conditions. After measuring the angle opening distance 500 (AOD500), anterior chamber depth, iris thickness (IT), iris convexity (IC), pupil diameter, anterior chamber width, and crystalline lens rise, multivariate regression analyses were performed for the AOD500 in each group. With the exception of IT, significant differences were observed between the AS-OCT parameters for the angle closure and open-angle groups. Anterior chamber depth, IT, and IC were the explanatory variables associated with AOD500 for each group (P≤0.001). A significant negative association was found between IT and IC only in the angle-closure group (Pchamber depth was a major mechanism of angle narrowing, and that both IT and IC had a strong impact on angle narrowing. Moreover, the negative association found between IT and IC in only the angle closure group indicated the existence of the stretch force placed on the iris by relative pupillary block.

  12. Anterior segment angiography of the normal canine eye: a comparison between indocyanine green and sodium fluorescein.

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    Pirie, C G; Alario, A

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess and compare indocyanine green (IG) and sodium fluorescein (SF) angiographic findings in the normal canine anterior segment using a digital single lens reflex (dSLR) camera adaptor. Images were obtained from 10 brown-eyed Beagles, free of ocular and systemic disease. All animals received butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg IM), maropitant citrate (1.0 mg/kg SC) and diphenhydramine (2.0 mg/kg SC) 20 min prior to propofol (4 mg/kg IV bolus, 0.2 mg/kg/min continuous rate infusion). Standard color imaging was performed prior to the administration of 0.25% IG (1 mg/kg IV). Imaging was performed using a full spectrum dSLR camera, dSLR camera adaptor, camera lens (Canon 60 mm f/2.8 Macro) and an accessory flash. Images were obtained at a rate of 1/s immediately following IG bolus for 30 s, then at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min. Ten minutes later, 10% SF (20 mg/kg IV) was administered. Imaging was repeated using the same adaptor system and imaging sequence protocol. Arterial, capillary and venous phases were identified during anterior segment IG angiography (ASIGA) and their time sequences were recorded. ASIGA offered improved visualization of the iris vasculature in heavily pigmented eyes compared to anterior segment SF angiography (ASSFA), since visualization of the vascular pattern during ASSFA was not possible due to pigment masking. Leakage of SF was noted in a total of six eyes. The use of IG and SF was not associated with any observed adverse events. The adaptor described here provides a cost-effective alternative to existing imaging systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

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    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  14. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements Obtained by Three Different Devices in Healthy Eyes

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    Carmen Lopez de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the normal values and the repeatability of the Galilei Dual Scheimpflug Analyzer (GDSA, the biometer IOL Master, and the autokerato/refractometer WAM 5500 in anterior segment examinations. Methods. Eighty-eight eyes from 88 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. The repeatability was assessed, calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Results. The correlations among the repeated measurements showed nearly perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81 for all of the parameters, except corneal astigmatism Galilei (0.79 and WAM (0.68. There were statistically significant differences (P<0.001 between the values of the flat simulated keratometry (SimK and the steep SimK measured by GDSA and the other methods; however, there were no statistically significant differences for the values obtained with the IOL Master and WAM 5500 (P=0.302 and P=0.172, resp. or between the values of the ACD (P<0.001 and WTW (P=0.007 measured by the IOL Master and GDSA. Conclusions. The anterior segment measurements from the IOL Master and WAM 5500 were highly repeatable, comparable, and well correlated. In healthy young persons, the evaluated parameters had very good repeatability, although significant differences were found between the GDSA and IOL Master and between the GDSA and WAM 5500.

  15. Comparison of Anterior Segment-Optical Coherence Tomography Parameters in Phacomorphic Angle Closure and Acute Angle Closure Eyes.

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    Moghimi, Sasan; Ramezani, Farshid; He, Mingguang; Coleman, Anne L; Lin, Shan C

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) parameters in phacomorphic angle closure and acute primary angle closure (APAC) eyes. In this cross-sectional case series, a total of 134 patients with phacomorphic angle closure (28 eyes) or APAC (54 eyes), as well as normal control subjects (52 eyes), were enrolled. Patients underwent AS-OCT imaging and A-scan biometry of both eyes. Anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), iris thickness (IT), iris curvature, lens vault (LV), anterior vault (AV), and angle parameters including angle opening distance (AOD 500 and AOD750) and trabecular iris space area (TISA500 and TISA750) were measured in qualified images using the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program and compared among eyes with phacomorphic angle closure, APAC, and normal control subjects. Phacomorphic angle closure and APAC eyes had smaller AOD, ACD, ACA, ACW, AV, and posterior corneal arc length and greater LV than normal controls (P APAC eyes: ACD 1042 μm (OR,12.12; P APAC eyes. In multivariate analysis, ACD, LV, AOD500, and axial length could significantly distinguish the two entities. Ocular biometric parameters can differentiate phacomorphic angle closure from APAC eyes. Shallower ACD and greater LV, axial length, and ACA are the main parameters that distinguish phacomorphic angle closure from APAC.

  16. Comparison of anterior segment morphology following prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy in Caucasian and Chinese eyes.

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    Lee, Roland Y; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2014-07-01

    To compare anterior segment biometric parameters between Caucasians and Chinese before and after laser peripheral iridotomy. Prospective clinical cohort study. Caucasian and Chinese primary angle-closure suspects. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after laser peripheral iridotomy were analysed to measure anterior segment biometric parameters. Paired Student's t-tests were used for within-ethnic group comparisons. Univariate and linear mixed-effect regression models were used for between-ethnic group comparisons. Angle opening distance, angle recess area, iris thickness, iris curvature, anterior chamber area, anterior chamber volume and anterior chamber width. Caucasians had significantly greater preoperative angle recess area, anterior chamber width, and iris curvature and lower preoperative iris thickness compared to Chinese (P iris curvature were observed within both ethnic groups (P iris curvature did not differ between the two ethnic groups (P iris convexity after laser peripheral iridotomy. Although certain aspects of anterior segment anatomy differed between Caucasians and Chinese preoperatively, they did not translate into significant ethnic differences in the amount of laser peripheral iridotomy-induced changes in the anterior segment biometric parameters. © 2013 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

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    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  18. Repeatability and agreement of five imaging systems for measuring anterior segment parameters in healthy eyes

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    Mukesh Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Pentacam. Conclusions: The repeatability estimates of sKm, fKm, TCT, ACD, and CCT measurements with Pentacam, Orbscan, Sirius, Corvis, and UP in Indian eyes were good. However, the differences in the measurements between the devices were statistically significant and the same cannot be used interchangeably for anterior segments measurements.

  19. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

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    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  20. The effect of bevacizumab for anterior segment neovascularization after silicone oil removal in eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery.

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    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y

    2010-07-01

    To report the outcomes of the use of intracameral bevacizumab for iris neovascularization occurring after silicone oil (SO) removal in eyes undergoing vitreoretinal surgery (VRS). This study included 12 eyes that had iris neovascularization after SO removal. The clinical outcomes of 12 eyes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection were reviewed. There were eight men and four women with an average age of 41.58+/-12.68 years. All eyes had VRS for various vitreoretinal diseases. After the mean follow-up period of 9.7+/-5.3 months, SO removal was performed. Then, the patients were followed for more than 2 months and detailed retinal examinations and intraocular pressure (IOP) were normal during this period, but rubeosis iridis (RI) developed. RI was treated with 1 dose of 1.25 mg bevacizumab into the anterior chamber. After a mean follow-up period of 4.8+/-2.2 months, the regression of iris neovacularization was detected and IOP was below 21 mmHg in all eyes. Anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV) may develop through various mechanisms in patients with VRS after SO removal, and anterior chamber injection of bevacizumab may lead to regression of ASNV.

  1. Comparison of Scheimpflug and swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography in normal and keratoconus eyes.

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    Ghoreishi, Seyed Mohammad; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Akbar; Abtahi, Zahra-Alsadat; Abtahi, Mohammad-Ali; Sonbolestan, Seyed Ali; Abtahi, Seyed-Hossein; Mohammadinia, Mohadeseh; Isfahani, Kimia Nekouie

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the agreement of anterior segment optical coherence tomography with its older well-known opponent i.e., Sheimpflug imaging in evaluation of the cornea in normal and keratoconus subjects. 107 normal and 56 keratoconus eyes were evaluated with the anterior segment optical coherence tomography followed by the Scheimpflug imaging. Parameters included axial keratometry data in both of steep and flat meridians, mean keratometry and the astigmatism values in the central 4.0 mm zone, central, thinnest and apex corneal thicknesses, Q-value in 8 mm zone and pupil diameter. Corneal topographic maps were recorded and were evaluated for anterior highest and lowest points, posterior highest and lowest points. Average values were recorded for analysis. All anterior cornea keratometry indices showed perfect agreement between two devices in normal corneas; while the level of agreement in keratoconus cases ranged from moderate to strong. All posterior keratometry indices also showed perfect agreement in both groups; except for flat K in normal corneas and steep K in KC ones. The amount of corneal cylinder in normal corneas had perfect agreement, and moderate to strong agreement in anterior/posterior cornea in keratoconus group. Anterior highest and lowest points showed strong and perfect agreement in normal and keratoconus cases, respectively. Posterior highest and lowest points showed strong agreement in normal cases. Thickness indices (central, thinnest, and apex thicknesses) showed perfect agreement between two devices in both normal and KC groups. Mean values of anterior and posterior highest points were statistically higher in Scheimpflug system. Although two imaging technologies had statistically numerical different output, it seems that they have a good agreement in most parameters.

  2. Impact of Microscope-Integrated OCT on Ophthalmology Resident Performance of Anterior Segment Surgical Maneuvers in Model Eyes.

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    Todorich, Bozho; Shieh, Christine; DeSouza, Philip J; Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M; Cunefare, David L; Stinnett, Sandra S; Izatt, Joseph A; Farsiu, Sina; Mruthyunjaya, Privthi; Kuo, Anthony N; Toth, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The integration of swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) into the operating microscope enables real-time, tissue-level three-dimensional (3D) imaging to aid in ophthalmic microsurgery. In this prospective randomized controlled study, we evaluated the impact of SS microscope-integrated OCT (MI-OCT) on ophthalmology residents' performance of ophthalmic microsurgical maneuvers. Fourteen ophthalmology residents from a single institution were stratified by year of training and randomized to perform four anterior segment surgical maneuvers on porcine eyes with (MI-OCT+) or without (MI-OCT-) direct intraoperative OCT guidance. Subsequently, both groups repeated the same maneuvers without MI-OCT feedback to test whether initial MI-OCT experience affected subsequent surgical performance. Finally, the MI-OCT- group was crossed over and allowed to repeat the same maneuvers with direct MI-OCT guidance. Each resident completed a survey at the completion of the study. With direct MI-OCT feedback, residents demonstrated enhanced performance in depth-based anterior segment maneuvers (corneal suture passes at 50% and 90% depth and corneal laceration repair) compared with the residents operating without MI-OCT. Microscope-integrated OCT+ residents continued to outperform the controls when both groups subsequently operated without MI-OCT. For clear corneal wound geometry, there was no statistically significant effect of MI-OCT as applied in this study. Overall, the resident surgeons rated their subjective experience of using MI-OCT very favorably. Microscope-integrated OCT feedback enhances performance of ophthalmology residents in select anterior segment surgical maneuvers. Microscope-integrated OCT represents a valuable tool in the surgical education of ophthalmology residents.

  3. Dynamic changes of anterior segment in patients with different stages of primary angle-closure in both eyes and normal subjects.

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    Jialiu Lin

    Full Text Available To compare changes in anterior segment parameters under light and dark (light-to-dark conditions among eyes with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG, fellow eyes with confirmed or suspect primary angle-closure (PAC or PACS, and age-matched healthy eyes.Consecutive patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye, as well as age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions, and anterior chamber, lens, and iris parameters compared. Demographic and biometric factors associated with light-to-dark change in iris area were analyzed by linear regression.Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.6±8.9 years and 30 normal subjects matched for age (60.6±9.3 years and sex ratio were recruited. In regards to differences under light-to-dark conditions, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500μm and iris area during light-to-dark transition were smaller in CPACG eyes than fellow PACS/PAC eyes and normal eyes (P<0.017. Pupil diameter change was largest in normal eyes, and larger in PACS/PAC eyes than CPACG eyes (P<0.017. There was an average reduction of 0.145 mm2 in iris area for each millimeter of pupil diameter increase in CPACG eyes, 0.161 mm2 in fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and 0.165 mm2 in normal eyes. Larger iris curvature in the dark and diagnosis of PACG were significantly associated with less light-to-dark iris area changes.Dynamic changes in iris parameters with light-to-dark transition differed significantly among CPACG eyes, fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and normal eyes. Greater iris curvature under dark conditions was correlated with reduced light-to-dark change in iris area and pupil diameter, which may contribute to disease progression.

  4. Anterior segment indocyanine green angiography in anterior scleritis and episcleritis.

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    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Durig, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of anterior segment indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Prospective comparative (paired-eye) observational case series. Twenty subjects presenting clinical diseases compatible with episcleritis or scleritis. Anterior segment ICG angiography was performed according to a standard protocol in subjects presenting either episcleritis or scleritis. Photographs of the anterior segment were taken in the early phase (up to 3 minutes after dye injection), intermediate phase (10-12 minutes) and late phase (30-45 minutes). The inflamed zones were compared with the same regions of the controlateral eye. The amount of protein ICG exudation was scored by a masked observer as follows: zero for no exudation, one for slight exudation, two for moderate exudation, and three for severe exudation. Evaluation of dye leakage, which reflects protein exudation, with anterior segment ICG angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Twenty subjects with a mean age of 43 +/- 15 years (7 male, 13 female) were enrolled in the study. Thirteen subjects had anterior scleritis (7 nodular, 5 diffuse, and 1 scleromalacia perforans), and 7 subjects had episcleritis. Only 1 out of 7 subjects with episcleritis showed a slight ICG leakage (a score of one), whereas all subjects with scleritis had ICG leakage scores of one or more (P = 0.0005, Fisher exact test). ICG angiography of the anterior segment of the eye is a good clinical test to differentiate episcleritis from scleritis.

  5. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Wang

    Full Text Available To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA, posterior chamber area (PCA, iris cross-section area (ICA and angle recess area (ARA were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC.All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001.Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  6. First experiences with a slitlamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT) system in the anterior and posterior segment of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerauf, Hans; Scholz, Christian; Engelhardt, Ralf; Koch, Peter; Laqua, Horst; Birngruber, Reginald

    1999-02-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new in vivo imaging device in ophthalmology. We investigated the diagnostic potentials of a slitlamp-adapted OCT in the examination of not only the posterior but also the anterior segment in vivo. Patients were examined with a new prototype of a slitlamp- adapted OCT (Fa.Schwind, D-Kleinostheim) in the anterior and posterior segment using 100 - 200 axial scans with 50 Hz scan frequency. The scan length is variable up to 7.5 mm. The software allows to evaluate the images in gray scale or false color. By the slitlamp-adapted OCT all anatomic structures and morphological changes anterior to the attenuating iris pigment epithelium including the anterior chamber angle can be demonstrated and measured precisely. Within the pupillary opening OCT-imaging of cataract, secondary cataract formation as well as the anterior vitreous can be performed. The slitlamp-adapted OCT also allows direct biomicroscopic control of the measured area in examinations of the posterior segment. The slitlamp-adapted OCT provides a new and helpful diagnostic tool, which allows a precise examination of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye. The advantage of this new method lies in the combination of the familiar examination technique and the simultaneous slitlamp view, which provides an exact position control. It is possible to do pachymetric studies of the cornea after photorefractive and phototherapeutic therapy. Of importance is the objective measurement of the chamber angle, which may improve pre- and postoperative evaluation and allow a better follow up documentation of glaucoma patients.

  7. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghao; Liang, Xuanwei; Wu, Ziqiang; Lin, Jialiu; Huang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA), posterior chamber area (PCA), iris cross-section area (ICA) and angle recess area (ARA) were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (pPhotoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  8. Ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebmann, J M; Ritch, R

    1996-08-01

    New imaging technologies are revolutionizing the understanding and treatment of a wide variety of ocular disorders. Confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, ultrasound biomicroscopy, confocal scanning laser polarimetry, color doppler imaging of blood flow, and optical coherence tomography are providing important information regarding disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, progression, and treatment. High frequency (50 MHz), high resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy of the anterior segment was obtained in a wide variety of disorders of the anterior segment. Tissue resolution is approximately 50 microns and the penetration depth is 5 mm. Ultrasound biomicroscopy is capable of imaging the comea, iris, anterior chamber, anterior chamber angle, posterior chamber, and ciliary body with great detail. The structures surrounding the posterior chamber, previously hidden from clinical observation, can be imaged and their normal anatomic relationships assessed. The various forms of angle closure glaucoma, such as pupillary block and plateau iris configuration, can be differentiated. The concave iris found in pigment dispersion and its response to treatment can be assessed. Visualization of anterior segment anatomy in eyes with opaque media is possible. Ultrasound biomicroscopy assists in the management of eyes with disorders of the anterior segment. Future applications of this technology will yield important information regarding accommodation, normal ocular physiology and disease pathophysiology.

  9. Notch signaling in the pigmented epithelium of the anterior eye segment promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Bhushan; Nowell, Craig S; Ihm, JongEun; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Moulin, Alexandre P; Schorderet, Daniel F; Beermann, Friedrich; Radtke, Freddy

    2014-07-01

    The ciliary body and iris are pigmented epithelial structures in the anterior eye segment that function to maintain correct intra-ocular pressure and regulate exposure of the internal eye structures to light, respectively. The cellular and molecular factors that mediate the development of the ciliary body and iris from the ocular pigmented epithelium remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we have investigated the role of Notch signaling during the development of the anterior pigmented epithelium by using genetic loss- and gain-of-function approaches. Loss of canonical Notch signaling results in normal iris development but absence of the ciliary body. This causes progressive hypotony and over time leads to phthisis bulbi, a condition characterized by shrinkage of the eye and loss of structure/function. Conversely, Notch gain-of-function results in aniridia and profound ciliary body hyperplasia, which causes ocular hypertension and glaucoma-like disease. Collectively, these data indicate that Notch signaling promotes ciliary body development at the expense of iris formation and reveals novel animal models of human ocular pathologies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Biometry of anterior segment of human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians during accommodation imaged with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Leng

    Full Text Available To determine the biometry of anterior segment dimensions of the human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT during accommodation.Twenty pre-presbyopic volunteers, aged between 24 and 30, were recruited. The ocular anterior segment of each subject was imaged using an extended scan depth OCT under non- and 3.0 diopters (D of accommodative demands on both horizontal and vertical meridians. All the images were analyzed to yield the following parameters: pupil diameter (PD, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior and posterior surface curvatures of the crystalline lens (ASC and PSC and the lens thickness (LT. Two consecutive measurements were performed to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of this OCT. They were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (SD, a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and the coefficient of repeatability/reproducibility (CoR.There were no significant differences between two consecutive measurements on either horizontal or vertical meridians under both two different accommodative statuses (P>0.05. The ICC for all parameters ranged from 0.775 to 0.998, except for the PSC (0.550 on the horizontal meridian under the non-accommodative status. In addition, the CoR for most of the parameters were excellent (0.004% to 4.89%. In all the parameters, only PD and PSC were found different between the horizontal and vertical meridians under both accommodative statuses (P<0.05. PD, ACD, ASC and PSC under accommodative status were significantly smaller than those under the non-accommodative status, except that the PSC at the vertical meridian did not change. In addition, LT was significantly increased when accommodation.The extended scan depth OCT successfully measured the dimensions of the anterior eye during accommodation with good repeatability and reproducibility on both horizontal and vertical meridians. The asymmetry

  11. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Toxic anterior segment syndrome following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Sevimli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.

  13. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography of acute primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai Tao; Xu, Liang; Cao, Wei Fang; Wang, Ya Xing; Jonas, Jost B

    2010-06-01

    To assess anterior segment optical coherence tomographic measurements of patients after acute unilateral primary angle closure (APAC) compared with those of normal subjects. The clinical observational study included 41 hospital-based patients after unilateral APAC, their unaffected contralateral eyes, and 205 subjects. These were selected from the population-based Beijing Eye Study, and were matched with the APAC group for age, gender, and refractive error. All study participants underwent slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography (OCT). Compared with the unaffected contralateral eyes, eyes with APAC had a significantly shallower anterior chamber (P APAC and the unaffected contralateral eyes both showed more shallow anterior chambers (P APAC group, the anterior chamber angle was closed in three or more quadrants. Anterior segment OCT measurements show significant differences between eyes with APAC, contralateral eyes at risk for APAC, and normal eyes. This may open possibilities for a semi-automatic assessment of subjects at risk for APAC by anterior segment OCT. The anterior chamber angle was closed most often in the nasal quadrant, and, in APAC, the angle was closed in three or more quadrants.

  14. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for the quantitative evaluation of the anterior segment following Boston keratoprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joann J Kang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively evaluate the anterior segment using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT following Boston keratoprosthesis type 1. METHODS: A retrospective study consisted of AS-OCT imaging at a single time point postoperatively in 52 eyes. Main outcomes measures include anatomical and functional anterior chamber depth (ACD, angle (ACA and peripheral and proximal synechiae. RESULTS: The mean time point of imaging was 19.3 months postoperatively. Average anatomical and functional ACD was 2.0 and 0.21 mm respectively, and mean ACA ranged from 2.5° to 6.14° in representative meridians. An average of 8.7 clock hours of angle closure was observed in the 25 eyes in which all meridians were imaged. The majority of eyes showed peripheral (86.5% and proximal (67.3% synechiae. CONCLUSIONS: AS-OCT is a useful tool for quantitative evaluation of anterior segment and angle after keratoprosthesis, which is otherwise poorly visible. The majority of eyes showed shallow ACD, extensive angle closure and synechiae formation.

  15. Anterior Segment Ischemia after Strabismus Surger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Seyhan Göçmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with complaints of diplopia and esotropia in his right eye that developed after a car accident. The patient had right esotropia in primary position and abduction of the right eye was totally limited. Primary deviation was over 40 prism diopters at near and distance. The patient was diagnosed with sixth nerve palsy and 18 months after trauma, he underwent right medial rectus muscle recession. Ten months after the first operation, full-thickness tendon transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles (with Foster suture was performed. On the first postoperative day, slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema, 3+ cells in the anterior chamber and an irregular pupil. According to these findings, the diagnosis was anterior segment ischemia. Treatment with 0.1/5 mL topical dexamethasone drops (16 times/day, cyclopentolate hydrochloride drops (3 times/day and 20 mg oral fluocortolone (3 times/day was initiated. After 1 week of treatment, corneal edema regressed and the anterior chamber was clean. Topical and systemic steroid treatment was gradually discontinued. At postoperative 1 month, the patient was orthophoric and there were no pathologic symptoms besides the irregular pupil. Anterior segment ischemia is one of the most serious complications of strabismus surgery. Despite the fact that in most cases the only remaining sequel is an irregular pupil, serious circulation deficits could lead to phthisis bulbi. Clinical properties of anterior segment ischemia should be well recognized and in especially risky cases, preventative measures should be taken.

  16. Antioxidant Delivery Pathways in the Anterior Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Umapathy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissues in the anterior segment of the eye are particular vulnerable to oxidative stress. To minimise oxidative stress, ocular tissues utilise a range of antioxidant defence systems which include nonenzymatic and enzymatic antioxidants in combination with repair and chaperone systems. However, as we age our antioxidant defence systems are overwhelmed resulting in increased oxidative stress and damage to tissues of the eye and the onset of various ocular pathologies such as corneal opacities, lens cataracts, and glaucoma. While it is well established that nonenzymatic antioxidants such as ascorbic acid and glutathione are important in protecting ocular tissues from oxidative stress, less is known about the delivery mechanisms used to accumulate these endogenous antioxidants in the different tissues of the eye. This review aims to summarise what is currently known about the antioxidant transport pathways in the anterior eye and how a deeper understanding of these transport systems with respect to ocular physiology could be used to increase antioxidant levels and delay the onset of eye diseases.

  17. Metabolic changes in the anterior segment of the eye induced by UV irradiation and measured ny NMR spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Midelfart, A.; Risa, O.; Sather, O.; Tessem, MB.; Fris, M.; Soderberg, P. G.; Čejková, Jitka

    s. 103 ISSN 0030-3747. [EVER 2004(European Association for Vision and Eye Research). 24.09.2004-27.09.2004, Vilamoura] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA304/03/0419 Keywords : UV irradiation * spectroscopy * cornea Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry

  18. Application of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in Pediatric Ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Salles Cauduro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Application of anterior segment optical coherence (AS-OCT in pediatric ophthalmology. Methods. Retrospective clinical study case series of 26 eyes of 19 pediatric patients throughout a 21-month period, presenting anterior segment pathologies, were submitted to AS-OCT examination (OCT Visante, 1310 nm, Zeiss, noncontact technique, no sedation requirement. Results. AS-OCT images were obtained from 19 patients (range: 2 months to 12 years. Clinical diagnosis of anterior segment abnormalities included cornea disease (n=7, congenital anterior segment conditions (n=10, ocular trauma (n=1, anterior segment surgeries (n=2, iridocorneal angle abnormalities (n=4, intermediate uveitis (n=2. The most common OCT findings were corneal hyperreflectivity and thickening (n=15, shallow anterior chamber with iris-lens diaphragm anterior displacement (n=4, atypical corneal curvature (n=4, corneal thinning (n=4, peripheral synechiae with angle closure (n=3, increased anterior chamber depth (n=2, and proximal portion of glaucoma drainage tube (n=2. Conclusion. In the present study, noncontact AS-OCT demonstrated to be a feasible technique to evaluate the anterior segment providing anatomic details and useful to clarify diagnosis in the pediatric population.

  19. Accessory optical device for the Heidelberg retina angiograph ( HRA classic to perform angiography of the vitreous cavity and the anterior eye segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennel Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Heidelberg retina angiograph ( HRA classic enables fluorescein angiography (FA and indocyanine green angiography (ICG-A of the retina and choroid. The goal of this study was to design an accessory device to adapt the HRA classic for application on structures anterior to the retina. The optical device consisted of a cylindrical two-piece plastic frame holding a magnifying lens commonly used with the indirect ophthalmoscope. A 60-diopters lens was inserted in this frame to enable the angiography of the anterior segment. A less strong lens of 30 diopters was used for the visualization of pathologic findings in the vitreous cavity. We designed an easy-to-use and low-cost device to adapt the HRA classic for angiography of the fundus, vitreous cavity and anterior segment in the same session and without delay. FA and ICG-A images of two patients with rubeosis iridis and of one patient with choroidal melanoma are described.

  20. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  1. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of mo...

  2. [Zebrafish-a new animal models of anterior segment embryonic development and diseases basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yong-na; Wei, Rui-hua; Zhao, Shao-zhen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, zebrafish has become ideal animal models of human disease with its unique characteristics, such as small body, fecundity, fast development and growth, embryo transparency, and so on. Furthermore, the structure and gene of zebrafish eye are highly conservative with human eye, which make ophthalmologists to pay close attention to zebrafish. This review focus on the studies and applications on zebrafish embryonic development of anterior segment, including the morphogenesis of cornea, lens and anterior chamber, and diseases of anterior segment (corneal diseases, cataract, glaucoma).

  3. Dynamic analysis of dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle with anterior segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Christopher Kai-shun; Cheung, Carol Yim Lui; Li, Haitao; Dorairaj, Syril; Yiu, Cedric Ka Fai; Wong, Amy Lee; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert; Weinreb, Robert; Lam, Dennis Shun Chiu

    2007-09-01

    To describe the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) in studying the dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle. Thirty-seven normal subjects with open angles on dark-room gonioscopy and 18 subjects with narrow angles were analyzed. The dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior-chamber angle were captured with real-time video recording. The angle opening distance (AOD500) and trabecular iris space area (TISA500) of the nasal angle and the pupil diameter in each of the representative serial images were measured. Linear regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between AOD500/TISA500 and pupil diameter. Demographic and biometry measurements associated with the AOD difference (AOD500((light)) - AOD500((dark))) and TISA difference (TISA500((light)) - TISA500((dark))) were analyzed with univariate and multivariate regression models. The AOD500/TISA500 measured in the light in the open-angle and the narrow-angle groups were 694 +/- 330 microm/0.24 +/- 0.10 mm(2) and 265 +/- 78 microm/0.10 +/- 0.03 mm(2), respectively. These values were significantly greater than the AOD500/TISA500 measured in the dark (492 +/- 265 microm/0.16 +/- 0.08 mm(2) and 119 +/- 82 microm/0.05 +/- 0.04 mm(2), respectively, all with P chamber depth and the AOD/TISA difference. Fifty eyes showed significant correlations between AOD/TISA and pupil diameter, whereas one eye showed no association. Four eyes in the narrow angle group developed appositional angle closure in the dark. The dynamic dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle can be imaged and analyzed with anterior segment OCT. Although the angle width generally decreased linearly with increasing pupil diameter, the differences of the angle width measured in the dark and in the light varied substantially among individuals.

  4. Segmentation and Quantification for Angle-Closure Glaucoma Assessment in Anterior Segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Yanwu; Lin, Stephen; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Frangi, Alejandro F; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2017-09-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and can be identified by measuring the anterior chamber angle (ACA) of the eye. The ACA can be viewed clearly through anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), but the imaging characteristics and the shapes and locations of major ocular structures can vary significantly among different AS-OCT modalities, thus complicating image analysis. To address this problem, we propose a data-driven approach for automatic AS-OCT structure segmentation, measurement, and screening. Our technique first estimates initial markers in the eye through label transfer from a hand-labeled exemplar data set, whose images are collected over different patients and AS-OCT modalities. These initial markers are then refined by using a graph-based smoothing method that is guided by AS-OCT structural information. These markers facilitate segmentation of major clinical structures, which are used to recover standard clinical parameters. These parameters can be used not only to support clinicians in making anatomical assessments, but also to serve as features for detecting anterior angle closure in automatic glaucoma screening algorithms. Experiments on Visante AS-OCT and Cirrus high-definition-OCT data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Femtosecond lasers in ophthalmology: clinical applications in anterior segment surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Tibor; Nagy, Zoltan; Sarayba, Melvin; Kurtz, Ronald M.

    2010-02-01

    The human eye is a favored target for laser surgery due to its accessibility via the optically transparent ocular tissue. Femtosecond lasers with confined tissue effects and minimized collateral tissue damage are primary candidates for high precision intraocular surgery. The advent of compact diode-pumped femtosecond lasers, coupled with computer controlled beam delivery devices, enabled the development of high precision femtosecond laser for ophthalmic surgery. In this article, anterior segment femtosecond laser applications currently in clinical practice and investigation are reviewed. Corneal procedures evolved first and remain dominant due to easy targeting referenced from a contact surface, such as applanation lenses placed on the eye. Adding a high precision imaging technique, such as optical coherence tomography (OCT), can enable accurate targeting of tissue beyond the cornea, such as the crystalline lens. Initial clinical results of femtosecond laser cataract surgery are discussed in detail in the latter portion part of the article.

  6. Expanding the Spectrum of FOXC1 and PITX2 Mutations and Copy Number Changes in Patients with Anterior Segment Malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haene, Barbara; Meire, Francoise; Claerhout, Ilse; Kroes, Hester Y.; Plomp, Astrid; Arens, Yvonne H.; de Ravel, Thomy; Casteels, Ingele; De Jaegere, Sarah; Hooghe, Sally; Wuyts, Wim; van den Ende, Jenneke; Roulez, Francoise; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Giltay, Jacques; Verheij, Johanna B. G. M.; de Faber, Jan-Tjeerd; Menten, Bjoern; De Paepe, Anne; Kestelyn, Philippe; Leroy, Bart P.; De Baere, Elfride

    PURPOSE. Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) comprises a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities that affect several structures of the anterior segment of the eye. The main purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in 80 probands

  7. Expanding the spectrum of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in patients with anterior segment malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. D'Haene (Barbara); F. Meire (Françoise); I. Claerhout (Ilse); H.Y. Kroes (Hester); A. Plomp (Astrid); Y.H.J.M. Arens (Yvonne); T. de Ravel (Thomy); I. Casteels; S. de Jaegere (Sarah); S. Hooghe (Sally); W. Wuyts (Wim); J. van den Ende (Jenneke); F. Roulez (Françoise); H.E. Veenstra-Knol (Hermine); R.A. Oldenburg (Rogier); J. Giltay (Jacques); J.B.G.M. Verheij (Johanna); J.-T. de Faber; B. Menten; A. de Paepe (Anne); P. Kestelyn (Philippe); B.P. Leroy (Bart); E. de Baere (Elfride)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE. Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) comprises a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities that affect several structures of the anterior segment of the eye. The main purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in

  8. Expanding the spectrum of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in patients with anterior segment malformations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'haene, Barbara; Meire, Françoise; Claerhout, Ilse; Kroes, Hester Y.; Plomp, Astrid; Arens, Yvonne H.; de Ravel, Thomy; Casteels, Ingele; de Jaegere, Sarah; Hooghe, Sally; Wuyts, Wim; van den Ende, Jenneke; Roulez, Françoise; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E.; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Giltay, Jacques; Verheij, Johanna B. G. M.; de Faber, Jan-Tjeerd; Menten, Björn; de Paepe, Anne; Kestelyn, Philippe; Leroy, Bart P.; de Baere, Elfride

    2011-01-01

    Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) comprises a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities that affect several structures of the anterior segment of the eye. The main purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in 80 probands with

  9. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Shiung Wang; Jia-Hao Chang; Ti-Sheng Chang; Hung-Yi Chen; Ching-Wei Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact sp...

  10. Relationship between the morphology of A-1 segment of anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between the morphology of A-1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Wenfeng Feng, Long Zhang, Weiguang Li, Guozhong Zhang, Xiaoyan He, Gang Wang, Mingzhou Li, Songtao Qi ...

  11. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  12. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion. PMID:27340541

  13. Study of biological measurement parameters of anterior segment in primary acute angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie Bian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate biological measurement parameters of anterior segment in acute angle-closure glaucoma(AACG.METHODS: Forty-six eyes of 46 patients with AACG and 52 eyes of 52 patients with shallow anterior chamber and 50 eyes of 50 normal individuals were examined. The parameters of anterior segment including chamber crowd rate(CCR, lens thickness(LT, lens position(LPand anterior chamber depth(ACDwere measured by A-ultrasound according to different ages in each group. The data were performed statistical analysis in three groups.RESULTS: In each age range group(≥50~59 years old, ≥60~69 years old, ≥70 years old, statistically significant differences in three groups(AACG, shallow anterior chamber group and the controlswere found in CCR, LT, LP, ACD(PPP>0.05between AACG and shallow anterior chamber group in each age range group.CONCLUSION: CCR can be used as the index of evaluating crowding state of anterior segment in AACG patients and the sensitivity is better than LT and LP.

  14. Effects of hyper- and hypo- thyroidism on oxidative stress of the eye in experimental acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Diker, S; Ataoglu, O; Dolapci, M; Akata, F; Hasanreisôglu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1996-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the homogenated anterior segment of rat eyes with endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Malondialdehyde concentrations were found to be significantly increased (p 0.05). These results suggest that excess or deficiency of the thyroid hormones cause alterations in the malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activities of the rat eyes in endotoxin induced uveitis, and hyperthyroidism may increase the oxidative stress in endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis.

  15. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

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    Suzan Guven Yilmaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS: Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y. Twelve patients (48% were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52% were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber volume (ACV (P<0.05. These parameters returned back to pre-SLT values at post-SLT 3mo. Decrease of ACV at post-SLT 1mo was significantly higher in younger than 60y group than 60y and older group. There was no statistically significant difference in Pentacam parameters between OHT and POAG patients at pre- and post-treatment measurements (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation.

  16. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Karaca Adıyeke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1 and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2. Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001. The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560. Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively. Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552, weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351 and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393. Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342 and central corneal thickness (r=0.303, and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562 and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502. Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels.

  17. Pretreatment anterior segment imaging during acute primary angle closure: insights into angle closure mechanisms in the acute phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sng, Chelvin C A; Aquino, Maria Cecilia D; Liao, Jiemin; Ang, Marcus; Zheng, Ce; Loon, Seng Chee; Chew, Paul T K

    2014-01-01

    To describe anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) parameters during acute primary angle closure (APAC) before therapeutic interventions and comparative analyses of biometric parameters of APAC eyes with fellow eyes. Prospective, comparative case series. Thirty-one consecutive patients with APAC. All patients underwent ASOCT imaging of both eyes during the attack, before therapeutic interventions were administered. Custom software was used to measure anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber area (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris curvature (I-Curv), iris area (I-Area), lens vault (LV), and angle opening distance (AOD750), trabecular iris space area (TISA750), and iris thickness (IT750) at 750 μm from the scleral spur. Multivariate logistic regression modeling using forward selection was used to determine the most important biometric variables associated with APAC compared with the fellow eye during the attack. Anterior segment biometric parameters associated with APAC. The mean age of the patients was 60.9±7.5 years, and 11 patients (35.5%) were male. The mean intraocular pressure was 3.8±9.2 mmHg in the APAC eye and 4.2±4.3 mmHg in the fellow eye before treatment (P APAC eyes had smaller ACD, ACA, ACV, I-Curv (all P APAC occurrence, with ACD accounting for 18.1% and I-Curv accounting for 14.1% of this variance. Shallower ACD and smaller I-Curv were the 2 main anterior segment biometric parameters associated with APAC during the attack. These findings present new insights into the anterior segment biometric parameters of APAC and fellow eyes before therapeutic interventions. Anatomic changes in the anterior segment explained only about one third of the variance in APAC occurrence, and the role of nonanatomic factors require further investigation. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of internal fixation lamp on anterior chamber angle width measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamine, Sakari; Sakai, Hiroshi; Arakaki, Yoshikuni; Yonahara, Michiko; Kaiya, Tadayoshi

    2018-01-01

    To study the effect of the internal fixation lamp on anterior chamber width measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. In a prospective cross sectional observational study, consecutive 22 right eyes of 22 patients (4 men and 18 women) with suspected primary angle closure underwent swept source domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), (CASIA SS-1000, Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Anterior chamber parameters of angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), angle recess area (ARA) at 500 or 750 µm from scleral spur and pupil diameter were measured by AS-OCT in a three-dimensional mode in 4 quadrants (superior, inferior, temporal and nasal) in dark room setting both with and without internal fixation lamp. Anterior segment parameters of AOD 500 in superior, inferior and temporal quadrants, AOD 750 at superior and nasal, TIA 500 at superior, and inferior and TIA 750 at superior and nasal, and ARA 500 or 750 at superior and inferior with internal fixation lamp were greater and the pupil diameter was significantly (all P chamber angle is narrow but open, it is recommended that the internal fixation lamp be turned off to ensure a clear indication as to whether the angle is open or closed in the dark.

  19. Fenestrated A1 segment of right anterior cerebral artery associated to duplicated anterior communicating artery

    OpenAIRE

    Sonda, Ildo; Basso, Luciano Silveira

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of fenestrated anterior cerebral artery associated to duplicated anterior communicating artery found duringa routine dissection of the brain in a male human body. Fenestrations of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery are rare,especially if associated to a duplicated anterior communicating artery. To our knowledge, this is the second reported case in theliterature. We also present a brief review of the surgical importance of this anomaly

  20. Biometric analysis of pigment dispersion syndrome using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Beccat, Sylvain; Fortoul, Vincent; Denis, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    To compare anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, and iridolenticular contact (ILC) area before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) and image processing software. Cross-sectional study. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with PDS; 30 eyes of 30 controls matched for age, gender, and refraction. Anterior segment OCT imaging was performed in all eyes before LPI and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after LPI. At each visit, 12 cross-sectional images of the AS were taken: 4 in bright conditions with accommodation (accommodation), 4 in bright conditions without accommodation (physiological miosis), and 4 under dark conditions (physiologic mydriasis). Biometric parameters were estimated using AS OCT radial sections and customized image-processing software. Anterior chamber volume, iris volume-to-length ratio, ILC area, AS OCT anterior chamber depth, and A-scan ultrasonography axial length. Before LPI, PDS eyes had a significantly greater ACV and ILC area than control eyes (Piris volume-to-length ratio than the controls (Piris volume-to-length ratio increased significantly (Pbiometric changes were stable over time. Iris volume-to-length ratio decreased significantly from accommodation to mydriasis and from miosis to mydriasis, both in PDS and control eyes (Piris that is abnormally large, relative to the AS size, but have a weakly resistant iris that is stretched and pushed against the lens when there is a pressure difference across the iris. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement of early changes in anterior chamber morphology after cataract extraction measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Kozue; Takahashi, Genichiro; Kumegawa, Koichi; Dogru, Murat

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the serial changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD) and angle parameters early after cataract surgery using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). This was a retrospective chart review, case-control study; 150 eyes of 106 patients who underwent cataract surgery. Based on ACD and angle findings, the eyes were classified into two groups, open-angle eyes (87 eyes) and narrow-angle eyes (63 eyes). ASOCT was used to measure ACD and angle parameters (angle opening distance, angle recess area, trabecular iris space area, and trabecular iris angle (TIA [1]). Serial changes in each group were measured before and 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month after cataract surgery, and the differences between the two groups were compared. ACD and all angle parameters in both groups at each examination time after cataract surgery were significantly different from the preoperative values (p < 0.01). In addition, all angle parameters significantly differed between the two groups at each examination time after cataract surgery (p < 0.001). However, ACD after surgery was not significantly different, irrespective of ACD before surgery. ACD and TIA500 both showed significantly greater changes from before surgery to 1 day after surgery in narrow-angle eyes compared to open-angle eyes (p < 0.001). Cataract surgery increases ACD and all angle parameters early after the surgery. However, the degree of angle widening in narrow-angle eyes was not as much as that in open-angle eyes, suggesting that factors other than the lens influence the angle closure.

  2. Anterior segment parameters: comparison of 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrouz, Mahmoud Jabbarvand; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Hashemian, Hesam; Nazari, Rahman

    2010-10-01

    To compare anterior segment parameters between 1-piece and 3-piece acrylic foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs). Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Prospective randomized comparative case series. Eyes scheduled for phacoemulsification were randomized into 2 equal groups to receive a 1-piece (AcrySof SA60AT) or 3-piece (AcrySof MA60AC) foldable acrylic IOL. Scheimpflug imaging (Pentacam) was used to measure anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), preoperatively and 1 week and 3 months postoperatively. The study evaluated 125 eyes (123 patients). There was a statistically significant postoperative increase in ACD, ACA, and ACV at 1 week and 3 months in both IOL groups. Although the mean ACD was significantly higher in the 3-piece group at 1 week, there was no significant between-group difference in ACD, ACA, or ACV at 3 months. There was no significant change in anterior segment parameters from 1 week to 3 months in the 1-piece group; however, the 3-piece group had statistically significant decreases in ACD, ACA, and ACV. Refraction remained stable throughout the follow-up in the 1-piece group but showed a significant myopic shift from 1 week to 3 months in the 3-piece group. After phacoemulsification, the 1-piece acrylic foldable IOL showed little axial movement and provided stable refraction throughout the follow-up. The 3-piece IOL had significant forward movement and led to a myopic shift within 3 months postoperatively. Results indicate that spectacles can be prescribed earlier in eyes with a 1-piece IOL. Copyright © 2010 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Scheimpflug imaging

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    Alime Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS using Scheimpflug imaging. Methods: Forty-three PXS patients and 43 healthy control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Anterior segment parameters were measured using a Scheimpflug system. Results: Considering the PXS and control groups, the mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point (536 ± 31 and 560 ± 31 µm, respectively, p=0.001, at the center of the pupil (534 ± 31 and 558 ± 33 µm, respectively, p=0.001, and at the thinnest point (528 ± 30 and 546 ± 27 µm, respectively, p=0.005 were significantly thinner in PXS patients. Visual acuity was significantly lower (0.52 ± 0.37 versus 0.88 ± 0.23, p<0.001 and axial length was significantly longer (23.9 ± 0.70 mm versus 23.2 ± 0.90 mm, p=0.001 in the PXS eyes than in the control eyes. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of keratometry, anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, corneal volume, and anterior chamber volume between the PXS and control eyes. Conclusions: The patients with PXS had thinner corneas, worse visual acuity, and longer axial length compared with those in the healthy controls.

  4. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameters in subtypes of primary angle closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Celeste P; Gong, Tianxia; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Perera, Shamira A; How, Alicia C; Lee, Hwee Kuan; Cheng, Li; He, Mingguang; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2013-08-07

    To compare anterior segment parameters, assessed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT), in subjects categorized as primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG), and previous acute PAC (APAC); and to identify factors associated with APAC. This was a prospective ASOCT study of 425 subjects with angle closure (176 PACS, 66 PAC, 125 PACG, and 58 APAC). Customized software was used to measure ASOCT parameters, including angle opening distance (AOD750), trabecular-iris space area (TISA750), anterior chamber depth, width, area and volume (ACD, ACW, ACA, ACV), iris thickness (IT750), iris area (IAREA), and lens vault (LV). Mean differences in anterior segment parameters were evaluated by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for age, sex, and pupil diameter (PD). Comparison among the different subgroups showed that ACD, ACA, and ACV were smallest, and IT750 thickest in the APAC group compared with the other subgroups (P APAC group (1218 ± 34 μm) followed by PAC (860 ± 31 μm), PACG (845 ± 23 μm), and PACS (804 ± 19 μm), respectively (P = APAC group had the narrowest angles, the PACS group had the widest (P APAC. Eyes with APAC had the narrowest angles, smallest anterior segment dimensions, thickest iris, and largest LV compared with PACS, PAC, and PACG. LV, TISA750, and IT750 were the major determinants of APAC.

  5. Precise measurement of scleral radius using anterior eye profilometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesus, Danilo A; Kedzia, Renata; Iskander, D Robert

    2017-02-01

    To develop a new and precise methodology to measure the scleral radius based on anterior eye surface. Eye Surface Profiler (ESP, Eaglet-Eye, Netherlands) was used to acquire the anterior eye surface of 23 emmetropic subjects aged 28.1±6.6years (mean±standard deviation) ranging from 20 to 45. Scleral radius was obtained based on the approximation of the topographical scleral data to a sphere using least squares fitting and considering the axial length as a reference point. To better understand the role of scleral radius in ocular biometry, measurements of corneal radius, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and white-to-white corneal diameter were acquired with IOLMaster 700 (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). The estimated scleral radius (11.2±0.3mm) was shown to be highly precise with a coefficient of variation of 0.4%. A statistically significant correlation between axial length and scleral radius (R 2 =0.957, pscleral radius. Lastly, no correlation was observed comparing scleral radius to the central corneal thickness (R 2 =0.047, p=0.161). Three-dimensional topography of anterior eye acquired with Eye Surface Profiler together with a given estimate of the axial length, can be used to calculate the scleral radius with high precision. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Diurnal Variation of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurements of Static and Dynamic Anterior Segment Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Benjamin Y; Penteado, Rafaella C; Weinreb, Robert N

    2018-01-01

    To examine the diurnal variation of static and dynamic anterior segment parameters in young, healthy eyes by comparing anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) measurements obtained in the morning and evening and also in the light and dark. Twenty-two subjects ranging from 19 to 47 years of age with no past ocular history were selected. Imaging was performed with the Tomey CASIA2 AS-OCT device in 2 fixed lighting environments, light and dark, between the hours of 08:30 to 10:00 and 17:30 to 19:00. Four AS-OCT images were analyzed per eye. Pupil diameter (PD), iris area (IA), iris curvature (IC), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens vault (LV), anterior chamber width (ACW), anterior chamber area (ACA), angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), trabecular iris space area (TISA), and trabecular iris angle (TIA) were measured. Pupil diameter was similar between the AM and PM groups in the light (P=0.89) and dark (P=0.51). There was no significant difference between AM and PM measurement values for any of the static or dynamic parameters in the light (P>0.39) and dark (P>0.31). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) demonstrated excellent agreement between AM and PM measurement values in the light (ICC>0.81) and dark (ICC>0.93). In addition, there was no significant difference between AM and PM angle opening distance at 500 µm measurement values in the light (P>0.34) and dark (P>0.40) when each of 8 angle sectors was analyzed individually. No significant diurnal variation of static or dynamic anterior segment parameter measurements was detected in the light and dark. Diurnal variation of these parameters does not regularly occur in young, healthy eyes.

  7. Anterior segment sparing to reduce charged particle radiotherapy complications in uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Char, Devron H.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Castro, Joseph R.; Petti, Paula L.; Meecham, William J.; Kroll, Stewart; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to delineate the risk factors in the development of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after helium-ion irradiation of uveal melanoma patients and to propose treatment technique that may reduce this risk. Methods and Materials: 347 uveal melanoma patients were treated with helium-ions using a single-port treatment technique. Using univariate and multivariate statistics, the NVG complication rate was analyzed according to the percent of anterior chamber in the radiation field, tumor size, tumor location, sex, age, dose, and other risk factors. Several University of California San Francisco-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) patients in each size category (medium, large, and extralarge) were retrospectively replanned using two ports instead of a single port. By using appropriate polar and azimuthal gaze angles or by treating patients with two ports, the maximum dose to the anterior segment of the eye can often be reduced. Although a larger volume of anterior chamber may receive a lower dose by using two ports than a single port treatment. We hypothesize that this could reduce the level of complications that result from the irradiation of the anterior chamber of the eye. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for the lens, and compared for the single and two-port techniques. Results: NVG developed in 121 (35%) patients. The risk of NVG peaked between 1 and 2.5 years posttreatment. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the percent of lens in the field was strongly correlated with the development of NVG. Other contributing factors were tumor height, history of diabetes, and vitreous hemorrhage. Dose-volume histogram analysis of single-port vs. two-port techniques demonstrate that for some patients in the medium and large category tumor groups, a significant decrease in dose to the structures in the anterior segment of the eye could have been achieved with the use of two ports. Conclusion: The development of NVG after

  8. Analysis of iris structure and iridocorneal angle parameters with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarir, Berna; Altan, Cigdem; Pinarci, Eylem Yaman; Celik, Ugur; Satana, Banu; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the differences in the biometric parameters of iridocorneal angle and iris structure measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS). Seventy-six eyes of 38 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of unilateral FUS were recruited into this prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study. After a complete ocular examination, anterior segment biometric parameters were measured by Visante(®) AS-OCT. All parameters were compared between the two eyes of each patient statistically. The mean age of the 38 subjects was 32.5 ± 7.5 years (18 female and 20 male). The mean visual acuity was lower in eyes with FUS (0.55 ± 0.31) than in healthy eyes (0.93 ± 0.17). The central corneal thickness did not differ significantly between eyes. All iridocorneal angle parameters (angle-opening distance 500 and 750, scleral spur angle, trabecular-iris space (TISA) 500 and 750) except TISA 500 in temporal quadrant were significantly larger in eyes with FUS than in healthy eyes. Anterior chamber depth was deeper in the eyes with FUS than in the unaffected eyes. With regard to iris measurements, iris thickness in the thickest part, iris bowing and iris shape were all statistically different between the affected eye and the healthy eye in individual patients with FUS. However, no statistically significant differences were evident in iris thickness 500 μm, thickness in the middle and iris length. There were significant difference in iris shape between the two eyes of patients with glaucoma. AS-OCT as an imaging method provides us with many informative resultsin the analysis of anterior segment parameters in FUS.

  9. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  10. Effects of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with Pentacam in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effects of topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with a Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in healthy young adults. Methods: Anterior segment analyses of 25 eyes from 25 young adults (Group 1, before and after 45 min of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride application, were performed. For a control group (cycloplegia-free, Group 2, 24 eyes of 24 age- and sex-matched healthy cases were evaluated twice at 45 min intervals. The results obtained from the groups were compared statistically. Results: The mean ages of the groups were 23.04 ± 3.42 (range, 18-29 and 22.4 ± 2.05 (range, 18-27 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.259. In Group 1, measurements between the two analyses were significantly different for the values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and anterior chamber volume (ACV (p<0.05, whereas no statistical difference was found for the central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry (K1, K2 measurements. In Group 2, none of these parameters were statistically different between the two analyses. Conclusions: Topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride caused an increase in the ACD and ACV values, and a decrease in the ACA value. However, it had no significant effect on the CCT and keratometry measurements. It is important to consider these effects when using the Pentacam device on young adults with cycloplegia and when applying it for various reasons.

  11. Anterior chamber depth and iris and lens position before and after phacoemulsification in eyes with a short or long axial length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka-Woźniak, Maria; Ogar, Angelika

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate changes in anterior segment parameters after phacoemulsification in short eyes and long eyes. Spektrum Eye Clinic, Wrocław, Poland. Prospective comparative study. Anterior segment parameters were examined before and after phacoemulsification in 3 groups of eyes as follows: short (axial length [AL] 25.5 mm) with optical biometry based on partial coherence interferometry (IOLMaster) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (Visante). The study comprised 20 short eyes, 22 normal eyes, and 19 long eyes. The anterior chamber angle increased after surgery in all eyes (P position after phacoemulsification was larger in short eyes than in normal or long eyes (mean change 0.93 mm, 0.70 mm, and 0.43 mm, respectively) (P position after phacoemulsification in relation to the iris was smaller in short eyes (mean 0.51 mm) than in normal or long eyes (mean 0.82 mm and 1.10 mm, respectively) (P position occurred in short eyes. The largest change in the lens versus the intraocular lens (IOL) position occurred in long eyes, with the IOL moving back from the iris. Optical biometry might underestimate the postoperative ACD. Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Training time and quality of smartphone-based anterior segment screening in rural India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig CA

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cassie A Ludwig,1 Megan Newsom,1 Alexandre Jais,1 David J Myung,1,2 Somasheila I Murthy,3 Robert T Chang1 1Department of Ophthalmology, The Byers Eye Institute, Stanford University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3Cornea and Anterior Segment Service, L V Prasad Eye Institute, Kallam Anji Reddy Campus, Hyderabad, India Objective: We aimed at evaluating the ability of individuals without ophthalmologic training to quickly capture high-quality images of the cornea by using a smartphone and low-cost anterior segment imaging adapter (the “EyeGo” prototype. Methods: Seven volunteers photographed 1,502 anterior segments from 751 high school students in Varni, India, by using an iPhone 5S with an attached EyeGo adapter. Primary outcome measures were median photograph quality of the cornea and anterior segment of the eye (validated Fundus Photography vs Ophthalmoscopy Trial Outcomes in the Emergency Department [FOTO-ED] study; 1–5 scale; 5, best and the time required to take each photograph. Volunteers were surveyed on their familiarity with using a smartphone (1–5 scale; 5, very comfortable and comfort in assessing problems with the eye (1–5 scale; 5, very comfortable. Binomial logistic regression was performed using image quality (low quality: <4; high quality: ≥4 as the dependent variable and age, comfort using a smartphone, and comfort in assessing problems with the eye as independent variables. Results: Six of the seven volunteers captured high-quality (median ≥4/5 images with a median time of ≤25 seconds per eye for all the eyes screened. Four of the seven volunteers demonstrated significant reductions in time to acquire photographs (P1=0.01, P5=0.01, P6=0.01, and P7=0.01, and three of the seven volunteers demonstrated significant improvements in the quality of photographs between the first 100 and last 100 eyes screened (P1<0.001, P2<0.001, and P6<0.01. Self

  13. Anterior and posterior centers jointly regulate Bombyx embryo body segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Hajime

    2012-11-15

    Insect embryo segmentation is largely divided into long and short germ types. In the long germ type, each segment primordium is represented on a large embryonic rudiment of the blastoderm, and segmental patterning occurs nearly simultaneously in the syncytium. In the short germ type, however, only anterior segments are represented in the small embryonic rudiment, usually located on the egg posterior, and the rest of the segments are added sequentially from the posterior growth zone in a cellular context. The long germ type is thought to have evolved from the short germ type. It is proposed that this transition, which appears to have occurred multiple times over the course of evolution, was realized through the acquisition of a localized anterior instruction center. Here, I examined the early segmentation process in the silkmoth Bombyx mori, a lepidopteran insect, in which the mechanisms of anterior-posterior (AP) axis formation have not been well analyzed. In this insect, both the long germ and short germ features have been reported. The mRNAs for two key genes involved in insect AP axis formation, orthodenticle (Bm-otd) and caudal (Bm-cad), are localized maternally in the germ anlage, where they act as anterior and posterior instruction centers, respectively. RNAi studies indicate that, while Bm-cad affects the formation of all the even skipped (Bm-eve) stripes, there is also anterior Bm-eve stripe formation activity that involves Bm-otd. Thus, there is redundancy in Bm-eve stripe formation activity that must be coordinated. Some genetic interactions, identified either experimentally or hypothetically, are also introduced, which might enable robust AP formation in this organism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography and fluorescein angiography for iris vasculature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zett, Claudio; Stina, Deborah M Rosa; Kato, Renata Tiemi; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Allemann, Norma

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform imaging of irises of different colors using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA) and iris fluorescein angiography (IFA) and compare their effectiveness in examining iris vasculature. This is a cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with no vascular iris alterations and different pigmentation levels were recruited. Participants were imaged using OCTA adapted with an anterior segment lens and IFA with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) adapted with an anterior segment lens. AS-OCTA and IFA images were then compared. Two blinded readers classified iris pigmentation and compared the percentage of visible vessels between OCTA and IFA images. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with different degrees of iris pigmentation were imaged using AS-OCTA and IFA. Significantly more visible iris vessels were observed using OCTA than using FA (W = 5.22; p Iris pigmentation was negatively correlated to the percentage of visible vessels in both imaging methods (OCTA, rho = - 0.73, p iris vasculature. In both AS-OCTA and IFA, iris pigmentation caused vasculature imaging blockage, but AS-OCTA provided more detailed iris vasculature images than IFA. Additional studies including different iris pathologies are needed to determine the most optimal scanning parameters in OCTA of the anterior segment.

  15. Ocular Adnexal and Anterior Segment Manifestations of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Benue State has the highest rate of sero-prevalence to human immuno virus (HIV) infections among the ten hyper-endemic states in Nigeria. This study evaluates the pattern of ocular adnexal and anterior segment manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients attending the HIV clinic at the NAF Hospital in Makurdi, ...

  16. Effect of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in angle closure eyes with or without extensive peripheral anterior synechiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Golshan; Moghimi, Sasan; Eslami, Yadollah; Fakhraie, Ghasem; Zarei, Reza; Lin, Shan

    2013-01-21

    Purpose. To evaluate the anatomic effects of phacoemulsification on drainage angle status in primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods. A total of 62 eyes of 58 patients underwent cataract surgery in Farabi Rye Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Patients were examined postoperatively on day 1, week 1, and week 6. Indentation gonioscopy and AS-OCT were performed preoperatively and at 6 weeks after surgery. Main outcome measures were angle and anterior segment parameters by AS-OCT and amount of peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS) by gonioscopy. Thirty-five eyes had PAS =180 degrees (group 1) and 27 eyes had >180-degree synechial closure (group 2). Results. Mean age of the patients was 64.3±9.0 years. The mean extent of PAS was significantly reduced from 45.9 to 32.2 degrees (p180 degrees.

  17. Imaging of the Sclera in Patients with Scleritis and Episcleritis using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Shadi; Ebneter, Andreas; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the sclera and episclera in patients with scleritis and episcleritis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Cross-sectional prospective case series of 11 consecutive patients with episcleral or scleral inflammatory disease located anterior to the equator. The thickness of the ocular wall (sclera and the episclera) was measured using AS-OCT and compared to the contralateral healthy eye. Eleven patients with a mean age of 49.5 years presented with symptomatic scleritis or episcleritis. The mean thickness of the ocular wall in the affected eye was 982 ± 56 μm compared to 790 ± 23 μm (p episcleral layer in both scleritis and episcleritis. Enhanced-depth AS-OCT may be a useful tool for imaging scleritis or episcleritis and may serve to monitor therapeutic success in these patients.

  18. Anterior open bite correction by Le Fort I osteotomy with or without anterior segmentation: which is more stable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, I N; Leung, Y Y

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the relapse rate of anterior open bite (AOB) correction comparing Le Fort I osteotomy with and without anterior segmentation. The risk factors that might contribute to relapse were also assessed. Lateral cephalograms obtained at six different times were analyzed. A total of 81 patients with AOB were recruited. Thirty-five patients underwent Le Fort I osteotomy without anterior segmentation and 46 patients underwent anterior segmentation. Le Fort I osteotomy with anterior segmentation resulted in significantly more AOB relapse when compared to that without anterior segmentation at 7 weeks postoperative (15.2% vs. 0%, P=0.016). During the early postoperative period, factors that contributed to AOB relapse in Le Fort I osteotomy with anterior segmentation were AOB closure ≥4mm and inferior positioning of the anterior segment >2mm. Over the long term, AOB closure ≥4mm and intraoral vertical ramus osteotomy as the only mandibular procedure were factors identified as causing more AOB relapse in those treated by Le Fort I osteotomy with anterior segmentation. In conclusion, Le Fort I osteotomy without anterior segmentation was found to be more stable in the surgical correction of AOB in the early and late postoperative periods. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomic predictors for anterior chamber angle opening after laser peripheral iridotomy in narrow angle eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guofu; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Lee, Roland; Osmonavic, Senad; Leeungurasatien, Thidarat; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2012-07-01

    To investigate anterior chamber parameters and biometric factors associated with degree of angle opening after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for narrow angles. In this prospective cohort study, patients with narrow angles who were scheduled for LPI were recruited. Anterior chamber parameters by anterior segment coherence tomography (ASOCT) under dark conditions were compared before and after LPI. Only the right eye was used for analysis if both eyes were eligible. Measurements performed by customized software included anterior chamber depth, iris area, angle opening distance at 500 µm (AOD500) anterior to the scleral spur, iris thickness at 750 µm from sclera spur (IT750), trabecular-iris space area 500 (TISA500), and iris curvature (I-Curv). Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the predictive factors of angle opening after LPI. Eighty-one patients with narrow angles were prospectively recruited in this study. The AOD500 increased significantly from 0.128 ± 0.081 mm (before) to 0.209 ± 0.087 mm (after) in the nasal quadrant, and from 0.103 ± 0.067 mm (before) to 0.197 ± 0.071 mm (after) in the temporal quadrant (p chamber angle widening after LPI were older age, smaller iris area, and steeper iris.

  20. Evaluation of the change of anterior chamber parameters before and after laser peripheral iridectomy in primary angle-closure suspetive with Pentacam anterior segment analysis system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Du

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the sensitive parameters of the anterior chamber changes with Pentacam anterior segment analysis system before and after laser peripheral iridectomy(LPIin primary angle-closure suspetive(PACS.METHODS: Sixty eyes of 33 PACS patients were enrolled in this study. Pentacam examination was performed before and 1d after LPI to measure the central anterior chamber depth(CACD, the peripheral anterior chamber depth(PACD, the anterior chamber volume(ACVand the peripheral anterior chamber angle(ACA. Statistical analysis used paired t test. RESULTS: There was no statistical significance on the changes of ACD. PACD and ACV increased significantly between before and 1d after LPI. ACA was widened from(22.26°±5.18°to(26.42°±5.20°, which were increased significantly between before and 1d after LPI.CONCLUSION: LPI can deepen the PACD and increase the ACV in PACS. PACD and ACV are the sensitive parameters of the anterior chamber changes with Pentacam anterior segment analysis system.

  1. Efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Wei Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects.METHODS:In this retrospective case analysis, 28 patients(28 eyeswith persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery from January 2011 to June 2013 in our hospital were reviewed. After regular treatment for at least 2wk, the persistent corneal epithelial defects were treated with highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses, until the corneal epithelial healing. Continued to wear the same lens no more than 3wk, or in need of replacement the new one. All cases were followed up for 6mo. Key indicators of corneal epithelial healling, corneal fluorescein staining and ocular symptoms improvement were observed.RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes were cured(75.00%, markedly effective in 5 eyes(17.86%, effective in 2 eyes(7.14%, no invalid cases, the total efficiency of 100.00%. Ocular symptoms of 25 cases(89.29%relieved within 2d, the rest 3 cases(10.71%relieved within 1wk. The corneal epithelial of 6 cases(21.43%repaired in 3wk, 13 cases(46.43%in 6wk, 7 cases(25.00%in 9wk, 2 cases(7.14%over 12wk. There were no signs of secondary infection. And no evidence of recurrence in 6mo. CONCLUSION: Highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses could repair persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery significantly, while quickly and effectively relieve a variety of ocular irritation.

  2. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Ricardo J. Cumba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80 μm. Nine months later, SR reidentified SSLs. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in SSL placement, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 were calculated. Results. In 84% of quadrants, SR’s SSL placements during 2 sessions were within 80 μm in both the X- and Y-axes, and in 77% of quadrants, SR and AZC were within 80 μm in both axes. In adjudicated images, 90% of all quadrants were within 80 μm, 88% in nonopen-angle eyes, and 92% in open-angle eyes. The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients (with and without adjudication were above 0.9 for TISA750 and AOD750 for all quadrants. Conclusions. Reproducible identification of the SSL from images obtained with FD-ASOCT is possible. The ability to identify the SSL allows reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle using TISA750 and AOD750.

  3. An investigation of enzymatic detergents as a potential cause of toxic anterior segment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Henry A; Goodkin, Margot; Buchen, Shelley Y; Calogero, Don; Hilmantel, Gene; Hitchins, Victoria M; Eydelman, Malvina B

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether enzymatic detergents used in cleaning ophthalmic surgical instruments can cause toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS)-like responses in a rabbit model. Randomized, investigator-masked, controlled experimental animal study. Thirty-five New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbit eyes were randomized into 7 treatment groups to receive intracameral injection of 1 of 3 different doses of Medline Dual Detergent or Enzol Detergent, or sterile limulus amoebocyte lysate reagent water as a control. The eyes were evaluated for anterior segment inflammation at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Anterior chamber (AC) inflammation, including cells, flare, fibrin, and iris injection; time course of inflammation; and residual detergent levels in luminated instruments. Moderate to marked injection of the iris vessels was seen as early as 1 hour after treatment with the enzymatic detergents in 41 of 60 eyes, with the response being more severe in the Enzol Detergent-exposed eyes. Severe iris hemorrhages were accompanied by blood in the AC in 13 eyes, which usually persisted through 72 hours, with an associated increase in AC cell and flare. Corneal haze was present in 52 of 56 eyes 1 hour after treatment, but was mild and resolved within 24 hours in all but the Enzol 4.5%-exposed eyes. Median AC cell and flare peaked at 6 hours and resolved by 48 hours. Enzymatic detergents caused a severe but unusual response from the iris when injected intracamerally into rabbit eyes. This response has not been reported in humans with TASS. The time course of inflammation was faster (peak at 6 hours) and resolved more quickly (within 48 hours) than TASS. Simulated cleaning and extraction studies indicate that the level of residual detergent to which a patient could be exposed is significantly less than the lowest dose used in this study. Because that low dose caused no significant observations other than injection of the

  4. Anterior segment changes after pharmacologic mydriasis using Pentacam and optical coherence tomography in angle closure suspects

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    Jing-Min Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the dynamic changes of anterior segment parameters especially iris morphology induced by pharmacologic mydriasis between angle closure suspects and normal controls.METHODS:The study group comprised 19 eyes of 19 angle closure suspects and 19 eyes of 19 age- and sex-matched normal open-angle eyes. Pentacam and optical coherence tomography measurements before and 30min after instillation of compound tropicamide eye drop were performed and compared. Biometric evaluations of iris tomography and anterior chamber angle were estimated by a customized image-processing software.RESULTS:Baseline axial length, iris cross sectional area and volume did not differ significantly between angle closure suspects and normal controls. Angle closure suspects had smaller pupil size, narrower anterior segment dimension and axial length, thinner iris with greater curve in comparison with normal controls. Pharmacologic mydriasis led to significant increments in iris thickness at 750 μm, anterior chamber depth and volume, whereas significant decrements in iris curve, cross sectional area and volume in both groups. Angle opening distance at 500 μm was increased significantly in normal controls (from 0.465±0.115 mm to 0.539±0.167 mm, P=0.009, but not in angle closure suspects (from 0.125±0.100 mm to 0.145±0.131 mm, P=0.326. Iris volume change per millimeter of pupil dilation (△IV/△PD decreased significantly less in angle closure suspects than normal controls (-2.47±1.33 mm2 vs -3.63±1.58 mm2, P=0.019. Linear regression analysis showed that the change of angle opening distance at 500 μm was associated most with the change of central anterior chamber depth (β=0.841, P=0.002 and △IV/△PD (β=0.028, P=0.002, followed by gender (β=0.062, P=0.032.CONCLUSION:Smaller iris volume decrement per millimeter of pupil dilation is related significantly with the less anterior angle opening in angle closure suspects after pharmacologic mydriasis. Dynamic

  5. [Treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylosis by long or segmented anterior cervical decompression and fixation surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chunyue; Wu, Jianhuang; Hu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Hongqi; Wang, Xiyang

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of two different anterior cervical surgeries in treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylosis. A total of 86 patients with multi-segmental cervical spondylosis were treated by anterior cervical surgery procedure. Among them, 62 and 24 cases were involved in three and four gap, respectively. Each patient underwent the surgery of long or segmented anterior cervical decompression and fixation. Preoperative and postoperative cervical curvature change, internal fixation stability, fusion rate and nerve function were evaluated. All patients were successfully completed the operation, segmented surgery showed better cervical lordosis recovery, but there were no significant difference between long and segmented anterior cervical surgery in blood loss and recovery of neurological function (P> 0.05). The segmented anterior cervical surgery has advantages in the treatment of multisegmental cervical spondylosis.

  6. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging and spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography for detection of narrow anterior chamber angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, D S; Brar, G S; Jain, R; Grewal, S P S

    2011-05-01

    To compare the performance of anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) obtained using Scheimpflug imaging with angle opening distance (AOD500) and trabecular-iris space area (TISA500) obtained using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-ASOCT) in detecting narrow angles classified using gonioscopy. In this prospective, cross-sectional observational study, 265 eyes of 265 consecutive patients underwent sequential Scheimpflug imaging, SD-ASOCT imaging, and gonioscopy. Correlations between gonioscopy grading, ACV, ACD, AOD500, and TISA500 were evaluated. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated to assess the performance of ACV, ACD, AOD500, and TISA500 in detecting narrow angles (defined as Shaffer grade ≤1 in all quadrants). SD-ASOCT images were obtained at the nasal and temporal quadrants only. Twenty-eight eyes (10.6%) were classified as narrow angles on gonioscopy. ACV correlated with gonioscopy grading (PACV correlated with TISA500 for nasal (r=0.135, P=0.029) and temporal (P=0.160, P=0.009) quadrants and also with AOD500 for nasal (r=0.498, PACV (AUC=0.935; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.898-0.961) performed similar to ACD (AUC=0.88, P=0.06) and significantly better than AOD500 nasal (AUC=0.761, P=0.001), AOD500 temporal (AUC=0.808, PACV had 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity for detecting narrow angles. Positive and negative LRs for ACV were 8.63 (95% CI=7.4-10.0) and 0.11 (95% CI=0.03-0.4), respectively. ACV measurements using Scheimpflug imaging outperformed AOD500 and TISA500 using SD-ASOCT for detecting narrow angles.

  7. Scheimpflug image-based changes in anterior segment parameters during accommodation induced by short-term reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipecz, Agnes; Tsorbatzoglou, Alexis; Hassan, Ziad; Berta, Andras; Modis, Laszlo; Nemeth, Gabor

    2017-05-11

    To analyze the effect of the accommodation on the anterior segment data (corneal and anterior chamber parameters) induced by short-time reading in a healthy, nonpresbyopic adult patient group. Images of both eyes of nonpresbyopic volunteers were captured with a Scheimpflug device (Pentacam HR) in a nonaccommodative state. Fifteen minutes of reading followed and through fixation of the built-in target of Pentacam HR further accommodation was achieved and new images were captured by the device. Anterior segment parameters were observed and the differences were analyzed. Fifty-two healthy eyes of 26 subjects (range 20.04-28.58 years) were analyzed. No significant differences were observed in the keratometric values before and after the accommodative task (p = 0.35). A statistically significant difference was measured in the 5.0-mm-diameter and the 7.0-mm-diameter corneal volume (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03) between accommodation states. Corneal aberrometric data did not change significantly during short-term accommodation. Significant differences were observed between nonaccommodative and accommodative states of the eyes for all measured anterior chamber parameters. Among the parameters of the cornea, only corneal volume changed during the short-term accommodation process, showing some fine changes with accommodation of the cornea in young, emmetropic patients. The position of the pupil and the anterior chamber parameters were observed to change with accommodation as captured by a Scheimpflug device.

  8. Morphology of functioning trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

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    Mayuri B Khamar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To image trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and to correlate the bleb morphologic features at one month postoperatively with bleb function at six months. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study included 56 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with MMC, followed up for minimum of six months. Postoperatively, bleb imaging was done using AS-OCT at one and six month. Bleb morphology was assessed for bleb wall reflectivity, bleb pattern in multiform reflectivity, visibility of drainage route and presence of hyper-reflectivity area. Bleb function was considered successful if IOP was <18 mmHg without medication at six month. Bleb morphology one month postoperatively was correlated with bleb function at six months. Results: At six months successful bleb function was noted in 44 (81.5% eyes. Morphology of bleb at one month showed uniform bleb wall reflectivity in 6 eyes (11% and multiform wall reflectivity in 48 eyes (89%. In eyes with multiform wall reflectivity, microcysts with multiple layers was seen in 26 eyes (48%, microcysts with subconjunctival separation in 12 eyes (22% and only microcyst in 10 eyes (19%. When bleb features at one month were correlated with the bleb function at six months, logistic regression analysis revealed that blebs with multiform reflectivity with multiple internal layers with microcysts were associated with higher chances of success (P < 0.001. Conclusion : AS-OCT demonstrated early bleb morphological features that may be used to predict the functioning of a bleb. Multiform bleb wall reflectivity with a pattern of multiple internal layers and microcysts was associated with increased chances of success of a bleb.

  9. A and B mode ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation of lens and posterior segment of dogs eyes with cataract

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    Bianca C. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the lens and posterior segment is an indispensable step in the preoperative evaluation of dogs with cataracts, since ophthalmoscopy is not feasible when there is opacification of the lens. This study evaluated the echographic conditions of cataractous lens and fundus of the eye in dogs affected by cataracts. The study was conducted in 30 dogs (56 eyes, 10 males and 20 females, with different types of cataracts at different stages of development. Echography in A and B modes, simultaneously, was carried out for the examination of the lens and posterior segment. The examinations revealed anterior cortical, posterior cortical and nuclear cataract in 12 eyes (21.4%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular in 23 eyes (41%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical and posterior capsular cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical and nuclear cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular cataract in five eyes (8.9%, and anterior cortical cataract in seven eyes (12.5%. Abnormal ultrasonographic alterations were observed in the posterior segment in 26 eyes evaluated (46.4%. Vitreal degeneration was detected in 12 eyes (21.4%, images of vitreal exudate or hemorrhage in seven eyes (12.5%, persistence of hyaloid artery in four eyes (7.1% and lens subluxation in three eyes (5.3%. The results obtained reiterate the importance of ultrasonography in canine patients presented for cataract surgery given that alterations of the posterior segment are difficult to identify in a clinical examination when the lens is opacified.A ultrassonografia do segmento posterior do bulbo do olho é etapa indispensável na avaliação de cães com catarata que serão submetidos à facectomia, uma vez que a oftalmoscopia não é factível quando há opacificação da lente, notadamente nas cataratas maduras. Este estudo avaliou as condições ecográficas da lente cataratogênica e do fundo de olho de c

  10. Repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume measurements using 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Shinichi; Kawana, Keisuke; Yasuno, Yoshiaki; Oshika, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements using swept-source 3-dimensional corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (CAS-OCT) and dual Scheimpflug imaging. Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan. Nonrandomized clinical trial. Measurements were taken in normal eyes (subject group) and in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC) (patient group). In the subject group, the entire ACV and the central 8.0 mm diameter ACV were measured using CAS-OCT and dual Scheimpflug imaging. In the patient group, the entire ACV and 8.0 mm ACV were measured using CAS-OCT. The coefficient of variation and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility, and the correlation between the 2 devices was assessed. In the subject group, the mean 8.0 mm ACV was 110.14 mm(3) ± 12.57 (SD) using CAS-OCT and 114.51 ± 14.69 mm(3) using Scheimpflug imaging; there was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.878, P ACV on CAS-OCT was 165.15 ± 29.29 mm(3). The ICCs of the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements were greater than 0.94. The coefficients of repeatability and reproducibility of the 8.0 mm ACV and entire ACV measurements were less than 5%. In the patient group, the 8.0 mm and entire ACV measurements showed good reproducibility and repeatability. The CAS-OCT method allowed noninvasive measurement of the entire ACV with sufficient repeatability and reproducibility. The 8.0 mm ACV measurements with CAS-OCT and Scheimpflug imaging were comparable. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Longitudinal Evaluation of Wound Healing after Penetrating Corneal Injury: Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang Keng; Cai, Jianhao; Rong, Shi Song; Peng, Kun; Xia, Honghe; Jin, Chuan; Lu, Xuehui; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Haoyu; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    Ocular imaging can enhance our understanding of wound healing. We report anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) findings in penetrating corneal injury. Serial ASOCT was performed after repair of penetrating corneal injury. Internal aberrations of wound edges were labeled as "steps" or "gaps" on ASOCT images. The wound type was characterized as: type 1: continuous inner wound edge or step height ≤ 80 µm; type 2: step height > 80 µm; type 3: gap between wound edges; and type 4: intraocular tissue adherent to wound. Surgical outcomes of different wound types were compared. 50 consecutive patients were included (6 females, 44 males; mean age 33 ± 12 years). The average size of wound was 4.2 ± 2.6 mm (type 1, 8 eyes; type 2, 27 eyes; type 3, 12 eyes; type 4, 3 eyes). At the end of 3 months, 70% (n = 35) of the wounds were type 1. At the end of 6 months, all type 1 wounds had healed completely, whereas about half of type 2 (48.1%) and type 3 (50%) wounds had recovered to type 1 configuration. The wound type at baseline affected the height of step (p = 0.047) and corneal thickness at 6 months (p = 0.035). ASOCT is a useful tool for monitoring wound healing in cases with penetrating corneal injury. Majority of the wound edges appose between 3 and 6 months after trauma. In our study, baseline wound configuration affected the healing pattern.

  12. Corneal topographic analysis of patients with Mooren ulcer using 3-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Masahito; Maeda, Naoyuki; Soma, Takeshi; Fuchihata, Mutsumi; Hayashi, Asumi; Koh, Shizuka; Oie, Yoshinori; Nishida, Kohji

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the corneal topography and visual function of patients with Mooren ulcer using 3-dimensional anterior segment optical coherence tomography (3-D AS-OCT). Fourteen eyes of 9 patients with Mooren ulcer were studied. Pachymetric and axial power maps were obtained by 3-D AS-OCT. The axial power maps were classified into 3 patterns by visual inspection. The distribution of the corneal dioptric power was analyzed by Fourier harmonic expansion. The magnitudes of the spherical component, asymmetry, regular astigmatism, higher-order irregularity, and radial distance from the corneal vertex to the thinnest point of the lesion were determined. The axial power maps of 9 eyes were classified into arcuate patterns, 4 into crab-claw patterns, and 1 eye into an intermediate pattern. The radial distance from the corneal vertex to the thinnest point of the lesion was significantly shorter in the crab-claw pattern group than in the arcuate pattern group (P = 0.007). The magnitudes of asymmetry, regular astigmatism, and higher-order irregularity of the crab-claw pattern group were significantly greater than those of the arcuate pattern group (P = 0.017, P = 0.011, and P = 0.030, respectively). Three-dimensional AS-OCT is able to evaluate the corneal topography of opacified peripheral lesions in eyes with Mooren ulcer, and the results showed that irregular astigmatism is higher when the lesion is closer to the center of the cornea.

  13. Toxic anterior segment syndrome after uncomplicated cataract surgery possibly associated with intracamaral use of cefuroxime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çakır B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Burçin Çakir, Erkan Celik, Nilgün Özkan Aksoy, Özlem Bursali, Turgay Uçak, Erdinç Bozkurt, Gursoy AlagozSakarya University Education and Research Hospital, Sakarya, TurkeyPurpose: To report toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery possibly associated with intracameral use of cefuroxime.Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review and analysis on the pre- and postoperative conditions of the subjects who had developed TASS.Results: The patient group consisted of 17 patients. Tyndallization and fibrin fibers were positive in all eyes. In four eyes, hypopyon formation developed. These reactions diminished on the third day and fully resolved 1 week after the operations with the use of intensive topical steroid and mydriatic therapy. To determine the etiology of TASS, infusion fluid, viscoelastics, and intracameral antibiotic agent were changed respectively. After changing intracameral antibiotic agent from cefuroxime axetile to moxifloxacin no new cases of TASS were diagnosed.Conclusion: All agents injected into the anterior chamber can cause TASS. Ophthalmologists and operating room staff need to pay careful attention to all drugs and irrigating solutions.Keywords: phacoemulsification, fibrin reaction, drug toxicity

  14. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4 years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69 and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75. Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86 and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85. Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  15. Rapid alkaline methylene blue supravital staining for assessment of anterior segment infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Katsuji

    2016-01-01

    To present the Löffler's alkaline methylene blue technique of staining eye discharges in eyes with anterior segment infections. The Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining method is a simple staining technique that can be used to differentiate bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. It is a cationic dye that stains cells blue because the positively charged dye is attracted to negatively charged particles such as polyphosphates, DNAs, and RNAs. Specimens collected from patients by swabbing are smeared onto microscope slides and the methylene blue solution is dropped on the slide. The slide is covered with a glass cover slip and examined under a microscope. The entire time from the collection to the viewing is about 30 seconds. Histopathological images of the conjunctival epithelial cells and neutrophils in eye discharges were dyed blue and the nuclei were stained more intensely blue. Bacterial infections consisted mainly of neutrophils, and viral infections consisted mainly of lymphocytes. Löffler's alkaline methylene blue staining can be done in about 30 seconds for diagnosis. Even though this is a one color stain, it is possible to infer the cause of the infection by detection of the absence of bacteria and/or fungi in context of the differential distribution of neutrophils and lymphocytes.

  16. Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Widefield Retinal and Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Waheed, Nadia K; Witkin, Andre; Baumal, Caroline R; Liu, Jonathan J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Joseph, Anthony; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Chan, Kinpui; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective. Each widefield OCT data set was acquired in 3 seconds (1,000 × 1,000 A-scans, 12 × 12 mm 2 for retina and 10 × 10 mm 2 for anterior segment). Intraoperative SS-OCT was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients. In six of seven membrane peels and five of seven rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair surgeries, widefield retinal imaging enabled evaluation pre- and postoperatively. In all seven cataract cases, anterior imaging evaluated the integrity of the posterior lens capsule. Ultrahigh-speed SS-OCT enables widefield intraoperative viewing in the posterior and anterior eye. Widefield imaging visualizes ocular structures and pathology without requiring OCT realignment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:94-102.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Waardenburg syndrome: iris and choroidal hypopigmentation: findings on anterior and posterior segment imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Nickerson, Stephanie J; Al-Dahmash, Saad; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome typically manifests with congenital iris pigmentary abnormalities, but careful inspection can reveal additional posterior uveal pigmentary abnormalities. To demonstrate iris and choroidal hypopigmentation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Retrospective review of 7 patients referred for evaluation of presumed ocular melanocytosis. To describe the clinical and imaging features of the anterior and posterior uvea. In all patients, the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome was established. The nonocular features included white forelock in 4 of 7 (57%), tubular nose in 5 of 6 (83%), and small nasal alae in 5 of 6 (83%) patients. In 2 patients, a hearing deficit was documented on audiology testing. Family history of Waardenburg syndrome was elicited in 5 of 7 (71%) patients. Ocular features (7 patients) included telecanthus in 5 (71%), synophrys in 2 (29%), iris hypopigmentation in 5 (71%), and choroidal hypopigmentation in 5 (71%) patients. No patient had muscle contractures or Hirschsprung disease. Visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in all patients. Iris hypopigmentation in 8 eyes was sector in 6 (75%) and diffuse (complete) in 2 (25%). Choroidal hypopigmentation in 9 eyes (100%) showed a sector pattern in 6 (67%) and a diffuse pattern in 3 (33%). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed the hypopigmented iris to be thinner and with shallower crypts than the normal iris. Posterior segment optical coherence tomography showed a normal retina in all patients, but the subfoveal choroid in the hypopigmented region was slightly thinner (mean, 197 μm) compared with the opposite normal choroid (243 μm). Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated mild hyperautofluorescence (scleral unmasking) in hypopigmented choroid and no lipofuscin abnormality. Waardenburg syndrome manifests hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid with imaging features showing a slight reduction in the thickness of the affected tissue.

  18. Measurements of anterior segment parameters using three different non-contact optical devices in keratoconus patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Taylan Yazıcı

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the measurements of anterior segment parameters using three different non-contact optical devices in keratoconus patients.METHODS:A hundred and one eyes of 55 keratoconus patients were enrolled in this study. The mean age was 26.2±8.9 years. The inclusion criteria were keratoconus stage I to III according to the Amsler-Krumeich keratoconus classification. All the measurements were done by the same operator, under the mesopic light condition and repeated with three different optical methods; Visante , Orbscan and Pentacam. The evaluated anterior segment parameters were anterior chamber depth (ACD, central and thinnest corneal thickness (CCT and TCT and pupil diameter (PD.RESULTS: The mean CCT measured by Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam were as follows:462.0±48.1µm, 463.9±60.9µm, 476.5±45.3µm, respectively (P=0.873. The mean ACD values were 3.34±0.33mm, 3.26±0.33mm, 3.49±0.40mm, respectively (P=0.118. The mean PD measurements were 5.11±1.14mm, 4.80±0.85mm, 3.80±1.38mm, respectively (PP=0.214. The Visante and Orbscan measured CCT similarly, while Pentacam measured CCT thicker than the other two. The Visante measured TCT thinner than the other two devices. In ACD measurements, Orbscan was the one giving the lowest values. PD was measured differently by the devices.CONCLUSION: Although TCT, CCT and ACD measurements acquired by Visante, Orbscan and Pentacam in keratoconus patients are similar, PD measurements show large differences among the devices.

  19. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ...

  1. Preoperative anterior segment optical coherence tomography as a predictor of postoperative phakic intraocular lens position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallah Tafti, Mohammad Reza; Moghadam, Reza Soltani; Beheshtnejad, Amir Houshang; Jabbarvand, Mahmoud; Mohebi, Masoomeh; Zarei-Ghanavati, Mehran

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in the preoperative simulation of postoperative iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL) position in the anterior chamber. Farabi Eye Research Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Case series. Using AS-OCT, the pIOL position was simulated preoperatively in 2 ways and compared with the actual postoperative pIOL position. For preoperative evaluations, the simulator was placed on the posterior pigmented epithelium of the iris. Then, the simulation was performed with the simulator placed in the middle of the iris tissue. The following distances were measured: from the center of the pIOL to the endothelium, from the edge of the pIOL to the endothelium, and from the posterior surface of the pIOL to the crystalline lens. The study examined 26 eyes (16 patients). Although all distances in both simulation methods (except the lens vault in the first method of simulation) were highly correlated (all P<.009), only the results with the simulator placed in the middle of the iris tissue were not statistically different from the corresponding postoperative measurements (P=.209 and P=.564 for distance from endothelium to the center and the pIOL edge, respectively). Using the pIOL template of the AS-OCT system for preoperative simulation of iris-fixated pIOLs improved the criteria for patient selection for implantation of these pIOLs. The simulator should be placed in the middle of the iris tissue for preoperative simulation. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of the stability of Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Julian P S; Ritterband, David C; Buxton, Douglas F; De la Cruz, Jose

    2010-09-01

    To evaluate the anatomic stability of an implanted Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro)-donor cornea interface and assess the presence or absence of a potential space (gap) between the KPro front plate and donor cornea using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). The presence of a gap would raise concerns of a possible pathway for the exchange of extraocular fluid with the anterior chamber. Fifteen eyes implanted with a Boston type I KPro were studied by the noncontact technique of AS-OCT (AC Cornea OCT prototype; OTI, Canada). All the KPro devices had been implanted at least 4 weeks before the study (mean: 7 months, range: 1-22 months). Eight eyes had aphakic Kpros, and the other 7 had pseudophakic implants. Anesthetized eyes were imaged before and during pressure application using sterile cotton-tip applicators. Pressure was applied for 10 seconds on the nasal or temporal side of the eye. Images were analyzed for any possible changes in the KPro-donor cornea interface during the application of pressure. Of 15 eyes, 10 had the threaded front plate model with a T-shaped silhouette and corrugated sides, whereas 5 had the threadless type with a T-shaped silhouette and smooth sides on cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. Of the 15 eyes, 2 revealed a gap between the front plate and the surface of the donor cornea. The rest revealed no gaps. With pressure, none of the eyes, including the 2 with gaps, demonstrated any change in the KPro-donor cornea interface during dynamic imaging (eg, gaping or evidence of fluid escape along the KPro-donor cornea borders). In all eyes, the position of the titanium locking ring was visible and verified to be in an adequate position. The implanted KPro-donor cornea interface seems to be stable dynamically using AS-OCT. A gap that has been documented with this imaging tool showed neither gaping nor escape of anterior chamber fluid during dynamic cross-sectional imaging. Further studies will be needed to assess

  4. Boston type I keratoprosthesis-donor cornea interface evaluated by high-definition spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzaga Fernandez AG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Ana G Alzaga Fernandez,* Nathan M Radcliffe,* Kimberly C Sippel, Mark I Rosenblatt, Priyanka Sood, Christopher E Starr, Jessica B Ciralsky, Donald J D'Amico, Szilárd KissDepartment of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this work and both are considered principal authorsBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess whether the resolution offered by two different, recently commercially available high-resolution, spectral-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT instruments allows for detailed anatomic characterization of the critical device-donor cornea interface in eyes implanted with the Boston type I permanent keratoprosthesis.Methods: Eighteen eyes of 17 patients implanted with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis were included in this retrospective case series. All eyes were quantitatively evaluated using the Cirrus HD-OCT while a subset (five eyes was also qualitatively imaged using the Spectralis Anterior Segment Module. Images from these instruments were analyzed for evidence of epithelial migration onto the anterior surface of the keratoprosthesis front plate, and presence of a vertical gap between the posterior surface of the front plate and the underlying carrier donor corneal tissue. Quantitative data was obtained utilizing the caliper function on the Cirrus HD-OCT.Results: The mean duration between AS-OCT imaging and keratoprosthesis placement was 29 months. As assessed by the Cirrus HD-OCT, 83% of eyes exhibited epithelial migration over the edge of the front plate. Fifty-six percent of the keratoprosthesis devices displayed good apposition of the device with the carrier corneal donor tissue. When a vertical gap was present (44% of eyes, the mean gap was 40 (range 8–104 microns. The Spectralis Anterior Segment Module also displayed sufficient resolution to allow for similar characterization of the device

  5. Relationship between the morphology of A-1 segment of anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... Department of Neurosurgery, Nanfang Hospital, 1838 Guang zhou Dadao Road, Guangzhou 510515, China. Abstract: Background: The anterior communicating artery (ACoA) is one of the most frequent sites for cerebral aneurysm. The peculiar directions of projection of aneurysms offer great challenges to ...

  6. Outbreak of toxic anterior segment syndrome following cataract surgery associated with impurities in autoclave steam moisture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellinger, Walter C; Hasan, Saiyid A; Bacalis, Laura P; Thornblom, Deborah M; Beckmann, Susan C; Blackmore, Carina; Forster, Terri S; Tirey, Jason F; Ross, Mary J; Nilson, Christian D; Mamalis, Nick; Crook, Julia E; Bendel, Rick E; Shetty, Rajesh; Stewart, Michael W; Bolling, James P; Edelhauser, Henry F

    2006-03-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS), a complication of cataract surgery, is a sterile inflammation of the anterior chamber of the eye. An outbreak of TASS was recognized at an outpatient surgical center and its affiliated hospital in December 2002. Medical records of patients who underwent cataract surgery during the outbreak were reviewed, and surgical team members who participated in the operations were interviewed. Potential causes of TASS were identified and eliminated. Feedwater from autoclave steam generators and steam condensates were analyzed by use of spectroscopy and ion chromatography. During the outbreak, 8 (38%) of 21 cataract operations were complicated by TASS, compared with 2 (0.07%) of 2,713 operations performed from January 1996 through November 2002. Results of an initial investigation suggested that cataract surgical equipment may have been contaminated by suboptimal equipment reprocessing or as a result of personnel changes. The frequency of TASS decreased (1 of 44 cataract operations) after reassignment of personnel and revision of equipment reprocessing procedures. Further investigation identified the presence of impurities (eg, sulfates, copper, zinc, nickel, and silica) in autoclave steam moisture, which was attributed to improper maintenance of the autoclave steam generator in the outpatient surgical center. When impurities in autoclave steam moisture were eliminated, no cases of TASS were observed after more than 1,000 cataract operations. Suboptimal reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may evolve over time in busy, multidisciplinary surgical centers. Clinically significant contamination of surgical equipment may result from inappropriate maintenance of steam sterilization systems. Standardization of protocols for reprocessing of cataract surgical equipment may prevent outbreaks of TASS and may be of assistance during outbreak investigations.

  7. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements Using Ultrasonic Pachymetry, Anterior Segment OCT and Noncontact Specular Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto, Riccardo; Bagnis, Alessandro; Papadia, Marina; Cutolo, Carlo Alberto; Risso, Domenico; Traverso, Carlo Enrico

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate and compare central corneal thickness (CCT) values measured with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), noncontact specular microscopy (NCSM), and ultrasound pachymetry (USP). CCT was measured in 182 healthy eyes without ocular abnormalities other than refractive errors. Three consecutive measurements of CCT by the same examiner were obtained during the same session. The testing sequence of AS-OCT and NCSM was randomly selected. The USP always was performed after the noncontact examinations. The average CCT measured by AS-OCT, NCSM, and USP were 535.8±35.5, 547.7±38.2, and 537.4±37.5 μm, respectively. The mean differences between modalities were 11.8±14.7 μm (POCT, 10.3±17.7 μm (POCT. AS-OCT, NCSM, and USP showed an overall strong agreement in measuring CCT. However, CCT measurements with AS-OCT showed a good correlation to those obtained by USP, NCSM tended to give statistically significant higher CCT readings than either alternative and showed the worse repeatability indices. On the basis of our results, CCT measurement obtained with different instruments cannot be considered directly interchangeable.

  8. [Imaging of corneal dystrophies: Correlations between en face anterior segment OCT and in vivo confocal microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghouali, W; Tahiri Joutei Hassani, R; Liang, H; Dupont-Monod, S; Auclin, F; Baudouin, C; Labbé, A

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of en face Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for evaluation of corneal dystrophies and to describe correlations with in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Thirty-two eyes of 16 patients with 4 types of corneal dystrophies (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, Fuchs dystrophy, Reis-Bücklers corneal dystrophy and Crocodile Shagreen dystrophy) were enrolled in this study. Axial and reconstructed en face scans were acquired using OCT. Images were then correlated to IVCM findings. En face OCT provided new insights into the structure, size and depth of corneal tissue alterations in various corneal dystrophies. OCT en face images were well correlated with IVCM features. Despite lower resolution than IVCM, en face OCT offers the advantages of being non-invasive and allowing the analysis of larger corneal areas. En face OCT provides useful new information in corneal dystrophies. This imaging technique will probably increase in popularity in the near future for the assessment of various anterior segment diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Light-dark changes in iris thickness and anterior chamber angle width in eyes with occludable angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Fumitaka; Hata, Masayuki; Ito, Shin-ichiro; Matsuki, Takaaki; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and measure light-dark changes in iris thickness (IT) and anterior chamber angle width in eyes with occludable angles and open angles by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). We examined 153 eyes of 153 Japanese patients with primary angle closure suspect, primary angle closure, primary angle closure glaucoma, or primary open angle glaucoma. AS-OCT was used to determine pupil diameter, IT, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD₅₀₀), and trabecular-iris space area at 500 μm (TISA₅₀₀) in each quadrant of the anterior chamber angle (superior, inferior, temporal, and nasal) under light and dark conditions. In the angle closure cases, IT, AOD₅₀₀ and TISA₅₀₀ in the dark varied significantly among the four quadrants (P dark did not differ significantly among the four quadrants. In the angle closure cases and the open angle cases, significant negative associations were found between IT difference [IT(light)-IT(dark)] and AOD₅₀₀ difference [AOD₅₀₀(light)-AOD₅₀₀(dark)] (R = -0.411, P dark)] (R = -0.475, P dark conditions is related to the mechanism of primary angle closure. It is important to analyze both the angle structure and peripheral IT in each quadrant.

  10. Clinical implications of anterior S-T segment depression in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, C.H.; Woodward, W.; Nicod, P.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.; Rude, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    To assess various factors associated with anterior S-T segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction, 47 consecutive patients with electrocardiographic evidence of a first transmural inferior infarction were studied prospectively with radionuclide ventriculography an average of 7.3 hours (range 2.9 to 15.3) after the onset of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients (Group I) had anterior S-T depression in the initial electrocardiogram and 8 (Group II) did not have such reciprocal changes. There was no difference between the two groups in left ventricular end-diastolic or end-diastolic volume index or left ventricular ejection fraction. Stroke volume index was greater in Group I than in Group II. There were no group differences in left ventricular total or regional wall motion scores. A weak correlation existed between the quantities (mV) or inferior S-T segment elevation and reciprocal S-T depression. No relation between anterior S-T segment depression and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index could be demonstrated; the extent of left ventricular apical and right ventricular wall motion abnormalities, both frequently associated with inferior infarction, did not correlate with the quantity of anterior S-T depression. These data show that anterior S-T segment depression occurs commonly during the early evolution of transmural inferior infarction, is not generally a marker of functionally significant anterior ischemia and cannot be used to predict left ventricular function in individual patients. Anterior S-T segment depression may be determined by reciprocal mechanisms

  11. Anterior Segment Tomography with the Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo B. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical acquisition method to examine biological tissues. In recent years, OCT has become an important imaging technology used in diagnosing and following macular pathologies. Further development enabled application of optical coherence tomography in evaluation of the integrity of the nerve fiber layer, optic nerve cupping, anterior chamber angle, or corneal topography. In this manuscript we overview the use of OCT in the clinical practice to enable corneal, iris, ciliary body, and angle evaluation and diagnostics.

  12. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Babizhayev

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  13. Expression patterns of Wnt genes during development of an anterior part of the chicken eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fokina, Valentina M.; Frolova, Elena I.

    2006-01-01

    To address the roles of Wnts in the development of the anterior eye, we used a chicken model to perform comprehensive expression analysis of all Wnt genes during anterior eye development. In analyzing the available genomic sequences, we found that the chicken genome encodes 18 Wnt proteins that are homologous to corresponding human and mouse proteins. The mRNA sequences for 12 chicken Wnt genes are available in GenBank, and mRNAs for six other Wnt genes (Wnt2, Wnt5b, Wnt7b, Wnt8b, Wnt9b and W...

  14. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  15. In vivo architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Monod, Sylvère; Labbé, Antoine; Fayol, Nicolas; Chassignol, Alexis; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Baudouin, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    To use anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to analyze the in vivo architecture of clear corneal incisions after phacoemulsification using different techniques. Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France. This prospective observational study analyzed clear corneal incisions used in phacoemulsification. All wounds were evaluated 1 day and 8 days postoperatively by AS-OCT (Visante). Incision architecture and pachymetry at the wound level were analyzed. Thirty-five clear corneal incisions were analyzed. Six eyes had 2.75 mm coaxial phacoemulsification, 19 had 2.20 mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 10 had 1.30 mm bimanual microincision phacoemulsification. The 1.30 mm incision had a straight-line configuration. The 2.20 mm and 2.75 mm incisions had an arcuate configuration. The angles of incidence of 1.30 mm incisions were greater than those of 2.20 mm incisions (P<.001). All incisions had slight corneal edema limited to the incision area. The edema was slightly greater around 1.30 mm incisions (mean pachymetry 1143 microm +/- 140 [SD]) than around 2.20 mm incisions (mean 1012 +/- 101 microm) (P = .001). Bimanual procedures had satisfactory endothelial apposition in the enlarged areas, where stromal edema was less than that surrounding the unenlarged 1.30 mm incisions. The 3 phacoemulsification techniques induced gaping of the endothelial edge, minor inadequate endothelial apposition, and mild stromal edema in the area of the clear corneal incisions. Bimanual microincision sleeveless phacoemulsification may alter the wound slightly more than coaxial 2.75 mm and microcoaxial 2.20 mm sleeved-tip phacoemulsification.

  16. Changes in Anterior Chamber Depth after Phacoemulsification in Pseudoexfoliative Eyes and their Effect on Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare anterior chamber depth (ACD changes after phacoemulsification surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX and normal patients using an anterior segment imaging method. Another aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these changes on the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL power calculation and postoperative refraction. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with PEX and 30 eyes of 30 normal patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification surgery and IOL implantation were included in the study. The ACD of all patients was evaluated preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively with the ALLEGRO Oculyzer (WaveLight® Oculyzer™ II, Alcon, Novartis-Scheimpflug imaging system. Results: The postoperative mean ACD values were significantly larger than the preoperative ACD values in both groups (p<0.001 for both groups. The pre- to postoperative change in ACD was 0.46±0.3 mm in the PEX group, which was a larger change than seen in the normal patients (0.12±0.1 mm (p=0.04. The mean absolute errors (MAE calculated with different IOL formulas (SRK/T, Haigis, Hoffer and Holladay 1 formulas were comparable and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p=0.21. Conclusion: Phacoemulsification induces more significant ACD changes in patients with PEX compared to normal patients. However, the MAE did not differ significantly between the groups.

  17. Changes in Anterior Chamber Depth after Phacoemulsification in Pseudoexfoliative Eyes and their Effect on Accuracy of Intraocular Lens Power Calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Akman, Ahmet; Asena, Leyla; Aksoy, Mustafa; Sarıgül Sezenöz, Almila

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare anterior chamber depth (ACD) changes after phacoemulsification surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) and normal patients using an anterior segment imaging method. Another aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these changes on the accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation and postoperative refraction. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with PEX and 30 eyes of 30 normal patients who underwent uneventful phacoemulsification surgery and IOL implantation were included in the study. The ACD of all patients was evaluated preoperatively and at 3 months postoperatively with the ALLEGRO Oculyzer (WaveLight® Oculyzer™ II, Alcon, Novartis)-Scheimpflug imaging system. Results: The postoperative mean ACD values were significantly larger than the preoperative ACD values in both groups (p<0.001 for both groups). The pre- to postoperative change in ACD was 0.46±0.3 mm in the PEX group, which was a larger change than seen in the normal patients (0.12±0.1 mm) (p=0.04). The mean absolute errors (MAE) calculated with different IOL formulas (SRK/T, Haigis, Hoffer and Holladay 1 formulas) were comparable and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups (p=0.21). Conclusion: Phacoemulsification induces more significant ACD changes in patients with PEX compared to normal patients. However, the MAE did not differ significantly between the groups. PMID:28050320

  18. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

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    Tamer Tandogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%, exposure times (10 and 60 seconds, and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc., and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery.

  19. Surgical technique: coupling of intrastromal corneal ring segments for ectatic corneal disorders in eye bank corneas

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    Moshirfar M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1 Maylon Hsu1 Yousuf M Khalifa21Moran Eye Center, Salt Lake City, UT, 2Flaum Eye Institute, Rochester, NY, USAAbstract: The management of corneal ectasia is evolving, with intrastromal corneal ring segments playing an important role in delaying or eliminating the need for penetrating keratoplasty. This paper describes a modification in the implantation technique of intrastromal corneal ring segments that allows for coupling of the two segments with suture, affording more structural support.Keywords: intrastromal corneal ring segments, Intacs, keratonconus, corneal ectasia, keratoectasia

  20. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

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    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  1. Three-Dimensional Morphometric Analysis of the Iris by Swept-Source Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography in a Caucasian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Alessandro; Giardini, Piero; Cigada, Mario; Viola, Francesco; Staurenghi, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    We analyzed by swept-source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SS-ASOCT) the three-dimensional iris morphology in a Caucasian population, and correlated the findings with iris color, iris sectors, subject age, and sex. One eye each from consecutive healthy emmetropic (refractive spherical equivalent ± 3 diopters) volunteers were selected for the study. The enrolled eye underwent standardized anterior segment photography to assess iris color. Iris images were assessed by SS-ASOCT for volume, thickness, width, and pupil size. Sectoral variations of morphometric data among the superior, nasal, inferior, and temporal sectors were recorded. A total of 135 eyes from 57 males and 78 females, age 49 ± 17 years, fulfilled the inclusion criteria. All iris morphometric parameters varied significantly among the different sectors (all P Iris total volume and thickness were significantly correlated with increasingly darker pigmentation (P iris color. Age did not affect iris volume or thickness; iris width increased and pupil diameter decreased with age (rs = 0.52, rs = -0.58, respectively). There was no effect of sex on iris volume, thickness, or pupil diameter; iris width was significantly greater in males (P = 0.007). Morphology of the iris varied by iris sector, and iris color was associated with differences in iris volume and thickness. Morphological parameter variations associated with iris color, sector, age, and sex can be used to identify pathological changes in suspect eyes. To be effective in clinical settings, construction of iris morphological databases for different ethnic and racial populations is essential.

  2. Short-segment Hirschsprung's disease, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation: a unique association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Chandrasen K; Grewal, Alka; Ward, Harry Charles

    2007-08-01

    The association of Hirschsprung's disease (HD) and anorectal malformations has been reported in 2.3% to 3.4% cases. Only 2 cases have previously been published where cat eye syndrome was associated with long (but not short) segment HD. Here, we report a case where there appears to be an association among short segment HD, cat eye syndrome, and anorectal malformation, which has not previously been identified. An abnormality in chromosome 22 may be involved in the development of this association.

  3. Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology of Iris Bombe before and after Laser Peripheral Iridotomy in Patients with Uveitic Secondary Glaucoma

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    Wakako Ikegawa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To quantify changes in anterior segment (AS parameters after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI using AS-optical coherence tomography (OCT of iris bombe. Method. AS images of eight eyes were captured before and after iris bombe and more than 2 weeks after LPI (post-LPI using AS-OCT. We compared the following AS parameters: anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, iris curvature (IC, iris thickness at 500 μm from the scleral spur (IT-1 in the middle between the iris root and pupillary margin (IT-2 and 500 μm from the pupillary margin (IT-3 to the anterior chamber angle (ACA (angle opening distance [AOD750], and trabecular iris space area. Results. Mean IT-1 and IT-3, but not IT-2, were lower after iris bombe (IT-1, P=0.001; IT-2, P=0.081; and IT-3, P=0.001. There were no significant differences between ACD at pre-LPI and before iris bombe (P=0.096. The mean ACV and AOD750 of iris bombe increased at post-LPI (ACV, P<0.01, and AOD750, P<0.05. The mean IT-1, IT-2, and IT-3 increased at post-LPI (all, P≤0.01. IC decreased at post-LPI (P<0.001, and ACD at post-LPI did not change. Conclusions. The iris extends and becomes thinner during iris bombe. LPI during bombe decreases the IC and increases the ACV and ACA.

  4. Relationship Between Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Surface Tilt and Glaucoma Development in Myopic Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jung; Han, Jong Chul; Kee, Changwon

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface tilt angle in myopic eyes and associate it with glaucoma development. In this retrospective study, medical records of myopic patients referred for glaucoma examination from July 1, 2012 to March 30, 2016 were reviewed. Comprehensive ophthalmic examination including spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were performed. We measured the angle of anterior LC surface tilt against Bruch's membrane opening from optical coherence tomography images at the center of the clinical optic disc margin. In horizontal and vertical sections, the angles were defined as α and β, respectively. Patients were grouped according to the presence of glaucomatous damage and factors including optic nerve head morphologic parameters and LC tilt angles were compared between the 2 groups. Among 138 patients originally enrolled, 102 patients were finally analyzed. One eye from 1 patient was randomly chosen. Fifty-five eyes had glaucoma and 47 were normal. The degree of myopia and all optic nerve head morphologic parameters were not significantly different between the 2 groups. However, |α| and |β| were significantly larger in the glaucoma group (all Pglaucoma in normal-pressure myopic eyes. Angulation of the LC against Bruch's membrane opening plane might be associated with increased glaucoma susceptibility in myopic eyes. Further investigations are warranted before clinical utilization of LC tilt as glaucoma susceptibility biomarker.

  5. Dynamic analysis of iris configuration with anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Yim-lui; Liu, Shu; Weinreb, Robert N; Liu, Jing; Li, Haitao; Leung, Dexter Yu-lung; Dorairaj, Syril; Liebmann, Jeffrey; Ritch, Robert; Lam, Dennis Shun Chiu; Leung, Christopher Kai-shun

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate dynamic changes in iris configuration and their association with anterior chamber angle width by using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT). Forty-six normal subjects with open angles and 40 with narrow angles (Shaffer grade dark room gonioscopy) were analyzed. The dynamic ASOCT dark-light changes of iris bowing were captured with real-time video recording and nasal iris bowing, nasal anterior chamber angle, and pupil diameter were measured in serial image frames selected from the video capture. The associations between iris bowing, iris thickness, anterior chamber depth (ACD), age, anterior chamber angle, and pupillary diameter measurements were evaluated with univariate and multivariate regression analyses. The relationship between iris bowing and pupil diameter was largely linear, with three dynamic patterns observed: (1) convex-to-convex (iris remains convex in dark and light); (2) concave-to-convex (iris changes from concave to convex from light to dark); and (3) concave-to-concave (iris remains concave in dark and light). All the subjects with narrow angles had convex-to-convex anatomy, although 43% of the subjects with open angles also demonstrated this pattern. These individuals were older and had shorter axial length (both with P dark (r = 0.472, P dark. ACD and iris bowing were independently associated with anterior chamber angle width. Independent of ACD, iris bowing is an important biometric parameter that determines angle width. Investigation of iris dynamics may offer a new perspective in understanding the risk and mechanism of primary angle closure.

  6. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome following a Triple Descemet’s Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty Procedure

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    Nir Sorkin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To present a unique case of a 58-year-old female with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS, following a triple procedure: Descemet’s stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, phacoemulsification and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation. Methods: The patient was treated with topical dexamethasone sodium phosphate 0.1% and topical atropine sulfate 1%. Due to a slow improvement in her clinical status, oral prednisone 1 mg/kg/day was added. Results: The anterior chamber reaction improved gradually, with tapering down of topical and oral treatment, until a complete resolution of the anterior chamber reaction was observed. Conclusions: Taking into account the estimated volume of DSAEK triple procedures performed worldwide, we would expect an annual incidence of several TASS cases, following triple DSAEK procedures. However, we were unable to find any such previous reports in the literature. This fact raises questions regarding the cause of reduced TASS incidence following triple DSAEK procedures.

  7. Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Disease After Anterior Cervical Discectomy for Single-level Degenerative Disk Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donk, Roland D; Verhagen, Wim I M; Hosman, Allard J F; Verbeek, Andre; Bartels, Ronald H M A

    2018-02-01

    A prospective cohort of 142 patients underwent either anterior cervical discectomy alone, anterior cervical discectomy with fusion by cage stand-alone, or anterior cervical discectomy with arthroplasty. We then followed up on their condition for a mean of 9.1±1.9 years (5.6-12.2 y) later. We aimed to evaluate the annual rate of clinically symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) and to analyze predictive factors. Until recent, ASD has been predominantly evaluated radiologically. It is not known whether all patients had complaints. A frequent cited annual rate of ASD is 2.9%, but a growing number of studies report a lower annual rate. Furthermore, maintaining motion to prevent ASD is one reason for implanting a cervical disk prosthesis. However, the results of studies contradict one another. Participants took part in a randomized controlled trial that ended prematurely because of the publication of evidence that did not justify continuation of the trial. The patients were randomly allocated to 3 groups, each of which received one of the abovementioned treatments. We defined symptomatic ASD as signs and symptoms caused by degeneration of an intervertebral disk adjacent to a level of previous anterior cervical disk surgery. At the last follow-up, we were able to ascertain whether clinically symptomatic ASD was present in any of the participants. The overall annual rate of symptomatic ASD was 0.7%. We found no statistically significant correlations between any of the investigated factors and symptomatic ASD except for the surgical method used. Symptomatic ASD was seen less often in anterior cervical discectomy solely or anterior cervical discectomy with arthroplasty than in anterior cervical discectomy with fusion by plate fixation. The annual rate of symptomatic ASD after an anterior cervical discectomy procedure was estimated to be 0.7%. This seems to be related to the procedure, although firm conclusions cannot be drawn. Level 2-prospective cohort.

  8. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

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    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  9. Decrowding of lower anterior segment with and without photobiomodulation: a single center, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Amer Z; Samara, Said A; Rastegar-Lari, Tannaz A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of low-level light therapy using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) on the speed of tooth movements that were required for the leveling and aligning of the lower anterior segment during non-extraction orthodontic treatment. The sample was comprised of patients (n = 40) with lower anterior crowding who were treated with self-ligating orthodontic brackets and a standardized wire sequence. A test group of patients (n = 20) who were treated with extraoral infrared light therapy for 20 min daily with at least 80 % compliance was compared to a control group (n = 20). The date of the first arch wire placement was recorded as T1, and the date of the completion of the lower anterior segment decrowding was recorded as T2. A final impression was also taken at T2. The time between T1 and T2 was significantly reduced by 22 % in the test group compared to the control group (68.3 vs. 87.8 days, respectively, p < 0.043). The use of photobiomodulation for 20 min daily at a wavelength of 850 nm might reduce the time required to resolve lower anterior crowding. This trial and its protocol were not registered on a publicly accessible registry.

  10. Prognostic Value of Lordosis Decrease in Radiographic Adjacent Segment Pathology After Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Li, Na; Wei, Wei; Deng, Jing; Hu, Yuequn; Ye, Bin; Wang, Wei

    2017-10-31

    While cervical lordosis alteration is not uncommon after anterior cervical arthrodesis, its influence on radiological adjacent segment pathology (RASP) is still unclear. Biomechanical changes induced by arthrodesis may contribute to ASP onset. To investigate the correlation between cervical lordosis decrease and RASP onset after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) and to determine its biomechanical effect on adjacent segments after surgery, 80 CSM patients treated with ACCF were retrospectively studied, and a baseline finite element model of the cervical spine as well as post-operation models with normal and decreased lordosis were established and validated. We found that post-operative lordosis decrease was prognostic in predicting RASP onset, with the hazard ratio of 0.45. In the FE models, ROM at the adjacent segment increased after surgery, and the increase was greater in the model with decreased lordosis. Thus, post-operative cervical lordosis change significantly correlated with RASP occurrence, and it may be of prognostic value. The biomechanical changes induced by lordosis change at the adjacent segments after corpectomy may be one of the mechanisms for this phenomenon. Restoring a well lordotic cervical spine after corpectomy may reduce RASP occurrence and be beneficial to long-term surgical outcomes.

  11. Alterações do segmento posterior na microftalmia: relato de casos Posterior segment changes in microphthalmic eyes: case report

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    Fernando José De Novelli

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Microftalmia é a alteração de desenvolvimento caracterizada pela redução do tamanho do bulbo ocular. Pode estar associada a manifestações estruturais do segmento anterior e posterior. As alterações mais comuns do segmento anterior são as opacidades corneanas, o estreitamento e fechamento do ângulo da câmara anterior e a catarata, e as mais frequentes no segmento posterior são a efusão uveal, as dobras de retina, a alteração da vascularização capilar macular, a ausência de depressão foveal e a retinosquise periférica. Este estudo descreve o caso de três pacientes com microftalmo e manifestações no segmento posterior documentadas com tomografia de coerência óptica. O primeiro caso apresentou a síndrome de efusão uveal, com descolamento de coróide e de retina, tratada com cirurgia de esclerectomia parcial nos quatro quadrantes. No segundo caso, havia a dobra retiniana neurossensorial na fóvea e feixe papilomacular em ambos os olhos sem o envolvimento de epitélio pigmentado retiniano e coriocapilar. No terceiro paciente, o microftalmo estava acompanhado de ausência da depressão foveal, cujo principal diagnóstico diferencial é a hipoplasia foveal.Microphthalmos is a developmental ocular disorder defined as a small eyeball. The condition can be associated with abnormalities of anterior and posterior segments. The most common anterior characteristics include corneal opacities, angle-closure and a shallow anterior chamber and cataract. The main findings of posterior segment are uveal effusion, retinal folds, abnormalities of macular capillar vascularization, absence of foveal depression and peripheral retinoschisis. Three patients with microphthalmos were assisted and their OCT features of posterior segment were analyzed. The first case had uveal effusion syndrome, choroidal and retinal detachment treated with parcial sclerectomy at the four quadrants. The other case presented with neurosensory retinal fold at fovea

  12. Expanding the spectrum of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in patients with anterior segment malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'haene, Barbara; Meire, Françoise; Claerhout, Ilse; Kroes, Hester Y; Plomp, Astrid; Arens, Yvonne H; de Ravel, Thomy; Casteels, Ingele; De Jaegere, Sarah; Hooghe, Sally; Wuyts, Wim; van den Ende, Jenneke; Roulez, Françoise; Veenstra-Knol, Hermine E; Oldenburg, Rogier A; Giltay, Jacques; Verheij, Johanna B G M; de Faber, Jan-Tjeerd; Menten, Björn; De Paepe, Anne; Kestelyn, Philippe; Leroy, Bart P; De Baere, Elfride

    2011-01-21

    Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) comprises a heterogeneous group of developmental abnormalities that affect several structures of the anterior segment of the eye. The main purpose of this study was to assess the proportion of FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations and copy number changes in 80 probands with ASD. The patients were examined for FOXC1 and PITX2 copy number changes and mutations using MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and direct sequencing. Subsequently, the identified copy number changes were fine-mapped using high-resolution microarrays. In the remaining mutation-negative patients, sequencing of the FOXC1 andPITX2 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) and three other candidate genes (P32, PDP2, and FOXC2) was performed. Thirteen FOXC1 and eight PITX2 mutations were identified, accounting for 26% (21/80) of the cases. In addition, six FOXC1 and five PITX2 deletions were found, explaining 14% (11/80) of the cases. The smallest FOXC1 and PITX2 deletions were 5.4 and 1.6 kb in size, respectively. Six patients carrying FOXC1 deletions presented with variable extraocular phenotypic features such as hearing defects (in 4/6) and mental retardation (in 2/6). No further genetic defects were found in the remaining mutation-negative patients. FOXC1 and PITX2 genetic defects explain 40% of our large ASD cohort. The current spectrum of intragenic FOXC1 and PITX2 mutations was extended considerably, the identified copy number changes were fine mapped, the smallest FOXC1 and PITX2 deletions reported so far were identified, and the need for dedicated copy number screening of the FOXC1 and PITX2 genomic landscape was emphasized. This study is unique in that sequence and copy number changes were screened simultaneously in both genes.

  13. Anterior maxillary osteotomy: A technical note for superior repositioning: A bird wing segment

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    V Sadesh Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single piece bird wing osteotectomy segment during anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method thereby reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and gives good perfusion to the anterior segment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences composing of 20 patients in which male: female ratio was 8:12, with a mean age of 25-30 years. This bird wing segment technique is performed following presurgical orthodontics under the guidance of clinical assessment of the gummy smile with an incisal show when the lip is at repose (vertical maxillary excess, especially for the calculated amount of superior repositioning. It is calculated by subtracting 2 mm from the total amount of an incisor show when the lip is at repose. The normal incisal show when the lip is at repose is 2 mm. After conventional primary AMO cut was performed, the precise calculated. Results: All our cases were tested positive for pulp vitality, no relapse, and minimal edema and with no changes in the bite or dentoalveolar relation followed until 1 year postoperatively indicating a good perfusion to the anterior segment and all the patients were satisfied esthetically and free of complaints. Conclusion: This simple technique allows the precise amount of calculated bone removal in a single piece from the nasal floor markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method there by reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and maintains good perfusion.

  14. Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael E; Corrêa, Zélia M; Augsburger, James J; Barrett, William

    2007-08-01

    Primary uveal malignant melanoma of the ciliary body associated with nodular extrascleral extension, diffuse iris-angle infiltration, and secondary glaucoma is usually treated by prompt enucleation. We report a patient with ciliary body melanoma associated with nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle treated conservatively because the fellow eye was blind. The clinical features and surgical management of a melanoma of the ciliary body with extrascleral extension and diffuse infiltration of the iris and angle are presented. The tumor was treated with focal I-125 plaque radiotherapy followed by supplemental whole anterior segment I-125 plaque radiotherapy. The patient has been followed for over 2.5 years since the initial plaque radiotherapy and over 1.5 years since the supplemental whole anterior segment radiotherapy. His visual acuity is correctable to 20/40 OD and there is no evidence of metastatic disease. His glaucoma is well controlled following trabeculectomy and tube shunt procedure. Whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy for ciliary body melanoma with diffuse iris-angle infiltration provided palliative local tumor control without significant local complications through available follow-up.

  15. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea.

  16. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental le fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Tue Lindberg; Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I...... osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral.......83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment...

  17. Anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms: Segments and results of surgical and endovascular managements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xianli; Ge, Huijian; He, Hongwei; Jiang, Chuhan

    2016-01-01

    Background Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are rare and published clinical experience with these aneurysms is limited. Objective The objective of this article is to report angiographic characteristics and results associated with premeatal, meatal and postmeatal segments, surgical and endovascular therapies. Methods A literature review was performed through PubMed using “anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm” through January 2016. Clinical data, angiograms, management techniques, and patient outcomes were reviewed for 47 collected cases in 30 previous reports. Results Of these aneurysms, 21 (44.7%) were associated with meatal segment, 10 (21.3%) were postmeatal and 16 (34.0%) were premeatal. Patients with meatal aneurysms are more likely to present with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hearing loss and facial palsy (77.8%). Patient outcomes of meatal aneurysms presented with more neuropathies (51.7%) and cerebellar symptoms (14.3%) (p = 0.049). Four cases of meatal aneurysm with preoperative cranial nerve deficits (two VII and two VIII) showed improvement after surgery. Endovascular treatment achieved outcomes similar to surgical treatment (p = 0.327). Conclusions AICA aneurysms have a predilection for meatal segment. Patients with meatal aneurysms are more likely to present with subarachnoid hemorrhage and hearing loss and facial palsy. Patient outcomes of meatal aneurysms presented with more neuropathies and cerebellar symptoms. Endovascular treatment achieved outcomes similar to surgical treatment. PMID:27485045

  18. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

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    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  19. Fluid mechanics of the human eye: aqueous humour flow in the anterior chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitt, A D; Gonzalez, G

    2006-01-01

    We consider and compare the various different kinds of flow that may take place in the anterior chamber of a human eye. The physical mechanisms responsible for causing such flows may be classified as follows: (i) buoyancy-driven flow arising from the temperature difference between the anterior surface of the cornea and the iris, (ii) flow generated by the aqueous production of the ciliary body, (iii) flow generated by the interaction between buoyancy and gravity while sleeping while sleeping in a face-up position, (iv) flow generated by phakodenesis (lens tremor), (v) flow generated by Rapid Eye Movement (REM) during sleep. Each flow is studied using a traditional fluid mechanics/asymptotic analysis approach. We also assess the veracity of a hypothesis that was recently advanced [see Maurice, D.M., 1998. The Von Sallman Lecture 1996: An ophthalmological explanation of REM sleep. Exp. Eye. Res. 66, 139-145, for details] to suggest that, contrary to previous opinion, the purpose of REM during sleep is to ensure corneal respiration in the absence of the buoyant mixing that routinely takes place due to (i) above during waking conditions.

  20. Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Versus the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Suo-Zhou; Di, Jun; Shen, Yong

    2017-06-02

    BACKGROUND Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an established treatment for degenerative disease of the cervical disc, but adjacent segment degeneration or instability may develop long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF compared with the use of the Bryan artificial disc for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). MATERIAL AND METHODS A prospective comparative study included 93 patients who underwent ACDF or CDA with the Bryan artificial cervical disc between 2002 and 2004, and who had more than eight years of follow-up. There were 29 cases in the CDA group and 39 cases in ACDF group, with a follow-up rate of 73.12%. Clinical results and imaging data were assessed before and after surgery. RESULTS There was no significant difference between the two groups in radiographic parameters at each follow-up time point. There were 19 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (48.72%) in the ACDF group, and 13 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (44.83%) in the CDA group, with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Univariate analysis showed that advanced age (OR 1.271, 95% CI 1.005-1.607), low preoperative overall lordosis (OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786-0.936) and low preoperative segmental lordosis (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.086-1.193) were significantly correlated with adjacent segment degeneration. CONCLUSIONS Equally good clinical outcomes were achieved with both the ACDF and the Bryan CDA. Increasing patient age was associated with adjacent segment degeneration in both patient groups.

  1. Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion Versus the Bryan Cervical Disc Arthroplasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Suo-Zhou; Di, Jun; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is an established treatment for degenerative disease of the cervical disc, but adjacent segment degeneration or instability may develop long term. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF compared with the use of the Bryan artificial disc for cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA). Material/Methods A prospective comparative study included 93 patients who underwent ACDF or CDA with the Bryan artificial cervical disc between 2002 and 2004, and who had more than eight years of follow-up. There were 29 cases in the CDA group and 39 cases in ACDF group, with a follow-up rate of 73.12%. Clinical results and imaging data were assessed before and after surgery. Results There was no significant difference between the two groups in radiographic parameters at each follow-up time point. There were 19 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (48.72%) in the ACDF group, and 13 cases of adjacent segment degeneration (44.83%) in the CDA group, with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05). Univariate analysis showed that advanced age (OR 1.271, 95% CI 1.005–1.607), low preoperative overall lordosis (OR 0.858, 95% CI 0.786–0.936) and low preoperative segmental lordosis (OR 1.185, 95% CI 1.086–1.193) were significantly correlated with adjacent segment degeneration. Conclusions Equally good clinical outcomes were achieved with both the ACDF and the Bryan CDA. Increasing patient age was associated with adjacent segment degeneration in both patient groups. PMID:28574978

  2. Anterior segment ischemia following Hummelsheim procedure in a case of sixth nerve palsy

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    Rakesh K Bansal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A, 46-year-old Indian male, known hypertensive presented with left esotropia of 25  prism diopters (PD after head injury in a roadside accident 9 months back. The deviation was constant in nature and was associated with complaints of diplopia in left lateral gaze. Traumatic sixth nerve palsy was diagnosed. The patient underwent left medial rectus recession of 5 mm and a split-tendon transposition of the left superior and inferior recti to the lateral rectus insertion (Hummelsheim procedure. On the first postoperative day, the patient developed corneal edema and anterior chamber reaction of flare 2+ and cells 2+. The pupil was semi-dilated and was sluggishly reacting to light. Anterior segment ischemia was diagnosed, which was managed with topical and systemic steroids.

  3. Anterior segment ischemia following Hummelsheim procedure in a case of sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Rakesh K; Bamotra, Ravi K

    2015-06-01

    A, 46-year-old Indian male, known hypertensive presented with left esotropia of 25  prism diopters (PD) after head injury in a roadside accident 9 months back. The deviation was constant in nature and was associated with complaints of diplopia in left lateral gaze. Traumatic sixth nerve palsy was diagnosed. The patient underwent left medial rectus recession of 5 mm and a split-tendon transposition of the left superior and inferior recti to the lateral rectus insertion (Hummelsheim procedure). On the first postoperative day, the patient developed corneal edema and anterior chamber reaction of flare 2+ and cells 2+. The pupil was semi-dilated and was sluggishly reacting to light. Anterior segment ischemia was diagnosed, which was managed with topical and systemic steroids.

  4. Loa loa in the anterior chamber of the eye: A case report

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    Barua P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of loiasis from Assam is reported here. Loa loa is a subcutaneous filarial parasite of man and is transmitted to humans by chrysops flies. The patient presented with foreign body sensation and visual disturbances of the right eye. Examination revealed a white coiled structure in the cornea.. Routine blood and other investigations were within normal limits. A live adult worm was extracted and identity was confirmed by microscopy to be Loa loa. Patient was treated with diethylcarbamazine and steroid. We found this case interesting as the worm was present in the anterior chamber - an unusual site and there were no other positive findings besides the lone worm.

  5. Relationship between intraocular pressure and angle configuration: an anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Rachel S; Sakata, Lisandro M; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Ho, Sue-Wei; He, Mingguang; Baskaran, Mani; Wong, Tien Yin; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2013-03-05

    To assess the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) configuration as assessed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A total of 2045 subjects aged 50 years and older, were recruited from a community clinic and underwent AS-OCT, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and gonioscopy. A quadrant was classified as closed on gonioscopy if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. A closed quadrant on AS-OCT was defined by the presence of any contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. Customized software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program, Guangzhou, China) was used to measure AS-OCT parameters on AS-OCT scans, including anterior chamber depth, area, and volume; iris thickness (IT) and curvature; lens vault; angle opening distance; and trabecular-iris space area. IOP values were adjusted for age, sex, diabetes and hypertension status, body mass index, central corneal thickness, and presence of peripheral anterior synechiae. Mean age of study subjects was 63.2 ± 8.0 years, 52.6% were female, and 89.4% were Chinese. Mean IOP was 14.8 ± 2.4 mm Hg (range 826). IOP (mean ± SE) increased with number of quadrants with gonioscopic angle closure (none: 14.6 ± 0.2; one: 14.7 ± 0.3; two: 15.0 ± 0.3; three: 15.0 ± 0.3; four: 15.6 ± 0.3 mm Hg; P measured on AS-OCT images, except for IT and lens vault. There was an association between the extent of angle closure, as assessed on AS-OCT and gonioscopy, with increasing IOP.

  6. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ... Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive ...

  7. Ultraviolet absorption by contact lenses and the significance on the ocular anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that both acute and chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure can lead to various ophthalmic pathologic conditions in the anterior segment. Several scientific studies have demonstrated that after UV exposure, the unprotected cornea is vulnerable to damage in the epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cellular layers. DNA damage, apoptosis, and altered protease expression are all examples of harmful changes that can occur within the cornea after irradiation. Beyond the cornea, damage associated with UV exposure, such as decreased antioxidant levels and increased reactive oxygen species production, has been noted in the aqueous humor and crystalline lens. Ultraviolet-blocking contact lenses have the potential to provide protection against such exposure to harmful UV radiation. Experimental use of UV-absorbing contact lenses prevented detrimental cellular changes to the cornea and maintained corneal clarity after UV exposure. Additionally, studies suggest that shielding the aqueous humor and crystalline lens from irradiation with UV-absorbing contact lenses aids in protection against precataractous changes. Despite ongoing research, to date, neither chronic nor clinical studies have been performed in humans to demonstrate that wearing UV-blocking contact lenses reduces the risk of developing cataracts or other ocular disorders within the anterior segment. This article will discuss the impact of UV exposure on ocular tissue and the need for adequate UV protection, with particular emphasis on UV-blocking contact lenses.

  8. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  9. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography changes with introduction and discontinuation of tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharashi, Abdullah; Azimzadeh, Amir A; Leung, Jerry; Radomski, Sidney; Radomski, Lenny; Lam, Wai-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify changes and reversibility in pupil dilation and iris dilator muscle region thickness associated with introduction and subsequent discontinuation of tamsulosin in patients naïve to this drug with the aid of an anterior OCT system. The study was carried out on 7 patients (14 eyes) naïve to tamsulosin and with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BHP). Measurements taken by Vistante OCT were done pre- and post-dilation of the following: pupil size, iris dilator muscle region (DMR) thickness, sphincter muscle region (SMR) thickness, and anterior chamber depth. These measurement were taken at Day 0 (tamsulosin naive), Day 30 (after one month of tamsulosin, the treatment period) and day 60 (after one month of no tamsulosin, the discontinuation period). Post-dilation pupil diameter significantly increased during the discontinuation period ( P  = 0.047). Iris DMR thickness measurements post-dilation significantly decreased during treatment ( P  = 0.00044), discontinuation (0.00011), and combined periods ( P  = 0.000050). Anterior chamber depth measurements in post-dilation were significantly decreased during treatment ( P  = 0.0016), discontinuation ( P  = 0.017), and combined periods ( P  = 0.00022). Tamsulosin discontinuation effectively increases dilated pupil size, a measure that has been inversely linked to IFIS incidence pre-operatively. Decreased DMR thickness in this short term likely illustrates changes aside from atrophy, such as vascular changes. Decreased anterior chamber depths suggest aqueous humor production is decreased as well.

  10. In vivo imaging of coin-shaped lesions in cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogawa, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamazaki, Natsuko; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate in vivo corneal changes of coin-shaped lesions in cytomegalovirus corneal endotheliitis using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Two eyes of 2 patients (69- and 71-year-old men), with polymerase chain reaction-proven CMV corneal endotheliitis presenting coin-shaped lesions, were included in this study. AS-OCT examination was performed on the initial visit and at follow-up visits by paying special attention to the coin-shaped lesions. Selected AS-OCT images of the cornea were evaluated qualitatively for changes in the shape and degree of light reflection. In both cases, coin-shaped lesions were observed at the corneal endothelial surface as clusters of fine precipitates using slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Using AS-OCT, high-resolution images of the putative coin-shaped lesions were successfully obtained in both patients as an irregularly thickened highly reflective endothelial cell layer. After anti-CMV treatment, the coin-shaped lesions were resolved as assessed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and AS-OCT in both patients. High-resolution AS-OCT provides novel and detailed visual information of coin-shaped lesions in patients with CMV corneal endotheliitis. Visualization of coin-shaped lesions by AS-OCT may be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis and follow-up of CMV corneal endotheliitis.

  11. Mathematical modeling of laser linear thermal effects on the anterior layer of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Sahar; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, mathematical analysis of thermal effects of excimer lasers on the anterior side of the human eye is presented, where linear effect of absorption by the human eye is considered. To this end, Argon Fluoride (ArF) and Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garent (Ho:YAG) lasers are utilized in this investigation. A three-dimensional model of the human eye with actual dimensions is employed and finite element method (FEM) is utilized to numerically solve the governing (Penne) heat transfer equation. The simulation results suggest the corneal temperature of 263 °C and 83.4 °C for ArF and Ho:YAG laser radiations, respectively, and show less heat penetration depth in comparison to the previous reports. Moreover, the heat transfer equation is solved semi-analytically in one-dimension. It is shown that the exploited simulation results are also consistent with those derived from the semi-analytical solution of the Penne heat transfer equation for both types of laser radiations.

  12. Diagnostic impact of anterior segment angiography of limbal stem cell insufficiency in PAX6-related aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsmann-Kellner, Barbara; Latta, Lorenz; Fries, Fabian N; Viestenz, Arne; Seitz, Berthold

    2018-04-01

    PAX6 is a master gene of ocular development and postnatal ocular equilibrium. Congenital aniridia is the hallmark of PAX6 gene haploinsufficiency (Chr. 11 p. 13), but PAX6-associated aniridia is a profound, progressive pan-ocular developmental disorder often leading to blindness. There is congenital visual impairment with advancing loss of vision mainly due to secondary glaucoma and to corneal blindness caused by limbal stem cell insufficiency (LSCI). LSCI leads to ARK (aniridia-related keratopathy), which typically develops in four stages. Incipient LSCI with vessels starting to grow into the cornea can be imaged by fluorescein anterior segment angiography, which enables fine vessels to be more easily detected than by routine slit lamp examination, especially in patients with nystagmus. Thus, clinical stage 1 ARK is often diagnosed at stage 2 by angiography. Corneal neovascularizations often start at the 12 and 6 positions and subsequently progress circumferentially, not at the 3 and 9 positions as previously believed. Anterior segment angiography can provide an easily standardizable tool for monitoring progress, treatment-induced regress or stabilization of ARK. Especially in children, angiography could be used to monitor new treatment regimens for reducing LSCI. Angiography could enable treatment to begin earlier to preserve corneal hemostasis. In addition, the fact that vascularization often starts at the subpalpebral 6 and 12 positions as opposed to the 3 and 9 positions raises more questions concerning factors that promote LSCI and related corneal injuries. Clin. Anat. 31:392-397, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The change of anterior segment parameters after cataract surgery in normal-tension glaucoma

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    Wonseok Lee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the change of anterior chamber angle morphology and intraocular pressure (IOP reduction after cataract surgery in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT. METHODS: This prospective, comparative, observational study recruited patients into two groups. Group 1 was the control group including normal subjects except those with cataracts (cataract group, n=67 eyes of 67 patients, and group 2 was NTG group including patients who were diagnosed with NTG and cataracts (n=43 eyes of 43 patients, which were treated with phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Before surgery, and at postoperative 1 and 6mo, anterior chamber angles were evaluated by SS-OCT under dark conditions using three-dimensional angle analysis scan protocol. Angle opening distance (AOD, angle recess area (ARA, and trabecular-iris surface area (TISA at four quadrants (temporal, nasal, superior, and inferior were calculated automatically by SS-OCT, after the observer marked scleral spurs. RESULTS: A total of 106 patients (54 males and 52 females were enrolled in the study. Angle parameters, AOD, ARA, and TISA were increased after surgery in both groups. However, changes of angle parameters were only significant in group 2. In group 2, preoperative IOP was 13.2±2.9 mm Hg, and postoperative IOP at 1 and 6mo were 10.5±3.0 and 10.7±2.8 mm Hg, respectively. In group 1, preoperative IOP was 12.4±2.8 mm Hg, and postoperative IOP at 1 and 6mo were 11.6±2.5 and 12.0±2.8 mm Hg, respectively. After cataract surgery, angle parameters changed significantly while IOP significantly reduced and was maintained in group 2 (P<0.001. The changes in angle parameters (ΔAOD500, ΔTISA500 at temporal; ΔAOD500, ΔARA500 at nasal were linearly correlated with postoperative IOP changes. CONCLUSION: Cataract surgery may have improved anterior chamber angle parameters and decreased IOP in NTG patients.

  14. Plateau Iris Configuration and Dark-Light Changes in Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulaganathan, Sekar; Ganeshrao, Shonraj Ballae; Baskaran, Mani; Srinivasan, Sangeetha; Shantha, Ballekudru; Vijaya, Lingam

    2010-03-09

    The angle opening distance (AOD) was analyzed using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) in dark-light conditions in 14 convex iris configuration (CIC) and 12 plateau iris configuration (PIC) patients. AOD500 measured in dark and bright conditions in nasal quadrants were 0.156 +/- 0.072 mum; 0.186 +/- 0.084 mum for CIC (P = .025) and 0.177 +/- 0.121 mum; 0.186 +/- 0.116 mum for PIC (P = .38). AOD750 in dark and bright conditions in nasal quadrants were 0.235 +/- 0.082 mum; 0.280 +/- 0.097 mum for CIC (P = .000) and 0.294 +/- 0.181 mum; 0.306 +/- 0.172 mum for PIC. PIC showed no significant difference in the dynamic changes, whereas the nasal quadrant in CIC showed significant changes. The AOD parameters from ASOCT can be used to analyze the dark-light changes of the anterior chamber angle to differentiate between CIC and PICs. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Evaluation of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Halil Hüseyin Çağatay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT in Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD. A patient who developed DMD after uneventful cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation is presented in this case report. At the follow-up examination after cataract surgery, slit-lamp evaluation showed stromal striae, but it was impossible to diagnose the DMD due to the corneal edema. ASOCT imaging of the cornea revealed a DMD, and the patient underwent intracameral air injection to the anterior chamber through the site which was identified as intact by ASOCT. Follow-up ASOCT imaging revealed the reattachment of the Descemet’s membrane and reduced corneal thickness. If DMD is suspected in any cases, ASOCT can be useful to document and follow the postsurgical detachment of DMD and also to determine the site, configuration, and extent of the DMD, thus guiding the treatment method and monitoring the treatment outcome. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 407-9

  16. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  17. Smooth pursuit eye movement preferentially facilitates motor-evoked potential elicited by anterior-posterior current in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraoka, Koichi; Ae, Minori; Ogura, Nana; Komuratani, Sayo; Sano, Chisa; Shiomi, Keigo; Morita, Yuji; Yokoyama, Haruka

    2014-03-26

    Neural interaction between the eye and hand movement centers must be a critical part of the mechanism underlying eye-hand coordination. One of the previous findings supporting this view is smooth pursuit eye movement-induced suppression of motor-evoked potential (MEP) in the hand muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine which descending volleys contributing to MEP are preferentially modulated by smooth pursuit eye movement. MEP in the first dorsal interosseous muscle was elicited by different directions of current in the brain during the steady-state phase of smooth pursuit eye movement. Smooth pursuit eye movement facilitated MEP elicited by anterior-posterior (AP) current, but this effect was not seen in MEP elicited by lateromedial or posterior-anterior current. Latency of MEP elicited by AP current was significantly longer than latencies of MEPs elicited by other directions of current, indicating that AP current in the brain predominantly elicited later I-waves. We conclude that smooth pursuit eye movement in the steady-state phase preferentially facilitates MEP predominantly elicited by later I-waves generated by AP current in the brain.

  18. Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography integrated into a slit lamp; a novel technique combining anterior and posterior segment OCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, M.; Verbraak, F. D.; de Vries, H.; Kok, P. H. B.; van Leeuwen, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) provides high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina and the anterior segment. It has become an important tool in ophthalmology in the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of important and common diseases. Present OCT imaging

  19. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental le fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blæhr, Tue Lindberg; Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe; Neumann-Jensen, Bjarne

    2014-07-01

    To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm) and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4°) (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°). Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm) and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5°) (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.

  20. Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Lindberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A or dismounted perioperatively (group B. Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results: Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4° (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°. Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5° (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°. There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. Conclusions: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.

  1. Correlation of the anterior ocular segment biometry with HbA1c level in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd-Rashid Suraida

    Full Text Available To compare the anterior ocular segment biometry among Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM with no diabetic retinopathy (DR and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR, and to evaluate the correlation of anterior ocular segment biometry with HbA1c level.A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan from November 2013 till May 2016 among Type 2 DM patients (DM with no DR and DM with NPDR. The patients were evaluated for anterior ocular segment biometry [central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber width (ACW, angle opening distance (AOD and anterior chamber angle (ACA] by using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT. Three ml venous blood was taken for the measurement of HbA1c.A total of 150 patients were included in this study (DM with no DR: 50 patients, DM with NPDR: 50 patients, non DM: 50 patients as a control group. The mean CCT and ACW showed significant difference among the three groups (p < 0.001 and p = 0.015 respectively. Based on post hoc result, there were significant mean difference of CCT between non DM and DM with NPDR (mean difference 36.14 μm, p < 0.001 and also between non DM and DM with no DR (mean difference 31.48 μm, p = 0.003. The ACW was significantly narrower in DM with NPDR (11.39 mm SD 0.62 compared to DM with no DR (11.76 mm SD 0.53 (p = 0.012. There were no significant correlation between HbA1c and all the anterior ocular segment biometry.Diabetic patients have significantly thicker CCT regardless of retinopathy status whereas ACW was significantly narrower in DM with NPDR group compared to DM with no DR. There was no significant correlations between HbA1c and all anterior ocular segment biometry in diabetic patients regardless of DR status.

  2. Smartphone Imaging in Ophthalmology: A Comparison with Traditional Methods on the Reproducibility and Usability for Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, David Zy; Tan, Clement Wt

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the reproducibility and usability of anterior segment images taken from a smartphone stabilised on a slit-lamp with those taken from a custom-mounted slit-lamp camera. This was a prospective, single- blind comparative digital imaging validation study. Digital photographs of patients with cataract were taken using a smartphone camera (an iPhone 5) on a telescopic mount and a Canon EOS 10D anterior segment camera. Images were graded and compared according to the Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III). A total of 440 anterior segment images were graded independently by 2 ophthalmologists, 2 residents and 2 medical students. Intraclass correlation (ICC) between the iPhone and anterior segment camera images were fair for nuclear opalescence (NO) and nuclear colour (NC), and excellent for cortical (C) and posterior subcapsular (PSC) (NO: ICC 0.40, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.57; NC: ICC 0.47, 95% CI, 0.16 to 0.66; C: ICC 0.76, 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.81; PSC: ICC 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.85). There was no difference in grader impression of confidence and images usability between both cameras (P = 0.66 and P = 0.58, respectively). Anterior segment images taken from an iPhone have good reproducibility for retro-illuminated images, but fair reproducibility for NO and NC under low light settings. There were no differences in grader confidence and subjective image suitability.

  3. Cervical arthroplasty versus anterior cervical fusion for symptomatic adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical fusion surgery: Review of treatment in 41 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Cho, Kyoung-Suok

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy and safety of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and cervical total disc replacement (CTDR) as revision surgeries for symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) in cases with previous ACDF. Between 2010 and 2014, 41 patients with previous cervical fusion surgery underwent ACDF or CTDR for symptomatic ASD. Twenty-two patients in the ACDF group underwent 26 ACDFs, and 19 patients in the CTDR group underwent 25 arthroplasties for symptomatic ASD. Clinical outcomes were assessed by a visual analogue scale (VAS) for arm pain, the neck disability index (NDI) and Odom's criteria. Radiological evaluations were performed preoperatively and postoperatively to measure changes in the range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spine and adjacent segments and arthroplasty level. The radiological change of ASD was assessed in radiographs. Clinical outcomes as assessed with VAS for arm pain and Odom's criteria were significantly improved in both groups. The CTDR group showed better NDI improvement after surgery (Padjacent segment between the ACDF and CTDR groups (Padjacent segment compared with the CTDR group (Padjacent segment, and a lower incidence of adjacent segment degeneration than did the ACDF group. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Dual versus single Scheimpflug camera for anterior segment analysis: Precision and agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramberri, Jaime; Araiz, Luis; Garcia, Ane; Illarramendi, Igor; Olmos, Jaione; Oyanarte, Izaskun; Romay, Amaya; Vigara, Itxaso

    2012-11-01

    To assess the repeatability, reproducibility, and agreement of the Pentacam HR single-camera and Galilei G2 dual-camera Scheimpflug devices in anterior segment analysis. Begitek Clínica Oftalmológica, San Sebastián, Spain. Prospective randomized observational study. Healthy young individuals had 3 consecutive tests by 2 examiners. Analyzed parameters were anterior and posterior cornea simulated keratometry (K), K flat, K steep, astigmatism magnitude and axis, J(0) and J(45) vectors, asphericity, total corneal higher-order wavefront aberrations (root mean square [RMS], coma, trefoil, spherical aberration), central cornea and thinnest-point thicknesses, and anterior chamber depth. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (S(w)), some derived coefficients, and the intraclass correlation coefficient. Agreement was assessed with the Bland-Altman method. The single-camera device reproducibility (S(w)) was simulated K, 0.04 diopter (D); J(0), 0.03 D; J(45), 0.04 D; total power, 0.04 D; spherical aberration, 0.02 μm; higher-order aberrations (HOAs), 0.02 μm; central corneal thickness (CCT), 3.39 μm. The dual-camera device S(w) was simulated K, 0.07 D; J(0), 0.13 D; J(45), 0.04 D; total power, 0.08 D; spherical aberration, 0.02 μm; HOAs, 0.11 μm; CCT, 1.36 μm. Agreement was good for most parameters except total corneal power (mean difference 1.58 D ± 0.22 (SD) and HOA RMS (mean difference 0.48 ± 0.19 μm) (both PAramberri is consultant to Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Firenze, Italy. No other author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2012 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. ["En face" anterior segment optical coherence tomography findings in acute corneal hydrops].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallel, S; Tahiri Joutei Hassani, R; Liang, H; Baudouin, C; Labbé, A

    2014-10-01

    To study the corneal morphological characteristics of acute hydrops by analyzing anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) "en face" images. Four patients presenting with acute hydrops were examined at different stages, respectively after 1 day, 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 months. All patients had a complete ophthalmic evaluation including "en face" AS-OCT examination. In vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and histological analysis of the cornea obtained after penetrating keratoplasty were also performed in one patient. The "en face" AS-OCT showed that the early edema in acute hydrops corresponded to multiple epithelial microcysts associated with large intra-stromal lacunae. We also observed that, in association with the disappearance of the microcysts and lacunae, "en face" OCT demonstrated subepithelial scars in the form of weakly reflective, fine, interlaced linear opacities. These opacities subsequently increased in thickness resulting in a dense subepithelial network. These findings were consistent with the results of histological and IVCM studies. "En face" AS-OCT allows for precise study of the tissue changes occurring in acute corneal hydrops. Besides a better understanding of this rare complication of keratoconus, this new imaging technique may help clinicians to identify the corneal structural changes, which place keratoconus patients at risk of corneal hydrops. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of sleep deprivation on the performance of simulated anterior segment surgical skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erie, Elizabeth A; Mahr, Michael A; Hodge, David O; Erie, Jay C

    2011-02-01

    To measure the effect, using a computer simulator, of acute sleep deprivation on the performance of simulated anterior segment surgery skill. Prospective, non-randomized interventional study. Nine ophthalmology residents (3 residents each from post-graduate years 2, 3, and 4). Nine ophthalmology residents were tested on the Eyesi surgical simulator on 3 occasions; pre-call or rested (≥ 7 hours of sleep in previous 24 hours), post-work (8 hour work day and ≥ 7 hours sleep in previous 24 hours), and post-call or sleep-deprived (sleep in previous 24 hours). Residents were tested using the Eyesi forceps module and antitremor module. Level of sleepiness was assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Differences were compared using a 3-factor repeated-measure analysis of variance to account for multiple comparisons. Compared with pre-call and post-work, post-call residents had significantly less sleep in the previous 24 hours (p technical performance using the antitremor module in pre-call (85 ± 21 points), post-work (80 ± 24 points), and post-call (81 ± 27 points; p = 0.51) residents or using the forceps module in pre-call (99 ± 1 points), post-work (98 ± 4 points), and post-call (98 ± 5 points; p = 0.11) residents. Acute sleep deprivation had no detectable impact on the performance of selected surgical task outcome measures when tested using the Eyesi surgical simulator.

  7. A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of the Adjacent Segment Parameters in Cervical Disk Arthroplasty Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Wang, Dongqi; Chen, Xiujin; Liu, Tuanjing; Xu, Zhengwei; Tan, Mingsheng; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-06-15

    This is a meta-analysis of controlled trials. To assess the overall condition of adjacent segment of cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). With the increase in CDA and ACDF, surgeons are taking more attention to adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDis). There are more and more meta-analyses comparing the efficacy of CDA with ACDF, however, there are few meta-analyses referring to adjacent segment parameters, and investigators are still unable to arrive at the same conclusion. Several important databases were searched for controlled trials comparing CDA and ACDF before February 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines. The analysis parameters included follow-up time, operative segments, cervical range of motion (ROM), adjacent segment motion, ASDeg, ASDis and adjacent segment reoperation. The risk of bias scale and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale were used to assess the papers. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to analyze the reason for high heterogeneity. Forty-one controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, including 36 English papers and 5 Chinese. The average follow-up time of all included patients was 39 months. Compared with ACDF, the rate of adjacent segment reoperation in the CDA group was significantly lower (P0.05). CDA provided a greater cervical ROM than did ACDF (Padjacent segment ROM and the rate of ASDis in CDA compared with ACDF (Padjacent segment reoperation and adjacent segment motion; and higher cervical ROM. However, there was no statistical difference between upper and lower adjacent segment ROM/ASDeg using the same surgery.

  8. Spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation following routine annual eye examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joshua R; Werner, Liliana; Owen, Leah; Vasavada, Shail A; Crandall, Alan

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in whom spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation was diagnosed following a routine dilated examination that demonstrated only mild pseudophacodonesis with no evidence of subluxation. Uneventful cataract surgery with placement of single-piece hydrophobic acrylic posterior chamber IOLs had been performed in both eyes 7 years previously. Bilateral IOL repositioning with scleral fixation was performed to correct the dislocation. Postoperative examinations showed remarkable improvement in visual acuity and IOL stability. We hypothesize that zonular weakness secondary to PXF predisposed the patient to bilateral IOL partial dislocation. Pupil dilation in the setting of mild pseudophacodonesis at the time of routine examination may have been a precipitating factor. To our knowledge, bilateral IOL subluxation/dislocation has been described in a limited number of case reports. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Width of anterior chamber angle determined by OCT, and correlation to refraction and age in a German working population: the MIPH Eye&Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossmerbaeumer, Urs; Schuster, Alexander K; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-12-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the anterior segment allows quantitative analysis of the geometry of the chamber angle. We performed bilateral spectral-domain OCT measurements in healthy, emmetropic, hyperopic, and myopic subjects to establish correlations between the width of the angle, the refraction, and intraocular pressure of the test persons. Out of 4,617 eyes (2,309 subjects), those with refractive errors of  +3 diopters were identified by objective refraction measurement (KR-8800 Kerato-Refractometer, Topcon Inc., Japan) and examined using the anterior segment mode of a spectral-domain 3D OCT-2000 (Topcon Inc., Japan). Non-contact tonometry was performed (CT-80, Topcon Inc., Japan). One hundred and eight eyes of 54 emmetropic subjects (± 0.5 dpt) served as reference group. Previous ocular surgery was exclusion criterion in all groups. Width of the chamber angle was determined using semi-automated software tools and statistical analysis of the data (Pearson correlation, ANOVA with post-hoc test and Bonferroni correction, regression analysis) was performed using SPSS software (SPSS 19.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Six hundred and sixty-eight eyes of 398 persons (292 male, 96 female) were included in the study. Mean hyperopic refraction was +4.24 (+3  to +7.75) dpt, mean myopic refraction was -5.86 (-4 to -11.75) dpt. Valid chamber angle OCT measurements could be obtained from 50 (69.4 %) hyperopic and 400 (71.4 %) myopic eyes meeting the inclusion criteria. The mean width of the chamber angle was determined as 31.8° (range: 13.5 to 45.6, SD 7.49) in the hyperopic group, 40.8° (range: 19.3 to 66.0, SD 8.1) in the myopic group, and 36.3° (range: 21.1 to 51.8, SD 6.8) in the emmetropic reference group. Correlation was highly significant (p > 0.001) between refractive error and the aperture of the chamber angle as measured from OCT. The association of the intraocular pressure and the refraction was also highly significant (p > 0.001) for the three groups

  10. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with placido-disc keratoscopy, slit scanning evaluation topography and scheimpflug imaging tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raul

    2018-01-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple and several devices and technologies allow to explore and to manage patients. The purpose of this special issue is to present and also to update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface and this second part, reviews a description of the corneal topography and tomography techniques, providing updated information of the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Placido-based topographers started an exciting anterior corneal surface analysis that allows the development of current corneal tomographers that provide a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea including elevation, curvature, and pachymetry data of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Although, there is not an accepted reference standard technology for corneal topography description and it is not possible to determine which device produces the most accurate topographic measurements, placido-based topographers are a valuable technology to be used in primary eye care and corneal tomograhers expanding the possibilities to explore cornea and anterior eye facilitating diagnosis and follow-up in several situations, raising patient follow-up, and improving the knowledge regarding to the corneal anatomy. Main disadvantages of placido-based topographers include the absence of information about the posterior corneal surface and limited corneal surface coverage without data from the para-central and/or peripheral corneal surface. However, corneal tomographers show repeatable anterior and posterior corneal surfaces measurements, providing full corneal thickness data improving cornea, and anterior surface assessment. However, differences between devices suggest that they are not interchangeable in clinical practice. PMID:29480244

  11. Sagittal alignment as a predictor of clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery after anterior cervical arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Kelly, Michael P; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Woo-Kie; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Riew, K Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Postoperative malalignment of the cervical spine may alter cervical spine mechanics and put patients at risk for clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery. To investigate whether a relationship exists between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery (CASP-S) following anterior cervical fusion (ACF). Retrospective matched study. A total of 122 patients undergoing ACF between 1996 and 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior end plate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. A total of 122 patients undergoing ACF between 1996 and 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 1 year of follow-up. Patients were divided into groups according to the development of CASP (control/CASP-S) and by number/location of levels fused. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior end plate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to calculate relationships between the variables and the development of CASP-S. No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related directly or indirectly to the subject of this article. The groups were similar with regard to

  12. Adjacent segment pathology following anterior decompression and fusion using cage and plate for the treatment of degenerative cervical spinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study. To analyze the incidence and prevalence of clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP) following anterior decompression and fusion with cage and plate augmentation for degenerative cervical diseases. No long-term data on the use of cage and plate augmentation have been reported. The study population consisted of 231 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cage and plate for degenerative cervical spinal disease. The incidence and prevalence of CASP was determined by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. To analyze the factors that influence CASP, data on preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, the distance between the plate and adjacent disc, extent of fusion level, and the presence or absence of adjacent segment degenerative changes by imaging studies were evaluated. CASP occurred in 15 of the cases, of which 9 required additional surgery. At 8-year follow-up, the average yearly incidence was 1.1%. The rate of disease-free survival based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 93.6% at 5 years and 90.2% at 8 years. No statistically significant differences in CASP incidence based on radiological analysis were observed. Significantly high incidence of CASP was observed in the presence of increased adjacent segment degenerative changes (pdegenerative cervical disease is associated with a lower incidence in CSAP by 1.1% per year, and the extent of preoperative adjacent segment degenerative changes has been shown as a risk factor for CASP.

  13. Word segmentation by alternating colors facilitates eye guidance in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Aiping; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2018-02-12

    During sentence reading, low spatial frequency information afforded by spaces between words is the primary factor for eye guidance in spaced writing systems, whereas saccade generation for unspaced writing systems is less clear and under debate. In the present study, we investigated whether word-boundary information, provided by alternating colors (consistent or inconsistent with word-boundary information) influences saccade-target selection in Chinese. In Experiment 1, as compared to a baseline (i.e., uniform color) condition, word segmentation with alternating color shifted fixation location towards the center of words. In contrast, incorrect word segmentation shifted fixation location towards the beginning of words. In Experiment 2, we used a gaze-contingent paradigm to restrict the color manipulation only to the upcoming parafoveal words and replicated the results, including fixation location effects, as observed in Experiment 1. These results indicate that Chinese readers are capable of making use of parafoveal word-boundary knowledge for saccade generation, even if such information is unfamiliar to them. The present study provides novel support for the hypothesis that word segmentation is involved in the decision about where to fixate next during Chinese reading.

  14. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Incidence and clinical outcomes of patients requiring anterior versus posterior repeat cervical fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydon, Mohamad; Xu, Risheng; De la Garza-Ramos, Rafael; Macki, Mohamed; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul; Witham, Timothy F; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is a well-recognized long-term outcome in patients with degenerative disease of the spine. In this manuscript, we focus on the development in ASD in patients who have undergone a prior anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Patient data were collected via clinical notes and patient interviews. Patients were followed for an average of 92.4 ± 72.6 months after the index ACDF. Of the 108 patients who underwent revision surgery due to symptomatic ASD, 77 patients underwent re-do ACDF, while 31 patients had posterior fusion surgery. Patients were more likely to be operated on posteriorly if they were older (P = 0.0115), male (P = 0.006), or had a higher number of cervical vertebral segments fused during the index ACDF (P = 0.013). These patients were statistically also more likely to exhibit myelopathic symptoms (P = 0.0053), and usually had worse neurologic function as assessed on the Nurick (P = 0.0005) and ASIA scales (P = 0.0020). Postoperatively, patients receiving anterior revision surgeries had higher rates of recurrent radiculopathy (P = 0.0425) and higher recurrence of ASD compared with patients fused posteriorly (P < 0.0001). Patients undergoing an anterior revision surgery for ASD after ACDF have higher rates of postoperative radiculopathy and redevelopment of ASD when compared with posteriorly approached patients. Patients receiving posterior revision surgery had higher intraoperative blood loss, hospitalizations, and postoperative complications such as wound infections and discharge to rehabilitation, but had a statistically lower chance of redevelopment of ASD requiring secondary revision surgery. This may be due to the fact that posterior revision surgeries involved more levels fused. This study provides one of the longest and most comprehensive follow-ups of this challenging patient population. Prospective studies comparing surgical approaches and techniques are needed to corroborate our findings.

  16. Double-segment Wilhelm Tell technique for anterior lumbar interbody fusion in unstable isthmic spondylolisthesis and adjacent segment discopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Markus; Vogt, Emanuel; Markwalder, Thomas-Marc

    2006-02-01

    The Wilhelm Tell technique is a novel instrumented anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) procedure using a specially designed composite carbon fibre cage and a single short-threaded cancellous screw that obliquely passes through the upper adjacent vertebral body, the interbody cage itself and through the lower adjacent vertebral body. This single-stage fusion method, which is in principle a combination of the Louis technique and modern cage surgery, is reported to have a lower rate of pseudoarthrosis formation than stand-alone cage techniques. In addition, it eliminates both the surgical trauma of paravertebral muscle retraction and the risk of neural damage by poorly located pedicular screws. This anterior approach allows decompression of neural structures within the anterior part of the spinal canal and the foraminal region. It is the purpose of this case report, to present the successful application of this novel technique in a 32-year-old woman who concurrently suffered from severe instability-related back pain from L4/5 isthmic spondylolisthesis and marked L5/S1 degenerative disc disease.

  17. Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potsaid, Benjamin; Baumann, Bernhard; Huang, David; Barry, Scott; Cable, Alex E; Schuman, Joel S; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2010-09-13

    We demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging using a short cavity swept laser at 100,000 - 400,000 axial scan rates. Several design configurations illustrate tradeoffs in imaging speed, sensitivity, axial resolution, and imaging depth. Variable rate A/D optical clocking is used to acquire linear-in-k OCT fringe data at 100 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution in tissue. Fixed rate sampling at 1 GSPS achieves a 7.5mm imaging range in tissue with 6.0 um axial resolution at 100 kHz axial scan rate. A 200 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution over 4mm imaging range is achieved by buffering the laser sweep. Dual spot OCT using two parallel interferometers achieves 400 kHz axial scan rate, almost 2X faster than previous 1050 nm ophthalmic results and 20X faster than current commercial instruments. Superior sensitivity roll-off performance is shown. Imaging is demonstrated in the human retina and anterior segment. Wide field 12x12 mm data sets include the macula and optic nerve head. Small area, high density imaging shows individual cone photoreceptors. The 7.5 mm imaging range configuration can show the cornea, iris, and anterior lens in a single image. These improvements in imaging speed and depth range provide important advantages for ophthalmic imaging. The ability to rapidly acquire 3D-OCT data over a wide field of view promises to simplify examination protocols. The ability to image fine structures can provide detailed information on focal pathologies. The large imaging range and improved image penetration at 1050 m wavelengths promises to improve performance for instrumentation which images both the retina and anterior eye. These advantages suggest that swept source OCT at 1050 nm wavelengths will play an important role in future ophthalmic instrumentation.

  18. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease after single-lever anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hong-Tao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing-Tao; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) following single-lever anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical degenerative diseases. From January 2000 to December 2010, a total of 582 patients with cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy who had undergone single-lever ACDF surgery in the authors’ institution were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had a revision surgery for symptomatic ASD were selected for this study. The authors analyzed the incidence for ASD after single-lever ACDF. And univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors of ASD. Among the 582 patients, 36 patients received subsequent surgical management for ASD after initial single-lever ACDF for an overall prevalence of 6.2%. The average onset time of ASD was 8.5 (2–15) years. The univariate analysis showed that there were no significant differences in sex, duration of disease, BMI, DM, smoking, operative levels, and follow-up period (P > .05) between the 2 groups with and without ASD. There were statistically significant differences in age at the time of operation (χ2 = 4.361, P = .037), and developmental canal stenosis (χ2 = 4.181, P = .041) between patients with and without ASD. The variables of age at the time of operation and developmental canal stenosis were included in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of operation ≤50 years (P = .045, OR = 3.015, 95% CI = 1.024–8.882) and developmental canal stenosis (P = .042, OR = 2.797, 95% CI = 1.039–7.527) were the risk factors for ASD after single-lever ACDF. In the present study, the incidence of symptomatic ASD after single-lever ACDF was 6.2%. And the age at the time of operation ≤50 years and developmental canal stenosis were the risk factors for ASD. The patients ≤50 years old at

  19. The allergic eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several non-infective inflammatory conditions presenting as hypersensitivity reactions may be associated with clinical manifestations of ocular allergy.[2] Typically the anterior segment of the eye is affected, and all four types of hypersensitivity reactions may be involved; either as a single cause, or as an overlap between the ...

  20. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd; Olson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than...

  1. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    with secondary anterior segment alterations. Data collected from the charts were: age, gender, kind of allergy, time of disease, time that complication appeared after treatment in our Service, side effects and ocular complications. RESULTS: Complications of anterior segment that caused reduction in visual acuity were: shield ulcers, 5 cases; cataract, 3 cases; corneal opacity, 6 cases; ocular perforation, 2 cases and keratoconus 13 cases. There were 7 surgeries: 2 tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, 4 optic keratoplasty, 4 optic penetrating keratoplasty and one superficial keratectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis should be treated in order to prevent ocular complications like keratitis, keratoconus, opacities and cataract.

  2. Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS, after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.

  3. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

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    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  4. The Use of Topical Tacrolimus 0.1% Skin Ointment for Anterior Segment Conditions: A Case Series

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    Poorna Abeysiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tacrolimus (FK 506 is a macrolactam derivative with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity. Topical tacrolimus 0.03% has been used for inflammatory conditions of the anterior segment. This article adds to the literature on the off-license application of tacrolimus ointment, by describing the safe and effective use of the higher strength of 0.1% topical tacrolimus skin ointment in four patients. To our knowledge this is the first report of topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment applied to the conjunctival sac for the treatment of atopic keratoconjunctivitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and the post-operative management of trabeculectomy and graft rejection in steroid responders.

  5. Cystercercus larva in the anterior chamber of the eye of a 7year o

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    (Hymenolepsis), and fish (Diphyllobothrium spp), and from fleas on dogs and cats (D. craninum). 1. The larva migrates to various parts of the body through the ... a private hospital with a one-week history of pain, redness and reduced vision in the left eye. There was background history of minor trauma to the eye when she ...

  6. Rescue of an extending capsulorrhexis by creating a midway tangential anterior capsular flap: a novel technique in 22 eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadpour, Mehrdad

    2010-06-01

    To show how an extending capsulorrhexis can be rescued by a midway tangential capsular flap in order to achieve an uneventful phacoemulsification. Consecutive case series. Twenty-two eyes of 22 patients with extending capsulorrhexis treated at the Farabi Eye Hospital, Tehran. First, a tangential capsular opening was created on the border of the presumed continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis just midway between the beginning of the capsulorrhexis and the edge of the extending capsulorrhexis, to make a tangential flap of the anterior capsule. Second, the centre of this new flap was grasped and pulled centripetally until the edges of the new flap joined the edges of the extending flap to complete the capsulorrhexis. The technique was successfully performed in all cases, leading to an uneventful phacoemulsification. Midway tangential capsular flap is a safe and effective technique to rescue an extending capsulorrhexis and leads to an uneventful phacoemulsification.

  7. Effects of a Schlemm canal scaffold on collector channel ostia in human anterior segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Murray A; Saheb, Hady; Ahmed, Iqbal Ike K; Samuelson, Thomas W; Schieber, Andrew T; Toris, Carol B

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluates the morphologic effect of the implantation of two different sizes of the Hydrus microstent on the outer wall of Schlemm's canal (SC) and collector channel (CC) ostia. Twelve human eyes were dissected at the equator removing the iris, lens, ciliary body and vitreous. The cornea was excised with a corneal trephine exposing a direct view of the angle while leaving the trabecular meshwork (TM) intact. The Hydrus delivery system was used to deliver microstents of 8 mm and 15 mm in length into SC. Following delivery, the tissues were immediately immersed in fixative. After tissue fixation, the microstents were gently lifted out of SC through the TM leaving a small slit opening in the TM. The slit opening was widened by gently dissecting the entire TM. Control eyes underwent dissection before fixation by gently removing the TM exposing the outer wall of SC. The tissues were prepared for scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The external wall of SC was imaged using SEM and were reviewed with particular attention focused on the distribution of irregular particulate matter (IPM), the shape of the CC ostia and the health of the SC endothelium. Three eyes received the 8 mm microstent, two the 15 mm microstent and 6 eyes served as controls. Five of the controls had reported histories of glaucoma while all other eyes were normal. All eyes showed evidence of removal of the trabecular meshwork revealing the external wall of SC. CCs were regularly visible in all eyes and were not obstructed, compressed or their margins disrupted. Nuclear profiles were oriented circumferentially in SC except at regions of CC ostia where they assumed a radial configuration oriented toward the lumen of the CC. The area of microstent contact with SC external wall was examined with SEM and a comparison made between the 8 and 15 mm microstent showing a smaller area of indentation with the 8 mm microstent. The indentations were generally free of particulate debris, were smooth and

  8. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

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    Jeroni Nadal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p=0.015 at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60. Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%, vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%, transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%, and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%. No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  9. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Kudsieh, Bachar; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p = 0.015) at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60). Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%), vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%), transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%), and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%). No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  10. Risk factors for non-fusion segment disease after anterior cervical spondylosis surgery: a retrospective study with long-term follow-up of 171 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziqiang; Zhou, Liangliang; Lin, Bin; Song, Keran; Niu, Qinghe; Ren, Dongfeng; Tang, Jiaguang

    2018-02-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and causes of non-fusion segment disease (NFSD), both adjacent and non-adjacent to a fused segment, after anterior cervical arthrodesis. This is a single-center study. Between January 1998 and January 2011, two surgeons' 171 patients who had an anterior cervical decompression and fusion were followed clinically for more than 5 years. The correlation between the incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease and the following clinical parameters (age at operation, fusion levels,) and radiological parameters (number of patients who had a plate, anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) or corpectomies, preoperative and postoperative cervical spine alignment, Pavlov's ratio at the C5 level, and preoperative existence of a non-fusion segment degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging) was evaluated. Of the 171 patients reviewed, 16 patients had non-fusion segment disease (9.36%), of which 12 had adjacent segment disease and 4 had non-adjacent segment disease. Postoperative cervical lordosis in the non-fusion segment disease group was significantly smaller than that of the disease-free group (P Fusion levels in the NFSD group were 1.69 whereas 2.26 in disease-free group (P = 0.005). The incidences of disc degeneration in unfused segments was more severe in the NFSD group than in the disease-free group (P = 0.004). The results of binary logistic regression showed that the major factor affecting NFSD is postoperative cervical lordosis (P = 0.000) followed by disc degeneration (P = 0.024). The other parameters did not show a statistically significant difference. The incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease after anterior cervical arthrodesis has multifactorial causes. Postoperative cervical lordosis and disc degeneration in non-fusion segments were major factors in the incidence of NFSD.

  11. The effect of pharmacologic pupillary dilatation on anterior segment parameters in patients with exfoliation syndrome

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    Mehmet Cem Mocan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Pupillary dilatation with a single drop of 1.0% cyclopentolate, 2.5% phenylephrine or 1% tropicamide is not associated with shallowing of the anterior chamber or narrowing of the ACA in patients with XFS who present with open angles.

  12. Early Clinical Features of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Anterior Segment and Gonioscopy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Bayer, Atilla; Akman, Ahmet; Asena, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. Materials and Methods: Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. Results: Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years). Twenty-five patients (73.5%) had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6%) had Sampaolesi’s line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes. The other most common findings were loss of peripupillary ruff in 10 patients (29.4%) and pigment dispersion following pupil dilation in 14 patients (41.1%). Conclusion: Pigmentation in the inferior angle and Sampaolesi’s line on the inferior angle seem to be the most common early findings associated with PEX. Special attention should be paid to these findings in cases with ocular hypertension for proper management. PMID:28182171

  13. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  14. Cystercercus larva in the anterior chamber of the eye of a 7year o

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    infestation should be considered when children present with features of ocular inflammation. INTRODUCTION ... dogs (T. solium, Echinococcus), cows (T. saginata), rodents. (Hymenolepsis), and fish (Diphyllobothrium ... infestation while involvement of the anterior chamber is said to be unusual. 2,3. Symptoms of ocular ...

  15. The change of adjacent segment after cervical disc arthroplasty compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Xu, Zhengwei; Chen, Xiujin; Wang, Dongqi; Li, Dichen; Liu, Tuanjing; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-10-01

    Many meta-analyses have been performed to study the efficacy of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF); however, there are few data referring to adjacent segment within these meta-analyses, or investigators are unable to arrive at the same conclusion in the few meta-analyses about adjacent segment. With the increased concerns surrounding adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDis) after anterior cervical surgery, it is necessary to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to analyze adjacent segment parameters. To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to elaborate adjacent segment motion, degeneration, disease, and reoperation of CDA compared with ACDF. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs comparing CDA and ACDF before May 2016. The analysis parameters included follow-up time, operative segments, adjacent segment motion, ASDeg, ASDis, and adjacent segment reoperation. The risk of bias scale was used to assess the papers. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to analyze the reason for high heterogeneity. Twenty-nine RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Compared with ACDF, the rate of adjacent segment reoperation in the CDA group was significantly lower (padjacent segment reoperation increases with increasing follow-up time by subgroup analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in ASDeg between CDA and ACDF within the 24-month follow-up period; however, the rate of ASDeg in CDA was significantly lower than that of ACDF with the increase in follow-up time (p.05). Cervical disc arthroplasty provided a lower adjacent segment range of motion (ROM) than did ACDF, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with ACDF, the advantages of CDA were lower ASDeg and adjacent segment reoperation. However, there was no statistically significant difference in ASDis and

  16. Sporadic lower motor neuron disease with a snake eyes appearance on the cervical anterior horns by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2015-09-01

    Lower motor neuron disease (LMND) is the term generally used to describe diseases in which only lower motor neuron signs are detected. A snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions including LMND. The author reports on three unique LMND patients with upper limb muscle weakness and atrophy who show a snake eyes appearance by MRI. The patients were aged 18, 40 and 52 years, respectively, at the onset of the disease and had a longstanding clinical course (more than 10 years for two patients and 8 years for one patient). They were followed up for more than 6 years. Clinical manifestations were characterized by (1) longstanding slow progression or delayed spontaneous arrest of asymmetric lower motor neuron signs localized exclusively in the upper extremities with unilateral predominance and distal or proximal preponderance; (2) the absence of upper motor neuron signs, bulbar signs, sensory disturbances and respiratory involvement; (3) a snake eyes appearance on the anterior horns of the cervical cord over more than 3 vertebrae by axial T2-weighted MRI and a longitudinal linear-shaped T2-signal hyperintensity by sagittal MRI; (4) neurogenic change with fasciculation and denervation potentials (fibrillation and a positive sharp wave) confined to the affected muscles by needle electromyogram; and (5) normal cerebrospinal fluid and a normal creatine kinase level. These cases did not fall into any existing category of LMND, such as progressive muscular atrophy, flail arm syndrome or Hirayama disease. These patients should be classified as sporadic LMND with snake eyes on MRI with a relatively benign prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A new and general approach to signal denoising and eye movement classification based on segmented linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Jami; Lappi, Otto

    2017-12-18

    We introduce a conceptually novel method for eye-movement signal analysis. The method is general in that it does not place severe restrictions on sampling frequency, measurement noise or subject behavior. Event identification is based on segmentation that simultaneously denoises the signal and determines event boundaries. The full gaze position time-series is segmented into an approximately optimal piecewise linear function in O(n) time. Gaze feature parameters for classification into fixations, saccades, smooth pursuits and post-saccadic oscillations are derived from human labeling in a data-driven manner. The range of oculomotor events identified and the powerful denoising performance make the method useable for both low-noise controlled laboratory settings and high-noise complex field experiments. This is desirable for harmonizing the gaze behavior (in the wild) and oculomotor event identification (in the laboratory) approaches to eye movement behavior. Denoising and classification performance are assessed using multiple datasets. Full open source implementation is included.

  18. Different surgical approaches for the treatment of adjacent segment diseases after anterior cervical fusion: A retrospective study of 49 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wang, Peng; Miao, De-Chao; Du, Wei; Shen, Yong

    2017-06-01

    Studies in the literature have not delineated the surgical approaches of symptomatic adjacent segment diseases (ASDs) in patients undergoing reoperation after an initial anterior cervical fusion (ACF). The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal surgical approaches of ASD and the incidence of the dysphagia after reoperation.This was a retrospective study of 49 patients with ASD after an initial ACF surgery, which had undergone a reoperation at our medical center between January 2010 and December 2014. The surgical approaches were used by anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF), ACDF with the Zero-profile device, laminoplasty, and laminectomy with internal fixation. Patients were classified according to the different surgical approaches of anterior (n = 38) versus posterior (n = 11) groups and ACDF (n = 25) versus Zero-P (n = 13) groups. Clinical evaluations were performed preoperatively and repeated in 24 months after operation.This retrospective study included 26 men and 23 women with a mean age at revision surgery of 54.3 years and ASD onset time of 7.3 years. The patients were followed up with an average of 4.1 years. The reoperation rate was 5.4% in this study. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores demonstrated significant improvements compared with preoperative in both anterior and posterior groups (P  .05). The operation time of ACDF group was more than Zero-P group, with significant differences (P  .05). A total of 12 (24.5%) patients had dysphagia after reoperation. The incidence of dysphagia in Zero-P group (1/13) was less than ACDF group (11/25), with significant differences (P < .05). There were no cases of major neurological or vascular complications, and wound complications.The clinical situation, initial operation, and secondary preoperative imaging findings were analyzed comprehensively, anterior or posterior approach were chosen, which

  19. Artificial Cervical Disk Replacement for the Treatment of Adjacent Segment Disease After Anterior Cervical Decompression and Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Sheng; Xiangwang, Huang; Sheng, Xiao; Tiecheng, Xiang; Xiangyang, Liu; Yi, Zhang; Bin, Liu

    2017-06-01

    Retrospective study. To evaluate the outcome of artificial cervical disk replacement (ACDR) for the treatment of adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). ACDF is the useful procedure for degenerative cervical diseases. However, studies have reported accelerated degeneration of functional spinal units adjacent to the fusion site after ACDF. Between January 2004 and January 2011, 32 inpatients (18 male, 14 female; age, 38-61 y; mean, 48 y) underwent ACDR for the treatment of ASD after previous ACDF (single-level: n=12; 2-level: n=15; 3-level: n=5). In 22 patients, ASD occurred above the fusion site, and in 10 it occurred below the site. After ACDR, the patients were followed up for 30-62 months (mean, 49 mo). Before and after ACDR, patients were evaluated using the pain visual analog scale (VAS), the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score, and neck disability index (NDI). In addition, the range of motion (ROM) of the replaced and adjacent unfused segments was measured by flexion/extension lateral radiography. Periprosthetic heterotopic ossification was detected using McAfee's classification. Degeneration of the adjacent unfused segment was evaluated using Goffin scale. All patients had successful surgery. Before ACDR, neck VAS, upper-limb VAS, JOA score, and NDI were 7.2±1.8, 6.9±1.1, 9.8±2.5, and 40.5±4.8, respectively. At the last follow-up, they were 1.2±0.3, 0.9±0.3, 14.5±1.1, and 9.0±2.5, respectively. Compared with presurgery, the improvements in VAS, JOA score, and NDI at the final follow-up were statistically significant (all P0.05). At the last follow-up, 2 patients had grade II heterotopic ossification; 3 patients had aggravated degeneration (vs. preoperative status) of the adjacent unfused segment. However, the reduction in Goffin grade was not statistically significant. Our follow-up shows that ACDR is an effective treatment for post-ACDF ASD. It can maintain the ROMs of the replaced segment as

  20. A Clinical Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Orthodontics in the Retraction of Maxillary Anterior Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagam Manjunatha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics has been practising for longer periods, but a novel approach of a periapical incision to make horizontal cuts 5 mm above the apex of the maxillary anteriors along with vertical cuts requires a detailed investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of skeletal cases with spacing in the anteriors using a novel method of modified surgical approach utilizing the corticotomy facilitated orthodontics. Patients for this study were randomly selected from a very intensive screening in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, out of which seven patients were selected for this procedure. The patients were subjected for corticotomy procedure under local anesthesia after the leveling and aligning stage (0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel wire, and the retraction was continued still the space was closed. AutoCAD and palatal rugae assessment programs were used to assess the orthodontic tooth movement. The results of the study demonstrated that when compared to conventional orthodontics alone, the corticotomy facilitated approach produced faster tooth movements in all the seven patients reducing the overall treatment time by 60%. The use of this modified technique of labial, palatal and apical cuts could be beneficial for adult patients with difficult surgical access from the lingual side.

  1. Genotype and Anterior Segment Phenotype in a Cohort of Turkish Patients with Lamellar Ichthyosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Melis; Onay, Huseyin; Ertam, Ilgen; Ates, Esra Arslan; Dereli, Tugrul; Ozkinay, Ferda; Yagci, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the ocular surface and topography findings of lamellar ichthyosis, and to investigate the correlation of these findings with mutations in TGM1, CYP4F22 and NIPAL4 genes. Twelve patients with lamellar ichthyosis were evaluated. Routine ophthalmic examination including Schirmer 1, tear break-up time and ocular surface staining score, topography, and genetic evaluation for coding exons of TGM1, NIPAL4 and CYP4F22 genes were performed. The mean age of the patients was 19.75 ± 9.15 (range, 4-31) years. Mean Schirmer 1 scores of the right and the left eyes were similar (18.75 ± 3.10 mm). Mean tear break-up time of the right and the left eyes were 6.58 ± 2.74, 6.58 ± 3.02 seconds, respectively. Mean ocular surface staining grade was 0.36 ± 0.20 in the right, and 0.39 ± 0.17 in the left eyes. Keratoconus was detected in two patients. Two patients with bilateral cataract formation were found. Genetic sequencing revealed that one case had homozygous R326X mutation in the CYP4F22 gene, two cases had homozygous A176D mutation in the NIPAL4 gene, and three had homozygous M1T mutation in the same gene. Mutations were detected in patients with keratoconus and in a patient with bilateral cataract formation. In lamellar ichthyosis, eyelid malformations together with decreased tear break-up time might cause sight-threatening complications. Genetic counseling for mutations might enable the physician to predict the possibility of upcoming ocular problems in lamellar ichthyosis patients.

  2. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhoubing; Allen, Wade M.; Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture

  3. Lenticonus diagnosis in Alport's syndrome: Anterior capsule apical angle calculation using Scheimpflug imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, E; Jarrín, I; Arnalich-Montiel, F

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simplified method to detect anterior lenticonus. Three eyes of 2 patients with anterior lenticonus, plus 16 eyes from 16 healthy controls underwent Scheimpflug imaging of their anterior segment with Pentacam. The anterior capsule apex angle was manually identified and automatically measured by AutoCAD. The mean angle was 173.06° (SD: 1.91) in healthy subjects, and 158.33° (SD: 3.05) in anterior lenticonus eyes. The angle obtained from patients was more than 3 SD steeper than those from healthy subjects. The apical angle calculation method seems to discriminate well between normal eyes and eyes suspected of having anterior lenticonus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical anterior hybrid technique with bi-level Bryan artificial disc replacement and adjacent segment fusion for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Xu, Lin; Jia, Yu-Song; Sun, Qi; Li, Jin-Yu; Zheng, Chen-Ying; Bai, Chun-Xiao; Yu, Qin-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to assess the preliminary clinical efficacy and feasibility of the hybrid technique for multilevel cervical myelopathy. Considering the many shortcomings of traditional treatment methods for multilevel cervical degenerative myelopathy, hybrid surgery (bi-level Bryan artificial disc [Medtronic Sofamor Danek, Memphis, TN, USA] replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion) should be considered. Between March 2006 and November 2012, 108 patients (68 men and 40 women, average age 45years) underwent hybrid surgery. Based on the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and Odom's criteria, the clinical symptoms and neurological function before and after surgery were evaluated. Mean surgery duration was 90minutes, with average blood loss of 30mL. Mean follow-up duration was 36months. At the final follow-up, the mean JOA (± standard deviation) scores were significantly higher compared with preoperative values (15.08±1.47 versus 9.18±1.22; P<0.01); meanwhile, NDI values were markedly decreased (12.32±1.03 versus 42.68±1.83; P<0.01). Using Odom's criteria, the clinical outcomes were rated as excellent (76 patients), good (22 patients), fair (six patients), and poor (four patients). These findings indicate that the hybrid method provides an effective treatment for cervical myelopathy over three consecutive segments, ensuring a good clinical outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Difference of uveal parameters between the acute primary angle closure eyes and the fellow eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingyi; Wang, Wei; Huang, Wenbin; Chen, Shida; Wang, Jiawei; Wang, Zhonghao; Liu, Yaoming; He, Mingguang; Zhang, Xiulan

    2018-03-01

    To measure the anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics concurrently and to explore the relationship between iris, ciliary body and choroid in acute primary angle closure eyes (APAC) and fellow eyes. It is a prospective, cross-sectional study. Thirty patients with recent APAC were finally enroled in it. Anterior and posterior uveal parameters were measured simultaneously by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The parameters were measured including: pupil diameter (PD); iris thickness, curvature (ICURV), area (IAREA); anterior chamber depth (ACD), width (ACW), area (ACA), volume (ACV); lens vault (LV); choroidal thickness and retinal thickness; maximum ciliary body thickness (CBTmax); ciliary body thickness at the point of the scleral spur (CBT0) and 1000 mm away (CBT1000); anterior placement of the ciliary body (APCB); and trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA). Compared with fellow eyes, APAC eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters and presented with smaller anterior segment parameters (including ACD and ACW); (p APAC eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters, thinner ciliary body and smaller iris area and curvature. APCB, CBT and choroidal thickness were positively correlated. However, further studies are required before these conclusions are generalised.

  6. Pattern of Eye Diseases in Kaduna State – A rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Senile cataract and anterior segment eye infection were the two eye diseases most frequently seen in Giwa community. The lack of trachoma seems to indicate that the rural water supplies were relatively clean and safe. The majority of eye problems were age-related, and preventable. Objective: The aim of the study was to ...

  7. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using rotating Scheimpflug imaging and partial coherence interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fotouhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available METHODS:As part of the first phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study with 5 190 subjects of 40 to 64 years of age, CCT and ACD were measured using Scheimpflug imaging with the Pentacam (Oculus, Inc., Lynnwood, WA, USA and partial coherence interferometry with the Allegro BioGraph (Wavelight, Erlangen, Germany.RESULTS:After applying exclusion criteria, we had data of 4 387 subjects with a mean age of 50.7±6.2 years. Mean CCT with Pentacam and BioGraph were 528.6±33.2μm and 525.6±32μm respectively; the difference was statistically significant (PPCONCLUSION:For both CCT and ACD, the BioGraph gave significantly lower values than the Pentacam (P<0.05. Despite the high inter-device correlation, the 95% limits of agreements were wide, and this may limit their interchangeability in measuring the CCT and ACD.

  8. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r=0.26, P<0.01, and lens position (age adjusted; r=-0.31, P<0.01 were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.05, all. Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r=0.41, P<0.01. Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  9. Clinical outcomes of additional surgery for adjacent segment disease after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Lei, Tao; Liu, Yaming; Wei, Jingchao; Shen, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is one of the problematic complications following anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). The impact of additional surgery with instruments is still unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the surgical outcomes of additional ACDF with instruments for symptomatic ASD after an initial ACDF using autogenous iliac grafts without instruments. A total of 56 patients who underwent an additional ACDF with instruments for symptomatic new radicular or myelopathic symptoms from ASD between 2006 and 2012. In this study, subjects were 30 men and 26 women with a mean age of 59.2 ± 9.7 years (range, 50-70 years) at revision surgery. Clinical evaluations were performed preoperatively and repeated at 3 years after operation. There were no cases of intraoperative complications, major neurological or vascular, pseudoarthrosis or wound complications. All of them reported significant improvements in JOA, NDI and VAS on arm pain and neck pain from the preoperative means (P< 0.05). According to our study, additional ACDF with instruments had achieved favorable clinical results on patients who underwent initial ACDF using autogenous iliac grafts without instruments for symptomatic new radiculopathy or myelopathy.

  10. Mutations in ASPH cause facial dysmorphism, lens dislocation, anterior-segment abnormalities, and spontaneous filtering blebs, or Traboulsi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nisha; Khan, Arif O; Mansour, Ahmad; Mohamed, Jawahir Y; Al-Assiri, Abdullah; Haddad, Randa; Jia, Xiaofei; Xiong, Yong; Mégarbané, André; Traboulsi, Elias I; Alkuraya, Fowzan S

    2014-05-01

    We have previously described a syndrome characterized by facial dysmorphism, lens dislocation, anterior-segment abnormalities, and spontaneous filtering blebs (FDLAB, or Traboulsi syndrome). In view of the consanguineous nature of the affected families and the likely autosomal-recessive inheritance pattern of this syndrome, we undertook autozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing to identify ASPH as the disease locus, in which we identified two homozygous mutations. ASPH encodes aspartyl/asparaginyl β-hydroxylase (ASPH), which has been found to hydroxylate aspartic acid and asparagine residues on epidermal growth factor (EGF)-domain-containing proteins. The truncating and missense mutations we identified are predicted to severely impair the enzymatic function of ASPH, which suggests a possible link to other forms of ectopia lentis given that many of the genes implicated in this phenotype encode proteins that harbor EGF domains. Developmental analysis of Asph revealed an expression pattern consistent with the proposed link to the human syndrome. Indeed, Asph-knockout mice had a foreshortened snout, which corresponds to the facial abnormalities in individuals with Traboulsi syndrome. These data support a genetic basis for a syndromic form of ectopia lentis and the role of aspartyl hydroxylation in human development. Copyright © 2014 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anterior versus posterior approach in Lenke 5C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a meta-analysis of fusion segments and radiological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ming; Wang, Wengang; Shen, Mingkui; Xia, Lei

    2016-07-11

    Radiological outcomes between anterior and posterior approach in Lenke 5C curves were still controversial. Meta-analysis on published articles to compare fusion segments and radiological outcomes between the two surgical approaches was performed. Electronic database was conducted for searching studies concerning the anterior versus posterior approach in Lenke 5C curves. After quality assessment, data of means, standard deviations, and sample sizes were extracted. RevMan 5.3 was adopted for data analysis. Seven case-control studies involving 308 Lenke 5C AIS patients were identified in the meta-analysis. No significant differences were noted in correction rate of thoracolumbar/lumbar curve (95 % CI -6.02 to 4.32, P = 0.75) and incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis (95 % CI 0.12 to 7.19, P = 0.94) of final follow-up, in change values of thoracolumbar/lumbar curve (95 % CI -3.28 to 7.19, P = 0.46) and thoracic kyphosis (95 % CI -4.10 to 0.13, P = 0.07). The anterior approach represented a significant shorter fusion segments compared to posterior approach (95 % CI -1.72 to -0.71, P < 0.00001). The posterior approach obtained a larger increasing Cobb angle of lumbar lordosis than the anterior approach (95 % CI -6.06 to -0.61, P = 0.02). The anterior and posterior approach can obtain comparable coronal correction, change values of thoracic kyphosis, and incidence of proximal junctional kyphosis. The anterior approach saves approximate one more fusion segment, and the posterior approach can obtain a larger increasing Cobb angle of lumbar lordosis, from preoperation to final follow-up. The article type of this study is meta-analysis and prospective registration is not required.

  12. Relationship between screw sagittal angle and stress on endplate of adjacent segments after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion with internal fixation: a Chinese finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Yibo; Shen, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD), the current study was designed to establish Chinese finite element models of normal 3rd~7th cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) with internal fixation , and analyze the influence of screw sagittal angle (SSA) on stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments. Mimics 8.1 and Abaqus/CAE 6.10 softwares were adopted to establish finite element models. For C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate, their anterior areas had the maximum stress in anteflexion position, and their posterior areas had the maximum stress in posterior extension position. As SSA increased, the stress reduced. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on anterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 12.67% and 7.99% in anteflexion position, respectively. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on posterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 9.68% and 10.22% in posterior extension position, respectively. The current study established Chinese finite element models of normal C3-C7 and ACCF with internal fixation , and demonstrated that as SSA increased, the stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments decreased. In clinical surgery, increased SSA is able to play important role in protecting the adjacent cervical segments and reducing the incidence of ASD.

  13. Bilateral Segmental Agenesis of Carotid and Vertebral Arteries with Rete Mirabile and the Prominent Anterior and Posterior Spinal Arteries as Compensations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jun; Liu, Jiachun; Wang, Lijun; Qi, Peng; Wang, Daming

    2014-01-01

    Summary Agenesis of carotid or vertebrobasilar arteries with rete formation is rare. The anterior spinal artery or posterior spinal arteries supplying the posterior circulation with steno-occlusion or agenesis of bilateral vertebral arteries is also uncommon. Here, we describe a very rare case of concomitant segmental agenesis of bilateral carotid and vertebral arteries with collateral compensations from the prominent anterior spinal artery and posterior spinal arteries, as well as some transdural arterial networks which were considered a rete mirabile. We discuss its embryological and anatomic significance. PMID:24556295

  14. Imaging and quantification of endothelial cell loss in eye bank prepared DMEK grafts using trainable segmentation software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Griffin J; Holiman, Jeffrey D; Stoeger, Christopher G; Chamberlain, Winston D

    2014-09-01

    To improve accuracy and efficiency in quantifying the endothelial cell loss (ECL) in eye bank preparation of corneal endothelial grafts. Eight cadaveric corneas were subjected to Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) preparation. The endothelial surfaces were stained with a viability stain, calcein AM dye (CAM) and then captured by a digital camera. The ECL rates were quantified in these images by three separate readers using trainable segmentation, a plug-in feature from the imaging software, Fiji. Images were also analyzed by Adobe Photoshop for comparison. Mean times required to process the images were measured between the two modalities. The mean ECL (with standard deviation) as analyzed by Fiji was 22.5% (6.5%) and Adobe was 18.7% (7.0%; p = 0.04). The mean time required to process the images through the two different imaging methods was 19.9 min (7.5) for Fiji and 23.4 min (12.9) for Adobe (p = 0.17). Establishing an accurate, efficient and reproducible means of quantifying ECL in graft preparation and surgical techniques can provide insight to the safety, long-term potential of the graft tissues as well as provide a quality control measure for eye banks and surgeons. Trainable segmentation in Fiji software using CAM is a novel approach to measuring ECL that captured a statistically significantly higher percentage of ECL comparable to Adobe and was more accurate in standardized testing. Interestingly, ECL as determined using both methods in eye bank-prepared DMEK grafts exceeded 18% on average.

  15. Adjacent segment motion after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion versus Prodisc-c cervical total disk arthroplasty: analysis from a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P; Mok, James M; Frisch, Richard F; Tay, Bobby K

    2011-07-01

    Post hoc analysis of data acquired in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. To compare adjacent segment motion after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) versus cervical total disc arthroplasty (TDA). TDA has been designed to be a motion-preserving device, thus theoretically normalizing adjacent segment kinematics. Clinical studies with short-term follow-up have yet to demonstrate a consistent significant difference in the incidence of adjacent segment disease. Two hundred nine patients at 13 sites were treated in a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of ACDF versus TDA for single-level symptomatic cervical degenerative disc disease (SCDD). Flexion and extension radiographs were obtained at all follow-up visits. Changes in ROM were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Predictors of postoperative ROM were determined by multivariate analysis using mixed effects linear regression. Data for 199 patients were available with 24-month follow-up. The groups were similar with respect to baseline demographics. A significant increase in motion at the cranial and caudal adjacent segments after surgery was observed in the ACDF group only (cranial: ACDF: +1.4° (0.4, 2.4), P = 0.01; TDA: +0.8°, (-0.1, +1.7), P = 0.166; caudal: ACDF: +2.6° (1.3, 3.9), P adjacent segment ROM was observed between ACDF and TDA. Only time was a significant predictor of postoperative ROM at both the cranial and caudal adjacent segments. Adjacent segment kinematics may be altered after ACDF and TDA. Multivariate analysis showed time to be a significant predictor of changes in adjacent segment ROM. No association between the treatment chosen (ACDF vs. TDA) and ROM was observed. Furthermore clinical follow-up is needed to determine whether possible differences in adjacent segment motion affect the prevalence of adjacent segment disease in the two groups.

  16. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Adjacent Segment Disease: Clinical Outcomes and Cost Utility of Surgical Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin R; Wilson, Robert J; Burns, Katharine M; Mioton, Lauren M; Wright, Brian T; Adogwa, Owoicho; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2016-07-01

    Retrospective review. Determine clinical outcomes and cost utility of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for the treatment of adjacent segment disease (ASD). The incidence of symptomatic ASD after ACDF has been estimated to occur in up to 26% of patients. Commonly, these patients will undergo an additional ACDF procedure. However, there are currently no studies available that adequately describe the clinical outcomes or cost utility of performing ACDF for ASD. A retrospective review of 40 patients undergoing ACDF for ASD was performed. Baseline and 2-year neck and arm pain (NRS-NP, NRS-AP), neck disability index (NDI), physical and mental quality of life (SF-12 PCS & MCS), and Zung depression score (ZDS) were assessed. Two-year total neck-related medical resource utilization, amount of missed work, and health-state values were determined. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated from EQ-5D assessments with US valuation. Comprehensive costs (indirect, direct, and total cost) and the value (cost-per-QALY gained) of performing ACDF for ASD were assessed. Performing ACDF to treat ASD resulted in significant improvements (P<0.05) in NRS-NP, NRS-AP, NDI, SF-12 PCS, and ZDS outcome measures. Patient-reported health states also significantly improved, with a mean cumulative 2-year gain of 0.54 QALYs. The mean 2-year cost of surgery was $32,616 (direct cost: $25,391; indirect cost: $7225). ACDF for the treatment of ASD was associated with a mean 2-year cost per QALY gained of $60,526. Performing ACDF for ASD resulted in significant improvements in patient pain, disability, and quality of life. Further, the mean 2-year cost-per-QALY was determined to be $60,526, which suggests surgical intervention to be cost effective. This study is the first to provide evidence that performing an ACDF for ASD is both clinically and cost effective.

  17. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet, fewer than 150,000 corneal transplant surgeries are performed annually worldwide. Corneal blindness arises from a wide variety of causes, from mechanical, chemical, and radiation injury to microbial infections and corneal degenerative diseases. The use of human cadaver donor corneas has been limited by its often.

  18. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is estimated that 45 million people are suffering from corneal visual impairment. Ten million people are unilaterally or bilaterally blind from corneal opacification. Yet, fewer than 150,000 corneal transplant surgeries are performed annually worldwide. Corneal blindness arises from a wide variety of causes, from mechanical ...

  19. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Introduction: Phacoemulsification is the procedure of choice for cataract surgery in most developed countries.[1,2] Extracapsular cataract surgery (ECCE) is, however, still commonly performed in many developing countries with variable visual outcomes reported.[3]. Our study compares the visual outcome ...

  20. Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer loss and visual outcome in fellow eyes following sequential bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Gad; Kesler, Anat; Naftaliev, Elvira; Skarf, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To report on the correlation of structural damage to the axons of the optic nerve and visual outcome following bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A retrospective review of the medical records of 25 patients with bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was performed. Outcome measures were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Stratus optical coherence tomography scanner, visual acuity and visual field loss. Median peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, mean deviation (MD) of visual field, and visual acuity of initially involved NAION eyes (54.00 µm, -17.77 decibels (dB), 0.4, respectively) were comparable to the same parameters measured following development of second NAION event in the other eye (53.70 µm, p = 0.740; -16.83 dB, p = 0.692; 0.4, p = 0.942, respectively). In patients with bilateral NAION, there was a significant correlation of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = 0.583, p = 0.002) and MD of the visual field (r = 0.457, p = 0.042) for the pairs of affected eyes, whereas a poor correlation was found in visual acuity of these eyes (r = 0.279, p = 0.176). Peripapillary RNFL thickness following NAION was positively correlated with MD of visual field (r = 0.312, p = 0.043) and negatively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (r = -0.365, p = 0.009). In patients who experience bilateral NAION, the magnitude of RNFL loss is similar in each eye. There is a greater similarity in visual field loss than in visual acuity between the two affected eyes with NAION of the same individual.

  1. MMP-3 Deficiency Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammation in the Posterior Eye Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Van Hove

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 is known to mediate neuroinflammatory processes by activating microglia, disrupting blood–central nervous system barriers and supporting neutrophil influx into the brain. In addition, the posterior part of the eye, more specifically the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and the blood–retinal barrier, is affected upon neuroinflammation, but a role for MMP-3 during ocular inflammation remains elusive. We investigated whether MMP-3 contributes to acute inflammation in the eye using the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU model. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression level in the posterior part of the eye. MMP-3 deficiency or knockdown suppressed retinal leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte infiltration into the vitreous cavity in mice subjected to EIU. Moreover, retinal and RPE mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1, interleukin 6 (Il6, cytokine-inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (Nos2 and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα, which are key molecules involved in EIU, were clearly reduced in MMP-3 deficient mice. In addition, loss of MMP-3 repressed the upregulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 and (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1. These findings suggest a contribution of MMP-3 during EIU, and its potential use as a therapeutic drug target in reducing ocular inflammation.

  2. Iris en sayuela signo clínico nuevo asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior: a new clinical sign associated to the anterior segment toxic syndrome Iris in underskirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar un nuevo signo clínico como resultado del desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris en el curso de un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior tras una cirugía de catarata. MÉTODOS: Presentamos un paciente intervenido de catarata mediante facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular de cámara posterior plegable, sin incidencias ni complicaciones transoperatorias. Se le realizó evaluación biomicroscópica en el posoperatorio inmediato diagnosticándosele un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior asociado a un desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris. Se tomaron fotos durante la evolución del paciente para documentar este raro signo clínico. RESULTADOS: Al provocar la dilatación pupilar farmacológica nos encontramos con la retracción de todas las capas anteriores del iris, mostrando por debajo al epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris sinequiado al lente intraocular y tan extensamente desprendido que simulaba un segundo iris. No encontramos este hallazgo clínico reportado en la literatura revisada. Denominamos este signo como iris en sayuela. CONCLUSIONES: El desprendimiento del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris constituye un hallazgo clínico que puede aparecer raramente asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior y cuando es muy extenso puede presentarse de forma insólita como el signo del iris en sayuela.OBJECTIVE: To present a new clinical sign as a result of a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris in the course of at toxic anterior segment syndrome after a successful cataract surgery. METHOD: A patient who had undergone a cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation, without any incidence or transoperative complication. He was evaluated through biomicroscopy in the immediate postoperative period where a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris

  3. Risk factors for the development of adjacent segment disease following anterior cervical arthrodesis for degenerative cervical disease: comparison between fusion methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ji-Soo; Choi, Byung-Wan; Song, Kyung-Jin

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to determine the risk factors for developing adjacent segment disease (ASDz) after anterior cervical arthrodesis for the treatment of degenerative cervical disease by analyzing patients treated with various fusion methods. We enrolled 242 patients who had undergone anterior cervical fusion for degenerative cervical disease, and had at least 5years of follow-up. We evaluated the development of ASDz and the rate of revision surgery. To identify the risk factors for ASDz, the sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, range of motion of the cervical spine, number of fusion segments, and fusion methods were evaluated. The patients were divided into three groups according to the fusion method: Group A contained patients who had received autogenous bone graft only (53 patients), Group B contained patients who received autogenous bone graft and plate augmentation (62 patients), and Group C contained patients who underwent cage and plate augmentation (127 patients). ASDz occurred in 33 patients, of whom 19 required additional surgery. The risk of developing ASDz was significantly higher in male patients (p=0.043), patients whose range of motion of the cervical spine was >30° (p=0.027), and patients with spinal canal stenosis (p=0.010). The rate of development of ASDz was not different depending on the number of fusion segments. The rate of development of ASDz was 41.5% in Group A, 9.6% in Group B, and 5.51% in Group C (p=0.03). In patients who underwent anterior cervical arthrodesis for degenerative disease, the occurrence of ASDz was related to age, the cervical spine range of motion, and spinal canal stenosis. Additional plate augmentation for anterior cervical arthrodesis surgery can lower the rate of ASDz development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The prognostic significance of early and late right precordial lead (V4 R) ST-segment elevation in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Uzun, Ahmet Okan; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Türkkan, Ceyhan; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Kozan, Ömer

    2018-03-01

    The predictive significance of ST-segment elevation (STE) in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been well-understood. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of early and late STE in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI. A total 451 patients with anterior STEMI who treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were classified according to presence of STE (>1 mm) in lead V 4 R at admission and/or 60 min after PPCI. Based on this classification, all patients were divided into three subgroups as no V 4 R STE (Group 1), early but not late V 4 R STE (Group 2) and late V 4 R STE (Group 3). In-hospital mortality had higher rates at group 2 and 3 and that had 2.1 and 4.1-times higher mortality than group 1. Late V 4 R STE remained as an independent risk factor for cardiogenic shock (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-4.3; p < .001) and in-hospital mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-4.1; p < .001). The 12-month overall survival for group 1, 2, and 3 were 91.1%, 82.4%, and 71.4% respectively. However, the long-term mortality also had the higher rate at group 3; late V 4 R STE did not remain as an independent risk factor for long-term mortality (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-4.1; p: .159). Late V 4 R STE in patients with anterior STEMI is strongly associated with poor prognosis. The record of late V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI has an important prognostic value. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Symptomatic adjacent segment disease after single-lever anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Hou, Hong-Tao; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Jing-Tao; Shen, Yong

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) following single-lever anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) for cervical degenerative diseases.From January 2000 to December 2010, a total of 582 patients with cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy who had undergone single-lever ACDF surgery in the authors' institution were reviewed retrospectively. Patients who had a revision surgery for symptomatic ASD were selected for this study. The authors analyzed the incidence for ASD after single-lever ACDF. And univariate analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed to identify the risk factors of ASD.Among the 582 patients, 36 patients received subsequent surgical management for ASD after initial single-lever ACDF for an overall prevalence of 6.2%. The average onset time of ASD was 8.5 (2-15) years. The univariate analysis showed that there were no significant differences in sex, duration of disease, BMI, DM, smoking, operative levels, and follow-up period (P > .05) between the 2 groups with and without ASD. There were statistically significant differences in age at the time of operation (χ = 4.361, P = .037), and developmental canal stenosis (χ = 4.181, P = .041) between patients with and without ASD. The variables of age at the time of operation and developmental canal stenosis were included in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression analysis revealed that age at the time of operation ≤50 years (P = .045, OR = 3.015, 95% CI = 1.024-8.882) and developmental canal stenosis (P = .042, OR = 2.797, 95% CI = 1.039-7.527) were the risk factors for ASD after single-lever ACDF.In the present study, the incidence of symptomatic ASD after single-lever ACDF was 6.2%. And the age at the time of operation ≤50 years and developmental canal stenosis were the risk factors for ASD. The patients ≤50 years old at the time of operation

  6. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro I; Rüegsegger, Michael B; Pica, Alessia; Sznitman, Raphael; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis L; Kowal, Jens H; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach

    2015-07-15

    Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciller, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cillerruiz@unil.ch [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Sznitman, Raphael [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munier, Francis L. [Unit of Pediatric Ocular Oncology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  9. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Pica, Alessia; Sznitman, Raphael; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis L.; Kowal, Jens H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor

  10. What are the associative factors of adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical spine surgery? Comparative study between anterior cervical fusion and arthroplasty with 5-year follow-up MRI and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Yoon; Kim, Kyung Hyun; Kuh, Sung Uk; Chin, Dong Kyu; Kim, Keun Su; Cho, Yong Eun

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that arthrodesis is associated with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). However, previous studies were performed with simple radiography or CT. MRI is most sensitive in assessing the degenerative change of a disc, and this is the first study about ASD by radiography, CT and MRI. We sought to factors related to ASD at cervical spine by an MRI and CT, after anterior cervical spine surgery. This is a retrospective cross-sectional study of cervical disc herniation. Patients of cervical disc herniation with only radiculopathy were treated with either arthroplasty (22 patients) or ACDF with cage alone (21 patients). These patients were required to undergo MRI, CT and radiography preoperatively, as well as radiography follow-up for 3 months and 1 year, and we conducted a cross-sectional study by MRI, CT and radiography including clinical evaluations 5 years after. Clinical outcomes were assessed using VAS and NDI. The fusion rate and ASD rate, and radiologic parameters (cervical lordosis, operated segmental height, C2-7 ROM, operated segmental ROM, upper segmental ROM and lower segmental ROM) were measured. The study groups were demographically similar, and substantial improvements in VAS (for arm) and NDI (for neck) scores were noted, and there were no significant differences between groups. Fusion rates were 95.2% in the fusion group and 4.5% in the arthroplasty group. ASD rates of the fusion and arthroplasty groups were 42.9 and 50%, respectively. Among the radiologic parameters, operated segmental height and operated segmental ROM significantly decreased, while the upper segmental ROM significantly increased in the fusion group. In a comparative study between patients with ASD and without ASD, the clinical results were found to be similar, although preexisting ASD and other segment degeneration were significantly higher in the ASD group. C2-7 ROM was significantly decreased in ASD group, and other radiologic parameters have no significant differences

  11. Significant relationship between local angle at fused segments and C2-7 angle: Average duration of longer than 20 years after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The authors have focused their attention to the radiological durability of cervical sagittal alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF using autologous bone grafting. Materials and Methods : Among the patients who underwent ACDF with trans-unco-discal (TUD approach between 1976 and 1997, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females made return visits for a clinical evaluation. Patients with trauma or previously treated by anterior cervical fusion or by posterior decompression were excluded from the present study. Clinical evaluation included adjacent segment degeneration (ASD, osseous fusion, local angle at the fused segments and C2-7 angle of cervical spine. Results : The duration after ACDF ranged from 13 to 34 years with an average of 21.3 ± 7.0 years. A single level fusion was done on 8 patients, 2 levels on 11 patients, 3 levels on 2 patients, and 4 levels on 1 patient. Imaging studies indicated that 12 of the 22 patients (54.5% were graded as having symptomatic ASD. Osseous bony fusion at ACDF was recognized in all cases. None of the patients demonstrated kyphotic malalignment of the cervical spine. Average degrees of local angle at the fused segments and the C2-7 angle were 7.06 and 17.6, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the local at the fused segments and C2-7 angles. Conclusions : Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was durable long after ACDF when the local angle at the fused segments was well stabilized.

  12. Changes in segmentation and setation along the anterior/posterior axis of the homonomous trunk limbs of a remipede (Crustacea, Arthropoda

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    Viacheslav N. Ivanenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the segmentation and setation at different developmental stages of the homonomous trunk limbs of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis Yager, 1987 collected in anchialine caves of the Yucatan Peninsula. Most homonomous trunk limbs originate ventrolaterally and are composed of two protopodal segments, three exopodal segments and four endopodal segments; contralateral limb pairs are united by a sternal bar. However, the last few posterior limbs originate ventrally, are smaller sized, and have regressively fewer segments, suggesting that limb development passes through several intermediate steps beginning with a limb bud. A terminal stage of development is proposed for specimens on which the posterior somite bears a simple bilobate limb bud, and the adjacent somite bears a limb with a protopod comprised of a coxapod and basipod, and with three exopodal and four endopodal segments. On each trunk limb there are 20 serially homologous groups of setae, and the numbers of setae on different limbs usually varies. These groups of setae are arranged linearly and are identified based on the morphology of the setae and their position on the segments. The number of setae in these groups increases gradually from the anterior homonomous limb to a maximum between limbs 8–12; the number then decreases sharply on the more posterior limbs. Changes in the number of setae, which reach a maximum between trunk limbs 8–12, differ from changes in segmentation which vary only over the last few posterior trunk limbs. Following a vector analysis that identified a spatial pattern for these 20 groups of setae among the different homonomous limbs, the hypothesis was confirmed that the number of setae in any given group and any given limb is correlated with the group, with the position of the somite along the body axis, and with the number of somites present on the specimens. This is the first vector analysis used to analyze a pattern of developmental

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTERIOR SEGMENT OPHTHALMOLOGIC LESIONS IDENTIFIED IN FREE-RANGING DOLPHINS AND THOSE UNDER HUMAN CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Walsh, Michael T; McCulloch, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. Although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. The cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. Typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. One hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from different geographic areas; they included Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Pacific bottle nose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus gilli), Indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Indopacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), and roughtooth dolphins (Steno bredanensis). These animals were examined at least once, although most were examined numerous times over many years; lesions were categorized and are described. Seventy-seven eyes from 47 animals were normal. Medial keratopathy was the most common lesion and identified in 180 eyes from 97 animals, with 83 affected bilaterally. Horizontal keratopathy was identified in 69 eyes from 41 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally. Axial keratopathy and nonspecific axial opacities were identified in 67 eyes from 44 animals, with 21 affected bilaterally. Seventy-eight eyes from 50 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally, had more than one type of corneal lesion. Cataracts were identified in 32 eyes from 19 animals, with 13 affected bilaterally. Traumatic injuries were also common and involved eyelids and cornea. Sixteen eyes from 11 animals were blind; five dolphins were blind bilaterally due to phthisis bulbi secondary to corneal perforation or severe trauma. None of the diseases had a sex predisposition; however, medial keratopathy was significantly more common as a bilateral presentation than as a unilateral presentation. Cetaceans under human care with impaired sight can use echolocation; however, ocular health

  14. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

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    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  15. Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectralis SD OCT Automated Macular Layers Segmentation to Discriminate Normal from Early Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Dyrda, Agnieszka Anna; Biarnés, Marc; Gómez, Alicia; Martín, Carlos; Mora, Clara; Fatti, Gianluca; Antón, Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the macular retinal layer segmentation software of the Spectralis spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) to discriminate between healthy and early glaucoma (EG) eyes. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Forty EG eyes and 40 healthy controls were included. All participants were examined using the standard posterior pole and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) protocols of the Spectralis OCT device. Using an Early Treatment Diagnostic Retinopathy Study circle at the macular level, the automated retinal segmentation software was applied to determine thicknesses of the following parameters: total retinal thickness, inner retinal layer (IRL), macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL), macular inner plexiform layer (mIPL), macular inner nuclear layer (mINL), macular outer plexiform layer (mOPL), macular outer nuclear layer (mONL), photoreceptors (PR), and retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was determined by adding the mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL parameters and the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (mGCL-IPL) was determined by combining the mGCL and mIPL parameters. Thickness of each layer was compared between the groups, and the layer and sector with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were identified. Comparison of pRNFL, IRL, mRNFL, mGCL, mIPL, mGCC, mGCL-IPL, mINL, mOPL, mONL, PR, and RPE parameters and total retinal thicknesses between groups for the different areas and their corresponding AUCs. Peripapillary RNFL was significantly thinner in the EG group globally and in all 6 sectors assessed (P < 0.0005). For the macular variables, retinal thickness was significantly reduced in the EG group for total retinal thickness, mIRL, mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL. The 2 best isolated parameters to discriminate between the 2 groups were pRNFL (AUC, 0.956) and

  16. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  17. Molecular description of eye defects in the zebrafish Pax6b mutant, sunrise, reveals a Pax6b-dependent genetic network in the developing anterior chamber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanari Takamiya

    Full Text Available The cornea is a central component of the camera eye of vertebrates and even slight corneal disturbances severely affect vision. The transcription factor PAX6 is required for normal eye development, namely the proper separation of the lens from the developing cornea and the formation of the iris and anterior chamber. Human PAX6 mutations are associated with severe ocular disorders such as aniridia, Peters anomaly and chronic limbal stem cell insufficiency. To develop the zebrafish as a model for corneal disease, we first performed transcriptome and in situ expression analysis to identify marker genes to characterise the cornea in normal and pathological conditions. We show that, at 7 days post fertilisation (dpf, the zebrafish cornea expresses the majority of marker genes (67/84 tested genes found also expressed in the cornea of juvenile and adult stages. We also characterised homozygous pax6b mutants. Mutant embryos have a thick cornea, iris hypoplasia, a shallow anterior chamber and a small lens. Ultrastructure analysis revealed a disrupted corneal endothelium. pax6b mutants show loss of corneal epithelial gene expression including regulatory genes (sox3, tfap2a, foxc1a and pitx2. In contrast, several genes (pitx2, ctnnb2, dcn and fabp7a were ectopically expressed in the malformed corneal endothelium. Lack of pax6b function leads to severe disturbance of the corneal gene regulatory programme.

  18. Comparison of Hanna and Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch systems using histological, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and elliptical curve fitting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Charles M Calvo2, Krista I Kinard1, Lloyd B Williams1, Shameema Sikder3, Marcus C Neuffer11University of Utah, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: This study analyzes the characteristics of donor and recipient tissue preparation between the Hessburg-Barron and Hanna punch and trephine systems by using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT.Methods: Eight millimeter Hessburg-Barron and Hanna vacuum trephines and punches were used on six cadaver globes and six corneal-scleral rims, respectively. Eccentricity data were generated using measurements from photographs of the corneal buttons and were used to generate an elliptical curve fit to calculate properties of the corneal button. The trephination angle and punch angle were measured by digital protractor software from light microscopy and AS-OCT images to evaluate the consistency with which each device cuts the cornea.Results: The Hanna trephine showed a trend towards producing a more circular recipient button than the Barron trephine (ratio of major axis to minor axis, ie, 1.059 ± 0.041 versus 1.110 ± 0.027 (P = 0.147 and the Hanna punch showed a trend towards producing a more circular donor cut than the Barron punch, ie, 1.021 ± 0.022 versus 1.046 ± 0.039 (P = 0.445. The Hanna trephine was demonstrated to have a more consistent trephination angle than the Barron trephine when assessing light microscopy images, ie, ±14.39° (95% confidence interval [CI] 111.9–157.7 versus ±19.38° (95% CI 101.9–150.2, P = 0.492 and OCT images, ie, ± 8.08° (95% CI 106.2–123.3 versus ± 11.16° (95% CI 109.3–132.6, P = 0.306. The angle created by the Hanna punch had less variability than the Barron punch from both the light microscopy

  19. The revision rate and occurrence of adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a study of 672 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eck, Carola F; Regan, Conor; Donaldson, William F; Kang, James D; Lee, Joon Y

    2014-12-15

    retrospective cohort study. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of revision surgery and the occurrence of adjacent segment disease of patients undergoing ACDF for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy using more modern-day instrumentation techniques. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) has long been the preferred treatment for cervical radiculopathy and myelopathy. All patients undergoing ACDF between January of 2000 and December of 2010 were included. Age, sex, height, weight, body mass index, symptoms at presentation, number of levels fused, graft type, and smoking status were recorded. Outcomes included revision rate, reason for revision surgery, time to revision surgery, presence and grade of adjacent segment disease, distance from the instrumentation to the cranial and caudal endplate (plate-to-disc distance), and reporting of symptoms of adjacent segment disease at the final follow-up. A total of 672 patients were included in this study. The average duration of follow-up was 31 months. One hundred one (15%) patients underwent revision surgery. The reason for revision surgery was adjacent segment disease in 47 (47.5%), pseudarthrosis in 45 (45.5%) and a new problem at a nonadjacent level in 7 (7.1%) of those patients. The need for revision surgery was not affected by patient age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, symptoms at presentation, number of levels fused, plate-to-disc distance or graft type. The revision rate after ACDF is 15%. Most revisions were done for either adjacent segment disease or pseudarthrosis. No specific risk factors for revision surgery were identified in this study. 3.

  20. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical interbody fusion: a multicenter retrospective study of 288 patients with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litrico, S; Lonjon, N; Riouallon, G; Cogniet, A; Launay, O; Beaurain, J; Blamoutier, A; Pascal-Mousselard, H

    2014-10-01

    Cervical discectomy with interbody fusion is a common procedure in spinal surgery. The resultant biomechanical alterations accelerate degeneration of the adjacent segment, but the contribution of natural degeneration to adjacent segment disease is unclear. To assess the long-term rate of surgery to discs adjacent to cervical interbody fusion; and to assess the associated incidence of cervico-brachial neuralgia and radiological degeneration of adjacent discs. A multicenter retrospective study included anterior cervical discectomy patients at a minimum of 10 years' follow-up. Clinical variables comprised pain, use of analgesics and surgical revision. Functional assessment was performed on the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Radiologic degeneration was assessed on the Goffin score based on cervical spine X-ray. Two hundred and eighty-eight patients were contacted and filled out the clinical questionnaire. Among the patients, 153 underwent radiological reassessment. Mean age was 46 years (range, 16-73 years). Mean follow-up was 14.5 years (12-18 years). The rate of surgical revision on a disc adjacent to the primary level was 5.9%. Frequent attacks of cervico-brachial neuralgia were reported in 20.5% of cases. Radiologic adjacent segment degeneration was found in 81.3% of cases over follow-up. There was a significant correlation between degree of radiologic adjacent segment degeneration and NDI (P=0.02). Degeneration adjacent to discectomy/fusion is partly due to aging. The present findings, however, agree with the literature and indicate accelerated degeneration in adjacent segments. These findings should be taken into account in treatment decision-making and suggest a possible interest of more physiological surgery such as arthroplasty. IV - Multicenter retrospective study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of ophthalmic anterior segment findings and intraocular pressure in 95 North American box turtles (Terrapene spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinheira Gomes, Filipe; Brandão, João; Sumner, Julia; Kearney, Michael; Freitas, Inês; Johnson, James; Cutler, Daniel; Nevarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    To describe the ophthalmic biomicroscopy findings and intraocular pressures (IOP) in a captive population of box turtles and to determine whether a relationship exists between body morphometrics or health status and IOP. Hundred and three box turtles (69 Gulf coast, 24 three-toed, one ornate, one eastern, and eight unidentified) were triaged into three different color-coded groups: green (healthy), yellow (abnormal physical examination with no need for immediate care), and red (immediate care required). Both eyes were evaluated by rebound tonometry and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Body weight and morphometric data were recorded. Intraocular pressures measurements were available for 190 eyes, slit-lamp biomicroscopy was available for 170 eyes, and morphometric data were available for 81 turtles. IOP in Gulf coast turtles (138 eyes) was 6.7 ± 1.4 mmHg OU. IOP in three-toed turtles (48 eyes) was 8.3 ± 1.5 mmHg OU, which was significantly higher than in Gulf coast turtles (P turtles only. There was a mild negative correlation between morphometrics and IOP in Gulf coast and three-toed turtles. Fifteen of 87 turtles had unilateral corneal or lenticular opacities; 3/87 had bilateral corneal or lenticular disease; and 3/87 had adnexal abnormalities. Different subspecies of box turtles have different normal intraocular pressures as measured by rebound tonometry, which was influenced by the animals' health status in one subspecies. Some morphometric parameters were found to be associated with IOP. Box turtles are often affected with ophthalmic abnormalities of unknown clinical significance. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  2. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  3. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

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    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  4. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area.

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    Jessica A. Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL, referred to here as the anterior temporal face area. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area and the occipital face area, as well as a control region in early visual cortex. Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes.1IntroductionOver a decade of neuroimaging work has characterized the neural basis of face perception and identified several nodes that preferentially respond to faces relative to other objects (Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000; Nancy Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006. Most of this work has focused on the fusiform face area (FFA and the occipital face area (OFA (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Pitcher, Walsh, Yovel, & Duchaine, 2007, however an emerging literature has implicated an anterior temporal face area, on the ventral surface of the right anterior temporal lobes (vATLs in or near perirhinal cortex, in facial processing (Avidan et al., 2013; Pinsk et al., 2009; Rajimehr, Young, & Tootell, 2009; Tsao

  5. Evaluation of long-term stability of skeletal anterior open bite correction in adults treated with maxillary posterior segment intrusion using zygomatic miniplates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Eiman S; Kassem, Hassan E

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the long-term stability of maxillary molar intrusion and anterior open-bite correction in adults treated by maxillary posterior teeth intrusion with zygomatic miniplates. The sample included 26 skeletal anterior open-bite patients, who had maxillary posterior segment intrusion with zygomatic miniplates. Lateral cephalograms were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment, 1 year posttreatment, and 4 years posttreatment. The mean maxillary molar intrusion was 3.04 mm (P ≤0.01), and the mean bite closure was 6.93 mm (P ≤0.01). The intruded maxillary molars relapsed by 10.20% in the first year after treatment and by 13.37% by 4 years after treatment. Overbite relapsed by 8.19% and 11.18% after 1 year and 4 years posttreatment, respectively. The first year after treatment accounted for 76.29% and 73.2% of the total relapses of molar intrusion and overbite, respectively. The 4-year posttreatment relapse amounts of maxillary molar intrusion and overbite were positively correlated with the amount of pretreatment maxillary molar height and the initial open-bite severity, respectively, but negatively correlated with the amounts of maxillary molar intrusion and open-bite correction gained by treatment. Molar intrusion with zygomatic miniplates appears to be stable 4 years after treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Adjacent Segment Degeneration After Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion With an Autologous Iliac Crest Graft: A Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of 59 Patients With a Mean Follow-up of 27 yr.

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    Burkhardt, Benedikt W; Simgen, Andreas; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Reith, Wolfgang; Oertel, Joachim M

    2017-05-30

    Anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical technique for the treatment of degenerative disc disease. ACDF is associated with adjacent segment degeneration (ASD). To assess whether physiological aging of the spine would overcome ASD by comparing adjacent to adjoining segments more than 18 yr after ACDF. Magnetic resonance imaging of 59 (36 male, 23 female) patients who underwent ACDF was performed to assess degeneration. The mean follow-up was 27 yr (18-45 yr). Besides measuring the disc height, a 5-step grading system (segmental degeneration index [SDI]) including disc signal intensity, anterior and posterior disc protrusion, narrowing of the disc space, and foraminal stenosis was used to assess the grade of adjacent and adjoining segments. The SDI of cranial and caudal adjacent segments was significantly higher compared to adjoining segments ( P spine does not overcome ASD. The disc height and the SDI in adjacent segment are significantly worse compared to adjoining segments. Patients who underwent repeat procedure had even worse findings of disc height and SDI. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  7. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

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    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  8. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  9. Prevention of UV-induced damage to the anterior segment using class I UV-absorbing hydrogel contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather L; Reuter, Kathleen S; Sinnott, Loraine T; Nichols, Jason J

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether class I ultraviolet (UV) light-blocking contact lenses prevent UV-induced pathologic changes in a rabbit model. Twelve rabbits were assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups (n = 4), as follows: senofilcon A (class I UV blocking) contact lenses; lotrafilcon A contact lenses (no reported UV blocking); no contact lens. The contralateral eye was patched without a contact lens. Animals received UV-B (1.667 J/cm(2)) exposure daily for 5 days. Postmortem tissue was examined as follows: in the cornea, the expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) was evaluated by zymography, and apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA; ascorbate in the aqueous humor was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; crystalline lens apoptosis was evaluated by TUNEL and caspase-3 ELISA. Exposed corneas showed a significant increase in MMP-2 and -9, TUNEL-positive cells, and caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (all P = 0.03). A significant decrease in aqueous humor ascorbate was observed in the exposed lotrafilcon A lens-wearing group compared with the exposed senofilcon A lens-wearing group (P = 0.03). Exposed crystalline lenses had significantly increased caspase-3 activity in the lotrafilcon A group compared with the senofilcon A group (P = 0.03). Increased numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were noted in both the lotrafilcon A and the non-contact lens groups. The authors show that senofilcon A class I UV-blocking contact lenses are capable of protecting the cornea, aqueous humor, and crystalline lens of rabbits from UV-induced pathologic changes.

  10. Relation of Left Ventricular Mass and Infarct Size in Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the EMBRACE STEMI Clinical Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Weaver, W Douglas; Kloner, Robert A; Giugliano, Robert P; Carr, Jim; Neal, Brandon J; Chi, Gerald; Cochet, Madeleine; Goodell, Laura; Michalak, Nathan; Rusowicz-Orazem, Luke; Alkathery, Turky; Allaham, Haytham; Routray, Sujit; Szlosek, Donald; Jain, Purva; Gibson, C Michael

    2016-09-01

    Biomarker measures of infarct size and myocardial salvage index (MSI) are important surrogate measures of clinical outcomes after a myocardial infarction. However, there is variability in infarct size unaccounted for by conventional adjustment factors. This post hoc analysis of Evaluation of Myocardial Effects of Bendavia for Reducing Reperfusion Injury in Patients With Acute Coronary Events (EMBRACE) ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) trial evaluates the association between left ventricular (LV) mass and infarct size as assessed by areas under the curve for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I release over the first 72 hours (CK-MB area under the curve [AUC] and troponin I [TnI] AUC) and the MSI. Patients with first anterior STEMI, occluded left anterior descending artery, and available LV mass measurement in EMBRACE STEMI trial were included (n = 100) (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01572909). MSI, end-diastolic LV mass on day 4 cardiac magnetic resonance, and CK-MB and troponin I concentrations were evaluated by a core laboratory. After saturated multivariate analysis, dominance analysis was performed to estimate the contribution of each independent variable to the predicted variance of each outcome. In multivariate models that included age, gender, body surface area, lesion location, smoking, and ischemia time, LV mass remained independently associated with biomarker measures of infarct size (CK-MB AUC p = 0.02, TnI AUC p = 0.03) and MSI (p = 0.003). Dominance analysis demonstrated that LV mass accounted for 58%, 47%, and 60% of the predicted variances for CK-MB AUC, TnI AUC, and MSI, respectively. In conclusion, LV mass accounts for approximately half of the predicted variance in biomarker measures of infarct size. It should be considered as an adjustment variable in studies evaluating infarct size. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Eye injury from a paintball projectile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, I; Pitrová, S; Lest'ák, J; Záhlava, J

    2002-05-01

    A fourteen-year-old adolescent suffered after a direct hit with a plastic projective (paintball) a severe injury of the anterior and posterior segment of the eye manifested by intraocular haemorrhage, cyclodialysis, detachment of the retina with two giant tears and oedema and haemorrhages of the retina. After cerclage, pars plana vitrectomy and transient four-month tamponade with silicone oil the retina reattached. Late complications, cataract, broad anterior adherence with scars of the chamber angle and ciliary body, a lamellar defect of the macula and partial atrophy of the optic disc determined the subsequent development and were an indication for cataract surgery, implantation of an artificial lens into the lenticular capsule and reconstruction of the pupil. The final result was from the cosmetic and functional aspect (visual acuity 0.3) very satisfactory. Plastic projectiles (paintballs) are a new cause of severe eye injuries. At risk are in particular participants of games who do not protect their eyes with spectacles or masks. To save the function of the eye in unnecessary injuries frequently several operations are needed and close collaboration of surgeons for the anterior and posterior segment.

  12. Isolated paralysis of the serratus anterior muscle: surgical release of the distal segment of the long thoracic nerve in 52 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Nail, L R; Bacle, G; Marteau, E; Corcia, P; Favard, L; Laulan, J

    2014-06-01

    Isolated serratus anterior (SA) paralysis is a rare condition that is secondary to direct trauma or overuse. Patients complain of neuropathic pain and/or muscle pain secondary to overexertion of the other shoulder stabilizing muscles. As the long thoracic nerve (LTN) passes along the thorax, it can be compressed by blood vessels and/or fibrotic tissue. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the outcomes of surgical release of the distal segment of the LTN in cases of isolated SA paralysis. This was a retrospective study of 52 consecutive cases operated on between 1997 and 2012. The average patient age was 32 years (range 13-70). Patients had been suffering from paralysis for an average of 2 years (range 4-259 months); the paralysis was complete in 52% of cases. Every patient underwent a preoperative electroneuromyography (ENMG) assessment to confirm that only the SA was affected and there were no signs of re-innervation. Every patient had abnormal intraoperative findings. There were no complications. All patients showed at least partial improvement following the procedure. The improvement was excellent or good in 45 cases (86.7%), moderate in 4 cases (7.7%) and slight in 3 cases (5.6%). In 32 cases (61.5%), the winged scapula was completely corrected; it was less prominent in 19 cases and was unchanged in one case. The best outcomes following surgical release occurred in patients who presented without preoperative or neuropathic pain and were treated within 18 months of paralysis. Isolated SA paralysis due to mechanical injury resembles entrapment neuropathy. We discovered signs of LTN compression or restriction during surgery. Surgical release of the distal segment of the LTN is a simple, effective treatment for pain that provides complete motor recovery when performed within the first 12 months of the paralysis. IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Cervical Disc Arthroplasty Versus Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion for Incidence of Symptomatic Adjacent Segment Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yuhang; Zhang, Boyin; Liu, Haochuan; Wu, Yuntao; Zhu, Qingsan

    2016-10-01

    Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. To evaluate the reported rate of adjacent segment disease (ASD) of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Motion-maintaining technologies such as CDA have developed rapidly because of the concern of ASD. Till date, however, it still has been under debate whether CDA is superior to ACDF regarding the incidence of ASD. We comprehensively searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trails for prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported the incidence of ASD between CDA and ACDF. The retrieved results were last updated on November 20, 2015 without language restrictions. Two independent authors selected qualified studies, assessed methodological quality, and extracted requisite data. Fourteen relevant RCTs involving 3235 individuals with a follow-up period of 2 to 7 years were included in the meta-analysis (1696 in CDA group and 1539 in ACDF group). The outcomes indicated that CDA was superior to ACDF considering the lower rate of ASD (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.37 to 0.87; P = 0.009). And compared with ACDF, there were significantly fewer adjacent segment reoperations in the CDA group (risk ratio, 0.47; confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.70; P = 0.0002). Subgroup analysis stratified by different types of disc prostheses was also performed. CDA was superior to ACDF regarding fewer ASDs and relative reoperations on the basis of available evidence from a meta-analysis of 14 RCTs. CDA may be a better surgical procedure to reduce the incidence of ASD for patients with cervical disc disease compared with ACDF. Further well-designed studies should continue to pay attention to excellent patients with longer-term follow-up to evaluate the incidence of ASD of these two procedures. 1.

  14. The effect of Nd:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification on anterior chamber depth and refraction in pseudophakic eyes

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    Khambhiphant B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bharkbhum Khambhiphant,1 Chayata Liumsirijarern,2 Piyada Saehout1 1Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: This was a prospective descriptive study to determine the changes in intraocular lens (IOL position after neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy by measuring anterior chamber depth (ACD and refraction, including the spherical equivalent (SE and cylinder. Materials and methods: Forty-seven pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsule opacification of 29 patients were included. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. Patients’ ACD and refraction were measured before the treatment, as well as after the treatment at 1 week and 3 months. IOLMaster® and an automated refractometer were used at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in ACD and SE before and after laser treatment at 1 week and 3 months (repeated analysis of variance, P=0.582 and P=0.269, respectively. Both backward IOL movement (number [n]=29 and forward IOL movement (n=18 were found. Some changes in cylindrical refraction were found at 1 week, but decreased at 3 months after capsulotomy (baseline cylinder: -1.16; cylinder at 1 week and 3 months: -1.00 and -1.14, respectively; P=0.012. These changes were the same with one-piece and three-piece IOLs. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy did not significantly change ACD and SE. It led to cylinder change at 1 week after laser, but the effect decreased at 3 months. This effect was small and may not be clinically significant. Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet, anterior chamber depth, pseudophakia, refraction

  15. Eye vascular hemodynamics in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy after surgery with application of the Alloplant biomaterial

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    V. U. Galimova,

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the optic nerve vascular hemodynamics in patients with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION before and after application of the Alloplant biomaterial.Methods: The ultrasound diagnostic system General Electric Ultrasound Logic 7 (U. S. was used to study hemodynamics. The study was initially conducted before the intervention and after the insertion of the Alloplant biomaterial in subtenon space in a retrobulbar way in the period from 3 to 6 months. The qualitative and quantitative parameters were determined: peak systolic flow velocity (Vmax, final diastolic velocity (Vmin, the index of peripheral resistance to blood flow (resistance index — RI, pulsation index (PI. According to cluster analysis there were four typological groups of cases, characterized by originality of RI changes in all six vessels in general.Results: The diagrams show that significant intergroup differences in postoperative RI changes occurred in the medial and lateral branches of short posterior ciliary artery. The most apparent RI decrease in these two arteries in the first typological group: in short posterior ciliary artery medial branch (–0.542±0.080 and in lateral branch reducing RI (–0.415±0.185. However, a comparable (–0.323±0.099 and not significantly different (p>0.09 level of RI reduction occurred in the second typological group. In the fourth typological group (20 cases, the maximum RI drop in medial branch of short posterior ciliary artery was –0.228±0.071.Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the use of the Alloplant biomaterial in treating patients with AION consequencesimproves blood flow in vessels of the optic nerve (in the central retinal artery and more in short posterior ciliary artery with its branches and can be recommended as a fairly effective AION treatment.

  16. Incidence and Risk Factors of Postoperative Adjacent Segment Degeneration Following Anterior Decompression and Instrumented Fusion for Degenerative Disorders of the Cervical Spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Ma, Lei; Yang, Dalong; Yang, Sidong; Ding, Wenyuan

    2017-09-01

    To explore incidence and risk factors of postoperative adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following anterior decompression and instrumented fusion for degenerative disorders of the cervical spine. Medical records from January 2005 to September 2011 of 283 patients were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on occurrence of ASD at follow-up: ASD group and no ASD group. To investigate risk for occurrence of ASD, 3 sets of factors were analyzed statistically: patient characteristics, surgical variables, and radiographic parameters. Postoperative ASD developed in 68 of 283 patients. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in patient characteristics or the surgical variables of surgical strategy, surgical time, and blood loss. The number of patients receiving 2-level spinal fusion was higher in the ASD group. Upper instrumented vertebra at C5 was more common in the ASD group. There was no difference between groups in all but 1 of the radiographic parameters; the plate-to-disc distance was much smaller in the ASD group. Logistic regression analysis revealed that upper instrumented vertebra at C5, plate-to-disc distance fusion were independently associated with ASD. Patients with degenerative disorders of the cervical spine who receive 2-level cervical fusion and with upper instrumented vertebra at C5 are at high potential risk of ASD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pole to Pole Intraocular Transit of Tarantula Hairs—An Intriguing Cause of Red Eye

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    Hiten G. Sheth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This intriguing case report provides novel images and a description of the anterior and rarer posterior segment findings seen in ocular inflammation associated with tarantula spider hair exposure. We present an interventional case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a red, sore eye. Slit lamp examination revealed right eye injection, multiple small hairs at differing levels of the cornea with associated opacities and inflammation within the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Only after detailed and repeated questioning did the aetiology become apparent. Conservative management in the form of topical steroid and antibiotics was commenced and he did well with no obvious sequelae in the medium term. Healthcare personnel (and indeed pet shop owners, arachnid enthusiasts and even parents should be aware of the potential ocular complications of tarantula hair exposure and clinicians should perhaps specifically ask about pet-keeping when presented with an unusual red eye.

  18. The incidence of adjacent segment disease requiring surgery after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion: estimation using an 11-year comprehensive nationwide database in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Laura; Wen-Cheng, Huang; Chen, Yu-Chun; Ko, Chin-Chu; Wu, Ching-Lan; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Cheng, Henrich; Su, Tung-Ping

    2012-03-01

    The incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment disease (ASD) after anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) was reported as 2.9%/y in a previous cohort of 374 patients. Few other data corroborate the incidence and natural history of ASD. To calculate the incidence of ASD after ACDF that required secondary fusion surgery. The retrospective study used an 11-year nationwide database to analyze the incidences. All patients who underwent ACDF for cervical disk diseases were identified through diagnostic and procedure codes. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed. From 1997 to 2007, covering 241 800 725.8 person-years, 19 385 patients received ACDF and 568 had ≥ 2 ACDF operations. The incidence of secondary ACDF operations was 7.6 per 1000 person-years. At the end of the 10-year cohort, 94.4% of patients who had received 1 ACDF remained free from secondary ACDF. The average time interval between the first and second ACDF was 23.3 months. After adjustment for comorbidities and socioeconomic status, secondary ACDF operations were more likely performed on male patients (hazard ratio = 1.27; P = .008) 15 to 39 years of age (hazard ratio = 1.45; P = .009) and 40 to 59 years of age (hazard ratio = 1.41, P = .002, respectively). Repeat ACDF surgery for ASD cumulated steadily in an annual incidence of approximately 0.8%, much lower than the reported incidence of symptomatic ASD. However, at the end of this 10-year cohort, a considerable portion of patients (5.6%) received a second operation. Younger and male patients are more likely to receive such second operations.

  19. Adjacent segment degeneration following ProDisc-C total disc replacement (TDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF): does surgeon bias effect radiographic interpretation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Eric B; Brigham, Craig D; Darden, Bruce V; Bradley Segebarth, P; Alden Milam, R; Rhyne, Alfred L; Odum, Susan M; Spector, Leo R

    2017-04-01

    Many investigators have reported the financial conflicts of interest (COI), which could result in potential bias in the reporting of outcomes for patients undergoing total disc replacement (TDR) rather than anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). This bias may be subconsciously introduced by the investigator in a non-blinded radiographic review. The purpose of this study was to determine if bias was present when a group of spine specialists rated adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) following cervical TDR or ACDF. Potential bias in the assessment of ASD was evaluated through the reviews of cervical radiographs (pre- and 6 years post-operative) from patients participating in the ProDisc-C FDA trial (ProDisc-C IDE #G030059). The index level was blinded on all radiographs during the first review, but unblinded in the second. Five reviewers (a radiologist, two non-TDR surgeons, and two TDR surgeons), two of whom had a COI with the ProDisc-C trial sponsor, assessed ASD on a three point scale: yes, no, or unable to assess. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities between all raters were assessed by the Kappa statistic. The intra-rater reliability between reviews was substantial, indicating little to no bias in assessing ASD development/progression. The Kappa statistics were 0.580 and 0.644 for the TDR surgeons (p < 0.0001), 0.718 and 0.572 for the non-TDR surgeons (p < 0.0001), and 0.642 for the radiologist (p < 0.0001). Inter-rater reliability for the blinded review ranged from 0.316 to 0.607 (p < 0.0001) and from 0.221 to 0.644 (p < 0.0001) for the unblinded review. The knowledge of the surgical procedure performed did not bias the assessment of ASD.

  20. Identification of intracellular phospholipases A2 in the human eye: involvement in phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Wang, Jinmei; Zhan, Chen

    2007-01-01

    RNA and protein expression of intracellular PLA(2) subtypes in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19. Immunohistochemical staining of normal human eye sections was performed to reveal the cellular location of the enzymes. A model of RPE phagocytosis of POS was used to explore the role of intracellular......, and IVC; and iPLA(2), group VIB, were identified in the human RPE cell line ARPE-19. Furthermore, protein of iPLA(2)-VIA, cPLA(2)-IVA, and iPLA(2)-VIB were identified in ARPE-19 cells and in various parts of the normal human eye. iPLA(2)-VIA protein levels were upregulated during phagocytosis, and iPLA(2...

  1. Anterior and posterior ocular biometry in healthy Chinese subjects: data based on AS-OCT and SS-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Huang

    Full Text Available To measure the anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics concurrently and to determine the relationship between the iris and choroid in healthy Chinese subjects.A total of 148 subjects (270 eyes were enrolled in this cross-section study. The anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics were measured simultaneously by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT.Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that presented with smaller anterior segment parameters [including anterior chamber depth (ACD, width (ACW, area (ACA, and volume (ACV; (all p<0.001], narrower anterior chamber angle parameters [including angle opening distance (AOD750, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle recess area (ARA; (all p<0.001], higher iris curvature (ICURV (p = 0.003, and larger lens vaults (LV (p = 0.019. These anterior ocular biometric parameters were correlated with increasing age (p<0.01. Iris thickness (IT750 and iris area (IAREA were associated with age, ACW, and pupil diameter (all p<0.05, while choroidal thickness (CT was associated with age, gender, and axial length (all p<0.05. Univariate regression analysis showed that greater CT was significantly associated with smaller IAREA (p = 0.026.Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that correlated with increasing age, which would be helpful in explaining the higher prevalence of angle closure rates in the female gender and in aging people. Increased CT might be associated with smaller iris area; however, this possibility needs to be investigated in future studies before this conclusion is made.

  2. Noncontact Quantification of Topography of Anterior Corneal Surface and Bowman's Layer With High-Speed OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matalia, Himanshu; Francis, Mathew; Gangil, Tarun; Chandapura, Rachana S; Kurian, Mathew; Shetty, Rohit; Nelson, Everette Jacob Remington; Sinha Roy, Abhijit

    2017-05-01

    To quantify keratometry and wavefront aberration of the anterior corneal surface and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT). Twenty-five normal eyes and 25 eyes with keratoconus were retrospectively analyzed. The anterior corneal edge and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were segmented from 12 distortion-corrected OCT B-scans. Axial tangential curvatures and wavefront aberration were calculated by ray tracing and 6th order Zernike analyses. All eyes underwent simultaneous imaging with Pentacam (Oculus Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany). The Pentacam elevation data were used for aberration analyses using the same ray-tracing method. The paired t test was used to compare the variables. In normal eyes, mean steep axis and maximum keratometry of OCT of the anterior corneal surface and epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were significantly greater than the same of the Pentacam anterior corneal surface (P OCT surfaces was greater than the same of the Pentacam surface by a factor of 4. In eyes with keratoconus, mean steep axis and maximum keratometry of the OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface was the greatest (P OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface was the greatest (P OCT epithelium-Bowman's layer interface were significantly greater than those of the Pentacam anterior corneal surface. A noncontact method to quantify the topography and aberrations of corneal surfaces with OCT was presented. OCT measurements yielded greater curvature and aberrations than Pentacam in both normal and keratoconic eyes. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(5):330-336.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Anterior and posterior ocular biometry in healthy Chinese subjects: data based on AS-OCT and SS-OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenbin; Gao, Xinbo; Li, Xingyi; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Shida; Wang, Wei; Du, Shaolin; He, Mingguang; Zhang, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    To measure the anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics concurrently and to determine the relationship between the iris and choroid in healthy Chinese subjects. A total of 148 subjects (270 eyes) were enrolled in this cross-section study. The anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics were measured simultaneously by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT). Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that presented with smaller anterior segment parameters [including anterior chamber depth (ACD), width (ACW), area (ACA), and volume (ACV); (all piris space area (TISA750), and angle recess area (ARA); (all piris curvature (ICURV) (p = 0.003), and larger lens vaults (LV) (p = 0.019). These anterior ocular biometric parameters were correlated with increasing age (pIris thickness (IT750) and iris area (IAREA) were associated with age, ACW, and pupil diameter (all pbiometric parameters that correlated with increasing age, which would be helpful in explaining the higher prevalence of angle closure rates in the female gender and in aging people. Increased CT might be associated with smaller iris area; however, this possibility needs to be investigated in future studies before this conclusion is made.

  4. Comparison of Mydriatic Provocative and Dark Room Prone Provocative Tests for Anterior Chamber Angle Configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Rika; Hirose, Fumitaka; Matsuki, Takaaki; Kameda, Takanori; Kurimoto, Yasuo

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between angle configuration and diagnostic provocation tests such as the mydriatic provocative test (MPT) and the dark room prone provocative test (DRPPT). Seventy eyes of 70 consecutive patients with primary angle closure suspect, primary angle closure, or primary angle closure glaucoma were included. The anterior chamber depth, angle opening distance 500, trabecular-iris space area 500, and iris thickness (IT) were quantitatively determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and the MPT and DRPPT were used to investigate intraocular pressure variations. Seven eyes were positive and 3 eyes were suspected positive, using the MPT, whereas 10 eyes were positive and 7 eyes were suspected positive using the DRPPT. The anterior chamber depth and angle opening distance 500 of the positive and suspected positive groups (positive group), using the MPT, were significantly less than those of the negative group (P=0.013, P=0.013, respectively). IT of the positive group, using the MPT, was significantly greater than the negative group, using the same test (P=0.003). The trabecular-iris space area 500 of the positive group was significantly less than the negative group, using both the MPT (Pchamber, narrower angle, and greater IT than those from the negative group. These results suggested that the MPT results better correlated with the anterior chamber angle configuration in eyes with primary angle closure, than the results using the DRPPT.

  5. There is no increased risk of adjacent segment disease at the cervicothoracic junction following an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion to C7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Philip K; Presciutti, Steven M; Iantorno, Stephanie E; Bohl, Daniel D; Shah, Kevin; Shifflett, Grant D; An, Howard S

    2017-09-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a very common operative intervention for the treatment of cervical spine degenerative disease in those who have failed non-operative measures. However, studies examining long-term follow-up on patients who underwent ACDF reveal evidence of radiographic and clinical degenerative disc disease at the levels adjacent to the fusion construct. Consistent with other junctional regions of the spine, the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) has significant morphologic variations. As a result, the CTJ undergoes significant static and dynamic stress. Given these findings, there has been some thought that ACDF down to C7 may experience additional risks for adjacent segment degeneration/disease (ASD) when compared with ASDFs that are cephalad to C7. The goal of this study is to evaluate the rate of radiographic and clinical ASD in patients who have undergone single- or multilevel ACDF, down to C7. This is a retrospective cohort study. The sample included consecutive patients from a single orthopedic surgeon at one quaternary referral medical center who underwent an ACDF between January 2008 and November 2014. Indications for surgery included radiculopathy, myelopathy, or myeloradiculopathy in the setting of failed conservative treatments. Patients were excluded if they had an ACDF of which the caudal level was cephalad to C7 or if they had undergone a previous cervical fusion. Radiographic diagnosis of ASD was determined by the presence of disc space narrowing >50%, new or enlarged osteophytes, end plate sclerosis, or increased calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL). Postoperatively, data were collected on the presence of new radicular or myelopathic symptoms indicative of pathology at C7-T1, indicating a diagnosis of clinical ASD. Demographic information was collected for all patients, which included age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, and Charleston Comorbidity Index (CCI). Several radiographic parameters

  6. Microemulsion-based delivery of triamcinolone acetonide to posterior segment of eye using chitosan and butter oil as permeation enhancer: an in vitro and in vivo investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Nidhi; Khunt, Dignesh; Misra, Manju

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to formulate a microemulsion (ME) using chitosan (CH) and the butter oil (BO) as a permeation enhancer for targeting drug to the posterior segment of the eye, via topical route. Triamcinolone acetonide (TA) was selected as the model drug since it undergoes extensive first-pass metabolism, leading to poor oral bioavailability of 23%. For optimisation of BO concentration, different ratios of TA:BO were prepared by simple physical mixing in the ratio of 1:9 to 9:1 and diffusion study was performed. MEs containing TA, TA:BO and TA CH ME were formulated by water titration method. Globule sizes of TA ME, TA:BO ME and TA CH ME were found to be 66.06 ± 0.32 nm, 78.52 ± 1.50 nm and 97.30 ± 2.50 nm, respectively. In ex vivo diffusion studies using goats eye, TA:BO ME (31.33 ± 0.46 and 33.98 ± 0.23) and TA CH ME (24.10 ± 0.41 and 27.00 ± 0.18) showed higher percentage of drug diffusion in comparison to TA ME (13.29 ± 0.41and 15.56 ± 0.34) and TA solution (8.20 ± 1.04 and 10.39 ± 0.22) in presence and in absence of vitreous humour. Fluorescence intensity of coumarin-6 (as a marker) loaded ME with BO and CH was found to be higher, confirming their role in altering membrane permeability and facilitating coumarin-6 diffusion to the posterior chamber. Overall, it was concluded that BO enhances the bioavailability of TA across the retina, thereby proving its potential as permeation enhancer in facilitating drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye.

  7. A Sternum-Disk Distance Method to Identify the Skin Level for Approaching a Surgical Segment without Fluoroscopy Guidance during Anterior Cervical Discectomy And Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gun Woo; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Shin, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jae Woo; Uh, Jae-Hyung; Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Wook; Yeom, Jin S; Suh, Bo-Gun

    2017-02-01

    A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. To introduce the sternum-disk distance (SDD) method for approaching the exact surgical level without C-arm guidance during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery and to evaluate its accuracy and reliability. Although spine surgeons have tried to optimize methods for identifying the skin level for accessing the operative disk level without C-arm guidance during ACDF, success has rarely been reported. In total, 103 patients who underwent single-level ACDF surgery with the SDD method were enrolled. The primary outcome measure was the accuracy of the SDD method. The secondary outcome measures were the mean SDD value at each cervical level from the cranial margin of the sternum in the neutral and extension positions of the cervical spine and the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the SDD outcome determined using repeated measurements by three orthopedic spine surgeons. The SDD accuracy (primary outcome measure) was indicated in 99% of the patients (102/103). The mean SDD values in the neutral-position magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were 108.8 mm at C3-C4, 85.3 mm at C4-C5, 64.4 mm at C5-C6, 44.3 mm at C6-C7, and 24.1 mm at C7-T1; and those in the extension-position MRI were 112.9 mm at C3-C4, 88.7 mm at C4-C5, 67.3 mm at C5-C6, 46.5 mm at C6-C7, and 24.3 mm at C7-T1. The Cohen kappa coefficient value for intra-observer reliability was 0.88 (excellent reliability), and the Fleiss kappa coefficient value for inter-observer reliability as reported by three surgeons was 0.89 (excellent reliability). Based on the results of the present study, we recommend performing ACDF surgery using the SDD method to determine the skin level for approaching the surgical cervical segment without fluoroscopic guidance.

  8. Efficacy and safety of out-of-hospital intravenous metoprolol administration in anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: insights from the METOCARD-CNIC trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Alonso; García-Lunar, Inés; García-Ruiz, José M; Pizarro, Gonzalo; Fernández-Jiménez, Rodrigo; Huertas, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Ana; Fernández-Friera, Leticia; Bravo, Jesús; Flores-Arias, José; Barreiro, María V; Chayán-Zas, Luisa; Corral, Ervigio; Fuster, Valentín; Sánchez-Brunete, Vicente; Ibáñez, Borja

    2015-03-01

    We seek to examine the efficacy and safety of prereperfusion emergency medical services (EMS)-administered intravenous metoprolol in anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing eventual primary angioplasty. This is a prespecified subgroup analysis of the Effect of Metoprolol in Cardioprotection During an Acute Myocardial Infarction trial population, who all eventually received oral metoprolol within 12 to 24 hours. We studied patients receiving intravenous metoprolol by EMS and compared them with others treated by EMS but not receiving intravenous metoprolol. Outcomes included infarct size and left ventricular ejection fraction on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging at 1 week, and safety by measuring the incidence of the predefined combined endpoint (composite of death, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, advanced atrioventricular block, cardiogenic shock, or reinfarction) within the first 24 hours. From the total population of the trial (N=270), 147 patients (54%) were recruited during out-of-hospital assistance and transferred to the primary angioplasty center (74 intravenous metoprolol and 73 controls). Infarct size was smaller in patients receiving intravenous metoprolol compared with controls (23.4 [SD 15.0] versus 34.0 [SD 23.7] g; adjusted difference -11.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] -18.6 to -4.3). Left ventricular ejection fraction was higher in the intravenous metoprolol group (48.1% [SD 8.4%] versus 43.1% [SD 10.2%]; adjusted difference 5.0; 95% CI 1.6 to 8.4). Metoprolol administration did not increase the incidence of the prespecified safety combined endpoint: 6.8% versus 17.8% in controls (risk difference -11.1; 95% CI -21.5 to -0.6). Out-of-hospital administration of intravenous metoprolol by EMS within 4.5 hours of symptom onset in our subjects reduced infarct size and improved left ventricular ejection fraction with no excess of adverse events during the first 24 hours. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency

  9. Anterior corpectomy via the mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach combined with short-segment posterior fixation for single-level traumatic lumbar burst fractures: analysis of health-related quality of life outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Toogood, Paul; Kennedy, Abbey; Birk, Harjus; McClellan, R Trigg; Pekmezci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The authors present clinical outcome data and satisfaction of patients who underwent minimally invasive vertebral body corpectomy and cage placement via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach and posterior short-segment instrumentation for lumbar burst fractures. Patients with unstable lumbar burst fractures who underwent corpectomy and anterior column reconstruction via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach with short-segment posterior fixation were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic information, operative parameters, perioperative radiographic measurements, and complications were analyzed. Patient-reported outcome instruments (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]) and an anterior scar-specific patient satisfaction questionnaire were recorded at the latest follow-up. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, average age 42 years, range 22-68 years) met the inclusion criteria. Lumbar corpectomies with anterior column support were performed (L-1, n = 8; L-2, n = 2; L-3, n = 2) and supplemented with short-segment posterior instrumentation (4 open, 8 percutaneous). Four patients had preoperative neurological deficits, all of which improved after surgery. No new neurological complications were noted. The anterior incision on average was 6.4 cm (range 5-8 cm) in length, caused mild pain and disability, and was aesthetically acceptable to the large majority of patients. Three patients required chest tube placement for pleural violation, and 1 patient required reoperation for cage subsidence/hardware failure. Average clinical follow-up was 38 months (range 16-68 months), and average radiographic follow-up was 37 months (range 6-68 months). Preoperative lumbar lordosis and focal lordosis were significantly improved/maintained after surgery. Patients were satisfied with their outcomes, had minimal/moderate disability (average ODI score 20, range 0-52), and had good physical (SF-12 physical component score 41.7% ± 10

  10. New comparative ultrasound biomicroscopic findings between fellow eyes of acute angle closure and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Diniz Filho, Alberto; Calixto, Nassim

    2008-01-01

    To compare morphometric features between fellow acute primary angle-closure (APAC) eyes and glaucomatous or suspect eyes with narrow angle (NA). Fellow eyes of 30 patients with unilateral APAC and 30 with NA were evaluated by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) under light and dark conditions. UBM parameters such as anterior chamber depth (ACD), angle opening distance at 250 microm/500 microm from the scleral spur (AOD250/AOD500), trabecular ciliary process distance (TCPD) and iris-lens contact distance (ILCD) were measured in the superior (SQ) and inferior (IQ) quadrants. Significant differences between APAC fellow and NA eyes were found in ACD, P<0.001; AOD250 at SQ and IQ, P<0.001; AOD500 at SQ and IQ, P<0.001; TCPD light, P=0.010 and TCPD dark at SQ, P=0.031; and TCPD light at IQ, P=0.010. Significant differences between light and dark examinations of APAC fellow eyes were found in ILCD (P=0.009) at SQ and ILCD at IQ (P=0.006), and of NA eyes in ILCD at SQ (P=0.047) and ILCD at IQ (P<0.001). APAC fellow eyes have a more crowded anterior segment and shallower ACD than NA eyes. ILCD decreases in both groups when the illumination conditions change from light to dark.

  11. Nanotherapy for posterior eye diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Kakkar, Shilpa

    2014-11-10

    It is assumed that more than 50% of the most enfeebling ocular diseases have their origin in the posterior segment. Furthermore, most of these diseases lead to partial or complete blindness, if left untreated. After cancer, blindness is the second most dreaded disease world over. However, treatment of posterior eye diseases is more challenging than the anterior segment ailments due to a series of anatomical barriers and physiological constraints confronted for delivery to this segment. In this regard, nanostructured drug delivery systems are proposed to defy ocular barriers, target retina, and act as permeation enhancers in addition to providing a controlled release. Since an important step towards developing effective treatment strategies is to understand the course or a route a drug molecule needs to follow to reach the target site, the first part of the present review discusses various pathways available for effective delivery to and clearance from the posterior eye. Promise held by nanocarrier systems, viz. liposomes, nanoparticles, and nanoemulsion, for effective delivery and selective targeting is also discussed with illustrative examples, tables, and flowcharts. However, the applicability of these nanocarrier systems as self-administration ocular drops is still an unrealized dream which is in itself a huge technological challenge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Tomczyk-Socha, Martyna; Kaczorowski, Kamil; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is the most frequently identifiable cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma, known as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. The exact pathophysiology and etiology of PEX and associated glaucoma remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the morphology of the anterior chamber angle in people with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared to a control group. We also evaluated the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and pigmentation of the angle with the amount of exfoliated material in the anterior segment. The study group was composed of 155 eyes from 103 patients aged between 43 and 86 years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Some difference was found in intraocular pressure between the PEX group and the control group and between the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group and the control group, but no significant difference was found between the 2 study groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of some degree of pigmentation in the anterior chamber angle and no difference in the widths of the angle between each group. A significant positive relationship was observed between intraocular pressure and the degree of pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle in both the PEX group and the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group. The results of this study indicate that the amount of pigmentation and exfoliation material in the anterior segment significantly correlates with the level of IOP and possibly with the degree of trabecular dysfunction. It seems that for clear identification of PEX and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma factors, clinical assessment appears to be insufficient.

  13. Development of optoelectronic hardware: program complex for the analysis of hypoxia in the anterior eye camera in persons wearing contact lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topakova, Anastassia A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Gar'kavenko, Victor V.; Levchenko, Julia S.; Lazarenko, Victor I.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorimetry of eye is a perspective technique for research and diagnostics in ophthalmology. It is connected to the structural and functional characteristics of eye that is, actually, the optical system allowing transferring the radiation both for excitation and for registration of fluorescence in different eye's compartments: cornea, lens, vitreous body, and fundus of the eye. At present, different models of ophthalmologic fluorophotometers for the analysis of eye fluorescence as well as more advanced models - scanning fluorophotometers - are offered. Assessment of corneal status in persons wearing contact lenses or in patients with pathological changes (i.e. diabetes mellitus) would give us an opportunity to identify the initial manifestations of corneal pathology at the pre-symptomatic phase. In this paper, we present data on the compact spectrofluorimeter with UV LEDs-induced excitation as well as the method for assessing hypoxic alterations in the eye limb zone caused by contact lenses wearing. We demonstrate dependence of autofluorescence spectra on the contact lenses types and duration of their permanent wearing.

  14. Central vault in dry eye patients successfully wearing scleral lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsino, Jeffrey; Mathe, Dora Sztipanovits

    2013-09-01

    Scleral contact lenses are used to treat symptoms of severe dry eyes. Procedures for fitting scleral lenses have been vague because of lack of standardized guidelines. This retrospective case series sought to establish average vault over central cornea in successful scleral lens wearers with dry eyes. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography was used to measure the distance between the posterior lens surface and cornea in 20 eyes of 12 consecutive patients successfully fit in the Vanderbilt Scleral Lens Clinic. Mean vault was 380 ± 110 μm. There was no correlation between vault and corneal curvature or vault and visual acuity. With a large SD in average vault, precision in central vault does not seem to be important in scleral contact lenses for successful fit for dry eyes.

  15. New comparative clinical and biometric findings between acute primary angle-closure and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare, clinically and biometrically, affected and fellow acute primary angle-closure (APAC eyes and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle (NA. Methods: Comparative case series; 30 patients with APAC and 27 glaucomatous patients with NA were evaluated. Keratometry (K, central corneal thickness (CCT, lens thickness (LT, axial length (AL and anterior chamber depth (ACD were measured. Parameters defined as lens posisiton (LP and relative lens position (RLP were calculated. Results: Biometric difference between APAC-affected and fellow eyes was found only in LP (P=0.046. When fellow eyes were compared to glaucomatous eyes with NA, differences were found in ACD (P=0.009, AL (P=0.010, and LT/AL (P=0.005. The comparison between APAC-affected and glaucomatous eyes with NA showed significant differences in almost all biometric parameters, except for LT (P=0.148 and RLP (P=0.374. We found that the logistic regression model (LRM, built with three parameters (K, CCT and LT/AL, higher than 0.334 could be a reasonable instrument to differentiate APAC eyes from glaucomatous eyes with NA. Conclusions: This study showed that APAC-affected and fellow eyes have similar biometric features, and glaucomatous eyes with NA have a less crowded anterior segment. The LRM built showed promising results in distinguishing APAC from glaucomatous eyes with NA.

  16. New comparative clinical and biometric findings between acute primary angle-closure and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérula, Rafael Vidal; Cronemberger, Sebastião; Diniz Filho, Alberto; Calixto, Nassim

    2010-01-01

    To compare, clinically and biometrically, affected and fellow acute primary angle-closure (APAC) eyes and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle (NA). Comparative case series; 30 patients with APAC and 27 glaucomatous patients with NA were evaluated. Keratometry (K), central corneal thickness (CCT), lens thickness (LT), axial length (AL) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured. Parameters defined as lens posisiton (LP) and relative lens position (RLP) were calculated. Biometric difference between APAC-affected and fellow eyes was found only in LP (P=0.046). When fellow eyes were compared to glaucomatous eyes with NA, differences were found in ACD (P=0.009), AL (P=0.010), and LT/AL (P=0.005). The comparison between APAC-affected and glaucomatous eyes with NA showed significant differences in almost all biometric parameters, except for LT (P=0.148) and RLP (P=0.374). We found that the logistic regression model (LRM), built with three parameters (K, CCT and LT/AL), higher than 0.334 could be a reasonable instrument to differentiate APAC eyes from glaucomatous eyes with NA. This study showed that APAC-affected and fellow eyes have similar biometric features, and glaucomatous eyes with NA have a less crowded anterior segment. The LRM built showed promising results in distinguishing APAC from glaucomatous eyes with NA.

  17. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J; Fulton, Anne B; Chui, Toco Y P; Moskowitz, Anne; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Hansen, Ronald M; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Akula, James D

    2015-05-01

    We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, L(ray)(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, E(ray)(x), from L(ray)dy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for E(ray)(x), G(x), at every age and position. Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

  18. Short-duration ocular iontophoresis of ionizable aciclovir prodrugs: A new approach to treat herpes simplex infections in the anterior and posterior segments of the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Kalia, Yogeshvar N

    2018-01-30

    The objective was to investigate (trans)corneal and transscleral iontophoresis of biolabile amino acid ester prodrugs of aciclovir (ACV-X, X = Arg, Gly and Trp) as a means to increase ocular bioavailability of ACV. Prodrugs displayed tissue-dependent susceptibility to hydrolysis. Iontophoresis of ACV-Arg, ACV-Gly and ACV-Trp (5 mM, 0.5 mA/cm 2 ) for 5 min followed by 55 min passive diffusion resulted in appreciable corneal deposition (21.5 ± 5.1, 14.1 ± 2.0 and 5.3 ± 0.6 nmol/cm 2 , respectively) and transcorneal permeation (13.9 ± 1.6, 10.9 ± 1.8 and 5.7 ± 0.5 nmol/cm 2 , respectively) of ACV species. In contrast, passive delivery of ACV across porcine cornea after 1 h was ACV-Arg, ACV-Gly and ACV-Trp (9 mM, 1.25 mA/cm 2 ) after iontophoresis for 5 min was 20.4 ± 3.8, 12.3 ± 0.3 and 8.4 ± 0.4 nmol/cm 2 , respectively - far superior to passive delivery which was again ACV-Gly at 3.75 mA/cm 2 resulted in considerable delivery of ACV species to the choroid/retina and vitreous humour (5.7 ± 2.3 and 11.7 ± 3.7 nmol/cm 2 , respectively). Furthermore, the average concentration of ACV species in the whole eyeball (4.5 ± 1.6 nmol/cm 3 ) was significantly higher than the IC 50 of ACV against HSV-1 (<0.22 nmol/cm 3 ), demonstrating the potential application for the treatment of ocular HSV infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External ...

  2. Comparison of central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurements using three imaging technologies in normal eyes and after phakic intraocular lens implantation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doors, M.; Cruysberg, L.P.J.; Berendschot, T.T.; Brabander, J. De; Verbakel, F.; Webers, C.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability and interchangeability of imaging devices measuring central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) are important in the assessment of patients considering refractive surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement of CCT and ACD

  3. A Sternum-Disk Distance Method to Identify the Skin Level for Approaching a Surgical Segment without Fluoroscopy Guidance during Anterior Cervical Discectomy And Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Gun Woo; Ahn, Myun-Whan; Shin, Ji-Hoon; Park, Jae Woo; Uh, Jae-Hyung; Park, Jong-Ho; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Wook; Yeom, Jin S.; Suh, Bo-Gun

    2017-01-01

    Study Design A retrospective review of prospectively collected data. Purpose To introduce the sternum-disk distance (SDD) method for approaching the exact surgical level without C-arm guidance during anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery and to evaluate its accuracy and reliability. Overview of Literature Although spine surgeons have tried to optimize methods for identifying the skin level for accessing the operative disk level without C-arm guidance during ACDF, success has ...

  4. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  5. Evaluation of Corneal Stromal Demarcation Line after Two Different Protocols of Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Procedures Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Bilge Ozgurhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the depth of corneal stromal demarcation line using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy after two different protocols of accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures (CXL. Methods. Patients with keratoconus were divided into two groups. Peschke CXL device (Peschke CCL-VARIO Meditrade GmbH applied UVA light with an intended irradiance of 18.0 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes after applying riboflavin for 20 minutes (group 1 and 30 minutes (group 2. One month postoperatively, corneal stromal demarcation line was measured using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy. Results. This study enrolled 34 eyes of 34 patients (17 eyes in group 1 and 17 eyes in group 2. The mean depth of the corneal stromal demarcation line was 208.64±18.41 μm in group 1 and 240.37±18.89 μm in group 2 measured with AS OCT, while it was 210.29±18.66 μm in group 1 and 239.37±20.07 μm in group 2 measured with confocal microscopy. Corneal stromal demarcation line depth measured with AS OCT or confocal microscopy was significantly deeper in group 2 than group 1 (P<0.01. Conclusion. The group in which riboflavin was applied for 30 minutes showed significantly deeper corneal stromal demarcation line than the group in which riboflavin was applied for 20 minutes.

  6. Differences between fellow eyes of acute and chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma): An ultrasound biomicroscopy quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengwei; Chen, Yuhong; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Wenqing; Chen, Xueli; Wang, Xiaolei; Fang, Yuan; Kong, Xiangmei; Dai, Yi; Chen, Junyi; Sun, Xinghuai

    2018-01-01

    To compare various biometric parameters between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure (glaucoma) [APAC(G)] and fellow eyes of chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma) [CPAC(G)]. Ultrasound biomicroscopy examinations were performed on 47 patients with unilateral APAC(G) and 41 patients with asymmetric CPAC(G) before laser peripheral iridotomy and pilocarpine treatment. Anterior chamber depth and width (ACD and ACW), lens vault (LV), iris curvature (IC), iris root distance (IRD), trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD), iris-ciliary process distance (ICPD), trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA), and other biometric parameters were compared between fellow eyes of APAC(G) and fellow eyes of CAPC(G). Compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G), fellow eyes of APAC(G) had smaller ACD (P APAC(G) had smaller anterior segment dimensions, higher LV, more posterior iris insertion, greater IC, and more anteriorly rotated ciliary body compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G). ACD, ICPD, and IRD were the three most important parameters that distinguish eyes predisposed to APAC(G) or CPAC(G).

  7. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Yamaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient’s malocclusion. The patient’s mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course.

  8. The association of right coronary artery conus branch size and course with ST segment elevation of right precordial leads and clinical outcome of acute anterior myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ghaffari

    2017-03-01

    Methods: Seventy-four patients with acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction (Ant- STEMI presenting to the emergency room in the first 12 hours after the onset of symptoms were studied. Upon admission, a full 14-lead ECG (including leads V3R and V4R were performed. Angiographic and ECG findings, as well as clinical outcome were compared between two groups. The statistical tests including Chi-square and independent t-test were used for data analysis. Results: Small conus branch was seen in 52 (70.3% and large conus in 22 ( 29.7% patients. STE in right-sided leads and heart failure were significantly higher in small conus branch group versus large conus branch (88.6% vs 11.4%, P < 0.001 and 34.6% vs 9.1%, P = 0.02 respectively. There was no significant difference in mortality rate between the two groups (5.8% in small conous group vs 0% in large conus group, P = 0.55. There was a significant difference in major adverse cardiac events (MACE between the two groups (51.9% in small conous group vs 18.2% in large conus group, P = 0.01. Conclusion: In patients with anterior MI, small conus branch was associated with higher rate of major adverse cardiac events mostly because of increased rate of acute heart failure.

  9. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval P Shukla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  10. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, Dhaval P.; Bhat, Dhananjaya I.; Devi, Bhagavatula I.

    2013-01-01

    Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  11. Anterior communicating artery aneurysm presenting with vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Dhaval P; Bhat, Dhananjaya I; Devi, Bhagavatula I

    2013-07-01

    Anterior communicating artery aneurysm rarely presents with symptoms of compression of anterior visual pathways. We report a case of 65 years old man, who had complete loss of vision in right eye and temporal hemianopsia in left eye due to giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  12. Sipunculans and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups-Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental plasticity and potential evolutionary lability of segmentation nourishes the controversy of a segmented bilaterian ancestor versus multiple independent evolution of segmentation in respective metazoan lineages.

  13. Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar spinal fusion: the impact of anterior column support: a randomized clinical trial with an eight- to thirteen-year magnetic resonance imaging follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Egund, Niels; Christensen, Finn B; Grethe Jurik, Anne; Bünger, Cody E

    2010-10-15

    Randomized controlled trial. To analyze long-term adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after lumbar fusion on magnetic resonance imaging and compare randomization groups with and without anterior column support. ASD can be a long-term complication after fusion. The prevalence and the cause of ASD are not well documented, but ASD are one of the main arguments for introducing the use of motion-preserving techniques as an alternative to fusion. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral lumbar fusion (ALIF+PLF) has been proved superior to posterolateral fusion alone regarding outcome and cost-effectiveness. Between 1996 and 1999, 148 patients with severe chronic low back pain were randomly selected for ALIF+PLF or for PLF alone. Ninety-five patients participated. ASD was examined on magnetic resonance imaging with regard to disc degeneration, disc herniation, stenosis, and endplate changes. Disc heights on radiographs taken at index surgery and at long-term follow-up were compared. Outcome was assessed by validated questionnaires. The follow-up rate was 76%. ASD was similar between randomization groups. In the total cohort, endplate changes were seen in 26% of the participants and correlated significantly with the presence of disc degeneration and disc herniation. Disc degeneration and dorsal disc herniation were the parameters registered most frequently and were significantly more pronounced at the first adjacent level than at the second and the third adjacent levels. Patients without disc height reduction over time were significantly younger than patients with disc height reduction. Disc degeneration and stenosis correlated significantly with outcome at the first adjacent level. The cause of the superior outcome in the group with anterior support is still unclear. Compared with the findings reported in the literature, the prevalence of ASD is likely to be in concordance with the expected changes in a nonoperated symptomatic population and therefore

  14. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of long segment anterior urethral stricture (≥ 8cm using buccal mucosal (BM graft and penile skin (PS flap: outcome and predictors of failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Alsagheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the surgical outcome and predictors of failure of substitution urethroplasty using either dorsal onlay buccal mucosal (BM graft or ventral onlay penile skin flap (PS for anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8cm. Patients and methods Between March 2010 and January 2016, 50 patients with anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8 cm were treated at our hospital. The surgical outcome and success rate were assessed. The predictors of failure were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Failure was considered when subsequent urethrotomy or urethroplasty were needed. Results Dorsal onlay BM graft was carried out in 24 patients, while PS urethroplasty in 26 patients. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding patients demographics, stricture characteristics or follow-up period. One case in the BM group was lost during follow-up. Stricture recurrence was detected in 7 (30.4% patients out of BM group while in 6 (23.1% patients out of PS group (p value= 0.5. No significant differences between both groups regarding overall early and late complications were observed. Occurrence of early complications and the stricture length were the only predictors of failure in univariate analysis, while in multivariate analysis the occurrence of early complications was only significant. Conclusion On short-term follow-up, both dorsal onlay BM graft and ventral onlay PS flap urethroplasty have similar success rates. However, BM graft has a potential advantage to reduce operative time and is also technically easier. The surgeon should avoid early local complications as they represent a higher risk for failure.

  16. Sarnicola air-visco bubble technique in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muftuoglu, Orkun; Toro, Patricia; Hogan, R Nick; Bowman, R Wayne; Cavanagh, H Dwight; McCulley, James P; Mootha, V Vinod; Sarnicola, Vicenzo

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a new modification for big-bubble deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) using pneumatic pressure to detach Descemet membrane (DM) via air injection followed by ophthalmic viscoelastic device (OVD) injection. After failure of big-bubble formation after air injection, OVD was injected from a different site other than the previous air injection using a 27-gauge cannula to detach DM, called air-visco bubble (AVB) DALK technique. The technique was used in 7 human corneoscleral rims that were investigated with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and histopathology and in 69 eyes that underwent DALK surgeries. Big-bubble formation was noted in 4 of 7 of the donor corneoscleral rims. The anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed big-bubble formations together with intrastromal OVD accumulation. The histology of the donor corneas showed microdetachments at the DM in the periphery, deep intrastromal separation, and big-bubble formation filled with OVD. One hundred forty-one of 210 eyes (67%) underwent successful DALK with only air injection, and 69 of 210 eyes (33%) underwent AVB technique when a big bubble was not achieved with only air injection. All the corneas showed a clear interface with good wound healing when DM was bared with the AVB DALK technique. Additional OVD injection to detach DM may be useful in cases where air injection fails. Also, creating small DM detachments with air injection may facilitate the formation of a big bubble with further OVD injection.

  17. An analysis of anterior scleral shape and its role in the design and fitting of scleral contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Markus; Caroline, Patrick J; Börret, Rainer; Korszen, Emily

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shape of the anterior sclera by measuring the sagittal height and corneoscleral transition angles in the four cardinal and four oblique segments of the eye. In this study, 78 normal eyes of 39 subjects were evaluated. The sagittal height, corneoscleral angle and scleral angle were measured at three chord lengths (10.0mm, 12.8mm and 15.0mm) in all eight segments of the anterior eye using optical coherence tomography (Zeiss Visante AS-OCT). Scleral toricity was calculated for each eye, defined as the greatest sagittal height difference found between two perpendicular meridians. At a 12.8mm chord length, the shape of the anterior eye was found to be nearly rotationally symmetric, and at a chord of 15.0mm the shape became more asymmetric. The average sagittal heights of the eight segments at a 12.8mm chord ranged from 2890μm to 2940μm; at a 15.0mm chord they ranged from 3680μm to 3790μm. The average scleral angles at a 15.0mm chord ranged from 35.17° to 38.82°. Significant differences between opposing segments were found in the sagittal height and scleral angle measurements at a chord of 15.0mm (sagittal height p≤0.0021; scleral angle p≤0.0105). The nasal measurements revealed flatter scleral angles and concave corneoscleral transitions, whereas temporal scleral angles were steeper, with tangential or convex corneoscleral transitions. These findings are important to consider when designing and fitting contact lenses that rest beyond the boundaries of the limbus, such as scleral lenses. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A safe approach to explore/identify the V(2) segment of the vertebral artery during anterior approaches to cervical spine and/or arterial repairs: anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourbakhsh, Ali; Yang, Jinping; Gallagher, Sean; Nanda, Anil; Vannemreddy, Prasad; Garges, Kim J

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find a landmark according to which the surgeon can dissect the cervical spine safely, with the lowest possibility of damaging the vertebral artery (VA) during anterior approaches to the cervical spine or the VA. The "safe zone" for each level of the cervical spine was described as an area where the surgeon can start from the midline in that zone and dissect the soft tissue laterally to end up on the transverse process and cross the VA while still on the transverse process. In other words, safe zone signifies the narrowest width of the transverse process at each level. In such an approach, the VA is protected from the inadvertent deep penetration of the instruments by the transverse process. The surgical safe zone for each level was the common area among at least 95% of the safe zones for that level. For the purpose of defining the upper and lower borders of the safe zone for each level, the line passing from the upper vertebral border perpendicular to the midline (upper vertebral border line) was used as a reference. Cervical spines of 64 formalin-fixed cadavers were dissected. The soft tissue in front of the transverse process and intertransverse space was removed. Digital pictures of the specimens were taken before and after removal of the transverse processes, and the distance to the upper and lower border of the safe zone from the upper vertebral border line was measured on the digital pictures with Image J software. The VA diameter and distance from the midline at each level were also measured. To compare the means, the authors used t-test and ANOVA. The surgical safe zone lies between 1 mm above and 1 mm below the upper vertebral border at the fourth vertebra, 2 mm above and 1 mm below the upper vertebral border at the fifth vertebra, and 1 mm above and 2 mm below the upper vertebral border of the sixth vertebra. The VA was observed to be tortuous in 13% of the intertransverse spaces. There is a positive association between

  19. The clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung; Lee, Min Woo; Byeon, Suk Ho; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Min

    2017-09-01

    Our purpose was to describe the clinical course, and individualized management approaches, of patients with migration of a dexamethasone implant into the anterior chamber. This was a retrospective review of four patients with seven episodes of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant. After 924 intravitreal dexamethasone injections, anterior migration of the implant occurred in four eyes of four patients (0.43%). All four eyes were pseudophakic: one eye had a posterior chamber intraocular lens in the capsular bag but in a post-laser posterior capsulotomy state, two eyes had a sulcus intraocular lens (IOL), and one eye had an iris-fixated retropupillary IOL. All eyes had a prior vitrectomy and no lens capsule. The time interval from injection to detection of the implant migration ranged from 2 to 6 weeks. Of the four eyes with corneal edema, only one eye required a corneal transplantation, although it was unclear whether the implant migration was the direct cause of the corneal decompensation because the patient had a history of bullous keratopathy resulting from an extended history of uveitis. All patients underwent surgical intervention: two patients with a repositioning procedure, and the other two patients with removal due to repeated episodes, although surgical removal was not always necessary to reverse the corneal complications. In our study, not all patients required surgical removal of the implants. Repositioning the implant back into the vitreous cavity may be considered as an option in cases involving the first episode with no significant corneal endothelial decompensation. Considering potential anterior segment complications and the loss of drug effectiveness together, an individualized approach is recommended to obtain the best treatment outcomes and to minimize the risk of corneal complications.

  20. Retinoic acid signalling in the zebrafish embryo is necessary during pre-segmentation stages to pattern the anterior-posterior axis of the CNS and to induce a pectoral fin bud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandel, Heiner; Lun, Klaus; Rauch, Gerd-Jörg; Rhinn, Muriel; Piotrowski, Tatjana; Houart, Corinne; Sordino, Paolo; Küchler, Axel M; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; Geisler, Robert; Holder, Nigel; Wilson, Stephen W; Brand, Michael

    2002-06-01

    A number of studies have suggested that retinoic acid (RA) is an important signal for patterning the hindbrain, the branchial arches and the limb bud. Retinoic acid is thought to act on the posterior hindbrain and the limb buds at somitogenesis stages in chick and mouse embryos. Here we report a much earlier requirement for RA signalling during pre-segmentation stages for proper development of these structures in zebrafish. We present evidence that a RA signal is necessary during pre-segmentation stages for proper expression of the spinal cord markers hoxb5a and hoxb6b, suggesting an influence of RA on anteroposterior patterning of the neural plate posterior to the hindbrain. We report the identification and expression pattern of the zebrafish retinaldehyde dehydrogenase2 (raldh2/aldh1a2) gene. Raldh2 synthesises retinoic acid (RA) from its immediate precursor retinal. It is expressed in a highly ordered spatial and temporal fashion during gastrulation in the involuting mesoderm and during later embryogenesis in paraxial mesoderm, branchial arches, eyes and fin buds, suggesting the involvement of RA at different times of development in different functional contexts. Mapping of the raldh2 gene reveals close linkage to no-fin (nof), a newly discovered mutant lacking pectoral fins and cartilaginous gill arches. Cloning and functional tests of the wild-type and nof alleles of raldh2 reveal that nof is a raldh2 mutant. By treating nof mutants with RA during different time windows and by making use of a retinoic acid receptor antagonist, we show that RA signalling during pre-segmentation stages is necessary for anteroposterior patterning in the CNS and for fin induction to occur.

  1. Single session, intrauser repeatability of anterior chamber biometric and corneal pachy-volumetric parameters using a new Scheimpflug+Placido device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv

    2016-01-01

    To analyze single session, intrauser reliability of a Scheimpflug device for anterior chamber (AC) and corneal parameters. In this observational study, 100 normal candidates underwent Scheimpflug analysis with Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug Camera and Topography System (Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). Two scans in dark room conditions were performed by the same experienced user. The candidates were asked to keep both eyes closed for 5min before the scans. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgery, corneal scarring and anterior segment/posterior segment anomalies. Only the right eyes were used for the analysis. Both corneal (central, minimum, and apical thickness, volume, horizontal visible iris diameter, and apical curvature) and anterior chamber (volume, depth, angle, horizontal diameter) measurements were evaluated. There was no difference in the means of repeated measurements (p>0.05, ANOVA). Intraclass correlations between the measures were high and ranged from 0.995-0.997 for corneal to 0.964-0.997 for anterior chamber (AC) parameters. The precision of repeatability measures (1.96×Sw) was approximately 5μ for the central and minimum corneal thickness, 8μ for the apical corneal thickness, 0.06mm for AC (anterior chamber) depth and less than 2° for the AC angle. Sirius Scheimpflug system has high repeatability for both corneal and AC parameters in normal eyes. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificial eye. 886.3200 Section 886.3200 Food and... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a device resembling the anterior portion of the eye, usually made of glass or plastic, intended to be...

  3. An unusual case of feline acute corneal hydrops: atypical disease presentation and possible in vivo detection of Descemet's membrane detachment in the cat's unaffected eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesener, Brittany N; Scott, Erin M; Vallone, Lucien V

    2017-11-07

    A 1-year-old, female spayed, domestic shorthair cat presented for blepharospasm of the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination showed focal corneal ulceration and presumptive keratomalacia of the right eye. Examination of the left eye was normal apart from a focal endothelial opacity. Within the first 24 h of medical management, the right eye developed marked corneal edema and globular anterior protrusion of the corneal surface consistent with feline acute corneal hydrops (FACH). Surgical management consisted of a bridge conjunctival graft, nictitating membrane flap, and temporary tarsorrhaphy. Resolution of corneal edema and pain occurred in the right eye within 24 days. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) of the anterior segment was performed in both eyes. Conjunctival tissue from the bridge graft precluded examination of deeper corneal structures in the right eye. The left eye displayed a focal separation of the corneal endothelium and Descemet's membrane from the overlying stroma. These SD-OCT findings are similar to the analogous syndrome found in humans and represent a potential etiology for FACH of the right eye in the case presented here. Unfortunately, the cat was lost to follow-up and the progression of this lesion to FACH in the left eye could not be determined. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Unraveling Pancreatic Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Yohann; de Mestier, Louis; Perez, Manuela; Avisse, Claude; Lévy, Philippe; Kianmanesh, Reza

    2018-04-01

    Limited pancreatic resections are increasingly performed, but the rate of postoperative fistula is higher than after classical resections. Pancreatic segmentation, anatomically and radiologically identifiable, may theoretically help the surgeon removing selected anatomical portions with their own segmental pancreatic duct and thus might decrease the postoperative fistula rate. We aimed at systematically and comprehensively reviewing the previously proposed pancreatic segmentations and discuss their relevance and limitations. PubMed database was searched for articles investigating pancreatic segmentation, including human or animal anatomy, and cadaveric or surgical studies. Overall, 47/99 articles were selected and grouped into 4 main hypotheses of pancreatic segmentation methodology: anatomic, vascular, embryologic and lymphatic. The head, body and tail segments are gross description without distinct borders. The arterial territories defined vascular segments and isolate an isthmic paucivascular area. The embryological theory relied on the fusion plans of the embryological buds. The lymphatic drainage pathways defined the lymphatic segmentation. These theories had differences, but converged toward separating the head and body/tail parts, and the anterior from posterior and inferior parts of the pancreatic head. The rate of postoperative fistula was not decreased when surgical resection was performed following any of these segmentation theories; hence, none of them appeared relevant enough to guide pancreatic transections. Current pancreatic segmentation theories do not enable defining anatomical-surgical pancreatic segments. Other approaches should be explored, in particular focusing on pancreatic ducts, through pancreatic ducts reconstructions and embryologic 3D modelization.

  5. Effects of benzydamine eye drops on the rabbit's eye reaction to surgical, physical, and chemical stimuli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomazzoli, L.; Bonora, A.; Luparini, M.R.; Durando, L.; Ciarniello, M.G.; Cioli, V.; Bonomi, L.

    The effects of benzydamine eye drops on the ocular reaction to different irritating stimuli in rabbits are reported. Benzydamine at the concentration of 0.1% reduces inflammatory tissue changes induced by AgNO3 burning of the cornea and inhibits the blood-aqueous barrier breakdown due to peripheral iridectomy or laser irradiation of the iris. Benzydamine reduces the aqueous PGE2 concentration to a similar extent as a 0.5% commercially available eye drop formulation of piroxicam. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro results demonstrating that benzydamine is devoid of any effects on PG synthesis. The possibility that PGE2 reduction is an indirect effect due to other biochemical activities of benzydamine is discussed. In the normal eye benzydamine manifests a local anaesthetic effect which is not accompanied by irritative changes in the anterior segment of the eye, changes in the intraocular pressure or pupillary size. It is suggested that in the clinical use of benzydamine eye drops the local anaesthetic activity may contribute to reducing both the neurogenic component of ocular inflammation and acute pain following injuries to the eye.

  6. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  7. Joint retinal layer and fluid segmentation in OCT scans of eyes with severe macular edema using unsupervised representation and auto-context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montuoro, Alessio; Waldstein, Sebastian M; Gerendas, Bianca S; Schmidt-Erfurth, Ursula; Bogunović, Hrvoje

    2017-03-01

    Modern optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices used in ophthalmology acquire steadily increasing amounts of imaging data. Thus, reliable automated quantitative analysis of OCT images is considered to be of utmost importance. Current automated retinal OCT layer segmentation methods work reliably on healthy or mildly diseased retinas, but struggle with the complex interaction of the layers with fluid accumulations in macular edema. In this work, we present a fully automated 3D method which is able to segment all the retinal layers and fluid-filled regions simultaneously, exploiting their mutual interaction to improve the overall segmentation results. The machine learning based method combines unsupervised feature representation and heterogeneous spatial context with a graph-theoretic surface segmentation. The method was extensively evaluated on manual annotations of 20,000 OCT B-scans from 100 scans of patients and on a publicly available data set consisting of 110 annotated B-scans from 10 patients, all with severe macular edema, yielding an overall mean Dice coefficient of 0.76 and 0.78, respectively.

  8. Eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Z K

    1991-01-01

    Eye cosmetics are useful to highlight and emphasize the eyes. Currently available eye cosmetics include eye shadows, eye shadow setting creams, under-eye concealers, eye-liners, mascaras, artificial eyelashes, and eyebrow pencils. Special care must be taken when patients with sensitive skin or contact lens wearers select eye cosmetics. Eye cosmetics may also be the cause of either irritant or allergic contact dermatitis, which are two causes of the upper-eyelid dermatitis syndrome.

  9. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  10. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  11. Eye Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Symptoms This symptoms list is for general reference ... Y Z A-Z A B Blood in Eye Bloodshot Eye Blurriness Burning Eyes C Crusty Eyelid ...

  12. Eye pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  13. Association of biometric factors with anterior chamber angle widening and intraocular pressure reduction after uneventful phacoemulsification for cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guofu; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Lee, Roland; Chen, Yi-Chun; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate anterior chamber biometric factors associated with the degree of angle widening and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after phacoemulsification. University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. Case series. Anterior chamber parameters obtained by anterior segment coherence tomography were compared preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Measurements included the angle opening distance 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular-iris space area 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500), iris curvature (I-Curv), anterior chamber angle (ACA), trabecular-iris space area, anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber width, and lens vault (LV). The study enrolled 73 eyes. The mean patient age was 77.45 years ± 7.84 (SD); 65.75% of patients were women. From preoperatively to 3 months postoperatively, the mean AOD500 increased significantly (0.254 ± 0.105 to 0.433 ± 0.108 mm) and the mean IOP decreased significantly (14.97 ± 3.35 to 12.62 ± 3.37 mm Hg) (Pbiometric factors. Preoperative LV appears to be a significant factor in angle widening and IOP reduction after phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  15. Differences between fellow eyes of acute and chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma: An ultrasound biomicroscopy quantitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengwei Li

    Full Text Available To compare various biometric parameters between fellow eyes of acute primary angle closure (glaucoma [APAC(G] and fellow eyes of chronic primary angle closure (glaucoma [CPAC(G].Ultrasound biomicroscopy examinations were performed on 47 patients with unilateral APAC(G and 41 patients with asymmetric CPAC(G before laser peripheral iridotomy and pilocarpine treatment. Anterior chamber depth and width (ACD and ACW, lens vault (LV, iris curvature (IC, iris root distance (IRD, trabecular-ciliary process distance (TCPD, iris-ciliary process distance (ICPD, trabecular-ciliary angle (TCA, and other biometric parameters were compared between fellow eyes of APAC(G and fellow eyes of CAPC(G.Compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G, fellow eyes of APAC(G had smaller ACD (P < 0.001, ACW (P = 0.007, TCPD (P = 0.016, ICPD (P = 0.008, and TCA (P = 0.006, as well as larger LV (P = 0.002, IC (P = 0.012, and IRD (P = 0.003. On multivariate logistic regression analyses, a 0.1 mm decrease in ACD (odds ratio [OR]: 0.705, 95%CI: 0.564-0.880, P = 0.002, ICPD (OR: 0.557, 95%CI: 0.335-0.925, P = 0.024, and a 0.1 mm increase in IRD (OR: 2.707, 95%CI: 1.025-7.149, P = 0.045, was significantly associated with occurrence of acute angle closures.Fellow eyes of APAC(G had smaller anterior segment dimensions, higher LV, more posterior iris insertion, greater IC, and more anteriorly rotated ciliary body compared with fellow eyes of CPAC(G. ACD, ICPD, and IRD were the three most important parameters that distinguish eyes predisposed to APAC(G or CPAC(G.

  16. Stromal demarcation line induced by corneal cross-linking in eyes with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, João B N; Renesto, Adimara C; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Soong, H K; Campos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate stromal demarcation lines following corneal cross-linking (CXL) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in patients with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography. Fifth-nine eyes of 59 patients were enrolled in a retrospective comparative case series, of which 19 eyes had keratoconus and 40 eyes had asymmetric topography. Eyes with asymmetric topography were treated in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy. One month after CXL, a stromal demarcation line was evaluated at 5 standardized corneal points using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Mean stromal demarcation line depths were measured at 5 points on the cornea, namely, centrally, 3.0 mm temporally, 1.5 mm temporally, 3.0 mm nasally, and 1.5 mm nasally. For the keratoconus group, the values were 178 ± 47, 123 ± 15, 152 ± 47, 125 ± 23, and 160 ± 43 μm, respectively. For the asymmetric corneal topography group (without keratoconus), they were 305 ± 64, 235 ± 57, 294 ± 50, 214 ± 54, and 285 ± 58 μm, respectively. There was no correlation between central corneal pachymetry and stromal demarcation line depth in all 5 measured corneal points in both groups. CXL treatment profiles are similar in keratoconic and nonkeratoconic eyes with asymmetric topography.

  17. The spectrum of eye injuries in Sagamu, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajibode, H A; Thanni, L O; Onabolu, O O; Bodunde, O T; Otulana, T O

    2013-01-01

    Eye injuries are major causes of visual morbidity and monocular blindness worldwide. The common causes of eye injuries needs to be well defined in each community so as to plan for prevention of high morbidity and blindness as part of blindness prevention programme. It is necessary to compare the trend in causes of ocular injuries in Ogun State after a similar study over 15 years before. The part played by road traffic accidents [RTA] compared to other causes is also to be analysed. This prospective study was carried out between July 2004 and June 2005. All cases presenting to the Accident and Emergency Unit and Eye Clinic of Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu, and the 2 private eye clinics in Sagamu town, presenting with any form of eye injuries during the study period were included. The biodata, cause and type of eye injury, time of injury, time of presentation and treatment offered were obtained using a questionnaire. The results were analysed with Epi-Info 2002. One hundred and twelve patients were studied. Eighty-one [72.3%] of the victims were males; most of them, 36[33.0%] were students and 32 [29.4%] artisans. The common causes of eye injuries were RTA 35[31.3%], assault 22[19.6%], vegetative agents 18 [16.1%] and machine tools 11[9.8%]. Most patients presented either within 24 hours, 56[50.0%] or within a week, 34[30.4%] of injury, and mostly during the day 86[97.6%]. Most injuries were found in the anterior segment 95[84.8%] and most commonly, victims 65[58%] required only medications as treatment. Majority of eye injuries found in Sagamu are treatable and can be handled by an experienced non-ophthalmologist successfully and most are now accounted for by RTAs and assault which indicate some changes in common causes compared to previous studies in Nigeria.

  18. A new 4-variable formula to differentiate normal variant ST segment elevation in V2-V4 (early repolarization) from subtle left anterior descending coronary occlusion - Adding QRS amplitude of V2 improves the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Brian E; Khalil, Ayesha; Henry, Timothy; Kazmi, Faraz; Adil, Amina; Smith, Stephen W

    Precordial normal variant ST elevation (NV-STE), previously often called "early repolarization," may be difficult to differentiate from subtle ischemic STE due to left anterior descending (LAD) occlusion. We previously derived and validated a logistic regression formula that was far superior to STE alone for differentiating the two entities on the ECG. The tool uses R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B). The 3-variable formula is: 1.196 x STE60V3 + 0.059 × QTc-B - 0.326 × RAV4 with a value ≥23.4 likely to be acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Adding QRS voltage in V2 (QRSV2) would improve the accuracy of the formula. 355 consecutive cases of proven LAD occlusion were reviewed, and those that were obvious ST elevation myocardial infarction were excluded. Exclusion was based on one straight or convex ST segment in V2-V6, 1 millimeter of summed inferior ST depression, any anterior ST depression, Q-waves, "terminal QRS distortion," or any ST elevation >5 mm. The NV-STE group comprised emergency department patients with chest pain who ruled out for AMI by serial troponins, had a cardiologist ECG read of "NV-STE," and had at least 1 mm of STE in V2 and V3. R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B) had previously been measured in all ECGs; physicians blinded to outcome then measured QRSV2 in all ECGs. A 4-variable formula was derived to more accurately classify LAD occlusion vs. NV-STE and optimize area under the curve (AUC) and compared with the previous 3-variable formula. There were 143 subtle LAD occlusions and 171 NV-STE. A low QRSV2 added diagnostic utility. The derived 4-variable formula is: 0.052*QTc-B - 0.151*QRSV2 - 0.268*RV4 + 1.062*STE60V3. The 3-variable formula had an AUC of 0.9538 vs. 0.9686 for the 4-variable formula (p = 0

  19. An OCT Study of Anterior Nodular Episcleritis and Scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakopoulos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Anterior scleritis and episcleritis are a well-known presentation in tuberculosis. The case of a female patient with presumed tuberculous anterior scleritis and episcleritis is discussed in this article. Anterior segment OCT was efficient in diagnosis and evaluation of the therapeutic outcome. Antituberculosis chemotherapy was sufficient to achieve clinical remission.

  20. An OCT Study of Anterior Nodular Episcleritis and Scleritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Christakopoulos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anterior scleritis and episcleritis are a well-known presentation in tuberculosis. The case of a female patient with presumed tuberculous anterior scleritis and episcleritis is discussed in this article. Anterior segment OCT was efficient in diagnosis and evaluation of the therapeutic outcome. Antituberculosis chemotherapy was sufficient to achieve clinical remission.

  1. An OCT Study of Anterior Nodular Episcleritis and Scleritis

    OpenAIRE

    Christakopoulos, Christos

    2017-01-01

    Anterior scleritis and episcleritis are a well-known presentation in tuberculosis. The case of a female patient with presumed tuberculous anterior scleritis and episcleritis is discussed in this article. Anterior segment OCT was efficient in diagnosis and evaluation of the therapeutic outcome. Antituberculosis chemotherapy was sufficient to achieve clinical remission.

  2. Relationship between iris surface features and angle width in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhartha, Elizabeth; Nongpiur, Monisha Esther; Cheung, Carol Y; He, Mingguang; Wong, Tien Yin; Aung, Tin; Cheng, Ching-Yu

    2014-10-23

    To examine the associations between iris surface features with anterior chamber angle width in Asian eyes. In this prospective cross-sectional study, we recruited 600 subjects from a large population-based study, the Singapore Epidemiology of Eye Diseases (SEED) study. We obtained standardized digital slit-lamp iris photographs and graded the iris crypts (by number and size), furrows (by number and circumferential extent), and color (higher grade denoting darker iris). Vertical and horizontal cross-sections of anterior chamber were imaged using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area (ARA), and trabecular-iris space area (TISA) were measured using customized software. Associations of the angle width with the iris surface features in the subject's right eyes were assessed using linear regression analysis. A total of 464 eyes of the 464 subjects (mean age: 57.5 ± 8.6 years) had complete and gradable data for crypts and color, and 423 eyes had gradable data for furrows. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, pupil size, and corneal arcus, higher crypt grade was independently associated with wider AOD750 (β [change in angle width per grade higher] = 0.018, P = 0.023), ARA750 (β = 0.022, P = 0.049), and TISA750 (β = 0.011, P = 0.019), and darker iris was associated narrower ARA750 (β = -0.025, P = 0.044) and TISA750 (β = -0.013, P = 0.011). Iris surface features, assessed and measured from slit-lamp photographs, correlated well with anterior chamber angle width; irises with more crypts and lighter color were associated with wider angle. These findings may provide another imaging modality to assess angle closure risk based on iris surface features. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  4. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  5. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  6. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  7. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  8. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  9. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  10. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  11. SMARTPHONE-BASED DILATED FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY AND NEAR VISUAL ACUITY TESTING AS INEXPENSIVE SCREENING TOOLS TO DETECT REFERRAL WARRANTED DIABETIC EYE DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C; Myung, David J; He, Lingmin; Pan, Carolyn K; Chang, Robert T; Polkinhorne, Alison; Merrell, Douglas; Foster, Doug; Blumenkranz, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    To compare clinical assessment of diabetic eye disease by standard dilated examination with data gathered using a smartphone-based store-and-forward teleophthalmology platform. 100 eyes of 50 adult patients with diabetes from a health care safety-net ophthalmology clinic. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Concurrently, a smartphone was used to estimate near visual acuity and capture anterior and dilated posterior segment photographs, which underwent masked, standardized review. Quantitative comparison of clinic and smartphone-based data using descriptive, kappa, Bland-Altman, and receiver operating characteristic analyses was performed. Smartphone visual acuity was successfully measured in all eyes. Anterior and posterior segment photography was of sufficient quality to grade in 96 and 98 eyes, respectively. There was good correlation between clinical Snellen and smartphone visual acuity measurements (rho = 0.91). Smartphone-acquired fundus photographs demonstrated 91% sensitivity and 99% specificity to detect moderate nonproliferative and worse diabetic retinopathy, with good agreement between clinic and photograph grades (kappa = 0.91 ± 0.1, P smartphone-based telemedicine system that demonstrated sensitivity and specificity to detect referral-warranted diabetic eye disease as a proof-of-concept. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate this approach to expanding screening for diabetic retinopathy.

  12. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  13. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  14. Surgical management of malignant glaucoma: a retrospective analysis of fifty eight eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balekudaru, S; Choudhari, N S; Rewri, P; George, R; Bhende, P S; Bhende, M; Lingam, V; Lingam, G

    2017-06-01

    PurposeTo assess outcomes of surgical management of malignant glaucoma in terms of re-formation of anterior chamberMethodsThis was a retrospective analysis of consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment for malignant glaucoma between January 1995 and December 2013 at a tertiary care ophthalmic institute, with a minimum follow up of 2 months.ResultsFifty eight eyes of 58 patients were included. Fifty two (89.7%) patients had primary angle closure glaucoma. The majority had undergone glaucoma filtration surgery earlier (n=53, 91.4%). Lensectomy and anterior vitrectomy was performed in 15 (25.9%) eyes (Group 1). Vitrectomy and anterior chamber re-formation was performed in 27 (46.6%) eyes (Group 2). Vitrectomy-phacoemulsification-vitrectomy was performed in 16 (27.6%) eyes (Group 3). Communication between the two segments of eye through anterior hyaloid, lens capsule complex and/or iris was achieved in all groups. The median follow-up (Inter-quartile range) was 30 (71.5) months. Anterior chamber re-formation was achieved in 56 (96.5%) eyes at final visit. The improvement in mean±SD LogMAR visual acuity (1.1±1 to 0.7±0.8) and reduction in number ±SD of anti-glaucoma medications (2.1±1.1 to 1±1.6) between onset and final visit were significant (P=0.02 and <0.01, respectively). The intraocular pressure (mm Hg) at onset and at final visit was 30.7±17.4 and 14±6.2, 32.8±12.6 and 15.3±7.4, and 27.2±14 and 10.9±3 in groups 1-3, respectively (all P<0.01).ConclusionOur anatomical success rate was high. The key element in achieving this outcome was the establishment of a patent communication between the vitreous cavity and the anterior chamber.

  15. The Effect of Age, Accommodation, and Refractive Error on the Adult Human Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richdale, Kathryn; Bullimore, Mark A; Sinnott, Loraine T; Zadnik, Karla

    2016-01-01

    To quantify changes in ocular dimensions associated with age, refractive error, and accommodative response, in vivo, in 30- to 50-year-old human subjects. The right eyes of 91 adults were examined using ultrasonography, phakometry, keratometry, pachymetry, interferometry, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Accommodation was measured subjectively with a push-up test and objectively using open-field autorefraction. Regression analyses were used to assess differences in ocular parameters with age, refractive error, and accommodation. With age, crystalline lens thickness increased (0.03 mm/yr), anterior lens curvature steepened (0.11 mm/yr), anterior chamber depth decreased (0.02 mm/yr), and lens equivalent refractive index decreased (0.001/yr) (all p error is significantly correlated with not only the axial dimensions but also the anterior equatorial dimension of the adult eye. Further testing and development of accommodating intraocular lenses should account for differences in patients' preoperative refractive error.

  16. Eye diseases in children in jourdan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, A.M.V.; Suha, A.E.M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate eye diseases in children in Jordan and to see whether it is necessary to conduct a visual screening programme. Methods: The study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2012 at four Royal Medical Service hospitals located in northern, eastern, middle and southern parts of Jordan. Children aged (6-14 years) attending paediatric clinics for various reasons were enrolled. Ophthalmologic assessment included visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examination. Patients with visual acuity of less than 20/20 underwent refraction under cyclopegia. Results: Of the 3200 children in the study ocular abnormalities were found in 366 (11.4%); 312 (9.8%) had visual acuity less than 20/20 in one or both eyes. Refractive error was seen in 286 (8.9%); while vernal catarrh was the second most common ocular abnormality with 51 (1.6%) patients followed by squint 16(0.5%). Four (0.12%) patients had severe visual impairment and one (0.03%) patient was blind. Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive error was high in school children in the study area. It is important to conduct a visual screening programme in early school years in order to prevent amblyopia. (author)

  17. Different schematic eyes and their accuracy to the in vivo eye: a quantitative comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marina Storani de; Carvalho, Luis Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Current ophthalmic technology allows the manipulation of eye components, such as anterior cornea and lens, of the human eye with a considerable precision and customization. This technology opens up the possibility of exploiting some characteristics of the eye in order to improve the methods of correcting optical aberrations. Moreover, product development and research for the eye-care professional has reached very high standards, since there is nowadays software available to design and simulat...

  18. Correlation between facial measurements and the mesiodistal width of the maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Vanderlei Luiz; Gonçalves, Luiz Carlos; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Junior, Itamar Lopes; de Lima Lucas, Bárbara

    2006-01-01

    One of the most difficult aspects during the selection of maxillary anterior teeth for a removable prosthesis is determining the appropriate mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth. Many attempts have been made to establish methods of estimating the combined width of these anterior teeth, and improving the esthetic outcome. The proportion of facial structures and the relationship between facial measurements and natural teeth could be used as a guide in selecting denture teeth. The aim of this study was to verify the relation between the combined mesiodistal width of the six maxillary anterior teeth and the facial segments: the width of the eyes, the inner canthal distance (ICD), the interpupillary distance (IPD), the interalar width, and the intercommissural width (ICm). Standardized digital images of 81 dentate Brazilian subjects were used to measure both facial and oral segments when viewed from the frontal aspect through an image processing program. To measure the distance between the upper canines on a curve, accurate casts were made from the upper right first premolar to the upper left first premolar. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient was conducted to measure the strength of the associations between the variables (alpha = 0.05). The results showed a significant correlation between all facial elements and the combined mesiodistal width of the six teeth, when observed from the frontal aspect. The ICD, IPD, and ICm showed the highest probability of being correlated to the mesiodistal width of the teeth (p = 0.000). This article considers facial analysis with digital photography as a practical and efficient application to select the mesiodistal width of artificial anterior teeth in an esthetically pleasing and natural appearance during an oral rehabilitation treatment.

  19. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  20. Sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty: A 1-year follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the safety and efficacy of sutureless femtosecond anterior lamellar keratoplasty (FALK in patients with corneal stromal opacities. Materials and Methods: Eleven eyes of 11 consecutive patients with corneal stromal opacities involving < 250 μ due to various pathologies were included in the study. Preoperatively, all underwent anterior segment imaging with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT (Bioptigen Inc., Durham, North Carolina, USA to measure the depth of the stromal opacity. All patients underwent FALK, and bandage contact lens was placed for a period of 2 weeks. Postoperatively, uncorrected visual acuity, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA, and SD-OCT evaluation were performed. Results: All patients showed significant improvement in BCVA. The mean postoperative BCVA (in decimals improved from 0.11 ± 0.06 preoperatively to 0.59 ± 0.08. There were no intraoperative or significant postoperative complications that were noticed. Conclusion: FALK is a safe and effective alternative to deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty or penetrating keratoplasty in the treatment of anterior stromal opacities.

  1. Sistemas de transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho: bases fundamentais e aplicações Drug delivery systems for the posterior segment of the eye: fundamental basis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do segmento posterior do olho são responsáveis pela maioria dos casos de cegueira irreversível no mundo inteiro. Este cenário estimula o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento para estas doenças. O sucesso no tratamento visa, essencialmente, o transporte de doses efetivas de drogas diretamente para os locais a serem tratados. Devido às dificuldades encontradas no transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho, pesquisas têm sido realizadas no sentido de desenvolver sistemas de administração intra-oculares que permitam liberar concentrações terapêuticas das drogas por período prolongado. Tais sistemas podem proporcionar inúmeras vantagens, como: aumentar a biodisponibilidade e a concentração local da droga, atingir especificamente um tipo de tecido ou célula, reduzir a freqüência de injeções intra-oculares. Tais vantagens podem aumentar o conforto do paciente e reduzir as complicações observadas com a utilização das injeções intra-oculares. Diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas têm sido desenvolvidos com as finalidades acima descritas. Estes sistemas podem ser compostos por polímeros biodegradáveis ou não-biodegradáveis ou serem formulações lipídicas. Os sistemas de transporte de drogas são representados, principalmente, pelas micro e nanopartículas e pelos implantes, sendo eles compostos por diferentes polímeros; pelos lipossomos, que são compostos por lípides e emulsionantes; e pela iontoforese, que se baseia na aplicação de corrente elétrica. Nesta revisão, as principais características dos diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas serão descritas, expondo suas potencialidades de aplicação clínica.The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly

  2. Maternal folic acid-deficient diet causes congenital malformations in the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestro-de-las-Casas, Carmen; Pérez-Miguelsanz, Juliana; López-Gordillo, Yamila; Maldonado, Estela; Partearroyo, Teresa; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Martínez-Álvarez, Concepción

    2013-09-01

    The eye is a very complex structure derived from the neural tube, surface ectoderm, and migratory mesenchyme from a neural crest origin. Because structures that evolve from the neural tube may be affected by a folate/folic acid (FA) deficiency, the aim of this work was to investigate whether a maternal folic acid-deficient diet may cause developmental alterations in the mouse eye. Female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks old) were assigned into two different folic acid groups for periods ranging between 2 and 16 weeks. Animals were killed at gestation day 17. Hepatic folate was analyzed, and the eyes from 287 fetuses were macroscopically studied, sectioned and immunolabeled with anti-transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 and anti-TGF-βRII. Mice exposed to a FA-deficient diet exhibited numerous eye macroscopic anomalies, such as anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Microscopically, the eye was the most affected organ (43.7% of the fetuses). The highest incidence of malformations occurred from the 8th week onward. A statistically significant linear association between the number of maternal weeks on the FA-deficient diet and embryonic microscopic eye malformations was observed. The optic cup derivatives and structures forming the eye anterior segment showed severe abnormalities. In addition, TGF-β2 and TGF-βRII expression in the eye was also altered. This study suggests that an adequate folic acid/folate status plays a key role in the formation of ocular tissues and structures, whereas a vitamin deficiency is negatively associated with a normal eye development even after a short-term exposure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Clavicle segmentation in chest radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.E.; Sanchez, C.I.; Jong, P.A. de; Maduskar, P.; Ginneken, B. van

    2012-01-01

    Automated delineation of anatomical structures in chest radiographs is difficult due to superimposition of multiple structures. In this work an automated technique to segment the clavicles in posterior-anterior chest radiographs is presented in which three methods are combined. Pixel classification

  4. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  5. Endothelial cell density after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (Melles technique)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, Bart T. H.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Beekhuis, W. Houdijn; Melles, Gerrit R. J.

    2004-01-01

    To measure the recipient endothelial cell loss after the Melles technique for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. In 21 eyes of 21 patients, a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure was performed. Before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, specular microscopy was performed to

  6. Anterior chamber collapse syndrome in a koala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Vl; Naranjo, C; Bernays, Me

    2014-05-01

    Anterior chamber collapse syndrome has been recognised in various species and is associated with early-life ocular disease or trauma. It is important to differentiate this acquired condition from a congenital malformation. An adult female koala (Phascolarctos cinereus) was referred for assessment of buphthalmos and severe keratitis of the right eye. The degree of keratitis obstructed examination of intraocular structures. Enucleation of the affected eye was performed and the histopathological diagnosis was anterior chamber collapse syndrome and secondary glaucoma. This case contributes to the limited information available in the literature on anterior chamber collapse syndrome, a disease unique in having secondary glaucoma with minimal or no inflammation. The case also expands the literature available on ocular disease in koalas. More specifically, this is the only reported case of glaucoma, of any aetiology, in the koala. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  7. Diagnosing a red eye: an allergy or an infection?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A red eye is caused by the dilation of blood vessels in the eye, and is one of the most common ocular complaints experienced by patients.1,2 The diagnosis of a red eye may be aided by the differentiation between ciliary and conjunctival injection or redness: • Ciliary injection involves branches of the anterior ciliary arteries ...

  8. Chronic Anterior Uveitis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Cristóbal; Frick, Mercedes M; LaMattina, Kara; Schlaen, Ariel; Khoury, Marina; Lopez, Matilde María; Hurtado, Erika; Espada, Graciela

    2016-08-01

    To describe the visual prognosis and remission rate of chronic anterior uveitis in pediatric patients. A retrospective case series of children with chronic anterior uveitis treated in the University of Buenos Aires. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis was defined according to the International League of Associations for Rheumatology criteria. Uveitis remission was defined according to SUN criteria. There were 35 pediatric patients (61 eyes), mean age of uveitis onset was 7.69 ± 3 years, 60% were females and 74% had bilateral disease, median follow-up was 60 months (range: 12-192 months). JIA was more frequent in females (80.95 vs 21.43; pgood Received 30 August 2015; revised 6 March 2016; accepted 14 March 2016; published online 18 May 2016.

  9. Protective effects of biodegradable collagen implants on thinned sclera after strabismus surgery: a paired-eye study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Han, Sueng-Han; Han, Jinu

    2017-12-01

    To determine the efficacy of a biodegradable Ologen (Aeon Astron Europe BV, Leiden, The Netherlands) collagen matrix in reducing the blue color change due to exposed thinned sclera after strabismus surgery. Fourteen patients with intermittent exotropia undergoing symmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession surgery were included in this prospective, randomized, paired-eye controlled study. In each patient, Ologen was implanted at the original rectus insertion site in one randomly selected eye; the other eye underwent conventional surgery. Ologen was inserted under the conjunctiva without suturing, covering the muscle insertion site. Conjunctival color change was analyzed using computer-based image analysis immediately and 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months postoperatively. Slit-lamp photographs of each eye were evaluated using contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE), Canny edge, and the RGB (red-green-blue) model. Secondary outcomes were conjunctival and sclera thickness 3 months postoperatively determined by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Immediately and 1 week postoperatively all color models showed no significant differences between Ologen-implanted and control eyes. Three months postoperatively, Ologen-implanted eyes exhibited significantly lower CLAHE (P = 0.041) and RGB model blue color (P = 0.008) values than control eyes. Canny edge (P = 0.061) and RGB model red color (P = 0.152) values did not differ between eyes. Conjunctival stroma and episcleral complex thickness was greater in Ologen-implanted eyes than in controls (P = 0.001). Blue color change was significantly less noticeable in Ologen-implanted eyes than in controls. Thus, Ologen implantation helps prevent visible blue sclera at the original rectus insertion site after lateral rectus recession. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular involvement with Gnathostoma spinigerum occurs years after the initial infection that is acquired by ingestion of poorly cooked, pickled seafood or water contaminated with third stage larvae. Here we report a case of gnathostomiasis of the left eye of a 32-year-old lady hailing from Meghalaya, India. Her vision had deteriorated to hand movement. Slit lamp examination revealed a live, actively motile worm in the anterior chamber, which was extracted by supra temporal limbal incision and visual acuity was restored.

  11. Cervical adjacent segment pathology following fusion: Is it due to fusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenthal, Philip; Kim, Kee D

    2013-01-01

    Adjacent segment pathology affects 25% of patients within ten years of anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF). Laboratory studies demonstrate fused segments increase adjacent level stress including elevated intradiscal pressure and increased range of motion. Radiographic adjacent segment pathology (RASP) has been associated to ACDF in multiple statistically significant studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing anterior cervical discectomy and arthroplasty (ACDA) and ACDF ...

  12. A Case of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mimicking Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy; Demonstration of Typical Echocardiographic Finding Correlated with Unusual Distribution of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Sung Kyun; Jin, Seon-Ah; Park, Yong Kyu; Park, Jae-Hyeong

    2010-01-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCMP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. Because of sharing many common clinical features with SCMP, acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can be misdiagnosed as SCMP. However, it can be associated with fatal outcome of the patient. Also, diagnosis of SCMP seems to be always challenging to clinicians, especially in the decision of taking coronary angiography which is still invasive ...

  13. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  14. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  15. A simple photogrammetric method of measuring anterior chamber volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, S B; Coakes, R L; Brubaker, R F

    1978-04-01

    We devised a convenient method of measuring anterior chamber volume in man. Photographs of the anterior chamber were taken with a Zeiss photographic slit lamp with a Polaroid attachment, and measured with a specially constructed transparent scale. Using this method, the standard deviation of individual measurements of volume on different occasions in a given eye was 8 microliter. The standard deviation of the differences between right and left eyes of normal subjects was 10 microliter. The volume of the anterior chamber measured in 78 eyes of 39 normal subjects (mean age, 28 years; range, 19 to 56 years) was found to be 209 +/- 37 microliter (mean +/- SD). We observed a small negative correlation between the age of the subject and the volume of the anterior chamber.

  16. OCULAR SONOGRAM OF INDONESIAN STRAY CAT EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhamad Fakhrul Ulum

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Indonesian stray cat (KLI eyes by transpalpebrae B-mode ultrasound imaging. Eight healthy adult stray cats with 3.0-4.0 kg body weight were underwent of eyes ultrasound scanning without anesthesia or sedation. Linear ultrasound transducer with 7.5-15 MHz of frequency and ultrasound-gel were adhered directly to palpebral on the closed eyes. The results showed that the internal architecture of eyes was visible in different echogenicity according to the constituent of eyes structure. The sonograms with hypoechoic to hyperechoic parts of eyes were cornea, iris, cilliary body, suspensor ligament, sclera, and lens capsule. Moreover, anechoic parts of sonograms that having aqueous constituent were anterior chamber, posterior chamber, and vitreous humor. Based on the result, it can be concluded that B-mode ultrasound was able to assess the eyes through transpalpebral scanning.

  17. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  18. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  19. A Case of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Mimicking Stress Induced Cardiomyopathy; Demonstration of Typical Echocardiographic Finding Correlated with Unusual Distribution of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung Kyun; Jin, Seon-Ah; Park, Yong Kyu; Park, Jae-Hyeong

    2010-09-01

    Stress-induced cardiomyopathy (SCMP) is diagnosed in 1-2% of patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. Because of sharing many common clinical features with SCMP, acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) can be misdiagnosed as SCMP. However, it can be associated with fatal outcome of the patient. Also, diagnosis of SCMP seems to be always challenging to clinicians, especially in the decision of taking coronary angiography which is still invasive and even risky. Here, we present a case with acute STEMI mimicking SCMP as a result of anatomical variation of coronary circulation. In this patient, prompt and early coronary angiography and stent implantation was very helpful.

  20. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... 66. CME FEBRUARY 2011 Vol.29 No.2. Eye trauma. To a clinician without experience, a person with an eye injury presents a dilemma. This article should reassure you that methodical assessment and treatment of most injuries is simple and within the ambit of every doctor. JONatHaN PONs, MB ChB, Dip ...

  1. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. SD-OCT analysis of regional epithelial thickness profiles in keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia, and normal eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Karolinne Maia; Perez-Straziota, Claudia E; Perez-Straziota, E; Stulting, R Doyle; Randleman, J Bradley

    2013-03-01

    To assess corneal microarchitecture and regional epithelial thickness profile in eyes with keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia (ectasia), and normal unoperated eyes (controls) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Regional corneal epithelial thickness profiles were measured with anterior segment SD-OCT (Optovue RTVue-100, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA). Epithelial thickness was assessed at 21 points, 0.5 mm apart, across the central 6-mm of the corneal apex in the horizontal and vertical meridians. One hundred twenty eyes were evaluated, including 49 eyes from 29 patients with keratoconus, 32 eyes from 16 patients with ectasia, and 39 eyes from 21 control patients. Average epithelial thickness at the corneal apex was 41.18 ± 6.47 μm (range: 30 to 51 μm) for keratoconus, 46.5 ± 6.72 μm for ectasia (range: 34 to 60 μm), and 50.45 ± 3.92 μm for controls (range: 42 to 55 μm). Apical epithelial thickness was significantly thinner in eyes with keratoconus (P ectasia (P = .0007) than in controls. Epithelial thickness ranges in all other areas varied widely for keratoconus (range: 21 to 101 μm) and ectasia (range: 30 to 82 μm) compared to controls (range: 43 to 64) (P = .0063). SD-OCT demonstrated significant central and regional epithelial thickness profile differences between keratoconus, ectasia, and control eyes, with significant variability and unpredictability in ectatic eyes. This regional irregularity may necessitate direct epithelial thickness measurement for treatments where underlying stromal variations may be clinically relevant, including corneal collagen cross-linking or topography-guided ablations. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluth, M B; Cohen, M A; Friedland, P L; Atlas, M D

    2011-10-01

    In order to safely explore the medial wall of the attic, a working knowledge of the anatomy of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract is required. To clarify the surgically relevant anatomical relationships that comprise the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract. Surgical dissection of 10 fresh cadaveric temporal bones was undertaken, including measurement of distances between the key anterior supralabyrinthine anatomical landmarks. The following mean distances were calculated: the labyrinthine segment between the geniculate ganglion and the ampullated end of the superior semicircular canal, 2.33 mm (range 1.75-2.75); the tympanic segment between the anterior margin of the oval window niche and the geniculate ganglion, 3.58 mm (range 3.25-4); and from the tympanic segment adjacent to the anterior margin of the oval window niche to the labyrinthine segment adjacent to the superior semicircular canal, 3.48 mm (range 3-4.25). The key anatomical landmarks of the anterior supralabyrinthine air cell tract define a distinct triangular segment of bone, knowledge of which is helpful in surgical dissection.

  5. [Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy following EHEC sepsis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortmann, T; Jägle, H; Hufendiek, K

    2013-07-01

    After emerging from a coma caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) sepsis with severe neurological and renal involvement a 53-year-old female patient complained of blurred vision. Due to hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) the patient also suffered from dialysis-dependent acute kidney failure. Horizontal visual field defects of the lower hemifield and corresponding segmental optic disc pallor were found in both eyes. Bilateral anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) was diagnosed presumably caused by high volume shifting and hypotonia due to sepsis and dialysis. The literature revealed that bilateral AION is often seen after complex surgical procedures or in patients with severe metabolic disorders. This ophthalmologic complication should always be taken into consideration because of the serious permanent visual damage.

  6. Adjacent segment pathology: natural history or effect of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion? A 10-year follow-up radiological multicenter study using an evaluation scale of the ageing spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesce, Alessandro; Wierzbicki, Venceslao; Piccione, Emanuele; Frati, Alessandro; Raco, Antonino; Caruso, Riccardo

    2017-05-01

    Aim of this study is to compare late degenerative MRI changes in a subset of patients operated on with ACDF to a second subset of patients presenting indication to ACDF but never operated on. Patients from both subgroups received surgical indication according to the same criteria. Both subgroups underwent a cervical spine MRI in 2004-2005 and 10 years later in 2015. These MRI scans were retrospectively evaluated with a cervical spine ageing scale. Comparing the two subset of patients both suffering from clinically relevant single-level disease returns no statistically significant difference in the degenerative condition of posterior ligaments, presence of degenerative spondylolisthesis, foraminal stenosis, diameter of the spinal canal, Modic alteration, and intervertebral discs degeneration at 10-year follow-up. The adjacent segment degeneration represents, in the present cohort, a result of the natural history of cervical spondylosis rather than a consequence of fusion.

  7. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  8. Lipid Peroxidation: Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Implications in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker, in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release

  9. Effects of hemodialysis on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry and intraocular pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Caglayan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods: Fifty right eyes were examined 30 minutes before and after HD. IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer, and Ehlers' formula was used to calculate the corrected IOP values. The central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal volume (CV, keratometric values, anterior chamber depth (ACD, aqueous depth (AQD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, and anterior chamber angle (ACA in the nasal and temporal quadrants were measured with a Sirius anterior segment analysis system. Blood urea nitrogen levels, body mass, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure were also measured before and after HD. Results: The mean age was 60.80 ± 13.38 (range: 35-80 years. The mean uncorrected and corrected IOP values decreased from 18.06 ± 3.91 and 18.31 ± 4.83 mmHg to 16.94 ± 3.87 and 16.95 ± 4.74 mmHg after HD, respectively (p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively. The mean CCT decreased from 536.38 ± 24.73 to 533.18 ± 27.25 µm (p=0.002, and the mean CV decreased from 57.52 ± 3.15 to 55.68 ± 3.55 mm³ (p0.05 for all values. There were no significant correlations between the ocular and systemic parameters (p>0.05 for all correlations. Conclusions: Uncorrected IOP, corrected IOP, CCT, and CV values decreased after HD, whereas the anterior chamber morphometry values remained similar between the measurements performed before and after HD.

  10. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of Ophthalmology 2018 Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery * Required * First Name: * Last Name: ...

  11. Eye Twitching

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affecting all aspects of life. Hemifacial spasm involves twitches of muscles on one side of the face, ... few weeks Your eyelid completely closes with each twitch or you have difficulty opening the eye Twitching ...

  12. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lamp examination may be done. Blood testing for thyroid disease may be done. Treatments depend on the cause. ... team. Eye Diseases Read more Hyperthyroidism Read more Thyroid Diseases Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  13. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This is often referred to as "pink eye." Corneal ulcers : sores on the cornea most often caused by a serious bacterial or viral infection. Uveitis : inflammation of the ... Corneal scratches: injuries caused by sand, dust, or overuse ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  15. VISUAL OUTCOME OF TRAUMATIC PAEDIATRIC CATARACT AT A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Rani Srivastava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic cataract is common presentation of penetrating and blunt ocular trauma in children. Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness all over the world. The incidence of ocular trauma varies in different parts of the world. From India, the reported incidence is 20.53%. Traumatic cataract causes significant blindness in paediatric populations particularly in developing countries. The aim of the study is to evaluate the final visual outcome of the patients with traumatic cataract. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective study of 100 children from 4 to 16 years of age presenting in Outpatient Department of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Kolkata, with traumatic cataract between April 2015 to March 2017. Detailed history, systemic and local examinations and relevant investigations done followed by medical and surgical intervention and patients were followed up till six months and final visual acuity recorded. RESULTS There was a male predilection with a male-to-female ratio 2.85:1.56 (56% patients sustained penetrating trauma, while 44 (44% were inflicted with blunt injury. Commonest causative agent was trauma with organic foreign bodies in 20 eyes (20% followed by stones in 14 eyes (14%. Anterior segment was more involved than posterior segment. Final best corrected visual acuity after six months was better than or equal to 6/18 in 64 eyes (64%. The major early postoperative complications include anterior uveitis in 26 (26% and corneal oedema in 8 (8% patients, while late postoperative complication was posterior capsular uveitis in 36% patients. CONCLUSION Paediatric traumatic cataract can cause ocular morbidity. Timely and proper medical and surgical intervention can result in good visual outcome. The parents, caretakers and teachers have an important role to play in prevention by recognising hazardous situation and taking preventing measures.

  16. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conjunctivitis) >> Facts About Pink Eye Listen Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most ... treatment depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves ...

  17. Biometric Differences between Unilateral Chronic Primary Angle Closure Glaucoma and Fellow Non-Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Xinyi; Chen, Shida; Huang, Wenbin; Zhang, Xiulan

    2017-11-29

    To compare biometric differences between eyes with unilateral chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and fellow non-glaucomatous eyes in the same patient. Clinical data and imaging records of 17 patients with unilateral PACG were retrospectively reviewed. The fellow eyes with primary angle-closure (PAC) or primary angle-closure suspected (PACS) were grouped in Group 1. The PACG eyes were set as Group 2. The biometric parameters of both eyes were measured by IOL-Master, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), and swept source OCT. The iris area in Group 1 was significantly thicker than that in Group 2 (1.590 ± 0.267 versus 1.365 ± 0.352, P = 0.016). Choroidal thickness in the macular region was thicker in Group 1 than in Group 2, with statistical significance at inner temporal grid (282.7 ± 121.1 versus 191.6 ± 90.3, P = 0.036), central field (297.4 ± 130.6 versus 200.1 ± 96.3, P = 0.029), inner nasal grid (283.1 ± 128.3 versus 194.8 ± 91.8, P = 0.040), and average value (265.3 ± 105.6 versus 191.1 ± 87.0, P = 0.049). Group 1 also had thicker peripapillary choroidal thickness at 1 o'clock (141.4 ± 68.4 versus 101.8 ± 39.0, P = 0.025) and 12 o'clock (141.5 ± 82.3 versus 104.5 ± 44.6, P = 0.037) compared to Group 2. The multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only intraocular pressure was independently associated with PACG and explained 58.3% variance of PACG. In unilateral PACG, there was significant inter-eye difference in anterior and posterior segment parameters. Longitudinal comparisons are required to further understand the differences in pathology of angle closures.

  18. Adjacent segment disease following cervical spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Samuel K; Riew, K Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine surgery is broadly divided into fusion and nonfusion procedures. Anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a common procedure, although adjacent segment disease following the surgery is an ongoing clinical concern. Adjacent segment cervical disease occurs in approximately 3% of patients per year, with an expected incidence of 25% within the first 10 years following fusion. Nonfusion procedures such as anterior diskectomy and posterior foraminotomy do not decrease the rate of adjacent segment disease compared with ACDF. Recently, enthusiasm has developed for artificial disk replacement as a motion-sparing alternative to fusion. To date, however, multiple clinical trials and subsequent follow-up studies have failed to demonstrate significant reduction of adjacent segment disease when artificial disk replacement is performed instead of fusion.

  19. Differences in Baseline Dark and the Dark-to-Light Changes in Anterior Chamber Angle Parameters in Whites and Ethnic Chinese

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Dandan; Chiu, Cynthia; He, Mingguang; Wu, Lingling; Kao, Andrew; Lin, Shan

    2011-01-01

    When measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography, the anterior chamber angle in the Chinese tends to be narrower in the dark, but the dark-to-light change is greater than in whites, independent of refractive status and anterior segment ocular dimensions.

  20. Paediatric Refractive Errors in an Eye Clinic in Osogbo, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaeline, Isawumi; Sheriff, Agboola; Bimbo, Ayegoro

    2016-03-01

    Paediatric ophthalmology is an emerging subspecialty in Nigeria and as such there is paucity of data on refractive errors in the country. This study set out to determine the pattern of refractive errors in children attending an eye clinic in South West Nigeria. A descriptive study of 180 consecutive subjects seen over a 2-year period. Presenting complaints, presenting visual acuity (PVA), age and sex were recorded. Clinical examination of the anterior and posterior segments of the eyes, extraocular muscle assessment and refraction were done. The types of refractive errors and their grades were determined. Corrected VA was obtained. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics in proportions, chi square with p value 75.0%, visual impairment20% and low vision 23.3%. Low grade spherical and cylindrical errors occurred most frequently (35.6% and 59.9% respectively). Regular astigmatism was significantly more common, P <0.001. The commonest diagnosis was simple myopic astigmatism (41.1%). Four cases of strabismus were seen. Simple spherical and cylindrical errors were the commonest types of refractive errors seen. Visual impairment and low vision occurred and could be a cause of absenteeism from school. Low-cost spectacle production or dispensing unit and health education are advocated for the prevention of visual impairment in a hospital set-up.

  1. Cutaneous malignant melanoma metastatic to the eye, lids, and orbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Caroline; Finger, Paul T

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma is increasing faster than any other cancer. Thus, it will become an increasingly common source of metastatic disease to the eye, lids, and orbit. Herein, we have performed a systematic review of previously published cases including patient characteristics, clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, current treatments, and outcomes. At the time of ocular diagnosis, nearly all reported patients had a known history of cutaneous melanoma and synchronous non-ocular metastases. Several aspects help in differentiating the tumors from primary uveal melanomas such as the presence of symptoms, rapidly growing multifocal tumors, vitreous seeding, and histopathological findings. Intraocular metastases (uvea, vitreous, retina, and anterior-segment) are more common and occur in younger patients than extraocular metastases (eyelids, orbit, and extraocular muscles). Palliative radiation therapy is often used for intraocular disease. Orbital metastases from cutaneous melanoma commonly involve the extraocular muscles resulting in diplopia and exophthalmos. The mainstays of extraocular treatment are surgical resection and radiation therapy. Unfortunately, there are few good options for systemic treatment of diffusely metastatic melanoma. Therefore, patients with ocular metastasis should be managed to prevent loss of vision or loss of the eye, and to maximize their quality of life.

  2. Anterior chamber volume. Its measurement and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakes, R L; Lloyd-Jones, D; Hitchings, R A

    1979-04-01

    Measurement of anterior chamber volume is discussed and attention drawn to a new, convenient slit-image method, which was used to study anterior chamber depth and volume before and after prophylactic peripheral iridectomy in the fellow eyes of patients presenting with unilateral acute angle-closure glaucoma. There was no significant change in depth after iridectomy but the mean anterior chamber volume increased significantly (P less than 0.01), by nearly 3 per cent. This increase was due to elimination of peripheral iris bombé which was not present in two control groups of normal eyes, one matched for anterior chamber depth and the other for age and refraction. Peripheral iris bombé may be a quantifiable factor predisposing to the development of acute angle-closure glaucoma.

  3. Accurate estimation of dose distributions inside an eye irradiated with 106Ru plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Sempau, J.; Zaragoza, F.J.; Wittig, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Irradiation of intraocular tumors requires dedicated techniques, such as brachytherapy with 106 Ru plaques. The currently available treatment planning system relies on the assumption that the eye is a homogeneous water sphere and on simplified radiation transport physics. However, accurate dose distributions and their assessment demand better models for both the eye and the physics. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, conveniently adapted to simulate the beta decay of 106 Ru over 106 Rh into 106 Pd, was used to simulate radiation transport based on a computerized tomography scan of a patient's eye. A detailed geometrical description of two plaques (models CCA and CCB) from the manufacturer BEBIG was embedded in the computerized tomography scan. Results: The simulations were firstly validated by comparison with experimental results in a water phantom. Dose maps were computed for three plaque locations on the eyeball. From these maps, isodose curves and cumulative dose-volume histograms in the eye and for the structures at risk were assessed. For example, it was observed that a 4-mm anterior displacement with respect to a posterior placement of a CCA plaque for treating a posterior tumor would reduce from 40 to 0% the volume of the optic disc receiving more than 80 Gy. Such a small difference in anatomical position leads to a change in the dose that is crucial for side effects, especially with respect to visual acuity. The radiation oncologist has to bring these large changes in absorbed dose in the structures at risk to the attention of the surgeon, especially when the plaque has to be positioned close to relevant tissues. Conclusion: The detailed geometry of an eye plaque in computerized and segmented tomography of a realistic patient phantom was simulated accurately. Dose-volume histograms for relevant anatomical structures of the eye and the orbit were obtained with unprecedented accuracy. This represents an important step toward an optimized

  4. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  5. A prospective study demonstrating the effect of 5% povidone-iodine application for anterior segment intraocular surgery in Paraguay Estudio prospectivo demostrando el efecto de la instilación de yodo povidona al 5% previo a cirugía de segmento anterior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena P. Quiroga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora in cataract surgery patients and the effect of presurgical irrigation with 5% povidone-iodine solution. METHODS: Three samples from the inferior conjunctival fornix of the eye to be operated were obtained at baseline before washing (T0 with 10 ml 5% povidone-iodine solution, immediately after washing (T1, and upon completion of surgery (T2. Bacteria from the samples were inoculated in blood agar, chocolate agar, and thioglycolate broth. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients (n=224 eyes with a mean age of 67 ± 13 years were included in the study. Bacteria from the (T0 samples were successfully grown in 73.2% of the thioglycolate agars, 21.0% of the blood agars, and 19.2% of the chocolate agars. Compared with T1 samples, the use of povidone-iodine wash translated into a 60.8% reduction (from 73.2% to 12.5% in colonization of the conjunctiva (pOBJETIVO: Determinar la flora bacteriana de la conjuntiva en los pacientes a ser sometidos a cirugía de catarata y el efecto del lavado prequirúrgico con yodo povidona al 5% sobre dichos microorganismos. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron 3 muestras del fondo de saco conjuntival del ojo a ser operado de catarata antes (T0 de la irrigación de la conjuntiva con 10 ml de yodo povidona al 5%, como control, inmediatamente después (T1 y al término de la cirugía (T2. Se realizaron cultivos en agar sangre, agar chocolate y en caldo de tioglicolato. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron en el estudio 221 pacientes (n=24 ojos con un promedio de edad de 67 ± 13 años. El porcentaje de crecimiento bacteriano en (T0 fue de 73,2% en tioglicolato, 21% en agar sangre y 19,2 % en agar chocolate. Al compararlo con (T1 el efecto de la yodo povidona se tradujo en una reducción del 60,8% (de 73,2% a 12,5% en la colonización conjuntival (p<0.001. Entre las muestras de los tiempos T1 y T2 no hubo diferencia significativa en cuanto al crecimiento bacteriano. CONCLUSIÓN: El lavado conjuntival con

  6. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular ...

  7. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis ...

  8. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ...

  9. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External ...

  10. Mechanical evaluation of posterior wiring as a supplement to anterior cervical plate fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Raj D; Wang, Mei; Singrakhia, Manoj D; McGrady, Linda M

    2004-10-15

    An in vitro experimental study was performed to examine 3-dimensional biomechanical stability of cervical fixations. To determine whether posterior interspinous wiring contributes to the rigidity of a single-level motion segment that has been plated anteriorly, and to determine the effects of this combined fixation on intradiscal pressure and spinal motion at the adjacent segments. Combined anterior and posterior column fixation is being increasingly used in a variety of clinical situations that do not involve complete disruption of the motion segment. The biomechanical validity of combined anterior posterior fixation in the absence of overt posterior ligamentous disruption has not been studied. Six human fresh-frozen cadaveric cervical spines (C3-T1) were used. Three-dimensional intersegmental motion and intradiscal pressure were measured while the spine was loaded in flexion, extension, lateral bending, and torsion (up to 2.5 Nm). Fixation stability at the operative level (C5-C6) and influence of the fixation on adjacent segments were evaluated after an anterior plating procedure and combined anterior plating and posterior wiring. Comparing the combined approach with anterior plating alone, significant reductions in C5-C6 motion was noted: 49% in flexion (P torsion (P bending was not significant (18% and 12%, respectively). The improved fixation had minimal influence on the adjacent segments. Combined anterior posterior fixation further reduces the segmental motion by almost 50% in flexion and extension, 33% and 39% in torsion, and does not significantly alter intradiscal pressure and spinal motion at adjacent segments.

  11. Galvanic vestibular stimulation may improve anterior bending posture in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yohei; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji

    2015-05-06

    This study investigated the effects of binaural monopolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which likely stimulates the bilateral vestibular system, on the anterior bending angle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with anterior bending posture in a single-blind, randomized sham-controlled crossover trial. The seven PD patients completed two types of stimulation (binaural monopolar GVS and sham stimulation) applied in a random order 1 week apart. We measured each patient's anterior bending angles while he or she stood with eyes open and eyes closed before/after the stimulations. The anterior bending angles in both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed conditions were significantly reduced after the GVS. The amount of change in the eyes-closed condition post-GVS was significantly larger than that by sham stimulation. The amount of change in anterior bending angles in the GVS condition was not significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, disease duration, the duration of the postural deformities, and the anterior bending angles before the GVS. Binaural monopolar GVS might improve anterior bending posture in PD patients, irrespective of the duration and the severity of disease and postural deformities. Binaural monopolar GVS might be a novel treatment strategy to improve anterior bending posture in PD.

  12. High-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy as an adjunctive diagnostic tool for anterior scleral inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur, Dinah; Neudorfer, Meira; Shulman, Shiri; Rosenblatt, Amir; Habot-Wilner, Zohar

    2016-09-01

    To study high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) findings in anterior scleral inflammatory disease and evaluate the efficacy of high-resolution UBM as an adjunctive diagnostic tool. A cross-sectional study. The medical records of 30 patients (33 eyes) with episcleritis or anterior scleritis were reviewed for clinical features and high-resolution UBM findings. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) examination was performed using 50 MHz Aviso S (Quantel Medical, Clermont-Ferrand, France). Seventeen eyes had episcleritis [nodular (12), simple (five)], and 16 eyes had anterior scleritis [nodular (14), diffuse (two)] as classified by UBM. The use of high-resolution UBM allowed high-resolution imaging of the sclera and episclera and showed characteristic patterns of episcleritis and anterior scleritis. The clinical classification matched UBM findings in 25 (76%) eyes. In the other eight eyes (24%), UBM analysis led to a change in the final classification: four eyes with suspected episcleritis were classified with scleritis, and four eyes with suspected scleritis were classified with episcleritis. Eleven patients (36.7%) had an associated systemic disease. High-resolution UBM enabled visualization of distinct imaging findings of episcleritis and anterior scleritis, indicating its usefulness in the classification of challenging cases of anterior scleral inflammatory disease. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Retina image–based optic disc segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of optic disc can be used to diagnose many eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Moreover, retinal blood vessel pattern is unique for human beings even for identical twins. It is a highly stable pattern in biometric identification. Since optic disc is the beginning of the optic nerve and main blood vessels in retina, it can be used as a reference point of identification. Therefore, optic disc segmentation is an important technique for developing a human identity recognition system and eye disease diagnostic system. This article hence presents an optic disc segmentation method to extract the optic disc from a retina image. The experimental results show that the optic disc segmentation method can give impressive results in segmenting the optic disc from a retina image.

  14. [Anterior skull-base schwannoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Miranda, Miguel; De la O Ríos, Elier; Vargas-Valenciano, Emmanuelle; Moreno-Medina, Eva

    Schwannomas are nerve sheath tumours that originate in Schwann cells. They are usually solitary and sporadic and manifest on peripheral, spinal or cranial nerves. Intracranial schwannomas tend to manifest on the eighth cranial nerve, particularly in patients with neurofibromatosis type2. Anterior skull-base schwannomas represent less than 1% of all intracranial schwannomas. They are more frequent in young people and are typically benign. These tumours represent a diagnostic challenge due to their rarity and difficult differential diagnosis, and numerous theories have been postulated concerning their origin and development. In this article, we present the case of a 13-year-old male with a single anterior cranial-base tumour not associated with neurofibromatosis who presented with headache, papilloedema, eye pain and loss of visual acuity. Complete resection of the tumour was performed, which was histopathologically diagnosed as a schwannoma. The patient made a complete clinical recovery with abatement of all symptoms. We conducted a review of the literature and found 66 cases worldwide with this diagnosis. We describe the most relevant epidemiological and clinical characteristics of this kind of tumour and its relation with the recently discovered and similar olfactory schwannoma. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Tuberculosis; Eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Through an internet search and review of current literature on tuberculosis and its ocular complications, the information relevant to the objectives was obtained. ' Conclusions: TB can affect any structure in the eye and adnexae. Ocular TB is not easy to diagnose because most times there is no concurrent active ...

  16. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... things up close or far away. Most older people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  17. Eye Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is very important to read the product safety materials before using any new chemicals. The appropriate personal protective equipment for eye protection will be listed. This is particularly important for applying and handling pesticides, working with caustics such as lime fertilizer, ...

  18. In vivo imaging of palisades of Vogt in dry eye versus normal subjects using en-face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdene Ghouali

    Full Text Available To evaluate a possible clinical application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT using en-face module for the imaging of the corneoscleral limbus in normal subjects and dry eye patients.Seventy-six subjects were included in this study. Seventy eyes of 35 consecutive patients with dry eye disease and 82 eyes of 41 healthy control subjects were investigated. All subjects were examined with the Avanti RTVue® anterior segment OCT. En-face OCT images of the corneoscleral limbus were acquired in four quadrants (inferior, superior, nasal and temporal and then were analyzed semi-quantitatively according to whether or not palisades of Vogt (POV were visible. En-face OCT images were then compared to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM in eleven eyes of 7 healthy and dry eye patients.En-face SD-OCT showed POV as a radially oriented network, located in superficial corneoscleral limbus, with a good correlation with IVCM features. It provided an easy and reproducible identification of POV without any special preparation or any direct contact, with a grading scale from 0 (no visualization to 3 (high visualization. The POV were found predominantly in superior (P<0.001 and inferior (P<0.001 quadrants when compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants for all subjects examined. The visibility score decreased with age (P<0.001 and was lower in dry eye patients (P<0.01. In addition, the score decreased in accordance with the severity of dry eye disease (P<0.001.En-face SD-OCT is a non-contact imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the POV, thus providing valuable information about differences in the limbal anatomy of dry eye patients as compared to healthy patients.

  19. Capsid Mutated Adeno-Associated Virus Delivered to the Anterior Chamber Results in Efficient Transduction of Trabecular Meshwork in Mouse and Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bogner

    Full Text Available Adeno associated virus (AAV is well known for its ability to deliver transgenes to retina and to mediate improvements in animal models and patients with inherited retinal disease. Although the field is less advanced, there is growing interest in AAV's ability to target cells of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to fully articulate a reliable and reproducible method for injecting the anterior chamber (AC of mice and rats and to investigate the transduction profiles of AAV2- and AAV8-based capsid mutants containing self-complementary (sc genomes in the anterior segment of the eye.AC injections were performed in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. The cornea was punctured anterior of the iridocorneal angle. To seal the puncture site and to prevent reflux an air bubble was created in the AC. scAAVs expressing GFP were injected and transduction was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both parent serotype and capsid modifications affected expression. scAAV2- based vectors mediated efficient GFP-signal in the corneal endothelium, ciliary non-pigmented epithelium (NPE, iris and chamber angle including trabecular meshwork, with scAAV2(Y444F and scAAV2(triple being the most efficient.This is the first study to semi quantitatively evaluate transduction of anterior segment tissues following injection of capsid-mutated AAV vectors. scAAV2- based vectors transduced corneal endothelium, ciliary NPE, iris and trabecular meshwork more effectively than scAAV8-based vectors. Mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine residues greatly enhanced transduction efficiency of scAAV2 in these tissues. The number of Y-F mutations was not directly proportional to transduction efficiency, however, suggesting that proteosomal avoidance alone may not be sufficient. These results are applicable to the development of targeted, gene-based strategies to investigate pathological processes of the anterior segment and may be applied toward the development of gene

  20. Spectral-Domain OCT Analysis of Regional Epithelial Thickness Profiles in Keratoconus, Postoperative Corneal Ectasia, and Normal Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Karolinne Maia; Straziota, Claudia Perez; Stulting, R. Doyle; Randleman, J. Bradley

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess corneal microarchitecture and regional epithelial thickness profile in eyes with keratoconus, postoperative corneal ectasia, and normal unoperated eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). METHODS Regional corneal epithelial thickness profiles of eyes with keratoconus (KC) and postoperative corneal ectasia (Ectasia) were measured with anterior segment SC OCT (Optovue RTVue-100, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA) and compared retrospectively to those of normal eyes (Control). Epithelial thickness was assessed at 21 points, 0.5 mm apart, across the central 6-mm of the corneal apex in the horizontal and vertical meridians. RESULTS One hundred twenty eyes were evaluated, including 49 eyes from 29 patients with KC, 32 eyes from 16 patients with Ectasia, and 39 eyes from 21 control patients. Average epithelial thickness at the corneal apex was 41.18±6.47μm (range 30 to 51 μm) in eyes with KC, 46.5±6.72μm in eyes with ectasia (range 34 to 60 μm), and 50.45±3.92 μm in normal eyes (range 42 to 55 μm). Apical epithelial thickness was significantly thinner in eyes with KC (p ectasia (p=.0007) than it was in controls. Epithelial thickness ranges in all other areas varied widely for KC (SD, range 21 to 101 μm) and ectasia (SD, range 30 to 82 μm) compared to controls (SD, range 43 to 64), p = .0063 CONCLUSION Central epithelial thickness was, on average, significantly thinner in ectatic corneas compared to controls; however, both central and regional epithelial thickness was highly irregular and variable in corneas with keratoconus and postoperative corneal ectasia. These thickness variations may alter preoperative topographic features and measurements in unpredictable ways, especially steepest K values. Regional epithelial thickness cannot be assumed to be uniform in ectatic corneas and therefore may require direct measurement when considering treatments for which underlying stromal thickness is particularly important, such as

  1. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery originates from the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery lateral to the optic chiasm, then joins with its contralateral counterpart via the anterior communicating artery. A1-anterior communicating artery complex is the most frequent anatomical variants and is the major site of aneurysms between 30 to 37%. Know the anatomy microsurgical, variants anatomical and importance of complex precommunicating segment-artery anterior communicating in surgery neurological of the pathology vascular, mainly aneurysms, in Mexican population. The study was performed in 30 brains injected. Microanatomy was studied (length and diameter) of A1-anterior communicating artery complex and its variants. 60 segments A1, the average length of left side was 11.35 mm and 11.84 mm was right. The average diameter of left was 1.67 mm and the right was 1.64 mm. The average number of perforators on the left side was 7.9 and the right side was 7.5. Anterior communicating artery was found in 29 brains of the optic chiasm, its course depended on the length of the A1 segment. The average length of the segment was 2.84 mm, the average diameter was 1.41 mm and the average number of perforators was 3.27. A1-anterior communicating artery complex variants were found in 18 (60%) and the presence of two blister-like aneurysms. It is necessary to understand the A1-anterior communicating artery complex microanatomy of its variants to have a three-dimensional vision during aneurysm surgery.

  2. Anterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2006-01-01

    The anterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical pain syndrome that is characterized by anterior ankle pain on (hyper) dorsiflexion. The plain radiographs often are negative in patients who have anteromedial impingement. An oblique view is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic excision of

  3. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  4. Methods of fixation of intraocular lenses according to the anatomical structures in trauma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentzis, Miltiadis; Viestenz, Anja; Heichel, Jens; Seitz, Berthold; Hammer, Thomas; Viestenz, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Ocular trauma can lead to severe visual impairment and morbidity, depending on the anatomical structures affected. The main causes of ocular trauma include foreign bodies, impact by an object, falls, and chemicals. Most ocular traumas occur in children or young male adults. A meticulous slit lamp examination is crucial for assessing all anatomical structures. Trauma to the crystalline lens can result in dislocation, an intralenticular foreign body, cataract, fragmentation, and capsular breach. An intraocular lens (IOL) can endure subluxation or luxation under the conjunctiva, into the anterior chamber or the vitreous, or can be extruded. The surgical approach depends on the condition and morphology of the lens and the anatomical structures surrounding it. If there is capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be placed in the sulcus using remnants of the damaged capsule. If there is no capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be fixated to the anterior chamber angle, to the iris, or to the sclera. A detailed history of injury cannot always be obtained in trauma settings. Proper education, supervision, and certified safety eye protectors could prevent up to 90% of ocular injuries. Lens trauma can be treated with various surgical procedures and fixation techniques, which nevertheless require advanced surgical skills owing to the fine anatomical structure of the anterior segment. A careful surgical strategy should be established for a globe reconstruction after trauma with secondary lens implantation. Clin. Anat. 31:6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Effect of air bubble on inflammation after cataract surgery in rabbit eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goktug Demirci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Intense inflammation after cataract surgery can cause cystoid macular edema, posterior synechia and posterior capsule opacification. This experimental study was performed to investigate the effect of air bubble on inflammation when given to anterior chamber of rabbit eyes after cataract surgery. Materials and Methods: 30 eyes of 15 rabbits were enrolled in the study. One of the two eyes was in the study group and the other eye was in the control group. After surgery air bubble was given to the anterior chamber of the study group eye and balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon was left in the anterior chamber of control eye. Results: On the first, second, fourth and fifth days, anterior chamber inflammations of the eyes were examined by biomicroscopy. On the sixth day anterior chamber fluid samples were taken for evaluation of nitric oxide levels as an inflammation marker. When the two groups were compared, in the air bubble group there was statistically less inflammation was seen. (1, 2, 4. days P = 0,001, and 5. day P = 0,009. Conclusions: These results have shown that when air bubble is left in anterior chamber of rabbits′ eyes after cataract surgery, it reduced inflammation. We believe that, air bubble in the anterior chamber may be more beneficial in the cataract surgery of especially pediatric age group, uveitis patients and diabetics where we see higher inflammation. However, greater and long termed experimental and clinical studies are necessary for more accurate findings.

  6. Telemedicine for eye care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rosa Ana; Morales, Marlene; Ricur, Giselle; Schiffman, Jade S

    2005-01-01

    Tele-ophthalmology has been employed mainly for patients in under-served rural areas in need of specialty care, but other applications such as telementoring have also been used. In certain populations, cost containment is a significant issue and telemedicine is a solution. Tele-ophthalmology can be performed in realtime, by store-and-forward mode, or by hybrid techniques. After appropriate modification, a range of peripherals may be used for tele-ophthalmology, including the direct ophthalmoscope, indirect ophthalmoscope, slit lamp or retinal camera. Tele-ophthalmology applications include: detecting, screening and diagnosing diabetic retinopathy; anterior segment imaging; glaucoma screening; low vision consultation; telementoring. Tele-ophthalmology shows great promise for improving patient care and increasing access to specialty care not available in under-served areas. In developing countries tele-ophthalmology may be a cost-effective method by which richer countries can assist them.

  7. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    This book is about using recent developments in the fields of data analytics and data visualization to frame new ways of identifying target groups in media communication. Based on a mixed-methods approach, the authors combine psychophysiological monitoring (galvanic skin response) with textual...... content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  8. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  9. Conjunctivitis or pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammation - conjunctiva; Pink eye; Chemical conjunctivitis, Pinkeye; Pink-eye ... Tears most often protect the eyes by washing away the germs and irritants. Tears contain proteins and antibodies that kill germs. Pink eye is most often caused ...

  10. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  11. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recreation Eye Injuries at Work Fireworks Eye Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Five ... Edited By: Shirley Dang Feb. 22, 2016 The personal and economic toll of eye injuries at work is alarming. ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  13. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dilated eye exam once a year Photo courtesy of the National Eye Institute, NIH. Your eyes ... vessels can lead to serious vision problems. Photo courtesy of the National Eye Institute, NIH. Normal vision ...

  14. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can put on your web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  15. Model-based segmentation in orbital volume measurement with cone beam computed tomography and evaluation against current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Maximilian E H; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Friese, Karl-Ingo; Becker, Matthias; Wolter, Franz-Erich; Lichtenstein, Juergen T; Stoetzer, Marcus; Rana, Majeed; Essig, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Objective determination of the orbital volume is important in the diagnostic process and in evaluating the efficacy of medical and/or surgical treatment of orbital diseases. Tools designed to measure orbital volume with computed tomography (CT) often cannot be used with cone beam CT (CBCT) because of inferior tissue representation, although CBCT has the benefit of greater availability and lower patient radiation exposure. Therefore, a model-based segmentation technique is presented as a new method for measuring orbital volume and compared to alternative techniques. Both eyes from thirty subjects with no known orbital pathology who had undergone CBCT as a part of routine care were evaluated (n = 60 eyes). Orbital volume was measured with manual, atlas-based, and model-based segmentation methods. Volume measurements, volume determination time, and usability were compared between the three methods. Differences in means were tested for statistical significance using two-tailed Student's t tests. Neither atlas-based (26.63 ± 3.15 mm(3)) nor model-based (26.87 ± 2.99 mm(3)) measurements were significantly different from manual volume measurements (26.65 ± 4.0 mm(3)). However, the time required to determine orbital volume was significantly longer for manual measurements (10.24 ± 1.21 min) than for atlas-based (6.96 ± 2.62 min, p model-based (5.73 ± 1.12 min, p measurements. All three orbital volume measurement methods examined can accurately measure orbital volume, although atlas-based and model-based methods seem to be more user-friendly and less time-consuming. The new model-based technique achieves fully automated segmentation results, whereas all atlas-based segmentations at least required manipulations to the anterior closing. Additionally, model-based segmentation can provide reliable orbital volume measurements when CT image quality is poor.

  16. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  17. Estimation of axial curvature of anterior sclera: correlation between axial length and anterior scleral curvature as affected by angle kappa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Mok; Choi, Hyuk Jin; Choi, Heejin; Kim, Mee Kum; Wee, Won Ryang

    2016-10-07

    BACKGROUND: Though the development and fitting of scleral contact lenses are expanding steadily, there is no simple method to provide scleral metrics for scleral contact lens fitting yet. The aim of this study was to establish formulae for estimation of the axial radius of curvature (ARC) of the anterior sclera using ocular biometric parameters that can be easily obtained with conventional devices. A semi-automated stitching method and a computational analysis tool for calculating ARC were developed by using the ImageJ and MATLAB software. The ARC of all the ocular surface points were analyzed from the composite horizontal cross-sectional images of the right eyes of 24 volunteers; these measurements were obtained using anterior segment optical coherence tomography for a previous study (AS-OCT; Visante). Ocular biometric parameters were obtained from the same volunteers with slit-scanning topography and partial coherence interferometry. Correlation analysis was performed between the ARC at 8 mm to the axis line (ARC[8]) and other ocular parameters (including age). With ARC obtained on several nasal and temporal points (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 mm from the axis line), univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to develop a model for estimating ARC with the help of ocular biometric parameters. Axial length, spherical equivalent, and angle kappa showed correlations with temporal ARC[8] (tARC[8]; Pearson's r = 0.653, -0.579, and -0.341; P = 0.001, 0.015, and 0.015, respectively). White-to-white corneal diameter (WTW) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) showed correlation with nasal ARC[8] (nARC[8]; Pearson's r = -0.492 and -0.461; P = 0.015 and 0.023, respectively). The formulae for estimating scleral curvatures (tARC, nARC, and average ARC) were developed as a function of axial length, ACD, WTW, and distance from the axis line, with good determinant power (72 - 80 %; SPSS ver. 22.0). Angle kappa showed strong

  18. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  19. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Tratamiento ...

  20. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Amblyopia Sections Amblyopia: What Is Lazy Eye? Amblyopia: What ... Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis Leer en Español: Ambliopía: Diagnóstico ...

  1. Measurement of and Factors Associated with the Anterior Chamber Volume in Healthy Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To measure the anterior chamber volume (ACV and determine factors associated with the ACV in healthy Chinese adults. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we used swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT to measure ACV and other anterior segment parameters. Factors associated with ACV were also determined. Results. A total of 313 healthy Chinese adults were enrolled. The anterior segment parameters, including ACV, could be measured by SS-OCT with excellent repeatability and reproducibility. There was a significant difference between the horizontal and vertical anterior chamber widths (ACW (P<0.05, with a mean difference of 390 μm. The ACV (mean 153.83±32.42 mm3 was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters, especially anterior chamber depth (ACD, which accounted for about 85% of the variation of ACV. Most of the anterior segment parameters were significantly correlated with age, and the relative changes in ACV and ACD were greatest in subjects aged 41–50 years. Conclusion. ACV was correlated with most of the anterior segment parameters measured in this study, particularly ACD. The relatively large difference between horizontal and vertical ACW suggests that the ACV could and should be measured using multiple OCT scans.

  2. Anterior chamber gas bubbles in open globe injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, E B G; Baxter, D; Blanch, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old soldier who was in close proximity to the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED). Bubbles of gas were visible within the anterior chamber of his left eye. The authors propose that intraocular gas, present acutely after trauma, is diagnostic of open globe injury and is of particular importance in remote military environments.

  3. Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J; Park, Susanna S; Morse, Lawrence S; Schwartz, Daniel M; Fraser, Scott E; Werner, John S

    2013-08-27

    Detailed visualization of microvascular changes in the human retina is clinically limited by the capabilities of angiography imaging, a 2D fundus photograph that requires an intravenous injection of fluorescent dye. Whereas current angiography methods enable visualization of some retinal capillary detail, they do not adequately reveal the choriocapillaris or other microvascular features beneath the retina. We have developed a noninvasive microvascular imaging technique called phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT), which identifies vasculature three dimensionally through analysis of data acquired with OCT systems. The pvOCT imaging method is not only capable of generating capillary perfusion maps for the retina, but it can also use the 3D capabilities to segment the data in depth to isolate vasculature in different layers of the retina and choroid. This paper demonstrates some of the capabilities of pvOCT imaging of the anterior layers of choroidal vasculature of a healthy normal eye as well as of eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The pvOCT data presented permit digital segmentation to produce 2D depth-resolved images of the retinal vasculature, the choriocapillaris, and the vessels in Sattler's and Haller's layers. Comparisons are presented between en face projections of pvOCT data within the superficial choroid and clinical angiography images for regions of GA. Abnormalities and vascular dropout observed within the choriocapillaris for pvOCT are compared with regional GA progression. The capability of pvOCT imaging of the microvasculature of the choriocapillaris and the anterior choroidal vasculature has the potential to become a unique tool to evaluate therapies and understand the underlying mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration progression.

  4. Eye Complications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    Improved survival as a result of HAART has lead to increase in systemic and ocular complications as well as the appearance of syndromes related to ... activities of daily living. This paper reviews anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with AIDS in an ... recognised by inspection. Posterior segment and.

  5. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  6. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  7. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thighbone where the kneecap normally rests is too shallow. You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  8. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  9. Anterior Segment Findings in Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangela Rubino

    2015-01-01

    lead to blindness for severe keratomalacia with cornea scarring and perforation or night blindness due to impaired dark adaptation. Conversely, the disease is quite common in developing countries, as a consequence of chronic malnutrition. The correct diagnosis and therapy with prompt vitamin A supplementation avoid blindness. We report a series of 3 local cases with different age and causes for vitamin A deficiency. The diagnostic workup, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  10. Cornea and anterior segment | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transactions of the Ophthalmological Society of Nigeria: Proceedings of the annual OSN Conference, Jos, Nigeria, August 25–28, 2015. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  11. Cornea and anterior segment | Bekibele | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  13. Iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia moves posteriorly with mydriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruysberg, L.P.J.; Doors, M.; Berendschot, T.T.; Brabander, J. De; Webers, C.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the physiological characteristics of eyes implanted with iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs), which are increasingly being used for the correction of higher myopic and hyperopic refractive errors. METHODS: In a case series of 20 patients (39 eyes),

  14. Image Segmentation Algorithms Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Yuheng, Song; Hao, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The technology of image segmentation is widely used in medical image processing, face recognition pedestrian detection, etc. The current image segmentation techniques include region-based segmentation, edge detection segmentation, segmentation based on clustering, segmentation based on weakly-supervised learning in CNN, etc. This paper analyzes and summarizes these algorithms of image segmentation, and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithms. Finally, we make a predi...

  15. Clinical observation of 3 minutes dark-room provocative test in patients with laser peripheral iridectomy in the fellow eyes of acute angle-closure glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe related biological parameters of 3 minutes dark-room provocative test in patients with laser peripheral iridectomy(LPIin the fellow eyes of acute primary angle-closure(APACby ultrasound biomicroscopy(UBM. To explore the risk factors in primary angle closure suspect(PACSpatients with progressive angle closure after LPI. METHODS: Seventy-eight eyes of APAC patients without peripheral anterior synechia were selected. Each eye underwent 3 minutes dark-room provocative test after LPI. Anterior segment parameters, including anterior chamber depth(ACD, anterior chamber angle open distance500(AOD500, peripheral iris thickness(PIT, iris convex(IC, the position of iris insertion and trabecular-ciliary process distance(TCPD, and the number of positional angle closure(NPACwere observed and analyzed by statistic methods. RESULTS:Patients with APAC were examined by UBM after LPI and 26 eyes(33%occurs at least one positional angle closure,19 eyes(24%were positive in 3 minutes dark-room provocative test among them. It occurs a positive relationship between the elevation intraocular pressure and the number of positional angle closure in dark-room provocative test(r=0.84, P500, IT and IC were significantly changed from normal light to darkroom between positional angle closure positive group and positional angle closure negative group(all P500(P=0.003, IT(P=0.012, IC(P=0.043, TPCD(P=0.015, the position of iris insertion(P=0.024were correlative factors of positive results. In multiple-factor analysis, only IT(P=0.011, TPCD(P=0.009, iris root attachment points(P=0.02were independent risk factors of positive results. CONCLUSION:A certain proportion of patients with PACS after LPI appeared positional angle closure in a dark room. Peripheral iris hypertrophy, anterior displacement of the ciliary body and iris root attachment points are vital risk factors. Long-term follow-up study and intervention treatment are required in these patients after LPI.

  16. In silico evo-devo: reconstructing stages in the evolution of animal segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.; Davis, GK; Patel, NH; Peel, A; Akam, M; Couso, JP; Budd, GE; Seaver, EC; Minelli, A; Fusco, G; Tautz, D; Jacobs, DK; Hughes, NC; Fitz-Gibbon, ST; Winchell, CJ; Blair, SS; Wanninger, A; Kristof, A; Brinkmann, N; Chipman, AD; Richmond, DL; Oates, AC; Gold, DA; Runnegar, B; Gehling, JG; Jacobs, DK; Rivera, A; Weisblat, D; Williams, T; Blachuta, B; Hegna, TA; Nagy, LM; Balavoine, G; Peel, A; Bénazéraf, B; Pourquié, O; Mayer, G; Kato, C; Quast, B; Chisholm, RH; Landman, KA; Quinn, LM; Nakamoto, A; Hester, SD; Constantinou, SJ; Blaine, WG; Tewksbury, AB; Matei, MT; Nagy, LM; Williams, TA; Graham, A; Butts, T; Lumsden, A; Kiecker, C; François, P; Hakim, V; Siggia, ED; Fujimoto, K; Ishihara, S; Kaneko, K; Tusscher, KH; Hogeweg, P; Crombach, A; Hogeweg, P; Salazar-Ciudad, I; Newman, SA; Solé, RV; Pankratz, MJ; Jäckle, H; Crampin, EJ; Hackborn, WW; Maini, PK; Harper, JL; Rosen, BR; White, J; Tusscher, KHWJ; Petersen, CP; Reddien, PW; Martin, BL; Kimelman, D; Young, T; Rowland, JE; Ven, C; Bialecka, M; Novoa, A; Carapuco, M; Nes, J; Graaff, W; Duluc, I; Freund, J-N; Beck, F; Mallo, M; Deschamps, J; Meinhardt, H; Kappen, C; Schughart, K; Ruddle, FH

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of animal segmentation is a major research focus within the field of evolutionary–developmental biology. Most studied segmented animals generate their segments in a repetitive, anterior-to-posterior fashion coordinated with the extension of the body axis from a posterior growth zone.

  17. An efficient iris segmentation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomai, Abdu; El-Zaart, A.; Mathkour, H.

    2011-10-01

    Iris recognition system became a reliable system for authentication and verification tasks. It consists of five stages: image acquisition, iris segmentation, iris normalization, feature encoding, and feature matching. Iris segmentation stage is one of the most important stages. It plays an essential role to locate the iris efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new approach for iris segmentation using image processing technique. This approach is composed of four main parts. (1) Eliminating reflections of light on the eye image based on inverting the color of the grayscale image, filling holes in the intensity image, and inverting the color of the intensity image to get the original grayscale image without any reflections. (2) Pupil boundary detection based on dividing an eye image to nine sub-images and finding the minimum value of the mean intensity for each sub-image to get a suitable threshold value of pupil. (3) Enhancing the contrast of outer iris boundary using exponential operator to have sharp variation. (4) Outer iris boundary localization based on applying a gray threshold and morphological operations on the rectangular part of an eye image including the pupil and the outer boundaries of iris to find the small radius of outer iris boundary from the center of pupil. The proposed approach has been tested on CASIA v1.0 iris image database and other collected iris image database. The experimental results show that the approach is able to detect pupil and outer iris boundary with high accuracy results approximately 100% and reduce time consuming.

  18. Prevalence of Eye Diseases and Causes of Visual Impairment in School-Aged Children in Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. Methods The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Results Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Conclusions Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment. PMID:22123227

  19. Prevalence of eye diseases and causes of visual impairment in school-aged children in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Lian-Hong; Chen, Lin; Liu, Qin; Ke, Ning; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Shu; Xiao, Jun; Ye, Wei-Jiang; Xiong, Yan; Shi, Hui; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Yin, Zheng-Qin

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence of refractive error, visual impairment, and eye diseases in school-aged children in western China. The survey was done in a representative county (Yongchuan District, Chongqing Municipality) of western China. Cluster random sampling was used to select children aged 6 to 15 years. We conducted door-to-door surveys and eye examinations including optometry, stereoscopic vision test, eye position and eye movement, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, retinoscopy, and fundus examination after cycloplegia with 1% cyclopentolate. Among 3469 children, data were available for 3079 (88.76%). The prevalences of eye diseases were, in descending order, refractive error (20.69%; 637/3079), conjunctivitis (11.76%; 362/3079), amblyopia (1.88%; 58/3079), color vision defect (0.52%; 16/3079), keratitis (0.36%; 11/3079), strabismus (0.29%; 9/3079), cataract (0.23%; 7/3079), pathologic myopia (0.19%; 6/3079), and ocular trauma (0.13%; 4/3079). The prevalence of corneal leucoma, corneal staphyloma, optic neuropathy, macular degeneration, and myelinated nerve fibers was 0.03% (1/3079) for each. The prevalence of visual impairment was 7.70% (237/3079), and the major causes of visual impairment were uncorrected refractive error (86.08%; 204/237), amblyopia (9.70%; 23/237), pathologic myopia (1.27%; 3/237), congenital cataract (0.42%; 1/237), and others (2.11%; 5/237). Among school-aged children in a less developed area of western China, refractive error was the most prevalent eye disorder, and uncorrected refractive error was the main cause of visual impairment.

  20. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Leer en Español: Lesiones de los ojos ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  4. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  6. Black Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    First aid Black eye Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a ... 13, 2018 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-black-eye/basics/ART-20056675 . Mayo ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay healthy and comfortable. If your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears ...

  8. Expression of engrailed-family genes in the jumping bristletail and discussion on the primitive pattern of insect segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Yasutaka; Sakuma, Masashi; Machida, Ryuichiro

    2015-09-01

    It has been shown that segmentation in the short-germ insects proceeds by a two-step mechanism. The anterior region is simultaneously segmented in a manner similar to that in Drosophila, which is apparently unique to insects, and the rest of the posterior region is segmented sequentially by a mechanism involving a segmentation clock, which is derived from the common ancestor of arthropods. In order to propose the evolutionary scenario of insect segmentation, we examined segmentation in the jumping bristletail, the basalmost extant insect. Using probes for engrailed-family genes for in situ hybridization, we found no sign of simultaneous segmentation in the anterior region of the jumping bristletail embryos. All segments except the anteriormost segment are formed sequentially. This condition shown in the jumping bristletail embryos may represent the primitive pattern of insect segmentation. The intercalating formation of the intercalary segment is assumed to be a synapomorphic trait shared among all insects after the branching of the jumping bristletail.

  9. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab but not subsequent ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonopoulos C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Antonopoulos1, Maxwell Stem2, Grant M Comer21Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 2WK Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Previous reports have identified noninfectious uveitis as a potential sequela following both intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. We present two unique cases of acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab that did not occur with subsequent ranibizumab injections.Methods: Case report.Conclusion: These cases may reflect differences in the etiology of anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Given these differences, it may be reasonable to offer ranibizumab to patients who have experienced presumed bevacizumab-induced anterior uveitis.Keywords: adverse effect, age-related macular degeneration, anterior uveitis, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, uveitis

  10. Dynamics of the slowing segmentation clock reveal alternating two-segment periodicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Nathan P; François, Paul; Delaune, Emilie A; Amacher, Sharon L

    2015-05-15

    The formation of reiterated somites along the vertebrate body axis is controlled by the segmentation clock, a molecular oscillator expressed within presomitic mesoderm (PSM) cells. Although PSM cells oscillate autonomously, they coordinate with neighboring cells to generate a sweeping wave of cyclic gene expression through the PSM that has a periodicity equal to that of somite formation. The velocity of each wave slows as it moves anteriorly through the PSM, although the dynamics of clock slowing have not been well characterized. Here, we investigate segmentation clock dynamics in the anterior PSM in developing zebrafish embryos using an in vivo clock reporter, her1:her1-venus. The her1:her1-venus reporter has single-cell resolution, allowing us to follow segmentation clock oscillations in individual cells in real-time. By retrospectively tracking oscillations of future somite boundary cells, we find that clock reporter signal increases in anterior PSM cells and that the periodicity of reporter oscillations slows to about ∼1.5 times the periodicity in posterior PSM cells. This gradual slowing of the clock in the anterior PSM creates peaks of clock expression that are separated at a two-segment periodicity both spatially and temporally, a phenomenon we observe in single cells and in tissue-wide analyses. These results differ from previous predictions that clock oscillations stop or are stabilized in the anterior PSM. Instead, PSM cells oscillate until they incorporate into somites. Our findings suggest that the segmentation clock may signal somite formation using a phase gradient with a two-somite periodicity. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  12. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Eye Injuries KidsHealth / For Parents / Eye Injuries What's in ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  13. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  14. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  15. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. ... to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you ...

  17. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test that uses orange dye (fluorescein) and a blue light to detect foreign bodies in the eye. This ... eye. The health care provider then shines a blue light at your eye. Any problems on the surface ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ... National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education ...

  20. Comparison of the Results of Secondary Anterior Chamber and Secondary Scleral-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Complicated Phacoemulsification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Yeşim Erçalık

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the visual prognosis and postoperative complication rates of secondary anterior chamber (AC IOL and scleralfixated (SF intraocular lenses (IOL after complicated phacoemulsification surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of thirty patients were reviewed for this retrospective study. The patients with secondary AC IOL implantation formed group 1 (n=15, and the patients with secondary SF IOL implantation formed group 2 (n=15. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA with Snellen chart, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure (IOP measurement with applanation tonometer, gonioscopy performed by Goldmann’s 3-mirror contact lens, and fundus examination were performed preoperatively in all patients. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative BCVA (p=0.492 and postoperative success (BCVA not changed or better postoperatively between the 2 groups (p=0.598. Postoperative success rate was 80% in group 1 and 93.7% in Group 2. The postoperative cylindrical power of the eyes did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.220. The postoperative complications in group 1 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 5 eyes, transient IOP elevation in 2 eyes, postoperative fibrinous reaction in the anterior chamber in one eye, late-onset secondary glaucoma in one eye, hyphema in one eye, cystoid macular edema in one eye, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in one eye, and IOL malposition in one eye. The postoperative complications in group 2 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 3 eyes, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in 2 eyes, IOL malposition in 2 eyes, transient IOP elevation in one eye, and retinal detachment in one eye. Conclusion: In this study, both IOL types were observed to be preferable in cases without adequate capsular support following complicated cataract surgery. However, further studies with large numbers of patients are needed to define the best choice

  1. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  2. Segmentation and segment connection of obstructed colon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medved, Mario; Truyen, Roel; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo

    2004-05-01

    Segmentation of colon CT images is the main factor that inhibits automation of virtual colonoscopy. There are two main reasons that make efficient colon segmentation difficult. First, besides the colon, the small bowel, lungs, and stomach are also gas-filled organs in the abdomen. Second, peristalsis or residual feces often obstruct the colon, so that it consists of multiple gas-filled segments. In virtual colonoscopy, it is very useful to automatically connect the centerlines of these segments into a single colon centerline. Unfortunately, in some cases this is a difficult task. In this study a novel method for automated colon segmentation and connection of colon segments' centerlines is proposed. The method successfully combines features of segments, such as centerline and thickness, with information on main colon segments. The results on twenty colon cases show that the method performs well in cases of small obstructions of the colon. Larger obstructions are mostly also resolved properly, especially if they do not appear in the sigmoid part of the colon. Obstructions in the sigmoid part of the colon sometimes cause improper classification of the small bowel segments. If a segment is too small, it is classified as the small bowel segment. However, such misclassifications have little impact on colon analysis.

  3. Is it possible to differentiate between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vervaat, Fabienne E.; Christensen, Thomas E.; Smeijers, Loes; Holmvang, Lene; Hasbak, Philip; Szabo, Balazs M.; Widdershoven, J.W. M. G.; Wagner, Galen S.; Bang, Lia E.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Several studies have investigated the ability of the twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to reliably distinguish Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) from an acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In these studies, only ECG changes were required – ST-segment

  4. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okonkwo

    It most commonly occurs after phakic vitrectomy and scleral buckling for diabetic traction retinal detachment. It usually manifests with haemorrhage into the vitreous cavity or anterior hyaloid 3 to 12 weeks after vitrectomy and is the result of fibrovascular proliferation from the peripheral retina extending toward the equator of ...

  5. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  6. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes.

  7. Distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in an aged population in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Weirong

    2016-05-01

    Ocular biometry is important for preoperative assessment in cataract and anterior segment surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate normative ocular biometric parameters and their associations in an older Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional observational study. From 2013 to 2014, we recruited inhabitants aged 50 years or older in Guangzhou, China. Among 1,117 participants in the study, data from 1,015 phakic right eyes were used for analyses. Ocular parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (K) were measured using an IOL Master. The mean AL, ACD, and K were 23.48 mm [95 % confidence interval (CI), 23.40-23.55], 3.03 mm (CI, 3.01-3.05), and 44.20 mm (CI, 44.11-44.29), respectively. A mean reduction in ACD with age was observed (P = 0.002) in male subjects but not in female subjects (P = 0.558). Male subjects had significantly longer ALs (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P population in South China. The AL in this Chinese cohort was greater than that observed in the Singaporean Chinese but smaller than that observed in Malaysia and for Caucasians. The Chinese have a shallower ACD than some other racial groups. Age and sex were the most consistent predictors of ocular biometry in the older population from South China.

  8. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  9. The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on corneal neovascularization induced by alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on rabbit corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkali burn. Methods: Forty-eight adult rabbits were randomized into four groups after alkali burning: Group A (2.5 mg/ml, Group B (5 mg/ml, and Group C (10 mg/ml by different concentrations of KH902 eye drops and Group D by saline solution as control with three times a day for 2 weeks. At days 7, 14, and 28, the anterior segment photographs, confocal microscopy, and histopathology were performed to evaluate corneal opacity, neovascularization, inflammatory cell density, vessel size, and edema. Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level. Results: (1 The CNV in the medicine-treated groups showed a reduction without obvious corneal side effects histologically. (2 Compared to the control group, the three medicine-treated groups showed a reduction in the VEGF levels and CNV areas on days 7, 14, and 28 and in the inflammatory cell density on days 14 and 28 (P 0.05. Conclusion: KH902 eye drops in lower concentration showed an obvious reduction of the CNV growing for rabbit corneal alkali burn without side effects.

  10. Late spontaneous resolution of a double anterior chamber post deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Passani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old healthy male underwent deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty with big-bubble technique for treatment of keratoconus in his right eye. One week after surgery, he presented with detachment of the endothelium-Descemet complex with formation of a double anterior chamber, despite the apparent absence of an intraoperative Descemet membrane rupture. A subsequent intervention with the intent to relocate the corneal graft button was not effective, because the detachment appeared again one day later. The authors hypothesized that, at the time of the stromal dissection with big bubble technique, a small amount of air penetrated into the anterior chamber, creating a false pathway through the trabecular meshwork. The aqueous humor then penetrated the graft flowing through the false pathway, causing the endothelium-Descemet detachment. The persistence of that pathway, even after the intervention of graft repositioning, caused the failure of the latter procedure and persistence of the double chamber. We decided to wait and observe. The double anterior chamber spontaneously resolved in approximately three months.

  11. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  13. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...

  14. Does the foveal shape influence the image formation in human eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Katharina; Zimmerling, Beatrice; Scheibe, Patrick; Rauscher, Franziska G.; Reichenbach, Andreas; Francke, Mike; Brunner, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In human eyes, the maximum visual acuity correlates locally with the fovea, a shallow depression in the retina. Previous examinations have been reduced to simple geometrical fovea models derived from postmortem preparations and considering only a few superficial ray propagation aspects. In the current study, an extended and realistic analysis of ray-optical simulations for a comprehensive anatomical realistic eye model for the anterior part and realistic aspherical human foveal topographical profiles deduced from in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) are presented, and the refractive index step at the transition from vitreous to retinal tissue is taken into account. The optical effect of a commonly shaped (averaged) and an extraordinarily shaped foveal pit were both compared to the analysis of an assumed pure spherical boundary layer. The influence of the aperture size, wavelength, and incident angle on the spot size and shape, as well as the axial focal and lateral centroid position is investigated, and a lateral displacement of about 2 μm and an axial shift of the best focal position of less than 4 μm are found. These findings indicate only small optical effects that are laterally in the range of inter-receptor distances and axially less than the photoreceptor outer segment dimension.

  15. Geographic mapping of choroidal thickness in myopic eyes using 1050-nm spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinqin Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To provide a geographical map of choroidal thickness (CT around the macular region among subjects with low, moderate and high myopia. Methods: 20 myopic subjects (n = 40 eyes without other identified pathologies participated in this study: 20 eyes of ≤ 3 diopters (D (low myopic, 10 eyes between -3 and -6D (moderate myopic, and 10 eyes of ≥ 6D (high myopic. The mean age of subjects was 30.2 years (± 7.6 years; range, 24 to 46 years. A 1050 nm spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT system, operating at 120 kHz imaging rate, was used in this study to simultaneously capture 3D anatomical images of the choroid and measure intraocular length (IOL in the subject. The 3D OCT images of the choroid were segmented into superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants, from which the CT was measured, representing radial distance between the outer retinal pigment epithelium (RPE layer and inner scleral border. Measurements were made within concentric regions centered at fovea centralis, extended to 5 mm away from fovea at 1 mm intervals in the nasal and temporal directions. The measured IOL was the distance from the anterior cornea surface to the RPE in alignment along the optical axis of the eye. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate CT at each geographic region and observe the relationship between CT and the degree of myopia. Results: For low myopic eyes, the IOL was measured at 24.619 ± 0.016 mm. The CT (273.85 ± 49.01 μm was greatest under fovea as is in the case of healthy eyes. Peripheral to the fovea, the mean CT decreased rapidly along the nasal direction, reaching a minimum of 180.65 ± 58.25μm at 5 mm away from the fovea. There was less of a change in thickness from the fovea in the temporal direction reaching a minimum of 234.25 ± 42.27 μm. In contrast to the low myopic eyes, for moderate and high myopic eyes, CTs were thickest in temporal region (where CT = 194.94 ± 27.28 and 163 ± 34.89

  16. Coordinated Morphogenetic Mechanisms Shape the Vertebrate Eye

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    Juan-Ramon Martinez-Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The molecular bases of vertebrate eye formation have been extensively investigated during the past 20 years. This has resulted in the definition of the backbone of the gene regulatory networks controlling the different steps of eye development and has further highlighted a substantial conservation of these networks among vertebrates. Yet, the precise morphogenetic events allowing the formation of the optic cup from a small group of cells within the anterior neural plate are still poorly understood. It is also unclear if the morphogenetic events leading to eyes of very similar shape are indeed comparable among all vertebrates or if there are any species-specific peculiarities. Improved imaging techniques have enabled to follow how the eye forms in living embryos of a few vertebrate models, whereas the development of organoid cultures has provided fascinating tools to recapitulate tissue morphogenesis of other less accessible species. Here, we will discuss what these advances have taught us about eye morphogenesis, underscoring possible similarities and differences among vertebrates. We will also discuss the contribution of cell shape changes to this process and how morphogenetic and patterning mechanisms integrate to assemble the final architecture of the eye.

  17. Effects of lens extirpation with anterior vitrectomy on vitreous three-dimensional mesh structure

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    Yan Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Eyes were harvested on the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, respectively. Changes in vitreous gel stretch length due to gravity and the rate of vitreous liquefaction were observed. The collagen content in the vitreous body was examined using the L-hydroxyproline test. Electronic microscopic images were obtained from each eyeball. RESULTS: On both the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, the vitreous gel length of group III was significantly shorter than group I and group II (P<0.05, while the rate of liquefaction of the vitreous body in group III was significantly higher than group I and group II (P<0.05. The collagen content in group III was also higher than that in group I and group II (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Loss of vitreous gel mass is more likely to occur in the eyes of rabbits receiving anterior vitrectomy. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy may damage the stable three-dimensional mesh structure of collagen, which could aggravate vitreous gel liquefaction.

  18. Anterior Urethral Valves

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    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  19. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

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    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Hurdle faced in Clinical Translation and its solution: After HCEP transplantation, the eye balls need to be fixed 24- 36 hours facing down, to facilitate the gravity-assisted settling of the cells injected into the anterior chamber on to the endothelium which is possible in animals but difficult in humans. To overcome this hurdle, we used the nanocomposite gel sheet (D25-NC gel sheet developed by Haraguchi [6] as a supporting material to support the HCEP cells during transplantation and the HCEP transplantation using this NC gel sheet was successfully demonstrated in a cadaver bovine's eye cornea [7]. Thus the second step in the 'Eye for eyes' mission was accomplished. The Pilot Clinical study: The study was undertaken in three patients, two suffering from bullous keratopathy and one patient with congenital corneal dystrophy after proper informed consent. The right eye was affected in each

  20. Clinical evaluation of reduced MIBG uptake in the infero-posterior segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Kouji [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of the reduced uptake of {sup 123}I-MIBG in the in fero-posterior segments was investigated. The subjects were 135 patients with non-ischemic heart disease (AR: aortic regurgitation, MR: mitral regurgitation, DCM: dilated cardiomyopathy, HCM: hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ADR: adriamycin-induced myocardial damage, HHD: hypertensive heart disease) who underwent MIBG myocardial scintigraphy at rest. Anterior planar and SPECT were obtained initial images and delayed images. The heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) was calculated from the delayed planar image, and the mean MIBG clearance was calculated with bull`s eye displays obtained from the initial and the delayed SPECT images. The bull`s eye display, obtained from the delayed SPECT images was evaluated by generating a blacked out map which exhibited regions with reduced % uptake under mean -2 SD of normal controls. The blacked out regions involved the infero-posterior segments and were closely resembled to the sector form. The central angle of this sector was named the angle of defect (AOD). This AOD was compared with H/M, the clearance, the NYHA class and echocardiographic findings of the patients. AOD was significantly correlated with both H/M and the clearance in each heart disease, and AOD was signifi