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Sample records for anterior eye segment

  1. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

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    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  2. Diagnostics of anterior eye segment in cats and dogs

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    Hadži-Milić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of the anterior segment of the eye present the most frequent diagnostics implemented in ophthalmology and by most veterinary practicians as well. This paper presents the complete diagnostics in the most concise form possible. The procedure with animals is presented first, followed by the equipment, and then anamnesis. The following diagnostic methods are presented: examination in a lighted room which include an examination from a distance, taking a smear, the Schirmer tear test (STT, an examination from close by, examination in a dark room which comprises the elementary examinations, such as the use of focal lighting and examination using a direct ophthalmoscope, and special examination in a dark room, such as biomicroscopy, gonioscopy and keratoscopy. Additional examination methods are also included.

  3. Application of Fourier Domain OCT Imaging Technology to the Anterior Segment of the Human Eye

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    Wojtkowski, Maciej; Marcos, Susana; Ortiz, Sergio; Grulkowski, Ireneusz

    The anterior segment is the front part of the human eye, which forms the optical system and hence directly impacts vision. Traumatic or pathological changes in the anterior segment may lead to vision loss and, in some cases, even blindness. Since the eighteenth century, optical instrumentation for measuring and imaging the anterior segment of the human eye has been developing along with modern ophthalmology. The application of OCT to the anterior segment imaging is particularly of interest, since this could potentially provide substantial complementary information regarding the large-scale architecture of the cornea and the crystalline lens, or on small portions of tissue imaged with high spatial resolutions comparable to regular microscopy. Especially an introduction of Fourier domain detection in OCT has opened new frontiers in OCT ophthalmic applications. The resultant substantial speed improvement enables rapid image acquisition, helping to reduce artifacts due to patient motion. Thus, it is currently possible to perform high-speed, in vivo, three-dimensional volumetric imaging over large scales within a reasonable time limit and without reducing system sensitivity. This chapter describes the state-of the art OCT technology dedicated to anterior segment imaging and indicates all important parameters which are required for optimization of the performance of OCT instrument.

  4. Anterior Segment Eye Assessment of Refractive Surgery Candidates in the Southeast of Iran.

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    Nakhjavanpour, Neda; Payandeh, Abolfazl; Rajabi, Majid; Shoja, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Anterior segment eye parameters are essential factors in diagnosis, screening and management of abnormal ocular conditions. Based on the previous studies, they might differ from one race or population to another. Sistan-and-Baluchestan province, the southeast of Iran, has special weather conditions and race, plus lack of research on these diagnostic factors. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess anterior segment parameters using pentacam in this area. 800 eyes of subjects which had been referred to the Al-Zahra eye hospital of Zahedan, the capital city of the province, for corneal refractive surgery from October 2014 to March 2015 participated in this research. 95% confidence limits for mean of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and volume were (536.02, 541.20), (3.13, 3.18) and (187.63, 192.58) respectively. Multiple linear regression models showed a lower mean central corneal thickness, and maximum/minimum of keratometry, for males than females, adjusting for age and spherical equivalent. Inversely, anterior chamber depth, and volume were more in males. In order to diagnosis and treating ocular diseases which have effect on retinal thickness, precisely specification of predictive factors is highly needed. PMID:27357884

  5. Comparison of anterior segment parameters with pentacam according to age in emmetropic eyes

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    Yasin Çınar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It was aimed to compare anterior segment parametersobtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera systemaccording to age groups.Methods: 290 eyes of 145 emmetropic subjects wereincluded in the study. Subjects were divided in threeage groups. Group 1 comprised the subjects age up to20 years, Group 2 comprised the subjects age between21 and 40 and Group 3 comprised the subjects between41 years and older. In all subjects, flat keratometry (K1,steep keratometry (K2, mean corneal power (Km,maximum keratometry (Kmax, central corneal thickness(CCT, apex corneal thickness (ACT, thinnest cornealthickness (TCT, anterior chamber volume (ACV and anteriorchamber depth (ACD were obtained by using rotatingScheimpflug camera system. To eliminate operatordependent variables, automatic release mode was used.All measurements were obtained by the same examiner.Results: The study included 72 female and 73 male subjects.The mean age of the subjects was 31.37±12.29years (range, 8-65. There were no significant differencesin keratometric values between age groups. Therewas significant difference between Groups 1 and 3 andGroups 2 and 3 in the mean CCT, ACT and TCT (p<0.05.There was significant difference between the groups inthe mean ACD and ACV. There significant positive correlationbetween age and CCT (r=0.181, p=0.001, ACT(r=0.161, p=0.006 and TCT (r=0.16, p=0.006. Therewere significant negative correlations between age andACD (r=-0.376, p<0.001 and ACV (r=-0.367, p<0.001.Conclusion: In the emmetropic eyes, significant reductionwas found in ACD and ACV, while there was significantincrease in CCT, ACT and TCT by age.Key words: Corneal topography, anterior segment, emetropic eyes, pentacam

  6. Ocular Drug Delivery - New Strategies for Targeting Anterior and Posterior Segments of the Eye.

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    Fangueiro, Joana F; Veiga, Francisco; Silva, Amelia M; Souto, Eliana B

    2016-01-01

    The ocular delivery of drugs encounters several limitations because of the dynamic and static barriers of the human's eye anatomy and physiology. The poor bioavailability of drugs are mainly related to the topical administration, i.e. eye drops which is the most common drug dosage form for the treatment of eye pathologies. Precorneal factors and drug limitations related to its solubility and susceptibility for physicochemical degradation could be the main reasons for the poor permeation and uptake in the ocular mucosa. Pathologies affecting the anterior and posterior segment of the eye are thereafter difficult to be treated and, given the chronic and degenerative nature of some of these injuries, it is crucial to improve drugs therapeutic effect. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems could be a suitable approach to overcome these limitations. Some of the most important colloidal systems are highlighted in this review, such as the use of mucoadhesive polymers, prodrugs, nanogels, liposomes, microemulsions, lipid and polymeric nanoparticles, cyclodextrins, dendrimers and nanocrystals, along with their clinical and therapeutic relevance for the administration of drugs for ocular delivery. PMID:26675225

  7. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

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    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  8. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

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    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  9. 7.1 T MRI to Assess the Anterior Segment of the Eye

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    Langner, Soenke; Martin, Heiner; Terwee, Thom; Koopmans, Steven A.; Krueger, Paul C.; Hosten, Norbert; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter; Guthoff, Rudolf F.; Stachs, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE. Visualization of the anterior segment and biometric evaluation of the entire crystalline lens pose significant challenges for imaging techniques because of tissue-induced distortion artifacts. The present study was conducted to demonstrate the advantages of high-resolution magnetic resonanc

  10. Trabecular-iris circumference volume in open angle eyes using swept-source fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

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    Rigi, Mohammed; Blieden, Lauren S; Nguyen, Donna; Chuang, Alice Z; Baker, Laura A; Bell, Nicholas P; Lee, David A; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A; Feldman, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV), which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan). Trabecular-iris space area (TISA) and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15) years (range 20-79). TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD) value of 4.75 µL (±2.30) for TICV500 and a mean (±SD) value of 8.90 µL (±3.88) for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P = 0.035). In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter. PMID:25210623

  11. Trabecular-Iris Circumference Volume in Open Angle Eyes Using Swept-Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To introduce a new anterior segment optical coherence tomography parameter, trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV, which measures the integrated volume of the peripheral angle, and establish a reference range in normal, open angle eyes. Methods. One eye of each participant with open angles and a normal anterior segment was imaged using 3D mode by the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey, Nagoya, Japan. Trabecular-iris space area (TISA and TICV at 500 and 750 µm were calculated. Analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of age and its interaction with spherical equivalent. Results. The study included 100 participants with a mean age of 50 (±15 years (range 20–79. TICV showed a normal distribution with a mean (±SD value of 4.75 µL (±2.30 for TICV500 and a mean (±SD value of 8.90 µL (±3.88 for TICV750. Overall, TICV showed an age-related reduction (P=0.035. In addition, angle volume increased with increased myopia for all age groups, except for those older than 65 years. Conclusions. This study introduces a new parameter to measure peripheral angle volume, TICV, with age-adjusted normal ranges for open angle eyes. Further investigation is warranted to determine the clinical utility of this new parameter.

  12. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders: dry eye disease, blepharitis, and allergy.

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    Lemp, Michael A; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses the use of contact lenses in patients suffering from dry eye and ocular allergy. The diagnosis of dry eye is outlined along with the relationship between contact lenses, the tear film, and the ocular surface. A practical approach to the recognition and management of the dry eye patient wishing to wear contact lenses is presented. In addition, a consideration of a careful strategy to identify patients with ocular allergy and manage the use of contact lenses in these patients is developed with an emphasis on the avoidance of complications.

  13. Evaluation of ultrasonic biomicroscopy results in anterior eye segment before and after cataract surgery

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    Ciftci S.; Simsek A.

    2012-01-01

    Ali Simsek,1 Süleyman Ciftci21Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Adiyaman University, Adiyaman, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Diyarbakir Training and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, TurkeyBackground: The aim of this study was to assess the value of ultrasonic biomicroscopy in reporting decreases in intraocular pressure resulting from changes in anterior chamber depth and angle after phacoemulsification and intracapsular lens implantation in patients with catarac...

  14. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

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    Zhonghao Wang

    Full Text Available To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA, posterior chamber area (PCA, iris cross-section area (ICA and angle recess area (ARA were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC.All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001.Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  15. Automatic segmentation of anterior segment optical coherence tomography images

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    Williams, Dominic; Zheng, Yalin; Bao, Fangjun; Elsheikh, Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images can provide quantitative measurements of the eye's entire anterior segment. A new technique founded on a newly proposed level set-based shape prior segmentation model has been developed for automatic segmentation of the cornea's anterior and posterior boundaries. This technique comprises three major steps: removal of regions containing irrelevant structures and artifacts, estimation of the cornea's location using a thresholding technique, and application of the new level set-based shape prior segmentation model to improve segmentation. The performance of our technique is compared to previously developed methods for analysis of the cornea in 33 OCT images of normal eyes, whereby manual annotations are used as a reference standard. The new technique achieves much improved concordance than previous methods, with a mean Dice's similarity coefficient of >0.92. This demonstrates the technique's potential to provide accurate and reliable measurements of the anterior segment geometry, which is important for many applications, including the construction of representative numerical simulations of the eye's mechanical behavior.

  16. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  17. Biometry of anterior segment of human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians during accommodation imaged with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography.

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    Lin Leng

    Full Text Available To determine the biometry of anterior segment dimensions of the human eye on both horizontal and vertical meridians with extended scan depth optical coherence tomography (OCT during accommodation.Twenty pre-presbyopic volunteers, aged between 24 and 30, were recruited. The ocular anterior segment of each subject was imaged using an extended scan depth OCT under non- and 3.0 diopters (D of accommodative demands on both horizontal and vertical meridians. All the images were analyzed to yield the following parameters: pupil diameter (PD, anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior and posterior surface curvatures of the crystalline lens (ASC and PSC and the lens thickness (LT. Two consecutive measurements were performed to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of this OCT. They were evaluated by calculating the within-subject standard deviation (SD, a paired t-test, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and the coefficient of repeatability/reproducibility (CoR.There were no significant differences between two consecutive measurements on either horizontal or vertical meridians under both two different accommodative statuses (P>0.05. The ICC for all parameters ranged from 0.775 to 0.998, except for the PSC (0.550 on the horizontal meridian under the non-accommodative status. In addition, the CoR for most of the parameters were excellent (0.004% to 4.89%. In all the parameters, only PD and PSC were found different between the horizontal and vertical meridians under both accommodative statuses (P<0.05. PD, ACD, ASC and PSC under accommodative status were significantly smaller than those under the non-accommodative status, except that the PSC at the vertical meridian did not change. In addition, LT was significantly increased when accommodation.The extended scan depth OCT successfully measured the dimensions of the anterior eye during accommodation with good repeatability and reproducibility on both horizontal and vertical meridians. The asymmetry

  18. Contrast-Enhancement of the Anterior Eye Segment in Patients with Retinoblastoma: Correlation between Clinical, MR Imaging, and Histopathologic Findings

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    P. de Graaf; P. van der Valk; A.C. Moll; S.M. Imhof; A.Y.N. Schouten-van Meeteren; D.L. Knol; J.A. Castelijns

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: AES contrast-enhancement is recognized in a substantial number of retinoblastoma-affected eyes. We retrospectively investigated the histopathologic basis of AES contrast-enhancement on MR images in retinoblastoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pretreatment contrast-enhanced MR image

  19. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

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    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  20. Effects of sympathetic denervation on the hyaluronan content of the anterior segment in the normal and traumatized rabbit eye.

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    Makar, Anna; Johnsson, Cecilia; Bruun, Anitha; Stenevi, Ulf; Ehinger, Berndt

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine whether there is any involvement of sympathetic nerves in the regulation of ocular hyaluronan production in the normal and traumatized rabbit iris. METHODS: Unilateral sympathetic denervation was performed by removing the right superior cervical ganglion. Hyaluronan concentrations in the iris and aqueous were measured with a radiometric assay at various time intervals after denervation. Peripheral iridectomy was also performed in both denervated and non-denervated eyes. ...

  1. Anterior segment parameters and eyelids in systemic sclerosis.

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    Sahin Atik, Sevinc; Koc, Feray; Akin Sari, Sirin; Sefi Yurdakul, Nazife; Ozmen, Mustafa; Akar, Servet

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate main numerical parameters of anterior segment and the effects of eyelid skin changes on these parameters in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Thirty-four patients with SSc and 34 healthy individuals were enrolled. Besides full eye examination, anterior segment measurements including anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber angle width, central corneal thickness, pupil size, corneal volume and keratometry were obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system. Eyelid thickness was evaluated using the scala of the modified Rodnan skin score and the patients were subgrouped with respect to these scores to evaluate the effect of eyelid thickening on the anterior segment parameters. Age and sex distributions of the groups were similar (p > 0.05). SSc patients had steeper and thinner corneas, smaller corneal volumes, narrower, shallower and smaller anterior segments but only the mean ACD value of right eyes was found significantly less than those of the controls (p = 0.047). The mean ACD values of SSc subgroup patients with moderate to severe eyelid thickening (50 %) had lower ACD measurements compared to those of control group. (p = 0.043 for the right eyes, p = 0.070 for the left eyes). However, SSc subgroup patients with none to mild eyelid thickening (50 %) had similar anterior segment parameters with control subjects (p > 0.05). Anterior chamber parameters of the SSc patients could show significant differences. These differences occur parallel to the eyelid changes but not secondary to it. PMID:26694912

  2. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

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    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  3. Anterior segment complications of retinal photocoagulation.

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    Kanski, J J

    1975-03-01

    Seven patients had anterior segment complications following xenon arc retinal photocoagulation. Irreversible keratopathy was induced in two cases; all patients showed evidence of iris injury. The absorption of radiation by the iris was considered the main factor in producing overheating of the anterior segment.

  4. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

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    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  5. Evaluation of Anterior Segment's Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome

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    Ozsoy, Ercan; Demirel, Ersin Ersan; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (p = 0.625, p = 0.830, p = 0.234, and p = 0.850). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (p = 0.130, p = 0.910, and p = 0.057). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. PMID:27648303

  6. Ophthalmohelioses and peripheral light focusing by the anterior eye

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    Coroneo, Minas T.

    1994-07-01

    A coincidence of the locations of foci of scattered light in the anterior eye with the usual locations of common sun-related eye conditions has been observed. These phenomena may explain the pathogenesis of pterygium and the initial location of certain cortical lens opacities and eyelid malignancies. Human and bovine eyes were used to demonstrate that the anterior eye acts as a side-on lens system. Light incident at the temporal limbus can be concentrated at the nasal limbus or beyond or at the nasal crystalline lens equator. The main pathways of light are transcameral and this is demonstrated by the use of baffles. Although this phenomenon is obvious with visible light, focusing of light at 308nm can be demonstrated. Computer-assisted optical ray tracing in a standard human anterior segment model showed that the peak intensity at the distal limbus is approximately twenty times that of the incident light intensity. The degree of limbal focusing is determined by corneal shape and anterior chamber depth. Such light focusing may be particularly injurious to corneal and lenticular epithelial stem cells. These observations provide circumstantial evidence that peripheral refraction phenomena are involved in the pathogenesis of the anterior ophthalmohelioses. Adequate lateral protection of the eye from increasing ultraviolet insolation may be prudent.

  7. Genetics in Ophthalmology II–Anterior Segment Diseases

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    Canan Aslı Utine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diseases are congenital or acquired hereditary diseases that result from structural/functional disorders of the human genome. Today, the genetic factors that play a role in many diseases are being highlighted with the rapid progress in the field of genetics science. It becomes increasingly important that physicians from all disciplines have knowledge about the basic principles of genetics, patterns of inheritance, etc., so that they can follow the new developments. In genetic eye diseases, ophthalmologists should know the basic clinical and recently rapidly developing genetic characteristics of these diseases in order to properly approach the diagnosis and treatment and to provide genetic counseling. In this paper, anterior segment eye diseases of genetic origin are reviewed, and aniridia, anterior segment dysgenesis, glaucoma, corneal dystrophies, cataract, ectopia lentis, myopia, and other refractive errors are covered. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 378-85

  8. 25G玻璃体切割系统在眼前节手术中的应用进展%25-gauge vitrectomy system for the surgery of eye anterior segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张影影; 张立贵

    2012-01-01

    25 G经结膜无缝合玻璃体切割系统的出现,标志着微创玻璃体切割手术取得了突破性进展,该系统在一些眼底疾病的治疗中已取得令人满意的疗效,随着对其不断改进,目前已逐步应用到眼前节手术中,尤其在儿童白内障手术中经角巩膜缘或扁平部行后囊膜切开联合前段玻璃体切割术更突显其微创优势.本文就25 G玻璃体切割系统的工作原理和优点、在眼前节手术中的临床应用及其潜在并发症等作一综述.%One of the most revolutionary developments in vitreoretinal surgery is 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy.Its use in the treatment of retina diseases has achieved signifcant effects.With the improvement of surgical technique,it has been developed for application to the operation of eye anterior segment,especially for pediatric cataract surgery,during which posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy are performed via a corneoscleral limbal or pars plana approach with it.This paper summaries the principle,advantages,indications and the potential accomplications of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system for the surgery of eye anterior segment.

  9. The Role of the Reactive Oxygen Species and Oxidative Stress in the Pathomechanism of the Age-Related Ocular Diseases and Other Pathologies of the Anterior and Posterior Eye Segments in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Małgorzata; Grzybowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    The reactive oxygen species (ROS) form under normal physiological conditions and may have both beneficial and harmful role. We search the literature and current knowledge in the aspect of ROS participation in the pathogenesis of anterior and posterior eye segment diseases in adults. ROS take part in the pathogenesis of keratoconus, Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy, and granular corneal dystrophy type 2, stimulating apoptosis of corneal cells. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of glaucoma stimulating apoptotic and inflammatory pathways on the level of the trabecular meshwork and promoting retinal ganglion cells apoptosis and glial dysfunction in the posterior eye segment. ROS play a role in the pathogenesis of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. ROS induce apoptosis of human lens epithelial cells. ROS promote apoptosis of vascular and neuronal cells and stimulate inflammation and pathological angiogenesis in the course of diabetic retinopathy. ROS are associated with the pathophysiological parainflammation and autophagy process in the course of the age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26881021

  10. Comparative study of CT and ultrasound biomicroscope diagnosis of foreign body in anterior segment of eye%眼前段异物CT与超声生物显微镜的诊断对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纬; 李舒茵; 史大鹏; 朱绍成

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨CT与超声生物显微镜(ultrasound biomicroscope,UBM)对眼前段异物诊断优缺点及联合应用价值.方法 对本院47例眶内异物者行CT和UBM检查,并与手术结果相对照.结果 47例眼前段异物中42例CT上显示为高密度影,手术取出物分别为金属碎片、铅笔芯、石块、玻璃等,3例呈稍高密度影,为塑料异物,2例无异常发现者分别为竹签和板栗刺.45例UBM检查均表现为强回声光斑伴声影,2例 CT检查发现异物后,再次行UBM检查找到异物.结论 眼前段异物诊断最佳方案应先行CT扫描确定异物方位及异物种类,再行UBM检查确定异物准确位置和并发症.%Objective To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of CT and ultrasound biomicroscope ( UBM) in diagnosing foreign body in anterior segment of eye. Methods The findings of CT and UBM in 47 patients with foreign body at anterior segment of eye were retrospectively reviewed comparatively with operation results. Results The foreign bodys in 42/47 cases were hyperdensity on CT image, which were metal debris,hearts of pencil, stones and glasses, 3/47 were slightly high density on CT image, which were plastics and 2/47 were negative on CT images, which were bamboo stick and chestnuts thorns. The foreign bodys in 45/47 cases were hyperecho with acoustic shadow at UBM,2 cases of them, the foreign bodys were find out by UBM later after the discovery of foreign bodys by CT. Conclusion It is the best schedule in diagnosis of foreign body in anterior segment of eve to identifv its locations and kinds with CT, then describe its precise locations and complications with UBM.

  11. Recent developments in nanotechnology to overcome the challenges in topical drug delivery to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Mohammadpour

    2015-01-01

    The present study is aimed at reviewing the eye structure, challenges faced by ocular drug delivery, familiarity with nanotechnology and approaches of this science in the area of ophthalmology as well as mechanisms of designing a local system for effective drug delivery to the eye tissue.

  12. Pupil Tracking for Real-Time Motion Corrected Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar M.; Nankivil, Derek; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability. Several groups have demonstrated real-time tracking for motion-compensated in vivo OCT retinal imaging, but these techniques are not applicable in the anterior segment. In this work, we demonstrate a simple and low-cost pupil tracking system integrated into a custom swept-source OCT system for real-time motion-compensated anterior segment volumetric imaging. Pupil oculography hardware coaxial with the swept-source OCT system enabled fast detection and tracking of the pupil centroid. The pupil tracking ASOCT system with a field of view of 15 x 15 mm achieved diffraction-limited imaging over a lateral tracking range of +/- 2.5 mm and was able to correct eye motion at up to 22 Hz. Pupil tracking ASOCT offers a novel real-time motion compensation approach that may facilitate accurate and reproducible anterior segment imaging. PMID:27574800

  13. Novel mutations in PXDN cause microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Alex; Lao, Richard; Ling-Fung Tang, Paul; Wan, Eunice; Mayer, Wasima; Bardakjian, Tanya; Shaw, Gary M; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schneider, Adele; Slavotinek, Anne

    2015-03-01

    We used exome sequencing to study a non-consanguineous family with two children who had anterior segment dysgenesis, sclerocornea, microphthalmia, hypotonia and developmental delays. Sanger sequencing verified two Peroxidasin (PXDN) mutations in both sibs--a maternally inherited, nonsense mutation, c.1021C>T predicting p.(Arg341*), and a paternally inherited, 23-basepair deletion causing a frameshift and premature protein truncation, c.2375_2397del23, predicting p.(Leu792Hisfs*67). We re-examined exome data from 20 other patients with structural eye defects and identified two additional PXDN mutations in a sporadic male with bilateral microphthalmia, cataracts and anterior segment dysgenesis--a maternally inherited, frameshift mutation, c.1192delT, predicting p.(Tyr398Thrfs*40) and a paternally inherited, missense substitution that was predicted to be deleterious, c.947 A>C, predicting p.(Gln316Pro). Mutations in PXDN were previously reported in three families with congenital cataracts, microcornea, sclerocornea and developmental glaucoma. The gene is expressed in corneal epithelium and is secreted into the extracellular matrix. Defective peroxidasin has been shown to impair sulfilimine bond formation in collagen IV, a constituent of the basement membrane, implying that the eye defects result because of loss of basement membrane integrity in the developing eye. Our finding of a broader phenotype than previously appreciated for PXDN mutations is typical for exome-sequencing studies, which have proven to be highly effective for mutation detection in patients with atypical presentations. We conclude that PXDN sequencing should be considered in microphthalmia with anterior segment dysgenesis.

  14. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measurements Obtained with Ultrasonic Pachymetry and Spectral Domain Anterior Segment OCT

    OpenAIRE

    Kirikkaya, Esin Tunca; Akyuz Unsal, Ayşe İpek; Dogramaci, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements obtained with Ultrasonic Pachymetry (USP) and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT).Methods: Seventy eight eyes of thirty nine volunteers between 40-60 ages were recruited in this study. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements, anterior and posterior segment biomicroscopic examinations of all volunteers were performed. CCT measurements were evaluated with Nidek  UP and Zeiss Cirr...

  15. Effects of age on ocular anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bing; ZHOU Xing-tao; HUANG David; CHU Ren-yuan

    2011-01-01

    Background Older subjects tend to have smaller ocular anterior segment. The present study aimed to measure anterior segment dimensions with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and quantitatively assess the effect of age and other factors.Results Sixty-six eyes of 33 normal subjects (aged 22-65 years, 19 Asians, 14 Caucasians) were enrolled. For every 1 year of age, corneal diameter was 0.033 mm narrower (P <0.01), anterior chamber width was 0.031 mm narrower (P <0.01), corneal vault was 0.016 mm lower (P<0.01), and anterior chamber depth was 0.025 mm lower (P<0.01). Asian eyes had smaller corneal diameter (P=0.035) and anterior chamber width (P=0.015) compared with those of Caucasian eyes. Body height showed positive correlation with corneal diameter (0.039 mm per centimeter of height, P <0.01) and corneal vault (0.024 mm per centimetre of height, P <0.01). Gender did not have an independent effect on anterior segment dimensions.Conclusions Anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lens.

  16. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  17. Ocular Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Anterior Eye Injuries in Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fer, Dan M.; Law, Jennifer; Wells, Julia

    2017-01-01

    While Ocular Coherence Tomography (OCT) is not a first-line modality to evaluate anterior eye structures terrestrially, it is a resource already available on the International Space Station (ISS) that can be used in medical contingencies that involve the anterior eye. With remote guidance and subject matter expert (SME) support from the ground, a minimally trained crewmember can now use OCT to evaluate anterior eye pathologies on orbit. OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce detailed cross-sectional and 3D images of the eye in real time. Terrestrially, it has been used to evaluate macular pathologies and glaucoma. Since 2013, OCT has been used onboard the ISS as one part of a suite of hardware to evaluate the Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure risk faced by astronauts, specifically assessing changes in the retina and choroid during space flight. The Anterior Segment Module (ASM), an add-on lens, was also flown for research studies, providing an opportunity to evaluate the anterior eye in real time if clinically indicated. Anterior eye pathologies that could be evaluated using OCT were identified. These included corneal abrasions and ulcers, scleritis, and acute angle closure glaucoma. A remote guider script was written to provide ground specialists with step-by-step instructions to guide ISS crewmembers, who do not get trained on the ASM, to evaluate the anterior eye. The instructions were tested on novice subjects and/or operators, whose feedback was incorporated iteratively. The final remote guider script was reviewed by SME optometrists and NASA flight surgeons. The novel application of OCT technology to space flight allows for the acquisition of objective data to diagnose anterior eye pathologies when other modalities are not available. This demonstrates the versatility of OCT and highlights the advantages of using existing hardware and remote guidance skills to expand clinical capabilities in space flight.

  18. Measurement of anterior chamber volume with rotating scheimpflug camera and anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jing; LI Shu-ning; WANG Xiao-zhen; WU Ge-wei; MU Da-peng; WANG Jian; WANG Ning-li

    2010-01-01

    Background Measurement of anterior segment parameters plays an important role in diagnosis and treatment of glaucoma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of anterior chamber volume (ACV) measurements with rotating scheimpflug camera (RSC) and to examine agreement with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods Thirty nine healthy normal subjects were recruited from the Eye Center of Tongren Hospital. ACV was measured using RSC and AS-OCT in a randomly selected eye for each subject. For RSC measurements, both automatic and manual ACV measurements and 2 independent operators' ACV measurements were obtained. All subjects were invited for 3 visits within a week to evaluate repeatability and reproducibility of ACV measurement by RSC. Agreement was evaluated between RSC and AS-OCT. Results Good repeatability and reproducibility were found for both automatic and manual ACV measurements obtained by RSC. For intrasession repeatability, coefficient of variation (CVw) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values for automatic were 3.52% and 0.98; the values for manual were 3.44% and 0.97, respectively. For intersession reproducibility, the respective CVw and ICC values were 3.96% and 0.96. Good agreement was also found in 2 operators for both automatic and manual ACV measurements; nevertheless, poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT (95% confidence interval (CI) for agreement of automatic RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were -96.3 to 72.8 μl and 95% CI for agreement of manual RSC measurement versus AS-OCT were between -41.7 to 10.1 μl). Conclusions Both RSC automatic and manual ACV measurements showed good repeatability and reproducibility, and showed comparable agreement between 2 independent operators, but poor agreement was found between RSC and AS-OCT.

  19. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo J. Cumba; Sunita Radhakrishnan; Nicholas P. Bell; Kundandeep S. Nagi; Alice Z. Chuang; Lin, Shan C.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL) and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT) images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC) identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80  μ m. Nine months later,...

  20. The observation of anterior segment morphological changes in eyes with primary angle closure after LPI by using UBM%原发性前房角关闭行LPI后眼前节形态学的UBM观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴杨杨; 宋胜仿; 刘世纯; 李春华; 张永烨; 吕莎

    2014-01-01

    peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with primary angle closure (PAC). Methods From March 2012 to March 2013, 28 patients (48 eyes) who diagnosed with PAC and underwent LPI in our hospital, are regarded as the research object. By using the UBM, the following issues are observed on the superior temporal, above, below, bitamporal, and nasal side of the eyeball at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months with the preoperative and postoperative of LPI:AOD500, TIA, TCPD, ICPD, ILA, ILCD, ITl, IT2, IT3 and ACD were included. Results AOD500, TIA were increased significantly(P 0.05). TCPD was increased significantly, compared to before LPI(P 0.05 ); and postoperative 1 week were more than the others after sur-gery (P> 0.05). ILA were decreased (P 0.05). ILCD were increased after LPI (P 0.05). IT1, IT2, IT3 were decreased in the postoperation com-pared to preoperation (P 0.05). Average ILA and average ILCD correlation shown that the two were highly negative correlation on every time points Conclusion The peripheral anterior chamber of PAC patients after the LPI were obviously deepened, the iris bombe and pupillary block were relieved after LPI. In addition, TCPD was increased, but the anterior segment morphology in the 3 months of postoperation was not stable, indi-vidual reference of which had some degree of retrograde. Therefore, long-term follow-up is necessary after LPI .

  1. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Scheimpflug imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alime Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS using Scheimpflug imaging. Methods: Forty-three PXS patients and 43 healthy control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Anterior segment parameters were measured using a Scheimpflug system. Results: Considering the PXS and control groups, the mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point (536 ± 31 and 560 ± 31 µm, respectively, p=0.001, at the center of the pupil (534 ± 31 and 558 ± 33 µm, respectively, p=0.001, and at the thinnest point (528 ± 30 and 546 ± 27 µm, respectively, p=0.005 were significantly thinner in PXS patients. Visual acuity was significantly lower (0.52 ± 0.37 versus 0.88 ± 0.23, p<0.001 and axial length was significantly longer (23.9 ± 0.70 mm versus 23.2 ± 0.90 mm, p=0.001 in the PXS eyes than in the control eyes. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of keratometry, anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, corneal volume, and anterior chamber volume between the PXS and control eyes. Conclusions: The patients with PXS had thinner corneas, worse visual acuity, and longer axial length compared with those in the healthy controls.

  2. Analysis of iris structure and iridocorneal angle parameters with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basarir, Berna; Altan, Cigdem; Pinarci, Eylem Yaman; Celik, Ugur; Satana, Banu; Demirok, Ahmet

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the differences in the biometric parameters of iridocorneal angle and iris structure measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in Fuchs' uveitis syndrome (FUS). Seventy-six eyes of 38 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of unilateral FUS were recruited into this prospective, cross-sectional and comparative study. After a complete ocular examination, anterior segment biometric parameters were measured by Visante(®) AS-OCT. All parameters were compared between the two eyes of each patient statistically. The mean age of the 38 subjects was 32.5 ± 7.5 years (18 female and 20 male). The mean visual acuity was lower in eyes with FUS (0.55 ± 0.31) than in healthy eyes (0.93 ± 0.17). The central corneal thickness did not differ significantly between eyes. All iridocorneal angle parameters (angle-opening distance 500 and 750, scleral spur angle, trabecular-iris space (TISA) 500 and 750) except TISA 500 in temporal quadrant were significantly larger in eyes with FUS than in healthy eyes. Anterior chamber depth was deeper in the eyes with FUS than in the unaffected eyes. With regard to iris measurements, iris thickness in the thickest part, iris bowing and iris shape were all statistically different between the affected eye and the healthy eye in individual patients with FUS. However, no statistically significant differences were evident in iris thickness 500 μm, thickness in the middle and iris length. There were significant difference in iris shape between the two eyes of patients with glaucoma. AS-OCT as an imaging method provides us with many informative resultsin the analysis of anterior segment parameters in FUS. PMID:23277205

  3. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J.; Clayton, P.; Price, D.; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
...

  4. Effects of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with Pentacam in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceyhun Arici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effects of topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with a Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in healthy young adults. Methods: Anterior segment analyses of 25 eyes from 25 young adults (Group 1, before and after 45 min of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride application, were performed. For a control group (cycloplegia-free, Group 2, 24 eyes of 24 age- and sex-matched healthy cases were evaluated twice at 45 min intervals. The results obtained from the groups were compared statistically. Results: The mean ages of the groups were 23.04 ± 3.42 (range, 18-29 and 22.4 ± 2.05 (range, 18-27 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.259. In Group 1, measurements between the two analyses were significantly different for the values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and anterior chamber volume (ACV (p<0.05, whereas no statistical difference was found for the central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry (K1, K2 measurements. In Group 2, none of these parameters were statistically different between the two analyses. Conclusions: Topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride caused an increase in the ACD and ACV values, and a decrease in the ACA value. However, it had no significant effect on the CCT and keratometry measurements. It is important to consider these effects when using the Pentacam device on young adults with cycloplegia and when applying it for various reasons.

  5. CASE OF BILATERAL ANTERIOR SEGMENT TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Kishan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is an important cause of uveitis in our country. India has been declared the country with the highest tuberculosis burden with 25 % of the cases . (1 This is especially true in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana which have a high percentage of affected patients. However , tuberculous uveitis is usually a unilateral presen tation. We report a case of bilateral uveitis of tuberculous origin in a 55 year old woman. She presented with different tuberculous manifestations in the two eyes. While the RE showed non granulomatous uveitis with sclerosing keratitis , the LE showed gran ulomatous uveitis with mutton fat keratic precipitates. Systemic examination revealed an enlarged lymph node which was positive for tuberculosis on biopsy. She was hence diagnosed as extra pulmonary tuberculosis and was treated with ATT regimen. In this pa tient , uveitis was the initial manifestation and resulted in a systemic diagnosis.

  6. Morphological analysis of age-related iridocorneal angle changes in normal and glaucomatous cases using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama Y; Mori K; Ikeda Y; Ueno M; Kinoshita S

    2013-01-01

    Yuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Mori, Yoko Ikeda, Morio Ueno, Shigeru Kinoshita Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To analyze age-related morphological changes of the iridocorneal angle in normal subjects and glaucomatous cases, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Methods: This study involved 58 eyes of 58 open-angle glaucoma cases and 72 eyes of 72 age-matched normal-open-angle control subjects. Iridocorneal angle s...

  7. Anterior segment and retinal OCT imaging with simplified sample arm using focus tunable lens technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Ruminski, Daniel; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Availability of the long-depth-range OCT systems enables comprehensive structural imaging of the eye and extraction of biometric parameters characterizing the entire eye. Several approaches have been developed to perform OCT imaging with extended depth ranges. In particular, current SS-OCT technology seems to be suited to visualize both anterior and posterior eye in a single measurement. The aim of this study is to demonstrate integrated anterior segment and retinal SS-OCT imaging using a single instrument, in which the sample arm is equipped with the electrically tunable lens (ETL). ETL is composed of the optical liquid confined in the space by an elastic polymer membrane. The shape of the membrane, electrically controlled by a specific ring, defines the radius of curvature of the lens surface, thus it regulates the power of the lens. ETL can be also equipped with additional offset lens to adjust the tuning range of the optical power. We characterize the operation of the tunable lens using wavefront sensing. We develop the optimized optical set-up with two adaptive operational states of the ETL in order to focus the light either on the retina or on the anterior segment of the eye. We test the performance of the set-up by utilizing whole eye phantom as the object. Finally, we perform human eye in vivo imaging using the SS-OCT instrument with versatile imaging functionality that accounts for the optics of the eye and enables dynamic control of the optical beam focus.

  8. The Effects of Smoking on Anterior Segment Parameters, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Pupillary Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the alterations in the anterior segment parameters, retinal nerve fiber layer, and pupillary functions in smokers. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 45 eyes of 45 smokers and 45 eyes of 45 non-smoker control subjects were evaluated. All patients underwent measurement of anterior segment parameters with optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR, mesopic and photopic pupillary diameter with an aberrometer device, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with optical coherence tomography, and dry-eye assessment with Schirmer’s test. The results were compared with independent t-test by SPSS 16.0 Inc., and a p-value lower than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between both groups in terms of mesopic pupil diameters that were measured with both OLCR and aberrometer device (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Schirmer scores were also significantly decreased in smokers (p=0.001. The other measured parameters demonstrated no difference between smokers and non-smokers (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Smoking may affect pupillary functions, especially the mesopic pupillary diameter, and may cause a deficiency in pupil response under dark circumstances. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 11-4

  9. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Scheimpflug/Placido Photography-Based Topography System and IOLMaster Partial Coherence Interferometry in Patients with Cataracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jinhai Huang; Na Liao; Giacomo Savini; Fangjun Bao; Ye Yu; Weicong Lu; Qingjie Hu; Qinmei Wang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the consistency of anterior segment measurements obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system (CSO, Italy) and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) in eyes with cataracts. Methods. A total of 90 eyes of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), corneal astigmatism axis, and white to white (WTW) values were randomly measured three times with Si...

  10. Leech segmental repeats develop normally in the absence of signals from either anterior or posterior segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaver, E. C.; Shankland, M.

    2000-01-01

    We have investigated whether the development of segmental repeats is autonomous in the embryo of the leech Helobdella robusta. The segmental tissues of the germinal band arise from progeny of five stem cells called teloblasts. Asymmetric divisions of the teloblasts form chains of segment founder cells (called primary blast cells) that divide in a stereotypical manner to produce differentiated descendants. Using two distinct techniques, we have looked for potential interactions between neighboring blast cell clones along the anterior-posterior axis. In one technique, we prevented the birth of primary blast cells by injection of DNase I into the teloblast, thereby depriving the last blast cell produced before the ablation of its normal posterior neighbors. We also ablated single blast cells with a laser microbeam, which allowed us to assess potential signals acting on either more anterior or more posterior primary blast cell clones. Our results suggest that interactions along the anterior-posterior axis between neighboring primary blast cell clones are not required for development of normal segmental organization within the blast cell clone. We also examined the possibility that blast cells receive redundant signals from both anterior and posterior neighboring clones and that either is sufficient for normal development. Using double blast cell laser ablations to isolate a primary blast cell clone by removal of both its anterior and its posterior neighbor, we found that the isolated clone still develops normally. These results reveal that the fundamental segmental repeat in the leech embryo, the primary blast cell clone, can develop normally in the apparent absence of signals from adjacent repeats along the anterior-posterior axis.

  11. Characterization of the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mostafa El-Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular lesions are frequently associated with different parasitic infections. The classes of infection include protozoa, nematodes, cestodes, and ectoparasites. Ocular parasitic infections can manifest in any part of the eye; the disease manifestations are frequently characterized as either posterior or anterior eye disease. Parasite-induced lesions may be due to damage directly caused by the parasite, indirect pathology caused by toxic products or the immune response initiated by infectious parasitism. This review characterized the parasite-induced lesions in the posterior segment of the eye. Prompt diagnosis and early treatment of these lesions can reduce ocular morbidity. The method of the literature search was conducted on PubMed, Elsevier Scopus database, and Google Scholar with no limitation on the year of publication databases. It was limited to English articles published for ocular lesions in clinical studies and was focused on parasitic infections of the eye.

  12. Acute Anterior Uveitis and Spondyloarthritis: More Than Meets the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad A; Haroon, Muhammad; Rosenbaum, James T

    2015-09-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and related forms of spondyloarthritis (SpA) are associated with some extra-articular features, and the most common symptomatic association is with acute anterior uveitis (AAU). Thus, approximately 40 % of patients with AS will experience a sudden onset of a unilateral anterior uveitis sometime during the course of their disease. Patients with AAU, especially those who are HLA-B27 positive, should be questioned about inflammatory low back pain and also evaluated for other clinical features of SpA. Since a prolonged delay in diagnosis is common among SpA patients and occurrence of AAU may be the reason for their first interaction with medical care, occurrence of AAU presents a unique opportunity for identifying such undiagnosed SpA patients. Therefore, a novel evidence-based algorithm called Dublin Uveitis Evaluation Tool (DUET) has been proposed to guide ophthalmologists and primary care physicians to refer appropriate AAU patients to rheumatologists. In a large two-phase study, approximately 40 % of patients presenting with idiopathic AAU were noted to have undiagnosed SpA, and DUET algorithm was noted to have excellent sensitivity (96 %) and specificity (97 %). It has a positive likelihood ratio (LR) 41.5 and negative LR 0.03. In most instances, the eye inflammation responds well to corticosteroid and mydriatic eye drops and without the need for additional therapy. Use of oral corticosteroids is reserved for patients, especially with associated chronic inflammatory bowel disease or psoriatic arthritis presenting with bilateral, chronic, anterior, and/or intermediate uveitis, and this treatment is rarely needed for more than a couple of weeks. A very small percentage may be more refractory to such treatment and require potential novel therapies, including the use of tumor necrosis factor blockers. PMID:26233598

  13. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior Toxic anterior segment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em conclusão notou-se que o foco principal deve ser a prevenção, pois o tratamento busca apenas suprimir a resposta inflamatória secundária. O tratamento nos casos de STSA consiste em intensa instilação de esteróides tópicos com seguimento rigoroso e controle de complicações tardias como o glaucoma.Toxic anterior segment syndrome is acute inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in extracellular damage with necrosis and apoptosis during an immune response. We have the report of a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS, in which the authors seek to emphasize the most common causes of the appearance of these syndrome. They point out the care that must be taken in the process of sterilization of surgical material, in addition to reviewing the best conduct when faced with these cases. In conclusion, it was noted that the main focus should be on prevention, as treatment only seeks to suppress the secondary inflammatory response. Treatment in cases of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS consists of intense instillation of topical steroids with strict follow-up and control of late complications such as glaucoma.

  14. Morphology of functioning trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

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    Mayuri B Khamar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To image trabeculectomy blebs using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and to correlate the bleb morphologic features at one month postoperatively with bleb function at six months. Materials and Methods: This prospective, observational study included 56 eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with MMC, followed up for minimum of six months. Postoperatively, bleb imaging was done using AS-OCT at one and six month. Bleb morphology was assessed for bleb wall reflectivity, bleb pattern in multiform reflectivity, visibility of drainage route and presence of hyper-reflectivity area. Bleb function was considered successful if IOP was <18 mmHg without medication at six month. Bleb morphology one month postoperatively was correlated with bleb function at six months. Results: At six months successful bleb function was noted in 44 (81.5% eyes. Morphology of bleb at one month showed uniform bleb wall reflectivity in 6 eyes (11% and multiform wall reflectivity in 48 eyes (89%. In eyes with multiform wall reflectivity, microcysts with multiple layers was seen in 26 eyes (48%, microcysts with subconjunctival separation in 12 eyes (22% and only microcyst in 10 eyes (19%. When bleb features at one month were correlated with the bleb function at six months, logistic regression analysis revealed that blebs with multiform reflectivity with multiple internal layers with microcysts were associated with higher chances of success (P < 0.001. Conclusion : AS-OCT demonstrated early bleb morphological features that may be used to predict the functioning of a bleb. Multiform bleb wall reflectivity with a pattern of multiple internal layers and microcysts was associated with increased chances of success of a bleb.

  15. Anterior segment study with the pentacam scheimpflug camera in refractive surgery candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masih Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Myopic eyes had steeper corneas than hyperopic eyes and anterior chamber measurements were significantly higher in the myopic eyes. In myopic eyes, AE max and PE max and K max measurements were higher, and ACD measurements were lower in the astigmatic groups.

  16. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment.

  17. A and B mode ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation of lens and posterior segment of dogs eyes with cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca C. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the lens and posterior segment is an indispensable step in the preoperative evaluation of dogs with cataracts, since ophthalmoscopy is not feasible when there is opacification of the lens. This study evaluated the echographic conditions of cataractous lens and fundus of the eye in dogs affected by cataracts. The study was conducted in 30 dogs (56 eyes, 10 males and 20 females, with different types of cataracts at different stages of development. Echography in A and B modes, simultaneously, was carried out for the examination of the lens and posterior segment. The examinations revealed anterior cortical, posterior cortical and nuclear cataract in 12 eyes (21.4%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular in 23 eyes (41%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical and posterior capsular cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical and nuclear cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular cataract in five eyes (8.9%, and anterior cortical cataract in seven eyes (12.5%. Abnormal ultrasonographic alterations were observed in the posterior segment in 26 eyes evaluated (46.4%. Vitreal degeneration was detected in 12 eyes (21.4%, images of vitreal exudate or hemorrhage in seven eyes (12.5%, persistence of hyaloid artery in four eyes (7.1% and lens subluxation in three eyes (5.3%. The results obtained reiterate the importance of ultrasonography in canine patients presented for cataract surgery given that alterations of the posterior segment are difficult to identify in a clinical examination when the lens is opacified.A ultrassonografia do segmento posterior do bulbo do olho é etapa indispensável na avaliação de cães com catarata que serão submetidos à facectomia, uma vez que a oftalmoscopia não é factível quando há opacificação da lente, notadamente nas cataratas maduras. Este estudo avaliou as condições ecográficas da lente cataratogênica e do fundo de olho de c

  18. Anterior Cervical Corpectomy and Fusion Accelerates Degenerative Disease at Adjacent Vertebral Segments

    OpenAIRE

    Pickett, Gwynedd E.; Duggal, Neil; Theodore, Nicholas; Sonntag, Volker K.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background Anterior cervical corpectomy provides the most direct and thorough surgical approach for anterior decompression when spinal cord compression is found directly behind the vertebral body. However, anterior cervical fusion has been shown to be associated with the development of new degenerative changes at levels immediately adjacent to the fused segments. Th e incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD) following anterior cervical corpectomy has not been widely reported. We set out to...

  19. Imaging the anterior eye with dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Johnny P.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Liu, Liang; Pechauer, Alex D.; Huang, David; Liu, Gangjun

    2015-12-01

    A custom-built dynamic-focus swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system with a central wavelength of 1310 nm was used to image the anterior eye from the cornea to the lens. An electrically tunable lens was utilized to dynamically control the positions of focusing planes over the imaging range of 10 mm. The B-scan images were acquired consecutively at the same position but with different focus settings. The B-scan images were then registered and averaged after filtering the out-of-focus regions using a Gaussian window. By fusing images obtained at different depth focus locations, high-resolution and high signal-strength images were obtained over the entire imaging depth. In vivo imaging of human anterior segment was demonstrated. The performance of the system was compared with two commercial OCT systems. The human eye ciliary body was better visualized with the dynamic-focusing SS-OCT system than using the commercial 840 and 1310 nm OCT systems. The sulcus-to-sulcus distance was measured, and the result agreed with that acquired with ultrasound biomicroscopy.

  20. The relationship between the morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and anterior communicating artery aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文峰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the predictability of surgical clipping and guide the steam shaping of microcatheters in endovascular embolization by analyzing the association of morphological features of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery(ACA) with formation and classification of anterior

  1. Anterior-segment morphology and corneal biomechanical characteristics in pigmentary glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klingenstein A

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie Klingenstein, Marcus Kernt, Florian Seidensticker, Anselm Kampik, Christoph HirneissDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Munich Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, GermanyPurpose: The aim of the study reported here was to evaluate characteristics of the anterior-segment via anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and corneal biomechanical properties using an ocular response analyzer and their changes by peripheral laser iridotomy (PI in patients with pigmentary glaucoma (PG.Materials and methods: Seventeen eyes with PG were included consecutively. AS-OCT and ocular response analyzer measurements were taken before and 3 months after PI. Baseline morphology and change in morphology were analyzed by correlation and multiple linear regression analysis. The main parameters assessed were anterior-chamber (AC angles and volume as well as corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor.Results: AC angles were found to have decreased significantly in each quadrant after PI (P<0.001, with the highest effect seen in the temporal quadrant, which decreased from 57.0°±9.6° to 44.1°±5.2° (± standard deviation. Mean AC volume decreased significantly from 213.1±36.4 to 187.0±23.4 mm3 (P<0.001. CH and corneal resistance factor did not change after PI. CH was found to correlate with the preoperative superior and inferior angle width (Spearman's rho 0.553 and 0.615, respectively, P<0.05. Biomechanical parameters showed no predictive value on the change of AC angles or volume.Conclusion: PI in eyes with PG results in a highly significant reduction in the AC angles and volume as visualized by AS-OCT, with the largest effect seen in the temporal quadrant. CH is strongly positively correlated with the superior and inferior preoperative AC angles, emphasizing the importance of the biomechanical properties of the cornea for glaucoma pathogenesis in PG, but corneal biomechanical properties cannot predict PI

  2. Evaluation of Changes in Anterior Segment Configuration by Ultrasound Biomicroscopy after Phacoemulsification and Foldable Intraocular Lens Implantation

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    ilhami Salcan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To quantify the configuration changes in anterior segment structures after cataract extraction using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Material and Method: 33 eyes of 33 patients (21 male, 12 female; mean age: 69.0±8.3 years with senile or presenile cataracts undergoing cataract surgery were prospectively studied. UBM was performed for each patient before and 1 month after surgery. At each UBM examination, axial images of the anterior chamber and radial sections of the angle in four quadrants were obtained. The measurements were performed by using the calipers included in the equipment software and UBM Pro2000® software. Results: After cataract surgery, we determined statistically significant increases in anterior chamber depth and angle parameters (p=0.001. We found that the postoperative increases in anterior chamber depth, angle recess area, angle opening distance 250 and angle opening distance 500 were 1.3, 1.4, 1.7 and 1.5 times, respectively, when compared with the preoperative levels. Decreases in acceleration and increases in y-intercept were determined in 4 quadrants postoperatively by of linear regression analysis of anterior chamber angle and these were also statistically significant (p=0.001. Discussion: UBM gives both qualitative and quantitative valuable information about anterior segment structures. We think that UBM may be a useful tool for evaluation of patients with cataract and occludable and/or narrow angles undergoing cataract surgery for therapeutic purpose. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 200-6

  3. A case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft

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    Miyake T

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Miyake,1 Shota Kojima,1 Tetsuya Sugiyama,2 Mari Ueki,1 Jun Sugasawa,1 Hidehiro Oku,1 Kensuke Tajiri,1 Yuka Shigemura,3 Koichi Ueda,3 Atsuko Harada,4 Mami Yamasaki,4 Takumi Yamanaka,4 Hidetsuna Utsunomiya,5 Tsunehiko Ikeda1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, 2Nakano Eye Clinic of Kyoto Medical Co-operative, Kyoto, 3Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki City, 4Department of Pediatric Neurosurgery, Takatsuki General Hospital, Takatsuki City, 5Department of Radiological Science, International University of Health and Welfare, Graduate School, Fukuoka, Japan Introduction: The incidence of facial cleft is rare and ranges between 1.43 and 4.85 per 100,000 births. To date, there have been few reports of detailed ophthalmologic examinations performed in cases of facial cleft. Here, we report a case of optic-nerve hypoplasia and anterior segment abnormality associated with facial cleft. Case report: A 9-day-old female infant was delivered by cesarian section at 34 weeks of gestational age (the second baby of twins and weighed 2,276 g upon presentation. She had a facial cleft and ectrodactyly at birth. Right eye-dominant blepharophimosis was obvious. Examination of the right eye revealed inferior corneal opacity with vascularization, downward corectopia, and optic-nerve hypoplasia. The corneal diameter was 8 mm in both eyes, and tonometry by use of a Tono-Pen® XL (Reichert Technologies, Depew, NY, USA handheld applanation tonometer revealed that her intraocular pressure was 11–22 mmHg (Oculus Dexter and 8 mmHg (Oculus Sinister. B-mode echo revealed no differences in axial length between her right and left eyes. When she was 15–16 months old, we attempted to examine her eyes before she underwent plastic surgery under general anesthesia. She had a small optic disc in both eyes and the right-eye disc was tilted. After undergoing canthotomy, gonioscopy and ultrasound

  4. Extended coherence length megahertz FDML and its application for anterior segment imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Adler, Desmond C; Trépanier, Francois; Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Karpf, Sebastian; Schmitt, Joseph M; Huber, Robert

    2012-10-01

    We present a 1300 nm Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) that combines both, a high 1.6 MHz wavelength sweep rate and an ultra-long instantaneous coherence length for rapid volumetric deep field imaging. By reducing the dispersion in the fiber delay line of the FDML laser, the instantaneous coherence length and hence the available imaging range is approximately quadrupled compared to previously published MHz-FDML setups, the imaging speed is increased by a factor of 16 compared to previous extended coherence length results. We present a detailed characterization of the FDML laser performance. We demonstrate for the first time MHz-OCT imaging of the anterior segment of the human eye. The OCT system provides enough imaging depth to cover the whole range from the top surface of the cornea down to the crystalline lens. PMID:23082303

  5. Tracking of fixational eye micromovements through pupil image segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Roig Hernández, Ana Belén; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Mas Candela, David; Illueca Contri, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Póster y comunicación presentados en 5th European Meeting on Visual and Physiological Optics (EMVPO), Stockholm, 22-24 August 2010. We present a technique for pupil segmentation and contour analysis which will provide valuable information about fixational eye movements. The method is based on fitting an ellipse to the pupil contour. Pupillary hippus, microsaccades and drifts are obtained, as well as cyclotorsional movements. This work has been supported by the Generalitat Valenciana pro...

  6. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  7. 前后段联合手术及硅油填充治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离的疗效观察%The therapeutic effect of combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟奇; 张责华; 胡一骏; 郑建龙

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia. Methods The clinical data of 48 high myopia patients (48 eyes) with macular hole retinal detachment were retrospectively analyzed. Retinal detachment was mainly at the posterior pole; macular hole was confirmed by non-contact Hruby lens and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Phacoemulsification combined with pars plana vitrectomy and silicon oil tamponade were performed to all patients, of which 41 had undergone internal limiting membrane peeling, and 23 had intraocular lens implanting. The oil had been removed 3.5-48.0 months after the first surgery and OCT had been performed before the removal. The follow-up period after the removal of the silicon oil was more than 1 year. Results The edge of the macular hole could not be seen under the non-contact Hruby lens 1 week after the surgery in all but 5 patients, and the visual acuity improved. The silicon oil had been removed in all of the 48 patients; the OCT scan before the removal showed that the closed macular holes can be in U shape (8 eyes), V shape (6 eyes) or W shape (23 eyes). About 13-38 months after the oil removal, retinal detachment recurred in 2 patients with the W-shaped holes. At the end of the follow-up period, 16 patients (33.3%) had U or V-shaped macular holes, and 32 patients (66.7%) had W-shaped macular holes. The rate of retinal reattachment was 100%. Conclusion Combined surgery of anterior and posterior segment and silicon oil tamponade is effective on macular hole retinal detachment in eyes with high myopia.%目的 观察前后段联合手术及硅油充填治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离临床疗效.方法 回顾分析前后段联合手术及硅油充填治疗高度近视黄斑孔视网膜脱离患者48例48只眼的临床资料.患者均有高度近视史,视网膜脱离以后极部为主.裂隙灯

  8. Biomarkers and special features of oxidative stress in the anterior segment of the eye linked to lens cataract and the trabecular meshwork injury in primary open-angle glaucoma: challenges of dual combination therapy with N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and oral formulation of nonhydrolyzed carnosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2012-02-01

    The implication of oxidative stress associated with increased oxidant production in mammalian and human cells characterized by the release of free radicals, resulting in cellular degeneration, is involved in many ocular diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration, retinopathy of prematurity, retinal light damage, primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), and cataract. Cataract is the leading cause of blindness, accounting for 50% of blindness worldwide. Glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness, is considered as a progressive optic neuropathy often caused by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) consequent to abnormally high resistance to aqueous humor (AH) drainage via the trabecular meshwork (TM) and Schlemm's canal. Morphological and biochemical analyses of the TM of patients with POAG revealed the loss of cells, increased accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins (ECM), changes in the cytoskeleton, cellular senescence, and the process of subclinical inflammation. The TM is the target tissue of glaucoma in the anterior chamber, and the development and progression of glaucoma are accompanied by the accumulation of oxidative damage in this tissue. The separate studies were conducted to comparatively evaluate the sensitivity to oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of anterior chamber tissues including TM. Accumulation of the primary, secondary, and end products of LPO (diene and triene conjugates, Schiff's bases) was noted in the studied extracts. Significant differences in the levels of all mentioned LPO products in comparison with the control were observed. The data may be considered as an evidence of LPO participation in the destruction of the trabecule and Schlemm's canal in POAG. Treatment of TM cells with oxidative stress induced POAG-typical changes such as ECM accumulation, cell death, disarrangement of the cytoskeleton, advanced senescence, and the release of inflammatory markers. By pretreatment with antioxidants, prostaglandin

  9. Compartmentation of redox metabolites in the anterior eye segment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, M; Luthe, P

    1977-10-28

    In bovine corneal epithelium, stroma, and aqueous humor the levels of ascorbic acid (ASC) and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) were investigated. Two methods were used, the photometric assay with 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol and the formation of osazone by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The ASC levels in the corneal epithelium and aqueous humor were found to be in the millimolar range, the ASC/DHA ratio being about 10. The stromal ASC and DHA levels were much lower, with a ratio of 0.7. ASC and DHA had similar levels and ratios to those of reduced and oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG) reported in the literature. In the corneal epithelium the redox ratio of glutathione was higher than that of ascorbic acid. Therefore, glutathione was supposed to reduce dehydroascorbic acid. PMID:303870

  10. Full anterior segment biometry with extended imaging range spectral domain optical coherence tomography at 1340 nm

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng; Johnstone, Murray; Ruikang K Wang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We demonstrate an extended-imaging-range anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (eAS-OCT) system for the biometric assessment of full AS in human eye. This newly developed eAS-OCT operating at 1340-nm wavelength band is simultaneously capable of an imaging speed of 120 kHz A-line scan rate, an axial resolution of 7.2 μm, and an extended imaging range of up to 16 mm in air. Imaging results from three healthy subjects and one subject with a narrow-angle demonstrate the instrume...

  11. TOXIC ANTERIOR SEGMENT SYNDROME (TASS WITH SEVERE PIGMENT DISPERSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sudhakar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To clinically analyze the cases of TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated cataract surgery in a tertiary care teaching hospital from January 2011 to January 2013. DESIGN: Retrospective case series study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The records of all eyes developing TASS with severe pigment dispersion following uncomplicated Cataract surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical outcomes including visual acuity, intraocular pressure and complications were recorded at 1st post-operative day, 7th post-operative day and after six weeks of follow up visits. RESULTS: TASS with severe pigment dis pension was recorded in five out of 1060 patients. All cases were females. Phacoemulsification with foldable IOL was done in 2 patients and Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS with in bag posterior chamber IOL was done in three patients. All patients had pain which was less severe when compared to the amount of inflammation. Visual acuity ranged from 6/36 to perception of light. All the five patients had rim to rim corneal edema which was seen from the first post-operative day and persisted at six weeks follow up. Pupils were dilated and fixed in all patients. Intraocular pressure was raised in four out of five patients who poorly responded to medical treatment. Dense pigment clumps were seen in the corneal endothelium and on the surgical wound site after one week in three out of five patients and increased at 6 weeks of follow up. Visual acuity did not improve in any of the patient even with treatment. The reduced visual acuity was due to worsening corneal edema and dense pigment clumping in corneal endothelium. CONCLUSION: TASS with severe pigment dispersion has more complication than routine TASS. The complication are due to dense pigment clumping in cornea and angle of anterior chamber causing corneal endothelial de-compensation and raised Intraocular pressure, which persisted even after the inflammation subsided. Although the

  12. Assessment of Anterior Segment Measurements with Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography before and after Ab Interno Trabeculotomy (Trabectome) Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the changes of anterior segment parameters, assessed by swept source anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) after combined Trabectome-cataract surgery and Trabectome-only surgery in open angle glaucoma patients. Methods. Thirty-eight eyes of 24 patients with open angle glaucoma were scanned with swept source AS-OCT before and 4 weeks after combined Trabectome-cataract or Trabectome-only surgery. Intraocular pressure, number of medications, and AS-OCT parameters, such as angle opening distance at 500 and 750 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500 and AOD750), trabecular-iris space area at 500 and 750 mm2 (TISA500, TISA750), angle recess area at 500 and 750 mm2 (ARA500, ARA750), trabecular iris angle (TIA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and anterior chamber volume (ACV), were obtained before the surgery. These parameters were compared to evaluate whether the outcome of the surgery differed among the patients after the surgery. The width of the trabecular cleft was also measured for both groups. Results. The reduction of IOP and number of medications was found to be statistically significant in both groups (p ACV, and angle parameters such as AOD 500/750, TISA 500/750, ARA 500/750, and TIA500 showed significantly greater changes from the preoperative values to postoperative 1st month values in combined Trabectome-cataract surgery group (p 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups for the width of the trabecular cleft (p = 0.7). Conclusion. Anterior chamber angle parameters measured with swept source AS-OCT may be useful for evaluating glaucoma patients before and after Trabectome surgery with or without cataract surgery. PMID:27795855

  13. Evaluation of the Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology After Laser Peripheral Iridotomy Through One-Year Follow-Up

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    Ulviye Yiğit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the long-term changes in anterior segment morphology after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI in eyes with primary angle-closure suspect (PACS, primary angle closure (PAC, and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG using Scheimpflug camera (SC. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six eyes of 30 patients diagnosed as PACS, PAC, and PACG were included prospectively in this study. In addition to full ophthalmic examination and intraocular pressure (IOP assessment, anterior-posterior length (AxL values of the eyes were recorded. With use of SC, average anterior chamber angle (AACA, central anterior chamber depth (CACD, and anterior chamber volume (ACV were documented preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after LPI. The results have been evaluated statistically. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of mean age, gender, and AxL (p>0.05. AACA, CACD, and ACV measurements showed significant difference between baseline and months 1.3, 6, and 12 in all groups (p<0.05. AACA was statistically significantly decreased between months 6 and 12 in PACS group; between months 1 and 12, months 3 and 12, months 6 and 12 in PAC and PACG groups (p<0.05. CACD measurements demonstrated statistically significant decrease between months 6 and 12 in PAC group, between months 3 and 6, months 3 and 12 in PACG group (p<0.05. ACV was statistically significantly decreased between months 6 and 12 in PAC group, between months 1 and 12, months 3 and 12 in PACG group (p<0.05. Conclusion: LPI led to dramatic changes in anterior segment morphology. In our study, the course of the changes caused by LPI was observed through one-year follow-up with SC. In the early period, a positive effect on all parameters was detected. The trends in the course of measurements should be followed up for longer time in larger series to investigate whether the changes show continuity or not. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014

  14. Gluteus minimus: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior and posterior segments during gait.

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    Semciw, Adam I; Green, Rodney A; Murley, George S; Pizzari, Tania

    2014-02-01

    Gluteus minimus is believed to consist of two structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior and posterior); however there is a lack of electromyography (EMG) research that attempts to verify current theoretical knowledge of this muscle. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the function of gluteus minimus during gait, and to determine whether anterior and posterior segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire intramuscular EMG electrodes were inserted into anterior and posterior gluteus minimus segments of fifteen healthy volunteers (9 males) according to previously verified guidelines. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle with independent t-tests. The relative contribution of each segment to the maximum resisted trials was compared with Mann-Whitney U tests (α = 0.05). Anterior and posterior segments were contracting at different relative intensities for three of the five maximum resisted trials (effect size = 0.39 to 0.62, P gait cycle (effect size = 0.96 to 1.03, P phase (effect size = 0.83, P = 0.034). Gluteus minimus is therefore composed of functionally independent segments. These results build on contemporary theoretical knowledge and may signify hip stabilising roles for each segment across different phases of the gait cycle.

  15. Imaging of a Severe Case of Acute Hydrops in a Patient with Keratoconus Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Hiroki Ueno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the clinical and diagnostic findings of a patient with acute hydrops using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Methods: The AS-OCT findings of a 43-year-old patient with acute hydrops associated with keratoconus were examined. At the initial examination and during follow-up, evaluation of the anterior segment was performed. Results: The patient presented with decreased visual acuity, pain, and redness in the right eye. The symptoms, clinical presentation, and topographical findings of the right eye confirmed the diagnosis of acute corneal hydrops. Changes in the stroma and Descemet’s membrane during the healing process of acute hydrops could be demonstrated by high-resolution AS-OCT. The use of contact lenses was improved at the last follow-up visit after 8 months and increased visual acuity to 20/20 with correction. Conclusions: AS-OCT is a useful tool for studying the morphologic features of acute hydrops.

  16. Evaluation of Anterior Segment Parameter Changes Using the Sirius after Uneventful Phacoemulsification

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    Şimşek, Ali; Çapkın, Musa; Bilak, Şemsettin; Güler, Mete; Reyhan, Ali Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central corneal thickness (CCT), horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID), pupil diameter (PD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Methods A total of 132 eyes of 132 patients (87 men and 45 women) that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation were prospectively studied. The mean age of the patients was 63.68 ± 12.51 years. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively with the Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system. The ACD, CV, ACA, ACV, CCT, HVID, and PD measurements were recorded. IOP was measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer, which was corrected for CCT of the Sirius device using Ehlers' formula. Results The preoperative mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 2.79 ± 0.45 mm, 124.73 ± 25.72 mm3, 42.09 ± 7.490, 523.87 ± 41.97 microns, 55.37 ± 4.89 mm3, 3.98 ± 1.23 mm, 11.72 ± 0.67 mm, and 14.74 ± 2.59 mmHg, respectively. Three months postoperatively, the mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 3.45 ± 0.6 mm, 162.52 ± 23.79 mm3, 51.46 ± 5.630, 526.21 ± 44.45 microns, 56.23 ± 5.12 mm3, 2.87 ± 0.45 mm, 11.91 ± 0.75 mm, and 12.02 ± 1.83 mmHg, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in mean postoperative ACD, ACV, ACA, CV, and HVID compared with the corresponding preoperative values (p 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system might help surgeons to predict postoperative changes resulting from phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. This is a noncontact, noninvasive, and comfortable system for patients that is highly reliable and repeatable for anterior segment measurements. PMID:27478351

  17. Evaluation of Anterior Segment Parameter Changes Using the Sirius after Uneventful Phacoemulsification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Ali; Çapkın, Musa; Bilak, Şemsettin; Güler, Mete; Reyhan, Ali Hakim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in anterior chamber depth (ACD), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV), central corneal thickness (CCT), horizontal visible iris diameter (HVID), pupil diameter (PD), and intraocular pressure (IOP) after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Methods A total of 132 eyes of 132 patients (87 men and 45 women) that underwent uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation were prospectively studied. The mean age of the patients was 63.68 ± 12.51 years. All patients were evaluated preoperatively and at 1 month postoperatively with the Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system. The ACD, CV, ACA, ACV, CCT, HVID, and PD measurements were recorded. IOP was measured using the Goldmann applanation tonometer, which was corrected for CCT of the Sirius device using Ehlers' formula. Results The preoperative mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 2.79 ± 0.45 mm, 124.73 ± 25.72 mm3, 42.09 ± 7.490, 523.87 ± 41.97 microns, 55.37 ± 4.89 mm3, 3.98 ± 1.23 mm, 11.72 ± 0.67 mm, and 14.74 ± 2.59 mmHg, respectively. Three months postoperatively, the mean ACD, ACV, ACA, CCT, CV, PD, HVID, and IOP were 3.45 ± 0.6 mm, 162.52 ± 23.79 mm3, 51.46 ± 5.630, 526.21 ± 44.45 microns, 56.23 ± 5.12 mm3, 2.87 ± 0.45 mm, 11.91 ± 0.75 mm, and 12.02 ± 1.83 mmHg, respectively. There was a statistically significant increase in mean postoperative ACD, ACV, ACA, CV, and HVID compared with the corresponding preoperative values (p < 0.05). CCT remained stable after surgery. Postoperative PD and IOP were significantly decreased compared to corresponding preoperative values (p < 0.05). Conclusions Preoperative measurements by the Sirius 3D Rotating Scheimpflug camera topography system might help surgeons to predict postoperative changes resulting from phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. This is a

  18. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

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    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  19. Gluteus medius: an intramuscular EMG investigation of anterior, middle and posterior segments during gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semciw, Adam I; Pizzari, Tania; Murley, George S; Green, Rodney A

    2013-08-01

    Previous electromyographic (EMG) studies of gluteus medius (GMed) have not accurately quantified the function of the three proposed structurally and functionally unique segments (anterior, middle and posterior). Therefore this study used anatomically verified locations for intramuscular electrode recordings in three segments of GMed to determine whether the segments are functionally independent. Bipolar fine wire electrodes were inserted into each segment of GMed in 15 healthy individuals. Participants completed a series of four walking trials, followed by maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs) in five different positions. Temporal and amplitude variables for each segment were compared across the gait cycle using ANOVA. The relative contributions of each segment to the MVIC trials were compared with non-parametric tests. All segments showed a biphasic response during the stance phase of gait. There were no differences in amplitude variables (% MVIC) between segments, but the anterior segment had a later peak during both the first and second bursts.For the MVIC trials, there were significant differences in amplitude between segments in four of the five test positions. These data indicate that GMed is composed of three functionally independent segments. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of the role of GMed.

  20. Ocular anterior segment pathologies and tear film changes in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

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    Erbagci I

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ocular manifestations in patients with psoriasis vulgaris have been investigated in only a small number of studies. Our purpose was to identify tear film function and ocular pathologies associated with psoriasis vulgaris in patients who had received neither oral retinoids nor phototherapy. We examined 62 eyes of 31 patients with psoriasis and 60 eyes of 30 age-and-sex matched healthy volunteers. In addition to complete ocular and dermatological examination, tear film function (i.e., tear secretion and tear film stability were assessed by the Schirmer-I test, as well as by tear film break-up time. None of the controls had any ocular abnormalities, whereas 67.74% of patients with psoriasis had various anterior segment pathologies (P<0.00009. The most prevalent finding was chronic blepharoconjunctivitis (64.5%, as the only pathology (n=9 or in association with other findings, including nonspecific corneal opacities (n=4, cataract (n=3, both corneal opacities and cataract (n=2, and corneal pigment dispersion (n=2. The Schirmer-I test results revealed comparable mean values in the patient group (9.8+-4.2 mm and in the controls (11.2+-3.7 mm; P=0.078. However, mean tear film break-up time was significantly shorter in the patients (7.2+-2.5 sec than in the healthy persons (11.7+-3.1 sec; P=0.001. In agreement with some previous reports, our findings clearly demonstrated that early ocular involvement occurs in patients with psoriasis vulgaris, irrespective of the history of previous therapeutic modalities (e.g., retinoid therapy and phototherapy. Thus, the present findings are suggestive of the contributory role of primary etiologic factors of psoriasis in the pathogenesis of ocular changes in patients with psoriasis vulgaris.

  1. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Senile cataract is a clouding of the lens in the aging eye leading to a decrease in vision. Symptoms may include faded colors, blurry vision, halos around light, trouble with bright lights, and trouble seeing at night. This may result in trouble driving, reading, or recognizing faces. Cataracts are the cause of half of blindness and 33% of visual impairment worldwide. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cells plasma membrane damage which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. The inner eye pressure (also called intraocular pressure or IOP) rises because the correct amount of fluid can't drain out of the eye. With primary open-angle glaucoma, the entrances to the drainage canals are clear and should be working correctly. The clogging problem occurs further inside the drainage canals, similar to a clogged pipe below the drain in a sink. The excessive oxidative damage is a major factor of the ocular diseases because the mitochondrial respiratory chain in mitochondria of the vital cells is a significant source of the damaging reactive oxygen species superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. However, despite the clinical importance of mitochondrial oxidative damage, antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success. This may be because the antioxidants are not selectively taken up by mitochondria, but instead are dispersed throughout the body, ocular tissues and fluids' moieties. This work is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are altered in the aging eye, along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria

  2. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ezgi Akar; Mehmet Ufuk Akmil; Merih İş

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males) who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of inter...

  3. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla: Report of five cases

    OpenAIRE

    Sruthi Rao (Janardhan); Kotrashetti, S. M.; J. B. Lingaraj; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Siddharth Jain; Piyush Sone; Santhosh Rao

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom...

  4. Anterior Segment Tomography with the Cirrus Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Eduardo B. Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT is an optical acquisition method to examine biological tissues. In recent years, OCT has become an important imaging technology used in diagnosing and following macular pathologies. Further development enabled application of optical coherence tomography in evaluation of the integrity of the nerve fiber layer, optic nerve cupping, anterior chamber angle, or corneal topography. In this manuscript we overview the use of OCT in the clinical practice to enable corneal, iris, ciliary body, and angle evaluation and diagnostics.

  5. Anterior Segment Alterations and Comparative Aqueous Humor Proteomics in the Buphthalmic Rabbit (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Deepak P.; Bouhenni, Rachida

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To use an integrated proteohistologic approach to gain insight into the anterior segment alterations in the buphthalmic rabbit. Methods Eyes from 2- and 5-year-old buphthalmic and normal rabbits (n=20) were studied histologically. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of aqueous humor (AH) was used to determine differential protein expression between animal groups. Western blot and immunohistochemistry were performed on selected differentially expressed proteins identified by LC-MS/MS. Results The buphthalmic rabbits manifested a mild clinical phenotype with typical angle anomalies that appeared progressive by histology. Significantly thickened Descemet’s membrane (DM) and anterior lens capsule in all buphthalmic rabbits showed increased fibronectin and collagen-IV immunolabeling. LC-MS/MS applying stringent filtering criteria revealed significant differential expression of several AH proteins in these rabbits. The protein of interest in the 2-year-old group was histidine-rich glycoprotein, and those in the 5-year-old group included alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, clusterin, apolipoprotein E, interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein, transthyretin, cochlin, gelsolin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, and beta-2 microglobulin. The proteomic data for selected proteins was validated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. A wide range of functional groups were affected by the altered AH proteins. These included extracellular matrix modulation, regulation of apoptosis, oxidative stress, and protein transport. Conclusions Multiple anterior segment alterations were histologically identified in the buphthalmic rabbits that showed progressive changes with age. The differentially expressed AH proteins in these rabbits suggest a multifunctional role for AH in modulating pathologic changes in DM, anterior lens capsule, and the angular meshwork in these animals. PMID:22253484

  6. Review of application of mass spectrometry for analyses of anterior eye proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; Elsobky; Ashley; M; Crane; Michael; Margolis; Teresia; A; Carreon; Sanjoy; K; Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Proteins have important functional roles in the body, which can be altered in disease states. The eye is a complex organ rich in proteins; in particular, the anterior eye is very sophisticated in function and is most commonly involved in ophthalmic diseases. Proteomics, the large scale study of proteins, has greatly impacted our knowledge and understanding of gene function in the post-genomic period. The most significant breakthrough in proteomics has been mass spectrometric identification of proteins, which extends analysis far beyond the mere display of proteins that classical techniques provide. Mass spectrometry functions as a "mass analyzer" which simplifies the identification and quantification of proteins extracted from biological tissue. Mass spectrometric analysis of the anterior eye proteome provides a differential display for protein comparison of normal and diseased tissue. In this article wepresent the key proteomic findings in the recent literature related to the cornea, aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork, iris, ciliary body and lens. Through this we identified unique proteins specific to diseases related to the anterior eye.

  7. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

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    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  8. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhai; Lu, Weicong; Savini, Giacomo; Chen, Hao; Wang, Chengfang; Yu, Xinxin; Bao, Fangjun; Wang, Qinmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan) and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and aqueous depth (AD). Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59 ± 27.37 μm, 3.70 ± 0.30 mm, and 3.16 ± 0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14 ± 26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71 ± 0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17 ± 0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45 ± 6.07 μm, P LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between -9.44 and 14.35 μm, -0.15 and 0.12 mm, and -0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic. PMID:27403339

  9. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

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    Khoramnia, Ramin; Uwe Auffarth, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG) dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%), exposure times (10 and 60 seconds), and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed) were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc.), and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery. PMID:27478634

  10. Immunohistochemical observation of anterior subcapsular cataract in eye with spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma.

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    Shirai, Kumi; Okada, Yuka; Saika, Shizuya

    2010-03-01

    We report the histological findings of secondary cataract in an eye with a spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma to obtain keys to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon. During phacoemulsification, opacified anterior capsule was obtained, fixed in formalin, and embedded in paraffin. Paraffin sections of the specimen were histologically observed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed extracellular matrix accumulation in the extracted fibrous anterior subcapsular opacification. Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of fibrous collagen types and cellular fibronectin. Presumed lens cells amid matrix were positively labeled for vimentin, alpha-smooth muscle actin, and phospho-Smad2. Histology of the fibrous anterior subcapsular opacification tissue showed the possibility of epithelial-mesenchymal transition of the lens epithelial cells in the secondary cataract following a spontaneously regressed retinoblastoma.

  11. Clinical utility of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

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    Dewang Angmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT, a noninvasive imaging modality that uses low-coherence light to obtain a high-resolution cross-section of biological structures, has evolved dramatically over the years. The Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT makes use of a single detector with a rapidly tunable laser as a light source. The Casia SS-1000 OCT is a Fourier-domain, SS-OCT designed specifically for imaging the anterior segment. This system achieves high resolution imaging of 10΅m (Axial and 30΅m (Transverse and high speed scanning of 30,000 A-scans per second. With a substantial improvement in scan speed, the anterior chamber angles can be imaged 360 degrees in 128 cross sections (each with 512 A-scans in about 2.4 seconds. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment SS-OCT in Glaucoma. Literature search: We searched PubMed and included Medline using the phrases anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology, swept-source OCT, use of AS-OCT in glaucoma, use of swept-source AS-OCT in glaucoma, quantitative assessment of angle, filtering bleb in AS-OCT, comparison of AS-OCT with gonioscopy and comparison of AS-OCT with UBM. Search was made for articles dating 1990 to August 2015.

  12. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C. W.; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K. W.; Vincken, Koen L.; Cheng, Jack C. Y.; Castelein, René M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. Methods A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98–1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. Results The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on “true” anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; Plumbar lordosis (+7.8%; Plumbar curves). Conclusions Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the compensatory curves, the junctional zones do not exhibit this growth discrepancy, however, they are straight. PMID:27467745

  13. Descemet’s scroll in syphilitic interstitial keratitis: a case report with anterior segment evaluation and a literature review

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    Kasetsuwan N

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ngamjit Kasetsuwan,1,2 Usanee Reinprayoon,1,2 Patchima Chantaren2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, 2Ophthalmology Department, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: To present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with Descemet’s scrolls, as well as its characteristic findings in an anterior segment investigation in relation to the histopathologic findings from a literature review. Case presentation: A case report of a 64-year-old woman with syphilitic infection presented with band keratopathy and retrocorneal scrolls. Slit-lamp photography, confocal microscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, and ultrasound biomicroscopy were performed. Four previous reports were reviewed to describe the pathogenesis, natural history, and histopathologic and immunohistologic findings of the Descemet’s scroll. Results: The spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/50 and 20/30 in the right and left eyes, respectively. The scrolls appeared as a translucent web extending from Descemet’s membrane into the anterior chamber. Confocal microscopy showed decreased endothelial cell density, pleomorphism, polymegathism, and hyperreflective fibrocellular rods with central hollow. The AS-OCT and ultrasound biomicroscopy showed rod-shaped retrocorneal scrolls. The corneal thickness was 494 microns, as measured by AS-OCT. The corneal lesion remained stable during the 6-year follow-up period without the need for keratoplasty, while the previous literature reported spontaneous and postoperative corneal decompensation. Conclusion: We present a case of syphilitic interstitial keratitis with rare Descemet’s scrolls featuring relatively good visual acuity. Although we did not obtain the corneal tissue for examination, the anterior segment investigation provides insight into the underlying histopathology and natural disease history. The central hollow and cellular component seen

  14. Identification of the segmental artery feeding the anterior spinal artery. Correlation between helical CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated whether identification of the segmental artery feeding the anterior spinal artery (ASA) is possible by single-slice helical CT. Enhanced CT and angiography were performed in 14 patients with retroperitoneal, liver, or bone tumor. A single-slice helical CT scanner with 7 mm collimation and a 1.0 helical pitch was used. Scanning was started 25 to 30 sec after an intravenous injection of 100 ml of contrast medium at a rate of 3.0 ml/sec. We predicted the segmental artery feeding the ASA in all 14 patients using enhanced CT images. In 12 of the 14 patients, the segmental artery feeding the ASA was angiographically identified. In 7 of these 12 patients, the level of the segmental artery feeding the ASA identified on segmental arteriogram was the same level as that predicted by enhanced CT. In the remaining 5 patients, the level of the segmental artery feeding the ASA identified on segmental arteriogram was one level higher or lower than the predicted spinal level. We could identify the segmental artery feeding the ASA by detailed examination and interpretation of single-slice helical CT images. (author)

  15. Inhibitory Smads and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) modulate anterior photoreceptor cell number during planarian eye regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sastre, Alejandro; Molina, Ma Dolores; Saló, Emili

    2012-01-01

    Planarians represent an excellent model to study the processes of body axis and organ re-specification during regeneration. Previous studies have revealed a conserved role for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and its intracellular mediators Smad1/5/8 and Smad4 in planarian dorsoventral (DV) axis re-establishment. In an attempt to gain further insight into the role of this signalling pathway in planarians, we have isolated and functionally characte-rized the inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) in Schmidtea mediterranea. Two I-Smad homologues have been identified: Smed-smad6/7-1 and Smed-smad6/7-2. Expression of smad6/7-1 was detected in the parenchyma, while smad6/7-2 was found to be ex-pressed in the central nervous system and the eyes. Neither single smad6/7-1 and smad6/7-2 nor double smad6/7-1,-2 silencing gave rise to any apparent disruption of the DV axis. However, both regenerating and intact smad6/7-2 (RNAi) planarians showed defects in eye morphogenesis and displayed small, rounded eyes that lacked the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells. The number of pigment cells was also reduced in these animals at later stages of regeneration. In contrast, after low doses of Smed-bmp(RNAi), planarians regenerated larger eyes in which the anterior subpopulation of photoreceptor cells was expanded. Our results suggest that Smed-smad6/7-2 and Smed-bmp control the re-specification and maintenance of anterior photoreceptor cell number in S. mediterranea. PMID:22451003

  16. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  17. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Scheimpflug/Placido Photography-Based Topography System and IOLMaster Partial Coherence Interferometry in Patients with Cataracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhai; Liao, Na; Savini, Giacomo; Bao, Fangjun; Yu, Ye; Lu, Weicong; Hu, Qingjie; Wang, Qinmei

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the consistency of anterior segment measurements obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system (CSO, Italy) and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany) in eyes with cataracts. Methods. A total of 90 eyes of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The anterior chamber depth (ACD), keratometry (K), corneal astigmatism axis, and white to white (WTW) values were randomly measured three times with Sirius and IOLMaster. Concordance between them was assessed by calculating 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The ACD and K taken with the Sirius were statistically significantly higher than that taken with the IOLMaster; however, the Sirius significantly underestimated the WTW values compared with the IOLMaster. Good agreement was found for Km and ACD measurements, with 95% LoA of -0.20 to 0.54 mm and -0.16 to 0.34 mm, respectively. Poor agreement was observed for astigmatism axis and WTW measurements, as the 95% LoA was -23.96 to 23.36° and -1.15 to 0.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion. With the exception of astigmatism axis and WTW, anterior segment measurements taken by Sirius and IOLMaster devices showed good agreement and may be used interchangeably in patients with cataracts. PMID:25400939

  18. Comparison of Anterior Segment Measurements with Scheimpflug/Placido Photography-Based Topography System and IOLMaster Partial Coherence Interferometry in Patients with Cataracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the consistency of anterior segment measurements obtained using a Sirius Scheimpflug/Placido photography-based topography system (CSO, Italy and IOLMaster partial coherence interferometry (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Germany in eyes with cataracts. Methods. A total of 90 eyes of 90 patients were included in this prospective study. The anterior chamber depth (ACD, keratometry (K, corneal astigmatism axis, and white to white (WTW values were randomly measured three times with Sirius and IOLMaster. Concordance between them was assessed by calculating 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The ACD and K taken with the Sirius were statistically significantly higher than that taken with the IOLMaster; however, the Sirius significantly underestimated the WTW values compared with the IOLMaster. Good agreement was found for Km and ACD measurements, with 95% LoA of −0.20 to 0.54 mm and −0.16 to 0.34 mm, respectively. Poor agreement was observed for astigmatism axis and WTW measurements, as the 95% LoA was −23.96 to 23.36° and −1.15 to 0.37 mm, respectively. Conclusion. With the exception of astigmatism axis and WTW, anterior segment measurements taken by Sirius and IOLMaster devices showed good agreement and may be used interchangeably in patients with cataracts.

  19. Morphological analysis of age-related iridocorneal angle changes in normal and glaucomatous cases using anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruyama Y

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Maruyama, Kazuhiko Mori, Yoko Ikeda, Morio Ueno, Shigeru Kinoshita Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To analyze age-related morphological changes of the iridocorneal angle in normal subjects and glaucomatous cases, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. Methods: This study involved 58 eyes of 58 open-angle glaucoma cases and 72 eyes of 72 age-matched normal-open-angle control subjects. Iridocorneal angle structures in nasal and temporal regions and anterior chamber depth (ACD were measured using AS-OCT. Axial length and refractive error were measured by use of an ocular biometer and auto refractor keratometer. Angle opening distance (AOD, angle recess area (ARA, and trabecular-iris space area (TISA, measured at 500 µm (TISA500 and 750 µm (TISA750 distant from the scleral spur, were calculated, in the nasal and temporal regions. A new index, the peripheral angle frame index (PAFI, which represents the peripheral angle structure, was proposed, and was defined as (TISA750-TISA500/TISA500. Results: Refractive power in the glaucoma cases was less than in control cases (P<0.0001. Axial length (P<0.0001 and ACD (P=0.0004 were longer and deeper, respectively, in the glaucoma cases, compared with the control cases. In both control and glaucoma groups, ACD, AOD, ARA, and TISA decreased linearly in an age-dependent manner, while PAFI stayed at relatively constant values throughout the age distribution. AOD in the glaucoma group was longer than in the control group, in both the temporal and nasal regions; ARA and TISA were larger in the glaucoma than in the control group. However, no significant differences in nasal or temporal PAFI were found between the glaucoma and control groups. Conclusion: The findings of this study show that AS-OCT is useful for the quantitative evaluation of age-related changes in peripheral angle structure in glaucoma and control cases. Keywords

  20. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  1. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypiec, Daniel M; Nagel, Katrin; Sellenschloh, Kay; Klein, Anke; Püschel, Klaus; Morlock, Michael M; Huber, Gerd

    2016-08-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32-42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and 'mild' grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  2. Failure of the human lumbar motion-segments resulting from anterior shear fatigue loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKRZYPIEC, Daniel M.; NAGEL, Katrin; SELLENSCHLOH, Kay; KLEIN, Anke; PÜSCHEL, Klaus; MORLOCK, Michael M.; HUBER, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An in-vitro experiment was designed to investigate the mode of failure following shear fatigue loading of lumbar motion-segments. Human male lumbar motion-segments (age 32–42 years, n=6) were immersed in Ringer solution at 37°C and repeatedly loaded, using a modified materials testing machine. Fatigue loading consisted of a sinusoidal shear load from 0 N to 1,500 N (750 N±750 N) applied to the upper vertebra of the motion-segment, at a frequency of 5 Hz. During fatigue experiments, several failure events were observed in the dynamic creep curves. Post-test x-ray, CT and dissection revealed that all specimens had delamination of the intervertebral disc. Anterior shear fatigue predominantly resulted in fracture of the apophyseal processes of the upper vertebrae (n=4). Exposure to the anterior shear fatigue loading caused motion-segment instability and resulted in vertebral slip corresponding to grade I and ‘mild’ grade II spondylolisthesis, as observed clinically. PMID:26829975

  3. Loa loa in the anterior chamber of the eye: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of loiasis from Assam is reported here. Loa loa is a subcutaneous filarial parasite of man and is transmitted to humans by chrysops flies. The patient presented with foreign body sensation and visual disturbances of the right eye. Examination revealed a white coiled structure in the cornea.. Routine blood and other investigations were within normal limits. A live adult worm was extracted and identity was confirmed by microscopy to be Loa loa. Patient was treated with diethylcarbamazine and steroid. We found this case interesting as the worm was present in the anterior chamber - an unusual site and there were no other positive findings besides the lone worm.

  4. The changes of inflammatory cytokines and their clinical significance in patients of inferior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction with anterior ST-segment depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of Hs-CRP,Fib,IL-6,TNF-α,MDA,SOD,and analyze the correlation between the level of plasma inflammatory cytokines and clinical significance in patients with anterior ST-segment depression.Methods We chose 360 patients with inferior ST Segment elavation acute myocardial infarction from May 2007 to Sep 2012 in emergency department of

  5. Anterior maxillary osteotomy: A technical note for superior repositioning: A bird wing segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sadesh Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single piece bird wing osteotectomy segment during anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method thereby reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and gives good perfusion to the anterior segment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences composing of 20 patients in which male: female ratio was 8:12, with a mean age of 25-30 years. This bird wing segment technique is performed following presurgical orthodontics under the guidance of clinical assessment of the gummy smile with an incisal show when the lip is at repose (vertical maxillary excess, especially for the calculated amount of superior repositioning. It is calculated by subtracting 2 mm from the total amount of an incisor show when the lip is at repose. The normal incisal show when the lip is at repose is 2 mm. After conventional primary AMO cut was performed, the precise calculated. Results: All our cases were tested positive for pulp vitality, no relapse, and minimal edema and with no changes in the bite or dentoalveolar relation followed until 1 year postoperatively indicating a good perfusion to the anterior segment and all the patients were satisfied esthetically and free of complaints. Conclusion: This simple technique allows the precise amount of calculated bone removal in a single piece from the nasal floor markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method there by reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and maintains good perfusion.

  6. Deep Learning Guided Partitioned Shape Model for Anterior Visual Pathway Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Idrees, Rabia; Biggs, Elijah; Alsharid, Mohammad A; Avery, Robert A; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of cranial nerve systems, such as the anterior visual pathway (AVP), from MRI sequences is challenging due to their thin long architecture, structural variations along the path, and low contrast with adjacent anatomic structures. Segmentation of a pathologic AVP (e.g., with low-grade gliomas) poses additional challenges. In this work, we propose a fully automated partitioned shape model segmentation mechanism for AVP steered by multiple MRI sequences and deep learning features. Employing deep learning feature representation, this framework presents a joint partitioned statistical shape model able to deal with healthy and pathological AVP. The deep learning assistance is particularly useful in the poor contrast regions, such as optic tracts and pathological areas. Our main contributions are: 1) a fast and robust shape localization method using conditional space deep learning, 2) a volumetric multiscale curvelet transform-based intensity normalization method for robust statistical model, and 3) optimally partitioned statistical shape and appearance models based on regional shape variations for greater local flexibility. Our method was evaluated on MRI sequences obtained from 165 pediatric subjects. A mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.779 was obtained for the segmentation of the entire AVP (optic nerve only =0.791 ) using the leave-one-out validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed localized shape and sparse appearance-based learning approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art segmentation approaches and is as robust as the manual segmentation.

  7. Deep Learning Guided Partitioned Shape Model for Anterior Visual Pathway Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Awais; Cerrolaza, Juan J; Idrees, Rabia; Biggs, Elijah; Alsharid, Mohammad A; Avery, Robert A; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-08-01

    Analysis of cranial nerve systems, such as the anterior visual pathway (AVP), from MRI sequences is challenging due to their thin long architecture, structural variations along the path, and low contrast with adjacent anatomic structures. Segmentation of a pathologic AVP (e.g., with low-grade gliomas) poses additional challenges. In this work, we propose a fully automated partitioned shape model segmentation mechanism for AVP steered by multiple MRI sequences and deep learning features. Employing deep learning feature representation, this framework presents a joint partitioned statistical shape model able to deal with healthy and pathological AVP. The deep learning assistance is particularly useful in the poor contrast regions, such as optic tracts and pathological areas. Our main contributions are: 1) a fast and robust shape localization method using conditional space deep learning, 2) a volumetric multiscale curvelet transform-based intensity normalization method for robust statistical model, and 3) optimally partitioned statistical shape and appearance models based on regional shape variations for greater local flexibility. Our method was evaluated on MRI sequences obtained from 165 pediatric subjects. A mean Dice similarity coefficient of 0.779 was obtained for the segmentation of the entire AVP (optic nerve only =0.791 ) using the leave-one-out validation. Results demonstrated that the proposed localized shape and sparse appearance-based learning approach significantly outperforms current state-of-the-art segmentation approaches and is as robust as the manual segmentation. PMID:26930677

  8. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome after Foldable Artiflex Iris-Fixated Phakic Intraocular Lens Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucien A. M. van Philips

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS developed in four cases after uneventful implantation of a foldable iris-fixated phakic intraocular lens (pIOL. Two cases occurred sequentially in one patient. The TASS subsided without complications in all cases after intensive topical steroid treatment. A multitude of possible causes is considered for the occurrence of these TASS cases. From the sterilization and cleaning of surgical instruments to the possibility of endotoxines in ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD. These rare cases should alert the surgeon to the possibility of TASS after pIOL implantation.

  9. Adjustable muscle plication: a new surgical technique for strabismic patients with high risk for anterior segment ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos; Laria; David; P.Pi?ero

    2015-01-01

    <正>INTRODUCTION Anterior ciliary arteries provide 70%of the vascular supply of the anterior segment.A significant interruption of the vascular flow of these arteries increases the risk for anterior ischemia.Although the frequency of this special condition is low after strabismus surgery(1:13 000)[1],its effects may involve substantial visual problems[2].We report the successful outcome of a new surgical approach for strabismus management in a case of high risk for anterior ischemia.Specifically,we show the correction of the horizontal ocular deviation by means of an adjustable muscle

  10. Ultraviolet absorption by contact lenses and the significance on the ocular anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Heather

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that both acute and chronic ultraviolet (UV) exposure can lead to various ophthalmic pathologic conditions in the anterior segment. Several scientific studies have demonstrated that after UV exposure, the unprotected cornea is vulnerable to damage in the epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cellular layers. DNA damage, apoptosis, and altered protease expression are all examples of harmful changes that can occur within the cornea after irradiation. Beyond the cornea, damage associated with UV exposure, such as decreased antioxidant levels and increased reactive oxygen species production, has been noted in the aqueous humor and crystalline lens. Ultraviolet-blocking contact lenses have the potential to provide protection against such exposure to harmful UV radiation. Experimental use of UV-absorbing contact lenses prevented detrimental cellular changes to the cornea and maintained corneal clarity after UV exposure. Additionally, studies suggest that shielding the aqueous humor and crystalline lens from irradiation with UV-absorbing contact lenses aids in protection against precataractous changes. Despite ongoing research, to date, neither chronic nor clinical studies have been performed in humans to demonstrate that wearing UV-blocking contact lenses reduces the risk of developing cataracts or other ocular disorders within the anterior segment. This article will discuss the impact of UV exposure on ocular tissue and the need for adequate UV protection, with particular emphasis on UV-blocking contact lenses.

  11. Observation of posterior corneal vesicles with in vivo confocal microscopy and anterior segment OCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryou Watanabe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Ryou Watanabe, Toru Nakazawa, Nobuo FuseDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAbstract: The histopathology of posterior corneal vesicles (PCV has not yet been revealed. A 15-year-old girl, who was diagnosed by slit-lamp microscopy as PCV, was examined using specular microscopy, in vivo confocal microscopy, and anterior segment OCT (optical coherence tomography. Anterior segment OCT showed that the thickness of both corneas was within normal limits. At the same time, in vivo confocal microscopy revealed endothelial cells in the rounded dark areas, acellular hyporeflective layers on the Descemet’s membrane, and hyperreflective linear lesions. These findings were not reported previously by slit-lamp and specular microscopy. The abnormal findings only existed at the Descemet’s membrane and corneal endothelial layer. Previous reports dealing with posterior polymorphous dystrophy (PPMD examined using in vivo confocal microscopy reported almost the same findings, suggesting that PCV and PPMD may be the same at the microstructural level.Keywords: cornea, Descemet’s membrane, imaging

  12. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Ochronosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM findings of two patients with ocular ochronosis secondary due to alkaptonuria. Materials and Methods. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, including IVCM (HRT II/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT (Topcon 3D spectral-domain OCT 2000, Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ, USA, corneal topography (Pentacam, OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, and anterior segment photography, were performed. Results. Biomicroscopic examination showed bilateral darkly pigmented lesions of the nasal and temporal conjunctiva and episclera in both patients. In vivo confocal microscopy of the lesions revealed prominent degenerative changes, including vacuoles and fragmentation of collagen fibers in the affected conjunctival lamina propria and episclera. Hyperreflective pigment granules in different shapes were demonstrated in the substantia propria beneath the basement membrane. AS-OCT of Case 1 demonstrated hyporeflective areas. Fundus examination was within normal limits in both patients, except tilted optic discs with peripapillary atrophy in one of the patients. Corneal topography, thickness, and macular OCT were normal bilaterally in both cases. Conclusion. The degenerative and anatomic changes due to ochronotic pigment deposition in alkaptonuria can be demonstrated in detail with IVCM and AS-OCT. Confocal microscopic analysis in ocular ochronosis may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression.

  13. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  14. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  15. Coil embolization in precommunicating (A1) segment aneurysms of anterior cerebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Dae; Ahn, Jun Hyong; Jung, Seung Chai; Kim, Chang Hun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun-Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Young Je [Seoul National University Boramae Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, 28 Yongon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    Precommunicating (A1) segment aneurysms of the anterior cerebral artery are rare and often pose technical challenges for coil embolization due to their distinctive configurations. Clinical and radiologic outcomes of treating such aneurysms through endovascular coil embolization are presented herein. Data accruing prospectively from May 2002 to August 2013 yielded 48 patients harboring 50 A1 segment aneurysms, each classified as proximal, middle, or distal by location. Clinical outcome of the patients and morphological outcome of the aneurysms were assessed, with emphasis on technical aspects of treatment. The aneurysms studied occupied either proximal (n = 39), middle (n = 6), or distal (n = 5). Proximal aneurysms were largely directed posteriorly (80 %), and most (97 %) were devoid of branches. Middle and distal aneurysms were associated with the medial lenticulostriate artery, cortical branches, or fenestrations. The preshaped ''S'' and steam-shaped ''S'' microcatheters facilitated aneurysm selection in 60 % of lesions. Single-microcatheter technique was most commonly applied for coil embolization (62 %), followed by balloon protection (16 %). Successful aneurysmal occlusion could be achieved in 76 % of the patients, with no procedure-related morbidity and mortality. At final follow-up (mean interval, 29.9 months), stable aneurysmal occlusion was sustained in 93 % of the patients (40/43). A1 segment aneurysms are amenable to safe and efficacious endovascular coil embolization by adjusting procedural strategy to accommodate distinctive anatomic configurations. (orig.)

  16. Efficacy of intacs intrastromal corneal ring segment relative to depth of insertion evaluated with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate the effect of implantation depth of Intacs microthin prescription inserts (Addition Technology Inc, Fremont, California on visual and topographic outcomes in patients with post- laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK ectasias. Settings and Design: Retrospective, observational case series. Materials and Methods: In this case series, 16 eyes of 12 patients were evaluated. All cases were post-LASIK ectasia that had undergone intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation. The planned insertion depth was 70% of stromal thickness using a manual dissector. At least 12 months postoperatively, all eyes underwent Visante (Carl Zeiss Meditec AS-OCT to determine insertion depth. Cases were categorized into 3 groups based on the measured implantation depth: 40-59% thickness; 60-79% thickness; and ≥80% thickness. Visual, refractive and topographic outcomes were evaluated relative to implantation depth. Results: The lowest improvement in the study parameters ocurred when the implantation depth was ≥80%. In this group, uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA and best spectacle corrected VA (BSCVA improved less than 0.5 lines. Manifest refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE and mean keratometry (Km change was less than 0.5 diopters (D. The greatest improvements were observed with implantation depth of 60-79% where UCVA and BSCVA increased by 4.5 and 2.5 lines respectively, and MRSE and Km changed by approximately 2.00 D. Less improvement was found when ICRS were implanted between 40-59% of stromal thickness. Conclusion: Implantation of ICRS greater than 80% of stromal thickness may have no effect on visual and topographic status.

  17. Role of anterior segment optical coherence tomogram in Descemet′s membrane detachment

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    Sonia Kothari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Descemet′s membrane detachment (DD is a rare but serious complication of intraocular surgery. In rare cases where corneal edema is severe and we may not be able to visualize DD on slit-lamp examination, anterior segment optical coherence tomogram (AS-OCT would be helpful. We describe two patients with DD, highlighting the role of AS-OCT in early diagnosis and management of patients with DD. One of the patients had DD with rolled in edge, which could only be visualized with AS-OCT. In such a situation, AS-OCT can identify the edge of detachment and show the exact position of the rolled edge, which can allow us to plan the surgical strategy to unroll the DD.

  18. A New Potential Cause in the Development of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Fibrin Glue

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present a potential cause for toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS. Materials and Methods: We report 4 cases of TASS that occurred following uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Results: The 4 cases were the first consecutive 2 cases of 2 different surgery days, 5 months apart. The most prominent sign of TASS was limbus-to-limbus corneal edema. Pain and/or intraocular pressure rise were also common. All surgical and presurgical procedures were checked after the first outbreak, whereas the second outbreak required further investigation. Fibrin glue remnants from preceding pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting were found to be the potential cause. Despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, corneal edema did not resolve in 2 patients who underwent keratoplasty. Conclusion: TASS is a sight-threatening condition which requires thorough investigation for prevention of new cases. All steps must be carefully revised. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 280-3

  19. Comparative study on the effect of anterior and posterior decompression in the treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Li; Mei-Lin Jiang; Xiao-Jun Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze and compare the clinical efficacy of anterior and posterior decompression in the treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy (MCSM), providing certain guidance for the clinical treatment. Methods:A total of 72 patients with MCSM who were admitted in our hospital from September, 2012 to October, 2014 were included in the study and divided into the anterior group (n=37) and the posterior group (n=35) according to different surgical methods. The patients in the anterior group were given anterior cervical discectomy fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy fusion (ACCF), while the patients in the posterior group were given laminoplasty (LP). The general materials, surgical materials, and postoperative functional recovery in the two groups were compared. Results:The comparison of gender, age, course, preoperative JOA score, follow-up time, and affected segment between the two groups was not statistically significant. The operation time in the anterior group was significantly longer than that in the posterior group, but the intraoperative amount of bleeding was significantly less than that in the posterior group. The postoperative spinal cord function in the two groups was significantly improved when compared with before operation;moreover, the improved degree in the anterior group was more obvious. The postoperative cervical physiological curvature in the anterior group was significantly increased, but in the posterior group was significantly reduced. The comparison of the occurrence rate of postoperative complications between the two groups was not statistically significant. Conclusions:The anterior and posterior surgeries in the treatment of MCSM can significantly improve the postoperative spinal cord function, among which the anterior surgery can effectively recover the cervical physiological curvature. It is recommended that an appropriate surgical method should be reasonably selected by comprehensively considering the

  20. Evaluation of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

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    Halil Hüseyin Çağatay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT in Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD. A patient who developed DMD after uneventful cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation is presented in this case report. At the follow-up examination after cataract surgery, slit-lamp evaluation showed stromal striae, but it was impossible to diagnose the DMD due to the corneal edema. ASOCT imaging of the cornea revealed a DMD, and the patient underwent intracameral air injection to the anterior chamber through the site which was identified as intact by ASOCT. Follow-up ASOCT imaging revealed the reattachment of the Descemet’s membrane and reduced corneal thickness. If DMD is suspected in any cases, ASOCT can be useful to document and follow the postsurgical detachment of DMD and also to determine the site, configuration, and extent of the DMD, thus guiding the treatment method and monitoring the treatment outcome. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 407-9

  1. RANIBIZUMAB (LUCENTIS® INJECTION BY ANTERIOR CHAMBER IN APHAKIC EYES WITH MYOPIC CHOROIDAL NEOVASCULARIZATION

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    F. Petrarchini

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV is one of the most vision-threatening complications of myopia, which can lead to severe vision loss. Our purpose was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of trans-corneal injection of ranibizumab in the treatment of myopic CNV in aphakic patients. Materials and Methods. ten eyes of 10 aphakic patients with CNV secondary to pathologic myopia treated with three trans- corneal injection of ranibizumab were evaluated. A complete ophthalmologic examination including best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and fundus biomicroscopy, specular microscopy, fundus optical coherence tomography (OCT, fluorescein an- giography (FA were performed at baseline and monthly for all patients. Mean time of follow-up was 6 months. results. The mean axial length was 27,6 mm (range, 25.7-31.3 mm. The mean initial visual acuity (VA was 0.19 (decimal equivalent. A statistically significant improvement to a mean VA of 0.33 decimal equivalent (log-MAR:0.48 was demon- strated at the final follow-up. VA improved by a mean of 2.86 lines. Mean central macular thickness (CMT measured with OCT was 340 μm (range, 179-663 μm at the baseline, and was reduced significantly at the final follow-up to 212μm (range, 125-455 μm. No injection complications or drug-related side effects were noted during the follow-up period. Conclusions. in this small series of aphakic eyes with limited follow-up, ranibizumab by anterior chamber administration seems to be a safe and effective treatment for CNV secondary to pathologic myopia (PM, without any complications. Further studies to evaluate the safety and efficacy are justified.

  2. A red-eye detector for iris segmentation using shape context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Changpeng; Huang, Xinyu; Tokuta, Alade; Yang, Ruigang

    2013-05-01

    In iris recognition systems, it is essential to accurately locate the pupil and the iris. Among segmentation algorithms for systems utilizing near-infrared light, some make the assumption that the pupil is darker than the rest of the image. For this class of algorithms, the red eye effect, which makes the pupil region brighter than the iris, could damage their performance. Other segmentation algorithms use edge information to fit circles, yet noisy images make them inaccurate. Therefore, it is desirable to use different segmentation algorithms for images with and without the red eye effect. In this paper, we introduce a novel method which distinguishes iris images exhibiting the red eye effect from those with a dark pupil. Our detector starts with a 2D darkness map of the iris image, and generates a customized shape context descriptor from the estimated pupil region. The descriptor is then compared with the reference descriptor, generated from a number of training images with dark pupils. The distance to the reference descriptor is used to define how close the estimated pupil region is from a dark pupil. Tests with images captured with our own acquisition system shows the proposed pupil detector is highly effective.

  3. An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes.

  4. Differential Gaze Patterns on Eyes and Mouth During Audiovisual Speech Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Laina G; Mitchel, Aaron D

    2016-01-01

    Speech is inextricably multisensory: both auditory and visual components provide critical information for all aspects of speech processing, including speech segmentation, the visual components of which have been the target of a growing number of studies. In particular, a recent study (Mitchel and Weiss, 2014) established that adults can utilize facial cues (i.e., visual prosody) to identify word boundaries in fluent speech. The current study expanded upon these results, using an eye tracker to identify highly attended facial features of the audiovisual display used in Mitchel and Weiss (2014). Subjects spent the most time watching the eyes and mouth. A significant trend in gaze durations was found with the longest gaze duration on the mouth, followed by the eyes and then the nose. In addition, eye-gaze patterns changed across familiarization as subjects learned the word boundaries, showing decreased attention to the mouth in later blocks while attention on other facial features remained consistent. These findings highlight the importance of the visual component of speech processing and suggest that the mouth may play a critical role in visual speech segmentation.

  5. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty of dog eyes using the big-bubble technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Kwak, Ji Yoon; Jeong, Manbok

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish the feasibility of corneal transplantation using the big-bubble technique (BBT) to perform deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) in three dogs. After the cornea was trephined 750 µm, 4 mL of air was injected, and the blanched stroma was removed to expose Descemet's membrane (DM). The donor corneal button, which was gently stripped off the DM, was sutured onto the bare DM of the recipient cornea. The dogs received topical antibiotics every 6 h for 7 days and 2% cyclosporine ointment every 12 h for 1 month. The eyes were examined post-operatively at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 150 days. The central portion of the transplanted cornea stayed transparent while corneal haze developed around the transplanted margin. Menace response was normal even though the transplanted cornea was edematous until 3 weeks after surgery. A marginal haze was rarely observed between the donor and recipient corneas at 150 days after the operation. A spotted haze developed in the central part of the deep stroma near the DM. Upon histopathological examination, the stroma and epithelium of the donor cornea had normal structures. Corneal transplantation using DALK with BBT can be performed in dogs preserving the healthy endothelium. PMID:26645335

  6. Inflammatory Response in the Anterior Chamber after Implantation of an Angle-Supported Lens in Phakic Myopic Eyes

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    Suphi Taneri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the inflammatory reaction after implantation of an angle-supported foldable acrylic anterior chamber IOL for myopia correction over time. Methods. Adult individuals seeking vision correction with stable myopia >7.0 D were included. Exclusion criteria are anterior chamber depth <2.8 mm, insufficient endothelial cell density, other preexisting ocular conditions, and prior eye surgery. Laser flare photometry and slitlamp examination were performed before and up to 1 year after implantation of an AcrySof Cachet IOL (Alcon Laboratories, Forth Worth, TX, USA. Postoperative treatment comprised antibiotic eye-drops for 5 days and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory eye-drops (NSAIDs for 4 weeks. Results. Average laser flare values of 15 consecutive eyes of 15 patients were 8.3±9.7 preoperatively and 19.0±24.2 (1 day, 24.0±27.5 (1 week, 17.6±13.4 (1 month, 14.9±15.4 (3 months, and 10.0±7.0 (1 year photon counts/ms after implantation, respectively. Slitlamp examination yielded 0 or 1+ cells (SUN classification in every one eye throughout the follow-up period. Conclusion. Results indicate a low maximum inflammatory response and a quick recovery to a long-term safe level. The use of NSAIDs seems sufficient in routine cases, thus avoiding potential drawbacks of using corticoids.

  7. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elton; Lik; Tong; Tay; Vernon; Khet; Yau; Yong; Boon; Ang; Lim; Stelson; Sia; Elizabeth; Poh; Ying; Wong; Leonard; Wei; Leon; Yip

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT(SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments.METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects(33 eyes)were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic.Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other’s analyses of OCT images.RESULTS: Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively(P <0.01). The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k =0.31(95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k =0.35(95%CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k =0.21(95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k =0.17(95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51(95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18(95% CI: 0.08-0.45).CONCLUSION: Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  8. Extracting a large live freely floating cysticercosis cyst from the anterior chamber of the eye using visco expression technique: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satya Prakash; Rana, Jagriti; Dukre, Jagdish; Singh, Premala Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Ocular involvement by cysticercosis is uncommon and rare in the anterior chamber. It can give rise to iridocyclitis which can be potentially blinding to the patient. The management is usually surgical. We report a case of 18-year-old girl with large cysticercosis cyst in the anterior chamber. The cyst was removed intact by viscoexpression technique from the anterior chamber of the eye and the patient achieved visual acuity of 6/9 post-operatively. PMID:26949361

  9. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

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    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  10. Extensive molecular differences between anterior- and posterior-half-sclerotomes underlie somite polarity and spinal nerve segmentation

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    Keynes Roger J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polarization of somite-derived sclerotomes into anterior and posterior halves underlies vertebral morphogenesis and spinal nerve segmentation. To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo. Results Several hundred genes are differentially-expressed between the two sclerotome halves, showing that a marked degree of molecular heterogeneity underpins the development of somite polarity. Conclusion We have identified a set of genes that warrant further investigation as regulators of somite polarity and vertebral morphogenesis, as well as repellents of spinal axon growth. Moreover the results indicate that, unlike the posterior half-sclerotome, the central region of the anterior-half-sclerotome does not contribute bone and cartilage to the vertebral column, being associated instead with the development of the segmented spinal nerves.

  11. Pole to Pole Intraocular Transit of Tarantula Hairs—An Intriguing Cause of Red Eye

    OpenAIRE

    Sheth, Hiten G.; Patricio Pacheco; Ahmed Sallam; Sue Lightman

    2009-01-01

    This intriguing case report provides novel images and a description of the anterior and rarer posterior segment findings seen in ocular inflammation associated with tarantula spider hair exposure. We present an interventional case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a red, sore eye. Slit lamp examination revealed right eye injection, multiple small hairs at differing levels of the cornea with associated opacities and inflammation within the anterior and posterior segments of the eye...

  12. Eye contact reveals a relationship between Neuroticism and anterior EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Allik, Jüri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    Although anterior functional brain asymmetry has been linked to individual differences in affect and motivation, its relations with the Five Factor Model personality traits remain unclear. We investigated anterior EEG alpha-activity asymmetry in response to variable degrees of social contact induced by different gaze directions of a "live" model. Neuroticism was negatively related to the anterior EEG asymmetry scores in response to direct gaze, indicating that higher levels of Neuroticism were associated with avoidance-related, relative right-sided functional brain asymmetry. Neuroticism was also related to behavioral direct gaze avoidance and subjective averted gaze preference. These relationships arose primarily from the Withdrawal aspect factor, suggesting that two subdomains of Neuroticism may be differentially related to approach-avoidance tendencies. These findings demonstrate that experimental manipulations of social contact can reveal personality related differences in anterior EEG asymmetry responsiveness, offering a motivationally salient alternative to resting state measures. PMID:25980386

  13. Comparison of immersion ultrasonography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of traumatic phacoceles

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    Harikrishna Vodapalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular trauma in the elderly can result in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens into the subconjunctival space (phacocele. Although rare, this presentation can be missed, especially if the patient presents several days after the injury and if the lid is not everted on examination. While a careful clinical examination is adequate in the diagnosis, imaging techniques can be put to use for the accurate location of the associated sclera rupture. We report three cases of post-traumatic phacocele wherein ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was compared to the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and B-scan ultrasonography (B-scan, in order to establish the best imaging tool for this condition. We concluded, based on image quality, that UBM could be the imaging modality of choice to aid in the diagnosis of phacocele.

  14. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

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    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    with secondary anterior segment alterations. Data collected from the charts were: age, gender, kind of allergy, time of disease, time that complication appeared after treatment in our Service, side effects and ocular complications. RESULTS: Complications of anterior segment that caused reduction in visual acuity were: shield ulcers, 5 cases; cataract, 3 cases; corneal opacity, 6 cases; ocular perforation, 2 cases and keratoconus 13 cases. There were 7 surgeries: 2 tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, 4 optic keratoplasty, 4 optic penetrating keratoplasty and one superficial keratectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis should be treated in order to prevent ocular complications like keratitis, keratoconus, opacities and cataract.

  15. Doenças do segmento anterior ocular associadas a lentes de contato Contact lens-associated ocular anterior segment diseases

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    Murilo Barreto Souza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A disponibilidade de lentes de contato cada vez mais confortáveis e toleráveis favoreceu não só a ampliação das indicações, mas também o aumento do número de seus usuários. Como conseqüência deste fato as complicações associadas ao uso de lentes de contato são cada vez mais comuns, e representam um problema de grande prevalência na prática clínica. O objetivo deste estudo é revisar as principais doenças e alterações do segmento anterior e superfície ocular associadas ao uso de lentes de contato.Nowadays, contact lenses have shown a larger variety of options in order to meet the needs of different patients. They have become more frequent in the clinical practice and, consequently, the complications related to contact lenses have been more common. This review attempted to describe the main alterations and diseases of the cornea and anterior segment associated with contact lens wearers.

  16. Both the anterior and posterior eyes function as photoreceptors for photoperiodic termination of diapause in the two-spotted spider mite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yuichi; Numata, Hideharu; Shiga, Sakiko; Goto, Shin G

    2014-02-01

    Photoreceptors involved in photoperiodism in insects and mites can be either the retinal photoreceptors in the visual system or nonvisual extraretinal photoreceptors. Mites with no eyes have a clear photoperiodic response, suggesting the involvement of extraretinal photoreceptors in mite photoperiodism. In mites equipped with eyes, however, it is not known whether the retinal or extraretinal photoreceptors are involved in photoperiodism. The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae possesses two pairs of eyes. Adult females of this species terminate diapause in response to long days. To investigate whether the eyes function as photoperiodic photoreceptors in T. urticae, their eyes were ablated using a laser ablation system. Mites with their eyes intact terminated diapause under long days after low temperature exposure, whereas they remained in diapause under short days. Under constant darkness, they did not terminate diapause. When all eyes were removed, the mites remained in diapause even when they were maintained under long days. In contrast, the mites showed clear photoperiodic response when only the anterior or posterior eyes were removed. These results indicate that both the anterior and posterior eyes function as photoreceptors in photoperiodic termination of diapause in T. urticae.

  17. Development of Extended-Depth Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Applications in Ophthalmic Imaging of the Anterior and Posterior Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhalla, Al-Hafeez Zahir

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive optical imaging modality that provides micron-scale resolution of tissue micro-structure over depth ranges of several millimeters. This imaging technique has had a profound effect on the field of ophthalmology, wherein it has become the standard of care for the diagnosis of many retinal pathologies. Applications of OCT in the anterior eye, as well as for imaging of coronary arteries and the gastro-intestinal tract, have also shown promise, but have not yet achieved widespread clinical use. The usable imaging depth of OCT systems is most often limited by one of three factors: optical attenuation, inherent imaging range, or depth-of-focus. The first of these, optical attenuation, stems from the limitation that OCT only detects singly-scattered light. Thus, beyond a certain penetration depth into turbid media, essentially all of the incident light will have been multiply scattered, and can no longer be used for OCT imaging. For many applications (especially retinal imaging), optical attenuation is the most restrictive of the three imaging depth limitations. However, for some applications, especially anterior segment, cardiovascular (catheter-based) and GI (endoscopic) imaging, the usable imaging depth is often not limited by optical attenuation, but rather by the inherent imaging depth of the OCT systems. This inherent imaging depth, which is specific to only Fourier Domain OCT, arises due to two factors: sensitivity fall-off and the complex conjugate ambiguity. Finally, due to the trade-off between lateral resolution and axial depth-of-focus inherent in diffractive optical systems, additional depth limitations sometimes arises in either high lateral resolution or extended depth OCT imaging systems. The depth-of-focus limitation is most apparent in applications such as adaptive optics (AO-) OCT imaging of the retina, and extended depth imaging of the ocular anterior segment. In this dissertation, techniques for

  18. Biomechanical effects of polyaxial pedicle screw fixation on the lumbosacral segments with an anterior interbody cage support

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    Chen Hsiang-Ho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbosacral fusion is a relatively common procedure that is used in the management of an unstable spine. The anterior interbody cage has been involved to enhance the stability of a pedicle screw construct used at the lumbosacral junction. Biomechanical differences between polyaxial and monoaxial pedicle screws linked with various rod contours were investigated to analyze the respective effects on overall construct stiffness, cage strain, rod strain, and contact ratios at the vertebra-cage junction. Methods A synthetic model composed of two ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene blocks was used with four titanium pedicle screws (two in each block and two rods fixation to build the spinal construct along with an anterior interbody cage support. For each pair of the construct fixed with polyaxial or monoaxial screws, the linked rods were set at four configurations to simulate 0°, 7°, 14°, and 21° lordosis on the sagittal plane, and a compressive load of 300 N was applied. Strain gauges were attached to the posterior surface of the cage and to the central area of the left connecting rod. Also, the contact area between the block and the cage was measured using prescale Fuji super low pressure film for compression, flexion, lateral bending and torsion tests. Results Our main findings in the experiments with an anterior interbody cage support are as follows: 1 large segmental lordosis can decrease the stiffness of monoaxial pedicle screws constructs; 2 polyaxial screws rather than monoaxial screws combined with the cage fixation provide higher compression and flexion stiffness in 21° segmental lordosis; 3 polyaxial screws enhance the contact surface of the cage in 21° segmental lordosis. Conclusion Polyaxial screws system used in conjunction with anterior cage support yields higher contact ratio, compression and flexion stiffness of spinal constructs than monoaxial screws system does in the same model when the spinal segment

  19. Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia

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    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS, after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.

  20. Surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy combined with lensectomy for glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhaotian; Zhang, Shaochong; Jiang, Xintong; Qiu, Suo; Wei, Yantao

    2016-01-01

    Background Glaucoma combined with an extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataracts remains as a complex condition to deal with. And the emergence of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) system may provide an ideal option for the treatment of that. We report a clinical study of surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with lensectomy in the treatment of glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract. Methods Prospective,...

  1. The spinal nail: a new implant for short-segment anterior instrumentation of the thoracolumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J M; DeBoer, D K; Spengler, D M; Schwartz, H S

    1996-08-01

    The biomechanics of a new spinal implant were evaluated and its dependence on an anterior strut graft was determined. Six fresh-frozen adult porcine spines were used. An L3 corpectomy was created. The spinal nail was inserted intraosseously into the middle column of the L2-L4 vertebral bodies in a trough. Implant drill holes were made for proximal and distal locking bolts in L2 and L4. A locking plate bridged the L2 and L4 trough and anchored the exposed ends of the locking bolts. Testing was performed in axial compression, torsion, and flexion. The axial and torsional stability of the spine instrumented with the spinal nail are similar to results with other devices when used with anterior strut grafting. The axial and flexural stiffnesses of the instrumented spine are independent of strut grafting. This study suggests that this device may be useful for reconstruction of the anterior spine because of instability. PMID:8877956

  2. 超声生物显微镜观察弹性开放襻前房型人工晶状体对眼前段结构的影响%The influence of flexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens on the structure of ocular anterior segment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟蓉; 刘奕志; 陈秀琦; 程冰; 刘玉华

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effects and safety offlexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens (FOAC-IOL). Methods By ultrasound biomicroscopy, the positions of the haptics of FOAC-IOL in 20 patients (20 eyes) and the relationships of the haptics with iris and anterior chamber angle structures were observed postoperatively to evaluate the impact of these lenses on the structures of ocular anterior segment. Follow-up duration was from 6 to 20 months. Results Among 40 IOL′s haptics, twenty-six haptics were fixed at the recess of the chamber angle ;and other fourteen haptics penetrated the iris and invaded into the ciliary stroma, which caused recurrent uveitis. There was 1 eye with eccentric lens. There were 8 eyes with anterior synechiae of iris, which were related to the haptics of intraocular lens. Conclusions Ultrasound biomicroscopy works well in dynamic observation of the influence of intraocular lens on ocular anterior segment. The haptics of flexible open-loop anterior chamber intraocular lens should be modified.%目的 评价弹性开放襻一体型前房型人工晶状体(anterchamberintraocularlens,AC-IOL)植入术的疗效及其安全性。方法 应用超声生物显微镜观察20例(20只眼)弹性开放襻一体型AC-IOL植入术后患者IOL襻的位置,以及其与虹膜及房角结构的关系,从而评价IOL对眼前段结构的影响。随访时间6~20个月。结果 40个IOL襻中,26个襻固定于房角隐窝;14个襻(8只眼)穿过虹膜侵入至睫状体实质内,并伴有反复发作的葡萄膜炎。术后8只眼虹膜前粘连与IOL襻有关。结论超声生物显微镜检查是动态了解IOL对眼前段结构影响的有效方法。AC-IOL襻的设计有待进一步改进。

  3. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Kudsieh, Bachar; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p = 0.015) at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60). Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%), vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%), transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%), and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%). No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved. PMID:26294964

  4. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroni Nadal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p=0.015 at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60. Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%, vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%, transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%, and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%. No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  5. Clinical applications and limitations of anterior segment optical coherence tomography%眼前节相干光断层扫描技术的临床应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪佳旭; 孙兴怀

    2010-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is being employed more and more often to facilitate the diagnosis and management of the anterior eye segment diseases. The cross-sectional imaging capability of its higher resolution allows OCT to measure and visualize clear anatomic structures, specifically in anterior chamber biometry, corneal pachymetric mapping, and anterior chamber angle. Fourier-domain OCT technique which achieves higher speed and higher resolution and time-domain OCT technique have driven their further application in ophthalmological practice. In this review, we describe the principles and characteristics of OCT, summarize the recent utility and the limitations of anterior segment OCT in the pathologies and surgical planning of anterior chamber, cornea and surrounding areas, and prospect its future development.%近年来,相干光断层扫描(OCT)技术在眼前节疾病诊治中的应用飞速发展.由于OCT的分辨率更高、成像效果更好且为无创的非接触测量,所以它在前房参数测量、角膜地形测量及房角测量等方面具有明显的优势.高速、高分辨率的傅立叶OCT技术与传统的时域OCT技术相辅相成,推动和发展OCT在眼科临床中的应用.本文介绍了眼前节OCT的成像原理,结合相应的临床应用展示了OCT在眼前节疾病发病机制研究及诊疗中的价值与局限,并对OCT技术未来的发展进行展望.

  6. Advancement of maxillary anterior segment by distraction osteogenesis for severe maxillary retrusion in cleft lip and palate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng; Yang Minlie; Zhao Zhenmin; Sun Xiaomei; Yin Ningbei; Wang Yongqian; Song Tao

    2014-01-01

    Background Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis (MASDO) is a recently used method for correction of severe maxillary retrusion in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients.In this article,we evaluated the feasibility of MASDO using rigid external distraction (RED) and rapid orthodontic tooth movement to correct severe maxillary retrusion in CLP patients.Methods Fourteen male and five female complete CLP patients between the ages of 18 and 22 years (mean age 19.7 years) at the time of distraction,with severe maxillary retrusion,were treated with the rigid external distraction (RED) device after maxillary anterior osteotomy.Rapid orthodontic tooth movement was started one week after the MASDO.Standard profile photographic,cephalometric films were obtained preoperatively and after therapy.Sella-nasion-point A (SNA) and Sella-nasion-point B (SNB) angles were measured to reflect changes in maxillary and mandibular position,and the distance between anterior nasal spine and posterior nasal spine (ANS-PNS) was measured to represent the maxillary dental arch length.Results The SNA angle increased from an average of 74.6° (range 73.0°-78.0°),preoperatively,to 83.4° (range 78.6°-88.0°) after the RED was removed (P <0.01).All cases of severe maxillary retrusion were improved.Nine patients' profiles became harmonious after therapy.One patient had a bimaxillary protrusion deformity and needed further surgery.The regenerate alveolar crest and edentulous space on both segments was almost completely eliminated after rapid orthodontic tooth movement.Conclusion MASDO with the RED system and rapid orthodontic tooth movement is a successful way of correcting severe maxillary retrusion in CLP patients.

  7. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik;

    2013-01-01

    remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  8. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd; Olson, Charles W.;

    2011-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) has been estimated in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using ST segment-based electrocardiographic (ECG) methods. As the process from ischemia to infarction progresses, the ST-segment deviation is typically replaced by QRS abnormalities causing...... a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than...

  9. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Jeroni Nadal; Bachar Kudsieh; Ricardo P. Casaroli-Marano

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a ...

  10. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  11. A tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia Simplifying ectasia screening with corneal and anterior segment tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Freitas Valbon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos a importância da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia. Esta descrição da interpretação clínica dos índices da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior (Pentacam - Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany neste relato de caso, demonstra a relevância de uma nova tecnologia na avaliação da córnea e segmento anterior na suspeita de ceratocone. O diagnóstico de ceratocone foi excluído pela análise dos índices tomográficos de ectasia. Detectou-se assimetria entre os lados nasal e temporal por meio da avaliação do mapa de profundidade de câmara anterior. No exame biomicroscópico sob midríase foi constatado subluxação do cristalino, sendo assim devemos estar atentos não somente aos índices tomográficos corneanos na avaliação do exame complementar e sim analisarmos outros dados importantes oferecidos pela tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior.The methodology currently used for interpretation of the cornea and anterior segment tomography for the diagnosis of corneal ectasia. Description of the clinical interpretation of anterior segment tomography (Pentacam - Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany; case report of the ectopia lentis demonstrating the importance o evaluation of the cornea and anterior segment of the keratoconus. We excluded the disease, analyzing the tomographic analysis of rates of ectasia and observe an asymmetry between nasal and temporal sides in assessing the depth map of the anterior chamber. On the biomicroscopic examination in mydriasis, was found a ectopia lentis. We must be mindful not only to corneal tomography indices to evaluate a diagnostic test, but look at other important information provided by anterior segment tomography.

  12. Association of eNOS Polymorphisms with Anterior Chamber Depth in Han Chinese: Jiangsu Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a study reported that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS were associated with primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG in Australian cohort. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether those eNOS SNPs are associated with primary angle closure (PAC or ocular biometric characteristics such as axial length (AL, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and diopter of spherical power (DS in Han Chinese. The samples consisted of 232 PAC subjects and 306 controls collected from a population-based prevalence survey conducted in Funing County of Jiangsu, China. The rs3793342 and rs11771443 in eNOS were genotyped by TaqMan-MGB probe using the RT-PCR system. Our data did not identify any association of the eNOS SNPs with PAC. However, the analysis on the quantitative traits of ocular biometrics showed that the ACD of rs11771443 AA and GA carriers is significantly deeper than that of rs11771443 GG carriers (P=0.0025, even though the AL and DS are not associated with rs11771443 genotypes. Rs3793342 was not associated with any biometric parameters including ACD, AL and DS. In summary, our data indicates that eNOS rs11771443 is associated with ACD and its role in the pathogenesis of PACG warranted further study.

  13. Texture analysis improves level set segmentation of the anterior abdominal wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Zhoubing [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Allen, Wade M. [Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Baucom, Rebeccah B.; Poulose, Benjamin K. [General Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 and Institute of Imaging Science, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The treatment of ventral hernias (VH) has been a challenging problem for medical care. Repair of these hernias is fraught with failure; recurrence rates ranging from 24% to 43% have been reported, even with the use of biocompatible mesh. Currently, computed tomography (CT) is used to guide intervention through expert, but qualitative, clinical judgments, notably, quantitative metrics based on image-processing are not used. The authors propose that image segmentation methods to capture the three-dimensional structure of the abdominal wall and its abnormalities will provide a foundation on which to measure geometric properties of hernias and surrounding tissues and, therefore, to optimize intervention.Methods: In this study with 20 clinically acquired CT scans on postoperative patients, the authors demonstrated a novel approach to geometric classification of the abdominal. The authors’ approach uses a texture analysis based on Gabor filters to extract feature vectors and follows a fuzzy c-means clustering method to estimate voxelwise probability memberships for eight clusters. The memberships estimated from the texture analysis are helpful to identify anatomical structures with inhomogeneous intensities. The membership was used to guide the level set evolution, as well as to derive an initial start close to the abdominal wall.Results: Segmentation results on abdominal walls were both quantitatively and qualitatively validated with surface errors based on manually labeled ground truth. Using texture, mean surface errors for the outer surface of the abdominal wall were less than 2 mm, with 91% of the outer surface less than 5 mm away from the manual tracings; errors were significantly greater (2–5 mm) for methods that did not use the texture.Conclusions: The authors’ approach establishes a baseline for characterizing the abdominal wall for improving VH care. Inherent texture patterns in CT scans are helpful to the tissue classification, and texture

  14. Combined anterior and posterior decompression and short segment fixation for unstable burst fractures in the dorso lumbar region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramani P

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The dorso lumbar segment of spine (D10 to L2 is an unstable zone between fixed dorsal and mobile lumbar spine. A combined anterior and posterior approach with short segment stabilization was found most appropriate. Thirty cases were treated over a period of 4 years and 6 months. There were 26 male and 4 female patients with mean age of 32.6 years. L1 vertebra was fractured in 17 cases, D1 in 8 cases, D11 in 4 cases and D10 in one case. 14 cases had total neurological deficit, 9 cases had partial and 7 had no neurological deficit. We have used three column classification of Denis to assess the cases. Seven patients returned to regular physical work, 5 had restricted physical work, 5 remained in full time light job and 9 patients were unable to return to original job but did some work. Most had flaccid paraplegia but 4 patients were completely disabled due to spastic paraplegia. Neurological recovery occurred in all the patients with partial paralysis, and appeared to be dependent on initial kyphosis. The overall recovery rate varied from 50% to 90%. There is no correlation between canal compromise and severity of injury. Neurological injury occured at the time of trauma, rather than as a result of pressure of fragment in the canal. No strong conclusion could be drawn to say that the results of surgery were superior to non-operative treatment.

  15. 采用AS-OCT测量房角开放度数的一致性分析%Reproducibility of anterior chamber angle measurement with anterior segment optical coherence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 刘杏; 王涛; 钟毅敏; 何明光

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪(AS-OCT)定量测量房角,并分析其测量一致性.方法 采用AS-OCT对23例受试者(30只眼)的房角进行扫描,分别由测量者甲和乙,以及测量者甲在两个不同的时间点对颞侧房角500μm(AA-500μm)和750μm(AA-750μm)的房角开放度数进行定量测量.采用类内相关系数ICC和95%LoA(95%Limts of Agreement,95% LoA)评价测量的一致性.结果 甲两次测量的AA-500μm和AA-750μm值比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05);甲与乙测量的AA-500μm和AA-750μm值比较差异均无统计学意义(均P>0.05).AA-500μm和AA-750μm测量者内的95%LoA分别为(-5.441,5.281弧度和-7.313、6.020弧度);ICC分别为:0.933,0.907.AA-500μm和AA-750μm测量者间的95%LoA分别为:(-6.098,5.098弧度和-7.877、5.423弧度);ICC分别为0.925,0.887.结论 AS-OCT测量房角开放度数的一致性较好,可以用于定量测量房角开放度数.%Objective To assess reproducibility of anterior segment optical coherencetomography (AS-OCT)to quantify the anterior chamber angle(AA).Methods 23 eyes of 30 subjects were enrolled.Anterior champer angle was scanned using AS-OCT,and the 500μm(AA-500 μm)and 750μm(AA-750μm)temporal anterior champer angle were measured by two ophthalmologists,respectively.And one observer repeatedly measured its in two different times.Analyzing the reproducibility with intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC)and 95%Limts of Agreement(95%LoA).Results The difference in AA-500μm and AA-750μm measurements between two observers were not significant(all P>0.05),and its were also no significant difference between the first and the second measurement for same observer(all P>0.05).The 95%LoA of intraobserver of AA-500μm and AA-750μm were-5.441 to 5.281 degrees and-7.313 to 6.020 degrees,respectively.The ICC server of AA-500μm and AA-750μm were-6.098 to 5.098 degrees and-7.877 to 5.423 degrees,respectively.The ICC of interobserver of AA-500

  16. Vascular endothelial growth factor in the fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye in patients with diabetic retinopathy, cataract andneovascular glaucoma

    OpenAIRE

    Anatoliy Gennad'evich Kuz'min; Dmitriy Valentinovich Lipatov; Timofey Aleksandrovich Chistyakov; Ol'ga Mikhaylovna Smirnova; Margarita Ivanovna Arbuzova; Aleksandr Viktorovich Il'in; Marina Vladimirovna Shestakova

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To study the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) in the fluid of the anterior chamber of the eye (ACE) in the evolvement of diabetic retinopathy (DR) and the outcome of cataract surgery. Materials and methods. The study included 120 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) operated for the removal of cataract. 16 patients received treatment for DR-related neovascular glaucoma (NG). The control group comprised 22 subjects without DM. VEGF-A and glucose levels were mea...

  17. Uveítes anteriores associadas a doenças sistêmicas Anterior uveitis associated to systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pavão Dimantas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As uveítes anteriores são caracterizadas pela inflamação preponderante do segmento anterior do olho. Hiperemia conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior com células e "flare", precipitados ceráticos e sinéquias posteriores são sinais que compõem o quadro inflamatório. Aspectos clínicos de algumas doenças sistêmicas envolvidas na etiologia das uveítes anteriores serão abordados neste artigo.Anterior uveitis describes a disease predominantly limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cell and flare, keratic precipitates, and iris abnormalities including posterior synechiae characterize the inflammation. This article discusses clinical aspects of the systemic diseases that cause anterior uveitis with review of the literature.

  18. Responses of the Ocular Anterior Segment and Refraction to 0.5% Tropicamide in Chinese School-Aged Children of Myopia, Emmetropia, and Hyperopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the changes of anterior segment after cycloplegia and estimate the association of such changes with the changes of refraction in Chinese school-aged children of myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia. Methods. 309 children were recruited and eligible subjects were assigned to three groups: hyperopia, emmetropia, or myopia. Cycloplegia was achieved with five cycles of 0.5% tropicamide. The Pentacam system was used to measure the parameters of interest before and after cycloplegia. Results. In the myopic group, the lenses were thinner and the lens position was significantly more posterior than that of the emmetropic and hyperopic groups in the cycloplegic status. The correlations between refraction and lens thickness (age adjusted; r=0.26, P<0.01, and lens position (age adjusted; r=-0.31, P<0.01 were found. After cycloplegia, ACD and ACV significantly increased, while ACA significantly decreased. Changes in refraction, ACD, ACV, and ACA were significantly different among the three groups (P<0.05, all. Changes of refraction were correlated with changes of ACD (r=0.41, P<0.01. Conclusions. Myopia presented thinner lenses and smaller changes of anterior segment and refraction after cycloplegia when compared to emmetropia and hyperopia. Changes of anterior chamber depth were correlated with refraction changes. This may contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between anterior segment and myopia.

  19. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Minjiao; Shen, Steve Guofang; Yu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Its unique advantage of preserving velopharyngeal function makes this procedure widely applied. In this study, the application of AMSD was described and its long-term stability was explored. Eight patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were included in this study. They were treated with AMSD using rigid external distraction (RED) device. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice at three time points for evaluation: before surgery (T1), after distraction (T2), and 2 years after treatment (T3). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences statistically. All the distractions completed smoothly, and maxilla was distracted efficiently. The value of SNA, NA-FH, Ptm-A, U1-PP, overjet and PP (ANS-PNS) increased significantly after the AMSD procedure (P 0.05). Changes of palatopharyngeal depth and soft palatal length were insignificant. AMSD with RED device provided an effective way to correct maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP, extended the palatal and arch length, avoided damage on velopharyngeal closure function and reduced the relapse rate. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure. PMID:26629107

  20. Application of a stand-alone anchored spacer in noncontiguous anterior cervical arthrodesis with radiologic analysis of the intermediate segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng; Liu, Zu-De; You, Wen-Jie; Ouyang, Yue-Ping; Li, Xin-Feng; Qian, Lie; Zhong, Gui-Bin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical features of noncontiguous cervical degenerative disc disease (cDDD), investigate the efficacy and complications of a stand-alone anchored spacer (SAAS) for patients with noncontiguous cDDD, and present radiologic analysis of the intermediate segment (IS) after skip-level fusion. Nineteen consecutive patients with noncontiguous cDDD who underwent skip-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with SAAS from January 2010 to December 2012 were enrolled in this study. Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively and at 24 months postoperatively using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association score, Neck Disability Index, and Visual Analog Scale. Overall cervical alignment (OCA) of the cervical spine, and the range of motion (ROM), intervertebral disc height (IDH), disc signal intensity and disc protrusion of IS were measured and compared before and after surgery. Clinical outcomes significantly improved compared to preoperative scores. The OCA was corrected and maintained at 24 months postoperatively compared with preoperative values (p0.05). However, decreased signal intensity on T2-weighted MRI was evidenced in three mobile IS at final follow-up (20.0%). Skip-level ACDF with SAAS may be an efficacious option for the treatment of noncontiguous cDDD. PMID:26597607

  1. A CASE OF ANGLE - CLOSURE GLAUCOMA SECONDARY TO CHRONIC ANTERIOR UVEITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Elevation of intraocular pressure secondary to intraocular inflammation frequently presents a diagnostic & therapeutic challenge. Secondary glaucoma is more common in chronic anterior uveitis. We present a case of the same, a 25 years old female presented with headache and redness in right eye. She gives history of gradual loss of vision in both eyes 15 years back. On examination there was no perception of light in both eyes and pupillary reactions were absent in both eyes. Anterior segment of right eye showed circumciliary congestion, corneal edema, peripheral anterior synechiae, Aqueous flare of grade 1+, annular posterior synechiae with complicated cataract. Anterior segment of left eye showed shallow anterior chamber with closed angles and complicated cataract. A clinical diagnosis of secondary angle closure glaucoma was made. Once IOP was under control she underwent synechotomy and lens extraction in right eye and lens extraction in left eye. Post operatively corneal edema and congestion resolved. Fundus examination revealed glaucomatous optic atrophy. Thus, prompt and early treatment of anterior uveitis is needed to prevent secondary angle closure glaucoma. We report a case of secondary angle closure glaucoma in a young female patient.

  2. Mutation analysis of the genes associated with anterior segment dysgenesis, microcornea and microphthalmia in 257 patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaobo; Xiao, Xueshan; Jia, Xiaoyun; Li, Shiqiang; Li, Miaoling; Guo, Xiangming; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Qingjiong

    2015-10-01

    Genetic factors have an important role in the development of glaucoma; however, the exact genetic defects remain to be identified in the majority of patients. Glaucoma is frequently observed in patients with anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD), microcornea or microphthalmia. The present study aimed to detect the potential mutations in the genes associated with ASD, microcornea and microphthalmia in 257 patients with glaucoma. Variants in 43 of the 46 genes, which are associated with ASD, microcornea or microphthalmia, were available in whole‑exome sequencing. Candidate variants in the 43 genes were selected following multi‑step bioinformatic analysis and were subsequently confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Confirmed variants were further validated by segregation analysis and analysis of controls. Overall, 70 candidate variants were selected from whole‑exome sequencing, of which 53 (75.7%) were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. In total, 27 of the 53 were considered potentially pathogenic based on bioinformatic analysis and analysis of controls. Of the 27, 6 were identified in BEST1, 4 in EYA1, 3 in GDF6, 2 in BMP4, 2 in CRYBA4, 2 in HCCS, and 1 in each of CRYAA, CRYGC, CRYGD, COL4A1, FOXC1, GJA8, PITX2 and SHH. The 27 variants were detected in 28 of 257 (10.9%) patients, including 11 of 125 patients with primary open‑angle glaucoma and 17 of 132 patients with primary angle‑closure glaucoma. Variants in these genes may be a potential risk factor for primary glaucoma. Careful clinical observation and analysis of additional patients in different populations are expected to further these findings.

  3. Evaluation of Filtering Bleb Function after Trabeculectomy with Mitomycin C Using Biomicroscopy, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and In Vivo Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Güven Yılmaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze and assess compatibility of trabeculectomy filtering bleb characteristics and appearances using biomicroscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight eyes of 28 patients who underwent glaucoma filtering surgery with mitomycin C in our clinic between 2009 and 2013 were evaluated. Morphological appearances of the blebs on slit-lamp biomicroscopy were defined according to the Moorfields bleb classification system. For the internal tissue assessment of blebs, AS-OCT and IVCM were performed. Bleb biometric parameters such as length, height and bleb wall thickness were assessed by AS-OCT; conjunctival epithelial-stromal cyst, structural network of conjunctival stroma and vascularisation were examined with IVCM. The relation between biomicroscopic morphological staging and bleb characteristics detected on AS-OCT and IVCM were assessed. Results: The mean age of the 28 patients (16 male, 12 female was 57.2±15.9 (19 to 79 years. The mean time elapsed between surgery and examination was 29.2±19.2 (6 to 68 months. According to biomicroscopic appearance, 17 (60.7% blebs were functional (13 diffuse, 4 microcystic, whereas 11 (39.3% blebs were non-functional (9 flat, 2 encapsulated. In the comparison of non-functional and functional blebs, functional blebs were found to be superior in terms of biometric parameters on AS-OCT assessment (p<0.05. Higher number of epithelial and stromal cysts and less vascularisation were detected by IVCM in functional blebs when compared with non-functional blebs (p<0.05. Conclusion: Biomicroscopic appearances and characteristics on AS-OCT and IVCM of filtration blebs are consistent with each other. Besides biomicroscopic examination, which is an easy and practical method for determining bleb morphology, cross-sectional images obtained by AS-OCT and IVCM provide objective data regarding internal structure and

  4. Quantitative changes of anterior segment before and after implantable collamer lens implantation for high myopia with Pentacam anterior segment system%Pentacam评估高度近视有晶状体眼人工晶状体植入术前后眼前节形态的改变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周远香

    2015-01-01

    目的:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)量化分析高度近视患者行ICL植入术手术前后眼前节形态的改变,评估手术的安全性、有效性。  方法:收集我院2011-09/2013-02高度近视眼行ICL植入手术的患者21例39眼,术后随访6~12mo。通过Pentacam分别测量术前;术后1wk;1,6mo的中央前房深度( ACD)、前房角度(ACA)、前房容积(ACV);记录术后1wk;1,6mo的ICL拱高(ICL-vault);记录术前裸眼视力(pre-UCVA)、最佳矫正视力( BCVA)、术后裸眼视力( post-UCVA)以及眼压值。使用SPSS18.0统计软件分析各项指标,术前、术后的资料均采用配对t检验进行统计学分析。  结果:术前;术后1wk;1,6mo 的ACD分别是3.27±0.22,3.02±0.33,2.98±0.31,2.98±0.32mm, ACA分别是(40.39±5.40)°,(26.70±4.47)°,(26.96±4.48)°,(26.95±4.45)°, ACV分别是207.74±25.43,122.87±17.58,128.05±17.84, ;128.64±17.50mm 3。术后1wk;1,6mo的拱高分别是0.49±0.13,0.46±0.13,0.46±0.14mm。术前与术后3个不同时段的ACD,ACA,ACV的值相比,其均存在统计学差异( P  结论:通过眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)分析发现ICL术后前房变浅,房角变窄,前房容积变小,但人工晶状体与透明晶状体之间仍拥有安全的间隙,ICL植入术治疗高度近视眼安全、有效,但远期疗效有待进一步观察。%•AlM: To analyze the quantitative changes of anterior segment by Pentacam anterior segment system and to evaluate the safety and effectiveness after implantable collamer lens ( lCL) implantation for high myopia. •METHODS:Twenty- one patients with 39 eyes were implanted lCL in our hospital from September 2011 to February 2013. The follow-up was 6 ~ 12mo. Central anterior chamber depth ( ACD ) , anterior chamber angle ( ACA) , anterior chamber volume ( ACV) were measured by Pentacam preoperatively, 1wk, 1 and 6mo postoperatively. The distance between crystal lens and lOL ( lCL- vault ) were measured at

  5. Fusion of Adjacent Segment Degeneration after Anterior Portion Cervical Decompression%颈前路融合术后相邻节段退变120例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占蓓蕾; 叶舟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨颈椎前路减压融合术后相邻节段退变的因果关系。方法:对237例患者行前路椎间节段减压植骨融合术(87例),椎体次全切除减压植骨融合术(109例),椎间节段减压、椎体次全切除减压植骨融合术(41例)。通过影像学检查,观察不同手术方法术后相邻节段退变发生情况。结果:术后随访时间2.6~13年,平均6.8年;发生相邻节段明显退变的120例(50.6%),头侧相邻节段退变发生率明显高于尾侧邻近节段(P<0.05),其中27例(22.2%)需2次翻修手术。结论:颈椎前路融合术后可导致颈椎相邻节段的退变。%Objective To investigate the result of anterior cervical decompression and fusion of adjacent segment degeneration after causality. Methods among 237 patients(87 cases) weretreated with anterior decom-pression and interbody fusion intervertebral segments, 109cases with subtotal excision of the vertebral body with decompression and interbody fusion,and 41 cases with intervertebral segmental decompression, vertebral body subtotal resection decompression and interbody fusion.By imaging examination, different surgical methods and postoperative adjacent segment degeneration were observed. Results Postoperative follow-up at time of 2.6~13 years, averaging 6.8 years; showed significantly degeneration of adjacent segments in 120 cases (50.6%), the cranial adjacent segment degeneration rate significantly higher than that of the caudal adjacent segment (P<0.05), among them,27 cases (22.2%)needed 2 times of revision surgery. Conclusion The anterior cervical fu-sion surgery can lead to cervical vertebral adjacent segment degeneration.

  6. Identification of intracellular phospholipases A2 in the human eye: involvement in phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Wang, Jinmei; Zhan, Chen;

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify intracellular phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) in the human retina and to explore the role of these enzymes in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS). METHODS: PCR amplification and Western blot analysis were used to identify m......RNA and protein expression of intracellular PLA(2) subtypes in the retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19. Immunohistochemical staining of normal human eye sections was performed to reveal the cellular location of the enzymes. A model of RPE phagocytosis of POS was used to explore the role of...... intracellular PLA(2) in phagocytosis. An activity assay was used to evaluate PLA(2) activity, and inhibitors of specific PLA(2) were applied to evaluate the role of PLA(2) in RPE phagocytosis. RESULTS: Genes encoding calcium-independent (i)PLA(2), group VIA; calcium-dependent cytosolic (c)PLA(2), groups IVA...

  7. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciller, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cillerruiz@unil.ch [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Sznitman, Raphael [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munier, Francis L. [Unit of Pediatric Ocular Oncology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  8. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor

  9. Prevalence of adjacent segment disc degeneration in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion based on pre-operative MRI findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundine, Kristopher M; Davis, Gavin; Rogers, Myron; Staples, Margaret; Quan, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a widely accepted surgical treatment for symptomatic cervical spondylosis. Some patients develop symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration, occasionally requiring further treatment. The cause and prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration and disease is unclear at present. Proponents for motion preserving surgery such as disc arthroplasty argue that this technique may decrease the "strain" on adjacent discs and thus decrease the incidence of symptomatic adjacent segment degeneration. The purpose of this study was to assess the pre-operative prevalence of adjacent segment degeneration in patients undergoing ACDF. A database review of three surgeons' practice was carried out to identify patients who had undergone a one- or two-level ACDF for degenerative disc disease. Patients were excluded if they were operated on for recent trauma, had an inflammatory arthropathy (for example, rheumatoid arthritis), or had previous spine surgery. The pre-operative MRI of each patient was reviewed and graded using a standardised methodology. One hundred and six patient MRI studies were reviewed. All patients showed some evidence of intervertebral disc degeneration adjacent to the planned operative segment(s). Increased severity of disc degeneration was associated with increased age and operative level, but was not associated with sagittal alignment. Disc degeneration was more common at levels adjacent to the surgical level than at non-adjacent segments, and was more severe at the superior adjacent level compared with the inferior adjacent level. These findings support the theory that adjacent segment degeneration following ACDF is due in part to the natural history of cervical spondylosis.

  10. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  11. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: Incidence and clinical outcomes of patients requiring anterior versus posterior repeat cervical fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bydon

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions : Patients undergoing an anterior revision surgery for ASD after ACDF have higher rates of postoperative radiculopathy and redevelopment of ASD when compared with posteriorly approached patients. Patients receiving posterior revision surgery had higher intraoperative blood loss, hospitalizations, and postoperative complications such as wound infections and discharge to rehabilitation, but had a statistically lower chance of redevelopment of ASD requiring secondary revision surgery. This may be due to the fact that posterior revision surgeries involved more levels fused. This study provides one of the longest and most comprehensive follow-ups of this challenging patient population. Prospective studies comparing surgical approaches and techniques are needed to corroborate our findings.

  12. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Surgical Treatment of Malignant Glaucoma in Pseudophakic Eyes through Partial PPV with Establishment of Communication between the Anterior Chamber and the Vitreous Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rękas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of partial posterior vitrectomy (PPV in the proposed modification for treatment of malignant glaucoma. Methods. The prospective, consecutive, single-center case series study involved patients in whom symptoms of malignant glaucoma occurred after combined cataract and glaucoma surgery or after glaucoma surgery in pseudophakic eye. When medical and laser treatment were not successful, partial PPV with establishment of communication between the anterior chamber and the vitreous cavity was performed. Efficacy measures were intraocular pressure (IOP reduction, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, AND the number of antiglaucoma medications. Surgical success and occurring complications were also evaluated. Results. The study enrolled 20 eyes of 17 patients. Average IOP was reduced from 30.4 ± 14.2 (SD mmHg to 14.6 ± 3.2 (SD mmHg one year after surgery (P<0.00001. A statistically significant reduction of the number of antiglaucoma medications was obtained from 3.3 ± 1.1 (SD preoperatively to 1.2 ± 1.1 (SD at the end of follow-up. Statistically significant improvement of CDVA was observed 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Conclusions. Partial PPV with establishment of communication between the anterior chamber and the vitreous cavity enables effective IOP control over a 12-month observation; however, in most cases, it is necessary to use antiglaucoma medications for IOP control.

  13. Significant relationship between local angle at fused segments and C2-7 angle: Average duration of longer than 20 years after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Nagata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The authors have focused their attention to the radiological durability of cervical sagittal alignment after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF using autologous bone grafting. Materials and Methods : Among the patients who underwent ACDF with trans-unco-discal (TUD approach between 1976 and 1997, 22 patients (16 males and 6 females made return visits for a clinical evaluation. Patients with trauma or previously treated by anterior cervical fusion or by posterior decompression were excluded from the present study. Clinical evaluation included adjacent segment degeneration (ASD, osseous fusion, local angle at the fused segments and C2-7 angle of cervical spine. Results : The duration after ACDF ranged from 13 to 34 years with an average of 21.3 ± 7.0 years. A single level fusion was done on 8 patients, 2 levels on 11 patients, 3 levels on 2 patients, and 4 levels on 1 patient. Imaging studies indicated that 12 of the 22 patients (54.5% were graded as having symptomatic ASD. Osseous bony fusion at ACDF was recognized in all cases. None of the patients demonstrated kyphotic malalignment of the cervical spine. Average degrees of local angle at the fused segments and the C2-7 angle were 7.06 and 17.6, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the local at the fused segments and C2-7 angles. Conclusions : Sagittal alignment of the cervical spine was durable long after ACDF when the local angle at the fused segments was well stabilized.

  14. Segmentation of anterior cruciate ligament in knee MR images using graph cuts with patient-specific shape constraints and label refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hansang; Hong, Helen; Kim, Junmo

    2014-12-01

    We propose a graph-cut-based segmentation method for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in knee MRI with a novel shape prior and label refinement. As the initial seeds for graph cuts, candidates for the ACL and the background are extracted from knee MRI roughly by means of adaptive thresholding with Gaussian mixture model fitting. The extracted ACL candidate is segmented iteratively by graph cuts with patient-specific shape constraints. Two shape constraints termed fence and neighbor costs are suggested such that the graph cuts prevent any leakage into adjacent regions with similar intensity. The segmented ACL label is refined by means of superpixel classification. Superpixel classification makes the segmented label propagate into missing inhomogeneous regions inside the ACL. In the experiments, the proposed method segmented the ACL with Dice similarity coefficient of 66.47±7.97%, average surface distance of 2.247±0.869, and root mean squared error of 3.538±1.633, which increased the accuracy by 14.8%, 40.3%, and 37.6% from the Boykov model, respectively. PMID:25305694

  15. Short-term variation of central corneal thickness and axial anterior chamber depth of healthy eyes using Scheimpflug photography via the Oculus Pentacam*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. D. Mathebula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate short-term variation and intra-subject repeatabil-ity of  human central corneal thickness (CCT and axial anterior chamber depth (AACD measure-ments obtained using the Oculus Pentacam. Forty consecutive images of the right eye of the anteriorsegment of 10 young and healthy individuals were measured with the Pentacam. Measurements of CCT and AACD were ob-tained from these images and means, standard deviations,variances and repeatability of the measurements were investigated. Both parameters (CCTand AACD showed small variation with good orexcellent repeatability for all eyes. The inter-subject or overall means and standard deviations for CCT and AACD of the 10 right eyes were 0.555 ±0.05 millimeters (or 555 ± 50 microns and 3.206± 0.04 millimeters, respectively. The individual or intra-subject averages for samples of CCT and AACD measurements are also provided in this paper. Univariate normality of the data was explored with Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Lilliefors and ShapiroWilks tests and we found that generally the data was normally distributed although there were some exceptions. Based on the results of this study, the Oculus Pentacam appears to provide repeatable and reliable measures for both CCT and AACD in young,normal eyes. Further research is, however, needed to determine short-term variation and repeatability of CCT and AACD with the Pentacam in more com-plicated eyes with, say, corneal scarring or ectasia or where refractive surgery may be an issue.

  16. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  17. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTERIOR SEGMENT OPHTHALMOLOGIC LESIONS IDENTIFIED IN FREE-RANGING DOLPHINS AND THOSE UNDER HUMAN CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Walsh, Michael T; McCulloch, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. Although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. The cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. Typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. One hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from different geographic areas; they included Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Pacific bottle nose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus gilli), Indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Indopacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), and roughtooth dolphins (Steno bredanensis). These animals were examined at least once, although most were examined numerous times over many years; lesions were categorized and are described. Seventy-seven eyes from 47 animals were normal. Medial keratopathy was the most common lesion and identified in 180 eyes from 97 animals, with 83 affected bilaterally. Horizontal keratopathy was identified in 69 eyes from 41 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally. Axial keratopathy and nonspecific axial opacities were identified in 67 eyes from 44 animals, with 21 affected bilaterally. Seventy-eight eyes from 50 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally, had more than one type of corneal lesion. Cataracts were identified in 32 eyes from 19 animals, with 13 affected bilaterally. Traumatic injuries were also common and involved eyelids and cornea. Sixteen eyes from 11 animals were blind; five dolphins were blind bilaterally due to phthisis bulbi secondary to corneal perforation or severe trauma. None of the diseases had a sex predisposition; however, medial keratopathy was significantly more common as a bilateral presentation than as a unilateral presentation. Cetaceans under human care with impaired sight can use echolocation; however, ocular health

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF ANTERIOR SEGMENT OPHTHALMOLOGIC LESIONS IDENTIFIED IN FREE-RANGING DOLPHINS AND THOSE UNDER HUMAN CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitz, Carmen M H; Walsh, Michael T; McCulloch, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Cetaceans in the wild and under human care develop a variety of ocular lesions. Although they have echolocation, cetacean species have good sight, making ocular health an important part of overall health care. The cornea is the primary site of abnormalities in both populations. Typical lesions of cetaceans under human care are characterized in this retrospective review of cases. One hundred eighty animals (n = 360 eyes) were chosen from the author's ophthalmologic examination reports from different geographic areas; they included Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), Pacific bottle nose dolphins (Tursiopstruncatus gilli), Indopacific bottlenose dolphins (Steno bredanensis), Indopacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), and roughtooth dolphins (Steno bredanensis). These animals were examined at least once, although most were examined numerous times over many years; lesions were categorized and are described. Seventy-seven eyes from 47 animals were normal. Medial keratopathy was the most common lesion and identified in 180 eyes from 97 animals, with 83 affected bilaterally. Horizontal keratopathy was identified in 69 eyes from 41 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally. Axial keratopathy and nonspecific axial opacities were identified in 67 eyes from 44 animals, with 21 affected bilaterally. Seventy-eight eyes from 50 animals, with 28 affected bilaterally, had more than one type of corneal lesion. Cataracts were identified in 32 eyes from 19 animals, with 13 affected bilaterally. Traumatic injuries were also common and involved eyelids and cornea. Sixteen eyes from 11 animals were blind; five dolphins were blind bilaterally due to phthisis bulbi secondary to corneal perforation or severe trauma. None of the diseases had a sex predisposition; however, medial keratopathy was significantly more common as a bilateral presentation than as a unilateral presentation. Cetaceans under human care with impaired sight can use echolocation; however, ocular health

  20. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jessica A.; Koski, Jessica E.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL), referred to here as the “anterior temporal face area”. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area (FFA) and the occipital face area (OFA), as well as a control region in early visual cortex (EVC). Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes. PMID:27199711

  1. Inter-Segmental Coordination Pattern in Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency during a Single-Step Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Mohammadreza; Razeghi, Mohsen; Mehdizadeh, Sina; Tabatabaee, Hamidreza; Piroozi, Soraya; Rojhani Shirazi, Zahra; Rafiee, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is a debilitating pathology which may alter lower limb coordination pattern in both intact and affected lower extremities during activities of daily living. Emerging evidence supports the notion that kinematic variables may not be a good indicator to differentiate patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency during step descent task. The aim of the present study was to examine alterations in kinematics as well as coordination patterns and coordination variability of both limbs of these patients during a single step descent task. Continuous relative phase technique was used to measure coordination pattern and coordination variability between a group of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (n = 23) and a healthy control group (n = 23). A third order polynomial Curve fitting was utilized to provide a curve that best fitted to the data points of coordination pattern and coordination variability of the healthy control group. This was considered as a reference to compare to that of patient group using nonlinear regression analysis. The results of the present study demonstrated an altered coordination pattern of the supporting shank-thigh and the stepping foot-shank couplings in anterior cruciate ligament deficient subjects. It was further noticed that there was an increased coordination variability in foot-shank and shank-thigh couplings of both supporting and stepping legs. There was no significant difference in the hip, knee and ankle joints kinematics in either side of these patients. Anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals showed altered strategies in both intact and affected legs, with increased coordination variability. Kinematic data did not indicate any significant difference between the two groups. It could be concluded that more sophisticated dynamic approach such as continuous relative phase would uncover discrepancies between the healthy and anterior cruciate ligament deficient individuals.

  2. Comparison of Hanna and Hessburg-Barron trephine and punch systems using histological, anterior segment optical coherence tomography, and elliptical curve fitting models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshirfar M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Majid Moshirfar1, Charles M Calvo2, Krista I Kinard1, Lloyd B Williams1, Shameema Sikder3, Marcus C Neuffer11University of Utah, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 2University of Nevada, School of Medicine, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USABackground: This study analyzes the characteristics of donor and recipient tissue preparation between the Hessburg-Barron and Hanna punch and trephine systems by using elliptical curve fitting models, light microscopy, and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT.Methods: Eight millimeter Hessburg-Barron and Hanna vacuum trephines and punches were used on six cadaver globes and six corneal-scleral rims, respectively. Eccentricity data were generated using measurements from photographs of the corneal buttons and were used to generate an elliptical curve fit to calculate properties of the corneal button. The trephination angle and punch angle were measured by digital protractor software from light microscopy and AS-OCT images to evaluate the consistency with which each device cuts the cornea.Results: The Hanna trephine showed a trend towards producing a more circular recipient button than the Barron trephine (ratio of major axis to minor axis, ie, 1.059 ± 0.041 versus 1.110 ± 0.027 (P = 0.147 and the Hanna punch showed a trend towards producing a more circular donor cut than the Barron punch, ie, 1.021 ± 0.022 versus 1.046 ± 0.039 (P = 0.445. The Hanna trephine was demonstrated to have a more consistent trephination angle than the Barron trephine when assessing light microscopy images, ie, ±14.39° (95% confidence interval [CI] 111.9–157.7 versus ±19.38° (95% CI 101.9–150.2, P = 0.492 and OCT images, ie, ± 8.08° (95% CI 106.2–123.3 versus ± 11.16° (95% CI 109.3–132.6, P = 0.306. The angle created by the Hanna punch had less variability than the Barron punch from both the light microscopy

  3. Clinical Research Progress of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome%眼前节毒性反应综合征的临床研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘昞莉

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome ( TASS ) is a rare and sterile postoperative inflammatory reaction, which is different from infectious inflammation.It is belong to particular postoperative inflammatory reaction, with typical clinical features and serious secondary complications.Its causes have been identified to relate to poisonous substance accessing the anterior chamber, such as intraocular irrigating solutions, preservative, disinfectant used in disinfecting equipment, bacterial endotoxin,metal ion on the surface of instrument,viscoelastic materials of denaturation, impurity in steam sterilization, antibiotic, anesthetic and intraocular lens etc.In recent years,with the improvement of anterior segment surgery,TASS has emerged in large numbers.This article reviewed the toxic anterior segment syndrome, including of the clinical manifestation, pathology characteristic, etiopathogenisis, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%眼前节毒性反应综合征(TASS)是一种少见的、无菌性的术后炎性反应,属于特殊类型的术后炎症,具有典型的临床特征并可引起严重的继发性反应.TASS发生与多种进入眼前房物质的毒性作用有关,如眼内灌注液、防腐剂、消毒设备使用的消毒剂、细菌内毒素、器械表面的金属离子残渣、变性的黏弹剂、高压蒸气杂质、抗生素、麻醉药物以及使用的人工晶体等.近年来,随着眼前节手术的发展,本病有逐渐增加的趋势.现TASS的从临床表现、病理特征、病因、诊断和鉴别诊断、治疗及预防措施等方面对其予以综述.

  4. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  5. Adjacent segment disease after anterior cervical decompression and fusion: analysis of risk factors on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yanbin; Sun Yu; Zhou Feifei; Wang Shaobo; Zhang Fengshan; Pan Shengfa

    2014-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment disease (ASD) is common after cervical fusion.The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for ASD on X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods Patients included in this study had received revision surgeries after developing symptomatic ASD following anterior decompression and fusion.A control group that had not developed ASD was matched 1:1 by follow-up time and fusion segments.Plate-to-disc distances (PDDs),developmental cervical canal stenosis on X-ray,cervical disc degeneration grading,and cervical disc bulge impingements on preoperative MRI were measured and compared between the ASD group and the control group.Results Thirty-four patients with complete radiographic data were included in the ASD group.The causative segments of ASD included nine cases of C3-4,18 cases of C4-5,three cases of C5-6,and four cases of C6-7.The ASD occurred at the upper adjacent segments in 26 patients and at the lower adjacent segments in eight patients.PDD distributions were similar between the ASD group and the control group.Developmental cervical canal stenosis was a risk factor for ASD,with an odd ratio value of 2.88.Preoperative cervical disc degenerations on MRI were similar between the ASD group and the control group.In the upper-level ASD group,the disc bulge impingement was (19.7±9.7)%,which was significantly higher than that of the control group of (11.8±4.8)%.Conclusions ASD was more likely to develop above the index level of fusion.Developmental cervical canal stenosis and greater disc bulge impingement may be risk factors for the development of ASD.

  6. The role of a high pull headgear in counteracting side effects from intrusion of the maxillary anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, E; Burstone, C J; Prahl-Andersen, B; Aartman, I H A

    2004-08-01

    Intrusion of incisors is often the preferred treatment of a deep overbite. This study focuses on deep overbite correction by intrusion of maxillary incisors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether high-pull headgear wear can prevent steepening of the buccal segment, extrusion of the buccal segment, maintain arch width, and increase the rate of incisor intrusion. The number of patients needed for this study was calculated to be 20. Patients were between nine and 14 years of age and assigned to one of two groups. In each group, intrusion of maxillary incisors was performed. Patients in one group wore a high-pull headgear at night, and patients in the other group did not. For each patient, a lateral head film, impressions with a wax bite in centric occlusion, and intraoral photographs were taken at the beginning and end of intrusion. This study demonstrated that high-pull headgear had no effect on steepening and extrusion of the buccal segments or on the rate of intrusion but did have an effect on narrowing of the buccal segments. By performing intrusion as described in this study, no statistically significant side effects were observed in the buccal segments, whereas a statistically significant amount of incisor intrusion of 2.24 mm in the no-headgear group and 2.37 mm in the headgear group was observed.

  7. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  8. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriel Spierer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  9. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P.

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful. PMID:27462251

  10. Spontaneous Scleral Perforation of an Anterior Chamber Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spierer, Oriel; O'Brien, Terrence P

    2016-01-01

    A routine eye examination of a 69-year-old man revealed a scleral perforation of one of the haptics of the anterior chamber intraocular lens (AC IOL) which had been implanted many years ago. The patient was asymptomatic with good visual acuity. His history was negative for any trauma, eye rubbing, topical corticosteroid use, or autoimmune disease. The horizontal and vertical white-to-white diameters of the cornea in the right eye were 11.5 and 10.5 mm, respectively. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography showed the anterior chamber length to be 12.28 mm horizontally and 10.63 mm vertically. The patient underwent an IOL exchange, and the length of the explanted AC IOL was measured to be 12 mm. We speculate that the AC IOL, which was vertically aligned, was oversized. This case demonstrates the need for proper sizing and positioning of an AC IOL. In complex cases where AC IOL may be used, measuring the horizontal and vertical lengths of the anterior chamber by anterior segment optical coherence tomography prior to surgery may be useful.

  11. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  12. Reattachment of a Fractured Anterior Tooth Segment With Pulp Exposure via Er:YAG and Nd:YAG Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornaini

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The reattachment of a dental fragment may be performed for treatment of traumatized anterior teeth, both in cases of simple coronal fracture (enamel and superficial dentin and in those with complicated coronal fracture (deep dentin with pulp exposure. A major part of this procedure is the adhesion technique, which was described for the first time by Buonocore in 1955. This clinical case demonstrates the use of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers in fragment reattachment of a traumatically fractured anterior tooth with pulp exposure, describes their advantages and highlights the steps involved in their use. Case Presentation A 14-year-old patient who came to our clinic with a traumatic crown fracture of the permanent, right central incisor is described. The patient had preserved the fragment that had broken off into his mouth and it was rebonded to the tooth using lasers (LightWalker device; Fotona, Ljubljana, Slovenia with the following parameters: Er:YAG, SSP mode; 200 mJ; 10 Hz; quasi-contact tipless handpiece; Nd:YAG, SP mode; 4 W; 40 Hz; 300 μm contact fiber. The whole procedure was performed without the need for anesthesia. Conclusions The patient reported that he did not feel pain or discomfort throughout the intervention. Follow-up visits performed after one, three, six, twelve, and sixteen months demonstrated vitality of the tooth the absence of complications, as well as good esthetic results. Laser technology may be used in the treatment of traumatic anterior teeth injury with advantages in terms of quality of the restoration, esthetic results, and patient comfort.

  13. Endovascular repair of ruptured aneurysm arising from fenestration of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Ezura, Masayuki; Sasaki, Kazuto; Chonan, Masashi; Mino, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with an aneurysm arising from a fenestration of horizontal portion (A(1)) of the anterior cerebral artery manifesting as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Coil embolization was conducted and the aneurysm was occluded easily. Most reported cases of these types of aneurysms underwent direct surgery. Aneurysm arising from the A(1) fenestration is rare, but the present case shows that coil embolization can be an effective treatment modality. Three-dimensional rotational angiography and aneurysmography were helpful to characterize this complicated vascular structure.

  14. 可植入胶原聚合透镜植入术后早期眼前段观察%Observation of anterior segment after implantation of implantable collamer lens in early stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栗静; 刘磊; 李新宇; 王虎杰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe the anterior segment after implantation of implantable collamer lens (ICL) in early stage.Methods 65 eyes of 37 patients with high myopia who accepted ICL implantation were enrolled in this study.Anterior chamber volume (ACV),anterior chamber depth (ACD),iridocorneal angle,intraocular pressure (IOP) and endothelial cell density were measured at pre-operation,1 month and 6 months after surgery,and measurements were analyzed by statistical analysis.Results After surgeries,the ACD,iridocorneal angles and ACV decreased statistically significantly,and there were no statistical differences between measurements of 1 month and 6 months after surgery; the IOP measured at postoperative 1 month was lower than before and achieved stable state during postoperative 6 months; The endothelial cell density decreased about 4.75% and 6.87% respectively at postoperative 1 month and 6 months (P < 0.05) ; The mean central vault were (412.61 ± 192.94) μm and (365.69 ± 179.75) μm respectively at postoperative 1 month and 6 months,the ICLs had no contact with lens.Conclusion In the early period after implantation of ICL,the anterior segment morphology changed significantly,but these indexes were stable and no closure of iridocorneal angle or increasing of IOP were observed in the follow-up 6 months,therefore,long time follow-up is still required.%目的 观察有晶状体眼可植入胶原聚合透镜(ICL)植入术后早期的眼前段形态.方法 随机选取接受ICL植入术的高度近视37例(65只眼),测量患者术前、术后1个月和6个月的前房深度、前房角、前房容积、眼压和角膜内皮细胞密度,并对测量结果进行统计学分析.结果 术后前房深度、前房角和前房容积均较术前显著减小,术后1个月和术后6个月相比差异无统计学意义.术后1个月时眼压较术前稍有降低,术后6个月时恢复至术前水平;术后1个月和6个月患眼角膜内皮细胞密度较术前分别降低4

  15. Adjacent segment degeneration after single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion: disc space distraction and its impact on clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Li, Yongqian; Kong, Fanlong; Zhang, Di; Zhang, Yingze; Shen, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to find whether excessive distraction of the disc space for cage insertion was a risk factor for adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF). One hundred and sixteen consecutive patients who underwent ACDF for single-level cervical disc herniation between June 2006 and November 2008 were retrospectively reviewed. Preoperative, postoperative and final follow-up disc height (DH), sagittal segmental alignment (SSA), and sagittal alignment of the cervical spine (SACS) were measured and compared between the ASD group and non-ASD group. In 116 patients, ASD was radiographically proven in 28 (24.1%) patients. The clinical outcomes were significantly improved compared to the preoperative scores in both groups. However, the postoperative and final follow-up DH of the ASD group were significantly higher than in the non-ASD group (p<0.05). In addition, the postoperative DH was significantly correlated with the postoperative or final follow-up SSA (p<0.05). However, postoperative DH was not found to significantly correlate with postoperative or final follow-up SACS (p=0.072 and p=0.096, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that postoperative DH was the most significant risk factor for ASD. The clinical outcomes of ACDF for single-level degenerative cervical disc disease were satisfactory. Postoperative DH (the distracted distance) had the greatest impact on the incidence of ASD. Excessive disc space distraction is a considerable risk factor for the development of radiographic ASD.

  16. 角膜塑形术后眼前节形态及调节功能%Anterior segment biometry and accommodative function after orthokeratology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱伟根; 张莎莎; 邵一磊; 袁一民; 沈梅晓; 瞿佳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes in accommodative response and anterior segment biometry during accommodation in young progressive myopes who wear overnight orthokeratology lenses.Methods Eighteen children (age:14.4±2.6 years) were enrolled in this prospective experimental study and were tested before wearing orthokeratology (OK) lenses and after wearing them for three months.Using a Badal optical system,the refractive error of each subject was corrected before and after lens wear,and then accommodative stimuli of 3 D and 5 D were presented.A custom-built optical coherence tomographer (OCT) with a long scan depth was used to image the entire anterior segment through the pupil,and to obtain the anterior segment biometry including pupil diameter (PD),anterior chamber depth (ACD),lens thickness (LT) and the lens anterior surface's radius of curvature (LAC).An auto-refractometer (WAM-5500) was used to measure ocular refraction during accommodation,which was used to calculate the accommodative response.The measurements of anterior segment biometry and accommodative response were repeated twice under each accommodative state.Results After wearing orthokeratology lenses for one to three months,an improvement in the accommodative response was evident under both the 3 D (1.72±0.59 D vs.2.42±0.84 D) and 5 D (3.09±0.63 D vs.3.61±0.86 D) accommodative states (paired t-test,t=2.84,2.12,P<0.05).During accommodation,△PD,△ACD,△LT,and △LAC changed obviously.Compared with baseline (before wearing OK lenses),accommodation-related changes in △ACD (3 D:-0.11±0.04 mm vs.-0.16±0.06 mm,t=3.88,P<0.01;5 D:-0.15±0.05 mm vs.-0.20±0.07 mm,t=2.37,P<0.05),△LAC (3 D:-2.60±0.79 mm vs.-3.81±1.08 mm,t=3.96,P<0.01;5 D:-3.57±1.14 mm vs.-4.32±1.36 mm,t=2.08,P<0.05) and △LT (3 D:0.22±0.13 mm vs.0.27±0.06 mm,t=-1.94,P<0.05;5 D:0.26± 0.09 mm vs.0.30±0.10 mm,t=-1.99,P<0.05) showed statistically significant increases.Conclusion After wearing orthokeratology

  17. Relation of Left Ventricular Mass and Infarct Size in Anterior Wall ST-Segment Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction (from the EMBRACE STEMI Clinical Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daaboul, Yazan; Korjian, Serge; Weaver, W Douglas; Kloner, Robert A; Giugliano, Robert P; Carr, Jim; Neal, Brandon J; Chi, Gerald; Cochet, Madeleine; Goodell, Laura; Michalak, Nathan; Rusowicz-Orazem, Luke; Alkathery, Turky; Allaham, Haytham; Routray, Sujit; Szlosek, Donald; Jain, Purva; Gibson, C Michael

    2016-09-01

    Biomarker measures of infarct size and myocardial salvage index (MSI) are important surrogate measures of clinical outcomes after a myocardial infarction. However, there is variability in infarct size unaccounted for by conventional adjustment factors. This post hoc analysis of Evaluation of Myocardial Effects of Bendavia for Reducing Reperfusion Injury in Patients With Acute Coronary Events (EMBRACE) ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) trial evaluates the association between left ventricular (LV) mass and infarct size as assessed by areas under the curve for creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and troponin I release over the first 72 hours (CK-MB area under the curve [AUC] and troponin I [TnI] AUC) and the MSI. Patients with first anterior STEMI, occluded left anterior descending artery, and available LV mass measurement in EMBRACE STEMI trial were included (n = 100) (ClinicalTrials.govNCT01572909). MSI, end-diastolic LV mass on day 4 cardiac magnetic resonance, and CK-MB and troponin I concentrations were evaluated by a core laboratory. After saturated multivariate analysis, dominance analysis was performed to estimate the contribution of each independent variable to the predicted variance of each outcome. In multivariate models that included age, gender, body surface area, lesion location, smoking, and ischemia time, LV mass remained independently associated with biomarker measures of infarct size (CK-MB AUC p = 0.02, TnI AUC p = 0.03) and MSI (p = 0.003). Dominance analysis demonstrated that LV mass accounted for 58%, 47%, and 60% of the predicted variances for CK-MB AUC, TnI AUC, and MSI, respectively. In conclusion, LV mass accounts for approximately half of the predicted variance in biomarker measures of infarct size. It should be considered as an adjustment variable in studies evaluating infarct size. PMID:27392509

  18. 原发性前房角关闭激光周边虹膜切除术后前房角的改变%Evaluation of changes in anterior segment morphology of primary angle closure after laser peripheral iridotomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 田祥; 潘乐

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discover primary angle closure (PAC) in eyes of anatomic narrow angle (ANA),evaluate quantify changes of the PAC in anterior segment morphology after laser iridotomy using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) and explore the therapy of primary angle closure.Methods Prospective interventive observational case series.Twenty-eight eyes of patients presented PAC in the Department of Ophthalmology at Zunyi Medical College Hospital.PAC was presented on iris contacting with trabecular meshwork temporally in one UBM image.The PAC eyes were examined again by UBM in the both same light conditions and items at two weeks after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI).Results The rate of PAC was significantly decreased after LPI in the same condition,the rate of PAC was 96.43% before LPI in dark condition,and it was significantly dropped down to 32.14% after LPI (x2 =14.45,P <0.05).In light condition,it was cut down from 67.86% to 7.14% after LPI (x2 =15.06,P <0.05).The AOD500 and TIA were increased after LPI (P <0.001),it indicated that the angle of PAC was widened after LPI.The ILCD of PAC was also added after LPI,but the ILA was decreased after LPI (P <0.001).This phenomenon suggested that the pupillary block was relieved after care of LPI.The IT1 was thinner in laser site quadrant in dark condition after LPI which combined Nd-YAG and green laser (P <0.05).There were no significant changes of the ACD (P >0.05).The ICPD was reduced in dark after LPI (t =2.519,P =0.012).The pupillary block was relieved; it leaded to iris caving backward.But the TCPD was added in light after LPI (t =-2.967,P =0.003).It suggested that the ciliary body removed towards the back after LPI.Conclusions LPI produces a significant widening of the peripheral anterior chamber angle and reducing the power of pupillary block for major PAC eyes,which have not peripheral anterior synechia,but not deeping the central anterior chamber distance.LPI can prevent most PAC from developing to PACG

  19. Dirofilaria in the anterior chamber: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali Chopra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilariasis is a parasitic infection of the carvivores that may present as a zoonotic infestation in humans. Systemic involvement in man is subcutaneous, pulmonary, or ocular. We report a rare occurrence of ocular dirofilariasis in a 25-year-old male patient who presented with pain and redness in the eye. A live, white, coiled, and highly motile worm was present in the anterior chamber. The worm, however, could not be detected in the anterior chamber, posterior segment, or the angle of the anterior chamber when the patient was taken to the operating room for surgical removal of the worm. The patient was made to lie prone till the worm reappeared in the anterior chamber and was removed by paracentesis. The worm was identified as Dirofilaria repens on the basis of microscopic and histopathological examination.

  20. Pole to Pole Intraocular Transit of Tarantula Hairs—An Intriguing Cause of Red Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiten G. Sheth

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This intriguing case report provides novel images and a description of the anterior and rarer posterior segment findings seen in ocular inflammation associated with tarantula spider hair exposure. We present an interventional case report of a 9-year-old boy who presented with a red, sore eye. Slit lamp examination revealed right eye injection, multiple small hairs at differing levels of the cornea with associated opacities and inflammation within the anterior and posterior segments of the eye. Only after detailed and repeated questioning did the aetiology become apparent. Conservative management in the form of topical steroid and antibiotics was commenced and he did well with no obvious sequelae in the medium term. Healthcare personnel (and indeed pet shop owners, arachnid enthusiasts and even parents should be aware of the potential ocular complications of tarantula hair exposure and clinicians should perhaps specifically ask about pet-keeping when presented with an unusual red eye.

  1. The Clue of Word Segmentation on Reading Text and Eye Movement Behavior%文本阅读中词切分依据及眼动表现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨金香; 张晓利; 孟丽婷

    2014-01-01

    词切分是指在阅读过程中把连续的语言信息切分成有意义的单元,以促进文本的阅读与加工。拼音文字中的词间空格起到了词切分的作用;而中文属于表意文字,书写方式与拼音文字不同,没有词间空格。拼音文字阅读词切分的研究发现,词间空格标示了词切分的位置,是词切分的依据,而且,空格有效地引导读者的眼动行为;而中文的文本没有类似空格的词边界的标记,人为标记词边界不能促进阅读,但是人为添加的词间空格能够促进单词的早期识别。关于中文的词切分已有大量研究,但仍存在如下需要解决的问题:(1)对中文词切分的切分依据的研究还没有一致的结论;(2)中文阅读眼动控制模型的构建还不成熟;(3)词切分与初学者学习之间的关系有待研究;(4)对外汉语教学的教材如何有效处理词切分;等等。未来研究应在以上方面加以探讨。%Segmentation is defined as segmenting continues language information into meaningful units dur-ing reading .Segmentation can improve reading and processing text .The spaces between words serve as segmentation in alphabetic writing .Chinese is ideographs ,whose writing method is different from alpha-betic writing .There is not blank space between words in Chinese .The research about segmentation of reading phonetic writing has found that the blank space mark the segmentation position and is the basis of segmentation .In the meantime ,the blank space guide effectively reader’s eye movement .There are not marks of word boundary similar to blank space in Chinese text .Artificial marked word boundary did not promote reading .But the artificial putting spaces between words promote early identification of words .Fi-nally ,this paper also analyzed the problem to which the future research should pay attention .The first is that there is not consistent idea about segmentation

  2. An unusual variant of the common trunk of the fronto-orbital and frontopolar arteries associated with a ruptured aneurysm of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenta Aso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The common trunk of the fronto-orbital artery (FOA and frontopolar artery (FPA arising from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA associated with a ruptured aneurysm (AN, is rare. Case Description: The patient was a 52-year-old man who suffered from subarachnoid hemorrhage. Three-dimensional computed tomography angiography revealed an elongated and tortuous left A1 segment of the ACA and a saccular AN arising from the left A1 segment of the ACA at the origin of the cortical branch, defining its location just on the midline and behind the anterior communicating artery. This vessel had two branches. One branch ran along the inferior surface of the ipsilateral frontal lobe, and the other branch ran anteriorly and medially along the surface of the left hemisphere toward the frontal pole. The anomalous artery was interpreted as a common trunk of the FOA and FPA. Bifrontal craniotomy was performed. The anomalous artery arose from the A1 segment of the ACA at the origin of the AN, and the recurrent artery of Heubner branched off the anomalous artery. The AN was successfully obliterated, clipping with a bayonet-shaped Yasargil titanium clip. Complete AN occlusion and patency of both the A1 and the common trunk of the FOA and FPA, were confirmed intraoperatively by indocyanine green angiography. Conclusions: Recognizing this variant preoperatively, could be helpful in preventing the complications of surgery.

  3. 应用25G玻璃体切除术治疗白内障术后眼前段拥挤征%25-Gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy for crowded anterior segment after cataract surgery.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雯; 荣翱

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy system(25GTSV)on the treatment of crowded anterior segment(CAS)after phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation.Methods 15 cases(15 eyes)of CAS after cataract surgery were treated with posterior capsulotomy and anterior segment vitrectomy with 25GTSV.The follow-up periods were 6 ~ 12months[(8.0 ± 1.5)months].The visual acuity,intraocular pressure(IOP)and the depth of anterior chamber were recorded,the condition of cornea,pupil,intraocular lens and complication were observed.Results All operations were successful.The visual acuity of all cases were improved in different degree after treatment.The best corrected visual acuity before treatment,1 week after treatment and at the end of the followup period was(0.05 ± 0.02),(0.2 ± 0.1)and(0.4 ± 0.1)respectively.There were significant difference before and after treatment(t =0.00,P =0.00).The mean IOP 1 week after treatment and at the end of the follow-up period was(17.3 ± 1.8)mmHg and(16.5 ± 1.3)mmHg respectively.They were lower obviously than the mean IOP before surgery which was(40.1 ± 7.5)mmHg.There were significant difference between them(t =0.00,P =0.00).The mean depth of anterior chamber before treatment,1 week after treatment and at the end of the follow-up period was(0.69 ±0.17)mm,(2.7 1 ±0.43)mm and(2.85 ±0.52)mm respectively.There were significant difference before and after treatment(t =0.00,P =0.00).After surgery,the edema of cornea disappeared,the pupil is round and a round hyalomere with diameter of 3.0 ~ 4.0 mmwas formed at the center of lens ' posterior capsule in all eyes.No obvious complications were observed intraoperatively and postoperatively.Conclusion 25GTSV with micro-incision can release and cure CAS after cataract surgery effectively and safely.%目的 评价25G经结膜无缝合玻璃体切除手术系统(25G TSV)在白内障行超声乳化联合人工晶状体植入术后眼前

  4. Pentacam对原发性闭角型青光眼激光周边虹膜切开术前后前房形态和参数的评估%The morphologic and quantitative evaluation of ocular anterior chamber parameters after laser peripheral iridotomy in primary angle-closure glaucoma eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓丽; 刘丹岩; 张斌; 郭从容; 杜颖华; 段佳良

    2016-01-01

    in the quantitative evaluation of ocular anterior segment in primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) eyes than slit lamp microscope and ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM).However,its accuracy in the earlier stage of PACG before and after YAG laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is not fully elucidated.Objective This study was to assess the effect of YAG LPI in PACG patients with Pentacam.Methods A prospective self-controlled study was performed.Thirtyfive fellow eyes (pre-clinical stage of PACG) of acute PACG and 35 fellow eyes of chronic PACG were included in the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University from July,2012 to December,2013.YAG LPI was performed on the eyes,and the parameters of ocular anterior segment including central anterior chamber depth (ACD),anterior chamber volume (ACV) and peripheral anterior chamber angle (ACA) were measured and compared by Pentacam before and 1 day,7 days,28 days after operation.This study was approved by the Ethic Committee of the Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University and informed consent was obtained from all subjects.Results In pre-clinical stage of PACG eyes,the postoperative ACD and ACV values were increased in comparison with preoperation,showing significant differences among various time points (ACD:F =6.783,P =0.004;ACV:F =19.090,P =0.000),and no significant difference was found in ACA among different time points (F =0.153,P =0.928).In the fellow eyes of chronic PACG,the postoperative ACD and ACV values were larger than those of preoperation,with significant differences among various time points (ACD:F =21.576,P =0.000;ACV:F =47.506,P =0.000),and no significant difference was found in ACA among different time points (F=0.581,P=0.629).The change values of ACD and ACV were (0.064±0.022) mm and (27.840±4.963) mm3 in the eyes of pre-clinical stage of PACG,and those in the fellow eyes of chronic PACG were (0.047-± 0.020) mm and (21.000 ± 3.278) mm3,showing significant differences between the two groups (ACD:t=2.783,P=0

  5. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  6. Evaluation of Cornea and Anterior Chamber Using Pentacam in Pediatric Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melis Palamar Onay

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the anterior segment structures using Pentacam in pediatric cases. Material and Method: One hundred sixty-two eyes (study group of 81 healthy children who attended our clinic were compared with 114 eyes (control group of 57 healthy adults. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, and anterior chamber depth of all cases were evaluated with Pentacam. Independent t-test and Pearson’s correlation analysis were used for statistics. Results: The mean age of the study group (40 male, 41 female was 9.99±2.80 (range: 6-16 years. The mean central corneal thickness in the right eyes was 580.74±42.04 (range: 492-669 micrometers and in the left eyes was 586.52±43.51 (range: 495-699 micrometers. The mean anterior chamber depth, volume, and anterior chamber angle were 3.02±0.29 (range: 2.39-3.9 mm, 176.43±31.77 (range: 117-272 mm3 and 36.23±5.41 (range: 25.8-50.7 degree, respectively. When the right and the left eyes were compared, significant differences were observed between central corneal thickness (p=0.001 and anterior chamber angles (p=0.05. The mean left eye keratometry was found to be significantly flatter in children (p=0.002. The mean anterior chamber depth, anterior chamber volume, and anterior chamber angle values were higher in children than in adults (p<0.001. Discussion: Pentacam is an easy-to-use and noninvasive technique that can be used for the evaluation of central corneal thickness and anterior chamber even in pediatric cases. Significant differences were detected in measurements with this device between adults and pediatric cases, and between the right and left eyes. Being aware of these differences in normal eyes will be a guide in correct evaluation of pathologic eyes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 133-7

  7. 21 CFR 886.3200 - Artificial eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OPHTHALMIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 886.3200 Artificial eye. (a) Identification. An artificial eye is a... inserted in a patient's eye socket anterior to an orbital implant, or the eviscerated eyeball, for...

  8. 颈椎间盘置换及前路椎间融合治疗单节段颈椎间盘突出症:谁更多影响邻近节段发生退变?%Anterior cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for treating single segment cervical disc herniation:which has greater effects on adjacent segment degeneration?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 盛伟斌; 张健; 邓强; 郭海龙

    2016-01-01

    背景:有研究表明,颈椎间盘置换及前路固定融合治疗颈椎病可以取得较好的临床效果,但是哪种术式在避免邻近节段退变方面更具优势尚无定论。目的:比较颈椎间盘置换与前路固定融合治疗单节段颈椎间盘突出症对邻近节段的近期影响。方法:收集2009年1月至2012年12月以“颈椎间盘突出症”为诊断收入院并行单节段颈椎间盘置换或颈前路椎间盘切除融合患者178例的临床资料,进行回顾性分析,其中前路固定融合组116例,颈椎间盘置换组62例。结果与结论:①评价:两组患者末次随访时目测类比评分、日本骨科协会评估治疗评分、颈椎功能障碍指数均较治疗前明显改善(P 0.05)。前路固定融合组术后3个月时手术节段基本融合,活动度丧失,末次随访时邻近上位节段活动度与邻近下位节段活动度明显增加,且上位节段活动度增加的度数较下位节段大(P 0.05). At 3 months after surgery, in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group, surgical segment was confluent, and range of motion lost. During final fol ow-up, range of motion of adjacent upper segment and adjacent lower segment was significantly increased, and the increased range of motion in the upper segment was bigger than that of the lower segment (P < 0.05). (3) During final fol ow-up, X-ray films and MRI images revealed the number of degenerated adjacent segment was more in the anterior cervical decompression and fusion group than in the anterior cervical disc replacement group (P <0.05). The number of degenerated middle and upper segments was more than that of the lower segment in both groups (P < 0.05). (4) The findings confirmed that anterior cervical disc replacement or anterior cervical decompression and fusion for treating cervical disc herniation could effectively relieve nerve symptoms of patients. However, compared with the anterior cervical disc

  9. Misdiagnosis induced intraocular lens dislocation in anterior megalophthalmos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qi-wei; XU Wen; ZHU Ya-nan; LI Jin-yu; ZHANG Li; YAO Ke

    2012-01-01

    Anterior megalophthalmos (AM) is an uncommon developmental anomaly of the anterior segment of the eye with a constellation of findings that includes enlarged cornea,deep anterior chamber,posterior positioning of the iris and lens,iris stroma atrophy,hypoplasia of iris dilator,pupil displacement,large capsular bag,lens subluxation,prematurely cataract and the tendency to retinal detachment.AM,especially when symptoms are mild,is not an easy disease to diagnose.We present 3 AM cases that were misdiagnosed as congenital cataract with weak zonule and megalocornea.Intraocular lenses (IOLs) dislocated after standard cataract surgeries and subsequent surgery (replacing the dislocated IOLs with iris-claw intraocular lenses) achieved satisfactory outcome.Although rare,AM should be included in the differential diagnosis of enlarged cornea and we recommend implanting Artisan lens in AM patients.

  10. Clinical Applications of Dexamethasone for Aged Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadia, Beatriz; Calvo, Pilar; Ferreras, Antonio; Bartol, Fran; Verdes, Guayente; Pablo, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The risk of severe eye problems has been found to increase significantly with age, particularly between the fifth and sixth decades of life. Cataracts, dry eye, neovascular age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) are very common and very different age-related ocular diseases that reduce the patient's quality of life. The rationale for using corticosteroids to treat anterior and posterior ocular segment diseases is driven by inflammation. Dexamethasone, one of the most powerful corticosteroids available, is widely used for topical or intravitreal administration. Topical dexamethasone has proven efficacy for the management of postoperative inflammation in the anterior segment after cataract surgery and symptom relief in dry-eye disease. A new sustained-release 700 µg dexamethasone intravitreal implant (DEX) was recently approved for the treatment of macular edema following RVO, diabetic macular edema, or non-infectious uveitis, and its use is increasing, especially when other therapeutic agents have failed. The most common side effects are increased intraocular pressure and cataract formation. The potency of DEX, alone or in combination with other agents, makes DEX a promising option for treating several retinal diseases. PMID:27566619

  11. Development of optoelectronic hardware: program complex for the analysis of hypoxia in the anterior eye camera in persons wearing contact lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topakova, Anastassia A.; Salmin, Vladimir V.; Gar'kavenko, Victor V.; Levchenko, Julia S.; Lazarenko, Victor I.

    2016-04-01

    Fluorimetry of eye is a perspective technique for research and diagnostics in ophthalmology. It is connected to the structural and functional characteristics of eye that is, actually, the optical system allowing transferring the radiation both for excitation and for registration of fluorescence in different eye's compartments: cornea, lens, vitreous body, and fundus of the eye. At present, different models of ophthalmologic fluorophotometers for the analysis of eye fluorescence as well as more advanced models - scanning fluorophotometers - are offered. Assessment of corneal status in persons wearing contact lenses or in patients with pathological changes (i.e. diabetes mellitus) would give us an opportunity to identify the initial manifestations of corneal pathology at the pre-symptomatic phase. In this paper, we present data on the compact spectrofluorimeter with UV LEDs-induced excitation as well as the method for assessing hypoxic alterations in the eye limb zone caused by contact lenses wearing. We demonstrate dependence of autofluorescence spectra on the contact lenses types and duration of their permanent wearing.

  12. Age-Related Change and Gender Difference in Ocular Anterior Segment Parameters%眼前段生物结构参数的年龄相关性改变与性别差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鹏; 孔祥斌; 晏世刚; 黄玉娟

    2016-01-01

    目的:比较30岁以上正常人不同年龄段眼前段生物结构参数的变化及性别差异,为闭角型青光眼的发病机制提供证据。方法选择474例眼科门诊检查正常者为研究对象,均30岁以上,其中男213例,女261例。采用眼前段光学相干断层扫描仪,获取眼前段水平图像,用中山房角分析软件进行图片分析获得眼前段结构参数[包括房角宽度(angle open distance,AOD500)、虹膜面积、前房深度及前房容积],按年龄、性别进行分组,采用 stata12.0进行数据处理及分析。结果各年龄段 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积及虹膜面积比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.001);男性 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积及虹膜面积均显著高于女性(P <0.001)。30~55岁年龄段,AOD500变化最大,而55岁后 AOD500变化相对平缓;男性前房容积在50岁前变化相对明显,50岁后变化相对平缓,而女性前房容积变化明显且均匀。结论30以上正常人 AOD500、前房深度、前房容积均随年龄增加呈递减趋势,而虹膜面积随年龄增加呈递增趋势;女性较男性更易患闭角型青光眼。%Objective To investigate the age-related change and gender difference in ocular an-terior segment parameters in persons older than 30 years,and to provide evidence for the patho-genesis of angle-closure glaucoma.Methods A total of 474 normal subjects older than 30 years (213 males and 261 females)were selected in this study.The anterior segment optical coherence tomography(AS-OCT)was performed to obtain the anterior segment images,and the Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to obtain the ocular anterior segment parameters,including angle opening distance at 500 μm(AOD500),iris area,anterior chamber depth and anterior cham-ber volume.These subjects were divided into different age and gender groups.Data were analyzed using Stata12.0.Results There were significant

  13. Corneal Biomechanical and Anterior Chamber Parameters Variations after 1-year of Transepithelial Corneal Collagen Cross-linking in Eyes of Children with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Abdelrahman Gaber

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in corneal hysteresis (CH) and corneal resistance factor (CRF) 1-year following transepithelial corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) treatment in eyes of children with keratoconus. Methods: This case series was conducted in 22 eyes of 22 children. Children aged 0.05). Conclusion: Transepithelial CXL in keratoconus in pediatric age group seems to have good stability in corneal biomechanical parameters after 1-year. Further studies with a larger sample and better study design are recommended to confirm our findings. PMID:26957852

  14. Automated detection of inflammatory cells in whole anterior chamber of a uveitis mouse from swept-source optical coherence tomography images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Cell grading in a rodent anterior chamber is essential for anterior inflammation evaluation in preclinical vision research. This paper describes a computerized method for detection and counting of the anterior chamber cells from swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) images of a experimental rodent model of uveitis. The volumetric anterior segment OCT data is obtained from 100 kHz SS-OCT imaging of mouse eye in vivo. For the OCT cross-sections, each OCT structural image is de-speckled and binarized. After removal of cornea, iris, and crystalline lens structures connected to the binary image border, an area thresholding is then employed for each labeled region to isolate only celllike objects in the anterior chamber, followed by roundness estimation of the objects to identify potential cell candidates in the data. Eventually, the cell candidates are counted and graded as total number of cells in the anterior chamber.

  15. Changes of anterior segment after early implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for correction of high myopia%ICL植入术治疗高度近视术后早期眼前节形态的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎冬平; 刘磊; 李新宇; 栗静; 王虎杰; 杨硕

    2014-01-01

    目的:我们应用眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam)测量有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体( ICL )植入术手术前后前节形态指标,评价有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术的安全性及稳定性。  方法:选取行有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术治疗的高度近视患者48例90眼,术后随访6mo。 Pentacam眼前节全景分析仪测量各时间点的中央前房深度( ACD)、3∶00位前房角( ICA)、角膜像差( CA)、角膜曲率( K)和角膜厚度(CCT)等指标。使用SPSS 19.0统计软件,描述术前术后各指标的分布特征,采用配对t检验对各指标进行手术前后的差异性比较。  结果:所有观察指标各时间点均呈正态分布。 ACD、3∶00位ICA较术前降低( P<0.05)。 CA中,总像差( CTA )及低阶像差( CLOA)较术前无统计差异( P>0.05),高阶像差(CHOA)则较术前有所增加(P<0.05);K略有减小(P<0.05)。 CCT较术前比较均无统计学差异( P>0.05)。对于术后有统计学意义变化的指标,均在术后1 mo时即达到稳定状态。  结论:应用眼前节全景分析仪( Pentacam )观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术眼前节形态的变化主要有ICA变窄, ACD变小, CHOA增加, K减小,尚在安全范围内,6 mo随访中各值均保持稳定,未出现并发症,但远期效果需进一步随访观察。%AIM:To evaluate safety and stability of ICL implantation treatment of high myopia through the observation of anterior segment parameters such as ACD and ICA over time pre-and post-operation changes by Pentacam. METHODS:According to the proposed inclusion criteria, 90 eyes (48 patients) with high myopia who accepted ICL implantation treatment were selected.The mean follow-ups are 6 months.Anterior segment parameters such as ACD, ICA ( 3'clock ) , corneal aberration ( CA ) , K-value and CCT were

  16. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  17. Short-term variation in ocular anterior chamber angle using Scheimpflug photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rubin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate short-term variation of ocular Anterior Chamber Angle (ACA within and across the different meridians of young, healthy eyes.Method: Scheimpflug photography (via an  Oculus Pentacam was used to repeatedly measure the anterior segment of the right eyes of three young females, all aged 22 years.  For each individual, ten consecutive maps were determined over a short time period and each map contained information for the chamber angles of different meridians across the eye involved, roughly at 70 intervals.  Each meridian in an eye was thus measured 10 times in total permitting analysis of short-term variation both within and across the meridians concerned.  Parametric and non-parametric statistical methods used to understand short-term variation of ACA included meridional plots of medians andlower and upper quartiles (Q1 and Q3 and various polar plots (of raw observations, of means and 95%confidence regions, and of standard deviations.Results: Over, at least, short periods of time, Scheimpflug photography provided fairly repeatable results for ACA both within and across the meridians of the eyes involved.  However, occasionally outliers increased variability for some meridians.  While short-term variation within meridians was relatively small assuming exclusion of a limitednumber of outliers, variation across the meridians of specific eyes was greater (probably relating to the usual anatomical structure of eyes with ACA in the inferior quadrants being mostly larger than that for the superior quadrants.  Friedman ANOVA confirmed for each of the three eyes concerned thamedian ACA was significantly different across thvarious meridians.Conclusion: Scheimpflug photography allows for comprehensive, non-invasive and rapid measurement of ACA through 3600.  Repeatability of measurements appears satisfactory over the short-term, despite potential limitations relating to this photo-graphic method for measuring ACA.  The

  18. Segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion for treating multilevel cervical myelopathy%颈前路分节段减压融合治疗多节段颈椎病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昊; 何仿; 李健; 崔庆元; 陈小强; 田纪伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of the segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion for treating multilevel cervical myelopathy.Methods 24 patients of multilevel cervical myelopathy with 3 or 4 consecutive segments were treated with segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion.All patientst' cervical plain films,magnetic resonance imaging( MRI ) on preoperation and cervical plain films on postoperation were ohserved.The JOA scores of preoperation and 3 months postoperatively were collected.Results 24 cases were followed up from 3 months to 48 months, average 28 months.All patients improved their functional status in different degree.No complications such as graft nonunion and graft suhsidence occurred.The mean preoperative JOA score of all patients was ( 8.20 ±2.26 ),the postoperative of 3 months was ( 13.50 ± 1.28 ) , the average JOA recovery rate was 60.2%.Fusion rate was 100%.Conclusions The segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion for treating multilevel cervical myelopathy appears to be effective in decompressing spinal cord, improving nerve functional status and restoring lordosis to the cervical spine with high fusion rate and fewer complications.%目的 评价颈前路分节段减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 对24例连续3或4个节段病变的颈椎病患者采用分节段减压融合术治疗.均行术前X线、MRI和术后X线片检查.均于术前及术后3个月进行JOA评分.结果 24例均获随访,时间3~48(28±20)个月.患者功能均有不同程度的改善.无植骨块不愈合、内置物下沉等并发症发生.JOA评分术前平均为(8.20±2.26)分,术后3个月平均为(13.50±1.28),改善率为60.2%,植骨融合率100%.结论 颈椎前路分节段减压融合术具有减压彻底、术后神经功能恢复好、恢复颈椎曲度、融合率高、并发症少等优点.

  19. Pentacam眼前节分析仪定量测量角膜密度%Quantitative measurement of Pentacam anterior eye segment analyzer for corneal density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁; 朱煌; 冯婕妤; 赵立全; 田琳璐; 季星岑; 吴琦嵘

    2011-01-01

    目的 定量分析正常人群的角膜密度值,探讨角膜密度与年龄及角膜厚度的关系.方法 对224眼健康眼按年龄段和角膜厚度进行分组,利用OCULUS Pentacam眼前节分析仪获取三维图像,测量角膜顶点垂直轴线上角膜的最大密度值.观察各个年龄段及不同角膜厚度受检者的角膜密度值,并对结果进行相关回归分析.结果 224眼健康眼角膜平均密度值为21.91±3.34,年龄和角膜厚度均与角膜密度呈正相关(r=0.5643,P<0.000 1;r=0.2004,P=0.002 6).角膜密度(Y)与年龄(X1)和角膜厚度(X2)的回归方程为:y=18.942 0+0.088 2 X1,y=500.78+1.8801 X2;进行多元相关回归分析得到回归方程为:Y=2.342 4+0.094 3 X1+0.030 3 X2(R2=0.3972,F=72.87,P<0.000 1).结论 角膜密度随年龄增长呈递增趋势,并且角膜越厚,角膜密度值越大.可以根据年龄、角膜厚度估算角膜密度,客观评估角膜的受损程度.

  20. AS-OCT与A超测量中央角膜厚度与前房深度的比较%Comparison of central corneal thickness and anterior chamber depth measurements using the Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and A-scan ultrasonography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾阳发; 李彬彬; 黄国富; 李月桃; 何明光

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨眼前段光学相干断层扫描技术(anteriorsegment optical coherence tomography,AS-OCT)和A型超声波生物测量技术(A超)测量,中央角膜厚度(central corneal thickness,CCT)和前房深度(anterior chamber depth,ACD)的异同.方法 分别采用AS-OCT和A超测量33名(54只眼)正常人的CCT和ACD,分别采用配对t检验、Pearson相关和Bland-Altman方法,分析两种仪器的测量值的差异、相关性和一致性.结果 A超与AS-OCT的CCT值分别为(524.41±23.24)μm、(513.37±22.71)μm,之间的差异有统计学意义(t=15.906,P=0.000),差值均数为(11.04±5.10)μm.两种仪器的CCT值正相关(r=0.976,P=0.000).95%LoA(95% Limts of Agreement)为(-21.03,-1.04)μm,95%LoA的区间范围为19.99μm,为A超CCT平均值的3.81%.A超与AS-OCT的ACD值分别为(2.89±0.29)mm、(3.18±0.26)mm,之间的差异有统计学意义(f=-12.052,P=0.000),差值的均数为(-0.29±0.17)mm.两种仪器的ACD值相关(r=0.803,P=0.000).95%LoA为(-0.63,-0.06)mm,95%LoA的区间范围为0.57mm,为A超ACD平均值的19.72%.结论 AS-OCT的CCT值和ACD值与A超的测量值相关.与A超相比,AS-OCT的CCT测量值更小,而ACD值更大.两种仪器测量CCT的一致性比ACD高.%Objective To assess central corneal thickness(CCT)and anterior chamber depth (ACD) measurements with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT)comparing with A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US).Methods 54 eyes of 33 normal subjects were enrolled in the study.CCT and ACD were measured using AS-OCT and A-scan US.The measurements of two instruments were analyzed using paired t test,Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman plot,respectively.Results The CCT of AS-OCT and A-scan US were 524.41± 23.24 microm and 513.37± 22.7 microm,respectively.The CCT values measured by A-scan US were significantly greater than AS-OCT, paired difference was 11.04± 5.10 microm (t =15.906, P =0.000).There were a significantly correlation between CCTs value of two instruments (r =0

  1. The role of prosthesis design on segmental biomechanics: Semi-constrained versus unconstrained prostheses and anterior versus posterior centre of rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Schmidt, René; Richter, Marcus; Schmoelz, Werner; Reichel, Heiko; Cakir, Balkan

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of different implant designs of total lumbar disc replacements on the segmental biomechanics of the lumbar spine. The unconstrained Charité, the semi-constrained Prodisc and a semi-constrained Prototype with more posterior centre of rotation than the Prodisc were tested in vitro using six human, lumbar spines L2–L5. The segmental lordosis was measured on plain radiographs and the range of motion (ROM) for all six degrees of freedom with ...

  2. Evaluation of Corneal Stromal Demarcation Line after Two Different Protocols of Accelerated Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking Procedures Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Confocal Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Bilge Ozgurhan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the depth of corneal stromal demarcation line using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy after two different protocols of accelerated corneal collagen cross-linking procedures (CXL. Methods. Patients with keratoconus were divided into two groups. Peschke CXL device (Peschke CCL-VARIO Meditrade GmbH applied UVA light with an intended irradiance of 18.0 mW/cm2 for 5 minutes after applying riboflavin for 20 minutes (group 1 and 30 minutes (group 2. One month postoperatively, corneal stromal demarcation line was measured using AS-OCT and confocal microscopy. Results. This study enrolled 34 eyes of 34 patients (17 eyes in group 1 and 17 eyes in group 2. The mean depth of the corneal stromal demarcation line was 208.64±18.41 μm in group 1 and 240.37±18.89 μm in group 2 measured with AS OCT, while it was 210.29±18.66 μm in group 1 and 239.37±20.07 μm in group 2 measured with confocal microscopy. Corneal stromal demarcation line depth measured with AS OCT or confocal microscopy was significantly deeper in group 2 than group 1 (P<0.01. Conclusion. The group in which riboflavin was applied for 30 minutes showed significantly deeper corneal stromal demarcation line than the group in which riboflavin was applied for 20 minutes.

  3. Long term refractive outcome in eyes of preterm infants with and without retinopathy of prematurity: comparison of keratometric value, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and lens thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, M. Y.; Park, I.K.; Yu, Y S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—A longitudinal study of premature infants was conducted to examine changes in refractive status and their relation with age and factors influencing the occurrence and degree of myopia. Identification of which of the various refractive factors play important parts in relation to myopia in premature infants was attempted.
METHODS—Under observation were 125 eyes in 65 patients who were found to demonstrate no signs of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) or who had grade I or II ROP ...

  4. A new osteophyte segmentation method with applications to an anterior cruciate ligament transection rabbit femur model via micro-CT imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, G.; Elkins, J. M.; Coimbra, A.; Duong, L. T.; Williams, D. S.; Sonka, M.; Saha, P. K.

    2010-03-01

    Osteophyte is an additional bony growth on a normal bone surface limiting or stopping motion in a deteriorating joint. Detection and quantification of osteophytes from CT images is helpful in assessing disease status as well as treatment and surgery planning. However, it is difficult to segment osteophytes from healthy bones using simple thresholding or edge/texture features in CT imaging. Here, we present a new method, based on active shape model (ASM), to solve this problem and evaluate its application to ex vivo μCT images in an ACLT rabbit femur model. The common idea behind most ASM based segmentation methods is to first build a parametric shape model from a training dataset and during application, find a shape instance from the model that optimally fits to target image. However, it poses a fundamental difficulty for the current application because a diseased bone shape is significantly altered at regions with osteophyte deposition misguiding an ASM method that eventually leads to suboptimum segmentation results. Here, we introduce a new partial ASM method that uses bone shape over healthy regions and extrapolate its shape over diseased region following the underlying shape model. Once the healthy bone region is detected, osteophyte is segmented by subtracting partial-ASM derived shape from the overall diseased shape. Also, a new semi-automatic method is presented in this paper for efficiently building a 3D shape model for rabbit femur. The method has been applied to μCT images of 2-, 4-, and 8-week post ACLT and sham-treated rabbit femurs and results of reproducibility and sensitivity analyses of the new osteophyte segmentation method are presented.

  5. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Deniz Turgut Coban; Muhammet Kazim Erol; Ozgur Yucel

    2013-01-01

    Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was c...

  6. Analysis of adjacent segment degeneration of patients with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion%颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后邻近节段退变情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓志龙; 张晓星; 王令; 李邦春

    2011-01-01

    目的 分析颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后融合椎体邻近节段退变的影响因素.方法 选取250例行颈椎前路减压植骨融合内固定手术治疗的患者作为研究对象,观察术后邻近节段退变的发生情况,对退变患者组与无退变患者组各项观察指标进行统计学比较.结果 共72例(75个节段)(28.8%)发生术后邻近节段退变,椎间盘退变程度按评分,1分48例,2分21例,3分3例;退变组术前D值(1.26±1.30)mm、术后D值(3.76±3.10)mm,明显小于无退变组的(1.90±1.30)mm与(5.85±3.04)mm(P0.05).结论 颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后融合椎体邻近节段退变发生率较高;颈椎前凸程度较小、且手术对颈椎前凸程度改善较小是导致邻近节段退变发生的重要影响因素.%Objective To analyze the influeneing factors of adjacent segment degeneration of patients with anterior cervical discectolny and fusion. Methods Totally 250 cases of anterior cervical discectolny and fusion were selected for study. The incidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed and the indexes of degeneration group and non-degeneration group were compared statistically. Results There were 72 cases (75 segment) of adjacent segment degeneration( 28.8% ) ,including 48 cases of degradation score of 1, 21 cases of degradation score of 2,3 cases of degradation score of 3. The preoperative D value of degradation group was ( 1.26 ± 1.30 ) mm, while ( 3.76 + 3.10) mm after operation, indicating significantly lower than that of non-degradation group ( P < 0.05 ).The postoperative D value of degradation group increased by ( 2.5 + 3.21 ) mm,notably lower than that of non-degradation group (3.95 ± 3.13) mm ( P < 0.05 ) . The age, gender distribution, JOA score and Cobb' s angle of the two groups had no statistical difference( P < 0.05). Conclusion The incident rate of adjacent segment degeneration in patients with anterior cervical diseectolny and fusion is high. The small degree of

  7. Clinical observation and analysis of adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical fusion%颈椎前路融合术后相邻节段退变的临床观察与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王义生; 邓俊森

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To study whether the anterior cervical fusion inevitably lead to the adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) . [Methods] From 1986.1 to 1999. 12, a total of 346 patients with cervical degenerative disease underwent the surgery of enlarged decompression with circular saw and auto iliac bone grafting. Among them there were 1 segment in 55 patients, 2 segments in 223 patients and 3 segments in 68 patients. The two motion segments adjacent to the fused segment and interval from the fused segment were evaluated respectively for imaging changes and divided the results into groups for statistical test. [Results] The patients were followed up for 13. 5 (4.1 ~ 18) years on average. Total 156 cases (45. 1% ) had obvious adjacent segment degeneration, 23 cases (6. 6% ) had obvious interval segment degeneration. The interval segment degeneration was less than that of adjacent segment degeneration, and the comparative differences had statistically significance (P 0.05 ) . [ Conclusion] The anterior cervical fusion accelerated the occurrence of ASD. The incidence of cephalic adjacent segment ASD was higher than that of tail side adjacent segments. The incidences of postoperative ASD in single segment and several segment fusion have no significant differences.%[目的]研究颈椎前路融合术是否必然导致邻近节段退变(adjacent segment degeneration,ASD).[方法]1986~1999年,共346例采用“环锯法前路扩大脊髓减压+椎体间植骨内固定术”治疗颈椎退变性疾病,其中,1个间隙55例,2个间隙223例,3个间隙68例.分别评定融合节段头、尾侧相邻间隙及间隔间隙的影像学表现,对结果分组进行统计学检验.[结果]术后随访13.5 (4.1 ~18)年,发生邻近节段明显退变的156例(45.1%),间隔节段明显退变的23例(6.6%).间隔节段退变明显少于邻近节段退变,两者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).单纯头侧邻近节段发生ASD 84例,单纯尾侧邻近节段发生ASD 27例,头

  8. Non-fusion segment disease after the anterior cervical arthrodesis:a retrospective study%颈椎前路融合术后非融合节段退变性疾病的回顾性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭炳路; 宋科冉; 陈巧灵; 陈增海; 王大鹏; 王慧; 金培; 唐家广

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the incidence and causes of non-fusion segment disease ( NFSD ), both adjacent and non-adjacent to the fused segment, after the anterior cervical arthrodesis.Methods This is a retrospective cohort study. Between January 1998 and January 2011, 171 patients who had anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the intervertebral disc herniation and cervical spondylosis were followed clinically. There were 97 males and 74 females, and the average age at the operation was ( 51.90 ± 9.28 ) years ( range: 31 - 72 years ). We evaluated the correlation between the incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease and the following clinical parameters ( age at the operation, fusion levels ) and radiological parameters ( preoperative and postoperative cervical spine alignment, Pavlov’s ratio at the C5 level, and preoperative existence of a non-fusion segment degeneration on magnetic resonance imaging ).Results Of the 171 patients reviewed, 16 patients had non-fusion segment disease ( 9.36% ), 12 patients had adjacent segment disease and 4 had non-adjacent segment disease. Postoperative cervical lordosis in the non-fusion segment disease group was signiifcantly smaller than that of the disease-free group [ ( 7.38 ± 12.37 ) ° vs. ( 17.26 ± 9.75 ) °,P < 0.001 ]. Fusion levels in the NFSD group were 1.63 whereas 2.27 in disease-free group (P = 0.002 ). The incidence of disc degeneration in non-fused segments was more severe in the NFSD group than in the disease-free group [ ( 2.63 ± 0.62 )vs. ( 1.62 ± 0.99 ), P = 0.008 ].Conclusions The incidence of symptomatic non-fusion segment disease after the anterior cervical arthrodesis has multifactorial causes. Postoperative cervical lordosis, disc degeneration in non-fusion segments, and the number of fusion levels are all factors in the incidence of NFSD.%目的:探讨颈椎前路减压融合术后非融合节段病变( non-fusion segment disease,NFSD )的发生率和

  9. 超声乳化白内障吸除联合人工晶状体植入术后眼前节相干光断层扫描观察%Slit lamp optical coherence tomography study of anterior segment changes after phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏丕松; 张振平; 林浩添; 吴文捷; 柏凌

    2009-01-01

    目的 应用裂隙灯显微镜眼前节相干光断层扫描(OCT)观察超声乳化白内障吸除联合人工晶状体(IOL)植入术后眼前节组织的变化情况,探讨手术对眼前节结构的影响.方法 前瞻性系列病例研究.使用海德堡公司裂隙灯显微镜眼前节OCT观察40例(44只眼)行超声乳化白内障吸除联合IOL植入术患者术前和术后1 d、1周、2周及1个月的眼前节组织变化情况.对所测量的数据进行重复测量设计资料的方差分析,用LSD法进行两两比较.结果 中央及切口处角膜在术后第1天全部患者均明显增厚(与术前相比增厚分别为99.59μm,234.57μm;P=0.490),中央角膜厚度至术后1个月可恢复术前水平,而切口处角膜厚度还较术前厚约19.25μm(P=0.001);前房深度(ACD)和各项反映前房角宽度的指标(AOD500、AOD750、TISA500、TISA750)在术后各观察时间点,均较术前明显加深和加宽(均P0.05).结论 裂隙灯显微镜眼前节OCT可客观、定量评价白内障手术对眼前节形态特征的影响.%Objective To investigate quantitative changes of the anterior segment configuration after clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT). Methods In prospective consecutive case series, clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation were performed in 44 eyes of 40 patients. The changes of the anterior segment configuration were performed by SL-OCT before and 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month after surgery. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze statistical difference. Results For all patients, the central corneal thickness (CCT) and the incisional corneal thickness (ICT) increased significantly 1 day after surgery ( CCT increased 99. 59 μm, ICT increased 234. 57 μm;P = O. 490). At 1 month, the CCT almost had returned to baseline, but the ICT had been ticker about 19. 25 μm than

  10. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  11. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  12. Visualization of the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber of the mouse eye in vivo using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua; Ni, Yang; Xu, Baishen; Zhao, Chen; Shen, Yi; Du, Chixin; Jiang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    We report on a phase-based method for accurately measuring the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber in vivo. Using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography with optimized scanning protocols and equations for compensating bulk motion and environmental vibrations, a high sensitivity of 0.9 μm/s minimal velocity is demonstrated at a wide detection band of 0 to 380 Hz. The pulsatile relative motion between cornea and crystalline lens in rodents is visualized and quantified. The relative motion is most likely caused by respiration (1.6 Hz) and heartbeat (6.6 Hz). The velocity amplitude of the relative motion is 10.3±2.4 μm/s. The displacement amplitudes at the respiratory and cardiac frequencies are 202.5±64.9 and 179.9±49.4 nm, respectively. The potential applications of the measurement technique can be found in the evaluation of intraocular pressure and the measurement of biomechanical properties of the ocular tissue, which are important in several ocular diseases.

  13. Severe anterior uveitis associated with idiopathic dacryoadenitis in diabetes mellitus patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi YY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Takahashi¹, Hirohiko Kakizaki¹, Akihiro Ichinose², Masayoshi Iwaki¹¹Department of Ophthalmology, Aichi Medical University, Nagakute, Aichi, Japan; ²Department of Plastic Surgery, Kobe University, Kobe, Hyogo, JapanAbstract: A 38-year-old woman with diabetes mellitus complained of acute visual loss in the left eye (20/200 and swollen left upper eyelid. Slit lamp examination of the left eye revealed ciliary injection, posterior synechia iritis, numerous inflammatory cells, and fibrin exudates in the anterior chamber. T1-weighted enhanced magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated left lacrimal gland enhancement with inflammatory spread to the left anterior ocular segment. Blood examination showed increased blood sugar but the other components were within normal limits. The patient was treated with steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone 1 g/day × 3 days under a blood sugar control regimen in consultation with an endocrinologist, after which additional peribulbar injection of triamcinolone acetonide (40 mg was performed. Resolution of the anterior uveitis and the dacryoadenitis was obtained after 2 months and there was no recurrence 1 year after the therapy. This is a rare case of severe anterior uveitis caused by idiopathic dacryoadenitis in a patient with diabetes mellitus.Keywords: anterior uveitis, idiopathic dacryoadenitis, diabetes mellitus, magnetic resonance imaging, steroid

  14. What is a segment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannibal, Roberta L; Patel, Nipam H

    2013-12-17

    Animals have been described as segmented for more than 2,000 years, yet a precise definition of segmentation remains elusive. Here we give the history of the definition of segmentation, followed by a discussion on current controversies in defining a segment. While there is a general consensus that segmentation involves the repetition of units along the anterior-posterior (a-p) axis, long-running debates exist over whether a segment can be composed of only one tissue layer, whether the most anterior region of the arthropod head is considered segmented, and whether and how the vertebrate head is segmented. Additionally, we discuss whether a segment can be composed of a single cell in a column of cells, or a single row of cells within a grid of cells. We suggest that 'segmentation' be used in its more general sense, the repetition of units with a-p polarity along the a-p axis, to prevent artificial classification of animals. We further suggest that this general definition be combined with an exact description of what is being studied, as well as a clearly stated hypothesis concerning the specific nature of the potential homology of structures. These suggestions should facilitate dialogue among scientists who study vastly differing segmental structures.

  15. 前路减压植骨融合术后颈椎相邻节段生物力学变化%Biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹飞; 郭丽; 朱庆三; 赵东旭; 巩固; 李然; 赵昆池; 王迎智

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF).Methods EB composite resin was used to mimic the fuion effect after anterior cervical decompression.The motion range and biomechanical changes of the adjacent segments were measured.Results Under the same torque of 2.0 Nm,the motion range of the adjacent segments was from 4.3 to 8.0 degrees,which was not significantly different from that before fusion (P >0.05).Increasing the torque gradually to let the samples reach their normal range of motion,the range of motion of the adjacent segments increased significantly.There are significant differences of them after and before fusion (P < 0.05).Conclusion If people keep the normal range of motion of cervical spine after ACDF,their adjacent segment's movement will increase significantly.This might be the main cause of the degeneration after fusion.By limiting the neck movement can reduce,or even avoid postoperative degeneration.%目的 观察颈椎前路减压植骨融合术后相邻节段生物力学变化.方法 采用EB复合树脂黏合的方法模拟颈椎前路减压植骨术后融合的效果,检测颈椎融合前、后相邻节段运动范围及生物力学的变化.结果 在2.0 Nm力矩不变的情况下,融合节段相邻间隙的运动范围为4.3°~8.0°,与融合前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);加大力矩使融合后的颈椎尽量达到术前正常运动范围时融合节段相邻间隙运动范围明显增加,与融合前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 颈椎融合术后如果仍要达到术前正常的运动范围,其相邻节段的运动范围明显增加,这可能是造成其退变的主要原因.限制颈部术后活动可以减少、甚至避免术后退变的发生.

  16. 经前路颈椎椎体次全切除钛网置入融合后相邻节段的退变%Adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟鹏飞; 刘伟; 孙志明; 张学利

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, the researchers have studied the adjacent segment degeneration after cervical fusion. Several studies concerned the adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the correlative factors of adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion. METHODS:122 patients were included in the study from 126 patients who underwent anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion that operated by the same treatment team and involved a single vertebral body and the two plates between February 2009 and February 2012. The final fol ow-up period was 3 years. According to the degeneration progress of adjacent segment degeneration, these patients were divided into non-progression group and progression group. The gender, age, preoperative adjacent segment degeneration, cervical range of motion, upper and lower vertebral range of motion, surgical segment, titanium mesh subsidence, plate-to-disc distance, and cervical curvature index were compared between two groups. Logistic regression analysis was applied to analyze the correlative factors of adjacent segment degeneration. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:(1) There were significant differences in preoperative adjacent segment degeneration, postoperative cervical range of motion, postoperative upper and lower vertebral range of motion, and postoperative cervical curvature index (P  目的:探讨经前路椎体次全切除钛网椎间置入融合后相邻节段退变的相关因素。  方法:纳入2009年2月至2012年2月行经前路椎体次全切除钛网椎间置入融合的患者共126例,其中资料完整的122例纳入研究。均由同一治疗组完成,且手术均涉及单个椎体及2个间盘。终末随访期为3年。根据术前及术后相邻节段退变程度,分为非相邻节段退变进展组和相邻节段退变进展组,比较2组患者的性别、年龄、术前相邻节段退变、颈椎活动度、术椎

  17. Nursing of slit-lamp anterior segment processing system in treatments of corneal foreign body%裂隙灯眼前段处理系统在角膜异物中的应用及护理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伍英; 丛日昌

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨裂隙灯眼前段处理系统在治疗角膜异物中的应用及护理.方法 将120例患者随机分为对照组(n=60)和实验组(n=60),对照组采用传统检查治疗方法 .实验组应用配置佳能PowerShotA720IS型数码照相机(1 200万像素)SLM型裂隙灯显微镜检查角膜异物的位置,并在不同角度下进行照相(放大倍率×10,×16,×20).结果 实验组患者对医护人员信任度和满意度高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 裂隙灯眼前段处理系统的应用为角膜异物伤的患者提供直接定性依据,给患者了解自身病情带来便利,同时进行相关的护理,达到较理想的效果.%Objective To explore the application and nursing of slit-lamp anterior segment processing system in treatments of corneal foreign body. Methods Totally, 120 cases were divided into the control group and the experimental group randomly, the 60 cases of control group received the traditional treatment and the other 60 cases received the Canon PowerShotA720IS numerical code camera (12,000,000 picture elements)SLM slit lamp to show the position of corneal foreign body, and were carried on some photographs under different angles ( the enlargement ratio ×10, ×16, ×20). Results The rate of credibility and satisfaction to the medical care personnel in experimental group were higher than that in control group, the difference has statistical significance. Conclusions The application of slit-lamp anterior segment processing system provides the direct qualitative basis for the patients. It's convenient for patients to understand their state of the illness, and at the same time, it will achieve the ideal effect when carrying on the relative nursing.

  18. Hybrid Surgery术式治疗颈前路多节段脊髓型颈椎病的临床分析%Clinic analysis of Hybrid Surgery to treat multi segmental anterior cervical spondylotic myelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福嘉欣; 江汉; 江毅; 肖联平; 田永刚

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of corpectomy decompression by subtotal vertebrectomy and fusion of adjacent segmental artificial disc replacement through anterior intervertenral spance (Hybrid Surgery) in the anteriorcervical spondylotic myelopathy treatment . Methods Hybrid Surgery were operated on 18 patients who suffered from anterior cervi⁃cal spondylotic myelopathy . Follow up of 1-50 months. Patient’s conditions were assessed according to the Japanese Associ⁃ation for Department of orthopedics assessment score (JOA score) before and after operation. Effects of Hybrid operation were assessed by the improvement of JOA score, Odom’s follow-up grade and cervical mobility . Results The JOA scores of all 18 operated patients were improved from 10.6 ± 1.7 before operation to 13.5 ± 2.4 after operation. And the difference is statistically significant (t=1.314, P 0.05). Conclusion Hybrid Surgery of anterior cervical decompression and fusion can both improve the nerve function and preserve cervical mobility.%目的:探讨颈椎前路经椎间隙或椎体次全切除减压植骨融合联合邻近节段人工间盘置换(Hybrid Surgery)在颈前路多节段脊髓型颈椎病治疗中的效果。方法应用Hybrid Surgery术式治疗颈前路多节段脊髓型颈椎病患者18例。随访1~50个月,手术前后根据日本骨科协会评估分数(JOA)进行评分。通过JOA评分的改善情况, Odom’s分级随访结果及颈椎活动度的变化评价Hybrid Surgery的效果。结果18例术后JOA评分(13.5±2.4)分高于术前(10.6±1.7)分,差异有统计学意义(t=1.314,P0.05)。结论 Hybrid Surgery术式颈前路充分减压融合,既可改善患者神经功能,又可保留一定程度上的颈椎活动度。

  19. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  20. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  1. The Pax gene eyegone facilitates repression of eye development in Tribolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZarinKamar Nazanin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pax transcription factor gene eyegone (eyg participates in many developmental processes in Drosophila, including the Notch signaling activated postembryonic growth of the eye primordium, global development of the adult head and the development of the antenna. In contrast to other Pax genes, the functional conservation of eyg in species other than Drosophila has not yet been explored. Results We investigated the role of eyg during the postembryonic development of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum. Our results indicate conserved roles in antennal but not in eye development. Besides segmentation defects in the antenna, Tribolium eyg knockdown animals were characterized by eye enlargement due to the formation of surplus ommatidia at the central anterior edge of the compound eye. This effect resulted from the failure of the developing gena to locally repress retinal differentiation, which underlies the formation of the characteristic anterior notch in the Tribolium eye. Neither varying the induction time point of eyg knockdown nor knocking down components of the Janus kinase/Signal Transducer and Activators of Transcription signaling pathway in combination with eyg reduced eye size like in Drosophila. Conclusions Taken together, expression and knockdown data suggest that Tribolium eyg serves as a competence factor that facilitates the repression of retinal differentiation in response to an unknown signal produced in the developing gena. At the comparative level, our findings reveal diverged roles of eyg associated with the evolution of different modes of postembryonic head development in endopterygote insects as well as diversified head morphologies in darkling beetles.

  2. Adjacent segment degeneration after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion follow-up%颈椎前路融合术后邻近节段退变情况的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      目的通过观察分析前路颈椎间盘切除融合术(anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,ACDF)术后随访患者的影像学资料,探讨邻近节段病变的发生时间和发生率。方法分析2008年以来本科收治的94例施行 ACDF 手术并获得完整随访的患者,其中男性51例,女性43例;年龄28~70岁,平均50.5岁。融合节段:单节段42例,上节段30例,三节段22例。术前均常规行颈椎正、侧位 X 线、MRI 检查。术后评定患者神经功能恢复情况,根据 Kellgren 分级标准对临近节段颈椎间盘退变情况进行 X 线评价。结果94例患者随访时间12~45个月,平均随访时间为29.1月。术后患者神经功能改善明显,JOA 评分较术前提高5.8,改善率为64.3%,有效率为100%。临近节段颈椎间盘退变情况的 X 线评估显示,有19例发生临近节段的退变,其中12例有轻度退变表现,7例出现较严重退变表现,邻近节段退变发生率为20.2%。退变发生时间为术后5~40个月,平均为18.7±4.79个月。结论 ACDF 治疗颈椎间盘退行性疾病有良好的疗效,术后邻近节段发生退变时间为18.7±4.79月,随访29.1个月邻近节段退变发生率为20.2%。%Objective To study the clinical efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion(ACDF) for cervical spondylosis , also the rate and occurrence time of adjacent segment degeneration.Methods 94 cases (male: 51, female: 43, average age: 50.5, ranging from 28 to 70)of cervical spondylosis admitted to our department since 2008 were analyzed in this study.42 patients were performed with single-level ACDF, 30 patients with double-level ACDF,and 22 patients with three-level ACDF. The cervical anterior-posterior and lateral X-ray and MRI examination were performed before the operation.Neurological functional recovery was assessed after operation. X -ray was used to evaluate the degree of adjacent segment degeneration according to

  3. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral infection; Conjunctival infection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies and some are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Others are nothing to worry about. ...

  4. Eye pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ophthalmalgia; Pain - eye ... Pain in the eye can be an important symptom of a health problem. Make sure you tell your health care provider if you have eye pain that does not go away. Tired eyes or ...

  5. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  6. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  7. Effect of Word Segmentation Cues on Japanese-Chinese Bilingual's Chinese Reading:Evidence from Eye Movements%词切分对日-汉双语者汉语阅读影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 顾俊娟; 曹玉肖; 闫国利

    2011-01-01

    text reading; spacing information in mixed Kanji-Hiragana text was redundant, since the visually salient Kanji characters served as effective cues by themselves. Therefore, Japanese readers are considered to be very familiar with those visual cues provided by the text during reading.Although Japanese text has no interword spaces, the mixed text can provide readers effective visual word segmentation cues. However, there is no such cue in normal unspaced Chinese text. Therefore, we predicted that interword spaced Chinese text would have a similar facilitatory effect for Japanese students as it did for American students, considering interword spaces could help them to demarcate Chinese words. That is to say,their reading performance under the word spaced condition would be better than that under unspaced condition.Two experiments were conducted including normal text, word, nonword and character segmentation conditions using spaces or highlighting as the visual segmentation cue. Twenty-four Japanese-Chinese bilinguals participated in these two experiments. An EyeLink 2000 eye tracker (SR Research, Canada) was used to record their right eye movements, sampling every two milliseconds.Same results were observed in the two experiments. No significant difference was found between word segmentation and normal text conditions on total number of fixations and total sentence reading time for global analyses. However, the local analyses of eye movement measures showed that Japanese students required shorter total reading time and fewer total fixations in the word segmentation condition than in the normal text condition. The results suggested that sentences with word segmentation cues were as easy to read as normal sentences for Japanese students. Thus, word segmentation may facilitate Chinese word recognition for Japanese students.%以24名日-汉双语者为被试,采用EyeLink2000眼动仪,通过两个实验来探讨词切分对日-汉双语者汉语句子阅读的影响.实验

  8. Anterior cervical discectomy combined with corpectomy treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myeiopathy%颈椎前路两种手术方式治疗多节段脊髓型颈椎病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巩陈; 申才良; 董福龙; 郑军; 汪卫兵

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate of two different anterior cervical surgical treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy clinical efficacy. Methods Selected three or more segments accumulated of the spinal cord-type cervical spondylosis of 36 patients, of which 18 cases were treated with a single sub-segment corpectomy internal fixation + other disc excision alone bone graft and internal fixation( A group ), which was segmental decompression and bone graft fixation; 18 patients with two or more vertebral bodies and fusion with subtotal long segment plate fixation( B group ), which was long segment decompression and bone graft fixation. Two groups were compared with operative time , operative blood loss, hospital stay, fusion rate, neurological improvement rate and cervical physiological curvature of the situation. Results Operation time, blood loss, hospital stay in A group were lower than those in B group( P <0. 05 ). Internal fixations of both groups had not problem postoperative. Cobb’s angle compared with preoperative improvement between the two groups was statistically significant( P < 0. 05 ) ; B group anglec loss rate of postoperative follow-up was higher than that in A group( P <0. 05 ); Bone graft fusion occurred after 6 months in two groups, JOA scores had improvement in the two groups and there was no statistically significant ( P >0. 05 ). Conclusion Both methods attain good clinical results; Anterior cervical discectomy combined with corpectomy treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myeiopathy , with relatively less blood loss, shorter operative time,less trauma, retain more vertebral bone.which is a good operation method.%目的 评价颈椎前路分节段减压植骨内固定术和长节段减压植骨固定术治疗多节段脊髓型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 选择累及≥3个节段的脊髓型颈椎病患者36例,其中18例采用分节段单个椎体次全切除植骨内固定+其它椎间盘单独切除植骨内固

  9. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  10. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  11. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  12. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  13. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  14. CTA study on relationship between dominant A1 segment and the anterior communicating artery aneurysm%大脑前动脉 A1段优势征与前交通动脉瘤关系的 CTA 研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪生; 陈晓峰; 陈斌; 殷尚炯; 赵佩林; 王志明

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨大脑前动脉水平段( A1段)优势征与前交通动脉瘤( ACoAA )形成的关系。方法分析173例患者的64排CT血管成像(CTA)检查资料,并按CTA结果分为ACoAA组(83例)与正常对照组(90例)。观察指标:有无动脉瘤,动脉瘤的部位、形态、大小和瘤颈宽度、瘤顶指向及瘤体与周围结构的关系等,判定结果与手术及DSA结果进行对照。同时观察大脑前动脉A1段是否发育不良或缺如,是否存在一侧大脑前动脉A1段优势征。结果 ACoAA组中显示一侧大脑前动脉A1段优势征者的比率达80.7%,明显高于正常对照组的16.7%(P<0.05)。结论一侧大脑前动脉A1段优势征,另一侧A1段发育不良或缺如与ACoAA的发生有密切关系。%Objective To investigate the relationship between the dominant A 1 segment and presence of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm .Methods The data of 64-slice computed tomography angiography ( CTA ) of 173 cases were analysed retrospectively .The 173 cases were divided into anterior communicating artery aneurysm (ACoAA) group(83 cases) and control group (90 cases).The observation items were the presence of aneurysm and the location , shape, size, neck, axis point of every one aneurysm and the relationship of aneurysms to parent vessels and other branches and bone structure .The results of aneurysms were compared with clipping or coiling , at the same time, to observe the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery whether had dysplasia or absence , whether existed the dominance of A 1 segment of anterior cerebral artery .Results The rate of display the dominance of A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery (80.7%) in the ACoAA group was higher than that in the control group (16.7%) ( P <0.05 ).Conclusion The development of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm closely related with the the dominance of A 1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and the dysplasia or

  15. Sipunculans and segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanninger, Andreas; Kristof, Alen; Brinkmann, Nora

    2009-01-01

    Comparative molecular, developmental and morphogenetic analyses show that the three major segmented animal groups- Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa and Vertebrata-use a wide range of ontogenetic pathways to establish metameric body organization. Even in the life history of a single specimen, different...... mechanisms may act on the level of gene expression, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation and organ system formation in individual segments. Accordingly, in some polychaete annelids the first three pairs of segmental peripheral neurons arise synchronously, while the metameric commissures of the ventral...... nervous system form in anterior-posterior progression. Contrary to traditional belief, loss of segmentation may have occurred more often than commonly assumed, as exemplified in the sipunculans, which show remnants of segmentation in larval stages but are unsegmented as adults. The developmental...

  16. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  17. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  18. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  19. Aqueous Angiography–Mediated Guidance of Trabecular Bypass Improves Angiographic Outflow in Human Enucleated Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alex S.; Saraswathy, Sindhu; Dastiridou, Anna; Begian, Alan; Mohindroo, Chirayu; Tan, James C. H.; Francis, Brian A.; Hinton, David R.; Weinreb, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To assess the ability of trabecular micro-bypass stents to improve aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in regions initially devoid of AHO as assessed by aqueous angiography. Methods Enucleated human eyes (14 total from 7 males and 3 females [ages 52–84]) were obtained from an eye bank within 48 hours of death. Eyes were oriented by inferior oblique insertion, and aqueous angiography was performed with indocyanine green (ICG; 0.4%) or fluorescein (2.5%) at 10 mm Hg. With an angiographer, infrared and fluorescent images were acquired. Concurrent anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed, and fixable fluorescent dextrans were introduced into the eye for histologic analysis of angiographically positive and negative areas. Experimentally, some eyes (n = 11) first received ICG aqueous angiography to determine angiographic patterns. These eyes then underwent trabecular micro-bypass sham or stent placement in regions initially devoid of angiographic signal. This was followed by fluorescein aqueous angiography to query the effects. Results Aqueous angiography in human eyes yielded high-quality images with segmental patterns. Distally, angiographically positive but not negative areas demonstrated intrascleral lumens on OCT images. Aqueous angiography with fluorescent dextrans led to their trapping in AHO pathways. Trabecular bypass but not sham in regions initially devoid of ICG aqueous angiography led to increased aqueous angiography as assessed by fluorescein (P = 0.043). Conclusions Using sequential aqueous angiography in an enucleated human eye model system, regions initially without angiographic flow or signal could be recruited for AHO using a trabecular bypass stent. PMID:27588614

  20. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  1. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  2. Quantitative observation on changes of anterior segment by ultrasound biomicroscopy after posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens implantation%UBM量化观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术前后眼前节形态的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑞娜; 郑广瑛; 王松田; 王洁; 赵建国; 郭红亮; 赵丽君

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveThe objective is to study the safety and effectiveness of implantation of posterior chamber phakic intraocular contact lens (ICL) by observing the changes in anterior segment using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Methods It was a perspective study. The study sampled 30 high myopia patients (30 eyes) who were treated with posterior chamber phakic ICL implant. Central anterior chamber depth (ACD), trabecular-iris angle (TIA), angle opening distance (AOD500), trabecular-ciliary processes distance (TCPD) and iris-ciliary processes distance (ICPD) were measured using UBM preoperatively,3 months and 1 year postoperatively. The distance from ICL to the central surface of lens and peripheral lens and intra-ocular pressure were measured postoperatively and examined using slit-lamp biomicroscope. Oneway ANOVA was used to analyze the distance between peripheral surface of ICL and the lens. One-way repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni were conducted. Results Preoperatively, 3 months and 1 year postoperatively, ACD were(3. 16 ± 0. 08 ) mm, ( 2. 76 ± 0. 13 ) mm, (2. 74 ± 0. 14) mm; AOD500 were (0.45 + 0.04) mm, (0.41 ± 0.04) mm, (0.41 ±0.03) mm; TIA were (35.00 ±3. 24)°, (32.47 ±3.56) °, (32. 40 ± 3. 23 ) °, respectively. There were significant difference in TIA, ACD and AOD ( P <0. 05) between preoperative and postoperative data. There was no significant difference between the two postoperative periods tested. TCPD and ICPD showed no significant difference between various time points ( F =0. 49, F =0. 57 ; P > 0. 05 ). Conclusions The decrease in ACD depth and correction in TIA and AOD were the noticeable changes observed in morphological structure of the ocular anterior segment after the ICL treatment. The incidence of complication did not increase as the result of the minor changes in morph structure during the course of the study. However, the long-term effects would require further long-term observation.%目的 应用超声生物显微镜(UBM)对

  3. Eye diseases in children in jourdan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate eye diseases in children in Jordan and to see whether it is necessary to conduct a visual screening programme. Methods: The study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2012 at four Royal Medical Service hospitals located in northern, eastern, middle and southern parts of Jordan. Children aged (6-14 years) attending paediatric clinics for various reasons were enrolled. Ophthalmologic assessment included visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examination. Patients with visual acuity of less than 20/20 underwent refraction under cyclopegia. Results: Of the 3200 children in the study ocular abnormalities were found in 366 (11.4%); 312 (9.8%) had visual acuity less than 20/20 in one or both eyes. Refractive error was seen in 286 (8.9%); while vernal catarrh was the second most common ocular abnormality with 51 (1.6%) patients followed by squint 16(0.5%). Four (0.12%) patients had severe visual impairment and one (0.03%) patient was blind. Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive error was high in school children in the study area. It is important to conduct a visual screening programme in early school years in order to prevent amblyopia. (author)

  4. 眼外导光照明视网膜光凝联合前房注气在白内障玻璃体视网膜术中应用%Microscopically eye light illumination, retinal laser photocoagulation combined with gas anterior chamber tamponade in cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气在白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术中的疗效及可行性.方法 回顾性分析2010年1月至2014年7月在唐山市眼科医院就治的47例(47只眼)合并晶状体后囊破裂的眼内异物患者实施白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术.其中周边视网膜格子样变性39只眼,视网膜裂孔者7只眼,玻璃体积血30只眼,视网膜脱离7只眼,锯齿缘解离2只眼.实施白内障摘除、玻璃体切除、视网膜光凝、人工晶状体植入、眼内注气术,术中显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气.术后观察视力、人工晶状体、视网膜情况及并发症.术后随访6~11个月,平均(6.14±2.15)月.结果 47例患者中,42只眼充填C3F8,5只眼充填硅油.44只眼视力不同程度改善.41只眼人工晶状体正位,1只眼人工晶状体略偏斜.3只眼发生孔源性视网膜脱离.8只眼继发性青光眼,药物治疗1周至2周眼压恢复正常.2只眼角膜内皮面增生膜生长.结论 显微镜下眼外导光照明、视网膜激光光凝联合前房注气在白内障联合玻璃体视网膜手术中操作方便,安全可靠,减少了手术并发症发生,有很好的实用价值.此术式是白内障玻璃体视网膜联合手术的有力补充.%Objective To study the clinical efficacy and feasibility associated with microscopically eye light illumination,retinal laser photocoagulation combined with gas anterior chamber tamponade in the cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery.Methods It was a retrospective analysis of 47 cases (47 eyes) with intraocular foreign bodies and lens capsule rupture was performed cataract joint vitreoretinal surgery.Among 47 cases,peripheral lattice retinal degeneration in 39 eyes,peripheral retinal tear in 7 eyes,vitreous hemorrhage in 30 eyes,retinal detachment in 7 eyes,retinal serrated edge disintegrate in 2 eyes.The patients were performed cataract

  5. Repeatability of Ocular Measurements with a Dual-Scheimpflug Analyzer in Healthy Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lopez de la Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the repeatability of the Galilei dual Scheimpflug analyzer (GDSA in anterior segment examination. Methods. Fifty-two eyes from 52 healthy volunteers were prospectively and consecutively recruited. Anatomic, axial, refractive, and instantaneous parameters were measured with GDSA to provide a complete characterization of the anterior segment. Repeatability was assessed calculating intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, and coefficient of variation (COV. Results. Correlation among repeated measurements showed almost perfect reliability (ICC > 0.81 for all parameters except thinnest central corneal thickness (CCT (0.78, corneal thickness average out (0.79, and posterior axial curvature average out (0.60. Repeatability was excellent (COV < 10% for all parameters except anterior chamber volume and, superior iridocorneal angle and eccentricities. In these last three parameters, repeatability limits were excessively high compared to the mean. Conclusions. GDSA in healthy young persons had an almost perfect correlation in measuring anatomic, axial, instantaneous, and refractive parameters with greater variability for peripheral terms. Repeatability of anatomical parameters like pachymetry, anterior chamber, or iridocorneal angle and eccentricity were limited. In healthy young persons, the other evaluated parameters had very good repeatability and their limits of agreement showed excellent clinical results for this device.

  6. Choroidal Nevus in an Eye with Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunobu Asao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report an eye with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV and a choroidal nevus. Methods: This is an observational case report. Results: A healthy 69-year-old woman was referred to the Osaka University Hospital with a diagnosis of a macular tumor. She complained of having distorted vision in her left eye. The medical history of the patient was unremarkable. At the initial examination, her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 20/20 in both eyes, and the intraocular pressure was 18 mm Hg in both eyes. A slit-lamp examination showed no abnormalities in the anterior segment of both eyes and a fundus examination of the left eye showed a slightly elevated juxtafoveal chorioretinal lesion and polyp-like reddish-orange lesions. The juxtafoveal choroidal lesion was located beneath a choroidal neovascularization (CNV. An optical coherence tomography confirmed CNV with pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Fluorescein angiography showed juxtafoveal hyperfluorescence due to CNV. Indocyanine green angiography demonstrated a branching choroidal vascular network that resembled polypoidal lesions. A fundus autofluorescence showed a mosaic pattern and a slight hyperautofluorescence at the CNV. We diagnosed the patient as having PCV. Aflibercept was injected intravitreally because of her PED. After the injection, PED improved and her visual acuity remained stable during the 12-month follow-up period. Conclusions: In cases of PCV, FAF images are helpful in determining the status of the posterior pole. Intravitreal injections of aflibercept can improve PED associated with CNV, and the BCVA will remain stable for at least 12 months.

  7. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  8. Assessment of Schlemm’s canal in a normal human eye by swept source optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied custom-built anterior segment optical coherence tomography based on a 1310 nm center wavelength swept laser source to measure Schlemm’s canal (SC) area in the living human eye. A total of 50 healthy volunteers with 100 normal eyes have been measured on the nasal and temporal sides successfully. The statistical results show that there are no significant differences between females and males in respect of SC area (female: 8062.24 μm2 ± 1492.304 μm2; male: 7714.52 μm2 ± 1439.034 μm2; p = 0.095), and also no significant differences of SC area are found between the five age groups (Sig=0.253). Therefore, it would be reasonable to assume that, in normal human eyes, the SC possibly maintains the same impact on the gender- and age-related aqueous outflow facility. (letter)

  9. Noninvasive measurement of eye retraction during blinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mas Candela, David; Doménech Amigot, Begoña; Espinosa Tomás, Julián; Pérez Rodríguez, Jorge; Hernández Poveda, Consuelo; Illueca Contri, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    We present a noninvasive technique for high-speed measuring of eye retraction and eyelid position during blinking. The anterior chamber of the eye is illuminated by the slit lamp of a biomicroscope and eye dynamics during a blinking sequence are captured with a high-speed camera working at 500 frames per second. Digital image processing allows quantitative analysis of cornea and eyelid positions during the closing and opening phases of the blinking process. Our method allows simultaneous meas...

  10. Difference in Outcomes between First-Operated vs. Fellow-Operated Eyes in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Trabeculectomies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younhea Jung

    Full Text Available To compare the course and outcome of first- and fellow-operated eyes in patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies and to investigate the factors associated with the difference.Preoperative characteristics, including the interval between surgeries, were compared between the first- and fellow-operated eyes in 42 patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies. Postoperative intraocular pressure and bleb vascularity, using postoperative anterior segment photos, were compared at various time points between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Surgical success was evaluated at 1 year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Factors affecting the difference between the first and fellow eyes were analyzed.There was no significant difference in success or failure rates at 1 year postoperatively and at the final follow-up between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Early postoperative IOP and the degree of bleb vascularity were higher in the fellow-operated eyes (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively at week 1 postoperative. The difference in IOP between the first- and fellow-operated eyes was greater in patients whose interval between surgeries was shorter than 3 weeks (P = 0.026.In patients undergoing bilateral trabeculectomies, early postoperative IOP was higher in the fellow-operated eyes than the first-operated eyes; the difference was greater when the interval between surgeries was shorter. The first-operated eye may influence the early postoperative inflammatory response in the fellow-operated eye. Our findings have clinical implications for planning treatment of patients who may need bilateral surgery.

  11. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  12. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in thyroid disease when the eye protrudes forward; cosmetic surgery, if the eyelids are opened too widely. Frequently ... disease when the eye protrudes forward or after cosmetic surgery if the eyelids are opened too widely, dry ...

  13. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyesight if not treated. If both eyes are black after a head injury, it could signify a skull fracture or other serious injury. Next Black Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers How ...

  14. Effects of Word Segmentation on Hindi-English Bilinguals' Reading: Evidence from Eye Movements%词切分对印-英双语者阅读影响的眼动研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白学军; 郭志英; 曹玉肖; 顾俊娟; 闫国利; 臧传丽

    2012-01-01

    India has two official languages: Hindi and English. They are both spaced alphabetic languages. Hindi is also the mother tongue. In the present study, we investigated the role of space information through two-official-language readers. We examined how word discriminability affected the pattern of eye movements in the course of reading unspaced text in two alphabetic languages. We carried out three conditions ( 1 ) the normally condition, (2) the alternating gray unspaced condition, (3) the unspaced condition. We, therefore, predict that ( 1 ) the unspaced text may have a greater interfering effect on Hindi and English reading, (2) the alternating gray unspaced condition is an obvious visual cue for readers during reading. To study the effect of word segmentation on Hindi-English bilinguals' reading, 25 Indian University students who were bilinguals of Hindi-English participated in the research, and their eye movements were recorded with an SR research EyeLink 2000 eyetracker. In Experiment 1, Hindi sentences were constructed with 3 types of spacing: ( 1 ) normally written sentences, ( 2 ) alternating gray unspaced sentences, (3) unspaced sentences. In Experiment 2, we used three types of sentences as in Experiment 1 to make three different types of English sentences to investigate the role of space information in English reading. The trends of data from two experiments were very similar. Global fixation counts and total reading time measures indicated that ( 1 ) The efficiency of Hindi reading under the normally written condition was better than the alternating gray unspaced condition and the unspaced condition; (2) The efficiency of English reading under the normally written condition was best, the alternating gray unspaced condition is better than the unspaced condition. The results of the present study suggest that spacing information plays an important role for both Hindi and English reading. Under the alternating

  15. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  16. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Rupesh; Murthy Somasheila; Sangwan Virender; Biswas Jyotirmay

    2010-01-01

    Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated...

  17. 前节OCT与超声角膜测厚仪在角膜内皮移植术后测量中央角膜厚度的比较%Comparison of central corneal thickness measurements between anterior segment optical coherence tomography and ultrasonic pachymeter after DSAEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炳震; 彭荣梅; 任婧; 刘峰; 吴玲玲; 洪晶

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the agreement of central corneal thickness ( CCT) measured by anterior segment-optical tomography (AS-OCT) and ultrasonic pachymeter after Descemet's Stripping with Automated Endothelium Keratoplasty (DSAEK) and provide objective basis for clinical application of AS-OCT. Methods Forty-one eyes of 38 patients after Descemet's Stripping with Automated Endothelium Keratoplasty (DSAEK) underwent CCT measurement by AS-OCT and ultrasonic pachymeter.The data was analyzed by paired-t test and Pearson correlation analysis. Bland-Altman plot was used to assess the agreement.Results The mean CCT values were(728.73±1 38.39)μ m measured by AS-OCT and (718.56+131.37)μ m measured by ultrasonic pachymeter,and there was no significant difference between the two methods. Regression analysis showed a high correlation between the values obtained by both devices (r =0.916, P<0.01). AS-OCT and ultrasonic pachymeter showed a less a-greernent in CCT measurement after DSAEK. Conclusions After DSAEK, there is a reasonable agreement between two techniques, AS-OCT and ultrasonic pachymeter of CCT measurements. Considering the special advantages, AS-OCT is an effective method to observe the changes of the corneal thickness in the long term.%目的 比较角膜内皮移植(DSAEK)术后后眼前节相干光断层扫描(AS-OCT)与超声角膜测厚仪测量的中央角膜厚度(CCT),评估两种方法的一致性,为AS-OCT的临床应用提供客观依据.方法 分别应用AS-OCT与超声角膜测厚仪测量DSAEK后患者38例(41只眼)的CCT,对两种方法所得的测量值进行配对t检验及Pearson相关分析,并采用Bland-Altman plot进行一致性评价.结果 AS-OCT与超声角膜测厚仪测量CCT的平均值分别为(728.73±138.39)μm和(718.56±131.37)μm;两组数据差异无统计学意义(t=-1.170;P=0.249).通过Pearson相关性分析,这两种方法的测量值成正相关(r=0.916,P <0.01).AS-OCT与超声角膜测厚测量

  18. Application of Zero-P interbody fusion in degenerative disease at the adjacent segments after anterior cervical fusion%Zero-P椎间融合术在治疗颈前路融合术后相邻节段退变性疾病中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程彩霞; 卢旭华; 谢宁; 郭翔; 郭群峰; 倪斌

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical outcomes of Zero-P interbody fusion in the treatment of degenerative disease at the adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion with internal fixation. Methods Sixteen patients with degenerative diseases at adjacent segments after anterior cervical decompression and fusion with internal fixation received Zero-P anterior cervical interbody fusion. Japanese Orthopaedic Association ( JOA) scores were compared before and after the operation. Postoperative dysphagia and intervertebral fusion were observed. Results Postoperative JOA score was significantly increased as compared with preoperative score (P<0.05). No dysphagia occurred and all the patients obtained solid fusion. Conclusion The mid- and short-term curative effect is satisfactory for the Zero-P intervertebral fusion in the treatment of cervical degenerative disease in the adjacent segments after anterior cervical fusion.%目的 探讨采用Zero-P椎间融合术治疗颈前路减压融合内固定术后相邻节段退变性疾病的疗效.方法 对16例颈前路减压融合内固定术后发生相邻节段退变性疾病的患者采用Zero-P行颈前路椎间融合术,比较患者手术前后日本骨科学会(Japanese Orthopaedic Association,JOA)评分,观察患者术后吞咽困难发生情况及椎间融合情况.结果 患者术后JOA评分较术前提高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),未发生吞咽困难,所有患者均获得牢固融合.结论 采用Zero-P椎间融合术治疗颈前路融合术后相邻节段退变性疾病中短期疗效较好.

  19. Fibrinous anterior uveitis following laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Pragya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopic astigmatism in both eyes presented with severe pain, photophobia and decreased visual acuity in the left eye eight days after surgery. Examination revealed severe anterior uveitis with fibrinous exudates in the anterior chamber, flap edema and epithelial bullae. Laboratory investigations for uveitis were negative and the patient required systemic and intensive topical steroids with cycloplegics to control the inflammation. This case demonstrates that severe anterior uveitis may develop after LASIK and needs prompt and vigorous management for resolution.

  20. Sistemas de transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho: bases fundamentais e aplicações Drug delivery systems for the posterior segment of the eye: fundamental basis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do segmento posterior do olho são responsáveis pela maioria dos casos de cegueira irreversível no mundo inteiro. Este cenário estimula o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento para estas doenças. O sucesso no tratamento visa, essencialmente, o transporte de doses efetivas de drogas diretamente para os locais a serem tratados. Devido às dificuldades encontradas no transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho, pesquisas têm sido realizadas no sentido de desenvolver sistemas de administração intra-oculares que permitam liberar concentrações terapêuticas das drogas por período prolongado. Tais sistemas podem proporcionar inúmeras vantagens, como: aumentar a biodisponibilidade e a concentração local da droga, atingir especificamente um tipo de tecido ou célula, reduzir a freqüência de injeções intra-oculares. Tais vantagens podem aumentar o conforto do paciente e reduzir as complicações observadas com a utilização das injeções intra-oculares. Diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas têm sido desenvolvidos com as finalidades acima descritas. Estes sistemas podem ser compostos por polímeros biodegradáveis ou não-biodegradáveis ou serem formulações lipídicas. Os sistemas de transporte de drogas são representados, principalmente, pelas micro e nanopartículas e pelos implantes, sendo eles compostos por diferentes polímeros; pelos lipossomos, que são compostos por lípides e emulsionantes; e pela iontoforese, que se baseia na aplicação de corrente elétrica. Nesta revisão, as principais características dos diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas serão descritas, expondo suas potencialidades de aplicação clínica.The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly

  1. A novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao (陶亮); Juanjuan Gu (顾涓涓); Zhenquan Zhuang (庄镇泉)

    2003-01-01

    Based on geometrical facial features and image segmentation, we present a novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes in grayscale or color still images with complex background. Firstly, a determination criterion of eye location is established by the prior knowledge of geometrical facial features. Secondly,a range of threshold values that would separate eye blocks from others in a segmented face image (I.e.,a binary image) are estimated. Thirdly, with the progressive increase of the threshold by an appropriate step in that range, once two eye blocks appear from the segmented image, they will be detected by the determination criterion of eye location. Finally, the 2D correlation coefficient is used as a symmetry similarity measure to check the factuality of the two detected eyes. To avoid the background interference, skin color segmentation can be applied in order to enhance the accuracy of eye detection. The experimental results demonstrate the high efficiency of the algorithm and correct localization rate.

  2. Surveying of Pressure in Posterior Chamber and Pressure Difference Between Anterior and Posterior Chambers of Rabbit Eye in Vivo%正常兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值的在体监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋红芳; 杨红玉; 刘志成

    2011-01-01

    目的 寻求一种眼后房穿刺方法,并在体测量兔眼的前、后房压强差.方法 利用高精度压力传感器与空气差压传感器,采用"从角巩膜缘外周1~1.5mm处进针穿透巩膜,使针水平滑行于虹膜下而进入后房"的扎针方法,实现在体连续监测正常兔眼麻醉状态下的后房压强与前后房压强差值.结果 麻醉状态下兔眼后房压强的范围在839.93~2662.48Pa;前、后房压强差范围是46.15~85.52Pa,均值为59.73Pa,变化周期为11.17min.结论 扎针方法测量兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值对眼球损伤较小,监测到的正常兔眼后房压强及前后房压强差值均在合理可信的范围内.监测方法的可行性为青光眼前后房压强差值的在体监测提供了新的思路.%Objective To find a proper method of puncturing into the posterior chamber of the rabbit eye and to measure the pressure in posterior chamber and the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers in vivo. Methods With the help of the high-accuracy pressure and pressure difference sensors, the pressure in posterior chamber and the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers were measured continuously in normal rabbit eyes with anesthesia in vivo. The needle directly punctured into the posterior chamber at 1 to 1.5 millimeters away from the cornea-sclera limbus, penetrated the sclera, and then slided horizontally the needle underneath the iris. Results The pressure value in posterior chamber was from 839. 93 Pa to 2662. 48 Pa, while the pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers was from 46. 15 Pa to 85. 52 Pa with its average value 59. 73 Pa and the wave period was about 11. 17 min. Conclusions The puncture method for surveying the pressure of rabbit ' s chambers does less hurt to the eye-ball and the experimental data of the pressures in posterior chamber and pressure difference between anterior and posterior chambers. are authentic and

  3. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  4. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  5. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  6. 颈椎前路融合致邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因探讨%Causes of adjacent segments disc degeneration caused by anterior cervical fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张克非; 刘伟; 于长水; 袁绍辉; 潘琦

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨颈椎前路融合后邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因及其防治办法.方法 对实施颈椎前路融合术的126例颈椎间盘突出症患者进行回顾性分析,归纳可能导致颈椎前路融合术后临近椎间盘退变突出的原因.结果 随访时间最短10个月,最长10年,平均7.8年.37例颈椎间盘突出症患者发生临近节段椎间盘退变加重,其中7例患者再次手术.结论 颈椎前路融合后邻近节段椎间盘退变的原因可能为临近节段原有退变加重,椎间融合后生物力学改变,临近节段应力集中.%To investigate the causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine and search for the way of prevention.Methods A retrospective study was given to 126 patients who underwent an anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine, the causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine were analyzed. Results The follow-up time was from 10 months to 10 years, average 7.8 years. Thirty-seven patients occurred the aggravation of adjacent intervertebral discs degeneration, in which 7 patients underwent reoperation. Conclusion The possible causes of the adjacent intervertebral disc degeneration after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine is that the aggravation of original degeneration of adjacent intervertebral disc, the alteration of biomechanics after anterior decompression and interbody fusion of C-spine induces the stress concentration of the adjacent intervertebral disc.

  7. Eye Movement Patterns of Captioned Television Viewers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensema, Carl J.; Sharkawy, Sameh El; Danturthi, Ramalinga Sarma; Burch, Robert; Hsu, David

    2000-01-01

    Eye movement of six subjects (three with deafness) was recorded as they watched video segments with and without captions. The addition of captions to a video resulted in major changes in eye movement patterns, with the viewing process becoming primarily a reading process. (Contains six references.) (Author/CR)

  8. Risk factors and treatment strategy for adjacent segment diseases after anterior cervical decompression and fusion%颈椎前路融合术后邻近节段退变性疾病的原因分析及治疗策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪立; 姜建元; 吕飞舟; 马晓生; 夏新雷; 王立勋

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨颈椎前路融合术后邻近节段退变性疾病的发生原因及治疗策略.方法 对2005年12月至2012年8月颈椎前路减压融合术后并发邻近节段退变性疾病的14例进行回顾性分析.男10例,女4例,初次手术年龄36~68岁,平均(52.0±11.0)岁.测量初次手术后颈椎整体曲度、手术节段局部曲度、钢板与上、下间隙的距离.二次手术时对节段数量≤2个且不伴严重后纵韧带或黄韧带骨化的9例采用颈椎前路减压融合内固定术,对节段数量≥3个且不伴明显后凸畸形、排列不稳及严重黄韧带骨化的3例采用颈椎后路减压椎管扩大成形术,对伴有明显后凸畸形、排列不稳且因技术原因无法行前路减压及合并严重黄韧带骨化的2例采用颈椎后路全椎板切除减压融合术.结果 初次术后邻近节段退变性疾病的发生时间为(9.3±4.4)年,二次手术时患者年龄(61.3±12.4)岁.初次术后颈椎整体曲度与手术节段局部曲度分别为12.4°±10.8°、1.5°±6.8°;钢板与上、下间隙的距离分别为(0.9±1.8)mm、(3.8±3.2) mm.二次术后平均随访(30.4±17.8)个月,末次随访时日本骨科学会颈椎病疗效评分改善率为73.9%±9.7%.结论 钢板与邻近间隙距离过小、手术节段局部曲度恢复不良可能是前路融合术后邻近节段退变性疾病的发生原因;二次手术方案的选择应根据病变累及节段、致压因素、颈椎曲度等因素进行综合分析.%Objective To investigate the risk factors and treatment strategy in treating adjacent segment diseases (ASD) after anterior cervical decompression and fusion.Methods Fourteen patients with ASD after anterior cervical decompression and fusion from December 2005 to August 2012 were analyzed.The overall curvature of the cervical spine,local curvature of surgical segments,and the distances between the plate and the upper and lower intervertebral space were measured and analyzed.10 males

  9. 大脑前动脉A1段的显微解剖与数字减影血管造影对照观测及临床意义%Microanatomy and digital subtraction angiography comparative observation of the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范锡印; 王怀彬; 付升旗; 赵东方; 苗莹莹

    2014-01-01

    目的 为临床选择颅内血管支架的类型和放置部位提供解剖学基础.方法 选取尸头标本20具,经双侧翼点入路显微解剖观测大脑前动脉A1段及其穿支血管.选取无病变的全脑DSA 100例,观测大脑前动脉A1段的走行及其穿支的开口部位.结果 显微解剖大脑前动脉A1段的长度和直径分别为(13.55±1.43) mm、(2.43±0.37) mm,DSA血管造影的长度和直径分别为(13.42±1.57) mm、(2.28 ±0.40) mm,显微解剖与DSA血管造影直径的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).大脑前动脉A1段的穿支发自其后上壁,近侧段穿支数目(2.55±0.39)支,中间段(0.52±0.46)支,远侧段(1.12±0.11)支,近侧、中间、远侧段的穿支数目的差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).男性较女性的大脑前动脉A1段长、直径粗,两者差异均有统计学意义(P值均<0.05).结论 大脑前动脉A1段的显微解剖与数字减影血管造影对照观测对临床选择颅内血管支架的类型和放置部位,避免血管支架阻塞穿支开口处,防止术后穿支供应区域缺血等具有重要的临床意义.%Objective To provide anatomical basis for selecting the types and placing parts of vascular stent.Methods Twenty head specimens were selected and the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and its perforators were measured by the pterion approach.One hundred digital subtraction angiography(DSA) images with no diseases of whole brain were selected,the course of the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery and the opening parts of its perforators were observed.Results The length and external diameter of the microanatomy were (13.55 ± 1.43) mm and (2.43 ± 0.37) mm,respectively.The length and diameter of the DSA angiography of the A1 segment of anterior cerebral artery were (13.42 ± 1.57) mm and (2.28 ±0.40) mm respectively.There were significant differences in the diameter between the microanatomy and DSA angiography (P < 0.05).The perforators of the A1 segment of

  10. Clinical Effectiveness and Influence on Adjacent Segments Degeneration after Single-level Anterior Cervical Fusion%单节段颈椎前路减压融合术对邻近节段退变的影响及疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑兆君; 邱玉金; 刘文华; 李军磊; 曹亮波

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and influence on adjacent segments degenera-tion after single-level anterior cervical fusion.Methods A retrospective study was given to 40 patients who underwent single-level anterior cervical fusion from Aug.2007 to Dec.2010 and 40 patients with cervical spondylosis of the same age for the same period(imaging showed only a single segment lesions ) underwent conservative therapypatient .The disc degeneration were evaluated using intervertebral disc height and disc Pfirrmann MRI degeneration score .The clinical ef-fectiveness were evaluated using cervical JOA score ,the neck disability index(NDI) .Results The surgical group and conservative group had a statistically significant difference (P0.05) in cervi-cal JOA score and NDI than 1 week after that.Conclusion Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion can lead to degener-ation at the adjacent segment,but the clinical effectiveness are worthy of recognition .%  目的探讨单节段颈椎前路减压融合术对邻近节段退变的影响及手术疗效.方法回顾性分析2007年8月~2010年12月我科收治的40例行单节段颈椎前路减压融合术患者及同期同年龄段颈椎病(影像学显示仅单节段病变)且行保守治疗的患者资料.采用椎间隙高度及椎间盘Pfirrmann MRI退变评分作为评价椎间盘退变指标;采用颈椎JOA评分、颈椎功能障碍指数(NDI)作为手术疗效评价指标.结果术后24个月时,与对照组相比,手术组邻近节段椎间隙高度明显降低,差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论颈椎前路减压融合术后邻近节段易发生退变,但疗效值得肯定.

  11. Distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism according to axis orientation of anterior corneal astigmatism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Miyake

    Full Text Available To investigate the distribution of posterior corneal astigmatism in eyes with with-the-rule (WTR and against-the-rule (ATR anterior corneal astigmatism.We retrospectively examined six hundred eight eyes of 608 healthy subjects (275 men and 333 women; mean age ± standard deviation, 55.3 ± 20.2 years. The magnitude and axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were determined with a rotating Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR, Oculus when we divided the subjects into WTR and ATR anterior corneal astigmatism groups.The mean magnitudes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism were 1.14 ± 0.76 diopters (D, and 0.37 ± 0.19 D, respectively. We found a significant correlation between the magnitudes of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.4739, P<0.001. In the WTR anterior astigmatism group, we found ATR astigmatism of the posterior corneal surface in 402 eyes (96.6%. In the ATR anterior astigmatism group, we found ATR posterior corneal astigmatism in 82 eyes (73.9%. Especially in eyes with ATR anterior corneal astigmatism of 1 D or more and 1.5 D or more, ATR posterior corneal astigmatism was found in 28 eyes (59.6% and 9 eyes (42.9%, respectively.WTR anterior astigmatism and ATR posterior astigmatism were found in approximately 68% and 91% of eyes, respectively. The magnitude and the axis orientation of posterior corneal astigmatism were not constant, especially in eyes having high ATR anterior corneal astigmatism, as is often the case in patients who have undergone toric IOL implantation.

  12. Clinical outcomes of selective anterior cervical corpectomy combined with segmental disectomy and fusion for treating three-level cervical myelopathy%前路选择性椎体切除结合单间隙减压植骨融合术治疗三节段脊髓型颈椎病的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹涌; 张烽; 陈向东; 姜星杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical outcomes of selective anterior cervical corpectomy combined with segmental disectomy and fusion for treating three-level cervical myelopathy. Methods Thirtee patients of multilevel cervical myelopathy with 3 consecutive segments were treated with anterior cervical corpectomy combined with segmental disectomy and fusion. Study parameters included JOA score and grading the Odom criteria. The sagittal segmental alignment of fusion levels was measured using the Cobb method before and after surgery. Graft fusion rate was observed during final follow up. Results The patients were followed up for 12 to 39 months. The JOA score of 13 patients was higher three months after surgery than that before[(14. 6± 1.0) points vs. (11.1 ± 1.0) points] (P<0. 01). Surgical results of Odom criteria were excellent in 8 cases, good in 3 cases, fair in 2 cases. Graft fusion rate was 100%. Radiograph analysis indicated that the Cobb angle of mean segmental lordosis was 3.7 degrees before, 10.7 degrees one week later and 10.4 degrees during the final follow up. Conclusion Selective anterior cervical corpectomy combined with segmental disectomy and fusion results in high fusion rates with sufficient decompression in the treatment of three-level cervical myelopathy.%目的 分析颈前路选择性椎体次全切除十单间隙减压植骨融合术治疗三节段脊髓型颈椎病的临床疗效.方法 13例脊髓型颈椎病患者行颈前路选择性椎体次全切除十单间隙减压、自体髂骨植骨、钢板内固定术.分析术前及随访时的日本骨科协会(JOA)评分,记录术后Odom分级.测量术前、术后1周及末次随访时颈椎侧位X线片,观察术后颈椎植骨融合率、颈椎曲度(Cobb角)维持、症状及功能改善率.结果 13例患者随访12~39个月,术后3个月JOA评分为(14.6±1.0)分,明显高于术前的(11.1±1.0)分(P<0.01).术后Odom分级:优8例,良3例,一般2例,植骨融合率100%.

  13. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  14. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feel a thing, the shape of your lenses changed. When you look at things up close, the ... and Contact Lenses Why Do Eyes Water? Pinkeye Blindness Corneal Abrasions I Was Born Blind: Julia's Story ...

  15. Lipid Peroxidation: Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Implications in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker, in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release

  16. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  17. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  18. Real Time Eye Tracking in Unconstrained Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Tajeri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an effective method for human eye tracking and also decreasing the current challenges and problems in its algorithms, possibly as real time and for unconstrained environments has been proposed. In this method, firstly face has been detected and segmented from the remaining parts to make the searching area in tracking stage, narrower and processing speed higher. Then eye area is determined and eye pupils are detected in the specified area. In the proposed method, to support tracking in eye occlusion state, corner detection has been additionally used. Experimental results show the potential of this method for real time eye tracking in unconstrained environments with existence of complex background, head and face rotation, beard, makeup, eye glasses and veil, even while the eyes are closed. The correct recognition rate of the proposed method is about 91.9%.

  19. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Safety Sports Eye Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Work Edited by: Shirley Dang Feb. ...

  20. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of the most common ... depends on the underlying cause. What is pink eye? Pink eye, also known as conjunctivitis, involves inflammation ...

  1. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  2. The sugery for adjacent segment degenerative disease after previous anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion%颈前路椎体次全切除融合术后邻近节段病的手术治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海龙; 贺石生; 丁悦; 顾广飞; 李忠海; 溪铁胜

    2012-01-01

    颈前路椎体次全切除融合术(anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion,ACCF)是治疗神经根及脊髓型颈椎病的有效方法,但随之而来的邻近节段退变问题成为广泛关注的焦点.既往文献报告引起症状的邻近节段退变的发生率达7%~17%,部分患者需要手术干预[1].1997年8月~2007年8月对42例ACCF后邻近节段退变性疾病患者行再手术治疗,总结如下.

  3. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  4. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Galhotra, Virat; Sheikh, Soheyl; Jindal, Sanjeev; Singla, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare disorder, characterized by neurofibromas or cafι-au-lait macules limited to one region of the body. Its occurrence on the face is extremely rare and only few cases of segmental neurofibromatosis over the face have been described so far. We present a case of segmental neurofibromatosis involving the buccal mucosa, tongue, cheek, ear, and neck on the right side of the face.

  5. 节段型严重颈椎后纵韧带骨化症前路、后路手术的疗效比较与选择策略%Anterior or posterior approach for segmental severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine: the efficacy and selection strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷涛; 申勇; 王林峰; 丁文元; 张为; 张迪

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and selection of anterior and posterior approaches for segmental severe ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL)of the cervical spine.Method From January 2007 to May 2011,59 patients with segmental severe OPLL underwent surgical treatment,including 41 males and 18 females,with an average age of 55.7 years.Among them,24 patients underwent anterior corpectomy and fusion,and 35 patients underwent laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation.In two groups,the operation time,intraoperative blood loss,change of cervical curvature,neck axial symptoms,and JOA (Japanese Orthopaedic Association) score were recorded and compared.Result All patients were followed up for 12 to 18 months (average,15.4 months).The average JOA score in anterior approach group increased from preoperative 7.33 ± 1.09 to 13.63±0.82 at final follow-up,with an average improvement rate of 65.16% ±7.50%; the average JOA score in posterior approach group increased from preoperative 7.20 ± 1.05 to 12.23 ± 1.11 at final follow-up,with an improvement rate of 51.46%±9.64%; and the difference between two groups was statistically significant.Immediately after the operation,the segmental curvature of the operative site was 5.38°±1.14° in anterior approach group and 3.89°±1.65° in posterior approach group,and the difference was statistically significant.At final follow-up,the rate of neck axial symptoms was 20.83% in anterior approach group and 51.43% in posterior approach group,and the difference was also statistically significant.Conclusion For severe OPLL with not more than 3 segments of ossification,the anterior approach can remove the ossified mass directly,get a better neurological recovery,provide a good biomechanical alignment,and decrease the postoperative axial symptoms.However,posterior laminectomy and lateral mass screw fixation also can obtain enough decompression and maintain the segmental curvature.%目的 探讨前路和

  6. Eye retraction in the giant guitarfish, Rhynchobatus djiddensis (Elasmobranchii: Batoidea): a novel mechanism for eye protection in batoid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Taketeru; Murakumo, Kiyomi; Miyamoto, Kei; Sato, Keiichi; Oka, Shin-ichiro; Kamisako, Haruka; Toda, Minoru

    2016-02-01

    Eye retraction behavior has evolved independently in some vertebrate linages such as mudskippers (fish), frogs and salamanders (amphibians), and cetaceans (mammals). In this paper, we report the eye retraction behavior of the giant guitarfish (Rhynchobatus djiddensis) for the first time, and discuss its mechanism and function. The eye retraction distance was nearly the same as the diameter of the eyeball itself, indicating that eye retraction in the giant guitarfish is probably one of the largest among vertebrates. Eye retraction is achieved by unique arrangement of the eye muscle: one of the anterior eye muscles (the obliquus inferior) is directed ventrally from the eyeball and attaches to the ventral surface of the neurocranium. Due to such muscle arrangement, the obliquus inferior can pull the eyeball ventrally. This mechanism was also confirmed by electrical stimulation of the obliquus inferior. The eye retraction ability of the giant guitarfish likely represents a novel eye protection behavior of elasmobranch fishes. PMID:26468088

  7. Results of cataract surgery and plasma ablation posterior capsulotomy in anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the feasibility and outcome of lens aspiration, and Fugo blade-assisted capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy in eyes with anterior persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV. Materials and Methods: In this case series, 10 eyes of 10 patients with anterior PHPV underwent lens aspiration. The vascularized posterior capsule was cut with a Fugo blade (plasma knife and removed with a vitrector. A foldable posterior chamber intraocular lens (IOL was implanted in eight eyes and the outcomes were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.8 ± 6.37 months (range: 5 to 28 months. The surgery was completed successfully in all eyes. There were no cases of intraocular hemorrhage intraoperatively. Foldable acrylic IOL was implanted in the bag in 3 eyes and in the sulcus in 5 eyes. Two eyes were microphthalmic and did no undergo IOL implantation (aphakic. None of the eyes had a significant reaction or elevated intraocular pressure postoperatively. The follow-up ranged from 4 to 21 months. All the pseudophakic eyes achieved a best corrected visual acuity of ≥20/200 with 50% (4/8 of these eyes with ≥20/60 vision. Conclusion: Lens aspiration followed by posterior capsulotomy with Fugo blade-assisted plasma ablation is a feasible technique for performing successful lens surgery in cases with florid anterior PHPV.

  8. Segmental Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesudian Devakar

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmental neurofibromatosis is a rare variant of neurofibromatosis in which the lesions are confined to one segment or dermatome of the body. They resemble classical neurofibromas in their morphology, histopathology and electron microscopy. However, systemic associations are usually absent. We report one such case with these classical features.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes of Dry ... Eye Diagnosis Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: Devin A ...

  10. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...... their evaluation of fish - for example by focusing on quality. Therefore, taking heterogeneity between segments into account makes a lot of difference, quantitatively as well as qualitatively....

  11. Human Segmentation Using Haar-Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharani S

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is an important process in many aspects of multimedia applications. Fast and perfect segmentation of moving objects in video sequences is a basic task in many computer visions and video investigation applications. Particularly Human detection is an active research area in computer vision applications. Segmentation is very useful for tracking and recognition the object in a moving clip. The motion segmentation problem is studied and reviewed the most important techniques. We illustrate some common methods for segmenting the moving objects including background subtraction, temporal segmentation and edge detection. Contour and threshold are common methods for segmenting the objects in moving clip. These methods are widely exploited for moving object segmentation in many video surveillance applications, such as traffic monitoring, human motion capture. In this paper, Haar Classifier is used to detect humans in a moving video clip some features like face detection, eye detection, full body, upper body and lower body detection.

  12. Galvanic vestibular stimulation may improve anterior bending posture in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yohei; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of binaural monopolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which likely stimulates the bilateral vestibular system, on the anterior bending angle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with anterior bending posture in a single-blind, randomized sham-controlled crossover trial. The seven PD patients completed two types of stimulation (binaural monopolar GVS and sham stimulation) applied in a random order 1 week apart. We measured each patient's anterior bending angles while he or she stood with eyes open and eyes closed before/after the stimulations. The anterior bending angles in both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed conditions were significantly reduced after the GVS. The amount of change in the eyes-closed condition post-GVS was significantly larger than that by sham stimulation. The amount of change in anterior bending angles in the GVS condition was not significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, disease duration, the duration of the postural deformities, and the anterior bending angles before the GVS. Binaural monopolar GVS might improve anterior bending posture in PD patients, irrespective of the duration and the severity of disease and postural deformities. Binaural monopolar GVS might be a novel treatment strategy to improve anterior bending posture in PD. PMID:25793635

  13. Evaluation of the Correlation Between Tear Meniscus Parameters and Conventional Dry Eye Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seray Aslan Bayhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between clinical tests, patient symptoms and spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT; RTVue, Optovue-derived lower tear meniscus (TM parameters and to verify sensitivity and specificity of TM parameters in the diagnosis of dry eye disease. Material and Method: 38 eyes of 38 patients (22 dry eye patients, 16 healthy subjects were examined in this prospective study. After routine ophthalmologic examination, anterior segment OCT-derived TM height (TMH, TM depth (TMD, and TM area (TMA were measured, and tear break-up time (TBUT and Schirmer test with anesthesia were assessed in all patients. For evaluation of symptoms, the participants completed ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire. Correlation between tests was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Results: There was a significant positive correlation between Schirmer test results and TMH, TMA and TMD (r=0.79, 0.58, 0.58, respectively. TBUT was positively correlated with TMH, however, it was not correlated with TMA and TMD (r=0.63, 0.14 and 0.10, respectively. There was no significant correlation between OSDI score and 3 parameters of TM. TM measurements were significantly lower in dry eyes than in controls. Sensitivity and specificity for dry eye diagnosis were 81.5% and 86.8% for TMH, 78.9% and 76.3% for TMA, and 76.3%, and 52.6% for TMD, respectively. Discussion: OCT-derived TM parameters were correlated with Schirmer test, but there was no correlation between TM parameters and patient symptoms. TM measurements have high sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of dry eye. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 446-50

  14. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  15. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  16. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound wand (transducer) is placed against the front surface ...

  17. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of chemicals. Fumes and aerosols can also cause chemical burns. With acid burns, the haze on the ... something has gone into (penetrated) the eyeball Any chemical gets ... and red Nausea or headache occur with the eye pain (this may be ...

  18. Repeatability and reproducibility of scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer——the Handan Eye Study%周边前房深度扫描分析仪的可重复性及一致性研究——邯郸眼病研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张烨; 李思珍; 王宁利

    2014-01-01

    致性;可关闭房角判断方面,SPAC在正常者具有良好的测量者间一致性,在浅前房者一致性为中度.%Background Early diagnosis of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and screening or case detection of high risk population have become a major challenge in the prevention and treatment of PACG.Commonly used methods for evaluation of anterior chamber depth (ACD) and anterior chamber angle nowadays have their shortcomings.Scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) measures ACD and evaluates the risk of angle closure.Also,SPAC is handy,objective and noninvasive.Objective This study was to evaluate the repeatability (within-rater differences) and reproducibility (between-rater differences) of SPAC to measure anterior chamber-related parameters and agreement of SPAC to estimate occludable angle between two operators.Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was designed.Thirty subjects with shallow ACD (modified van Herick grading≤ 3 and Shaffer grading≤2) aged 35 years and older,who met the inclusion criterion were enrolled as shallow anterior chamber group and 30 age-and gender-matched normal adults (modified van Herick grading≤3 and Shaffer grading≤2)from the follow-up research of the Handan Eye Study in February 2013.After an elementary eye examination,a randomly selected eye of each subject in both groups received three consecutive SPAC measurements by each of the two examiners,respectively to obtain ACD,central corneal thickness (CCT) and corneal radius of curvature (CRC).Meanwhile,the identity of occludable angle as the numerical grade was 5 or fewer and/or the categorical grade being S or P was also obtained.The repeatability of each examiner was evaluated by the repeatability limit (RL) and the reproducibility of the two examiners was evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC).The agreement of occludable angle estimation between two operators was evaluated using Kappa coefficient.Results The RLs

  19. Anterior surgery for the treatment of acute single segment 30 cases of cervical disc%前路手术治疗急性单节段颈椎间盘突出30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴成如; 张诗虎

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究探讨前路颈椎间盘切除+椎间融合器+钛板内固定治疗急性颈椎间盘突出症的效果.方法 采用前路手术对我科2008-03-2011-03收治的30例急性颈椎间盘突出症患者进行治疗,所有患者均获得平均15个月的随访,根据术后摄片及JOA评分判断疗效.结果 在随访过程中,所有患者均未出现临床并发症,术后摄片显示均获得骨性融合,依据JOA评分标准:优(改善率大于75%)20例,良(改善率50~75%)8例,好转(改善率25~50%)2例.结论 该方法治疗急性颈椎间盘突出症可达到充分减压、重建颈椎生理曲度、恢复椎间隙高度、椎体间高融合率、颈椎牢固固定的作用.而且该术式操作简单,手术时间短、出血少、并发症少,是治疗急性颈椎间盘突出一种可靠方法.%Objective research and discuss the effect of the treatment of acute cervical disc herniation by using anterior cervical discectomy, Intervertebral fusion and Internal fixation with titanium plate. Methods 30 cases of patients with acute cervical disc herniation in our department in March 2008-March 2011 were treated by using anterior surgery,all patients received an average of 15 months of follow-up visit,then judge the curative effect according to postoperative radiography and JOA scores. Results In the process of follow-up, all patients did not show clinical complications, postoperative radiography showed bony fusion,according to JOA scoring criteria, optimal (improvement rate more than 75%) 20 cases, fine (improvement rate 50%~75%) 8 cases,improved (improvement rate 25%-50%) 2 cases. Conclusion the treatment of acute cervical disc herniation can achieve full decompression, reconstruction of cervical physiological curvature, restore interverte-bral disc height,high fusion rate between the vertebral bodies, cervical vertebra firmly fixed. And the operation is simple,short operation time,less bleeding,fewer complications,so the treatment of acute

  20. Is ultrasonography essential before surgery in eyes with advanced cataracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Amjad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. Aim: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. Setting: Tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. Results: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6% had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1% was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P=0.003 and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P=0.001 were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P=0.000, iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P=0.000, inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P=0.002, elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P=0.004, and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P=0.004 were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5% without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.

  1. Intervention of laser periphery iridectomy to posterior iris bowing in high myopic eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hong-tao; WANG Ning-li; LI Shu-ning

    2012-01-01

    Background For some high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing,laser periphery iridectomy should be performed pre-operation to prevent pupil block glaucoma if these patients would have phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct high myopia.So we had the opportunity to analysis the influence of laser iridectomy on posterior iris bowing.Methods Eighteen high myopic patients with posterior iris bowing (11 males and 7 females) were involved in the study in Beijing Tongren Eye Center from March 2008 to July 2008.Phakic intraocular lens were implanted to correct their ametropia.The mean age was (32±6) years (range,25-40 years).The center anterior chamber depth,the pupil diameter,the posterior iris bowing depth and the anterior chamber angle were measured with anterior segment coherence tomography (AS-OCT) under the normal condition,myosis condition induced by 2% pilocarpine,laser periphery iridectomy after myosis,and 2% pilocarpine eluting condition respectively.Results There was no significant difference of center anterior chamber depth under the four conditions (P=0.512).The pupil constricted after pilocarpine (P=0.001).After laser iridectomy performed and pilocarpine eluted,posterior iris bowing depth reduced more than that in normal condition (P=0.003).The anterior chamber angle reduced significantly after laser periphery iridectomy and pilocarpine eluted (P=0.012).Conclusion Laser periphery iridectomy can reduce the posterior iris bowing,which might be due to the change in aqueous circulate pathway.

  2. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... t work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over ...

  3. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – or ... yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, when ...

  5. Capsid Mutated Adeno-Associated Virus Delivered to the Anterior Chamber Results in Efficient Transduction of Trabecular Meshwork in Mouse and Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bogner

    Full Text Available Adeno associated virus (AAV is well known for its ability to deliver transgenes to retina and to mediate improvements in animal models and patients with inherited retinal disease. Although the field is less advanced, there is growing interest in AAV's ability to target cells of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to fully articulate a reliable and reproducible method for injecting the anterior chamber (AC of mice and rats and to investigate the transduction profiles of AAV2- and AAV8-based capsid mutants containing self-complementary (sc genomes in the anterior segment of the eye.AC injections were performed in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. The cornea was punctured anterior of the iridocorneal angle. To seal the puncture site and to prevent reflux an air bubble was created in the AC. scAAVs expressing GFP were injected and transduction was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both parent serotype and capsid modifications affected expression. scAAV2- based vectors mediated efficient GFP-signal in the corneal endothelium, ciliary non-pigmented epithelium (NPE, iris and chamber angle including trabecular meshwork, with scAAV2(Y444F and scAAV2(triple being the most efficient.This is the first study to semi quantitatively evaluate transduction of anterior segment tissues following injection of capsid-mutated AAV vectors. scAAV2- based vectors transduced corneal endothelium, ciliary NPE, iris and trabecular meshwork more effectively than scAAV8-based vectors. Mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine residues greatly enhanced transduction efficiency of scAAV2 in these tissues. The number of Y-F mutations was not directly proportional to transduction efficiency, however, suggesting that proteosomal avoidance alone may not be sufficient. These results are applicable to the development of targeted, gene-based strategies to investigate pathological processes of the anterior segment and may be applied toward the development of gene

  6. MARKET SEGMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Munaga Ramakrishna Mohan Rao

    2015-01-01

    Market segmentation is a marketing strategy that involves dividing a broad target market into subsets of consumers, businesses, or countries who have common needs and priorities, and then designing and implementing strategies to target them. Market segmentation strategies may be used to identify the target customers, and provide supporting data for positioning to achieve a marketing plan objective. Businesses may develop product differentiation strategies, or an undifferentiated approach, inv...

  7. Fingerprint Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jomaa, Diala

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, a new algorithm has been proposed to segment the foreground of the fingerprint from the image under consideration. The algorithm uses three features, mean, variance and coherence. Based on these features, a rule system is built to help the algorithm to efficiently segment the image. In addition, the proposed algorithm combine split and merge with modified Otsu. Both enhancements techniques such as Gaussian filter and histogram equalization are applied to enhance and improve th...

  8. Gene expression suggests double-segmental and single-segmental patterning mechanisms during posterior segment addition in the beetle Tribolium castaneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    In the model arthropod Drosophila, all segments are patterned simultaneously in the blastoderm. In most other arthropods, however, posterior segments are added sequentially from a posterior segment addition zone. Posterior addition of single segments likely represents the ancestral mode of arthropod segmentation, although in Drosophila, segments are patterned in pairs by the pair-rule genes. It has been shown that in the new model insect, the beetle Tribolium, a segmentation clock operates that apparently patterns all segments in pairs as well. Here, I report on the expression of the segment polarity gene H15/midline in Tribolium. In the anterior embryo, segmental stripes of H15 appear in pairs, but in the posterior of the embryo stripes appear in a single-segmental periodicity. This implies that either two completely different segmentation-mechanisms may act in the germ band of Tribolium, that the segmentation clock changes its periodicity during development, or that the speed in which posterior segments are patterned changes. In any case, the data suggest the presence of another (or modified), yet undiscovered, mechanism of posterior segment addition in one of the best-understood arthropod models. The finding of a hitherto unrecognized segmentation mechanism in Tribolium may have major implications for the understanding of the origin of segmentation mechanisms, including the origin of pair rule patterning. It also calls for (re)-investigation of posterior segment addition in Tribolium and other previously studied arthropod models.

  9. Graves' disease presenting as unilateral anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monigari, Naresh; Deshpande, Anirudda; Nalabothu, Murali; Rao, Shilpa

    2014-03-19

    We report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with 1-day history of sudden diminution of vision in the right eye. Examination showed unilateral exophthalmos with restricted eyeball movement on upward gaze in the right eye. MRI of the orbit showed no evidence of compression of the optic nerve on the right side. Visual-evoked potential showed prolonged P100 in the right eye. Fundus examination revealed swollen optic disc and para papillary nerve fibre layer splinter haemorrhages with corresponding altitudinal field defect on perimetry suggestive of anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.

  10. NEURAL NETWORK APPROACH FOR EYE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalaxmi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Driving support systems, such as car navigation systems are becoming common and they support driver in several aspects. Non-intrusive method of detecting Fatigue and drowsiness based on eye-blink count and eye directed instruction controlhelps the driver to prevent from collision caused by drowsy driving. Eye detection and tracking under various conditions such as illumination, background, face alignment and facial expression makes the problem complex.Neural Network based algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect the eyes efficiently. In the proposed algorithm, first the neural Network is trained to reject the non-eye regionbased on images with features of eyes and the images with features of non-eye using Gabor filter and Support Vector Machines to reduce the dimension and classify efficiently. In the algorithm, first the face is segmented using L*a*btransform color space, then eyes are detected using HSV and Neural Network approach. The algorithm is tested on nearly 100 images of different persons under different conditions and the results are satisfactory with success rate of 98%.The Neural Network is trained with 50 non-eye images and 50 eye images with different angles using Gabor filter. This paper is a part of research work on “Development of Non-Intrusive system for realtime Monitoring and Prediction of Driver Fatigue and drowsiness” project sponsored by Department of Science & Technology, Govt. of India, New Delhi at Vignan Institute of Technology and Sciences, Vignan Hills, Hyderabad.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  12. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. PMID:27288649

  13. Segmentation of moving images by the human visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantelau, K

    1997-08-01

    New segments appearing in an image sequence or spontaneously accelerated segments are band limited by the visual system due to a nonperfect tracking of these segments by eye movements. In spite of this band limitation and acceleration of segments, a coarse segmentation (initial segmentation phase) can be performed by the visual system. This is interesting for the development of purely automatic segmentation algorithms for multimedia applications. In this paper the segmentation of the visual system is modelled and used in an automatic coarse initial segmentation. A suitable model for motion processing based on a spectral representation is presented and applied to the segmentation of synthetic and real image sequences with band limited and accelerated moving foreground and background segments.

  14. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Turgut Coban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was controlled with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cycloplegic and steroid therapy. After four months, visual acuity was 20/20 and the intraocular pressure was under control with 0.5% timolol maleate and 1% brinzolamide. Controlled reduction of the intraocular pressure should be considered, particularly in older patients under anticoagulant therapy and that had undergone prior ocular surgery.

  15. Hemorrhagic choroidal detachment after use of anti-glaucomatous eye drops: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Deniz Turgut; Erol, Muhammet Kazim; Yucel, Ozgur

    2013-10-01

    Eighty-two-year-old patient with a pacemaker using warfarin due to arrhythmia and having an intraocular lens in the right eye, developed spontaneous hemorrhagic choroidal detachment one day after the use of combined preparation of 0.5% timolol maleate and 0.004% travoprost, due to primary open-angle glaucoma. Hemorrhagic detachment was detected by anterior and posterior segment examination, as well as B-scan ultrasonography. After the detachment, excessive increased intraocular pressure was controlled with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, cycloplegic and steroid therapy. After four months, visual acuity was 20/20 and the intraocular pressure was under control with 0.5% timolol maleate and 1% brinzolamide. Controlled reduction of the intraocular pressure should be considered, particularly in older patients under anticoagulant therapy and that had undergone prior ocular surgery. PMID:24232947

  16. 单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤的栓塞治疗(附48例报告)%Embolization for the treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm: a report of 48 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭庆东; 刘伟; 付洛安; 张磊; 张学析; 胡晶; 费舟

    2011-01-01

    目的 总结使用可脱弹簧圈栓塞治疗48例单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤的经验和方法.方法 2009年1月-2010年4月西京医院收治的单侧A1优势前交通动脉瘤患者48例,其中男23例,女25例,年龄32~72岁,平均53.4岁.全部动脉瘤均在术中应用旋转成像图像后处理技术,并采用弹簧圈进行动脉瘤内栓塞治疗,采用双侧颈动脉置管技术监测栓塞术中载瘤动脉通畅情况.对宽颈动脉瘤采用支架辅助技术,球囊辅助瘤颈重塑形技术,微导管、微导丝辅助技术保持载瘤动脉通畅.其中38例术后6个月复查全脑血管造影,了解已栓塞动脉瘤及前交通动脉通畅情况.结果 48例患者中动脉瘤致密栓塞39例(81.25%),90%以上栓塞6例(12.50%),90%以下栓塞3例(6.25%);术中出血 1例(2.08%),前交通动脉闭塞3例(6.25%),前交通动脉闭塞后对侧代偿2例(4.17%).随访均无再出血,38例复查全脑血管造影见动脉瘤栓塞致密、前交通动脉血流通畅.结论 单侧主供血前交通动脉瘤栓塞治疗术中应注意保持前交通动脉通畅,使用微导管或微导丝置于瘤颈处辅助栓塞有一定帮助.%Objective To summarize the experience and method of endovascular treatment of unilateral A1 segment anterior communicating artery aneurysm with detachable coils. Methods Forty-eight patients with unilateral Al anterior communicating artery aneurysm (23 males and 25 females, age ranged from 32 to 72 years with mean of 53.4, hospitalized in Xijing hospital from Jan. 2009 to Apr. 2010) were involved in present study. All of the aneurysms were measured with rotational digital subtraction angiography (RDSA) and image post-processing techniques, and they were embolized with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs). The patency of the parent arteries was monitored by catheterization in both carotid arteries in the process of treatment Stent-assisted, balloon remodeling, microcatheter and microwire assisted techniques were used

  17. Comparison of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion for the treatment of multi-segmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy%前路椎间盘切除减压融合与椎体次全切除减压融合治疗多节段颈椎病疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴畏; 朱天亮

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较前路椎间盘减压融合( ACDF)与前路椎体次全切除减压融合( ACCF)治疗多节段颈椎病的效果。方法将138例多节段脊髓型颈椎病患者按照治疗方式的不同分为观察组(行ACDF治疗)和对照组(行ACCF治疗),比较两组手术时间、术中出血量、术后住院时间、术前与术后6个月颈椎总活动度、颈椎曲度、颈椎节段性高度及JOA评分。结果手术时间:观察组(128.3±32.4)min,对照组(163.2±43.6)min;术中出血量:观察组(161.4±122.5)ml,对照组(319.2±308.7)ml;以上指标观察组均少于对照组(P0.05)。术后颈椎曲度:观察组23.5°±7.4°,对照组16.1°±7.2°;椎间节段性高度:观察组5.6°±0.4°,对照组4.7°±0.8°;以上指标两组比较差异有统计学意义(P0. 05 ) . Postoperative cervical curvature: the observation group was 23. 5° ± 7. 4°, the control group was 16. 1° ± 7. 2°;intervertebral segmental height:observation group was 5. 6° ± 0. 4°, the control group was 4. 7° ± 0. 8°; between these indicators there were statistically significant differences between groups ( P <0. 05 ) . Conclusions Compared with ACCF, ACDF has shorter operative time, less blood loss, cervical physiological curvature and height of intervertebral segment recovered well, but there is no statistically significant differences on postoperative hospital stay time, postoperative JOA score and cervical total activity.

  18. Treatment of lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis by one-stage anterior debridement and fusion combined with dual screw-rod anterior instrumentation underneath the iliac vessel

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Ting; He, Xijing; Li, Haopeng; Xu, Siyue

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been no consensus regarding what is the optimal means of treating lumbosacral segment tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcomes of our newly developed one-stage anterior debridement and fusion combined with dual screw-rod construct anterior instrument underneath the iliac vessels for lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis. Methods We retrospectively reviewed 22 patients with lumbosacral spinal tuberculosis who underwent one-stage anterior debridem...

  19. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  20. Comparative analysis on biological measurement of anterior segment structure in some Fuzhou colleges and primary students%福州市部分大学生和小学生眼前节结构生物测量对比分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙堂胜; 过贵元; 吴生泉; 薛建设

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate relation between the part of the anatomy structure of the anterior segment and age in some Fuzhou students. Methods The ciliary body, iris, anterior chamber angle and other relevant data of 54 primary school students and 51 college students in Fuzhou were detected with an ultrasound biomicroseopy (UBM),and statistical analysis was underwent. Results The data in primary students group were CPD (160.53 ±17. 78),CT (90.01 ±34. 30),ICPD (23. 11 ±3. 33), IDt (35.95 ±6. 60),ID2 (52.81 ±9.94),θ3 (39.23 ±7.46) ,θ4 (56.02 ±6.75), and TCPD (151.27 ±23. 11) respectively. The data in college students group were CPD (214. 64 ± 15. 25), CT (99. 13 ±17. 80),ICPD (27.92 ±9.00),IDl (40.72±6.43),ID2 (56.57 ±9. 13),θ3 (43.73 ±6. 93),θ4 (60. 15 ±10.48),and TCPD (176.82 ± 28.06 ) respectively. There were highly significant differences in CPD, ID1,θ3, TCPD (P < 0. 01) between the primary and college students. Conclusion Significant changes occur in the development process of anterior segment and ciliary body structure,which closely related to the occurrence and development of myopia.%目的 探讨福州市部分大学生和小学生眼前节部分解剖结构随年龄增长的发展趋势.方法 采用美国产超声生物显微镜(ultrasound biomicroscopy,UBM)检测福州市54名小学生及51名大学生的睫状体、虹膜及房角等相关数据,并进行统计学分析.结果 小学生组:CPD值(160.53±17.78),CT值(90.01±34.30),ICPD值(23.11±3.33),ID1值(35.95±6.60),ID2值(52.81±9.94),θ3值(39.23±7.46),θ4值(56.02±6.75),TCPD值(151.27±23.11);大学生CPD值(214.64±15.25),CT值(99.13±17.80),ICPD值(27.92±9.00),ID1值(40.72±6.43),ID2值(56.57±9.13),θ3值(43.73±6.93),θ4值(60.15±10.48),TCPD值(176.82+28.06).其中在大学生和小学生之间,CPD、ID1、θ3、和TCPD指标均存在极显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 在人体发育过程中,与睫状体相关的眼前节结构部分指标改变明显,这些指

  1. Clinical research on segmental invisible technique with mini-implant for en-masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth%片段隐形矫治器结合微种植体内收上前牙的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金丽飞; 黄一慧; 弓国梁; 林新平

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficiency of segmental invisible technique with mini-implant for en-masse retraction of maxillary anterior teeth on the aspect of vertical and torque in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion. Methods Twelve subjects with upper dental alveolar bone protrusion were selected for this study. Arch-dimension variables were evaluated by cephalometric and dental models before and after orthodontic retraction. All data were analyzed by SPSS 20. 0 software. Results For vertical control, U1E-PP was increased by 0. 78 mm, U1AP-PP was decreased by 0. 29 mm, while the change of U1CR-PP showed no significant difference ( P>0. 05). For sagittal control, all the anterior teeth showed a decreased torque with canine displaying uprighting. Conclusion Segmen-tal invisible technique with mini-implant is efficient in the vertical and torque control of anterior teeth in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion, and it can demonstrate invisible and aesthetic orthodontic effects.%目的:评估片段隐形矫治器结合微种植体矫治前突患者时对上前牙垂直向和转矩方面的控制效果。方法选取12例双牙槽前突患者,通过测量治疗前后X线头颅定位侧位片上颌前牙矢状向与垂直向的变化值,以及模型上的转矩变化值,使用SPSS 20.0软件进行统计分析。结果治疗后上切牙切缘至腭平面距离U1E-PP增加0.78 mm,上切牙根尖点至腭平面距离U1AP-PP减小0.29 mm,上切牙阻抗中心至腭平面距离U1CR-PP的变化无统计学差异(P>0.05),上切牙阻抗中心的位置基本不变;治疗后的上前牙转矩值减少,尖牙出现直立趋势。结论片段隐形矫治技术治疗前突患者对其上前牙的垂直向和转矩控制较好,总体获得了良好的治疗效果,并且在治疗期间充分发挥了隐形、美观的矫治效果。

  2. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule. PMID:27254279

  3. Perforation forces of the intact porcine anterior lens capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich, Franziska; Lussi, Jonas; Felekis, Dimitrios; Michels, Stephan; Petruska, Andrew J; Nelson, Bradley J

    2016-09-01

    During the first step of cataract surgery, the lens capsule is perforated and a circular hole is created with a sharp instrument, a procedure called capsulorhexis. To develop automated systems that can assist ophthalmologists during capsulorhexis, the forces required must be quantified. This study investigates perforation forces of the central anterior lens capsule in porcine eyes, which are used as a conservative model for the human eye. A micro-mechanical characterisation method is presented that measures capsular bag perforation forces with a high precision positioning and high-resolution force sensing system. The force during perforation of the anterior lens capsule was measured with various sized needles and indentation speeds and is found to be 15-35mN. A bio-mechanical model is identified that describes an exponential correlation between indentation force and depth, indicating strain hardening behaviour of the porcine anterior lens capsule.

  4. Prolonged increase in tear meniscus height by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagahara Y

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagahara,1 Shizuka Koh,1 Kohji Nishida,1 Hitoshi Watanabe1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, 2Kansai Rosai Hospital, Amagasaki, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to evaluate the increase in tear meniscus height (TMH induced by 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in eyes with contact lens (CL.Methods: Ten healthy subjects wearing high-water-content CLs received topical instillation of two ophthalmic solutions – 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in one eye and artificial tears in the other eye. Lower TMH was measured at 5 minutes, 10 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after instillation by anterior segment optical coherence tomography.Results: TMH increased significantly (P<0.001 at 5 minutes and 15 minutes after instillation of saline compared with the baseline values. After instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, TMH significantly increased (P<0.05 at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes compared with the baseline values. Increases in TMH after diquafosol instillation were significantly greater (P<0.05 at 15 minutes, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes than increases in TMH after saline instillation.Conclusion: Topical instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution increases TMH for up to 60 minutes in eyes with high-water-content CLs. Keywords: diquafosol ophthalmic solution, tear meniscus height, dry eye, contact lenses, tear film

  5. 3D-CTA大脑前动脉A1-A2段夹角测量与前交通动脉瘤相关性研究%The Angles between A1 and A2 Segments of the Anterior Cerebral Artery Measured by Three-dimensional Computer Tomographic Angiography and The Relationship with Anterior Communication Artery Aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦超; 邓克学; 韦炜; 赵英明

    2010-01-01

    目的:探讨大脑前动脉A1-A2段夹角与前交通动脉(anterior communicating arterv,ACoA)动脉瘤发生的关系.方法:回顾性分析32例前交通动脉瘤及随机选取的同期35例非前交通动脉瘤影像学资料,利用3D-CTA测量A1-A2段夹角(外侧夹角);同时探讨其对前交通动脉瘤形成的可能影响.结果:32例前交通动脉瘤中,有19例大脑前动脉为A1段优势型,13例表现为A1段均衡型.3D-CTA所测得前交通动脉瘤组A1-A2段夹角平均值为99.0°±18.8°,而非前交通动脉瘤组夹角平均值为118.1°±16.4°,两者间具有统计学差异(P<0.001).A1段均衡型动脉瘤侧A1-A2段平均夹角为96.3°±18.8°,较非动脉瘤侧平均夹角(115.2°±15.3°)小11.9°±3.3°(P<0.05);结论:较小的A1一A2交界处夹角更容易发生前交通动脉瘤,这可能与该处不恰当成角造成的血流动力学改变有关.

  6. Single-segment and double-segment INTACS for post-LASIK ectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare single segment and double segment INTACS rings in the treatment of post-LASIK ectasia. In this interventional study, 26 eyes with post-LASIK ectasia were assessed. Ectasia was defined as progressive myopia regardless of astigmatism, along with topographic evidence of inferior steepening of the cornea after LASIK. We excluded those with a history of intraocular surgery, certain eye conditions, and immune disorders, as well as monocular, pregnant and lactating patients. A total of 11 eyes had double ring and 15 eyes had single ring implantation. Visual and refractive outcomes were compared with preoperative values based on the number of implanted INTACS rings. Pre and postoperative spherical equivalent were -3.92 and -2.29 diopter (P=0.007. The spherical equivalent decreased by 1 ± 3.2 diopter in the single-segment group and 2.56 ± 1.58 diopter in the double-segment group (P=0.165. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 2.38 ± 1.93 diopter which decreased to 2.14 ± 1.1 diopter after surgery (P=0.508; 0.87 ± 1.98 diopter decrease in the single-segment group and 0.67 ± 1.2 diopter increase in the double-segment group (P=0.025. Nineteen patients (75% gained one or two lines, and only three, who were all in the double-segment group, lost one or two lines of best corrected visual acuity. The spherical equivalent and vision significantly decreased in all patients. In these post-LASIK ectasia patients, the spherical equivalent was corrected better with two segments compared to single segment implantation; nonetheless, the level of astigmatism in the single-segment group was significantly better than that in the double-segment group.

  7. Iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lens for myopia moves posteriorly with mydriasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruysberg, L.P.J.; Doors, M.; Berendschot, T.T.; Brabander, J. De; Webers, C.A.; Nuijts, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To elucidate the physiological characteristics of eyes implanted with iris-fixated anterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (pIOLs), which are increasingly being used for the correction of higher myopic and hyperopic refractive errors. METHODS: In a case series of 20 patients (39 eyes), t

  8. Eye in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut N. Pandey

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic, vascular and immunological changes that occur during pregnancy can affect the function of the eye. These changes are commonly transient, but in some cases they may be permanent and have consequences even after childbirth. The ocular effects of pregnancy may be physiological or pathological and can be associated with the development of new ocular pathology or may be modifications of pre-existing conditions. The most common physiological changes are alterations of corneal sensitivity and thickness, decreased tolerance to contact lenses, decreased intraocular pressure, hemeralopia and refractive errors. Possible posterior segment changes include worsening of diabetic retinopathy, central serous chorioretinopathy, increased risk of peripheral vitreochorioretinal dystrophies and retinal detachment. Thus, it should be kept in mind that the presence of any ocular symptoms in a pregnant woman requires ophthalmologic examination and further management. Knowledge of these ocular changes can help to differentiate the physiological changes from ocular manifestation of systemic disease and diseases pertaining to the eye in a pregnant woman. This article explains the effects of ocular changes in pregnancy. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(1.000: 16-20

  9. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  10. A ROBUST EYE LOCALIZATION ALGORITHM FOR FACE RECOGNITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wencong; Li Xin; Yao Peng; Li Bin; Zhuang Zhenquan

    2008-01-01

    The accuracy of face alignment affects greatly the performance of a face recognition system.Since the face alignment is usually conducted using eye positions, the algorithm for accurate eye localization is essential for the accurate face recognition. In this paper, an algorithm is proposed for eye localization. First, the proper AdaBoost detection is adaptively trained to segment the region based on the special gray distribution in the region. After that, a fast radial symmetry operator is used to precisely locate the center of eyes. Experimental results show that the method can accurately locate the eyes, and it is robust to the variations of face poses, illuminations, expressions, and accessories.

  11. Constructal approach to bio-engineering: the ocular anterior chamber temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucia, Umberto; Grisolia, Giulia; Dolcino, Daniela; Astori, Maria Rosa; Massa, Eugenio; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to analyse the pressure inside the eyes anterior chamber, namedintraocular pressure (IOP), in relation to the biomechanical properties of corneas. The approach used was based on the constructal law, recently introduced in vision analysis. Results were expressed as the relation between the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber and the biomechanical properties of the cornea. The IOP, the elastic properties of the cornea, and the related refractive properties of the eye were demonstrated to be dependent on the temperature of the ocular anterior chamber. These results could lead to new perspectives for experimental analysis of the IOP in relation to the properties of the cornea.

  12. Laser Peripheral Iridotomy with Iridoplasty in Primary Angle Closure Suspect: Anterior Chamber Analysis by Pentacam

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong Rak; Choi, Jin Young; Kim, Yeon-Deok; Choi, Jaewan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To compare conventional laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) and LPI combined with laser peripheral iridoplasty in eyes with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) by assessment of anterior chamber dimensional changes using a Pentacam. Methods Forty-eight eyes of 24 subjects with bilateral PACS were recruited consecutively. Each eye was randomly allocated to treatment with conventional LPI, argon LPI only, or LPI plus iridoplasty, which consisted of simultaneous argon LPI and peripheral iri...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Causes ...

  15. 人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病%Artificial Disc Replacement Combined with Anterior Cervical Decompression and Autograft Bone Fusion for the Treatment of Multi-segment Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖维峰; 肖晟; 黄象望; 刘向阳; 张毅; 向铁城

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病的临床疗效。[方法]湖南省人民医院2008年2月至2012年6月收治的12例多节段颈椎病手术病例,均行人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术,随访时间为12~18个月,平均随访15.5个月,均摄术前、术后及末次随访时的颈椎正侧位及颈椎过伸过屈位X线片及磁共振检查,观察植骨融合、内固定及人工椎间盘的情况,以JO A评分评价神经功能改善情况。[结果]所有病例内置物无松动、移位,植骨融合时间在3~6个月,平均4.9个月。置换间隙活动度术后1年时为12.5°±5.0°,与术前(12.3°±4.9°)比较无统计学差异(P>0.05)。术前JOA 评分平均为9.3分,术后6个月时平均为16.1分,平均改善率为91.2%。[结论]人工椎间盘置换加颈前路椎体次全切减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病近期疗效满意,是治疗多节段颈椎病的一种可行方法。%[Objective]To explore the clinical efficacy of cervical artificial disc replacement combined with anterior cervical decompression and autograft bone fusion for the treatment of multi -segment cervical spon-dylosis .[Methods]Twelve patients with multi- segment cervical spondylosis operated in Hunan provincial people's hospital from Feb .2008 to June 2012 underwent cervical artificial disc replacement combined with an-terior cervical decompression and autograft bone fusion .The follow up time was 12~18 months(average 15 .5 months) .Cervical MRI and X-ray films of cervical normal lateral position ,hyperextension and hyperflexion position were performed before and after operation and at the last time of follow up .Bone fusion ,internal fixa-tion and artificial disc were observed .JOA score was used to evaluate the improvement of neurological func-tion .[Results]No loosening and displacement of

  16. Changes of ocular anterior segment on morphology after implantation of the implantable collamer lens for high myopia%有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体植入术后眼前节形态学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    容维宁; 孙燕; 郭慧青; 徐惠芳; 贾沁; 梁静; 殷莉; 周玲婕; 盛迅伦

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect on anterior chamber angle,corneal endothelial and adjacent tissue after implantation of phakic posterior chamber implantable collamer lens (PPC-ICL) for the correction of high myopia.Methods In this prospective,nonrandomized clinical study,106 consecutive eyes of 58 patients with high myopic received ICL implantation between January 2011 and June 2013 in the Ningxia Eye Hospital.Uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA),best corrected visual acuity (BCVA),intraocular pressure,corneal endothelial cell count were measured preoperatively and at 1 month,6 months and 12 months postoperatively.The ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) was used to observe the depth of anterior chamber (ACD) vault,angle opening distance 500 microns from the scleral spur (AOD500),trabecular-iris angle (TIA) at point 2,4,8 and 10 respectively.The repeated measurement ANOVA was used to analyzed statistical data.Results The postoperative UCVA was equally or higher compare with preoperative BCVA in all patients.Intraocular pressure and corneal endothelial cell count were no statistically significant difference between pre-and postoperative (P>0.05).The postoperaive ACD,AOD500 and TIA value were decreased significantly than preoperative at 1 month (F=12.372,21.393,22.076,21.154,21.763,19.471,19.823,19.836,19.247,P<0.05).But there were no statistically significant difference of ACD,AOD500,vault and TIA between 1-month and 6-month,12-month postoperatively.No pupillary block glaucoma or anterior capsule opacification occurred during the follow-up.Conclusion The structure of anterior chamber angle was stable and corneal endothelial cell was no obvious decrease postoperatively during 1 year follow-up.%目的 观察有晶状体眼后房型人工晶状体(PPC-ICL)植入术治疗高度近视后眼前节形态学变化,探讨PPC-ICL植入术对前房角、角膜内皮以及邻近组织的影响.方法 前瞻性研究.收集2011年1月至2013年6月在宁夏眼科医院行PPC-ICL

  17. Segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yesudian Devakar; Krishnan S. G. S; Jayaraman M; Janaki V R; Yesudian Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region...

  18. Multi-View Algorithm for Face, Eyes and Eye State Detection in Human Image- Study Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latesh Kumari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For fatigue detection such as in the application of driver‟s fatigue monitoring system, the eye state analysis is one of the important and deciding steps to determine the fatigue of driver‟s eyes. In this study, algorithms for face detection, eye detection and eye state analysis have been studied and presented as well as an efficient algorithm for detection of face, eyes have been proposed. Firstly the efficient algorithm for face detection method has been presented which find the face area in the human images. Then, novel algorithms for detection of eye region and eye state are introduced. In this paper we propose a multi-view based eye state detection to determine the state of the eye. With the help of skin color model, the algorithm detects the face regions in an YCbCr color model. By applying the skin segmentation which normally separates the skin and non-skin pixels of the images, it detects the face regions of the image under various lighting and noise conditions. Then from these face regions, the eye regions are extracted within those extracted face regions. Our proposed algorithms are fast and robust as there is not pattern match.

  19. Get Your Eyes Tested

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    ... Print This Topic En español Get Your Eyes Tested Browse Sections The Basics Overview Eye Exams Vision ... The Basics The Basics: Overview Have your eyes tested (examined) regularly to help find problems early, when ...

  20. National Eye Institute

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    ... Cryo-Electron Microscopy Learn more Video: Next-Generation Eye Imaging Tools Learn about how the NEI Audacious ... science. Audacious Goals Translational Research eyeGENE® International Research Eye and Vision Research The latest on NEI research. ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... the eyelids, cleanses the eye and washes away foreign particles or irritants. The inner layer consists of ... response to eye irritation or emotion. When a foreign body or dryness irritates the eye, or when ...

  3. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  4. Dilating Eye Drops

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    ... Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Dilating Eye Drops En Español Read in Chinese What are dilating eye drops? Dilating eye drops contain medication to enlarge ( ...

  5. Diabetes eye exams

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    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000323.htm Diabetes eye exams To use the sharing features on this ... you get regular eye exams. You Need Regular Eye Exams Even if the doctor who takes care ...

  6. Diabetes - eye care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000078.htm Diabetes - eye care To use the sharing features on this ... enable JavaScript. Diabetic retinopathy - care Diabetes and your eyes Diabetes can harm your eyes. It can damage ...

  7. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  8. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  9. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics.

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education ...

  11. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  12. Neural Network Approach for Eye Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Vijayalaxmi,; Sreehari, S

    2012-01-01

    Driving support systems, such as car navigation systems are becoming common and they support driver in several aspects. Non-intrusive method of detecting Fatigue and drowsiness based on eye-blink count and eye directed instruction controlhelps the driver to prevent from collision caused by drowsy driving. Eye detection and tracking under various conditions such as illumination, background, face alignment and facial expression makes the problem complex.Neural Network based algorithm is proposed in this paper to detect the eyes efficiently. In the proposed algorithm, first the neural Network is trained to reject the non-eye regionbased on images with features of eyes and the images with features of non-eye using Gabor filter and Support Vector Machines to reduce the dimension and classify efficiently. In the algorithm, first the face is segmented using L*a*btransform color space, then eyes are detected using HSV and Neural Network approach. The algorithm is tested on nearly 100 images of different persons under...

  13. Effect of tirofiban in acute anterior myocardial infarction patients without ST segment resolution after primary percutaneous coronary intervention%替罗非班对急诊冠状动脉介入治疗后ST段回落不良的急性前壁心肌梗死患者预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭建军; 马志敏; 任利辉; 付桂琴; 贾凯英; 雷力成; 叶慧明

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of glycoprotein receptor blockade tirofiban in acute anterior myocardial infarction patients without ST segment resolution after primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods From April 2006 to April 2008, 157 acute anterior myocardial infarction patients without ST segment resolution after PCI were randomly allocated to tirofiban (intravenous bolus 10 fig/kg followed by intravenous infusion of 0. 15 μg·kg-1·min-1 for 48 h, n =80) or equal volume saline (control group, n =77). Baseline characteristics, PCI features and clinical outcomes during hospitalization, left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEF) and major adverse cardiac events (MACE, including death, re-infarction and target vessel revascularization) at 30 and 180 days after discharge were compared between the two groups. Results The baseline clinical characteristics were comparable between the two groups. Compared to control group, the MACE rates and re-infarction rates at 30 days (6. 3% vs. 18. 2% , P < 0.05; 1.3% vs. 9. 1%, P<0.05, respectively) and 180 days (10.0% vs. 23. 4% , P<0.05; 2.5% vs. 10.4% , P < 0. 05, respectively ) were significantly reduced in tirofiban group. LVEF value was significantly higher in tirofiban group at 30 days and 180 days compared with those in control group [ (51 ± 6)% vs. (46±8)%, P<0.05; (57±7)% vs. (50±9)%, P<0.05]. Hemorrhagic complications were similar between the two groups. Conclusion Use of tirofiban for acute anterior myocardial infarction patients without ST segment resolution after PCI is safe and can significantly improve 30 and 180 days clinical outcomes after discharge.%目的 探讨血小板糖蛋白Ⅱb/Ⅲa受体拮抗剂替罗非班对直接经皮冠状动脉介入治疗后出现ST段回落不良的急性前壁心肌梗死患者预后的影响.方法 2006年4月至2008年4月共入选157例急性前壁心肌梗死患者,随机将患者分为两组.治疗组(80例)在术后1 h应用替罗非班(10

  14. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  15. Effect of primary iris and ciliary body cyst on anterior chamber angle in patients with shallow anterior chamber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-hong WANG; Yu-feng YAO

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the prevalence of primary iris and/or ciliary body cysts in eyes with shallow anterior chamber and their effect on the narrowing of the anterior chamber angle.Methods:Among the general physical check-up population,subjects with shallow anterior chambers,as judged by van Herick technique,were recruited for further investigation.Ultrasound biomicroscope (UBM) was used to detect and measure the cysts located in the iris and/or ciliary body,the anterior chamber depth (ACD),the angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500),and the trabecular-iris angle (TIA).A-scan ultrasonography was used to measure the ocular biometry,including lens thickness,axial length,lens/axial length factor (LAF),and relative lens position (RLP).The effect of the cyst on narrowing the corresponding anterior chamber angle and the entire angle was evaluated by the UBM images,ocular biometry,and gonioscopic grading.The eye with unilateral cyst was compared with the eye without the cyst for further analysis.Results:Among the 727 subjects with shallow anterior chamber,primary iris and ciliary body cysts were detected in 250 (34.4%) patients; among them 96 (38.4%) patients showed unilateral single cyst,21 (8.4%) patients had unilateral double cysts,and 42 (16.8%) patients manifested unilateral multiple and multi-quadrants cysts.Plateau iris configuration was found in 140 of 361 (38.8%) eyes with cysts.The mean size of total cysts was (0.6547±0.2319) mm.In evaluation of the effect of the cyst size and location on narrowing the corresponding angle to their position,the proportion of the cysts causing corresponding angle narrowing or closure among the cysts larger than 0.8 mm (113/121,93.4%) was found to be significantly higher than that of the cysts smaller than 0.8 mm (373/801,46.6%),and a significant higher proportion was also found in the cysts located at iridociliary sulcus (354/437,81.0%) than in that at the pars plicata (131/484,27.1%).In evaluating the effect

  16. Structural features of rabbits’ eyes and ultrasonic evaluation its dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Sinkevičiūtė, Marija

    2007-01-01

    We have realized this work in cooperation with the Laboratory of Ophtalmology, Institute for Biomedical Research, Kaunas Medical University and Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Lithuanian Veterinary Academy. Using A-mode ultrasonography, we investigated structural parameters of the rabbit eye. The intraocular dimensions measured were as follows: distance between the anterior cornea to the anterior lens (CA), Thickness of the lens, distance between the surface of the retina (V), distance ...

  17. A study of the cellular response in the anterior segment of the eye to the surface of the collagen intraocular contact lens after ICL implantation in rabbit eyes%胶原性眼内接触镜植入兔眼术后细胞学反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辜臻晟; 盛耀华; 祝肇荣; 高金榜

    2002-01-01

    目的:通过观察以胶原材料为主体的ICL植入兔眼内后的组织细胞学反应,评定胶原的生物相容性.方法:20只新西兰白兔,被分为ICL植入组、手术对照组和空白对照组.分别于术后第14天和第28天,切取每个眼的前段组织和ICL.脱水固定后,采用HE染色光镜及透射、扫描电镜技术进行ICL表面和眼前段组织细胞形态学检查.结果:ICL植入组在术后早期眼前段组织中以大量吞噬细胞浸润为主,巨噬细胞功能活跃,成纤维细胞较少.后期巨噬细胞数量减少,成纤维细胞增多.手术对照组在术后早期眼前段组织中有较多巨噬细胞存在,后期成纤维细胞显著增多,且有纤维组织形成.结论:ICL植入术后,炎症细胞变化情况显示为典型的异物肉芽肿性炎症过程.胶原性ICL具有优良的眼内生物相容性.

  18. pbx is required for pole and eye regeneration in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chieh G; Wang, Irving E; Reddien, Peter W

    2013-02-01

    Planarian regeneration involves regionalized gene expression that specifies the body plan. After amputation, planarians are capable of regenerating new anterior and posterior poles, as well as tissues polarized along the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral and medial-lateral axes. Wnt and several Hox genes are expressed at the posterior pole, whereas Wnt inhibitory genes, Fgf inhibitory genes, and prep, which encodes a TALE-family homeodomain protein, are expressed at the anterior pole. We found that Smed-pbx (pbx for short), which encodes a second planarian TALE-family homeodomain transcription factor, is required for restored expression of these genes at anterior and posterior poles during regeneration. Moreover, pbx(RNAi) animals gradually lose pole gene expression during homeostasis. By contrast, pbx was not required for initial anterior-posterior polarized responses to wounds, indicating that pbx is required after wound responses for development and maintenance of poles during regeneration and homeostatic tissue turnover. Independently of the requirement for pbx in pole regeneration, pbx is required for eye precursor formation and, consequently, eye regeneration and eye replacement in homeostasis. Together, these data indicate that pbx promotes pole formation of body axes and formation of regenerative progenitors for eyes. PMID:23318641

  19. Segmental neurofibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobjanek, Michał; Dobosz-Kawałko, Magdalena; Michajłowski, Igor; Pęksa, Rafał; Nowicki, Roman

    2014-12-01

    Segmental neurofibromatosis or type V neurofibromatosis is a rare genodermatosis characterized by neurofibromas, café-au-lait spots and neurofibromas limited to a circumscribed body region. The disease may be associated with systemic involvement and malignancies. The disorder has not been reported yet in the Polish medical literature. A 63-year-old Caucasian woman presented with a 20-year history of multiple, flesh colored, dome-shaped, soft to firm nodules situated in the right lumbar region. A histopathologic evaluation of three excised tumors revealed neurofibromas. No neurological and ophthalmologic symptoms of neurofibromatosis were diagnosed. PMID:25610358

  20. Anterior lamina cribrosa surface position in idiopathic intracranial hypertension and glaucoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villarruel, Jenni Martinez; Li, Xiao Q; Bach-Holm, Daniella;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the anterior lamina cribrosa (LC) surface position in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), primary open-angle glaucoma (high-tension glaucoma [HTG] and normal-tension glaucoma [NTG]), and healthy controls using enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical...... coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). METHODS: This was a retrospective, cross-sectional observational study of 11 eyes with IIH, 20 eyes with HTG, 20 eyes with NTG, and 37 control eyes. Serial horizontal B-scans of the optic nerve head were obtained using EDI-OCT. The LC depth, defined as the distance from...... the Bruch membrane opening plane to the anterior LC surface, was manually measured on selected B-scans covering the central three-quarters of the optic nerve head in each eye. RESULTS: Mean LC depth in patients with IIH (325.2 ± 92.1 µm) was significantly (p<0.01) decreased compared to control subjects...

  1. Evaluation of corneal thickness and topography in normal eyes using the Orbscan corneal topography system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Z.; HUANG, A; Pflugfelder, S.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To map the thickness, elevation (anterior and posterior corneal surface), and axial curvature of the cornea in normal eyes with the Orbscan corneal topography system.
METHODS—94 eyes of 51 normal subjects were investigated using the Orbscan corneal topography system. The anterior and posterior corneal elevation maps were classified into regular ridge, irregular ridge, incomplete ridge, island, and unclassified patterns, and the axial power maps were grouped into round, oval, symmetric bo...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part 5 Mar 19, 2013 Eye Makeup Safety ...

  3. Non-contact high resolution Bessel beam probe for diagnostic imaging of cornea and trabecular meshwork region in eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukeshan, V. M.; Jesmond, Hong Xun J.; Shinoj, V. K.; Baskaran, M.; Tin, Aung

    2015-07-01

    Primary angle closure glaucoma is a major form of disease that causes blindness in Asia and worldwide. In glaucoma, irregularities in the ocular aqueous outflow system cause an elevation in intraocular pressure (IOP) with subsequent death of retinal ganglion cells, resulting in loss of vision. High resolution visualization of the iridocorneal angle region has great diagnostic value in understanding the disease condition which enables monitoring of surgical interventions that decrease IOP. None of the current diagnostic techniques such as goniophotography, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) and RetCam™ can image with molecular specificity and required spatial resolution that can delineate the trabecular meshwork structures. This paper in this context proposes new concepts and methodology using Bessel beams based illumination and imaging for such diagnostic ocular imaging applications. The salient features using Bessel beams instead of the conventional Gaussian beam, and the optimization challenges in configuring the probe system will be illustrated with porcine eye samples.

  4. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  5. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with multi-segmental renal infarction: an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Yu; Yang, Yung-Nien

    2011-01-01

    A 36-year-old diabetic man came to our institution presenting with constant left flank pain. Left renal embolic infarction was found by abdominal computed tomography. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was noted on 12-lead electrocardiogram. Emergent coronary angiography revealed large thrombus burdens with complete occlusion at the left anterior descending artery ostium, which may be the embolic origin. Silent ST segment elevation myocardial infarction with acute flank pain and multiple segmental renal infarction is an unusual presentation. High vigilance may prevent delay of the "golden hour" to treat acute myocardial infarction.

  6. Surgical treatment for ruptured anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TONG Xiao-guang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA aneurysm is an extremely raretumor, which can cause severe results after ruptured. This article retrospectively analyzed the clinical symptoms, imaging manifestations, surgical approaches, endovascular therapy and postoperative outcomes of 12 cases with AICA aneurysms, so as to provide reference for clinical practice. Methods Clinical data of patients with AICA aneurysms, who were treated in our hospital between June 2004 and June 2012, were carefully collected and studied. Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS scores were used to evaluate the patients' living status. Results There were 12 patients (the average age was 54 years old with 13 ruptured aneurysms, accounting for 0.19% of all aneurysms (6467 cases treated in the same period. CT showed simple subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in 6 patients, simple ventricular hemorrhage in 1 patient and SAH complicated with ventricular hemorrhage in 5 patients. According to Hunt-Hess Grade, 2 patients were classified as Grade Ⅰ; 7 were Grade Ⅱ; 3 were Grade Ⅲ. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA showed there were 10 saccular aneurysms and 3 fusiform aneurysms. Three aneurysms were located in the proximal segment of AICA (the junction of AICA and basilar artery, 3 premeatal segment (first bifurcation of AICA, 3 meatal and 4 postmeatal. The mean diameter was 3.90 mm. Three patients with 4 aneurysms were treated with microsurgery, of which clipping was carried out in 2 patients with 3 aneurysms and trapping in 1 case. Other 9 patients were treated with endovascular therapy, of which 2 cases underwent coil embolization, 3 stent-assisted coil, and 4 parent artery occlusion (PAO. Postoperative complications included facial paralysis (1 case, dysphagia and coughing when drinking (1 case and contralateral hemianopia in both eyes (1 case. Follow-up was available in all of these cases for a mean of 36.41 months, with GOS scores 3 in 1 case, 4 in 2 cases and 5 in 9

  7. Artificial cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of single segmental cervical disc herniation:a 3-year follow-up%颈椎人工间盘置换与前路减压融合修复单节段颈椎间盘突出症:3年随访

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程俊杰; 眭江涛; 马原; 田慧中

    2015-01-01

    stages. Artificial disc replacement can not only play a role in mitigation of cervical disease neurological symptoms and signs, but also maintain stability and semental activity of cervical spine, and reduce secondary adjacent segmental degeneration. These two methods which applied in cervical degenerative intervertebral disc herniation stil remain controversial. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the short-term effect of artificial cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical decompression and fusion for the treatment of single segmental cervical disc herniation. METHODS:Total y 48 patients with single segment radiculopathy or myelopathy cervical diseases induced by cervical disc herniation that required surgery and received a three-month fol ow-up were included and retrospectively analyzed. These patients were divided into replacement group (n=21) and fusion group (n=27) according to the different repair programs. Patients in the replacement group were subjected to Prestige LP cervical artificial disc replacement, and patients in the fusion group were subjected to disc fusion using interbody fusion cage of Johnson or al ogeneic fibularing. They were fol owed up at 1 week, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36 months after treatment. Complications were recorded during the fol ow-up. The pain of patients was evaluated using neck and upper limb pain visual analogue scale scores. The therapeutic effect was evaluated using Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score. The clinical symptoms improvement and daily functional status of patients after treatment were evaluated using cervical disability index. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:During the final fol ow-up, the fusion rate in fusion group was 93%(25/27). Comparisons between groups:at the 1 week and final fol ow-up after treatment, the visual analog scale scores of neck and upper limbs and cervical dysfunction indexes were al lower than those before treatment;the Japanese Orthopaedic Association scores were higher than those before treatment (P0.05). The

  8. Is it possible to differentiate between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vervaat, Fabienne E; Christensen, Thomas E; Smeijers, Loes;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Several studies have investigated the ability of the twelve-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) to reliably distinguish Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC) from an acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In these studies, only ECG changes were required - ST......-segment deviation and/or T-wave inversion - in TC whereas in acute anterior STEMI, ECGs had to meet STEMI criteria. In the majority of these studies, patients of both genders were used even though TC predominantly occurs in women. The aim of this study is to see whether TC can be distinguished from acute anterior...... STEMI in a predominantly female study population where all patients meet STEMI-criteria. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the ST-segment changes was done on the triage ECGs of 37 patients with TC (34 female) and was compared to the triage ECGs of 103 female patients with acute anterior STEMI...

  9. Beef Marbling Image Segmentation Based on Homomorphic Filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Pang; Xiao Sun; Deying Liu; Kunjie Chen

    2014-01-01

    In order to reduce the influence of uneven illumination and reflect light for beef accurate segmentation, a beef marbling segmentation method based on homomorphic filtering was introduced. Aiming at the beef rib-eye region images in the frequency domain, homomorphic filter was used for enhancing gray, R, G and B 4 chroma images. Then the impact of high frequency /low frequency gain factors on the accuracy of beef marbling segmentation was investigated. Appropriate values of gain factors were ...

  10. Anterior Decompression and Anterior Instrumentation of Tuberculosis of Cervicothoracic Spine by Cervicomanubrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Kumar Garg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of result of anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior instrumentation in tuberculosis of cervicothoracic spine in terms of the neurological recovery, reconstruction of spine and prevention of deformity along with relief of pain. Materials and Methods: All five patients with cervicothoracic caries spine had surgery through anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy in our hospital and underwent excision of the involved vertebrae and intervertebral discs followed by anterior spinal reconstruction with titanium spacer cage filled with cancellous iliac crest bone graft and Orion plate with locking screw. Antitubercular drugs were administered for 12 months. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months. Results: Analysis of result was done on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria. Clinical assessment based on Frankel grade and modified JOA score showed significant improvement from preoperative findings. Radiological assessment showed osteointegration, no spinal instability and no progression of the deformity. The pain control, based on visual analog scale changed from a pre-operative average of 7.5 to 2 at the last follow-up thereby indicating significant improvement and all patients returned to preoperative functional status. One patient had transient hoarseness of voice. No other complication had been encountered in the immediate post operative and during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Our study showed that anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior insertion of titanium cage, filled with autogenous bone graft, secured with locking plate instrumentation has a successful role in the eradication of infection, neurological recovery, segmental spinal reconstruction and it also reduces surgical time, blood loss, and surgical complications and approach related comorbidity in follow up period. Level of Evidence- Level 4, Case series

  11. Implementation rules to bridge the theory/practice divide in market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dibb, Sally; Simkin, Lyndon

    2009-01-01

    Despite an extensive market segmentation literature, applied academic studies which bridge segmentation theory and practice remain a priority for researchers. The need for studies which examine the segmentation implementation barriers faced by organisations is particularly acute. We explore segmentation implementation through the eyes of a European utilities business, by following its progress through a major segmentation project. The study reveals the character and impact of implementation b...

  12. Segmental anterior cervical decompression with fusion for treating multilevel cervical myelopathy: Comparison of fusion rates among three methods%颈前路分节段减压植骨融合术治疗多节段颈椎病:3种方法移植骨融合率的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文; 徐盛明; 王新伟; 张涛; 刘百峰

    2007-01-01

    院时间均明显少于/短于长节段减压组(P<0.05),平均住院费用明显高于长节段减压组(P<0.05).分节段减压组、三间隙减压组和长节段减压组术后JOA评分提高分数和植骨融合率相近(P>0.05).结论:综合植骨融合率、神经功能恢复情况、手术时间、术中出血量、住院时间多种因素,3种术式中以颈前路分节段减压植骨融合术为治疗多节段颈椎病的手术方式较佳方案.%BACKGROUND:As a traditional treatment for multilevel cervical myelopathy,nterior long-segmental decompression has the shortcomings of great operative trauma,high difficulty,low fusion rate,etc.,which can affect the postoperative efficacy.OBJ ECTIVE:To evaluate the clinical effects of three different anterior surgeries on multilevel cervical myelopathy.DESIGN:A comparative observation.SETTING:Department of Orthopaedics,Changzheog Hospital,the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-six patients with multilevel cervical myelopathy of 3 consecutive segments,who were surgically treated,were selected from the Department of Orthopaedics,Changzheng Hospital,the Second Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from June 1999 to June 2003,including 25 males and 11 females,35-62 years of age,the disease course ranged from 3 to 26 months. According to the clinical manifestations and imaging esults,they were diagnosed as multilevel cervical myelopathy,and they were not suffering from consecutive ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and ossification of ligamenta flava. Informed contents were obtained from all the patients and their relatives.METHODS:All the patients were grafted with utologous bone. Autologous ilium or cancellous bone excluding vertebral body was filled into titan net or Cage,which were made of titan and characterized by high intensity,tolerance to decay,good biocompatibility,etc. According to the operative manner,the patients were divided into 3 groups:① two

  13. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the pre-and intra ocular tissues, have been attempted to increase the bioavailability and the duration of therapeutic action of ocular drug. Certain new approaches to increase the ocular bioavailability, duration of the drug action and to reduce the undesirable side effects are by using drug carriers that regulate pre-corneal drug loss and improve the corneal contact time. Many of these systems prolong ocular bioavailability but do not control drug penetration through the cornea. Consequently, the drug concentration at the site of action might remain inadequate. Therefore, it is necessary to develop safer, efficacious and more acceptable ocular therapeutic system. The ocular bioavailability of the drugs can be improved by prolonging their residence time in the cul-de-sac and by increasing their corneal permeability. There are various new dosage forms like in-situ gel, collagen shield, etc.

  14. Novel Facial Features Segmentation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for facial features extractions is proposed. The facial features we segment are the two eyes, nose and mouth. The algorithm is based on an improved Gabor wavelets edge detector, morphological approach to detect the face region and facial features regions, and an improved T-shape face mask to locate the extract location of facial features. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against facial expression, illumination, and can be also effective if the person wearing glasses, and so on.

  15. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G; Heegaard, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    , retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  16. Anterior chamber gas bubbles in open globe injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, E B G; Baxter, D; Blanch, R

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a 40-year-old soldier who was in close proximity to the detonation of an improvised explosive device (IED). Bubbles of gas were visible within the anterior chamber of his left eye. The authors propose that intraocular gas, present acutely after trauma, is diagnostic of open globe injury and is of particular importance in remote military environments. PMID:24079202

  17. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab but not subsequent ranibizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Antonopoulos C; Stem M; Comer GM

    2011-01-01

    Christina Antonopoulos1, Maxwell Stem2, Grant M Comer21Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 2WK Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Previous reports have identified noninfectious uveitis as a potential sequela following both intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. We present two unique cases of acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab that did not occur with subsequent ran...

  18. Comparison of Physiologic versus Pharmacologic Mydriasis on Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastiridou, Anna I; Pan, Xiaojing; Zhang, ZhouYuan; Marion, Kenneth M; Francis, Brian A; Sadda, Srinivas R; Chopra, Vikas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the effects of physiologic versus pharmacologic pupil dilation on anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurements obtained with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods. Forty eyes from 20 healthy, phakic individuals with open angles underwent anterior segment OCT imaging under 3 pupillary states: (1) pupil constricted under standard room lighting, (2) physiologic mydriasis in a darkened room, and (3) postpharmacologic mydriasis. Inferior angle Schwalbe's line-angle opening distance (SL-AOD) and SL-trabecular-iris-space area (SL-TISA) were computed for each eye and pupillary condition by masked, certified Reading Center graders using customized grading software. Results. SL-AOD and SL-TISA under pupillary constriction to room light were 0.87 ± 0.31 mm and 0.33 ± 0.14 mm(2), respectively; decreased to 0.75 ± 0.29 mm (P < 0.01) and 0.29 ± 0.13 mm(2)  (P < 0.01), respectively, under physiologic mydriasis; and increased to 0.90 ± 0.38 mm (P < 0.01) and 0.34 ± 0.17 mm(2)  (P = 0.06) under pharmacologic mydriasis compared to baseline. Conclusions. Using SD-OCT imaging, pharmacologic mydriasis yielded the widest angle opening, whereas physiologic mydriasis yielded the most angle narrowing in normal individuals with open iridocorneal angles. Accounting for the state of the pupil and standardizing the lighting condition would appear to be of importance for future studies of the angle. PMID:25878896

  19. Comparison of Physiologic versus Pharmacologic Mydriasis on Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna I. Dastiridou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the effects of physiologic versus pharmacologic pupil dilation on anterior chamber angle (ACA measurements obtained with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Methods. Forty eyes from 20 healthy, phakic individuals with open angles underwent anterior segment OCT imaging under 3 pupillary states: (1 pupil constricted under standard room lighting, (2 physiologic mydriasis in a darkened room, and (3 postpharmacologic mydriasis. Inferior angle Schwalbe’s line-angle opening distance (SL-AOD and SL-trabecular-iris-space area (SL-TISA were computed for each eye and pupillary condition by masked, certified Reading Center graders using customized grading software. Results. SL-AOD and SL-TISA under pupillary constriction to room light were 0.87±0.31 mm and 0.33±0.14 mm2, respectively; decreased to 0.75±0.29 mm P<0.01 and 0.29±0.13 mm2  P<0.01, respectively, under physiologic mydriasis; and increased to 0.90±0.38 mm P<0.01 and 0.34±0.17 mm2  P=0.06 under pharmacologic mydriasis compared to baseline. Conclusions. Using SD-OCT imaging, pharmacologic mydriasis yielded the widest angle opening, whereas physiologic mydriasis yielded the most angle narrowing in normal individuals with open iridocorneal angles. Accounting for the state of the pupil and standardizing the lighting condition would appear to be of importance for future studies of the angle.

  20. Comparison of corneal measurements in keratoconic eyes using rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad; Naderan; Saeed; Shoar; Morteza; Naderan; Mohammad; Amin; Kamaleddin; Mohammad; Taher; Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the anterior segment measurements obtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera(Pentacam) and Scanning-slit topography(Orbscan IIz) in keratoconic eyes.METHODS: A total of 121 patients, 71 males(58.7%)and 50 females(41.3%)(214 eyes) with the diagnosis of keratoconus(KC) were enrolled in this study. Following diagnosis of KC by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, central corneal thickness(CCT), thinnest corneal thickness(TCT), anterior chamber depth(ACD),and pupil diameter(PD) were measured by a single examiner using successive instrumentation by Pentacam and Orbscan.RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two instruments for the measurement of CCT and TCT. In contrast, scanning-slit topography measured ACD(3.46±0.40 mm vs 3.38±0.33 mm, P =0.019) and PD(4.97 ±1.26 mm vs 4.08 ±1.19 mm, P <0.001) significantly larger than rotating Scheimpflug camera.The two devices made similar measurements for CCT(95% CI:-2.94 to5.06, P =0.602). However, the mean difference for TCT was-6.28(95% CI:-10.51 to-2.06, P =0.004) showing a thinner measurement by Orbscan than by Pentacam. In terms of the ACD, the mean difference was 0.08 mm(95%CI: 0.04 to 0.12, P <0.001) with Orbscan giving a slightly larger value than Pentacam. Similarly, Orbscan measurement for PD was longer than Pentacam(95% CI:0.68 to 1.08, P <0.001).CONCLUSION: A good agreement was found between Pentacam and Orbscan concerning CCT measurement while comparing scanning-slit topography and rotatingScheimpflug camera there was an underestimation for TCT and overestimation for ACD and PD.

  1. Cell cycle arrest by a gradient of Dpp signaling during Drosophila eye development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Abhishek

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted morphogen Dpp plays important roles in spatial regulation of gene expression and cell cycle progression in the developing Drosophila eye. Dpp signaling is required for timely cell cycle arrest ahead of the morphogenetic furrow as a prelude to differentiation, and is also important for eye disc growth. The dpp gene is expressed at multiple locations in the eye imaginal disc, including the morphogenetic furrow that sweeps across the eye disc as differentiation initiates. Results Studies of Brinker and Dad expression, and of Mad phosphorylation, establish that there is a gradient of Dpp signaling in the eye imaginal disc anterior to the morphogenetic furrow, predominantly in the anterior-posterior axis, and also Dpp signaling at the margins of the disc epithelium and in the dorsal peripodial membrane. Almost all signaling activity seems to spread through the plane of the epithelia, although peripodial epithelium cells can also respond to underlying disc cells. There is a graded requirement for Dpp signaling components for G1 arrest in the eye disc, with more stringent requirements further anteriorly where signaling is lower. The signaling level defines the cell cycle response, because elevated signaling through expression of an activated Thickveins receptor molecule arrested cells at more anterior locations. Very anterior regions of the eye disc were not arrested in response to activated receptor, however, and evidence is presented that expression of the Homothorax protein may contribute to this protection. By contrast to activated Thickveins, ectopic expression of processed Dpp leads to very high levels of Mad phosphorylation which appear to have non-physiological consequences. Conclusions G1 arrest occurs at a threshold level of Dpp signaling within a morphogen gradient in the anterior eye. G1 arrest is specific for one competent domain in the eye disc, allowing Dpp signaling to promote growth at earlier

  2. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Health Apr. 14, 2014 Avoiding smoking and second hand smoke — or quitting if you are a smoker — ... influence your eyes’ health. And tobacco smoke, including second-hand smoke, is an irritant that worsens dry eye , ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD Mar. 01, 2014 When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye, making the ... the eye smooth and clear. Without this tear film, good vision would not be possible. Sometimes people ...

  4. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It ... light-sensitive tissue at the back of your eye. You need a healthy retina to see clearly. ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... itself in tears. By producing tears at a slow and steady rate, the eye stays moist and ... produce tears. It can make tears at a slow, steady rate to maintain normal eye lubrication. It ...

  6. Eye Injuries at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Injuries by the Numbers — Infographic Eye Injuries at Home Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. 01, ... chore is being done. Preventing Eye Injuries at Home Wearing protective eyewear will prevent 90 percent of ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ... more than 1 million nerve fibers that carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. Retina ( ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  9. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: ...

  10. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of known infected babies. What happens to the eyes of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis? The infection ... to further reduce the inflammation. Updated 03/2015 Eye Terms & Conditions Most Common Searches Adult Strabismus Amblyopia ...

  11. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  12. A case of phacolytic glaucoma with anterior lens capsule disruption identified by scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Woong-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Jae; Chung, In-Young; Seo, Seong-Wook; Yoo, Ji-Myong; Kim, Seong-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Phacolytic glaucoma is induced by lens protein or macrophages that have leaked through a macroscopically intact anterior lens capsule. Here, we report a case of phacolytic glaucoma with anterior lens capsule disruptions visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Case presentation A 71-year-old man was referred to our institute for increased intraocular pressure (IOP) in the right eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination revealed corneal edema, the presence of inflammatory c...

  13. Keratitis after Implantation of Intrastromal Corneal Rings with Spontaneous Extrusion of the Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ibáñez-Alperte

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of bacterial keratitis in a patient with a history of intrastromal corneal ring segments (INTACS® implantation to correct keratoconus. Methods: The patient’s history, clinical presentation, pathological analysis and therapeutic management were reviewed. Results: A 36-year-old-man was referred to our department due to decreased vision and intense pain in his left eye, 40 days after INTACS® implantation for keratoconus. Slit-lamp examination revealed epithelial defects and stromal infiltrates in the lower channel without evidence of the inferior ring. The anterior chamber also showed a significant fibrin reaction to hypopyon. A low-tension suture was removed at the site of the incision. Microbiological study of the conjunctival swab was positive for Staphylococcus epidermidis, but the corneal culture was sterile. The patient was treated with topical fortified and systemic antibiotics. The infection slowly resolved, leaving opacity at the inferior segment site. Conclusions: Infectious keratitis following INTACS implantation is an infrequent complication that can have important consequences without suitable and early therapeutic management.

  14. Anterior and Posterior Corneal Astigmatism after Refractive Lenticule Extraction for Myopic Astigmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazutaka Kamiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the amount and the axis orientation of anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism after refractive lenticule extraction (ReLEx for myopic astigmatism. Methods. We retrospectively examined 53 eyes of 53 consecutive patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 33.2 ± 6.5 years undergoing ReLEx to correct myopic astigmatism (manifest cylinder = 0.5 diopters (D. Power vector analysis was performed with anterior and posterior corneal astigmatism measured with a rotating Scheimpflug system (Pentacam HR, Oculus and refractive astigmatism preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Results. Anterior corneal astigmatism was significantly decreased, measuring 1.42 ± 0.73 diopters (D preoperatively and 1.11 ± 0.53 D postoperatively (p<0.001, Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Posterior corneal astigmatism showed no significant change, falling from 0.44 ± 0.12 D preoperatively to 0.42 ± 0.13 D postoperatively (p=0.18. Refractive astigmatism decreased significantly, from 0.92 ± 0.51 D preoperatively to 0.27 ± 0.44 D postoperatively (p<0.001. The anterior surface showed with-the-rule astigmatism in 51 eyes (96% preoperatively and 48 eyes (91% postoperatively. By contrast, the posterior surface showed against-the-rule astigmatism in all eyes preoperatively and postoperatively. Conclusions. The surgical effects were largely attributed to the astigmatic correction of the anterior corneal surface. Posterior corneal astigmatism remained unchanged even after ReLEx for myopic astigmatism.

  15. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Cause Nighttime Glare? Sep 12, 2014 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  17. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetic Eye Disease How can diabetes affect my eyes? Too much glucose, also called sugar, in your blood from diabetes ... diabetes can also affect the nerves to the eye. Having high blood glucose from diabetes causes decreased blood supply to the ...

  18. Data eye monitor method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gara, Alan G.; Marcella, James A.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2012-01-31

    An apparatus and method for providing a data eye monitor. The data eye monitor apparatus utilizes an inverter/latch string circuit and a set of latches to save the data eye for providing an infinite persistent data eye. In operation, incoming read data signals are adjusted in the first stage individually and latched to provide the read data to the requesting unit. The data is also simultaneously fed into a balanced XOR tree to combine the transitions of all incoming read data signals into a single signal. This signal is passed along a delay chain and tapped at constant intervals. The tap points are fed into latches, capturing the transitions at a delay element interval resolution. Using XORs, differences between adjacent taps and therefore transitions are detected. The eye is defined by segments that show no transitions over a series of samples. The eye size and position can be used to readjust the delay of incoming signals and/or to control environment parameters like voltage, clock speed and temperature.

  19. Review of 31 cases of anterior thoracolumbar fixation with the anterior thoracolumbar locking plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Bowen, S; Branch, C L; Meredith, J W

    1999-07-15

    Anterior fixation devices for the thoracolumbar spine have gained wide acceptance as viable alternatives to long-segment posterior fixation in cases of thoracolumbar spine trauma. This review was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Synthes anterior thoracolumbar locking plate (ATLP) system. Over a 3-year period, 31 patients with unstable traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine underwent corpectomy, placement of a structural bone graft, and anterior fixation in which the Synthes ATLP system was used. Long-term follow-up data were obtained in 29 patients. Two patients were lost to follow up, one at 4 months and the other at 1 year. In the remaining patients, the average length of follow up was 20 months. In all patients radiographic evidence of solid bone fusion was demonstrated on follow-up plain x-ray films, and there were no signs or symptoms of pseudarthrosis. No patient suffered neurological deterioration as a result of surgery, and there was relatively little morbidity associated with this plating system. To date, none of the patients in this study has developed any delayed complications related to the fixation device. In one patient, who had sustained a severe flexion injury, loosening of the anterior fixation device occurred, and the patient developed progressive kyphosis, which required a posterior stabilization procedure. These results appear slightly better than those obtained in published studies in which other anterior plating systems were used, indicating that this system is safe and effective in the treatment of unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. PMID:16918232

  20. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  1. BMP signaling protects telencephalic fate by repressing eye identity and its Cxcr4-dependent morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielen, Holger; Houart, Corinne

    2012-10-16

    Depletion of Wnt signaling is a major requirement for the induction of the anterior prosencephalon. However, the molecular events driving the differential regionalization of this area into eye-field and telencephalon fates are still unknown. Here we show that the BMP pathway is active in the anterior neural ectoderm during late blastula to early gastrula stage in zebrafish. Bmp2b mutants and mosaic loss-of-function experiments reveal that BMP acts as a repressor of eye-field fate through inhibition of its key transcription factor Rx3, thereby protecting the future telencephalon from acquiring eye identity. This BMP-driven mechanism initiates the establishment of the telencephalon prior to the involvement of Wnt antagonists from the anterior neural border. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rx3 and BMP are respectively required to maintain and restrict the chemokine receptor cxcr4a, which in turn contributes to the morphogenetic separation of eye-field and telencephalic cells during early neurulation.

  2. Expression of segment polarity genes in brachiopods supports a non-segmental ancestral role of engrailed for bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellutini, Bruno C; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids. We found that a stripe of engrailed expression demarcates the ectodermal boundary that delimits the anterior region of Terebratalia transversa and Novocrania anomala embryos. In T. transversa, this engrailed domain is abutted by a stripe of wnt1 expression in a pattern similar to the parasegment boundaries of insects-except for the expression of hedgehog, which is restricted to endodermal tissues of the brachiopod embryos. We found that pax6 and pax2/5/8, putative regulators of engrailed, also demarcate the anterior boundary in the two species, indicating these genes might be involved in the anterior patterning of brachiopod larvae. In a comparative phylogenetic context, these findings suggest that bilaterians might share an ancestral, non-segmental domain of engrailed expression during early embryogenesis. PMID:27561213

  3. Objective straylight assessment of the human eye with a novel device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Stefan; Schikowski, Patrick; Lerm, Elena; Kaeding, André; Klemm, Matthias; Haueisen, Jens; Baumgarten, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Forward scattered light from the anterior segment of the human eye can be measured by Shack-Hartmann (SH) wavefront aberrometers with limited visual angle. We propose a novel Point Spread Function (PSF) reconstruction algorithm based on SH measurements with a novel measurement devise to overcome these limitations. In our optical setup, we use a Digital Mirror Device as variable field stop, which is conventionally a pinhole suppressing scatter and reflections. Images with 21 different stop diameters were captured and from each image the average subaperture image intensity and the average intensity of the pupil were computed. The 21 intensities represent integral values of the PSF which is consequently reconstructed by derivation with respect to the visual angle. A generalized form of the Stiles-Holladay-approximation is fitted to the PSF resulting in a stray light parameter Log(IS). Additionaly the transmission loss of eye is computed. For the proof of principle, a study on 13 healthy young volunteers was carried out. Scatter filters were positioned in front of the volunteer's eye during C-Quant and scatter measurements to generate straylight emulating scatter in the lens. The straylight parameter is compared to the C-Quant measurement parameter Log(ISC) and scatter density of the filters SDF with a partial correlation. Log(IS) shows significant correlation with the SDF and Log(ISC). The correlation is more prominent between Log(IS) combined with the transmission loss and the SDF and Log(ISC). Our novel measurement and reconstruction technique allow for objective stray light analysis of visual angles up to 4 degrees.

  4. The function of silberblick in the positioning of the eye anlage in the zebrafish embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, C P; Nüsslein-Volhard, C

    1997-04-01

    In zebrafish, as in other vertebrates, an initially singular eye field within the neural plate has to split during morphogenesis to allow the development of two separated eyes. It has been suggested that anterior progression of midline tissue within the neural plate is involved in the bilateralization of the eye field. Mutations in the recently identified silberblick (slb) gene cause an incomplete separation of the eyes. During gastrulation and early somitogenesis, the ventral midline of the central nervous system (CNS) together with the underlying axial mesendoderm is shortened and broadened in slb embryos. While in wild-type embryos the ventral CNS midline extends to the anterior limit of the neural plate at the end of gastrulation, there is a gap between the anterior tip of the ventral CNS midline and the anterior edge of the neural plate in slb. To investigate the cause for the shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb we determined the fate of labeled ventral CNS midline cells in wild-type and slb embryos at different stages of development. In slb, anterior migration of ventral CNS midline cells is impaired, which indicates that migration of these cells is needed for elongation of the ventral CNS midline. The anterior shortening of the ventral CNS midline in slb leads to medial instead of bilateral induction of optic stalks followed by a partial fusion of the eyes at later developmental stages. The analysis of the slb phenotype indicates that anterior migration of midline cells within the neural plate is required for proper induction and subsequent bilateralization of an initially singular eye field. These findings may therefore provide a starting point in elucidating the role of neural plate morphogenesis in positioning of the eyes.

  5. School eye health appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desai Sanjiv

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available School children form an important large target group which must be screened adequately for early detection of eye diseases and prevention of blindness. A total approach in a school eye health programme must include teacher orientation and health education of children in addition to screening for eye diseases. The ocular morbidity pattern in 5135 school children of Jodhpur is discussed in this paper and it is hoped that it will be an indicator to all eye care agencies to help plan their priorities in the delivery of school based eye care.

  6. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  7. Increasing of the ST segment in the derivations with Q wave in the early effort test after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: : The objective of this work is to evaluate the raising of the ST segment in the Q wave derivations in the precocious effort test (ET) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with AMI of the anterior wall, submitted to thrombolysis. It is a prospective study involving 36 patients (P) with AMI of the anterior wall, consecutively interned in the Coronary Unit and submitted to thrombolysis, between June 1995 to June 1996. All the patients realized ET, according Bruce protocol and isotopic study with Thallium 201, with reinjection until 24 h, both without anti-ischemic therapy. The additional raising of ST greater or equal to 1mm, in two or more consecutive Q wave derivations was considered as positivity criterion in the ET. The quantification of the ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201 was made through analysis of the tomographic images and the bull's eye, using the habitual criterion of positivity. The obtained results were compared and the sensibility, the specificity, the acuity and the positive and negative predictive values of the ST segment raising were evaluated, in the identification of the ischemia and/or viability detected in the isotopic study. The average age was of 53,4 years old (36-73), 29 (80,5%) were male. From the 21 (58,3%) of the patients who had ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201, 18 (86%) presented alterations in the ST segment in ET. 24 (66,7%) of the patients who presented alterations in the ST segment in ET, 18 (75%) had also ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201. Relatively to Thallium-201, the sensibility, specificity, acuity and positive and negative predictive values of the ST segment raising in the Q wave derivations in ET were, respectively of 86%, 60%, 75%, 75% and 75%. The ST segment raising in the Q wave derivations were positively correlated with the existence of ischemia and/or viability in the infarction area. However, it is necessary to continue the study and increase the sample size to

  8. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  9. Silicone Oil Tamponade Combined with Lensectomy Preserving Anterior Lens Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuL; YangJ

    1999-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the therapeutic effect and indicatio n of silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule.Methods:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior lens capsule was performed in 33 cases (33 eyes)of high myopia ,proliferative vitroretinopathy(PVR)D grade and giant retinal tear(GRT).10 cases were onlyeye and 11 cases had harder nucleus of lens.The surgical methods included:1.smashing lens nucleus and lensectomy preserving complete anterior capsule;2,vitrectomy and membrane peeling;3,usage of liquid perfluorocarbin or retinotomy or drainage;4.silicone oil tamponade;5.postoperative Nd;YAG laser for anterior capsulectomy. Results:Follow-up time was 6 months or more in 29 cases.Total retinal reattachment was achieved in 22 cases,macular retinal reattachment in 5 cases.The visual acuity was 20/800 to 20/200 in 13 cases,20/100 to 20/50 in 12 cases.Visual acuity was significantly improved in GRT group(P<0.05).Complications included unexpected anterior capsule break intraoperatively,anterior capsule opacity,silicone oil emulsification and liquid perfluorocarbin remainig postoperatively.Conclusions:Silicone oil tamponade combined with lensectomy preserving anterior capsule was safe and can reduce the operative complications.The indications included:1.GRT complicated with high myopia;2,advanced PVR cases complicated with high myopia in which silicone oil must be used;3.severe lens opacity cases in which silicone oil must be used;4.complex retinal detachment of only ye.

  10. Evaluation of accurate eye corner detection methods for gaze estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Bengoechea, Jose Javier; Cerrolaza, Juan J.; Villanueva, Arantxa; Cabeza, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Accurate detection of iris center and eye corners appears to be a promising approach for low cost gaze estimation. In this paper we propose novel eye inner corner detection methods. Appearance and feature based segmentation approaches are suggested. All these methods are exhaustively tested on a realistic dataset containing images of subjects gazing at different points on a screen. We have demonstrated that a method based on a neural network presents the best performance even in light changin...

  11. Amodal Instance Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ke; Malik, Jitendra

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of amodal instance segmentation, the objective of which is to predict the region encompassing both visible and occluded parts of each object. Thus far, the lack of publicly available amodal segmentation annotations has stymied the development of amodal segmentation methods. In this paper, we sidestep this issue by relying solely on standard modal instance segmentation annotations to train our model. The result is a new method for amodal instance segmentation, which rep...

  12. Comparison of Modifications in Flap Anastomosis Patterns and Skin Incision Types for External Dacryocystorhinostomy: Anterior-Only Flap Anastomosis with W Skin Incision versus Anterior and Posterior Flap Anastomosis with Linear Skin Incision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Dirim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the outcomes of external dacryocystorhinostomy (E-DCR by using two different flap anastomosis patterns and skin incision types. Methods. This study included 79 patients (88 eyes with lacrimal drainage system disorders who underwent E-DCR surgery. Fifty eyes of 44 patients (group A underwent E-DCR by suturing anterior and posterior flaps (H-flap of the lacrimal sac with curvilinear skin incision whereas in 38 eyes of 35 patients (group B DCR was performed by suturing only anterior flaps (U-flap with W skin incision. Results. The success rate was evaluated according to lacrimal patency and scar assessment scores. Patency was achieved in 78 patients (88.6%. In terms of groups, patency was 44 eyes (88.0% in group A and 34 eyes (89.5% in group B. There was no statistically significant difference in the success rates of lacrimal patency between the two groups. Further, there was no statistically significant difference concerning cutaneous scar scores. Conclusion. Our study suggests that anastomoses of only anterior flaps or both anterior and posterior flaps have similar success rates; suturing only anterior flaps is easier to perform and shortens the operative time. In addition, W skin incision is a reasonable alternative to curvilinear incision for reducing scar formation.

  13. Endoscopic anterior decompression in cervical disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although microscopic anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion are common surgical procedures for treatment of cervical herniated discs, loss of disc height, pseudarthrosis, and adjacent disc degeneration are some of the problems associated with it. This study is aimed to evaluate results of endoscopic microforaminotomy in cervical disc diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 50 patients of mono segmental soft or hard disc causing myeloradiculopathy was undertaken. A visual analogue scale (VAS for neck and arm pain and functional outcomes using the Nurick grading system were assessed. There were 28, 12, 8, and 2 patients at C5-6, C6-7, C4-5, and C3-4 levels disc diseases, respectively. Patients with two or more level disc, instabilities, disc extending more than half vertebral body height, and previous operation at the same segment were excluded. Results: Age ranged from 21 to 67 years. Average postoperative reduction in disc height, operating time, and blood loss was 1.1 mm, 110 minutes, and 30 ml, respectively. Average pre-operative VAS score for arm pain and Nurick grading was 7.6 and 2.7, which improved to 1.9 and 0.82, respectively. All patients improved; 1, 2, 3 grade improvement was seen in 10, 27, and 10 patients, respectively. There was no significant complication or any mortality. Conclusion: Although longer follow up of large number of patients is required, endoscopic microforaminotomy is a safe and an effective alternative to microscopic anterior discectomy with or without fusion.

  14. Upper eyelid entropion and dry eye in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the position of the upper eyelid margin and eye surface status in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis (TS. METHODS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to evaluate the location of the upper lid mucocutaneous transition of 156 eyes of 78 patients with trichiasis and of 130 eyes of 65 control subjects. For each eye the position of the upper lid mucocutaneous junction was graded with respect to the line of meibomian gland orifices into 3 categories: a anterior, b at the line, and c posterior to the line. Ocular surface dye staining with lissamine green was performed in all eyes. All participants answered a questionnaire with queries on the presence and intensity of dry eye symptoms. RESULTS: In the eyes with trichiasis the location of the mucocutaneous transition was posterior to the meibomian gland line in 55 (35.3%, at the line in 77 (49.4% and anterior to the line in only 24 (15.4%. In the control group these figures were: 5 (3.8%; 42 (42% and 83 (63.8%. Lissamine staining and dry eye symptoms were also associated with trichiasis. CONCLUSION: Different degrees of upper lid entropion are already present in cicatricial trachoma even in the absence of trichiasis. Trichiasis is associated with lissamine green staining and dry eye symptoms. Conjunctivalization of the upper lid margin may play a role in the development of trachomatous dry eye.

  15. Decision making nomogram for intrastromal corneal ring segments in keratoconus

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Shetty; Sharon D′Souza; Sarika Ramachandran; Mathew Kurian; Rudy M. M. A. Nuijts

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To create a nomogram for the insertion of intrastromal corneal ring segments (ICRS) (Intacs® ) in eyes with keratoconus. Setting: Tertiary eye care center in South India. Materials and Methods: This prospective, non-randomized, interventional case series used a self-designed decision-making nomogram for the selection of ICRS in keratoconus patients based on the centration of the cone, mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE), and mean keratometry (Km) values. The 3, 6, and 12 mont...

  16. Diagnosis and treatment of anterior uveitis: optometric management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harthan JS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer S Harthan,1 Dominick L Opitz,2 Stephanie R Fromstein,1 Christina E Morettin3 1Cornea Center for Clinical Experience, 2Ophthalmology Services and Practice Development, 3Urgent Eye Care Service, Illinois College of Optometry, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: Anterior uveitis encompasses inflammation of the iris and/or ciliary body and is one of the most common types of ocular inflammation that primary eye care practitioners will encounter. Anterior uveitis may be caused by a variety of etiologies, including infectious, noninfectious, and masquerade diseases. The short-term and long-term treatment of uveitis should include the evaluation of location, duration, pathology, and laterality, in addition to presenting signs and symptoms of the disease. A complete review of systems, thorough examination, and laboratory testing, may assist the practitioner in narrowing the list of possible causes for the uveitis. This is imperative as once a list of diagnoses has been made, a targeted approach to treatment can be pursued. Keywords: anterior uveitis, iritis, inflammation

  17. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  18. Teamwork for eye care

    OpenAIRE

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Human resource development (HRD) – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  19. A new concept of the sympathetic pathways to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, L T

    1976-08-01

    The sympathetic pupillociliary pathways controlling the dilatation of the pupil in man have been recorded by many authorities as passing via the first and/or second thoracic (dorsal) rami to the lower part of the stellate (first thoracic) ganglion. It has been stated by these and other authorities that the removal of the lower part of the stellate ganglion and/or resection of the first and/or second thoracic rami would produce a Horner's syndrome. This currently accepted concept of the sympathetic pathways to the eye we believe to be incorrect. Our entire clinical experience has consistently contradicted the findings and reports of other investigators. It is suggested that the ability afforded by a new surgical approach to reach, dissect, and exactly control the line of resection without undue trauma to the stellate ganglion has made possible for the first time a definitive statement concerning the entry of the pupillociliary pathways into the sympathetic chain. It is, therefore, postulated that the preganglionic neurons controlling the pupil enter the upper portion of the stellate ganglion by a separate paravertebral route leaving the ventral roots of the eighth cervical, first and/or second thoracic nerves. Our entire clinical experience refutes the concept that these pathways pass via the first ramus communicans to the first thoracic ganglion. This thesis is based on and supported by the results of new surgical approach originally designed to permit a more direct exposure and to overcome many of the deficiencies of current surgical approaches. The anterior transthoracic, transpleural wound employed allows a more direct approach and a more accurate and complete dissection of this segment of the sympathetic supply to the head, neck, upper extremity, heart, and coronary vessels without incurring the undesirable sequela of a Horner's syndrome in 93% of patients. PMID:962268

  20. Distinctive features of the microsurgical technique of the silicone oil tamponade in aphakic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.D. Zakharov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose. To optimize the surgical technique of the silicone oil (SO tamponade in aphakic eyes with the retinal detachment (RD. Material and methods. The RD surgery treatment was performed in 49 eyes of 46 patients. All the patients have undergone pars plana vitrectomy with the silicone oil tamponade. During the operations 20G and 25G instruments were used. All the eyes were aphakic. The technological features of the operation were: the silicone oil injection by the single-step replacing method of perfluorocarbon liquid for silicone oil, the replacement of substances only on a sealed anterior chamber, the light silicone injection after the pre-contraction of the pupil, the peripheral iridectomy, the injection of the saline solution into the anterior chamber in order to prevent the SO migration during the mydriasis, the injection of the miotic solution into the anterior chamber in case of SO migration. Results. The silicone oil tamponade was performed successfully in all aphakic eyes. Silicone oil migrated into the anterior chamber intra-operatively in one case (2% and during the first day after operation in 2 cases (4.1%. In both cases silicone oil was removed from the anterior chamber by injecting the solution of miotic agent. A prominence of the silicone oil surface into the anterior chamber in the pupil area of various intensity degrees took place in 14 cases (28.6% intra-operatively and in 3 cases (6.1% in the early postoperative follow-up. Conclusions. The application of the above described technique of operation allows to prevent in proper time the migration of silicone into the anterior chamber of an eye at different stages of treatment, which makes the operation pars plana vitrectomy with silicone oil tamponade an effective and safe method of RD treatment in aphakic eyes.

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  2. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  5. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asadi, Somayeh [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Masoudi, Seyed Farhad, E-mail: masoudi@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K.N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahriari, Majid [Department of Radiation Application, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-01

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  6. The effects of variations in the density and composition of eye materials on ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In ophthalmic brachytherapy dosimetry, it is common to consider the water phantom as human eye anatomy. However, for better clinical analysis, there is a need for the dose determination in different parts of the eye. In this work, a full human eye is simulated with MCNP-4C code by considering all parts of the eye, i.e., the lens, cornea, retina, choroid, sclera, anterior chamber, optic nerve, and bulk of the eye comprising vitreous body and tumor. The average dose in different parts of this full model of the human eye is determined and the results are compared with the dose calculated in water phantom. The central axes depth dose and the dose in whole of the tumor for these 2 simulated eye models are calculated as well, and the results are compared.

  7. Pituitary Adenoma Segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Egger, Jan; Kuhnt, Daniela; Freisleben, Bernd; Nimsky, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Sellar tumors are approximately 10-15% among all intracranial neoplasms. The most common sellar lesion is the pituitary adenoma. Manual segmentation is a time-consuming process that can be shortened by using adequate algorithms. In this contribution, we present a segmentation method for pituitary adenoma. The method is based on an algorithm we developed recently in previous work where the novel segmentation scheme was successfully used for segmentation of glioblastoma multiforme and provided an average Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of 77%. This scheme is used for automatic adenoma segmentation. In our experimental evaluation, neurosurgeons with strong experiences in the treatment of pituitary adenoma performed manual slice-by-slice segmentation of 10 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) cases. Afterwards, the segmentations were compared with the segmentation results of the proposed method via the DSC. The average DSC for all data sets was 77.49% +/- 4.52%. Compared with a manual segmentation that took, on the...

  8. Constraining eye movement when redirecting walking trajectories alters turning control in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep Ambati, V N; Murray, Nicholas G; Saucedo, Fabricio; Powell, Douglas W; Reed-Jones, Rebecca J

    2013-05-01

    Humans use a specific steering synergy, where the eyes and head lead rotation to the new direction, when executing a turn or change in direction. Increasing evidence suggests that eye movement is critical for turning control and that when the eyes are constrained, or participants have difficulties making eye movements, steering control is disrupted. The purpose of the current study was to extend previous research regarding eye movements and steering control to a functional walking and turning task. This study investigated eye, head, trunk, and pelvis kinematics of healthy young adults during a 90° redirection of walking trajectory under two visual conditions: Free Gaze (the eyes were allowed to move naturally in the environment), and Fixed Gaze (participants were required to fixate the eyes on a target in front). Results revealed significant differences in eye, head, and trunk coordination between Free Gaze and Fixed Gaze conditions (p segments moved together with no significant differences between segment onset times. In addition, the sequence of segment rotation during Fixed Gaze suggested a bottom-up postural perturbation control strategy in place of top-down steering control seen in Free Gaze. The results of this study support the hypothesis that eye movement is critical for the release of the steering synergy for turning control.

  9. Abnormal origin of the ophthalmic artery from the anterior cerebral artery: Neuroradiological and intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 7-year old male child with an abnormal ophthalmic artery arising from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery is described. The patient suffered growth inhibition which was thought to be caused by a craniobasal cystic lesion affecting the hypothalamus. Preoperative angiograms revealed no vascular abnormalities. The right ophthalmic artery, however, could not be identified. During resection of a large arachnoid cyst the ophthalmic artery was found to arise from the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. To the best of our knowledge, this exact anomaly has not previously been reported. The clinical, neuroradiological and intraoperative findings are presented. (orig.)

  10. Corticotomy and compression osteogenesis in the posterior maxilla for treating severe anterior open bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, T; Mitsugi, M; Furuki, Y; Kozato, S; Ayasaka, N; Mori, H

    2007-04-01

    A new technique is described for outpatient treatment of anterior open bite. The compression osteogenesis method with a two-stage corticotomy was used in the posterior maxilla to treat a woman with severe anterior open bite. Three-week post-surgical compression using anchor plates and elastics repositioned the posterior maxillary bone/teeth segments by 7 mm to the ideal superior position. The patient had a stable skeletal position of the maxilla at 14-month follow-up with satisfactory results and no complications after orthodontic treatment. This technique appears to be an efficient option for treating patients with anterior open bite. PMID:17110086

  11. Role of Optical Coherence Tomography in Assessing Anterior Chamber Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochupurakal, Reema Thomas; Jha, Kirti Nath; Rajalakshmi, A.R.; Nagarajan, Swathi; Ezhumalai, G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gonioscopy is the gold standard in assessing anterior chamber angles. However, interobserver variations are common and there is a need for reliable objective method of assessment. Aim To compare the anterior chamber angle by gonioscopy and Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) in individuals with shallow anterior chamber. Materials and Methods This comparative observational study was conducted in a rural tertiary multi-speciality teaching hospital. A total of 101 eyes of 54 patients with shallow anterior chamber on slit lamp evaluation were included. Anterior chamber angle was graded by gonioscopy using the shaffer grading system. Angles were also assessed by SD-OCT with Trabecular Iris Angle (TIA) and Angle Opening Distance (AOD). Chi-square test, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value to find correlation between OCT parameters and gonioscopy grading. Results Females represented 72.7%. The mean age was 53.93 ±8.24 years and mean anterior chamber depth was 2.47 ± 0.152 mm. Shaffer grade ≤ 2 were identified in 95(94%) superior, 42(41.5%) inferior, 65(64.3%) nasal and 57(56.4%) temporal quadrants. Cut-off values of TIA ≤ 22° and AOD ≤ 290 μm were taken as narrow angles on SD-OCT. TIA of ≤ 22° were found in 88(92.6%) nasal and 87(87%) temporal angles. AOD of ≤ 290 μm was found in 73(76.8%) nasal and 83(83%) temporal quadrants. Sensitivity in detecting narrow angles was 90.7% and 82.2% for TIA and AOD, while specificity was 11.7% and 23.4%, respectively. Conclusion Individuals were found to have narrow angles more with SD-OCT. Sensitivity was high and specificity was low in detecting narrow angles compared to gonioscopy, making it an unreliable tool for screening. PMID:27190851

  12. Carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis on MR angiography: a university hospital-based study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchino, Akira; Saito, Naoko; Okada, Yoshitaka; Inoue, Kaiji [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Hidaka, Saitama (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Rarely in the anterior circulation, an anastomosis of the carotid and anterior cerebral arteries occurs when an anomalous branch arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery and anastomoses with the A1-A2 junction of the anterior communicating artery. Right-side predominance is known. To our knowledge, the incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis has not been reported, so we researched cases in our institution records to determine incidence and investigated characteristic features of the condition on magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. To isolate such cases, we retrospectively reviewed cranial MR angiographic images of 3,491 consecutive patients in our institution. We found three cases with carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis (two men, one woman), representing an incidence of 0.086%. The anastomosis was on the right in all three cases. A normal A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was present in two cases but could not be identified in the remaining case on MR angiographic images that included source images. Two of the three patients demonstrated associated arterial variations in their carotid systems. On MR angiography, we observed a 0.086% incidence of carotid-anterior cerebral artery anastomosis in our institution and reaffirmed the right-side predominance of this anomaly. We found a high frequency of other associated arterial variations in the carotid system. (orig.)

  13. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  14. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Exposure Many chemicals, even those found around the house, can damage an eye. If your child gets a chemical in the eye and you know what it is, look on the product's container for an emergency number to call for instructions. ...

  15. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ... and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services Academy Forum EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Meetings ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... large volume of tears, overwhelming the tear drainage system. These excess tears then overflow from your eye. Next   Causes of Dry ... Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... America Help IRIS Registry Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  19. PlantEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Kjærsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University.......Katrine Kjær explanes how PlantEye is uesd in her work at Institute of Food Science at Aarhus University....

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Supported by the NEI Research at NEI All Research at NEI Office of the Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Education Programs All Education National Eye Health Education Program Diabetic Eye Disease Education ... (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About ...

  1. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  2. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;

    2007-01-01

    the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  3. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  4. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  5. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it to have any real negative or deleterious effect by removing the anterior capsule. Now I would ... is what happens with one of the competitive designs. Like I told you, I just take a ...

  6. Predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Provetti Cunha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate possible predictive factors related to anterior chamber fibrin formation after vitreoretinal surgery in a large series of patients. Methods: The data of 185 eyes of 185 patients submitted to vitreoretinal surgery was reviewed. The following variables were evaluated: the postoperatively presence of fibrin, age, diabetes mellitus, the vitrectomy system gauge (20, 23 or 25 gauge, the type of vitreous substitute, the influence of prior surgical procedures and the combination with cataract extraction. To evaluate predictive factors for anterior chamber fibrin formation, univariate analysis was performed. A multivariate stepwise logistic regression model was adjusted to investigate factors associated with fibrin formation (p<0.05. Results: Fibrinoid anterior chamber reaction was found in 12 (6.4% patients. For multivariate logistic regression analysis, balanced salt solution (BSS, the chance of fibrin occurrence was 5 times greater (odds ratio 4.83, CI 95% 1.302 - 17.892; p=0.019, while combination with phacoemulsification increased the chance of fibrin formation by 20 times (odds ratio 20, CI 95% 2.480 - 161.347; p=0.005. No significant difference was found regarding other variables. Conclusion: Anterior chamber fibrin formation is an unwanted complication after vitreoretinal surgery. Factors such as combined performance of phacoemulsification and the use of balanced salt solution as a vitreous substitute may predispose the occurrence of this complication.

  7. Eye Movements Reveal the Influence of Event Structure on Reading Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swets, Benjamin; Kurby, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    When we read narrative texts such as novels and newspaper articles, we segment information presented in such texts into discrete events, with distinct boundaries between those events. But do our eyes reflect this event structure while reading? This study examines whether eye movements during the reading of discourse reveal how readers respond…

  8. Update on anterior ankle impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato

    2012-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...

  9. Dosimetry under pencil eye shields for cobalt-60 radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenery, S.G.; Leung, P.M.K.

    1981-05-01

    The use of pencil eye shields to reduce the dose to the anterior chamber of the eye during radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 beams has been evaluated. It was found that the optimum shield placement is about 1 cm from the surface. This keeps the size of the penumbra and the effect of electron contamination at a minimum. The dose under such shields is mainly produced by the transmission through the shield and the scattered radiation both from within the phantom and from the collimator. While the scattered component is a function of the beam size and otherwise cannot be altered, the transmission can easily be reduced to a negligible level.

  10. Multi-segmental neurofibromatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar Sudhir; Kumar Ravi

    2004-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis (NF), one of the commonest phakomatoses, is characterized by varied clinical manifestations. Segmental NF is one of the uncommon subtypes of NF. We report a young adult presenting with asymptomatic skin lesions- neurofibromas and café-au-lait macules- over localized areas of the lower back, affecting more than one segment. None of the family members were found to have features of segmental NF. Segmental NF may be misdiagnosed as a birthmark or remain undiagnosed for l...

  11. Eye Bank Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Your Story – Cornea Recipient What is an Eye Bank? Eye banks recover corneal tissue from donors ... tissue donor! Learn more Register to be an Eye Donor Over 70,000 people received sight-restoring ...

  12. An Approach with Hybrid Segmental Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Harsh Ashok; Maurya, Raj Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Present case report provides an insight into the hybrid segmental mechanics with treatment of 13-year-old male, considering the side effects of sole continuous arch wire sliding mechanics. Patient was diagnosed as a case of skeletal class I jaw relationship, low mandibular plane angle, class II molar relation on right and class I molar relation on left side, anterior cross bite, crowding of 12mm in upper, 5mm in lower arch. He also had proclined upper and lower anteriors by 2mm, convex profile and incompetent lips. Total treatment duration was 20 months, during which segmental canine retraction was performed with TMA (Titanium, Molybdenum, Aluminum) 'T' loop retraction spring followed by consolidation of spaces with continuous arch mechanics. Most of the treatment objectives were met with good intraoral and facial results within reasonable framework of time. This approach used traditional twin brackets, which offered the versatility to use continuous arch-wire mechanics, segmental mechanics and hybrid sectional mechanics. PMID:27504427

  13. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation analy

  14. The generation of vertebral segmental patterning in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthinathan, Biruntha; Sousa, Cátia; Tannahill, David; Keynes, Roger

    2012-06-01

    We have carried out a series of experimental manipulations in the chick embryo to assess whether the notochord, neural tube and spinal nerves influence segmental patterning of the vertebral column. Using Pax1 expression in the somite-derived sclerotomes as a marker for segmentation of the developing intervertebral disc, our results exclude such an influence. In contrast to certain teleost species, where the notochord has been shown to generate segmentation of the vertebral bodies (chordacentra), these experiments indicate that segmental patterning of the avian vertebral column arises autonomously in the somite mesoderm. We suggest that in amniotes, the subdivision of each sclerotome into non-miscible anterior and posterior halves plays a critical role in establishing vertebral segmentation, and in maintaining left/right alignment of the developing vertebral elements at the body midline.

  15. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery detected by magnetic resonance angiography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Hong-wei; FU Jie; LU Zhong-lie; L(U) Hai-juan

    2009-01-01

    Background Fenestration of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) A1 segment is a rare anatomic variation. The purpose of the this study was to report the incidence of fenestration in the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery and to delineate its configurations on cranial MR angiography.Methods Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was performed in 762 patients using 1.5T imagers during the period July 2007 through September 2008. All images were obtained by the three-dimensional time-of-flight (3D TOF) technique.Volume rendering (VR) images in the horizontal rotation view were displayed stereoscopically. The presence of fenestration in the proximal segment of the anterior cerebral artery was identified and evaluated retrospectively by MRA.Results Six patients (four men and two women, 15 to 63 years of age, median age 50 years) had proximal ACA fenestration. The appearance rate of ACA fenestration was 0.8% (6/762). All 6 fenestrations were located at the A1 segment: three of them were with a slit-like shape and three were with a convex-lens-like shape, 5 of the right A1 segment, 1 of the leftA1 segment.Conclusion Recognizing ACA fenestration is important to interpret cranial MR angiographys and helpful to make a plan for neurosurgical procedures or neurological intervention.

  16. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  17. Color image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  18. [Treatment of eye allergies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal atopic conjunctivitis is treated with antihistamines, cromoglycate and short courses of corticosteroids, in severe cases with subcutaneous or sublingual immunotherapy. Chronic conjunctivitis requires year-round treatment with mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines or topical corticosteroids. Long-term treatment of atopic blepharoconjunctivitis consists of tacrolimus or pimecrolimus cream. For atopic keratoconjunctivitis corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops are needed. First-line therapy of vernal conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers and, if necessary, corticosteroid eye drops. Treatment of non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis involves mast cell stabilizers, corticosteroid and, if necessary, cyclosporine eye drops. PMID:22428383

  19. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the frequency and causes of visual impairment (VI) in a select population of Danish adults. METHODS: A total of 3843 adults aged 20-94 years from the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) were included in the population-based, cross-sectional ophthalmological study......, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA

  20. The Relation of the Location of Haptics of Posterior Chamber Intraocular Lenses and Peripheral Anterior Synechia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RuiduanLiao; ShaozhenLi

    1995-01-01

    Purpose:To investigate the occurrence,outcome and influencial factors of the pe-ripheral anterior synechia(PAS)following implantation of posterior chamber in-traocular lenses for finding a way to reduce thePAS.Subjects;40 eyes of 38senile cataract patients with normal chamber angle and in-traocular pressue(IOP)preoperatively were examined.Methods:Extracapsular cataract extraction was performed under microscope with insertion of a posterior chamber lens implant vaulted anteriorly by 10°.Go-nioscopy and slit-lamp examination and photography of the operated eyes were performed 3to 6months postoperatively.Results:PAS were found in 20(50%)of the 40eyes.Among the 20eyes with PAS the locations of 23haptics in17eyes corresponded with those of the PAS.PAS were seen more frequently with vertically sulcus-fixated haptics than with the horizontally capsular-fixated haptics.showing a significant difference(P<0.05).88%of the eyes withPAS had pupillary edformation,but their visual acuities and IOP were not affected.Conclusions:PAS is more likely to occur with vertically sulcus-fixated IOL.Rotat-ing the capsular-fixated haptics to the horizontal position may reduce the inci-dence of PAS.Gonioscopy should be a routine follow-up examination.

  1. Segmentation of the foveal microvasculature using deep learning networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentašić, Pavle; Heisler, Morgan; Mammo, Zaid; Lee, Sieun; Merkur, Andrew; Navajas, Eduardo; Beg, Mirza Faisal; Šarunić, Marinko; Lončarić, Sven

    2016-07-01

    Accurate segmentation of the retinal microvasculature is a critical step in the quantitative analysis of the retinal circulation, which can be an important marker in evaluating the severity of retinal diseases. As manual segmentation remains the gold standard for segmentation of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) images, we present a method for automating the segmentation of OCT-A images using deep neural networks (DNNs). Eighty OCT-A images of the foveal region in 12 eyes from 6 healthy volunteers were acquired using a prototype OCT-A system and subsequently manually segmented. The automated segmentation of the blood vessels in the OCT-A images was then performed by classifying each pixel into vessel or nonvessel class using deep convolutional neural networks. When the automated results were compared against the manual segmentation results, a maximum mean accuracy of 0.83 was obtained. When the automated results were compared with inter and intrarater accuracies, the automated results were shown to be comparable to the human raters suggesting that segmentation using DNNs is comparable to a second manual rater. As manually segmenting the retinal microvasculature is a tedious task, having a reliable automated output such as automated segmentation by DNNs, is an important step in creating an automated output.

  2. The RapidEye mission design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyc, George; Tulip, John; Schulten, Daniel; Krischke, Manfred; Oxfort, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The RapidEye mission is a commercial remote sensing mission by the German Company RapidEye AG. The RapidEye mission will deliver information products for various customers in the agricultural insurance market, large producers, international institutions and cartography. The mission consists of a constellation of five identical small satellites and a sophisticated ground infrastructure based on proven systems. The five satellites will be placed in a single sun-synchronous orbit of approximately 620 km, with the satellites equally spaced over the orbit. The RapidEye system has the unique ability to image any area on earth once per day and can also provide large area coverage within 5 days. The satellites will each carry a 5 band multi-spectral optical imager with a ground sampling distance of 6.5 m at nadir and a swath width of 80 km. These capabilities along with the processing throughput of the ground segment allows the system to deliver the information products needed by the customers reliably and in a time frame that meets their specific needs.

  3. An easy, rapid method to isolate RPE cell protein from the mouse eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Xun, Zixian; Granado, Herta; Wu, Angela; Handa, James T

    2016-04-01

    The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is essential for maintaining the health of the neural retina. RPE cell dysfunction plays a critical role in many common blinding diseases including age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, retinal dystrophies. Mouse models of ocular disease are commonly used to study these blinding diseases. Since isolating the RPE from the choroid has been challenging, most techniques separate the RPE from the retina, but not the choroid. As a result, the protein signature actually represents a heterogeneous population of cells that may not accurately represent the RPE response. Herein, we describe a method for separating proteins from the RPE that is free from retinal and choroidal contamination. After removing the anterior segment and retina from enucleated mouse eyes, protein from the RPE was extracted separately from the choroid by incubating the posterior eyecup with a protein lysis buffer for 10 min. Western blot analysis identified RPE65, an RPE specific protein in the RPE lysates, but not in choroidal lysates. The RPE lysates were devoid of rhodopsin and collagen VI, which are abundant in the retina and choroid, respectively. This technique will be very helpful for measuring the protein signal from the RPE without retinal or choroidal contamination. PMID:26424220

  4. EFFECT OF ND: YAG LASER CAPSULOTOMY IN PSEUDOPHAKIC EYES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO IOP CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nd: YAG laser is non-invasive and effective means to deal with the posterior capsule opacification. However safe it may have some inherent complications. Rise of intraocular pressure is frequently encountered and incompletely understood complication of YAG laser capsulotomy and documented with conflicting results. AIMS: Purpose of the study to assess the efficacy of YAG laser capsulotomy in term of visual outcome and also study the complications of the procedure, particularly on IOP. SETTING: Tertiary Centre. DESIGN: Prospective interventional study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Present study evaluate the changes in IOP and visual acuity after Nd-YAG laser capsulotomy in 280 eyes with significant PCO after uncomplicated small incision cataract surgery with IOL implantation. Complete ocular examination including visual acuity, anterior segment examination with slit lamp, fundus and application tonometry were performed pre-and post-laser in all cases. Posterior capsulotomy was done with Q-switched Nd: YAG laser with energy used 10 mmHg was found in 5% of cases. Ninety two percent patients achieved base line pressure within 4 hours. Incidence of minor complications was 14.6% and none of patient showed major complications or deterioration of vision. CONCLUSION: Our study showed insignificant rise in IOP, and none of patient show vision threatening complication after laser capsulotomy. Hence routine antiglaucoma medicine may not be necessary in all patients following Nd: YAD laser capsulotomy.

  5. A mobile decision support system for red eye diseases diagnosis: experience with medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Marta Manovel; López, Miguel Maldonado; de la Torre Díez, Isabel; Jimeno, José Carlos Pastor; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    A good primary health care is the base for a better healthcare system. Taking a good decision on time by the primary health care physician could have a huge repercussion. In order to ease the diagnosis task arise the Decision Support Systems (DSS), which offer counselling instead of refresh the medical knowledge, in a profession where it is still learning every day. The implementation of these systems in diseases which are a frequent cause of visit to the doctor like ophthalmologic pathologies are, which affect directly to our quality of life, takes more importance. This paper aims to develop OphthalDSS, a totally new mobile DSS for red eye diseases diagnosis. The main utilities that OphthalDSS offers will be a study guide for medical students and a clinical decision support system for primary care professionals. Other important goal of this paper is to show the user experience results after OphthalDSS being used by medical students of the University of Valladolid. For achieving the main purpose of this research work, a decision algorithm will be developed and implemented by an Android mobile application. Moreover, the Quality of Experience (QoE) has been evaluated by the students through the questions of a short inquiry. The app developed which implements the algorithm OphthalDSS is capable of diagnose more than 30 eye's anterior segment diseases. A total of 67 medical students have evaluated the QoE. The students find the diseases' information presented very valuable, the appearance is adequate, it is always available and they have ever found what they were looking for. Furthermore, the students think that their quality of life has not been improved using the app and they can do the same without using the OphthalDSS app. OphthalDSS is easy to use, which is capable of diagnose more than 30 ocular diseases in addition to be used as a DSS tool as an educational tool at the same time. PMID:27142275

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  7. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  8. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... workplace (wind, air conditioning) Sun exposure Smoking or second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye ... helpful steps include: DO NOT smoke and avoid second-hand smoke, direct wind, and air conditioning. Use a ...

  9. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  10. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  11. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Funding Division of Extramural Activities Division of Extramural Science Programs Funding Opportunity Announcements Funding Mechanisms Supported by ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related The link between seasonal allergens and dry ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  13. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of the NEI Donating to the NEI Health Information Eye Health Topics Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information News and Events All News Meetings and Events ...

  14. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs NEI Home About NEI Health Information News and Events Grants ... Research at NEI Education Programs Training and Jobs Home > NEI for Kids > About the Eye All About ...

  16. Fungal Eye Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Fungal Eye Infections Recommend on ... Zoonotic Infectious Disease Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch File Formats Help: How do ...

  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips ... questions and comments to the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  19. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... attached to the eyeball and anchored to the skull. These muscles don’t bulk up like your ... or dim light is fine. ‐A sheet of black construction paper ‐Eye protection such as goggles with ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: ... Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual ...