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Sample records for anterior eye segment

  1. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

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    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  2. Diagnostics of anterior eye segment in cats and dogs

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    Hadži-Milić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of the anterior segment of the eye present the most frequent diagnostics implemented in ophthalmology and by most veterinary practicians as well. This paper presents the complete diagnostics in the most concise form possible. The procedure with animals is presented first, followed by the equipment, and then anamnesis. The following diagnostic methods are presented: examination in a lighted room which include an examination from a distance, taking a smear, the Schirmer tear test (STT, an examination from close by, examination in a dark room which comprises the elementary examinations, such as the use of focal lighting and examination using a direct ophthalmoscope, and special examination in a dark room, such as biomicroscopy, gonioscopy and keratoscopy. Additional examination methods are also included.

  3. Molecular Age-Related Changes in the Anterior Segment of the Eye

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    Luis Fernando Hernandez-Zimbron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the current knowledge about the age-related processes in the anterior segment of the eye at a biological, clinical, and molecular level. Methods. We reviewed the available published literature that addresses the aging process of the anterior segment of the eye and its associated molecular and physiological events. We performed a search on PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase using the MeSH terms “eye,” “anterior segment,” and “age.” We generated searches to account for synonyms of these keywords and MESH headings as follows: (1 “Eye” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment ageing” and (2 “Anterior segment” AND “ageing process” OR “anterior segment” AND “molecular changes” AND “age.” Results. Among the principal causes of age-dependent alterations in the anterior segment of the eye, we found the mutation of the TGF-β gene and loss of autophagy in addition to oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis of degenerative diseases. Conclusions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding some of the molecular mechanisms related to aging in the anterior segment of the eye. We also introduce and propose potential roles of autophagy, an important mechanism responsible for maintaining homeostasis and proteostasis under stress conditions in the anterior segment during aging.

  4. A prospective, comparative, observational study on optical coherence tomography of the anterior eye segment

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    Theelen, T.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We compared two commercially available spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) devices according to their capacity of imaging the anterior segment of the eye with the same detail and quality. METHODS: A prospective, observational, single-visit study with individuals aged 18

  5. Changes of the vasculature and innervation in the anterior segment of the RCS rat eye.

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    May, Christian Albrecht

    2011-12-01

    Investigating the anterior eye segment vasculature and innervation of dystrophic RCS rats, two major unique findings were observed: in the iris, young adult animals with retinal dystrophy showed an increase in substance P nerve fibres and a dilation of arterioles and capillaries. This finding continued during ageing. In the pars plana region, the surface covered by venules decreased continuously with age. In older animals, this decrease was parallelled by a local decrease of sympathetic TH-positive nerve fibres supplying these venules. For both conditions, no comparable data exists so far in the literature. They might point to a unique situation in the anterior eye segment of the dystrophic RCS rat. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Modeling the drug transport in the anterior segment of the eye.

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    Avtar, Ram; Tandon, Deepti

    2008-10-02

    The aim of the present work is the development of a simple mathematical model for the time course concentration profile of topically administered drugs in the anterior chamber aqueous humor and investigation of the effects of various model parameters on the aqueous humor concentration of lipophilic and hydrophilic drugs. A simple pharmacokinetic model for the transient drug transport in the anterior segment has been developed by using the conservation of mass in the precorneal tear film, Fick's law of diffusion and Michaelis-Menten kinetics of drug metabolism in cornea, and the conservation of mass in the anterior chamber. An analytical solution describing the drug concentration in the anterior chamber has been obtained. The model predicts that an increase in the drug metabolic (consumption) rate in the corneal epithelium reduces the drug concentration in the anterior chamber for both lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules. A decrease in the clearance rate and distribution volume of the drug in the anterior chamber raises the aqueous humor concentration significantly. It is also observed that decay rate of drug concentration in the anterior chamber is higher for lipophilic molecules than that for hydrophilic molecules. The bioavailability of drugs applied topically to the eye may be improved by a rise in the precorneal tear volume, diffusion coefficient in corneal epithelium and distribution coefficient across the endothelium anterior chamber interface, and by reducing the drug metabolism, drug clearance rate and distribution volume in anterior chamber.

  7. Comparison of EyeCam and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in detecting angle closure.

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    Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin; Friedman, David S; Tun, Tin A; Perera, Shamira A

    2012-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA, USA) and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT, Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA) in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Ninety-eight phakic patients, recruited from a glaucoma clinic, underwent gonioscopy by a single examiner, and EyeCam and ASOCT imaging by another examiner. Another observer, masked to gonioscopy findings, graded EyeCam and ASOCT images. For both gonioscopy and EyeCam, a closed angle in a particular quadrant was defined if the posterior trabecular meshwork was not visible. For ASOCT, angle closure was defined by any contact between the iris and angle anterior to the scleral spur. An eye was diagnosed as having angle closure if ≥2 quadrants were closed. Agreement and area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. The majority of subjects were Chinese (69/98, 70.4%) with a mean age of 60.6 years. Angle closure was diagnosed in 39/98 (39.8%) eyes with gonioscopy, 40/98 (40.8%) with EyeCam and 56/97 (57.7%) with ASOCT. The agreement (kappa statistic) for angle closure diagnosis for gonioscopy versus EyeCam was 0.89; gonioscopy versus ASOCT and EyeCam versus ASOCT were both 0.56. The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure with EyeCam was 0.978 (95% CI: 0.93-1.0) and 0.847 (95% CI: 0.76-0.92, p < 0.01) for ASOCT. The diagnostic performance of EyeCam was better than ASOCT in detecting angle closure when gonioscopic grading was used as the reference standard. The agreement between the two imaging modalities was moderate. © 2012 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2012 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  8. DNA methyl transferases are differentially expressed in the human anterior eye segment.

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    Bonnin, Nicolas; Belville, Corinne; Chiambaretta, Frédéric; Sapin, Vincent; Blanchon, Loïc

    2014-08-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic mark involved in the control of genes expression. Abnormal epigenetic events have been reported in human pathologies but weakly documented in eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to establish DNMT mRNA and protein expression levels in the anterior eye segment tissues and their related (primary or immortalized) cell cultures as a first step towards future in vivo and in vitro methylomic studies. Total mRNA was extracted from human cornea, conjunctiva, anterior lens capsule, trabeculum and related cell cultures (cornea epithelial, trabecular meshwork, keratocytes for primary cells; and HCE, Chang, B-3 for immortalized cells). cDNA was quantified by real-time PCR using specific primers for DNMT1, 2, 3A, 3B and 3L. Immunolocalization assays were carried out on human cornea using specific primary antibodies for DNMT1, 2 and 3A, 3B and 3L. All DNMT transcripts were detected in human cornea, conjunctiva, anterior lens capsule, trabeculum and related cells but showed statistically different expression patterns between tissues and cells. DNMT2 protein presented a specific and singular expression pattern in corneal endothelium. This study produced the first inventory of the expression patterns of DNMTs in human adult anterior eye segment. Our research highlights that DNA methylation cannot be ruled out as a way to bring new insights into well-known ocular diseases. In addition, future DNA methylation studies using various cells as experimental models need to be conducted with attention to approach the results analysis from a global tissue perspective. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The eye of the magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus): structure of the anterior segment.

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    Suburo, A M; Scolaro, J A

    1990-11-01

    We undertook a light and scanning electron microscopic study of the eye in the Magellanic penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus). The anatomical peculiarities of the eyeball shape in Sphenisciformes have been previously described by others; here, we show that they are accompanied by several modifications in the organization of the anterior segment of the eye. The main change was found in the portion of opaque sclera extending from the cornea to the anterior border of the scleral ossicles, which was much broader than in other avian eyes. This scleral region was made of a very dense fibrous tissue and was as difficult to cut as the ossicles. The corneo-scleral boundary was also different from that of other birds, since the aqueous humor channel and the pectinate ligament were located 1.0-1.5 mm posterior to the cornea. The osseous ring was formed by 13 bones, including three pairs of over- and underplates. There was a single ciliary muscle, with meridionally oriented striated fibers. They were inserted on a circumference along the boundary between the fibrous sclera and the ossicles, far away from the wall of the aqueous humor channel. On their posterior end, the muscle fibers formed a tendinous structure attached to the inner surface of the sclera and to the outer surface of the ciliary body. Only short zonular fibrils were observed. These anatomical features are probably relevant for the adaptation of penguin eyes to vision on land and in the aquatic environment.

  10. Detection of primary angle closure using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in Asian eyes.

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    Nolan, Winifred P; See, Jovina L; Chew, Paul T K; Friedman, David S; Smith, Scott D; Radhakrishnan, Sunita; Zheng, Ce; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate noncontact anterior segment optical coherence technology (AS-OCT) as a qualitative method of imaging the anterior chamber angle and to determine its ability to detect primary angle closure when compared with gonioscopy in Asian subjects. Prospective observational case series. Two hundred three subjects were recruited from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with diagnoses of primary angle closure, primary open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, or cataract. Both eyes (if eligible) of each patient were included in the study. Exclusion criteria were pseudophakia or previous glaucoma surgery. Images of the nasal, temporal, and inferior angles were obtained with AS-OCT in dark and then light conditions. Gonioscopic angle width was graded using the Spaeth classification for each quadrant in low lighting conditions. Angle closure was defined by AS-OCT as contact between the peripheral iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur and by gonioscopy as a Spaeth grade of 0 degree (posterior trabecular meshwork not visible). Comparison of the 2 methods in detecting angle closure was done by eye and by individual. Sensitivities and specificities of AS-OCT were calculated using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Complete data were available for 342 eyes of 200 patients. Of the patients, 70.9% had a clinical diagnosis of treated or untreated primary angle closure. Angle closure in > or =1 quadrants was detected by AS-OCT in 142 (71%) patients (228 [66.7%] eyes) and by gonioscopy in 99 (49.5%) patients (152 [44.4%] eyes). The inferior angle was closed more frequently than the nasal or temporal quadrants using both AS-OCT and gonioscopy. When performed under dark conditions, AS-OCT identified 98% of those subjects found to have angle closure on gonioscopy (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.2-99.6) and led to the characterization of 44.6% of those found to have open angles on gonioscopy to have angle closure as well. With gonioscopy as the reference standard

  11. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

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    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  12. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies.

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    Nowinska, Anna K; Teper, Sławomir J; Janiszewska, Dominika A; Lyssek-Boron, Anita; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Koprowski, Robert; Wylegala, Edward

    2015-01-01

    To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT) in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs). Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes) and 54 patients (96 eyes) diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes) were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA) were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  13. Comparative Study of Anterior Eye Segment Measurements with Spectral Swept-Source and Time-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography in Eyes with Corneal Dystrophies

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    Anna K. Nowinska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare anterior eye segment measurements and morphology obtained with two optical coherence tomography systems (TD OCT, SS OCT in eyes with corneal dystrophies (CDs. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers (50 eyes and 54 patients (96 eyes diagnosed with CD (epithelial basement membrane dystrophy, EBMD = 12 eyes; Thiel-Behnke CD = 6 eyes; lattice CD TGFBI type = 15 eyes; granular CD type 1 = 7 eyes, granular CD type 2 = 2 eyes; macular CD = 23 eyes; and Fuchs endothelial CD = 31 eyes were recruited for the study. Automated and manual central corneal thickness (aCCT, mCCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and nasal and temporal trabecular iris angle (nTIA, tTIA were measured and compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results. Good agreement between the TD and SS OCT measurements was demonstrated for mCCT and aCCT in normal individuals and for mCCT in the CDs group. The ACD, nTIA, and tTIA measurements differed significantly in both groups. TBCD, LCD, and FECD caused increased CCT. MCD caused significant corneal thinning. FECD affected all analyzed parameters. Conclusions. Better agreement between SS OCT and TD OCT measurements was demonstrated in normal individuals compared to the CDs group. OCT provides comprehensive corneal deposits analysis and demonstrates the association of CD with CCT, ACD, and TIA measurements.

  14. The effect of bevacizumab for anterior segment neovascularization after silicone oil removal in eyes with previous vitreoretinal surgery.

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    Batman, C; Ozdamar, Y

    2010-07-01

    To report the outcomes of the use of intracameral bevacizumab for iris neovascularization occurring after silicone oil (SO) removal in eyes undergoing vitreoretinal surgery (VRS). This study included 12 eyes that had iris neovascularization after SO removal. The clinical outcomes of 12 eyes after intravitreal bevacizumab injection were reviewed. There were eight men and four women with an average age of 41.58+/-12.68 years. All eyes had VRS for various vitreoretinal diseases. After the mean follow-up period of 9.7+/-5.3 months, SO removal was performed. Then, the patients were followed for more than 2 months and detailed retinal examinations and intraocular pressure (IOP) were normal during this period, but rubeosis iridis (RI) developed. RI was treated with 1 dose of 1.25 mg bevacizumab into the anterior chamber. After a mean follow-up period of 4.8+/-2.2 months, the regression of iris neovacularization was detected and IOP was below 21 mmHg in all eyes. Anterior segment neovascularization (ASNV) may develop through various mechanisms in patients with VRS after SO removal, and anterior chamber injection of bevacizumab may lead to regression of ASNV.

  15. Anterior segment parameters as predictors of intraocular pressure reduction after phacoemulsification in eyes with open-angle glaucoma.

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    Hsia, Yen C; Moghimi, Sasan; Coh, Paul; Chen, Rebecca; Masis, Marisse; Lin, Shan C

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) change after cataract surgery in eyes with open-angle glaucoma (OAG) and its relationship to angle and anterior segment parameters measured by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. Prospective case series. Eyes were placed into a narrow-angle group or open-angle group based on gonioscopy grading. Biometric parameters were measured using AS-OCT (Visante) preoperatively, and IOP 4 months after surgery was obtained. The IOP change and its relationship to AS-OCT parameters were evaluated. Eighty-one eyes of 69 patients were enrolled. The mean age of the patients was 76.8 years. The preoperative IOP was 15.02 mm Hg on 1.89 glaucoma medications. The average mean deviation of preoperative visual field was -4.58 dB. The mean IOP reduction was 2.1 mm Hg (12.8%) from a preoperative mean of 15.0 mm Hg. The IOP reduction was significantly greater in eyes with narrow angles than in eyes with open angles (20.4% versus 8.0%) (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, preoperative IOP (β = -0.53, P < .001, R 2  = 0.40), angle-opening distance at 500 mm (β = 5.83, P = .02, R 2  = 0.45), angle-opening distance at 750 mm (β = 5.82, P = .001, R 2  = 0.52), and lens vault (β = -0.002, P = .009, R 2  = 0.47) were associated with IOP reduction postoperatively. In eyes with OAG, IOP reduction after cataract surgery was greater in eyes with narrower angles. Preoperative IOP, angle-opening distance, and lens vault were predictors for IOP reduction. Copyright © 2017 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in anterior segment morphology in response to illumination and after laser iridotomy in Asian eyes: an anterior segment OCT study

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    See, Jovina L S; Chew, Paul T K; Smith, Scott D; Nolan, Winifred P; Chan, Yiong‐Huak; Huang, David; Zheng, Ce; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin; Friedman, David S

    2007-01-01

    Aim Using the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS‐OCT) to quantify changes in anterior segment morphology going from light to dark and following laser iridotomy (LI). Methods Prospective observational study. 17 consecutive subjects without peripheral anterior synechiae undergoing LI were evaluated using gonioscopy and AS‐OCT. Angle configuration including angle opening distance (AOD) at 500 microns anterior to the scleral spur, AOD500, trabecular‐iris space area up to 750 microns from the scleral spur, TISA750 and the increase in angle opening going from dark to light conditions was determined. Results Both mean AOD500 and TISA750 increased nearly threefold going from dark to light. Both also significantly increased following LI (p<0.001) as did gonioscopic grading of the angle in all quadrants (p<0.001, McNemar's test). Angles were more than twice as wide on average in the dark after LI than before LI (p<0.05). Both the mean absolute change and the mean proportionate change in AOD500 and TISA750 when going from light to dark were greater after LI than before (p<0.05). Conclusion Increased illumination as well as LI resulted in significant widening of the anterior chamber angle. AS‐OCT (which does not require a water bath and can be performed with the patient at the slit lamp) identified similar magnitude changes as those previously reported using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). Furthermore, the angle appears to open more both in absolute terms and and proportionate terms in response to illumination after LI. PMID:17504852

  17. Changes in Anterior Segment Morphology and Predictors of Angle Widening after Laser Iridotomy in South Indian Eyes.

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    Zebardast, Nazlee; Kavitha, Srinivasan; Krishnamurthy, Palaniswamy; Friedman, David S; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Aung, Tin; Quigley, Harry A; Ramulu, Pradeep Y; Venkatesh, Rengaraj

    2016-12-01

    To compare anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) angle morphology before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in a cohort of South Indian subjects with primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) or primary angle-closure/primary angle-closure glaucoma (PAC/PACG) and to examine baseline parameters associated with angle widening. Prospective observational study. A total of 244 subjects aged ≥30 years with PACS or PAC/PACG in at least 1 eye. The ASOCT images and angle gonioscopic grades were analyzed for all subjects at baseline and 2 weeks after LPI. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of angle widening (change in mean angle opening distance [AOD750]) and angle opening (all 4 quadrants with trabecular meshwork [TM] visible on gonioscopy after LPI). Change in ASOCT parameters with LPI and baseline predictors of angle widening. Laser peripheral iridotomy resulted in angle widening on ASOCT with significant increases in AOD750, angle recess area, and trabecular iris surface area (P gonioscopy, although some degree of persistent iridotrabecular contact was present in approximately half of PACS eyes and approximately two thirds of PAC/PACG eyes on gonioscopy. The greatest widening by ASOCT was observed in eyes with features most consistent with greater baseline pupillary block. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. All rights reserved.

  18. The effect of single and repeated ultraviolet radiation on the anterior segment of the rabbit eye

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    Fris, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades, depletion of stratospheric ozone has increased the flux of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) at the surface of the earth and the cumulative effect of UVR has become an important aspect of UV-induced eye damage. Epidemiological studies generally assess the chronic, low dose UVR exposure conditions while the laboratory animal experiments usually examine the acute response to high dose exposures. Thus, the study conditions are dissimilar and we are not free to assume that th...

  19. Dynamic changes of anterior segment in patients with different stages of primary angle-closure in both eyes and normal subjects.

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    Jialiu Lin

    Full Text Available To compare changes in anterior segment parameters under light and dark (light-to-dark conditions among eyes with chronic primary angle-closure glaucoma (CPACG, fellow eyes with confirmed or suspect primary angle-closure (PAC or PACS, and age-matched healthy eyes.Consecutive patients with CPACG in one eye and PAC/PACS in the fellow eye, as well as age-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography measurements were conducted under light and dark conditions, and anterior chamber, lens, and iris parameters compared. Demographic and biometric factors associated with light-to-dark change in iris area were analyzed by linear regression.Fifty-seven patients (mean age 59.6±8.9 years and 30 normal subjects matched for age (60.6±9.3 years and sex ratio were recruited. In regards to differences under light-to-dark conditions, angle opening distance at 500 μm (AOD500μm and iris area during light-to-dark transition were smaller in CPACG eyes than fellow PACS/PAC eyes and normal eyes (P<0.017. Pupil diameter change was largest in normal eyes, and larger in PACS/PAC eyes than CPACG eyes (P<0.017. There was an average reduction of 0.145 mm2 in iris area for each millimeter of pupil diameter increase in CPACG eyes, 0.161 mm2 in fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and 0.165 mm2 in normal eyes. Larger iris curvature in the dark and diagnosis of PACG were significantly associated with less light-to-dark iris area changes.Dynamic changes in iris parameters with light-to-dark transition differed significantly among CPACG eyes, fellow PAC/PACS eyes, and normal eyes. Greater iris curvature under dark conditions was correlated with reduced light-to-dark change in iris area and pupil diameter, which may contribute to disease progression.

  20. The Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Anterior Segment Parameters, Visual Acuity and Intraocular Pressures of the Eye.

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    Selver, Ozlem Barut; Palamar, Melis; Gerceker, Kevser; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2017-01-01

    It is aimed to determine whether fasting during Ramadan has any significant effect on anterior chamber parameters, visual acuity and intraocular pressures. 31 fasting (Group 1) and 30 non-fasting healthy volunteers (Group 2) were enrolled. All cases underwent an ophthalmological examination and anterior segment parameter evaluation (central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), pupil size) with Pentacam before and after the breaking of the Ramadan fast in Group 1, before and after dinner in Group 2. The mean age was 43.35 ± 13.20 in Group 1, 43.17 ± 12.90 in Group 2 (p= 0.955). No significant difference was detected in any of the parameters in both groups. There is a need for more detailed and associated studies to understand better about the influence of Ramadan fast on various ocular parameters.

  1. [Visual rehabilitation of patients with large post-traumatic defects of the anterior eye segment through iris-lens diaphragm implantation].

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    Khodzhaev, N S; Sobolev, N P; Mushkova, I A; Izmaylova, S B; Karimova, A N

    The diversity of methodological approaches and lack of pathogenetically reasonable tactics for patients with combined ocular injuries became the basis for the development and systematization of surgical rehabilitation stages of patients, in whom post-traumatic cataract is combined with post-traumatic aniridia and corneal scarring. to construct a visual rehabilitation approach to patients with post-traumatic defects of the anterior eye segment following optical-reconstructive surgery that involved implantation of an iris-lens diaphragm (ILD). We have analyzed 80 reconstructive cases with ILD implantation in patients with post-traumatic aniridia and corneal damage. These patients constituted the first study group (Group 1). We have also investigated 58 eyes with residual ametropy and stable visual function 1 year after ILD implantation before and after conducting a laser keratorefractive surgery. These patients were assigned to the second study group (Group 2). Rehabilitation approach to patients after anterior segment injuries that has been proposed allows to achieve high clinical and functional results and reduce the risk of intra- and postoperative complications. The proposed approach to patients after optical-reconstructive surgery with iris-lens diaphragm implantation followed by keratorefractive surgery is an effective method of visual rehabilitation of anterior eye segment post-traumatic defects.

  2. Changes in Tear Volume after 3% Diquafosol Treatment in Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome: An Anterior Segment Spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

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    Lee, Kwan Bok; Koh, Kyung Min; Kwon, Young A; Song, Sang Wroul; Kim, Byoung Yeop; Chung, Jae Lim

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate changes in the tear meniscus area and tear meniscus height over time in patients with dry eye syndrome, using anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution. Sixty eyes from 30 patients with mild to moderate dry eye syndrome were included. Tear meniscus images acquired by anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography were analyzed using National Institutes of Health's image-analysis software (ImageJ 1.44p). Tear meniscus area and tear meniscus height were measured at baseline, 5 minutes, 10 minutes, and 30 minutes after instillation of a drop of diquafosol in one eye and normal saline in the other eye. Changes in ocular surface disease index score, tear film break-up time, corneal staining score by Oxford schema, and meibomian expressibility were also evaluated at baseline, and after 1 week and 1 month of a diquafosol daily regimen. Sixty eyes from 30 subjects (mean age, 29.3 years; 8 men and 22 women) were included. In eyes receiving diquafosol, tear volume was increased at 5 and 10 minutes compared with baseline. It was also higher than saline instilled eyes at 5, 10, and 30 minutes. Changes in tear volume with respect to baseline were not statistically different after the use of diquafosol for 1 month. Ocular surface disease index score, tear film break-up time, and Oxford cornea stain score were significantly improved after 1 week and 1 month of daily diquafosol instillation, but meibomian expressibility did not change. Topical diquafosol ophthalmic solution effectively increased tear volume for up to 30 minutes, compared to normal saline in patients with dry eye syndrome. © 2017 The Korean Ophthalmological Society

  3. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhonghao Wang

    Full Text Available To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility.Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA, posterior chamber area (PCA, iris cross-section area (ICA and angle recess area (ARA were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC.All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (p<0.001.Measurements of ocular anterior segment areas on UBM images by Photoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  4. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... Surgery and Phacoemulsification in Eye Foundation Hospital. Lagos Nigeria ... eyes(92.4%) had best corrected vision of 6/18 and better at 1 month ..... utilizing donor tissue that fulfilled all requirements of the eye bank.

  5. A novel method for measuring anterior segment area of the eye on ultrasound biomicroscopic images using photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhonghao; Liang, Xuanwei; Wu, Ziqiang; Lin, Jialiu; Huang, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    To describe a novel method for quantitative measurement of area parameters in ocular anterior segment ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) images using Photoshop software and to assess its intraobserver and interobserver reproducibility. Twenty healthy volunteers with wide angles and twenty patients with narrow or closed angles were consecutively recruited. UBM images were obtained and analyzed using Photoshop software by two physicians with different-level training on two occasions. Borders of anterior segment structures including cornea, iris, lens, and zonules in the UBM image were semi-automatically defined by the Magnetic Lasso Tool in the Photoshop software according to the pixel contrast and modified by the observers. Anterior chamber area (ACA), posterior chamber area (PCA), iris cross-section area (ICA) and angle recess area (ARA) were drawn and measured. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of the anterior segment area parameters and scleral spur location were assessed by limits of agreement, coefficient of variation (CV), and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). All of the parameters were successfully measured by Photoshop. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities of ACA, PCA, and ICA were good, with no more than 5% CV and more than 0.95 ICC, while the CVs of ARA were within 20%. The intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilities for defining the spur location were more than 0.97 ICCs. Although the operating times for both observers were less than 3 minutes per image, there was significant difference in the measuring time between two observers with different levels of training (pPhotoshop showed good intraobserver and interobserver reproducibilties. The methodology was easy to adopt and effective in measuring.

  6. Histopathologic evaluation of the anterior segment of eyes enucleated due to glaucoma secondary to primary lens displacement in 13 canine globes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Pizzirani, Stefano; Pirie, Christopher G

    2013-07-01

    PURPOSE  To describe histologic anterior segment changes in eyes affected with primary lens displacement (PLD) and secondary glaucoma. METHODS  Histologic sections stained with H&E from canine eyes enucleated because of PLD and secondary glaucoma were examined. RESULTS  Thirteen eyes from 12 patients were evaluated. Four dogs were castrated males and eight spayed females. Median age was 8 years of age (range 3-13). Breeds included seven terriers and five other breeds. All eyes examined demonstrated varying degrees of inflammation involving the iris and cleft. Mononuclear and melanophagic infiltration of the cleft was found in all specimens. Four globes also showed polymorphonuclear infiltrate. Pre-iridal fibrovascular membranes were clearly identified in 10 of 13 eyes. Total inflammatory score was significantly greater in all globes examined compared with an age-matched group of normal dogs. The posterior pigmented iris epithelium demonstrated a consistent pattern of hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy and cystic degeneration, more prominent in the more central regions. In some cases, hyperplasia was of greatest severity in the mid-iris and associated with thinning or flattening of the pupillary region. CONCLUSIONS  These results suggest that lens instability may be associated with chronic inflammation and secondary glaucoma. Mechanical irritation from an unstable lens may result in hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia of the posterior pigmented iris epithelium and subsequent cellular exfoliation and release of melanin. An inflammatory reaction directly or indirectly related to melanin release may obstruct the outflow pathways ultimately leading to glaucoma and loss of vision. Use of topical steroids may be warranted in dogs with PLD. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  7. Differences in neural crest sensitivity to ethanol account for the infrequency of anterior segment defects in the eye compared with craniofacial anomalies in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Jessica; Williams, Antionette L; Chawla, Bahaar; Apsey, Christian; Bohnsack, Brenda L

    2017-09-01

    Ethanol (ETOH) exposure during pregnancy is associated with craniofacial and neurologic abnormalities, but infrequently disrupts the anterior segment of the eye. In these studies, we used zebrafish to investigate differences in the teratogenic effect of ETOH on craniofacial, periocular, and ocular neural crest. Zebrafish eye and neural crest development was analyzed by means of live imaging, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling) assay, immunostaining, detection of reactive oxygen species, and in situ hybridization. Our studies demonstrated that foxd3-positive neural crest cells in the periocular mesenchyme and developing eye were less sensitive to ETOH than sox10-positive craniofacial neural crest cells that form the pharyngeal arches and jaw. ETOH increased apoptosis in the retina, but did not affect survival of periocular and ocular neural crest cells. ETOH also did not increase reactive oxygen species within the eye. In contrast, ETOH increased ventral neural crest apoptosis and reactive oxygen species production in the facial mesenchyme. In the eye and craniofacial region, sod2 showed high levels of expression in the anterior segment and in the setting of Sod2 knockdown, low levels of ETOH decreased migration of foxd3-positive neural crest cells into the developing eye. However, ETOH had minimal effect on the periocular and ocular expression of transcription factors (pitx2 and foxc1) that regulate anterior segment development. Neural crest cells contributing to the anterior segment of the eye exhibit increased ability to withstand ETOH-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. These studies explain the rarity of anterior segment dysgenesis despite the frequent craniofacial abnormalities in fetal alcohol syndrome. Birth Defects Research 109:1212-1227, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Optical coherence tomography in anterior segment imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalev-Landoy, Maya; Day, Alexander C.; Cordeiro, M. Francesca; Migdal, Clive

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the ability of optical coherence tomography (OCT), designed primarily to image the posterior segment, to visualize the anterior chamber angle (ACA) in patients with different angle configurations. Methods In a prospective observational study, the anterior segments of 26 eyes of 26 patients were imaged using the Zeiss Stratus OCT, model 3000. Imaging of the anterior segment was achieved by adjusting the focusing control on the Stratus OCT. A total of 16 patients had abnormal angle configurations including narrow or closed angles and plateau irides, and 10 had normal angle configurations as determined by prior full ophthalmic examination, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and gonioscopy. Results In all cases, OCT provided high-resolution information regarding iris configuration. The ACA itself was clearly visualized in patients with narrow or closed angles, but not in patients with open angles. Conclusions Stratus OCT offers a non-contact, convenient and rapid method of assessing the configuration of the anterior chamber. Despite its limitations, it may be of help during the routine clinical assessment and treatment of patients with glaucoma, particularly when gonioscopy is not possible or difficult to interpret. PMID:17355288

  9. Anterior Segment Ischemia after Strabismus Surger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Seyhan Göçmen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 46-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with complaints of diplopia and esotropia in his right eye that developed after a car accident. The patient had right esotropia in primary position and abduction of the right eye was totally limited. Primary deviation was over 40 prism diopters at near and distance. The patient was diagnosed with sixth nerve palsy and 18 months after trauma, he underwent right medial rectus muscle recession. Ten months after the first operation, full-thickness tendon transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles (with Foster suture was performed. On the first postoperative day, slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema, 3+ cells in the anterior chamber and an irregular pupil. According to these findings, the diagnosis was anterior segment ischemia. Treatment with 0.1/5 mL topical dexamethasone drops (16 times/day, cyclopentolate hydrochloride drops (3 times/day and 20 mg oral fluocortolone (3 times/day was initiated. After 1 week of treatment, corneal edema regressed and the anterior chamber was clean. Topical and systemic steroid treatment was gradually discontinued. At postoperative 1 month, the patient was orthophoric and there were no pathologic symptoms besides the irregular pupil. Anterior segment ischemia is one of the most serious complications of strabismus surgery. Despite the fact that in most cases the only remaining sequel is an irregular pupil, serious circulation deficits could lead to phthisis bulbi. Clinical properties of anterior segment ischemia should be well recognized and in especially risky cases, preventative measures should be taken.

  10. Establishing Age-Adjusted Reference Ranges for Iris-Related Parameters in Open Angle Eyes with Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey R Peterson

    Full Text Available Define criteria for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population as measured with swept source Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT.Ninety-eight eyes of 98 participants with open angles were included and stratified into 5 age groups (18-35, 36-45, 46-55, 56-65, and 66-79 years. ASOCT scans with 3D mode angle analysis were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan and analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation software. Anterior iris surface length (AISL, length of scleral spur landmark (SSL to pupillary margin (SSL-to-PM, iris contour ratio (ICR = AISL/SSL-to-PM, pupil radius, radius of iris centroid (RICe, and iris volume were measured. Outcome variables were summarized for all eyes and age groups, and mean values among age groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance. Stepwise regression analysis was used to investigate demographic and ocular characteristic factors that affected each iris-related parameter.Mean (±SD values were 2.24 mm (±0.46, 4.06 mm (±0.27, 3.65 mm (±0.48, 4.16 mm (±0.47, 1.14 (±0.04, 1.51 mm2 (±0.23, and 38.42 μL (±4.91 for pupillary radius, RICe, SSL-to-PM, AISL, ICR, iris cross-sectional area, and iris volume, respectively. Both pupillary radius (P = 0.002 and RICe (P = 0.027 decreased with age, while SSL-to-PM (P = 0.002 and AISL increased with age (P = 0.001. ICR (P = 0.54 and iris volume (P = 0.49 were not affected by age.This study establishes reference values for iris-related parameters in an adult open angle population, which will be useful for future studies examining the role of iris changes in pathologic states.

  11. Lesiones traumáticas de los anexos y del segmento anterior del ojo en los boxeadores Traumatic lesions of the adnexa and of the anterior segment of the eye in fighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Fernández Sánchez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo con una muestra de 71 boxeadores a los cuales se les examinaron las estructuras de referencia mediante oftalmoscopia directa y biomicroscopia ocular, antes de las 6 horas posteriores al término de sus peleas; donde se obtuvo como resultado que los anexos afectados fueron los párpados con 5 hematomas, 4 edemas y 1 excoriación; y la conjuntiva con 4 hiperemias y 8 hemorragias. En el segmento anterior del ojo sólo se afectó la córnea con 13 lesiones en total, divididas en 10 excoriaciones superficiales y 3 profundas. Las lesiones traumáticas predominantes en los anexos del ojo son las de los párpados y las de la conjuntiva y las del segmento anterior del ojo, las de la córnea. El ojo más afectado fue el izquierdo y las lesiones más frecuentes fueron en las categorías de 13 y 14, 17 y 18 y 19 y 34 años las corneales, las conjuntivales y la de los párpados, respectivamente.A retrospective study was carried out with a sample of 71 fighters, whose reference structures were examined by direct ophthalmoscopy and ocular biomicroscopy within the 6 hours following their fights. As a result, it was observed that the affected adnexa were the eyelids with 5 hematomas, 4 edemas and 1 excoriation; and the conjunctiva with 4 hyperemias and 8 hemorrhages. In the anteriro segment, only the cornea was affected with 13 lesions in all, divided into 10 superficial and 3 deep excoriations.The traumatic lesions prevailing in the adnexa of the eye are those of the eyelids and the conjunctiva, whereas the predominating traumatic lesions of the anterior segment of the eye are those of the cornea. The left eye was the most affected and the most frequent lesions were in the categories 13 and 14, 17 and 18 and 19 and 34 years old in the cornea, the conjunctiva and the eyelids, respectively.

  12. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  13. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  14. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing

  15. Segmentation and Quantification for Angle-Closure Glaucoma Assessment in Anterior Segment OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Huazhu; Xu, Yanwu; Lin, Stephen; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Frangi, Alejandro F; Baskaran, Mani; Aung, Tin

    2017-09-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major cause of irreversible visual impairment and can be identified by measuring the anterior chamber angle (ACA) of the eye. The ACA can be viewed clearly through anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), but the imaging characteristics and the shapes and locations of major ocular structures can vary significantly among different AS-OCT modalities, thus complicating image analysis. To address this problem, we propose a data-driven approach for automatic AS-OCT structure segmentation, measurement, and screening. Our technique first estimates initial markers in the eye through label transfer from a hand-labeled exemplar data set, whose images are collected over different patients and AS-OCT modalities. These initial markers are then refined by using a graph-based smoothing method that is guided by AS-OCT structural information. These markers facilitate segmentation of major clinical structures, which are used to recover standard clinical parameters. These parameters can be used not only to support clinicians in making anatomical assessments, but also to serve as features for detecting anterior angle closure in automatic glaucoma screening algorithms. Experiments on Visante AS-OCT and Cirrus high-definition-OCT data sets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  16. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven Yilmaz, Suzan; Palamar, Melis; Yusifov, Emil; Ates, Halil; Egrilmez, Sait; Yagci, Ayse

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT) and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). METHODS Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males) patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG) before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y). RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y). Twelve patients (48%) were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52%) were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT) and anterior chamber volume (ACV) (P0.05). CONCLUSION SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation. PMID:26558208

  17. Biometric analysis of pigment dispersion syndrome using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Beccat, Sylvain; Fortoul, Vincent; Denis, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    To compare anterior chamber volume (ACV), iris volume, and iridolenticular contact (ILC) area before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT) and image processing software. Cross-sectional study. Eighteen eyes of 18 patients with PDS; 30 eyes of 30 controls matched for age, gender, and refraction. Anterior segment OCT imaging was performed in all eyes before LPI and 1, 4, and 12 weeks after LPI. At each visit, 12 cross-sectional images of the AS were taken: 4 in bright conditions with accommodation (accommodation), 4 in bright conditions without accommodation (physiological miosis), and 4 under dark conditions (physiologic mydriasis). Biometric parameters were estimated using AS OCT radial sections and customized image-processing software. Anterior chamber volume, iris volume-to-length ratio, ILC area, AS OCT anterior chamber depth, and A-scan ultrasonography axial length. Before LPI, PDS eyes had a significantly greater ACV and ILC area than control eyes (PPigment dispersion syndrome eyes do not have an iris that is abnormally large, relative to the AS size, but have a weakly resistant iris that is stretched and pushed against the lens when there is a pressure difference across the iris. The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome Related to Viscoelastic Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Gül Altıntaş

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the etiologic factors of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS outbreak after uneventful cataract surgery, to discuss the treatment plan, and to assess the response to medical therapy. Materials and Methods: Clinical features in twenty-two eyes of 22 patients who had TASS outbreak after uneventful cataract surgery were evaluated. Visual acuity (VA, intraocular pressure (IOP measurements, biomicroscopic and B-mode ultrasound evaluations were performed. To establish the differential diagnosis from infectious endophthalmitis, cultures were taken from different subjects such as surgical equipment, solutions, medical devices. All patients were treated as having endophthalmitis until the culture results were obtained. Results: Based on the negative culture results, absence of any symptoms of TASS in other patients who underwent different intraocular surgeries rather than cataract surgery in the same day and same surgical condition in which VES was not used, and the fact that postoperative inflammation occurred only in eyes in which the new VES made of rooster comb was used, we assume that the recently used VES is most likely responsible for the TASS outbreak. As soon as another VES was replaced with the suspected one, no other cases with TASS occurred. Conclusion: Even though the chemical compositions of VES are in physiological limits for viability to the anterior segment tissue, the suboptimal or inappropriate storage conditions may cause loss of the original chemical integrity which can be the reason of TASS. Close monitoring of each patient, early diagnosis, and correct treatment can prevent its complications. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 341-6

  19. Effects of hyper- and hypo- thyroidism on oxidative stress of the eye in experimental acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Diker, S; Ataoglu, O; Dolapci, M; Akata, F; Hasanreisôglu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1996-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the homogenated anterior segment of rat eyes with endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Malondialdehyde concentrations were found to be significantly increased (p 0.05). These results suggest that excess or deficiency of the thyroid hormones cause alterations in the malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activities of the rat eyes in endotoxin induced uveitis, and hyperthyroidism may increase the oxidative stress in endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis.

  20. Anterior segment developmental anomalies in a 33-week-old fetus with MIDAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herwig, Martina C; Loeffler, Karin U; Gembruch, Ulrich; Kuchelmeister, Klaus; Müller, Annette M

    2014-01-01

    We report anterior segment abnormalities in both eyes of a 33-week-old fetus endorsing the diagnosis of MIDAS (microphthalmia, dermal aplasia, and sclerocornea) syndrome. After abortion, the fetus was examined by a standard pediatric autopsy that included macroscopic and microscopic examination of both eyes. Postmortem findings included craniofacial stigmata (such as hypertelorism, a flat nose and low-set ears) and an agenesis of the corpus callosum. Array comparative genomic hybridization revealed a deletion of the short arm of the X chromosome (region Xp22.2 to p22.32). Ophthalmopathologic examination of the eyes revealed microphthalmia with anterior segment developmental anomalies, in particular sclerocornea and Peters' anomaly, respectively. General pathology findings plus the ocular findings allowed the diagnosis of MIDAS syndrome. A discussion of differential diagnoses is provided. This case report indicates that ophthalmopathologic investigation of fetal eyes can be of great value for the further classification of syndromes.

  1. Effects of primary selective laser trabeculoplasty on anterior segment parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Guven Yilmaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the effects of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT on the main numerical parameters of anterior segment with Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in patients with ocular hypertension (OHT and primary open angle glaucoma (POAG.METHODS: Pentacam measurements of 45 eyes of 25 (15 females and 10 males patients (12 with OHT, 13 with POAG before and after SLT were obtained. Measurements were taken before and 1 and 3mo after SLT. Pentacam parameters were compared between OHT and POAG patients, and age groups (60y and older, and younger than 60y.RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 57.8±13.9 (range 20-77y. Twelve patients (48% were younger than 60y, while 13 patients (52% were 60y and older. Measurements of pre-SLT and post-SLT 1mo were significantly different for the parameters of central corneal thickness (CCT and anterior chamber volume (ACV (P<0.05. These parameters returned back to pre-SLT values at post-SLT 3mo. Decrease of ACV at post-SLT 1mo was significantly higher in younger than 60y group than 60y and older group. There was no statistically significant difference in Pentacam parameters between OHT and POAG patients at pre- and post-treatment measurements (P>0.05.CONCLUSION:SLT leads to significant increase in CCT and decrease in ACV at the 1st month of the procedure. Effects of SLT on these anterior segment parameters, especially for CCT that interferes IOP measurement, should be considered to ensure accurate clinical interpretation.

  2. Anterior Segment Findings in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Karaca Adıyeke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the anterior segment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS and to compare them with those of healthy reproductive-age female volunteers. Materials and Methods: The study included 50 right eyes of 50 women with PCOS (group 1 and 50 right eyes of 50 healthy women (group 2. Intraocular pressure, Schirmer’s test, tear film break-up time and central corneal thickness were evaluated in all subjects. Correlations between serum hormone (estradiol and testosterone levels and observed findings were also investigated. Results: Mean central corneal thickness values were significantly higher in the PCOS group (p=0.001. The mean intraocular pressures values were similar between the two groups (p=0.560. Schirmer’s test results and tear film break-up time values were significantly lower in the PCOS group (p=0.001 and p=0.001 respectively. Serum estradiol levels were moderately positively correlated with mean central corneal thickness (r=0.552, weakly positively correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.351 and weakly negatively correlated with tear film break-up time (r=-0.393. Serum free testosterone levels were weakly correlated with intraocular pressure (r=0.342 and central corneal thickness (r=0.303, and showed weak negative correlations with Schirmer’s test results (r=-0.562 and tear film break-up time (r=-0.502. Conclusion: PCOS leads to physiological and structural changes in the eye. Dry eye symptoms were more severe and central corneal thickness measurements were greater in patients with PCOS. Those are correlated serum testosterone and estradiol levels.

  3. NONINVASIVE METHODS ASSESSMENT BLOOD FLOW IN ANTERIOR SEGMENT AND CLINICAL APPLICATION PERSPECTIVE

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    T. N. Kiseleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature review contains information on the anatomical and physiological features of the vessels of the conjunctiva, iris, ciliary body. There are data on the development and application of new non-invasive methods for the study of hemodynamics in the microvessels of anterior eye segment. To study the blood flow of the anterior segment of the eye, biomycroscopy, photography and videobiomicroscopy, television biomicroscopy of vessels, darkfield visualization, application fluorescence angiography, photoacoustic angiography, orthogonal polarization spectroscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry and OCT-angiography were used in recent years. These methods allow to determine the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of conjunctiva, iris, ciliary body microcirculation. They are highly informative for assess of various drugs effect on the vascular eye system. Investigation of hemodynamics in the eye microvessels is necessary for a fundamental approach to the study of the pathophysiology of systemic circulatory pathologies (with arterial hypertension, diabetes, etc. and changes in regional blood flow in organ of vision disease. Monitoring of anterior segment microcirculation in clinical practice makes possible to monitor the effectiveness of drug and surgical treatment.

  4. Evaluation of anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome using Scheimpflug imaging

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    Alime Gunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate anterior segment parameters in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS using Scheimpflug imaging. Methods: Forty-three PXS patients and 43 healthy control subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All participants underwent a detailed ophthalmologic examination. Anterior segment parameters were measured using a Scheimpflug system. Results: Considering the PXS and control groups, the mean corneal thicknesses at the apex point (536 ± 31 and 560 ± 31 µm, respectively, p=0.001, at the center of the pupil (534 ± 31 and 558 ± 33 µm, respectively, p=0.001, and at the thinnest point (528 ± 30 and 546 ± 27 µm, respectively, p=0.005 were significantly thinner in PXS patients. Visual acuity was significantly lower (0.52 ± 0.37 versus 0.88 ± 0.23, p<0.001 and axial length was significantly longer (23.9 ± 0.70 mm versus 23.2 ± 0.90 mm, p=0.001 in the PXS eyes than in the control eyes. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean values of keratometry, anterior chamber angle, anterior chamber depth, corneal volume, and anterior chamber volume between the PXS and control eyes. Conclusions: The patients with PXS had thinner corneas, worse visual acuity, and longer axial length compared with those in the healthy controls.

  5. Ocular Drug Delivery Barriers—Role of Nanocarriers in the Treatment of Anterior Segment Ocular Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachu, Rinda Devi; Chowdhury, Pallabitha; Al-Saedi, Zahraa H. F.; Karla, Pradeep K.; Boddu, Sai H. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ocular drug delivery is challenging due to the presence of anatomical and physiological barriers. These barriers can affect drug entry into the eye following multiple routes of administration (e.g., topical, systemic, and injectable). Topical administration in the form of eye drops is preferred for treating anterior segment diseases, as it is convenient and provides local delivery of drugs. Major concerns with topical delivery include poor drug absorption and low bioavailability. To improve the bioavailability of topically administered drugs, novel drug delivery systems are being investigated. Nanocarrier delivery systems demonstrate enhanced drug permeation and prolonged drug release. This review provides an overview of ocular barriers to anterior segment delivery, along with ways to overcome these barriers using nanocarrier systems. The disposition of nanocarriers following topical administration, their safety, toxicity and clinical trials involving nanocarrier systems are also discussed. PMID:29495528

  6. Loading effects of anterior cervical spine fusion on adjacent segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Shiung Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Adjacent segment degeneration typically follows anterior cervical spine fusion. However, the primary cause of adjacent segment degeneration remains unknown. Therefore, in order to identify the loading effects that cause adjacent segment degeneration, this study examined the loading effects to superior segments adjacent to fused bone following anterior cervical spine fusion. The C3–C6 cervical spine segments of 12 sheep were examined. Specimens were divided into the following groups: intact spine (group 1; and C5–C6 segments that were fused via cage-instrumented plate fixation (group 2. Specimens were cycled between 20° flexion and 15° extension with a displacement control of 1°/second. The tested parameters included the range of motion (ROM of each segment, torque and strain on both the body and inferior articular process at the superior segments (C3–C4 adjacent to the fused bone, and the position of the neutral axis of stress at under 20° flexion and 15° extension. Under flexion and Group 2, torque, ROM, and strain on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. Under extension and Group 2, ROM for the fused segment was less than that of Group 1; torque, ROM, and stress on both the bodies and facets of superior segments adjacent to the fused bone were higher than those of Group 1. These analytical results indicate that the muscles and ligaments require greater force to achieve cervical motion than the intact spine following anterior cervical spine fusion. In addition, ROM and stress on the bodies and facets of the joint segments adjacent to the fused bone were significantly increased. Under flexion, the neutral axis of the stress on the adjacent segment moved backward, and the stress on the bodies of the segments adjacent to the fused bone increased. These comparative results indicate that increased stress on the adjacent segments is caused by stress-shielding effects

  7. Anterior segment sparing to reduce charged particle radiotherapy complications in uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daftari, Inder K.; Char, Devron H.; Verhey, Lynn J.; Castro, Joseph R.; Petti, Paula L.; Meecham, William J.; Kroll, Stewart; Blakely, Eleanor A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation is to delineate the risk factors in the development of neovascular glaucoma (NVG) after helium-ion irradiation of uveal melanoma patients and to propose treatment technique that may reduce this risk. Methods and Materials: 347 uveal melanoma patients were treated with helium-ions using a single-port treatment technique. Using univariate and multivariate statistics, the NVG complication rate was analyzed according to the percent of anterior chamber in the radiation field, tumor size, tumor location, sex, age, dose, and other risk factors. Several University of California San Francisco-Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) patients in each size category (medium, large, and extralarge) were retrospectively replanned using two ports instead of a single port. By using appropriate polar and azimuthal gaze angles or by treating patients with two ports, the maximum dose to the anterior segment of the eye can often be reduced. Although a larger volume of anterior chamber may receive a lower dose by using two ports than a single port treatment. We hypothesize that this could reduce the level of complications that result from the irradiation of the anterior chamber of the eye. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for the lens, and compared for the single and two-port techniques. Results: NVG developed in 121 (35%) patients. The risk of NVG peaked between 1 and 2.5 years posttreatment. By univariate and multivariate analysis, the percent of lens in the field was strongly correlated with the development of NVG. Other contributing factors were tumor height, history of diabetes, and vitreous hemorrhage. Dose-volume histogram analysis of single-port vs. two-port techniques demonstrate that for some patients in the medium and large category tumor groups, a significant decrease in dose to the structures in the anterior segment of the eye could have been achieved with the use of two ports. Conclusion: The development of NVG after

  8. Effects of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with Pentacam in young adults

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    Ceyhun Arici

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effects of topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride on anterior segment parameters obtained with a Pentacam rotating Scheimpflug camera in healthy young adults. Methods: Anterior segment analyses of 25 eyes from 25 young adults (Group 1, before and after 45 min of 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride application, were performed. For a control group (cycloplegia-free, Group 2, 24 eyes of 24 age- and sex-matched healthy cases were evaluated twice at 45 min intervals. The results obtained from the groups were compared statistically. Results: The mean ages of the groups were 23.04 ± 3.42 (range, 18-29 and 22.4 ± 2.05 (range, 18-27 years for Groups 1 and 2, respectively (p=0.259. In Group 1, measurements between the two analyses were significantly different for the values of anterior chamber depth (ACD, anterior chamber angle (ACA, and anterior chamber volume (ACV (p<0.05, whereas no statistical difference was found for the central corneal thickness (CCT and keratometry (K1, K2 measurements. In Group 2, none of these parameters were statistically different between the two analyses. Conclusions: Topically applied 1% cyclopentolate hydrochloride caused an increase in the ACD and ACV values, and a decrease in the ACA value. However, it had no significant effect on the CCT and keratometry measurements. It is important to consider these effects when using the Pentacam device on young adults with cycloplegia and when applying it for various reasons.

  9. Ocular Adnexal and Anterior Segment Manifestations of HIV/AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Benue State has the highest rate of sero-prevalence to human immuno virus (HIV) infections among the ten hyper-endemic states in Nigeria. This study evaluates the pattern of ocular adnexal and anterior segment manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients attending the HIV clinic at the NAF Hospital in Makurdi, ...

  10. Comparison of anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography and fluorescein angiography for iris vasculature analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zett, Claudio; Stina, Deborah M Rosa; Kato, Renata Tiemi; Novais, Eduardo Amorim; Allemann, Norma

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study is to perform imaging of irises of different colors using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography angiography (AS-OCTA) and iris fluorescein angiography (IFA) and compare their effectiveness in examining iris vasculature. This is a cross-sectional observational clinical study. Patients with no vascular iris alterations and different pigmentation levels were recruited. Participants were imaged using OCTA adapted with an anterior segment lens and IFA with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) adapted with an anterior segment lens. AS-OCTA and IFA images were then compared. Two blinded readers classified iris pigmentation and compared the percentage of visible vessels between OCTA and IFA images. Twenty eyes of 10 patients with different degrees of iris pigmentation were imaged using AS-OCTA and IFA. Significantly more visible iris vessels were observed using OCTA than using FA (W = 5.22; p Iris pigmentation was negatively correlated to the percentage of visible vessels in both imaging methods (OCTA, rho = - 0.73, p iris vasculature. In both AS-OCTA and IFA, iris pigmentation caused vasculature imaging blockage, but AS-OCTA provided more detailed iris vasculature images than IFA. Additional studies including different iris pathologies are needed to determine the most optimal scanning parameters in OCTA of the anterior segment.

  11. Anterior segment morphology and morphometry in selected reptile species using optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rival, Franck; Linsart, Adeline; Isard, Pierre-François; Besson, Christian; Dulaurent, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To provide new and original images of the anterior segment (AS) of the eye of selected Ophidian, Chelonian, and Saurian species and to compare the AS architecture among and within these three groups. 17 Saurians, 14 Ophidians, and 11 Chelonians with no concurrent systemic or eye disease were included in the study. Age, weight, nose-cloaca distance (NCD), and pupil shape were collected for each animal. The AS was examined by optical coherence tomography (OCT). After gross description of the appearance of the AS, the central and peripheral corneal thickness (CCT, PCT) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) were measured using the software provided with the OCT device. The ratio CCT/ACD was then calculated for each animal. Pupil shape was a vertical slit in all the crepuscular or nocturnal animals (except for 1 chelonian and 1 ophidian). Each group had its own particular AS architecture. Saurians had a regularly thin cornea with a flat anterior lens capsule and a deep anterior chamber. Ophidians had a thick cornea with a narrow anterior chamber due to a very anteriorly anchored spherical lens. The spectacle was difficult to identify in all ophidians except in Python molurus bivitattus in which it was more obvious. Chelonians displayed an intermediate architecture which more closely resembled the Saurian type than the Ophidian type. Despite grossly similar AS architecture, the three groups of reptiles in the study demonstrated differences that are suggestive of a link between anatomical disparities and variations in environment and lifestyle. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  12. Long-term results of oral valganciclovir for treatment of anterior segment inflammation secondary to cytomegalovirus infection

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    Wong VW

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Victoria WY Wong, Carmen KM Chan, Dexter YL Leung, Timothy YY LaiDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Hong Kong, People's Republic of ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of oral valganciclovir in the treatment of anterior segment inflammation caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV infection.Methods: Consecutive patients with anterior segment inflammation due to CMV causing anterior uveitis or corneal endotheliitis treated with oral valganciclovir were reviewed. Diagnosis of CMV infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous aspirate prior to commencement of oral valganciclovir. All patients were treated with an oral loading dose of 900 mg valganciclovir twice daily for at least 2 weeks, followed by an additional 450 mg valganciclovir twice-daily maintenance therapy. Changes in visual acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP, use of antiglaucomatous eye drops, and recurrence were analyzed.Results: Thirteen eyes of 11 patients were followed for a mean of 17.2 months. Two patients had bilateral corneal endotheliitis. All eyes had absence of anterior segment inflammation within 3 weeks after treatment. Following treatment, the mean logMAR visual acuity improved significantly from 0.58 at baseline to 0.37 at the last follow-up (P = 0.048. The mean IOP and number of antiglaucomatous eye drops also decreased significantly (P = 0.021 and P = 0.004, respectively. Five (38.5% eyes had recurrence of anterior uveitis after valganciclovir was stopped and required retreatment with oral valganciclovir.Conclusion: Oral valganciclovir appeared to be effective in controlling CMV anterior uveitis, resulting in visual improvement and IOP reduction following control of inflammation. However, despite the initial clinical response in all cases, recurrence after cessation of oral valganciclovir could occur.Keywords: cytomegalovirus infection, inflammation

  13. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy on anterior chamber angle anatomy in primary angle closure spectrum eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansara, Seema; Blieden, Lauren S.; Chuang, Alice Z.; Baker, Laura A.; Bell, Nicholas P.; Mankiewicz, Kimberly A.; Feldman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the change in trabecular-iris circumference volume (TICV) after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle closure (PAC) spectrum eyes Patients and Methods Forty-two chronic PAC spectrum eyes from 24 patients were enrolled. Eyes with anterior chamber abnormalities affecting angle measurement were excluded. Intraocular pressure, slit lamp exam, and gonioscopy were recorded at each visit. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) with 3D mode angle analysis scans were taken with the CASIA SS-1000 (Tomey Corp., Nagoya, Japan) before and after LPI. Forty-two pre-LPI ASOCT scans and 34 post-LPI ASOCT scans were analyzed using the Anterior Chamber Analysis and Interpretation (ACAI, Houston, TX) software. A mixed-effect model analysis was used to compare the trabecular-iris space area (TISA) changes among 4 quadrants, as well as to identify potential factors affecting TICV. Results There was a significant increase in all average angle parameters after LPI (TISA500, TISA750, TICV500, and TICV750). The magnitude of change in TISA500 in the superior angle was significantly less than the other angles. The changes in TICV500 and TICV750 were not associated with any demographic or ocular characteristics. Conclusion TICV is a useful parameter to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of LPI in the treatment of eyes with PAC spectrum disease. PMID:26066504

  14. Anterior segment and retinal OCT imaging with simplified sample arm using focus tunable lens technology (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grulkowski, Ireneusz; Karnowski, Karol; Ruminski, Daniel; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2016-03-01

    Availability of the long-depth-range OCT systems enables comprehensive structural imaging of the eye and extraction of biometric parameters characterizing the entire eye. Several approaches have been developed to perform OCT imaging with extended depth ranges. In particular, current SS-OCT technology seems to be suited to visualize both anterior and posterior eye in a single measurement. The aim of this study is to demonstrate integrated anterior segment and retinal SS-OCT imaging using a single instrument, in which the sample arm is equipped with the electrically tunable lens (ETL). ETL is composed of the optical liquid confined in the space by an elastic polymer membrane. The shape of the membrane, electrically controlled by a specific ring, defines the radius of curvature of the lens surface, thus it regulates the power of the lens. ETL can be also equipped with additional offset lens to adjust the tuning range of the optical power. We characterize the operation of the tunable lens using wavefront sensing. We develop the optimized optical set-up with two adaptive operational states of the ETL in order to focus the light either on the retina or on the anterior segment of the eye. We test the performance of the set-up by utilizing whole eye phantom as the object. Finally, we perform human eye in vivo imaging using the SS-OCT instrument with versatile imaging functionality that accounts for the optics of the eye and enables dynamic control of the optical beam focus.

  15. The Effects of Smoking on Anterior Segment Parameters, Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer, and Pupillary Functions

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    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the alterations in the anterior segment parameters, retinal nerve fiber layer, and pupillary functions in smokers. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study, 45 eyes of 45 smokers and 45 eyes of 45 non-smoker control subjects were evaluated. All patients underwent measurement of anterior segment parameters with optical low coherence reflectometry (OLCR, mesopic and photopic pupillary diameter with an aberrometer device, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness with optical coherence tomography, and dry-eye assessment with Schirmer’s test. The results were compared with independent t-test by SPSS 16.0 Inc., and a p-value lower than 0.05 was determined as significant. Results: There was a significant difference between both groups in terms of mesopic pupil diameters that were measured with both OLCR and aberrometer device (p=0.03 and 0.02, respectively. Schirmer scores were also significantly decreased in smokers (p=0.001. The other measured parameters demonstrated no difference between smokers and non-smokers (p>0.05 for all. Conclusion: Smoking may affect pupillary functions, especially the mesopic pupillary diameter, and may cause a deficiency in pupil response under dark circumstances. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 11-4

  16. Efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery

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    Zhi-Wei Peng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the efficacy of highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses for persistent corneal epithelial defects.METHODS:In this retrospective case analysis, 28 patients(28 eyeswith persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery from January 2011 to June 2013 in our hospital were reviewed. After regular treatment for at least 2wk, the persistent corneal epithelial defects were treated with highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses, until the corneal epithelial healing. Continued to wear the same lens no more than 3wk, or in need of replacement the new one. All cases were followed up for 6mo. Key indicators of corneal epithelial healling, corneal fluorescein staining and ocular symptoms improvement were observed.RESULTS: Twenty-one eyes were cured(75.00%, markedly effective in 5 eyes(17.86%, effective in 2 eyes(7.14%, no invalid cases, the total efficiency of 100.00%. Ocular symptoms of 25 cases(89.29%relieved within 2d, the rest 3 cases(10.71%relieved within 1wk. The corneal epithelial of 6 cases(21.43%repaired in 3wk, 13 cases(46.43%in 6wk, 7 cases(25.00%in 9wk, 2 cases(7.14%over 12wk. There were no signs of secondary infection. And no evidence of recurrence in 6mo. CONCLUSION: Highly hydrophilic soft contact lenses could repair persistent corneal epithelial defects after anterior segment surgery significantly, while quickly and effectively relieve a variety of ocular irritation.

  17. Reproducibility of Scleral Spur Identification and Angle Measurements Using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo J. Cumba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate intraobserver and interobserver agreement in locating the scleral spur landmark (SSL and anterior chamber angle measurements obtained using Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (ASOCT images. Methods. Two independent, masked observers (SR and AZC identified SSLs on ASOCT images from 31 eyes with open and nonopen angles. A third independent reader, NPB, adjudicated SSL placement if identifications differed by more than 80 μm. Nine months later, SR reidentified SSLs. Intraobserver and interobserver agreement in SSL placement, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle opening distance (AOD750 were calculated. Results. In 84% of quadrants, SR’s SSL placements during 2 sessions were within 80 μm in both the X- and Y-axes, and in 77% of quadrants, SR and AZC were within 80 μm in both axes. In adjudicated images, 90% of all quadrants were within 80 μm, 88% in nonopen-angle eyes, and 92% in open-angle eyes. The intraobserver and interobserver correlation coefficients (with and without adjudication were above 0.9 for TISA750 and AOD750 for all quadrants. Conclusions. Reproducible identification of the SSL from images obtained with FD-ASOCT is possible. The ability to identify the SSL allows reproducible measurement of the anterior chamber angle using TISA750 and AOD750.

  18. Anterior segment changes after pharmacologic mydriasis using Pentacam and optical coherence tomography in angle closure suspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Min Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the dynamic changes of anterior segment parameters especially iris morphology induced by pharmacologic mydriasis between angle closure suspects and normal controls.METHODS:The study group comprised 19 eyes of 19 angle closure suspects and 19 eyes of 19 age- and sex-matched normal open-angle eyes. Pentacam and optical coherence tomography measurements before and 30min after instillation of compound tropicamide eye drop were performed and compared. Biometric evaluations of iris tomography and anterior chamber angle were estimated by a customized image-processing software.RESULTS:Baseline axial length, iris cross sectional area and volume did not differ significantly between angle closure suspects and normal controls. Angle closure suspects had smaller pupil size, narrower anterior segment dimension and axial length, thinner iris with greater curve in comparison with normal controls. Pharmacologic mydriasis led to significant increments in iris thickness at 750 μm, anterior chamber depth and volume, whereas significant decrements in iris curve, cross sectional area and volume in both groups. Angle opening distance at 500 μm was increased significantly in normal controls (from 0.465±0.115 mm to 0.539±0.167 mm, P=0.009, but not in angle closure suspects (from 0.125±0.100 mm to 0.145±0.131 mm, P=0.326. Iris volume change per millimeter of pupil dilation (△IV/△PD decreased significantly less in angle closure suspects than normal controls (-2.47±1.33 mm2 vs -3.63±1.58 mm2, P=0.019. Linear regression analysis showed that the change of angle opening distance at 500 μm was associated most with the change of central anterior chamber depth (β=0.841, P=0.002 and △IV/△PD (β=0.028, P=0.002, followed by gender (β=0.062, P=0.032.CONCLUSION:Smaller iris volume decrement per millimeter of pupil dilation is related significantly with the less anterior angle opening in angle closure suspects after pharmacologic mydriasis. Dynamic

  19. Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis in the Hypoplastic Cleft Maxilla

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao (Janardhan), Sruthi; Kotrashetti, S. M.; Lingaraj, J. B.; Pinto, P. X.; Keluskar, K. M.; Jain, Siddharth; Sone, Piyush; Rao, Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Orthognathic surgery and distraction osteogenesis play a prime role in the correction of maxillary hypoplasia in patients with cleft lip and palate (CLP). Advancement of the anterior maxilla alone without interfering with the velopharyngeal sphincter may be advantageous in cleft patients, who more commonly have speech deficits and dental crowding. We present a case series of anterior maxillary segmental distraction for maxillary hypoplasia in 5 CLP patients with a one-year follow-up. A custom-made tooth-borne distraction device with a hyrax screw positioned anteroposteriorly was used. The evaluation comprised of hard and soft tissue analysis and speech assessment. A stable occlusion with positive overjet and correction of dental-crowding without extraction was achieved at one year post-distraction. Facial profile and lip support improved. There was no deterioration in speech. PMID:23984033

  20. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography for evaluation of cornea and ocular surface

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    Mittanamalli S Sridhar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple. Several devices and technologies allow to explore and manage patients better. Optical coherence tomography (OCT technology has evolved over the years, and hence a detailed evaluation of anterior segment (AS structures such as cornea, conjunctiva, tear meniscus, anterior chamber, iris, and crystalline lens has been possible in a noncontact and safe procedure. The purpose of this special issue is to present and update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface, and this paper reviews a description of the AS-OCT, presenting the technology and common clinical uses of OCT in the management of diseases involving cornea and ocular surface to provide an updated information of the clinical recommendations of this technique in eye care practice.

  1. Pars-plana fluid aspiration for positive vitreous cavity pressure in anterior segment surgeries

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    Thomas Kuriakose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive vitreous pressure due to misdirection of aqueous or choroidal effusion leads to shallowing of the anterior chamber (AC before or during anterior segment surgeries. This shallow AC if not addressed makes surgery difficult and increases the risk of surgical complications. Methods to prevent and manage this condition described in literature are not without problems. We describe a minimally invasive technique of passing a 30G needle through the pars-plana to aspirate misdirected fluid from vitreous cavity either as a prophylaxis just before surgery or during it, thereby decreasing positive vitreous pressure. This technique, used in 12 eyes, seems to be effective in patients with angle-closure glaucoma, malignant glaucoma, and per-operative sudden increase in vitreous pressure during surgery. Small-incision surgeries are ideally suited for this procedure. This minimally invasive technique is simple to perform and complications are unlikely to be more than what is seen with intravitreal injections.

  2. [Are biometric parameters of anterior segment of the eyeball influenced by type 2 diabetes?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmuchowska, Diana A; Kraśnicki, Paweł; Mariak, Zofia

    2012-01-01

    To answer the question whether biometric parameters of anterior segment of the eyeball are influenced by type 2 diabetes, at the stage when the lens is still transparent, so before cataract development. Fifty subjects (28 women and 22 men), at the age of 63.3 +/- 11.3 years were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided in 2 groups: patients with type 2 diabetes (24 subjects) and analogous age group in good general health - control group (26 subjects). None of the tested individuals presented lens opacities. The planned biometric measurements included: central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and axial lens thickness. The data were statistically analyzed. There was no difference between the groups of both proven and potential parameters that are associated with biometric measurements of the anterior segment of the eyeball, such as: gender, age, smoking and axial length of the eye. In diabetic patients, as opposed to the subjects in the control group, statistically significantly increased lens thickness (4.78 +/- 0.50 mm vs 4.43 +/- 0.50; p = 0.016), central corneal thickness (561.5 +/- 31.6 microm vs 542.2 +/- 35.2; p = 0.047), and the tendency for shallow anterior chamber (3.06 +/- 0.40 mm vs 3.22 +/- 0.38; p = 0.159), were observed. In patients with diabetes there was no association of the biometric parameters values with the duration of diabetes and presence of diabetic retinopathy. Type 2 diabetes contributes to increased axial corneal and lens thickness at the stage when the lens is transparent, albeit it does not significantly affect anterior chamber depth.

  3. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 ...

  4. Comparison of gonioscopy and anterior segment ocular coherence tomography in detecting angle closure in different quadrants of the anterior chamber angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Lisandro M; Lavanya, Raghavan; Friedman, David S; Aung, Han T; Gao, Hong; Kumar, Rajesh S; Foster, Paul J; Aung, Tin

    2008-05-01

    To compare the performance of gonioscopy and anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detecting angle closure in the different quadrants of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). Cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred two consecutive subjects more than 50 years of age with no previous ophthalmic problems recruited from a community clinic in Singapore. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT imaging in the dark. Using gonioscopy, the ACA was graded using the Scheie system by a single examiner masked to AS OCT findings. The ACA in a particular quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen on gonioscopy. A closed ACA on AS OCT imaging was defined by the presence of any contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. After excluding eyes with poor image quality, a total of 423 right eyes were included in the analysis. A closed angle in at least 1 quadrant was observed in 59% of the eyes by AS OCT and in 33% of the eyes by gonioscopy (Pgonioscopy were 48% versus 29% superiorly, 43% versus 22% inferiorly, 18% versus 14% nasally, and 12% versus 20% temporally, respectively. Of the 119 of 1692 quadrants that were closed on gonioscopy but open on AS OCT, a steep iris profile was present in 61 (51%) of 119 quadrants on AS OCT, and of the 276 of 1692 quadrants that were open on gonioscopy but closed on AS OCT, 196 (71%) of 276 quadrants showed short iridoangle contact on AS OCT. The highest rates of closed angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT images were observed in the superior quadrant. Anterior segment OCT tended to detect more closed ACAs than gonioscopy, particularly in the superior and inferior quadrants. Variations in the iris profile and level of iridoangle contact also may explain some of the differences seen between gonioscopy and AS OCT.

  5. Longitudinal Evaluation of Wound Healing after Penetrating Corneal Injury: Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang Keng; Cai, Jianhao; Rong, Shi Song; Peng, Kun; Xia, Honghe; Jin, Chuan; Lu, Xuehui; Liu, Xinyu; Chen, Haoyu; Jhanji, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    Ocular imaging can enhance our understanding of wound healing. We report anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) findings in penetrating corneal injury. Serial ASOCT was performed after repair of penetrating corneal injury. Internal aberrations of wound edges were labeled as "steps" or "gaps" on ASOCT images. The wound type was characterized as: type 1: continuous inner wound edge or step height ≤ 80 µm; type 2: step height > 80 µm; type 3: gap between wound edges; and type 4: intraocular tissue adherent to wound. Surgical outcomes of different wound types were compared. 50 consecutive patients were included (6 females, 44 males; mean age 33 ± 12 years). The average size of wound was 4.2 ± 2.6 mm (type 1, 8 eyes; type 2, 27 eyes; type 3, 12 eyes; type 4, 3 eyes). At the end of 3 months, 70% (n = 35) of the wounds were type 1. At the end of 6 months, all type 1 wounds had healed completely, whereas about half of type 2 (48.1%) and type 3 (50%) wounds had recovered to type 1 configuration. The wound type at baseline affected the height of step (p = 0.047) and corneal thickness at 6 months (p = 0.035). ASOCT is a useful tool for monitoring wound healing in cases with penetrating corneal injury. Majority of the wound edges appose between 3 and 6 months after trauma. In our study, baseline wound configuration affected the healing pattern.

  6. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singalavanija, Tassapol; Ausayakhun, Somsanguan; Tangmonkongvoragul, Chulaluck

    2018-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%), followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction) seen in 23 patients (6.3%) and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%). Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top three most common

  7. Anterior segment and external ocular disorders associated with HIV infections in the era of HAART in Chiang Mai University Hospital, a prospective descriptive cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassapol Singalavanija

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV causes impairment to the human immune system which leads to immunocompromised conditions, including ocular complications. Several important HIV-associated disorders may involve the anterior segment, ocular surface, and adnexae organ such as dry eye, blepharitis which reduce quality of life of patients. In present, potent antiretroviral therapies HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the length and quality of life which may lead to an increased prevalence of anterior segment ocular disorders. Hence, this study has been undertaken to identify the prevalence and associated factors of anterior segment and external ocular disorder in HIV infected patients in the era of HAART. A prospective descriptive cross sectional study was carried out in HIV positive patients conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, Chiang Mai University Hospital, from February 2014 to October 2015. Detail history and ocular examination was carried out to examine for anterior segment and external ocular disorders. A total number of 363 patients were included for this prospective cross-sectional study. From the total of 363 patients, 123 patients had an anterior segment and external ocular disorder which account as the prevalence of 33.9%. The most common anterior segment manifestations was dry eye seen in 36 patients (9.9%, followed by posterior blepharitis (Meibomian gland dysfunction seen in 23 patients (6.3% and anterior blepharitis seen in 12 patients (3.3%. Other ocular complications included microvasculopathy, immune recovery uveitis, conjunctivitis, papilloma, anterior uveitis, corneal ulcer, nevus, trichiasis, molluscum contangiosum, Kaposi sarcoma, interstitial keratitis, conjunctival lymphangiectasia, dacryocystitis, vernal keratoconjunctivitis and eyelid penicilosis. In this study, the prevalance of anterior segment disorders was higher than in the preHAART era. Dry eye, blepharitis and uveitis were the top

  8. Agreement of Anterior Segment Parameters Obtained From Swept-Source Fourier-Domain and Time-Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chansangpetch, Sunee; Nguyen, Anwell; Mora, Marta; Badr, Mai; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C

    2018-03-01

    To assess the interdevice agreement between swept-source Fourier-domain and time-domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). Fifty-three eyes from 41 subjects underwent CASIA2 and Visante OCT imaging. One hundred eighty-degree axis images were measured with the built-in two-dimensional analysis software for the swept-source Fourier-domain AS-OCT (CASIA2) and a customized program for the time-domain AS-OCT (Visante OCT). In both devices, we examined the angle opening distance (AOD), trabecular iris space area (TISA), angle recess area (ARA), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber width (ACW), and lens vault (LV). Bland-Altman plots and intraclass correlation (ICC) were performed. Orthogonal linear regression assessed any proportional bias. ICC showed strong correlation for LV (0.925) and ACD (0.992) and moderate agreement for ACW (0.801). ICC suggested good agreement for all angle parameters (0.771-0.878) except temporal AOD500 (0.743) and ARA750 (nasal 0.481; temporal 0.481). There was a proportional bias in nasal ARA750 (slope 2.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.95-3.18), temporal ARA750 (slope 2.57, 95% CI: 2.04-3.40), and nasal TISA500 (slope 1.30, 95% CI: 1.12-1.54). Bland-Altman plots demonstrated in all measured parameters a minimal mean difference between the two devices (-0.089 to 0.063); however, evidence of constant bias was found in nasal AOD250, nasal AOD500, nasal AOD750, nasal ARA750, temporal AOD500, temporal AOD750, temporal ARA750, and ACD. Among the parameters with constant biases, CASIA2 tends to give the larger numbers. Both devices had generally good agreement. However, there were proportional and constant biases in most angle parameters. Thus, it is not recommended that values be used interchangeably.

  9. Comparative Evaluation of the Corneal and Anterior Chamber Parameters Derived From Scheimpflug Imaging in Arab and South Asian Normal Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Srivastava, Dhruv; Avadhani, Kavitha; Thirumalai, Sandeep M; Choudhuri, Sounak

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the differences in the normal corneal and anterior segment Scheimpflug parameters in Arab and South Asian eyes. This hospital-based study was performed at a cornea and refractive surgery service in Abu Dhabi. A total of 600 consecutive normal candidates of South Asian (group 1, n = 300) and Arab (group 2, n = 300) origins underwent Scheimpflug imaging (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Italy). One eye was randomly selected for evaluation. The age and sex distributions in both groups were comparable. The pachymetric variables were statistically higher in group 2 (group 2 vs. group 1, 544.3 ± 32.2 μm vs. 535.1 ± 31.4 μm for central corneal thickness, 541.0 ± 32.6 μm vs. 531.9 ± 31.5 μm for minimum corneal thickness, 571.7 ± 43.2 μm vs. 558.1 ± 42.3 μm for apical thickness, and 58.1 ± 4.2 vs. 57.3 ± 4.3 mm³ for the corneal volume; P Arab ethnicity tend to have statistically thicker and flatter corneas and less-crowded anterior segments than those of the South Asian counterparts. These epidemiological differences have a mild to moderate biological effect size (Cohen d), but they should be considered when evaluating these eyes for anterior segment or corneal procedures.

  10. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

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    Mohammed Rigi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4 years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69 and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75. Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86 and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85. Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy.

  11. Agreement between Gonioscopic Examination and Swept Source Fourier Domain Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Donna; Minnal, Vandana R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate interobserver, intervisit, and interinstrument agreements for gonioscopy and Fourier domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (FD ASOCT) for classifying open and narrow angle eyes. Methods. Eighty-six eyes with open or narrow anterior chamber angles were included. The superior angle was classified open or narrow by 2 of 5 glaucoma specialists using gonioscopy and imaged by FD ASOCT in the dark. The superior angle of each FD ASOCT image was graded as open or narrow by 2 masked readers. The same procedures were repeated within 6 months. Kappas for interobserver and intervisit agreements for each instrument and interinstrument agreements were calculated. Results. The mean age was 50.9 (±18.4) years. Interobserver agreements were moderate to good for both gonioscopy (0.57 and 0.69) and FD ASOCT (0.58 and 0.75). Intervisit agreements were moderate to excellent for both gonioscopy (0.53 to 0.86) and FD ASOCT (0.57 and 0.85). Interinstrument agreements were fair to good (0.34 to 0.63), with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. Conclusions. Both gonioscopy and FD ASOCT examiners were internally consistent with similar interobserver and intervisit agreements for angle classification. Agreement between instruments was fair to good, with FD ASOCT classifying more angles as narrow than gonioscopy. PMID:27990300

  12. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging and spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography for detection of narrow anterior chamber angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, D S; Brar, G S; Jain, R; Grewal, S P S

    2011-05-01

    To compare the performance of anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD) obtained using Scheimpflug imaging with angle opening distance (AOD500) and trabecular-iris space area (TISA500) obtained using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (SD-ASOCT) in detecting narrow angles classified using gonioscopy. In this prospective, cross-sectional observational study, 265 eyes of 265 consecutive patients underwent sequential Scheimpflug imaging, SD-ASOCT imaging, and gonioscopy. Correlations between gonioscopy grading, ACV, ACD, AOD500, and TISA500 were evaluated. Area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated to assess the performance of ACV, ACD, AOD500, and TISA500 in detecting narrow angles (defined as Shaffer grade ≤1 in all quadrants). SD-ASOCT images were obtained at the nasal and temporal quadrants only. Twenty-eight eyes (10.6%) were classified as narrow angles on gonioscopy. ACV correlated with gonioscopy grading (P<0.001) for temporal (r=0.204), superior (r=0.251), nasal (r=0.213), and inferior (r=0.236) quadrants. ACV correlated with TISA500 for nasal (r=0.135, P=0.029) and temporal (P=0.160, P=0.009) quadrants and also with AOD500 for nasal (r=0.498, P<0.001) and temporal (r=0.517, P<0.001) quadrants. For detection of narrow angles, ACV (AUC=0.935; 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.898-0.961) performed similar to ACD (AUC=0.88, P=0.06) and significantly better than AOD500 nasal (AUC=0.761, P=0.001), AOD500 temporal (AUC=0.808, P<0.001), TISA500 nasal (AUC=0.756, P<0.001), and TISA500 temporal (AUC=0.738, P<0.001). Using a cutoff of 113 mm(3), ACV had 90% sensitivity and 88% specificity for detecting narrow angles. Positive and negative LRs for ACV were 8.63 (95% CI=7.4-10.0) and 0.11 (95% CI=0.03-0.4), respectively. ACV measurements using Scheimpflug imaging outperformed AOD500 and TISA500 using SD-ASOCT for detecting narrow angles.

  13. A and B mode ultrasonography in preoperative evaluation of lens and posterior segment of dogs eyes with cataract

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    Bianca C. Martins

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonography of the lens and posterior segment is an indispensable step in the preoperative evaluation of dogs with cataracts, since ophthalmoscopy is not feasible when there is opacification of the lens. This study evaluated the echographic conditions of cataractous lens and fundus of the eye in dogs affected by cataracts. The study was conducted in 30 dogs (56 eyes, 10 males and 20 females, with different types of cataracts at different stages of development. Echography in A and B modes, simultaneously, was carried out for the examination of the lens and posterior segment. The examinations revealed anterior cortical, posterior cortical and nuclear cataract in 12 eyes (21.4%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular in 23 eyes (41%, anterior cortical, posterior cortical and posterior capsular cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical and nuclear cataract in one eye (1.7%, anterior cortical, nuclear and posterior capsular cataract in five eyes (8.9%, and anterior cortical cataract in seven eyes (12.5%. Abnormal ultrasonographic alterations were observed in the posterior segment in 26 eyes evaluated (46.4%. Vitreal degeneration was detected in 12 eyes (21.4%, images of vitreal exudate or hemorrhage in seven eyes (12.5%, persistence of hyaloid artery in four eyes (7.1% and lens subluxation in three eyes (5.3%. The results obtained reiterate the importance of ultrasonography in canine patients presented for cataract surgery given that alterations of the posterior segment are difficult to identify in a clinical examination when the lens is opacified.A ultrassonografia do segmento posterior do bulbo do olho é etapa indispensável na avaliação de cães com catarata que serão submetidos à facectomia, uma vez que a oftalmoscopia não é factível quando há opacificação da lente, notadamente nas cataratas maduras. Este estudo avaliou as condições ecográficas da lente cataratogênica e do fundo de olho de c

  14. Anterior Segment Imaging Predicts Incident Gonioscopic Angle Closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Iyer, Jayant V; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; He, Yingke; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wu, Renyi; Liu, Dianna; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the incidence of gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years in subjects with gonioscopically open angles but varying degrees of angle closure detected on anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT; Visante; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA) at baseline. Prospective, observational study. Three hundred forty-two subjects, mostly Chinese, 50 years of age or older, were recruited, of whom 65 were controls with open angles on gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline, and 277 were cases with baseline open angles on gonioscopy but closed angles (1-4 quadrants) on AS OCT scans. All subjects underwent gonioscopy and AS OCT at baseline (horizontal and vertical single scans) and after 4 years. The examiner performing gonioscopy was masked to the baseline and AS OCT data. Angle closure in a quadrant was defined as nonvisibility of the posterior trabecular meshwork by gonioscopy and visible iridotrabecular contact beyond the scleral spur in AS OCT scans. Gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or 3 quadrants after 4 years. There were no statistically significant differences in age, ethnicity, or gender between cases and controls. None of the control subjects demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years. Forty-eight of the 277 subjects (17.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8-23; P < 0.0001) with at least 1 quadrant of angle closure on AS OCT at baseline demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 2 or more quadrants, whereas 28 subjects (10.1%; 95% CI, 6.7-14.6; P < 0.004) demonstrated gonioscopic angle closure in 3 or more quadrants after 4 years. Individuals with more quadrants of angle closure on baseline AS OCT scans had a greater likelihood of gonioscopic angle closure developing after 4 years (P < 0.0001, chi-square test for trend for both definitions of angle closure). Anterior segment OCT imaging at baseline predicts incident gonioscopic angle closure after 4 years among subjects who have gonioscopically open angles and iridotrabecular contact on AS OCT at

  15. Waardenburg syndrome: iris and choroidal hypopigmentation: findings on anterior and posterior segment imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Carol L; Nickerson, Stephanie J; Al-Dahmash, Saad; Shields, Jerry A

    2013-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome typically manifests with congenital iris pigmentary abnormalities, but careful inspection can reveal additional posterior uveal pigmentary abnormalities. To demonstrate iris and choroidal hypopigmentation in patients with Waardenburg syndrome. Retrospective review of 7 patients referred for evaluation of presumed ocular melanocytosis. To describe the clinical and imaging features of the anterior and posterior uvea. In all patients, the diagnosis of Waardenburg syndrome was established. The nonocular features included white forelock in 4 of 7 (57%), tubular nose in 5 of 6 (83%), and small nasal alae in 5 of 6 (83%) patients. In 2 patients, a hearing deficit was documented on audiology testing. Family history of Waardenburg syndrome was elicited in 5 of 7 (71%) patients. Ocular features (7 patients) included telecanthus in 5 (71%), synophrys in 2 (29%), iris hypopigmentation in 5 (71%), and choroidal hypopigmentation in 5 (71%) patients. No patient had muscle contractures or Hirschsprung disease. Visual acuity was 20/20 to 20/50 in all patients. Iris hypopigmentation in 8 eyes was sector in 6 (75%) and diffuse (complete) in 2 (25%). Choroidal hypopigmentation in 9 eyes (100%) showed a sector pattern in 6 (67%) and a diffuse pattern in 3 (33%). Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed the hypopigmented iris to be thinner and with shallower crypts than the normal iris. Posterior segment optical coherence tomography showed a normal retina in all patients, but the subfoveal choroid in the hypopigmented region was slightly thinner (mean, 197 μm) compared with the opposite normal choroid (243 μm). Fundus autofluorescence demonstrated mild hyperautofluorescence (scleral unmasking) in hypopigmented choroid and no lipofuscin abnormality. Waardenburg syndrome manifests hypopigmentation of the iris and choroid with imaging features showing a slight reduction in the thickness of the affected tissue.

  16. Microscope-Integrated Intraoperative Ultrahigh-Speed Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography for Widefield Retinal and Anterior Segment Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen D; Waheed, Nadia K; Witkin, Andre; Baumal, Caroline R; Liu, Jonathan J; Potsaid, Benjamin; Joseph, Anthony; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Chan, Kinpui; Duker, Jay S; Fujimoto, James G

    2018-02-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of retinal and anterior segment intraoperative widefield imaging using an ultrahigh-speed, swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) surgical microscope attachment. A prototype post-objective SS-OCT using a 1,050-nm wavelength, 400 kHz A-scan rate, vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) light source was integrated to a commercial ophthalmic surgical microscope after the objective. Each widefield OCT data set was acquired in 3 seconds (1,000 × 1,000 A-scans, 12 × 12 mm 2 for retina and 10 × 10 mm 2 for anterior segment). Intraoperative SS-OCT was performed in 20 eyes of 20 patients. In six of seven membrane peels and five of seven rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair surgeries, widefield retinal imaging enabled evaluation pre- and postoperatively. In all seven cataract cases, anterior imaging evaluated the integrity of the posterior lens capsule. Ultrahigh-speed SS-OCT enables widefield intraoperative viewing in the posterior and anterior eye. Widefield imaging visualizes ocular structures and pathology without requiring OCT realignment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2018;49:94-102.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Evaluation of the Anterior Segment Angle-to-Angle Scan of Cirrus High-Definition Optical Coherence Tomography and Comparison With Gonioscopy and With the Visante OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Tin A; Baskaran, Mani; Tan, Shayne S; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin; Husain, Rahat

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the anterior segment angle-to-angle scan of the Cirrus high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) in detecting eyes with closed angles. All subjects underwent dark-room gonioscopy by an ophthalmologist. A technician performed anterior segment imaging with Cirrus (n = 202) and Visante OCT (n = 85) under dark-room conditions. All eyes were categorized by two masked graders as per number of closed quadrants. Each quadrant of anterior chamber angle was categorized as a closed angle if posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen on gonioscopy or if there was any irido-corneal contact anterior to scleral spur in Cirrus and Visante images. An eye was graded as having a closed angle if two or more quadrants were closed. Agreement and area under the curve (AUC) were performed. There were 50 (24.8%) eyes with closed angles. The agreements of closed-angle diagnosis (by eye) between Cirrus HD-OCT and gonioscopy (k = 0.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-0.72; AC1 = 0.76) and between Cirrus and Visante OCT (k = 0.65; 95% CI 0.48-0.82, AC1 = 0.77) were moderate. The AUC for diagnosing the eye with gonioscopic closed angle by Cirrus HD-OCT was good (AUC = 0.86; sensitivity = 83.33; specificity = 77.78). The diagnostic performance of Cirrus HD-OCT in detecting the eyes with closed angles was similar to that of Visante (AUC 0.87 vs. 0.9, respectively; P = 0.51). The anterior segment angle-to-angle scans of Cirrus HD-OCT demonstrated similar diagnostic performance as Visante in detecting gonioscopic closed angles. The agreement between Cirrus and gonioscopy for detecting eyes with closed angles was moderate.

  18. Bilateral congenital corneal keloids and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis in a case of Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Srinivas K; Fan, Dorothy S P; Pang, C P; Li, Winnie W Y; Ng, Joan S K; Good, William V; Lam, Dennis S C

    2002-01-01

    To report the unusual association of bilateral corneal keloids and anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis in a child with Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome. Case report of a 2-year-old boy. Excision of the epicorneal mass in the right eye was followed by recurrence of the lesion. Multiple penetrating keratoplasties were unsuccessful in reconstructing the anterior segment because of recurrent corneal epithelial breakdown, suggesting limbal stem cell insufficiency. Histopathology and electron microscopy of the excised mass lesion showed features typical of a corneal keloid: thickened keratinized epithelium, absent Bowman's layer, and fibrovascular hyperplasia, with haphazard orientation of the collagen lamellae. Ultrasound biomicroscopy and intraoperative findings suggested a diagnosis of Peter anomaly, but genetic analysis did not show a PAX6 mutation. The findings in our patient add to the spectrum of ocular changes described in Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome and confirm earlier reports of poor ocular prognosis in corneal keloids and Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome.

  19. ROLE OF HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN THE EVALUATION OF POSTERIOR SEGMENT LESIONS OF THE EYE

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    Rashmi Nagaraju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGRO UND: The superficial location of the eye, its cystic composition, and the advent of high - frequency ultrasound make sonography ideal for imaging the eye. Ultrasonography is a simple, readily available, non - invasive, non - ionizing, highly accurate, real time and cost effective modality . OBJECTIVES: 1 To evaluate the accuracy of high resolution B - mode ultrasonography in the diagnosis of posterior segment lesions of eye as compared to ophthalmoscopic examination particularly in cases of opaque conducting media . 2 To evaluate sonographic appearances of various posterior segment lesions of the eye . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1 A prospective study was carried out on 62 cases with suspected posterior segment lesions of eye. All patients clinically suspected to have p osterior segment lesions in the presence of opaque conducting media were included in the study. Cases suspected to have isolated anterior segmental and extra ocular lesions were excluded. 2 HRUS was performed with Philips IU22 using high frequency probe ( 5 to 17 MHz utilizing contact method. 3 Sonological diagnosis was made based on sonographic features such as location, morphology, echo pattern, color Doppler characteristics, kinetics of the lesion with eye movements and acoustic characteristics of the lesion. 4 Subsequent clinical, lab investigations, surgical and histopathological examinations were carried out as applicable and final diagnosis was made which was correlated with the sonological diagnosis. Sonological diagnosis was also compared with op hthalmoscopic diagnosis. STATISTICAL ANALYSES: The validities and diagnostic accuracies of high resolution ultrasound and ophthalmoscopic examinations were calculated and compared. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: 1 Ultrasound was the initial imaging modality opt ed in most of the cases as it was readily available, simple and cost effective modality. It establishes the diagnosis in significant number of cases superseding the accuracy

  20. Changes in intraocular pressure and anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dooley, I

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To study changes in anterior segment morphometry after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery, and to investigate whether there is a relationship between any observed changes and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after the procedure. METHODS: The anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), central corneal thickness (CCT), and IOP were measured in 101 non-glaucomatous eyes before and after uneventful phacoemulsification cataract surgery. RESULTS: After cataract surgery, the mean ACD, ACV, and ACA values increased by 1.08 mm, 54.4 mm(3), and 13.1 degrees , respectively, and the mean IOP (corrected for CCT) decreased by 3.2 mm Hg. The predictive value of a previously described index (preoperative ACD\\/preoperative IOP (corrected for CCT) or CPD ratio) for IOP (corrected for CCT) reduction after cataract surgery was confirmed, reflected in an r(2) value of 23.3% between these two parameters (P<0.001). Other indices predictive of IOP reduction after cataract surgery were also identified, including preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACV and preoperative IOP\\/preoperative ACA, reflected in r(2) values of 13.7 and 13.7%, respectively (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the predictive value of the CPD ratio for IOP reduction after cataract surgery, and may contribute to the decision-making process in patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension. Furthermore, two novel indices of preoperative parameters that are predictive for IOP reduction after cataract surgery were identified, and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IOP changes after this procedure.

  1. Diurnal Alterations of Refraction, Anterior Segment Biometrics, and Intraocular Pressure in Long-Time Dehydration due to Religious Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baser, Gonen; Cengiz, Hakan; Uyar, Murat; Seker Un, Emine

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dehydration due to fasting on diurnal changes of intraocular pressure, anterior segment biometrics, and refraction. The intraocular pressures, anterior segment biometrics (axial length: AL; Central corneal thickness: CCT; Lens thickness: LT; Anterior chamber depth: ACD), and refractive measurements of 30 eyes of 15 fasting healthy male volunteers were recorded at 8:00 in the morning and 17:00 in the evening in the Ramadan of 2013 and two months later. The results were compared and the statistical analyses were performed using the Rstudio software version 0.98.501. The variables were investigated using visual (histograms, probability plots) and analytical methods (Kolmogorov-Smirnov/Shapiro-Wilk test) to determine whether or not they were normally distributed. The refractive values remained stable in the fasting as well as in the control period (p = 0.384). The axial length measured slightly shorter in the fasting period (p = 0.001). The corneal thickness presented a diurnal variation, in which the cornea measured thinner in the evening. The difference between the fasting and control period was not statistically significant (p = 0.359). The major differences were observed in the anterior chamber depth and IOP. The ACD was shallower in the evening during the fasting period, where it was deeper in the control period. The diurnal IOP difference was greater in the fasting period than the control period. Both were statistically significant (p = 0.001). The LT remained unchanged in both periods. The major difference was shown in the anterior chamber shallowing in the evening hours and IOP. Our study contributes the hypothesis that the posterior segment of the eye is more responsible for the axial length alterations and normovolemia has a more dominant influence on diurnal IOP changes.

  2. Lens thickness assessment: anterior segment optical coherence tomography versus A-scan ultrasonography

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    Nikoo Hamzeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To assess lens thickness measurements with anterior segment-optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT in comparison with A-scan ultrasonography (A-scan US. METHODS: There were 218 adult subjects (218 eyes aged 59.2±9.2y enrolled in this prospective cross-sectional study. Forty-three eyes had open angles and 175 eyes had narrow angles. Routine ophthalmic exam was performed and nuclear opacity was graded using the Lens Opacities Classification System III (LOCS III. Lens thickness was measured by AS-OCT (Visante OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA, USA. The highest quality image was selected for each eye and lens thickness was calculated using ImageJ software. Lens thickness was also measured by A-scan US. RESULTS: Interclass correlations showed a value of 99.7% for intra-visit measurements and 95.3% for inter-visit measurements. The mean lens thickness measured by AS-OCT was not significantly different from that of A-scan US (4.861±0.404 vs 4.866±0.351 mm, P=0.74. Lens thickness values obtained from the two instruments were highly correlated overall (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.81, P<0.001, and in all LOCS III specific subgroups except in grade 5 of nuclear opacity. Bland-Altman analysis revealed a 95% limit of agreement from -0.45 to 0.46 mm. Lens thickness difference between the two instruments became smaller as the lens thickness increased and AS-OCT yielded smaller values than A-scan US in thicker lens (β=-0.29, P<0.001 CONCLUSION: AS-OCT-derived lens thickness measurement is valid and comparable to the results obtained by A-scan US. It can be used as a reliable noncontact method for measuring lens thickness in adults with or without significant cataract.

  3. Toxic anterior segment syndrome caused by autoclave reservoir wall biofilms and their residual toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Andrew L; Sorenson, Robert L; Evans, David J

    2016-11-01

    To identify etiology of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) after uneventful phacoemulsification. EyeMD Laser and Surgery Center, Oakland, California. Retrospective case series. Patient charts with TASS were reviewed. Reservoirs of 2 autoclaves associated with these cases were cultured for bacterial contamination. Cultures were performed on 23 other autoclave reservoirs at surgery centers in the local area. The main outcome measures were the incidence of TASS and prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. From 2010 to 2013, 11 935 consecutive cataract surgeries were performed at 1 center by multiple surgeons with no reported TASS. Between January 1, 2014, and January 15, 2015, 10 cases of TASS occurred out of 3003 cataract surgeries; these patients' charts were reviewed. Cultures of 2 Statim autoclave reservoir walls grew Bacillus species, Williamsia species, Mycobacterium mucogenicum, and Candida parapsilosis. Scanning electron microscopy of reservoir wall sections showed prominent biofilm. The 2 autoclaves were replaced in January 2015. Subsequently, 2875 cataract surgeries were performed with no reported TASS (P autoclaves were also contaminated with bacterial biofilms. Toxic anterior segment syndrome was strongly associated with bacterial biofilm contamination of autoclave reservoirs. An etiological mechanism might involve transport of heat-stable bacterial cell antigens in the steam with deposition on surgical instrumentation. Data suggest widespread prevalence of bacterial biofilms on fluid-reservoir walls, despite adherence to manufacturer guidelines for cleaning and maintenance. Prevention or elimination of autoclave fluid-reservoir biofilms might reduce the risk for postoperative TASS. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Anterior eye tissue morphology: Scleral and conjunctival thickness in children and young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Read; David Alonso-Caneiro; Stephen J. Vincent; Alexander Bremner; Annabel Fothergill; Brittney Ismail; Rebecca McGraw; Charlotte J. Quirk; Elspeth Wrigley

    2016-01-01

    The sclera and conjunctiva form part of the eye?s tough, protective outer coat, and play important roles in the eye?s mechanical protection and immune defence, as well as in determining the size and shape of the eye globe. Advances in ocular imaging technology now allow these tissues in the anterior eye to be imaged non-invasively and with high resolution, however there is a paucity of data examining the dimensions of these tissues in paediatric populations. In this study, we have used optica...

  5. Ultrasound biomicroscopic evaluation of anterior segment cysts as a risk factor for ocular hypertension and closure angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahim Dusak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the relationship between the ultrasound biomicroscopic (UBM features of anterior-segment cysts (ASCs and increased intraocular pressure (IOP as a risk factor for closed-angle glaucoma (CAG.METHODS:Totally 24 eyes with recently diagnosed ASCs were divided into two groups . First group with ASC and ocular normotension (n=13, second group with ASC and ocular hypertension (n=11. An ophthalmologic examination, including tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy (SLBM, gonioscopy, fundoscopy, pentacam, and UBM, was performed. The features of the ASCs were compared with the IOP.RESULTS:ASCs were accurately diagnosed and delineated in 24 eyes using UBM. IOP was elevated in those ASCs with a secondary aetiology (P=0.027, iridociliary location (P=0.006, deformed shape (P=0.013, increased size (P=0.001 and elongated pupillary aperture (P=0.009. However, the count (P=0.343 of ASCs, anterior chamber depth (ACD; P=0.22 and axial lenght (AL; P=0.31 were not associated with ocular hypertension. Correlations were found between the IOP and ASC size (r=-0.712; P=0.003, anterior chamber angle (ACA; r=-0.985; Pr=0.885; Pr=-0.776, Pr =-0.655, P=0.002.CONCLUSION:Ocular hypertension in some eyes with ASC might be associated with various mechanisms, including secondary aetiology, iridociliary location, deformed shape, increased size and elongated pupill, which can be determined by UBM.

  6. The anterior chamber angle width in adults in a tertiary eye hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-25

    Mar 25, 2011 ... had visual acuity assessment, visual field analysis, ophthalmoscopy, intraocular pressure measurement, ... Peripheral anterior synechiae were observed in three eyes. ..... The high incidence of narrow angles with the near.

  7. [Slit lamp optical coherence tomography study of anterior segment changes after phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Pi-song; Zhang, Zhen-ping; Lin, Hao-tian; Wu, Wen-jie; Bai, Ling

    2009-09-01

    To investigate quantitative changes of the anterior segment configuration after clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation with slit-lamp-adapted optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT). In prospective consecutive case series, clear corneal incision phacoemulsification and foldable intraocular lens implantation were performed in 44 eyes of 40 patients. The changes of the anterior segment configuration were performed by SL-OCT before and 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks and 1 month after surgery. SPSS 16.0 software was used to analyze statistical difference. For all patients, the central corneal thickness (CCT) and the incisional corneal thickness (ICT) increased significantly 1 day after surgery (CCT increased 99.59 microm, ICT increased 234.57 microm; P = 0.490). At 1 month, the CCT almost had returned to baseline, but the ICT had been thicker about 19.25 microm than baseline(P = 0.001). The measurements of ACD, AOD500, AOD750, TISA500, TISA750 also increased significantly 1 day after surgery. Although the ACD had no changes within 2 weeks (all P 0.05). The SL-OCT could impersonality and quantificationally evaluate the anterior segment changes induced by cataract surgery.

  8. Comparison of high-resolution Scheimpflug and high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy to anterior-segment OCT corneal thickness measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John Kanellopoulos,1,2 George Asimellis1 1Laservision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, Greece; 2New York University Medical School, New York, NY, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate central corneal thickness in healthy, nonoperated eyes with three advanced anterior-segment imaging systems: a high-resolution Scheimpflug tomography camera (Oculyzer II, a spectral-domain anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT system, and a high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy (HF-UBM system. Methods: Fifty eyes randomly selected from 50 patients were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were healthy, nonoperated eyes examined consecutively by the same examiner. Corneal imaging was performed by three different methods, ie, Oculyzer II, spectral-domain AS-OCT, and FH-UBM. Central corneal thickness measurements were compared using scatter diagrams, Bland-Altman plots (with bias and 95% confidence intervals, and two-paired analysis. Results: The coefficient of determination (r2 between the Oculyzer II and AS-OCT measurements was 0.895. Likewise, the coefficient was 0.893 between the Oculyzer II and HF-UBM and 0.830 between the AS-OCT and HF-UBM. The trend line coefficients of linearity were 0.925 between the Oculyzer II and the AS-OCT, 1.006 between the Oculyzer II and HF-UBM, and 0.841 between the AS-OCT and HF-UBM. The differences in average corneal thickness between the three pairs of CCT measurements were –6.86 µm between the Oculyzer II and HF-UBM, –12.20 µm between the AS-OCT and Oculyzer II, and +19.06 µm between the HF-UBM and AS-OCT. Conclusion: The three methods used for corneal thickness measurement are highly correlated. Compared with the Scheimplug and ultrasound devices, the AS-OCT appears to report a more accurate, but overally thinner corneal pachymetry. Keywords: anterior eye segment, high-frequency ultrasound biomicroscopy, optical coherence tomography, high-resolution Pentacam

  9. Unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and subluxated lens: case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanathi, M; Sen, Seema; Panda, Anita; Dada, Tanuj; Behera, Geeta; Khokhar, Sudharshan

    2007-01-01

    To report the unusual association of unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens. A 20-year old man presented with a mass lesion involving the left cornea. The corneal lesion had been present since birth. On biomicroscopic examination, a well-defined vascularized, grayish-white mass occupying the whole of the left cornea was seen. The right eye showed multiple peripheral corneal opacities with iridocorneal adhesions, a poorly defined supranasal limbus, and a subluxated lens. Excision biopsy of the mass was done for histopathologic examination. Histopathologic examination of the excised corneal mass showed features consistent with that of a corneal keloid: thickened keratinized epithelium, absent Bowman membrane layer, and fibrovascular hyperplasia composed of hyalinized collagen fibers with irregular orientation of the collagen lamellae. During penetrating keratoplasty of the left eye, an anomalous iris pattern with poorly defined angle and a supranasal subluxated lens was also observed. Extraction of the subluxated lens was also done. The graft failed subsequent to a nonhealing persistent epithelial defect. Our case report highlights the rare association of a unilateral congenital corneal keloid with anterior-segment mesenchymal dysgenesis and bilateral subluxated lens.

  10. Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis with 2 different types of distractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye-Young; Hwang, Chung-Ju; Kim, Hee-Jin; Yu, Hyung-Seog; Cha, Jung-Yul

    2012-05-01

    Maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis (DO) has been the alternative treatment option for patients with midfacial retrusion. To investigate a potentially more effective maxillary anterior segmental DO, a newly designed intraoral alveolar distractor was applied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the skeletal and dental effects of maxillary anterior segmental DO and the relapse pattern. The study was carried out for 8 patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (mean age, 16 years 7 months). Four patients were treated with an intraoral appliance (IA), and the remaining with a rigid external distractor (RED). Dental and skeletal measurements were obtained for both groups. These measurements were compared for different time points including pre-DO (T1), post-DO (T2), postconsolidation (T3), and 1-year follow-up (T4). Horizontal change of A point was significantly larger after distraction period (T2) in the RED group (mean, 11.0 mm; median, 10.1 mm) than in the IA group (mean, 6.6 mm; median, 7.4 mm) (P distraction, showing a significant difference between groups (P Maxillary anterior segmental DO is effective for the treatment of patients with cleft lip and palate. The alveolar space is regained, and the facial profile is improved without velopharyngeal problems. Superior results are obtained using the RED appliance for maxillary anterior segmental DO relative to the use of the intraoral distractor appliance.

  11. Clinical implications of anterior S-T segment depression in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, C.H.; Woodward, W.; Nicod, P.; Corbett, J.R.; Lewis, S.E.; Willerson, J.T.; Rude, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    To assess various factors associated with anterior S-T segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction, 47 consecutive patients with electrocardiographic evidence of a first transmural inferior infarction were studied prospectively with radionuclide ventriculography an average of 7.3 hours (range 2.9 to 15.3) after the onset of symptoms. Thirty-nine patients (Group I) had anterior S-T depression in the initial electrocardiogram and 8 (Group II) did not have such reciprocal changes. There was no difference between the two groups in left ventricular end-diastolic or end-diastolic volume index or left ventricular ejection fraction. Stroke volume index was greater in Group I than in Group II. There were no group differences in left ventricular total or regional wall motion scores. A weak correlation existed between the quantities (mV) or inferior S-T segment elevation and reciprocal S-T depression. No relation between anterior S-T segment depression and the left ventricular end-diastolic volume index could be demonstrated; the extent of left ventricular apical and right ventricular wall motion abnormalities, both frequently associated with inferior infarction, did not correlate with the quantity of anterior S-T depression. These data show that anterior S-T segment depression occurs commonly during the early evolution of transmural inferior infarction, is not generally a marker of functionally significant anterior ischemia and cannot be used to predict left ventricular function in individual patients. Anterior S-T segment depression may be determined by reciprocal mechanisms

  12. Intravitreal bevacizumab (Avastin for post laser anterior segment ischemia in aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Parag

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity (formerly known as fulminate/type II/rush disease occurs in zone 1 or posterior zone 2. Treatment involves extensive near confluent laser ablation of a large area of avascular retina. Anterior segment ischemia is a rare complication that can occur due to injury to the long posterior ciliary arteries in the horizontal meridians during aggressive posterior laser treatment. The outcome of this rare complication is very poor. This case describes a favorable outcome of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin in a case of anterior segment ischemia.

  13. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  14. Expression patterns of Wnt genes during development of an anterior part of the chicken eye

    OpenAIRE

    Fokina, Valentina M.; Frolova, Elena I.

    2006-01-01

    To address the roles of Wnts in the development of the anterior eye, we used a chicken model to perform comprehensive expression analysis of all Wnt genes during anterior eye development. In analyzing the available genomic sequences, we found that the chicken genome encodes 18 Wnt proteins that are homologous to corresponding human and mouse proteins. The mRNA sequences for 12 chicken Wnt genes are available in GenBank, and mRNAs for six other Wnt genes (Wnt2, Wnt5b, Wnt7b, Wnt8b, Wnt9b and W...

  15. Generation of reactive oxygen species in the anterior eye segment. Synergistic codrugs of N-acetylcarnosine lubricant eye drops and mitochondria-targeted antioxidant act as a powerful therapeutic platform for the treatment of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A. Babizhayev

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondrial targeting of compounds with universal types of antioxidant activity represents a promising approach for treating a number of ROS-related ocular diseases of the aging eye and can be implicated in the management of cataracts and primary open-angle glaucoma.

  16. Use of EyeCam for imaging the anterior chamber angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Shamira A; Baskaran, Mani; Friedman, David S; Tun, Tin A; Htoon, Hla M; Kumar, Rajesh S; Aung, Tin

    2010-06-01

    To compare EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) imaging with gonioscopy for detecting angle closure. In this prospective, hospital-based study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. EyeCam images were graded by two masked observers. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the trabecular meshwork could not be seen. The eye was classified as having angle closure if two or more quadrants were closed. One hundred fifty-two subjects were studied. The mean age was 57.4 years (SD 12.9) and there were 82 (54%) men. Of the 152 eyes, 21 (13.8%) had angle closure. The EyeCam provided clear images of the angles in 98.8% of subjects. The agreement between the EyeCam and gonioscopy for detecting angle closure in the superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal quadrants based on agreement coefficient (AC1) statistics was 0.73, 0.75, 0.76, and 0.72, respectively. EyeCam detected more closed angles than did gonioscopy in all quadrants (P gonioscopy, 21/152 (13.8%) eyes were diagnosed as angle closure compared to 41 (27.0%) of 152 with EyeCam (P gonioscopy for detecting angle closure. However, it detected more closed angles than did gonioscopy in all quadrants.

  17. Intraocular eyelashes and iris cyst in anterior chamber following penetrating eye injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sabin Sahu,1 Lila Raj Puri,1 Sanjay Kumar Singh2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sagarmatha Choudhary Eye Hospital, Lahan, Siraha, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Biratnagar Eye Hospital, Biratnagar, Nepal Background: The presence of intraocular eyelashes following penetrating eye injury or ocular surgery is relatively uncommon. The response of the eye to intraocular eyelashes is variable. The eyelash may be symptomatic or may remain asymptomatic for long periods. Objective: We report a case with two intraocular eyelashes and an iris cyst after 2 years of asymptomatic period following penetrating eye injury. Case presentation: A 24-year-old male presented with decreased vision in the left eye which he had noticed for the previous 2 weeks. His visual acuity was 6/6 in the right eye and 6/18 in the left eye, improving to 6/9 with -2.5 DC × 140° correction. The intraocular pressure was 12 mmHg in both eyes. On slit-lamp examination, the left eye showed 8 mm linear peripheral corneal opacity nasally, two eyelashes in the superior anterior chamber, and an iris cyst measuring 4 mm × 4 mm in the superior iris. The right eye was normal. Dilated fundus examination of both eyes was normal. The eyelashes and cyst were removed surgically. There were no complications during the 3-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Intraocular implantation of eyelashes following penetrating eye injury can remain asymptomatic for long periods; however, late development of iris cyst may occur. Keywords: intraocular eyelashes, iris cyst, penetrating eye injury

  18. In vivo architectural analysis of clear corneal incisions using anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Monod, Sylvère; Labbé, Antoine; Fayol, Nicolas; Chassignol, Alexis; Bourges, Jean-Louis; Baudouin, Christophe

    2009-03-01

    To use anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to analyze the in vivo architecture of clear corneal incisions after phacoemulsification using different techniques. Department of Ophthalmology, Quinze-Vingts National Ophthalmology Hospital, Paris, France. This prospective observational study analyzed clear corneal incisions used in phacoemulsification. All wounds were evaluated 1 day and 8 days postoperatively by AS-OCT (Visante). Incision architecture and pachymetry at the wound level were analyzed. Thirty-five clear corneal incisions were analyzed. Six eyes had 2.75 mm coaxial phacoemulsification, 19 had 2.20 mm microincision coaxial phacoemulsification, and 10 had 1.30 mm bimanual microincision phacoemulsification. The 1.30 mm incision had a straight-line configuration. The 2.20 mm and 2.75 mm incisions had an arcuate configuration. The angles of incidence of 1.30 mm incisions were greater than those of 2.20 mm incisions (P<.001). All incisions had slight corneal edema limited to the incision area. The edema was slightly greater around 1.30 mm incisions (mean pachymetry 1143 microm +/- 140 [SD]) than around 2.20 mm incisions (mean 1012 +/- 101 microm) (P = .001). Bimanual procedures had satisfactory endothelial apposition in the enlarged areas, where stromal edema was less than that surrounding the unenlarged 1.30 mm incisions. The 3 phacoemulsification techniques induced gaping of the endothelial edge, minor inadequate endothelial apposition, and mild stromal edema in the area of the clear corneal incisions. Bimanual microincision sleeveless phacoemulsification may alter the wound slightly more than coaxial 2.75 mm and microcoaxial 2.20 mm sleeved-tip phacoemulsification.

  19. Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segments for Astigmatism Correction after Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. D. Arantes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the change in corneal astigmatism after intrastromal corneal ring segment (ICRS implantation in keratoconus patients with previous deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. Design was a longitudinal, retrospective, interventional study. The study included 25 eyes of 24 patients with keratoconus who had DALK performed at least two years prior to ICRS implantation. All patients had a clear corneal graft with up to 8.00 D of corneal astigmatism and intolerance to contact lenses. The studied parameters were age, sex, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA, maximum keratometry (K1, minimum keratometry (K2, spherical equivalent, and astigmatism. There was a statistically significant decrease in the postintervention analysis as follows: 3.5 D reduction in K1 (p<0.001; 1.53 D in K2 (p=0.005; and 2.52 D (p<0.001 in the average K. The spherical equivalent reduced from −3.67 D (±2.74 to −0.71 D (±2.35 (p<0.001. The topographic astigmatism reduced from 3.87 D preoperatively to 1.90 D postoperatively (p<0.001. The CDVA improved from 0.33 (±0.10 to 0.20 (±0.09, p<0.001. ICRS implantation is a useful option for the correction of astigmatism after DALK as it yields significant visual, topographic, and refractive results.

  20. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  1. Assessment of Corneal and Tear Film Parameters in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Using Anterior Segment Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fayoumi, Dina; Youssef, Maha Mohamed; Khafagy, Mohamed Mahmoud; Badr El Dine, Nashwa; Gaber, Wafaa

    2018-01-01

    To study the corneal changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in vivo, using spectral domain anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A case-control study was done on 43 RA patients and 40 controls. The disease activity score (DAS28-ESR) was calculated and all participants had lower tear meniscus, corneal thickness, and epithelial thickness evaluation using AS-OCT. The lower tear meniscus height (LTMH) and the lower tear meniscus area (LTMA) were significantly lower in the RA patients than in controls (p < 0.001). RA patients also had a significantly thinner central corneal thickness (p = 0.02) and their epithelium was found to be thinner in the superotemporal peripheral sector. The LTMH and LTMA are significantly reduced in RA patients, despite the absence of clinical diagnosis of dry eye. RA patients have thinner corneal thickness and epithelial thickness than controls, which did not correlate with either disease duration or activity.

  2. Impact of Indocyanine Green Concentration, Exposure Time, and Degree of Dissolution in Creating Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Evaluation in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tandogan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the role of indocyanine green (ICG dye as a causative material of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS in an experimental rabbit model. Method. Eight eyes of four rabbits were allocated to this study. Capsular staining was performed using ICG dye, after which the anterior chamber was irrigated with a balanced salt solution. The effects of different concentrations (control, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0%, exposure times (10 and 60 seconds, and the degree of dissolution (differently vortexed were investigated. The analysis involved anterior segment photography, ultrasound pachymetry, prostaglandin assay (PGE2 Parameter Assay, R&D systems, Inc., and scanning electron microscopy of each iris. Result. There was no reaction in the control eye. A higher aqueous level of PGE2 and more severe inflammatory reaction were observed in cases of eyes with higher concentration, longer exposure time, and poorly dissolved dye. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy revealed larger and coarser ICG particles. Conclusion. TASS occurrence may be associated with the concentration, exposure time, and degree of dissolution of ICG dye during cataract surgery.

  3. Clinical utility of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewang Angmo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT, a noninvasive imaging modality that uses low-coherence light to obtain a high-resolution cross-section of biological structures, has evolved dramatically over the years. The Swept-source OCT (SS-OCT makes use of a single detector with a rapidly tunable laser as a light source. The Casia SS-1000 OCT is a Fourier-domain, SS-OCT designed specifically for imaging the anterior segment. This system achieves high resolution imaging of 10΅m (Axial and 30΅m (Transverse and high speed scanning of 30,000 A-scans per second. With a substantial improvement in scan speed, the anterior chamber angles can be imaged 360 degrees in 128 cross sections (each with 512 A-scans in about 2.4 seconds. We summarize the clinical applications of anterior segment SS-OCT in Glaucoma. Literature search: We searched PubMed and included Medline using the phrases anterior segment optical coherence tomography in ophthalmology, swept-source OCT, use of AS-OCT in glaucoma, use of swept-source AS-OCT in glaucoma, quantitative assessment of angle, filtering bleb in AS-OCT, comparison of AS-OCT with gonioscopy and comparison of AS-OCT with UBM. Search was made for articles dating 1990 to August 2015.

  4. Haploinsufficient Bmp4 ocular phenotypes include anterior segment dysgenesis with elevated intraocular pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusinowitz Steven

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma is a blinding disease usually associated with high intraocular pressure (IOP. In some families, abnormal anterior segment development contributes to glaucoma. The genes causing anterior segment dysgenesis and glaucoma in most of these families are not identified and the affected developmental processes are poorly understood. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs participate in various developmental processes. We tested the importance of Bmp4 gene dosage for ocular development and developmental glaucoma. Results Bmp4+/- mice have anterior segment abnormalities including malformed, absent or blocked trabecular meshwork and Schlemm's canal drainage structures. Mice with severe drainage structure abnormalities, over 80% or more of their angle's extent, have elevated IOP. The penetrance and severity of abnormalities is strongly influenced by genetic background, being most severe on the C57BL/6J background and absent on some other backgrounds. On the C57BL/6J background there is also persistence of the hyaloid vasculature, diminished numbers of inner retinal cells, and absence of the optic nerve. Conclusions We demonstrate that heterozygous deficiency of BMP4 results in anterior segment dysgenesis and elevated IOP. The abnormalities are similar to those in human patients with developmental glaucoma. Thus, BMP4 is a strong candidate to contribute to Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly and other developmental conditions associated with human glaucoma. BMP4 also participates in posterior segment development and wild-type levels are usually critical for optic nerve development on the C57BL/6J background. Bmp4+/- mice are useful for studying various components of ocular development, and may allow identification of strain specific modifiers affecting a variety of ocular phenotypes.

  5. Identification of the segmental artery feeding the anterior spinal artery. Correlation between helical CT and angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Jun-ichi; Lee, Jin; Koike, Shigeomi

    2005-01-01

    We investigated whether identification of the segmental artery feeding the anterior spinal artery (ASA) is possible by single-slice helical CT. Enhanced CT and angiography were performed in 14 patients with retroperitoneal, liver, or bone tumor. A single-slice helical CT scanner with 7 mm collimation and a 1.0 helical pitch was used. Scanning was started 25 to 30 sec after an intravenous injection of 100 ml of contrast medium at a rate of 3.0 ml/sec. We predicted the segmental artery feeding the ASA in all 14 patients using enhanced CT images. In 12 of the 14 patients, the segmental artery feeding the ASA was angiographically identified. In 7 of these 12 patients, the level of the segmental artery feeding the ASA identified on segmental arteriogram was the same level as that predicted by enhanced CT. In the remaining 5 patients, the level of the segmental artery feeding the ASA identified on segmental arteriogram was one level higher or lower than the predicted spinal level. We could identify the segmental artery feeding the ASA by detailed examination and interpretation of single-slice helical CT images. (author)

  6. Conditional deletion of AP-2β in mouse cranial neural crest results in anterior segment dysgenesis and early-onset glaucoma

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    Vanessa B. Martino

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD encompasses a group of developmental disorders in which a closed angle phenotype in the anterior chamber of the eye can occur and 50% of patients develop glaucoma. Many ASDs are thought to involve an inappropriate patterning and migration of the periocular mesenchyme (POM, which is derived from cranial neural crest cells (NCCs and mesoderm. Although, the mechanism of this disruption is not well understood, a number of transcriptional regulatory molecules have previously been implicated in ASDs. Here, we investigate the function of the transcription factor AP-2β, encoded by Tfap2b, which is expressed in NCCs and their derivatives. Wnt1-Cre-mediated conditional deletion of Tfap2b in NCCs resulted in post-natal ocular defects typified by opacity. Histological data revealed that the conditional AP-2β NCC knockout (KO mutants exhibited dysgenesis of multiple structures in the anterior segment of the eye including defects in the corneal endothelium, corneal stroma, ciliary body and disruption in the iridocorneal angle with adherence of the iris to the cornea. We further show that this phenotype leads to a significant increase in intraocular pressure and a subsequent loss of retinal ganglion cells and optic nerve degeneration, features indicative of glaucoma. Overall, our findings demonstrate that AP-2β is required in the POM for normal development of the anterior segment of the eye and that the AP-2β NCC KO mice might serve as a new and exciting model of ASD and glaucoma that is fully penetrant and with early post-natal onset.

  7. Review of application of mass spectrometry for analyses of anterior eye proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherif; Elsobky; Ashley; M; Crane; Michael; Margolis; Teresia; A; Carreon; Sanjoy; K; Bhattacharya

    2014-01-01

    Proteins have important functional roles in the body, which can be altered in disease states. The eye is a complex organ rich in proteins; in particular, the anterior eye is very sophisticated in function and is most commonly involved in ophthalmic diseases. Proteomics, the large scale study of proteins, has greatly impacted our knowledge and understanding of gene function in the post-genomic period. The most significant breakthrough in proteomics has been mass spectrometric identification of proteins, which extends analysis far beyond the mere display of proteins that classical techniques provide. Mass spectrometry functions as a "mass analyzer" which simplifies the identification and quantification of proteins extracted from biological tissue. Mass spectrometric analysis of the anterior eye proteome provides a differential display for protein comparison of normal and diseased tissue. In this article wepresent the key proteomic findings in the recent literature related to the cornea, aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork, iris, ciliary body and lens. Through this we identified unique proteins specific to diseases related to the anterior eye.

  8. Risk Factors for the Development of Adjacent Segment Disease Following Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

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    Ezgi Akar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to clinically and radiologically evaluate the efficacy of anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF in the treatment of adjacent level degeneration. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 89 patients (55 females, 34 males who underwent ACDF. Adjacent segment degeneration findings were evaluated by investigating new osteophyte formation, growth of existing osteophytes, ossification of the anterior longitudinal ligament, presence of intervertebral disc space narrowing, sagittal alignment and range of motion (ROM using serial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging. Results: The mean age of the 89 patients was 41.3 (24-76 years. The mean follow-up duration was 34.3 (12-64 months. Radiographic evidence of adjacent segment degeneration was observed in 12 patients (13.4%. Nine (75% patients had new complaints. Of the patients who had degenerative changes, 7 were (58% were male, 5 (42% were female; the mean age was 46 (30- 62 years. It was observed that the level of fusion and the number of fusion did not increase the adjacent segment degeneration. All of 12 patients were observed to have a non lordotic cervical spine and increased ROM. Conclusion: Development of degeneration at the level adjacent to region anterior cervical discectomy and fusion performed is higher compared to non-adjacent levels. The level of fusion and the number of fusion levels have no effect on the development of degeneration. (The Medical Bulletin of Haseki 2015; 53:120-3

  9. Frequency of left ventricular thrombus after anterior wall st-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.W.; Fayyaz, A.

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) formation is a well known complication seen in patients presenting with acute anterior wall ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In previous studies the incidence of this complication, after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been reported to be 4% to 60% in large anterior wall STEMI, depending significantly upon the method as well as time of reperfusion therapy after STEMI. Objective: The objective of this descriptive case series study was to evaluate the frequency of left ventricular thrombus formation in patients after acute anterior wall ST-Segment elevation myocardial infarction. Methodology: In this study, 100 patients with anterior wall STEMI presenting to cardiac emergency or coronary care unit (CCU) of Cardiac complex, Gulab Devi Hospital, were selected on non-probability, purposive sampling meeting inclusion criteria, after taking written informed consent. All the patients were treated initially for management of acute STEMI, including use of thrombolytics where indicated. 2-D Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) was performed during the same admission to assess presence of LV thrombus (LVT). Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.3 +- 11.4 years. There were 84(84%) male patients and 16 (16%) female patients. LVT was present in 28 (28%) patients on TTE. Among those, there were 23 (82.1%) male and 5 (17.9%) female patients. However, out of 84 male patients 27.4% develop LVT and among 16 female patients this ratio was 31.3%. The LV thrombus was independent of age and gender. LV thrombus was significantly less in thrombolytic group as compared to those who were not given this therapy, i.e. p value <0.05. Conclusion: Patients with anterior wall acute STEMI not infrequently develop the complication of development of LV thrombus. In this study the frequency of LV thrombus formation after anterior wall acute STEMI was 28%. (author)

  10. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, Marijn; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, René M

    2016-01-01

    Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been described before. A unique series of 77 AIS patients with high-resolution CT scans of the spine, acquired for surgical planning purposes, were included and compared to 22 healthy controls. Non-idiopathic curves were excluded. Endplate segmentation and local longitudinal axis in endplate plane enabled semi-automatic geometric analysis of the complete three-dimensional morphology of the spine, taking inter-vertebral rotation, intra-vertebral torsion and coronal and sagittal tilt into account. Intraclass correlation coefficients for interobserver reliability were 0.98-1.00. Coronal deviation, axial rotation and the exact length discrepancies in the reconstructed sagittal plane, as defined per vertebra and disc, were analyzed for each primary and compensatory curve as well as for the junctional segments in-between. The anterior-posterior difference of spinal length, based on "true" anterior and posterior points on endplates, was +3.8% for thoracic and +9.4% for (thoraco)lumbar curves, while the junctional segments were almost straight. This differed significantly from control group thoracic kyphosis (-4.1%; P<0.001) and lumbar lordosis (+7.8%; P<0.001). For all primary as well as compensatory curves, we observed linear correlations between the coronal Cobb angle, axial rotation and the anterior-posterior length difference (r≥0.729 for thoracic curves; r≥0.485 for (thoraco)lumbar curves). Excess anterior length of the spine in AIS has been described as a generalized growth disturbance, causing relative anterior spinal overgrowth. This study is the first to demonstrate that this anterior overgrowth is not a generalized phenomenon. It is confined to the primary as well as the

  11. Morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and its clinical importance.

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    Krishnamurthy, A; Nayak, S R; Bagoji, I B; D'Costa, S; Pai, M M; Jiji, P J; Kumar, C G; Rai, R

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cerebral artery, one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery is an important vessel taking part in the formation of circle of Willis. It supplies a large part of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere containing the areas of motor and somatosensory cortices of the lower limb. Aim of this study was the morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. 93 formalin fixed brain specimen of either sex and of Indian origin were studied. The mean length, mean external diameter and the anomalies present in A1 segment of the vessel were studied in detail and photographed. The mean length of A1 segment of the vessel was 14.49+/-0.28 mm and 14.22+/-0.22 mm on right and left side respectively. The mean external diameter of the vessel on right and left side was 2.12+/-0.07 mm and 2.32+/-0.06 mm respectively. Narrowing, aneurysm formation, buttonhole formation and median anterior cerebral artery were the anomalies seen with an occurrence of 15.05%, 5.37%, 3.22% and 12.9%, respectively. The above anomalies did not have any sex or side predilection. Knowledge of morphometry of the vessel will be of use to neurosurgeons while performing the shunt operation, in assessing the feasibility of such operations and in the choice of patients. From this study we infer that the morphometry of anterior cerebral artery varies in different population and that the neurosurgeons operating should have a thorough knowledge of the possible variations.

  12. Anterior maxillary osteotomy: A technical note for superior repositioning: A bird wing segment

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    V Sadesh Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of a single piece bird wing osteotectomy segment during anterior maxillary osteotomy (AMO markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method thereby reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and gives good perfusion to the anterior segment. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted at Karpaga Vinayaga Institute of Dental Sciences composing of 20 patients in which male: female ratio was 8:12, with a mean age of 25-30 years. This bird wing segment technique is performed following presurgical orthodontics under the guidance of clinical assessment of the gummy smile with an incisal show when the lip is at repose (vertical maxillary excess, especially for the calculated amount of superior repositioning. It is calculated by subtracting 2 mm from the total amount of an incisor show when the lip is at repose. The normal incisal show when the lip is at repose is 2 mm. After conventional primary AMO cut was performed, the precise calculated. Results: All our cases were tested positive for pulp vitality, no relapse, and minimal edema and with no changes in the bite or dentoalveolar relation followed until 1 year postoperatively indicating a good perfusion to the anterior segment and all the patients were satisfied esthetically and free of complaints. Conclusion: This simple technique allows the precise amount of calculated bone removal in a single piece from the nasal floor markedly reduces the duration of the surgery by nearly one-half of the time during bone removal with the conventional method there by reducing the kinking effect to the palatal pedicle and maintains good perfusion.

  13. Utility of bleb imaging with anterior segment optical coherence tomography in clinical decision-making after trabeculectomy.

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    Singh, Mandeep; Aung, Tin; Aquino, Maria C; Chew, Paul T K

    2009-08-01

    To determine if imaging of blebs with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) affects clinical decision-making with regard to laser suture lysis (LSL) after trabeculectomy. In this prospective observational case series, we included patients with poorly controlled intraocular pressure (IOP) after standardized trabeculectomy from May to November 2006. One observer assessed IOP, anterior chamber depth and bleb formation, and recorded a decision of whether or not to undertake LSL based on clinical grounds. A second observer masked to clinical data recorded a decision of whether or not to perform LSL based on ASOCT assessment of scleral flap position, presence of a sub-flap space, patency of the internal ostium, and bleb wall thickening. We compared the 2 observers' decisions to determine how ASOCT influenced decision-making. Seven eyes of 7 patients were included. On the basis of clinical examination, LSL was recommended in all 7 (100.0%) cases due to presence of elevated IOP, deep anterior chambers and poorly formed blebs. Using ASOCT, LSL was recommended in 5/7 (71.4%) cases with apposed scleral flaps, absent sub-flap spaces, and absent bleb wall thickening. In 2/7 (28.7%) cases, LSL was not recommended based on ASOCT findings of an elevated scleral flap, a patent sub-flap space, and bleb wall thickening. All 7 patients had good IOP control and formed blebs at a mean of 8.4+/-2.6 months after trabeculectomy, with a mean IOP of 14.3+/-3.2 mm Hg with no medications. This small study suggests that ASOCT imaging may affect decision-making with regard to LSL by providing information not apparent on clinical examination.

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography Examination of the Anterior Segment in a Case of Corneal Perforation and Lens Trauma by Chestnut Burr

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    Takashi Ono

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chestnut burrs, the thorny encapsulation of chestnut fruit, can sometimes cause corneal injuries and ulceration, with poor prognoses. We report a case of corneal perforation and damaged anterior lens capsule due to a chestnut burr, using anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT. A 67-year-old woman with a chestnut burr injury in her right eye was referred to our hospital. Her right best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.8. Slit-lamp examination and AS-OCT showed perforation involving the endothelial layer at the center of the cornea. The iris and anterior lens capsule were damaged. Cell infiltration was observed around the wound. Bacterial examination showed gram-positive cocci but no fungi. The patient was diagnosed with a corneal perforation and bacterial keratitis. Levofloxacin 1.5% and cefmenoxime treatments were initiated and a soft contact lens was placed to seal the wound. On day 3, there was no improvement in the corneal cell infiltration, but AS-OCT suggested that the inner wound had closed. A culture test revealed the presence of Propionibacterium acnes, which was sensitive to both levofloxacin and cefmenoxime. Therefore, we continued the same antibiotic treatment. On day 26, the opacification and cell infiltration at the center of the cornea had improved. AS-OCT showed healing of the corneal wound with reduction in the central corneal thickness. Her BCVA improved to 1.0. AS-OCT was a valuable tool to noninvasively observe wound shape and detect the presence of any intracorneal foreign bodies.

  15. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental le fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blæhr, Tue Lindberg; Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I...... osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral.......83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment...

  16. Nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of vitrectomized eyes with silicon oil

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    Paulo Escarião

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the nitric oxide levels in the anterior chamber of eyes who underwent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with silicone oil. METHODS: Patients who underwent PPV with silicon oil injection, from february 2005 to august 2007, were selected. Nine patients (nine eyes participated in the study (five women and four men. Nitric oxide concentration was quantified after the aspiration of aqueous humor samples during the procedure of silicon oil removal. Data such as: oil emulsification; presence of oil in the anterior chamber; intraocular pressure and time with silicone oil were evaluated. Values of p <0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: A positive correlation between nitric oxide concentration and time with silicon oil in the vitreous cavity (r=0.799 was observed. The nitric oxide concentration was significantly higher (p=0.02 in patients with silicon oil more than 24 months (0.90µmol/ml ± 0.59, n=3 in the vitreous cavity comparing to patients with less than 24 months (0.19µmol/ml ± 0.10, n=6. CONCLUSION: A positive correlation linking silicone oil time in the vitreous cavity with the nitric oxide concentration in the anterior chamber was observed.

  17. Relationship between intraocular pressure and angle configuration: an anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Rachel S; Sakata, Lisandro M; Narayanaswamy, Arun K; Ho, Sue-Wei; He, Mingguang; Baskaran, Mani; Wong, Tien Yin; Perera, Shamira A; Aung, Tin

    2013-03-05

    To assess the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and anterior chamber angle (ACA) configuration as assessed by gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). A total of 2045 subjects aged 50 years and older, were recruited from a community clinic and underwent AS-OCT, Goldmann applanation tonometry, and gonioscopy. A quadrant was classified as closed on gonioscopy if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. A closed quadrant on AS-OCT was defined by the presence of any contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur. Customized software (Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program, Guangzhou, China) was used to measure AS-OCT parameters on AS-OCT scans, including anterior chamber depth, area, and volume; iris thickness (IT) and curvature; lens vault; angle opening distance; and trabecular-iris space area. IOP values were adjusted for age, sex, diabetes and hypertension status, body mass index, central corneal thickness, and presence of peripheral anterior synechiae. Mean age of study subjects was 63.2 ± 8.0 years, 52.6% were female, and 89.4% were Chinese. Mean IOP was 14.8 ± 2.4 mm Hg (range 826). IOP (mean ± SE) increased with number of quadrants with gonioscopic angle closure (none: 14.6 ± 0.2; one: 14.7 ± 0.3; two: 15.0 ± 0.3; three: 15.0 ± 0.3; four: 15.6 ± 0.3 mm Hg; P gonioscopy, with increasing IOP.

  18. Correlation between cervical lordosis and adjacent segment pathology after anterior cervical spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Eon; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Kim, Hyun Jib

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the incidence and risk factors for adjacent segment pathology (ASP) after anterior cervical spinal surgery. Fourteen patients (12 male, mean age 47.1 years) who underwent single-level cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA group) and 28 case-matched patients (24 male, mean age 53.6 years) who underwent single-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF group) were included. Presence of radiologic ASP (RASP) was based on observed changes in anterior osteophytes, disks, and calcification of the anterior longitudinal ligament on lateral radiographs. The mean follow-up period was 43.4 months in the CDA group and 44.6 months in the ACDF group. At final follow-up, ASP was observed in 5 (35.7%) CDA patients and 16 (57.1%) ACDF patients (p = 0.272). The interval between surgery and ASP development was 33.8 months in the CDA group and 16.3 months in the ACDF group (p = 0.046). The ASP risk factor analysis indicated postoperative cervical angle at C3-7 being more lordotic in non-ASP patients in both groups. Restoration of lordosis occurred in the CDA group regardless of the presence of ASP, but heterotopic ossification development was associated with the presence of ASP in the CDA group. And the CDA group had significantly greater clinical improvements than those in the ACDF group when ASP was present. In both CDA and ACDF patients, RASP developed, but CDA was associated with a delay in ASP development. A good clinical outcome was expected in CDA group, even when ASP developed. Restoration of cervical lordosis was an important factor in anterior cervical spine surgery.

  19. Loa loa in the anterior chamber of the eye: A case report

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    Barua P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of loiasis from Assam is reported here. Loa loa is a subcutaneous filarial parasite of man and is transmitted to humans by chrysops flies. The patient presented with foreign body sensation and visual disturbances of the right eye. Examination revealed a white coiled structure in the cornea.. Routine blood and other investigations were within normal limits. A live adult worm was extracted and identity was confirmed by microscopy to be Loa loa. Patient was treated with diethylcarbamazine and steroid. We found this case interesting as the worm was present in the anterior chamber - an unusual site and there were no other positive findings besides the lone worm.

  20. Intra-cameral level of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% following topical application for cytomegalovirus anterior segment infection: A pilot study.

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    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Zhou, Lei; Chee, Soon-Phaik

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the intra-cameral level of ganciclovir following topical application of ganciclovir gel, 0.15% for cytomegalovirus (CMV) anterior segment infection. Non-randomized, prospective, interventional clinical study. Patients with active CMV anterior segment infection seen at Singapore National Eye Centre, confirmed by positive CMV real time PCR (RT-PCR) of the aqueous humor, that had not been treated with any form of ganciclovir in the preceding 1 month were recruited. They were treated with ganciclovir gel, 0.15% 1cc 5 times a day. Following 6 weeks of treatment, CMV load in the aqueous humor was measured using CMV RT-PCR and the ganciclovir drug levels in tears and aqueous humor were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The clinical features of the disease activity and the central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded at the baseline and post-treatment. There were 29 eyes of 29 patients, of which 23 eyes had CMV anterior uveitis and 6 eyes had CMV endotheliitis. At the end of week 6, 26 eyes had undetectable CMV titre in the aqueous humor and no anterior chamber (AC) activity. Two patients had an increased CMV titre and increased AC inflammation. Both of these patients were non-compliant with the treatment. One patient had a reduced CMV titre in the aqueous humor with minimal AC inflammation. The mean ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and the tears were 17.4 ± 30.6 ng/ml and 20,420.9 ± 33,120.8 ng/ml respectively. Mean CCT was 552.2 ± 42.3 microns. There was a weak correlation between the ganciclovir concentration in the aqueous humor and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.42, p = 0.025). There was no significant correlation between the ganiclovir concentration in the tears and CCT (Spearmen's r = + 0.39, p = 0.11). Ganciclovir levels in the aqueous humor was below the 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) for CMV replication, following topical application of the ganciclovir gel, 0.15%. SingHealth Centralized Institutional

  1. In Vivo Confocal Microscopy and Anterior Segment Optic Coherence Tomography Findings in Ocular Ochronosis

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    Elif Demirkilinc Biler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report clinical and in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM findings of two patients with ocular ochronosis secondary due to alkaptonuria. Materials and Methods. Complete ophthalmologic examinations, including IVCM (HRT II/Rostock Cornea Module, Heidelberg, Germany, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT (Topcon 3D spectral-domain OCT 2000, Topcon Medical Systems, Paramus, NJ, USA, corneal topography (Pentacam, OCULUS Optikgeräte GmbH, Wetzlar, Germany, and anterior segment photography, were performed. Results. Biomicroscopic examination showed bilateral darkly pigmented lesions of the nasal and temporal conjunctiva and episclera in both patients. In vivo confocal microscopy of the lesions revealed prominent degenerative changes, including vacuoles and fragmentation of collagen fibers in the affected conjunctival lamina propria and episclera. Hyperreflective pigment granules in different shapes were demonstrated in the substantia propria beneath the basement membrane. AS-OCT of Case 1 demonstrated hyporeflective areas. Fundus examination was within normal limits in both patients, except tilted optic discs with peripapillary atrophy in one of the patients. Corneal topography, thickness, and macular OCT were normal bilaterally in both cases. Conclusion. The degenerative and anatomic changes due to ochronotic pigment deposition in alkaptonuria can be demonstrated in detail with IVCM and AS-OCT. Confocal microscopic analysis in ocular ochronosis may serve as a useful adjunct in diagnosis and monitoring of the disease progression.

  2. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography changes with introduction and discontinuation of tamsulosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kharashi, Abdullah; Azimzadeh, Amir A; Leung, Jerry; Radomski, Sidney; Radomski, Lenny; Lam, Wai-Ching

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify changes and reversibility in pupil dilation and iris dilator muscle region thickness associated with introduction and subsequent discontinuation of tamsulosin in patients naïve to this drug with the aid of an anterior OCT system. The study was carried out on 7 patients (14 eyes) naïve to tamsulosin and with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BHP). Measurements taken by Vistante OCT were done pre- and post-dilation of the following: pupil size, iris dilator muscle region (DMR) thickness, sphincter muscle region (SMR) thickness, and anterior chamber depth. These measurement were taken at Day 0 (tamsulosin naive), Day 30 (after one month of tamsulosin, the treatment period) and day 60 (after one month of no tamsulosin, the discontinuation period). Post-dilation pupil diameter significantly increased during the discontinuation period ( P  = 0.047). Iris DMR thickness measurements post-dilation significantly decreased during treatment ( P  = 0.00044), discontinuation (0.00011), and combined periods ( P  = 0.000050). Anterior chamber depth measurements in post-dilation were significantly decreased during treatment ( P  = 0.0016), discontinuation ( P  = 0.017), and combined periods ( P  = 0.00022). Tamsulosin discontinuation effectively increases dilated pupil size, a measure that has been inversely linked to IFIS incidence pre-operatively. Decreased DMR thickness in this short term likely illustrates changes aside from atrophy, such as vascular changes. Decreased anterior chamber depths suggest aqueous humor production is decreased as well.

  3. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography for Tear Meniscus Evaluation and its Correlation with other Tear Variables in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhasmana, Renu; Nagpal, Ramesh Chander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dry eye is one of the most common ocular diseases in this cyber era. Despite availability of multiple tests, no single test is accurate for the diagnosis of dry eye. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography is the recent tool which can be added in the armentarium of dry eye tests. Aim To evaluate tear meniscus with anterior segment optical coherence tomography and its correlation with other tear variables in normal healthy individuals. Materials and Methods In this prospective cross-sectional observational study, right eye of 203 consecutive patients were studied. All the patients were divided into three groups Group 1, 2 and 3 according to their age ≤20 years, 21-40 years and >40 years respectively. All patients underwent routine ophthalmologic examinations along with slit-lamp bio-microscopy for tear meniscus height measurement, tear film break up time, Schirmer’s I test (with anaesthesia) and optical coherence tomography imaging of inferior tear meniscus height. After focusing of the instrument with a Cross Line (CL) centered on lower tear meniscus at 6’0 clock of cornea, a 6 mm long scan was obtained. The tear meniscus height (μm) and tear meniscus area (mm2) were measured manually with help of callipers by joining upper corneo-meniscus junction to the lower lid-meniscus junction and tear meniscus height and area within the plotted line respectively and calculated by using the integrated analysis available in the custom software. Results There was significant decrease in the all tear variables with the increase in the age. According to age groups in group 1, the mean Schirmer’s (24.0±4.9)mm, tear film break up time (11.1±1.9) sec, tear meniscus height on slit lamp (600.2±167.3)mm were higher but decreased in group 2 (21.5±5.4,10.8±1.4, 597.5±186.3) and group 3 (19.8 ± 5.1, 10.2 ± 1.6, 485.6 ± 157.7) respectively. Schirmer’s test values and tear film break up time were similar in both sexes (p=0.1 and p= 0.9). Tear meniscus

  4. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using Sirius Topographer® and Nidek Axial Length-Scan® with assessing repeatability in patients with cataracts

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    Resat Duman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate anterior segment measurements obtained using CSO Sirius Topographer® (CSO, Firenze, Italy and Nidek Axial Length (AL-Scan® (Nidek CO., Gamagori, Japan. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients were included in this prospective study. The central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, white-to-white distance (WTW, flat keratometry (K1, steep keratometry (K2, and mean keratometry (K values were randomly measured three times with each device by the same examiner. The intraclass correlation coefficient of repeatability was analyzed. The compatibility of both devices was evaluated using the 95% limits of the agreement proposed by Bland and Altman. Results: Examiner achieved high repeatability for all parameters on each device except the WTW measured by Sirius. All measurements except WTW and K1 taken with the Sirius were higher than that taken with the Nidek AL-Scan®. The difference in CCT, ACD, and WTW values was statistically significant. Conclusion: High repeatability of the measurements was achieved on both devices. Although Km, K1, and K2 measurements of the Sirius and the AL-Scan® showed good agreement, WTW, CCT, and ACD measurements significantly differed between two devices. Thus, anterior segment measurements except for Km, K1, and K2 cannot be used interchangeably between Sirius and Nidek AL-Scan® devices.

  5. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy.

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    Kaushik, Sushmita; Jain, Rajeev; Pandav, Surinder Singh; Gupta, Amod

    2006-09-01

    To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer's classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 micro (AOD 250) and 500 micro (AOD 500) from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD). The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer's Grade 2 or less) and "open angles" (Schaffer's Grade 3 and 4). The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy (P gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58+/-49 micro, 102+/-84 micro and 653+/-124 respectively, while it was 176+/-47 micro, 291+/-62 micro and 883+/-94 micro in eyes with open angles (P gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.

  6. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes by ultrasound biomicroscopy and gonioscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Sushmita

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the ultrasound biomicroscopic measurement of the anterior chamber angle in Asian Indian eyes, with the angle width estimated by gonioscopy. Materials and Methods: Participants: Patients with open and closed angles attending a glaucoma clinic were recruited for the study. Observation Procedures: Temporal quadrants of the angles of patients were categorized by gonioscopy as Grade 0 to Grade 4, using Shaffer′s classification. These angles were quantified by ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM using the following biometric characteristics: Angle opening distance at 250 µ (AOD 250 and 500 µ (AOD 500 from the scleral spur and trabecular meshwork-ciliary process distance (TCPD. The angles were further segregated as "narrow angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 2 or less and "open angles" (Schaffer′s Grade 3 and 4. Main Outcome Measures: The UBM measurements were computed in each case and analyzed in relation to the gonioscopic angle evaluation. Results: One hundred and sixty three eyes of 163 patients were analyzed. One hundred and six eyes had "narrow angles" and 57 eyes had "open angles" on gonioscopy. There was a significant difference among the mean UBM measurements of each angle grade estimated by gonioscopy ( P < 0.001. The Pearson correlation coefficient between all UBM parameters and gonioscopy grades was significant at the 0.01 level. The mean AOD 250, AOD 500 and TCPD in narrow angles were 58±49 µ, 102±84 µ and 653±124 respectively, while it was 176±47 µ, 291±62 µ and 883±94 µ in eyes with open angles ( P < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions: The angle width estimated by gonioscopy correlated significantly with the angle dimensions measured by UBM. Gonioscopy, though a subjective test, is a reliable method for estimation of the angle width.

  7. Mathematical modeling of laser linear thermal effects on the anterior layer of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Sahar; Shokooh-Saremi, Mehrdad

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, mathematical analysis of thermal effects of excimer lasers on the anterior side of the human eye is presented, where linear effect of absorption by the human eye is considered. To this end, Argon Fluoride (ArF) and Holmium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garent (Ho:YAG) lasers are utilized in this investigation. A three-dimensional model of the human eye with actual dimensions is employed and finite element method (FEM) is utilized to numerically solve the governing (Penne) heat transfer equation. The simulation results suggest the corneal temperature of 263 °C and 83.4 °C for ArF and Ho:YAG laser radiations, respectively, and show less heat penetration depth in comparison to the previous reports. Moreover, the heat transfer equation is solved semi-analytically in one-dimension. It is shown that the exploited simulation results are also consistent with those derived from the semi-analytical solution of the Penne heat transfer equation for both types of laser radiations.

  8. A New Potential Cause in the Development of Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome: Fibrin Glue

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    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To present a potential cause for toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS. Materials and Methods: We report 4 cases of TASS that occurred following uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Results: The 4 cases were the first consecutive 2 cases of 2 different surgery days, 5 months apart. The most prominent sign of TASS was limbus-to-limbus corneal edema. Pain and/or intraocular pressure rise were also common. All surgical and presurgical procedures were checked after the first outbreak, whereas the second outbreak required further investigation. Fibrin glue remnants from preceding pterygium surgery with conjunctival autografting were found to be the potential cause. Despite intensive corticosteroid therapy, corneal edema did not resolve in 2 patients who underwent keratoplasty. Conclusion: TASS is a sight-threatening condition which requires thorough investigation for prevention of new cases. All steps must be carefully revised. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 280-3

  9. Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis to Correct Maxillary Deficiencies in a Patient With Cleft Lip and Palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama-Iwata, Asuka; Haraguchi, Seiji; Iida, Seiji; Aikawa, Tomonao; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2017-07-01

    This report describes a case of successful orthodontic treatment using maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis with an internal maxillary distractor and bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy in a girl with cleft lip and palate. A 16-year-old girl with unilateral cleft lip and palate exhibited midface retrusion because of growth inhibition of the maxillary complex and mandibular excess. After the presurgical orthodontic treatment, 6.0-mm advancement of the maxillary anterior segment and 4.0-mm set back of the mandible were performed. After a retention period, the patient's midface convexity was greatly improved and the velopharyngeal competence was preserved without relapse.

  10. Quantitative Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Imaging of the Ocular Anterior Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, Ryan Palmer

    Clinical imaging within ophthalmology has had transformative effects on ocular health over the last century. Imaging has guided clinicians in their pharmaceutical and surgical treatments of macular degeneration, glaucoma, cataracts and numerous other pathologies. Many of the imaging techniques currently used are photography based and are limited to imaging the surface of ocular structures. This limitation forces clinicians to make assumptions about the underlying tissue which may reduce the efficacy of their diagnoses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive, non-ionizing imaging modality that has been widely adopted within the field of ophthalmology in the last 15 years. As an optical imaging technique, OCT utilizes low-coherence interferometry to produce micron-scale three-dimensional datasets of a tissue's structure. Much of the human body consists of tissues that significantly scatter and attenuate optical signals limiting the imaging depth of OCT in those tissues to only 1-2mm. However, the ocular anterior segment is unique among human tissue in that it is primarily transparent or translucent. This allows for relatively deep imaging of tissue structure with OCT and is no longer limited by the optical scattering properties of the tissue. This goal of this work is to develop methods utilizing OCT that offer the potential to reduce the assumptions made by clinicians in their evaluations of their patients' ocular anterior segments. We achieved this by first developing a method to reduce the effects of patient motion during OCT volume acquisitions allowing for accurate, three dimensional measurements of corneal shape. Having accurate corneal shape measurements then allowed us to determine corneal spherical and astigmatic refractive contribution in a given individual. This was then validated in a clinical study that showed OCT better measured refractive change due to surgery than other clinical devices. Additionally, a method was developed to combine

  11. Diagnostic impact of anterior segment angiography of limbal stem cell insufficiency in PAX6-related aniridia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käsmann-Kellner, Barbara; Latta, Lorenz; Fries, Fabian N; Viestenz, Arne; Seitz, Berthold

    2018-04-01

    PAX6 is a master gene of ocular development and postnatal ocular equilibrium. Congenital aniridia is the hallmark of PAX6 gene haploinsufficiency (Chr. 11 p. 13), but PAX6-associated aniridia is a profound, progressive pan-ocular developmental disorder often leading to blindness. There is congenital visual impairment with advancing loss of vision mainly due to secondary glaucoma and to corneal blindness caused by limbal stem cell insufficiency (LSCI). LSCI leads to ARK (aniridia-related keratopathy), which typically develops in four stages. Incipient LSCI with vessels starting to grow into the cornea can be imaged by fluorescein anterior segment angiography, which enables fine vessels to be more easily detected than by routine slit lamp examination, especially in patients with nystagmus. Thus, clinical stage 1 ARK is often diagnosed at stage 2 by angiography. Corneal neovascularizations often start at the 12 and 6 positions and subsequently progress circumferentially, not at the 3 and 9 positions as previously believed. Anterior segment angiography can provide an easily standardizable tool for monitoring progress, treatment-induced regress or stabilization of ARK. Especially in children, angiography could be used to monitor new treatment regimens for reducing LSCI. Angiography could enable treatment to begin earlier to preserve corneal hemostasis. In addition, the fact that vascularization often starts at the subpalpebral 6 and 12 positions as opposed to the 3 and 9 positions raises more questions concerning factors that promote LSCI and related corneal injuries. Clin. Anat. 31:392-397, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Evaluation of Descemet’s Membrane Detachment Using Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Hüseyin Çağatay

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT in Descemet’s membrane detachment (DMD. A patient who developed DMD after uneventful cataract surgery with posterior chamber lens implantation is presented in this case report. At the follow-up examination after cataract surgery, slit-lamp evaluation showed stromal striae, but it was impossible to diagnose the DMD due to the corneal edema. ASOCT imaging of the cornea revealed a DMD, and the patient underwent intracameral air injection to the anterior chamber through the site which was identified as intact by ASOCT. Follow-up ASOCT imaging revealed the reattachment of the Descemet’s membrane and reduced corneal thickness. If DMD is suspected in any cases, ASOCT can be useful to document and follow the postsurgical detachment of DMD and also to determine the site, configuration, and extent of the DMD, thus guiding the treatment method and monitoring the treatment outcome. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 407-9

  13. Assessment of narrow angles by gonioscopy, Van Herick method and anterior segment optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Bae; Sung, Kyung Rim; Kang, Sung Yung; Jo, Jung Woo; Lee, Kyoung Sub; Kook, Michael S

    2011-07-01

    To evaluate anterior chamber (AC) angles using gonioscopy, Van Herick technique and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT). One hundred forty-eight consecutive subjects were enrolled. The agreement between any two of three diagnostic methods, gonioscopy, AS-OCT and Van Herick, was calculated in narrow-angle patients. The area under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) for discriminating between narrow and open angles determined by gonioscopy was calculated in all participants for AS-OCT parameter angle opening distance (AOD), angle recess area, trabecular iris surface area and anterior chamber depth (ACD). As a subgroup analysis, capability of AS-OCT parameters for detecting angle closure defined by AS-OCT was assessed in narrow-angle patients. The agreement between the Van Herick method and gonioscopy in detecting angle closure was excellent in narrow angles (κ = 0.80, temporal; κ = 0.82, nasal). However, agreement between gonioscopy and AS-OCT and between the Van Herick method and AS-OCT was poor (κ = 0.11-0.16). Discrimination capability of AS-OCT parameters between open and narrow angles determined by gonioscopy was excellent for all AS-OCT parameters (AUC, temporal: AOD500 = 0.96, nasal: AOD500 = 0.99). The AUCs for detecting angle closure defined by AS-OCT image in narrow angle subjects was good for all AS-OCT parameters (AUC, 0.80-0.94) except for ACD (temporal: ACD = 0.70, nasal: ACD = 0.63). Assessment of narrow angles by gonioscopy and the Van Herick technique showed good agreement, but both measurements revealed poor agreement with AS-OCT. The angle closure detection capability of AS-OCT parameters was excellent; however, it was slightly lower in ACD.

  14. Anterior ST segment depression in acute inferior myocardial infarction as a marker of greater inferior, apical, and posterolateral damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruddy, T.D.; Yasuda, T.; Gold, H.K.; Leinbach, R.C.; Newell, J.B.; McKusick, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical significance of anterior precordial ST segment depression during acute inferior myocardial infarction was evaluated in 67 consecutive patients early after onset of symptoms with gated blood pool scans, thallium-201 perfusion images, and 12-lead ECGs. Patients with anterior ST depression (n = 33) had depressed mean values for left ventricular ejection fraction (54 +/- 2% [mean +/- S.E.M.] vs 59 +/- 2%; p = 0.02), cardiac index (3.1 +/- 0.2 vs 3.6 +/- 0.2 L/m2; p = 0.03), and ratio of systolic blood pressure to end-systolic volume (2.0 +/- 0.1 vs 2.5 +/- 0.3 mm Hg/ml; p = 0.04) compared to patients with no anterior ST depression (n = 34). Patients with anterior ST depression had (1) lower mean wall motion values for the inferior, apical, and inferior posterolateral segments (p less than 0.05) and (2) greater reductions in thallium-201 uptake in the inferior and posterolateral regions (p less than 0.05). However, anterior and septal (1) wall motion and (2) thallium-201 uptake were similar in patients with and without ST depression. Thus, anterior precordial ST segment depression in patients with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction represents more than a reciprocal electrical phenomenon. It identifies patients with more severe wall motion impairment and greater hypoperfusion of the inferior and adjacent segments. The poorer global left ventricular function in these patients is a result of more extensive inferior infarction and not of remote septal or anterior injury

  15. Comparison of slitlamp optical coherence tomography and scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer to evaluate angle closure in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hon-Tym; Chua, Jocelyn L L; Sakata, Lisandro M; Wong, Melissa H Y; Aung, Han T; Aung, Tin

    2009-05-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of slitlamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT) and Scanning Peripheral Anterior Chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. A total of 153 subjects underwent gonioscopy, SL-OCT, and SPAC. The anterior chamber angle (ACA) was classified as closed on gonioscopy if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen; with SL-OCT, closure was determined by contact between the iris and angle wall anterior to the scleral spur; and with SPAC by a numerical grade of 5 or fewer and/or a categorical grade of suspect or potential. A closed ACA was identified in 51 eyes with gonioscopy, 86 eyes with SL-OCT, and 61 eyes with SPAC (gonioscopy vs SL-OCT, P gonioscopy vs SPAC, P = .10; SL-OCT vs SPAC, P gonioscopy, SL-OCT detected a closed ACA in 43, whereas SPAC identified 41 (P = .79). An open angle in all 4 quadrants was observed in 102 eyes with gonioscopy, but SL-OCT and SPAC identified 43 and 20 of these eyes, respectively, as having angle closure. The overall sensitivity and specificity for SL-OCT were 84% and 58% vs 80% and 80% for SPAC. Using gonioscopy as the reference, SL-OCT and SPAC showed good sensitivity for detecting eyes at risk of angle closure.

  16. Retinal and anterior eye compartments derive from a common progenitor pool in the avian optic cup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Sara J.; Cuenca, Paulina D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The optic cup is created through invagination of the optic vesicle. The morphogenetic rearrangement creates a double-layered cup, with a hinge (the Optic Cup Lip) where the epithelium bends back upon itself. Shortly after the optic cup forms, it is thought to be sub-divided into separate lineages: i) pigmented epithelium in the outer layer; ii) presumptive iris and ciliary body at the most anterior aspect of the inner layer; and iii) presumptive neural retina in the remainder of the inner layer. We test the native developmental potential of the anterior cup to determine if it normally contributes to the retina. Methods Vital dye and green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing replication-incompetent retroviral vectors were used to label cells in the nascent optic cup and follow their direct progeny throughout development. Label was applied to either the optic cup lip (n=40), or to the domain just posterior to the lip (n=20). Retroviral labeling is a permanent lineage marker and enabled the analysis of advanced stages of development. Results Labeling within the optic cup gave rise to labeled progeny in the posterior optic cup that differentiated as neural retina (20 of 20). In contrast, labeling cells in the optic cup lip gave rise to progeny of labeled cells arrayed in a linear progression, from the lip into the neural retina (36 of 40). Label was retained in cells at the optic cup lip, regardless of age at examination. In older embryos, labeled progeny delaminated from the optic cup lip to differentiate as muscle of the pupillary margin. Conclusions The data show that the cells at the optic cup lip are a common progenitor population for pigmented epithelium, anterior eye tissues (ciliary body, iris, and pupillary muscle) and retinal neurons. The findings are supportive of an interpretation where the optic cup lip is a specialized niche containing a multipotent progenitor population. PMID:22219630

  17. Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography integrated into a slit lamp; a novel technique combining anterior and posterior segment OCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stehouwer, M.; Verbraak, F. D.; de Vries, H.; Kok, P. H. B.; van Leeuwen, T. G.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Fourier Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (FD-OCT) provides high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina and the anterior segment. It has become an important tool in ophthalmology in the examination, diagnosis, and treatment of important and common diseases. Present OCT imaging

  18. Mechanistic modeling of ophthalmic drug delivery to the anterior chamber by eye drops and contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gause, Samuel; Hsu, Kuan-Hui; Shafor, Chancellor; Dixon, Phillip; Powell, Kristin Conrad; Chauhan, Anuj

    2016-07-01

    Ophthalmic drug for the anterior chamber diseases are delivered into tears by either eye drops or by extended release devices placed in the eyes. The instilled drug exits the eye through various routes including tear drainage into the nose through the canaliculi and transport across various ocular membranes. Understanding the mechanisms relevant to each route can be useful in predicting the dependency of ocular bioavailability on various formulation parameters, such as drug concentration, salinity, viscosity, etc. Mathematical modeling has been developed for each of the routes and validated by comparison with experiments. The individual models can be combined into a system model to predict the fraction of the instilled drug that reaches the target. This review summarizes the individual models for the transport of drugs across the cornea and conjunctiva and the canaliculi tear drainage. It also summarizes the combined tear dynamics model that can predict the ocular bioavailability of drugs instilled as eye drops. The predictions from the individual models and the combined model are in good agreement with experimental data. Both experiments and models predict that the corneal bioavailability for drugs delivered through eye drops is less than 5% due to the small area of the cornea in comparison to the conjunctiva, and the rapid clearance of the instilled solution by tear drainage. A contact lens is a natural choice for delivering drugs to the cornea due to the placement of the contact in the immediate vicinity of the cornea. The drug released by the contact towards the cornea surface is trapped in the post lens tear film for extended duration of at least 30min allowing transport of a large portion into the cornea. The model predictions backed by in vivo animal and clinical data show that the bioavailability increases to about 50% with contact lenses. This realization has encouraged considerable research towards delivering ocular drugs by contact lenses. Commercial

  19. Simultaneous right coronary artery spasm in a patient with Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiva Taherpour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Taherpour Z, Seyedian M, Alasti M. Simultaneous right coronary artery spasm in a patient with Anterior ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a case report. Novel Biomed 2013;1:29-33.Simultaneous occlusion of two vessels causing infarction at different territories is an uncommon finding. We report simultaneous right ventricular and anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in a previously healthy young man.The angiographic results demonstrated the simultaneous occlusion of the right and left coronary arteries because of simultaneous occlusion of left anterior descending artery (LADA and spasm of right coronary artery (RCA. In this patient, we found simultaneous ST elevations in right and precordial leads so everyone should be careful about all leads of the surface electrocardiogram for decision making in the management of a patient.

  20. Stability of the anterior maxillary segment and teeth after segmental le fort I osteotomy and postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blæhr, Tue Lindberg; Jensen, Thomas; Due, Karen Margrethe; Neumann-Jensen, Bjarne

    2014-07-01

    To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A) or dismounted perioperatively (group B). Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm) and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4°) (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°). Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm) and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm). The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5°) (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°). There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.

  1. Stability of the Anterior Maxillary Segment and Teeth after Segmental Le Fort I Osteotomy and Postoperative Skeletal Elastic Fixation With or Without Occlusal Splint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tue Lindberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the short term dental and skeletal stability of the anterior maxillary segment after segmental Le Fort I osteotomy with postoperative skeletal elastic fixation with or without occlusal splint. Material and Methods: 29 consecutive patients underwent segmental Le Fort I osteotomy and elastic skeletal fixation was applied. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether a fixed occlusal splint was used for six weeks (group A or dismounted perioperatively (group B. Changes in landmarks and reference planes between the two timepoints were estimated on lateral cephalometric radiographs. Results: Group A: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.56 mm (SD 0.77; range -2.04 to 1.08 mm and a mean posterior movement of -0.93 mm (SD 1.03; range -2.52 to 0.96 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.33° (SD 2.56; range -6° to 4° (95% CI: -1.75 to 1.08°. Group B: The upper incisor had a mean intrusion of -0.13 mm (SD 1.36; range -1.92 to 3.6 mm and a mean anterior movement of 0.11 mm (SD 1.78; range -2.88 to 3.84 mm. The mean change in the axial inclination of the upper incisor was -0.07° (SD 3.05; range -5° to 5° (95% CI: -1.83 to 1.69°. There was no statistically significant difference in stability between the two groups at the P value 0.05. Conclusions: The skeletal anterior fixation with postoperative elastics for eight weeks may not compromise the early postoperative dental and skeletal stability of the anterior segment in segmental Le Fort I osteotomy.

  2. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Elton Lik Tong; Yong, Vernon Khet Yau; Lim, Boon Ang; Sia, Stelson; Wong, Elizabeth Poh Ying; Yip, Leonard Wei Leon

    2015-01-01

    To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT), as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT). A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes) were recruited from the study hospital's Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other's analyses of OCT images. Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (Pgonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59) and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49) and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42) for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88). The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45). Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  3. Agreement of angle closure assessments between gonioscopy, anterior segment optical coherence tomography and spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Lik Tong Tay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To determine angle closure agreements between gonioscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT, as well as gonioscopy and spectral domain OCT (SD-OCT. A secondary objective was to quantify inter-observer agreements of AS-OCT and SD-OCT assessments. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive subjects (33 eyes were recruited from the study hospital’s Glaucoma clinic. Gonioscopy was performed by a glaucomatologist masked to OCT results. OCT images were read independently by 2 other glaucomatologists masked to gonioscopy findings as well as each other’s analyses of OCT images. RESULTS: Totally 84.8% and 45.5% of scleral spurs were visualized in AS-OCT and SD-OCT images respectively (P<0.01. The agreement for angle closure between AS-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.31 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.03-0.59 and k=0.35 (95% CI: 0.07-0.63 for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The agreement for angle closure between SD-OCT and gonioscopy was fair at k=0.21 (95% CI: 0.07-0.49 and slight at k=0.17 (95% CI: 0.08-0.42 for reader 1 and 2 respectively. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in AS-OCT images was moderate at 0.51 (95% CI: 0.13-0.88. The inter-reader agreement for angle closure in SD-OCT images was slight at 0.18 (95% CI: 0.08-0.45. CONCLUSION: Significant proportion of scleral spurs were not visualised with SD-OCT imaging resulting in weaker inter-reader agreements. Identifying other angle landmarks in SD-OCT images will allow more consistent angle closure assessments. Gonioscopy and OCT imaging do not always agree in angle closure assessments but have their own advantages, and should be used together and not exclusively.

  4. [Pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Morphometric analysis of the anterior chamber segment with SL-OCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birner, B; Tourtas, T; Wessel, J M; Jünemann, A G; Mardin, C Y; Kruse, F E; Laemmer, R

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze if anterior chamber parameters are risk factors for the development of pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and/or for the conversion to pigmentary glaucoma (PG). This study included a total of 63 eyes from 35 patients with PDS and PG and 65 eyes from 49 unaffected volunteers as the control group. The following parameters were measured by slit lamp optical coherence tomography (SL-OCT): anterior chamber volume (ACV) and depth (ACD), angle opening distance (AOD) and the trabecular iris space area (TISA) at 500 µm and 750 μm from the scleral spur. Comparisons between the following groups were performed: between the PDS/PG and the control group, between PDS and PG and between male and female patients. The results of ACV, ACD, AOD and TISA were significantly higher in PDS/PG patients when compared to the control group. There were no significant differences between PDS and PG. The gender-specific comparison also showed no significant differences. Significantly higher anterior chamber parameters are a possible risk factor for development of PDS; however, a higher risk of conversion to PG does not seem to correlate with increased anterior chamber parameters. The parameters of the anterior chamber are apparently not associated with the male predominance of PDS and PG.

  5. Automatic Segmentation of Optic Disc in Eye Fundus Images: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Allam, Ali; Youssif, Aliaa; Ghalwash, Atef

    2015-01-01

    Optic disc detection and segmentation is one of the key elements for automatic retinal disease screening systems. The aim of this survey paper is to review, categorize and compare the optic disc detection algorithms and methodologies, giving a description of each of them, highlighting their key points and performance measures. Accordingly, this survey firstly overviews the anatomy of the eye fundus showing its main structural components along with their properties and functions. Consequently,...

  6. An eye movement based reading intervention in lexical and segmental readers with acquired dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ablinger, Irene; von Heyden, Kerstin; Vorstius, Christian; Halm, Katja; Huber, Walter; Radach, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Due to their brain damage, aphasic patients with acquired dyslexia often rely to a greater extent on lexical or segmental reading procedures. Thus, therapy intervention is mostly targeted on the more impaired reading strategy. In the present work we introduce a novel therapy approach based on real-time measurement of patients' eye movements as they attempt to read words. More specifically, an eye movement contingent technique of stepwise letter de-masking was used to support sequential reading, whereas fixation-dependent initial masking of non-central letters stimulated a lexical (parallel) reading strategy. Four lexical and four segmental readers with acquired central dyslexia received our intensive reading intervention. All participants showed remarkable improvements as evident in reduced total reading time, a reduced number of fixations per word and improved reading accuracy. Both types of intervention led to item-specific training effects in all subjects. A generalisation to untrained items was only found in segmental readers after the lexical training. Eye movement analyses were also used to compare word processing before and after therapy, indicating that all patients, with one exclusion, maintained their preferred reading strategy. However, in several cases the balance between sequential and lexical processing became less extreme, indicating a more effective individual interplay of both word processing routes.

  7. Spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens dislocation following routine annual eye examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Joshua R; Werner, Liliana; Owen, Leah; Vasavada, Shail A; Crandall, Alan

    2014-09-01

    We present the case of an 81-year-old man with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in whom spontaneous bilateral anterior partial in-the-bag intraocular lens (IOL) dislocation was diagnosed following a routine dilated examination that demonstrated only mild pseudophacodonesis with no evidence of subluxation. Uneventful cataract surgery with placement of single-piece hydrophobic acrylic posterior chamber IOLs had been performed in both eyes 7 years previously. Bilateral IOL repositioning with scleral fixation was performed to correct the dislocation. Postoperative examinations showed remarkable improvement in visual acuity and IOL stability. We hypothesize that zonular weakness secondary to PXF predisposed the patient to bilateral IOL partial dislocation. Pupil dilation in the setting of mild pseudophacodonesis at the time of routine examination may have been a precipitating factor. To our knowledge, bilateral IOL subluxation/dislocation has been described in a limited number of case reports. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Extensive molecular differences between anterior- and posterior-half-sclerotomes underlie somite polarity and spinal nerve segmentation

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    Keynes Roger J

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polarization of somite-derived sclerotomes into anterior and posterior halves underlies vertebral morphogenesis and spinal nerve segmentation. To characterize the full extent of molecular differences that underlie this polarity, we have undertaken a systematic comparison of gene expression between the two sclerotome halves in the mouse embryo. Results Several hundred genes are differentially-expressed between the two sclerotome halves, showing that a marked degree of molecular heterogeneity underpins the development of somite polarity. Conclusion We have identified a set of genes that warrant further investigation as regulators of somite polarity and vertebral morphogenesis, as well as repellents of spinal axon growth. Moreover the results indicate that, unlike the posterior half-sclerotome, the central region of the anterior-half-sclerotome does not contribute bone and cartilage to the vertebral column, being associated instead with the development of the segmented spinal nerves.

  9. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction for correction of maxillary hypoplasia and dental crowding in cleft palate patients: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-X; Wang, X; Li, Z-L; Yi, B; Liang, C; Jia, Y-L; Zou, B-S

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) to correct maxillary hypoplasia and severe dental crowding in cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients, 7 patients (average age 16.4 years) with maxillary hypoplasia, shortened maxillary dental arch length and severe anterior dental crowding secondary to CLP were selected for this study. After anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy, 3 patients were treated using bilateral internal distraction devices, and 4 patients were treated using rigid external distraction devices. Photographs and radiographs were taken to review the improvement in facial profile and occlusion after distraction. An average 10.25 mm anterior maxillary advancement was obtained in all patients after 10-23 days of distraction and 9-16 weeks of consolidation. The sella-nasion-point A (SNA) angle increased from 69.5 degrees to 79.6 degrees. Midface convexity was greatly improved and velopharyngeal competence was preserved. The maxillary dental arch length was greatly increased by 10.1 mm (P<0.01). Dental crowding and malocclusion were corrected by orthodontic treatment. These results show that AMSD can effectively correct the hypoplastic maxilla and severe dental crowding associated with CLP by increasing the midface convexity and dental arch length while preserving velopharyngeal function, and dental crowding can be corrected without requiring tooth extraction.

  10. Sagittal Alignment As a Predictor of Clinical Adjacent Segment Pathology requiring Surgery after Anterior Cervical Arthrodesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Moon Soo; Kelly, Michael P.; Lee, Dong-Ho; Min, Woo-Kie; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND CONTEXT Postoperative malalignment of the cervical spine may alter cervical spine mechanics, and put patients at risk for clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery. PURPOSE To investigate whether a relationship exists between cervical spine sagittal alignment and clinical adjacent segment pathology requiring surgery (CASP-S) following anterior cervical fusion (ACF). STUDY DESIGN Retrospective matched study. PATIENT SAMPLE One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 2 year follow-up. OUTCOME MEASURES Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. METHODS One hundred twenty two patients undergoing ACF from 1996 to 2008 were identified, with a minimum of 1 year follow-up. Patients were divided into groups according to the development of CASP requiring surgery (Control / CASP-S) and by number/location of levels fused. Radiographs were reviewed to measure the sagittal alignment using C2 and C7 sagittal plumb lines, distance from the fusion mass plumb line to the C2 and C7 plumb lines, the alignment of the fusion mass, caudally adjacent disc angle, the sagittal slope angle of the superior endplate of the vertebra caudally adjacent to the fusion mass, T1 sagittal angle, overall cervical sagittal alignment, and curve patterns by Katsuura classification. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to calculate relationships between the variables and the development of CASP-S. No funds were received in support of this work. No benefits in any form have been or will be received from a commercial party related

  11. Evaluation of anterior chamber angle under dark and light conditions in angle closure glaucoma: An anterior segment OCT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoodi, Habibeh; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Esmaeili, Alireza; Abolbashari, Fereshteh; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate changes of nasal and temporal anterior chamber angle (ACA) in subjects with angle closure glaucoma using Spectralis AS-OCT (SAS-OCT) under dark and light conditions. Based on dark-room gonioscopy, 24 subjects with open angles and 86 with narrow angles participated in this study. The nasal and temporal angle opening distance at 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), nasal and temporal ACA were measured using SAS-OCT in light and dark conditions. In 2 groups, ACA and AOD500 in nasal and temporal quadrants were significantly greater in light compared to dark (all with p=0.000). The AOD500 and ACA were significantly higher in nasal than temporal in measured conditions for 2 groups except the ACA and AOD500 of normal group measured in light. The difference between nasal and temporal in dark (29.07 ± 65.71 μm for AOD500 and 5.7 ± 4.07° for ACA) was greater than light (24.86 ± 79.85 μm for AOD500 and 2.09 ± 7.21° for ACA) condition. But the difference was only significant for ACA (p=0.000). The correlation analysis showed a negative correlation between AOD500 and pupil diameter in temporal and nasal quadrants (both with p=0.000). While temporal AOD500 difference correlated with spherical equivalent, temporal and asal gonioscopy, nasal AOD correlated with IOP, temporal and nasal gonioscopy. Clinically important changes in ACA structure could be detected with SAS-OCT in nasal and temporal quadrants under different illumination intensity. The results could help in improvement of examination condition for better and more accurate assessment of individuals with angle closure glaucoma. Copyright © 2014 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Cornea and anterior eye assessment with placido-disc keratoscopy, slit scanning evaluation topography and scheimpflug imaging tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Raul

    2018-03-01

    Current corneal assessment technologies make the process of corneal evaluation extremely fast and simple and several devices and technologies allow to explore and to manage patients. The purpose of this special issue is to present and also to update in the evaluation of cornea and ocular surface and this second part, reviews a description of the corneal topography and tomography techniques, providing updated information of the clinical recommendations of these techniques in eye care practice. Placido-based topographers started an exciting anterior corneal surface analysis that allows the development of current corneal tomographers that provide a full three-dimensional reconstruction of the cornea including elevation, curvature, and pachymetry data of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces. Although, there is not an accepted reference standard technology for corneal topography description and it is not possible to determine which device produces the most accurate topographic measurements, placido-based topographers are a valuable technology to be used in primary eye care and corneal tomograhers expanding the possibilities to explore cornea and anterior eye facilitating diagnosis and follow-up in several situations, raising patient follow-up, and improving the knowledge regarding to the corneal anatomy. Main disadvantages of placido-based topographers include the absence of information about the posterior corneal surface and limited corneal surface coverage without data from the para-central and/or peripheral corneal surface. However, corneal tomographers show repeatable anterior and posterior corneal surfaces measurements, providing full corneal thickness data improving cornea, and anterior surface assessment. However, differences between devices suggest that they are not interchangeable in clinical practice.

  13. Effect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with CataractEffect of Anterior Chamber Depth on Intraocular Pressure after Uneventful Phacoemulsification Surgery in Nonglaucomatous Eyes with Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tansu Gönen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of preoperative anterior chamber depth (ACD on intraocular pressure (IOP after uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation in nonglaucomatous eyes. Material and Method: The medical records of fifty-five patients (30 male and 25 female were reviewed retrospectively. The patients who had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and IOL implantation were divided into two groups according to the values of preoperative ACD: 30 eyes in group 1 (ACD≤3.27 mm and 25 eyes in group 2 (ACD>3.27 mm. IOP was measured using non-contact tonometer preoperatively and postoperatively (1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months. Results: Three months after phacoemulsification and IOL implantation, the mean IOP decreased 23.6% in group 1 and 13.7% in group 2. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p= 0.025. Discussion: The mean IOP decreases in eyes with shallow anterior chamber more than in normal eyes after uncomplicated phacoemulsification and IOL implantation. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 207-12

  14. Adjacent segment pathology following anterior decompression and fusion using cage and plate for the treatment of degenerative cervical spinal diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung-Jin; Choi, Byung-Wan; Kim, Jong-Kil

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study. To analyze the incidence and prevalence of clinical adjacent segment pathology (CASP) following anterior decompression and fusion with cage and plate augmentation for degenerative cervical diseases. No long-term data on the use of cage and plate augmentation have been reported. The study population consisted of 231 patients who underwent anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) with cage and plate for degenerative cervical spinal disease. The incidence and prevalence of CASP was determined by using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. To analyze the factors that influence CASP, data on preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment, spinal canal diameter, the distance between the plate and adjacent disc, extent of fusion level, and the presence or absence of adjacent segment degenerative changes by imaging studies were evaluated. CASP occurred in 15 of the cases, of which 9 required additional surgery. At 8-year follow-up, the average yearly incidence was 1.1%. The rate of disease-free survival based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was 93.6% at 5 years and 90.2% at 8 years. No statistically significant differences in CASP incidence based on radiological analysis were observed. Significantly high incidence of CASP was observed in the presence of increased adjacent segment degenerative changes (pdegenerative cervical disease is associated with a lower incidence in CSAP by 1.1% per year, and the extent of preoperative adjacent segment degenerative changes has been shown as a risk factor for CASP.

  15. Drugs - Do we need them? Applications of non-pharmaceutical therapy in anterior eye disease: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Priyanka; Khan, Mohammad A; Shah, Sunil

    2017-12-01

    Natural products have been in use long before the introduction of modern drug therapies and are still used in various communities worldwide for the treatment of anterior eye disease. The aim of this review is to look at the current non-pharmaceutical modalities that have been tried and assess the body of existing evidence behind them. This includes alternative medicine, existing non-pharmaceutical therapy and more recent low and high tech solutions. A detailed search of all available databases including MEDLINE, Pubmed and Google was made to look for English-language studies for complementary and alternative treatment modalities (CAM), natural therapies and new modalities for anterior eye disease such as blepharitis, dry eye and microbial keratitis. We have included a broad discussion ranging from traditional treatments like honey and aloe vera which have been used for centuries, to the more recent technological advances like Intense Pulsed Light (IPL), LipiFlow and photoactivated chromophore for corneal cross linking in infectious keratitis (PACK-CXL). Alternative management strategies may have a role in anterior eye diseases and have a potential in changing the way we currently approach them. Some of the available CAM could play a role if incorporated in to current management practices of not only chronic diseases like blepharitis and dry eye, but also acute conditions with significant morbidity like microbial keratitis. Further large-scale randomized control trials stratified by disease severity are required to improve our understanding and to evaluate the use of non-pharmaceutical therapy against current practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Comparison of Central Corneal Thickness Measured by Standard Ultrasound Pachymetry, Corneal Topography, Tono-Pachymetry and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, Javier; Queiruga Piñeiro, Juan; Sánchez García, Ángelx; González Méijome, José Manuel

    2018-04-10

    To compare central corneal thickness (CCT) measured by standard ultrasound pachymetry (USP), and three non-contact devices in healthy eyes. A cross-sectional study of CCT measurement in 52 eyes of 52 healthy volunteers was done by a single examiner at Ocular Surface and Contact Lens Laboratory. Three consecutive measurements were done by standard USP, non-contact tono-pachymeter, Pentacam corneal topographer, and Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT). The mean values were used for assessment. The results were compared using multivariate ANOVA, linear regression, and Pearson correlation. Agreement among the devices was analyzed using mean differences and Bland-Altman analysis with 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Finally, reliability was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Mean CCT by ultrasound pachymeter, tono-pachymeter, corneal topographer and AS-OCT were 558.9 ± 31.2 µm, 525.8 ± 43.1 µm, 550.4 ± 30.5 µm, and 545.9 ± 30.5 µm respectively. There was a significant positive correlation between AS-OCT and USP (Pearson correlation = 0.957, p device, and USP. Mean CCT among USP, Pentacam and AS-OCT were comparable and had significant linear correlations. In clinical practice, these three modalities could be interchangeable in healthy patients.

  17. Anterior segment dysgenesis associated with Williams-Beuren syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorova, Margarita G; Grieshaber, Matthias C; Cámara, Rafael J A; Miny, Peter; Palmowski-Wolfe, Anja M

    2014-05-21

    Williams-Beuren syndrome is characterized by mild mental retardation, specific neurocognitive profile, hypercalcemia during infancy, distinctive facial features and cardiovascular diseases. We report on complete ophthalmologic, sonographic and genetic evaluation of a girl with a clinical phenotype of Williams-Beuren syndrome, associated with unilateral anterior segment dysgenesis and bilateral cleft of the soft and hard palate. These phenotypic features have not been linked to the haploinsufficiency of genes involved in the microdeletion. A term born girl presented at the initial examination with clouding of the right cornea. On ultrasound biomicroscopy the anterior chamber structures were difficult to differentiate, showing severe adhesions from the opacified cornea to the iris with a kerato-irido-lenticular contact to the remnant lens, a finding consistent with Peters' anomaly. Genetic analyses including FISH confirmed a loss of the critical region 7q11.23, usually associated with the typical Williams-Beuren syndrome. Microsatellite analysis showed a loss of about 2.36 Mb. A diagnosis of Williams-Beuren syndrome was made based on the microdeletion of 7q11.23. The unique features, including unilateral microphthalmia and anterior segment dysgenesis, were unlikely to be caused by the microdeletion. Arguments in favor of the latter are unilateral manifestation, as well as the fact that numerous patients with deletions of comparable or microscopically visible size have not shown similar manifestations.

  18. Anterior dislocation of an empty capsular bag in a pseudophakic eye: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Bin Hwang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intraocular lens (IOL dislocation is uncommon in the absence of any ocular areas with zonular weakness or trauma. There have been no reports of spontaneous capsular bag dislocation into the anterior chamber without an IOL. We report a rare, interesting case of spontaneous capsular bag anterior dislocation, without an IOL, into the anterior chamber with no history of genetic disease, ocular trauma, or pseudoexfoliation that might predispose to a zonular abnormality.

  19. Tooth-borne distraction of the lower anterior subapical segment for correction of class II malocclusion, subsequent to genioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Nobuo; Yamaguchi, Hiro-o; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Totsuka, Yasunori

    2011-09-01

    Alveolar distraction is mainly used to increase height and width of the alveolar crest. This technique, however, is not typically used for lengthening the perimeter of the dental arch or improving teeth axes. We applied alveolar distraction in a tooth-borne manner in the second stage of our original method and obtained favorable results. We therefore present an outline of this method. Genioplasty was first performed to create an infrastructure for sequential advancement of the subapical alveolar segment. After bone union, anterior subapical alveolar osteotomy was performed. The stump of the osteotomized dentate segment was moved forward without changing the incisal edge position, and a box-type bioabsorbable plate with four holes was fixed only onto the dentate segment using two screws. After a latency period, two distraction devices were placed bilaterally to the brackets and activated at 1.0 mm/day. After reaching the desired position, the distractor was immobilized, and then replaced by resin temporary teeth to retain the created space. After the consolidation period, orthodontic treatment was restarted and teeth moved into the newly created space. Bimaxillary surgery was performed after completing pre-surgical orthodontic treatment. Finally, both desirable occlusion and functional masticatory function were obtained. This tooth-borne distraction system is one applicable method for patients with skeletal class II and crowding of lower anterior teeth, achieving good results particularly in combination with our original method.

  20. Commercial Slit-Lamp Anterior Segment Photography versus Digital Compact Camera Mounted on a Standard Slit-Lamp with an Adapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliphant, Huw; Kennedy, Alasdair; Comyn, Oliver; Spalton, David J; Nanavaty, Mayank A

    2018-06-16

    To compare slit lamp mounted cameras (SLC) versus digital compact camera (DCC) with slit-lamp adaptor when used by an inexperienced technician. In this cross sectional study, where posterior capsule opacification (PCO) was used as a comparator, patients were consented for one photograph with SLC and two with DCC (DCC1 and DCC2), with a slit-lamp adaptor. An inexperienced clinic technician, who took all the photographs and masked the images, recruited one eye of each patient. Images were graded for PCO using ECPO2000 software by two independent masked graders. Repeatability between DCC1 & DCC2 and limits-of-agreement between SLC and DCC1 mounted on slit-lamp with an adaptor were assessed. Coefficient-of-repeatability and Bland-Altmann plots were analyzed. Seventy-two patients (eyes) were recruited in the study. First 9 patients (eyes) were excluded due to unsatisfactory image quality from both the systems. Mean EPCO score for SLC was 2.28 (95% CI: 2.09 -2.45), for DCC1 was 2.28 (95% CI: 2.11-2.45), and for the DCC2 was 2.11 (95% CI: 2.11-2.45). There was no significant difference in EPCO scores between SLC Vs. DCC1 (p = 0.98) and between DCC1 and DCC 2 (p = 0.97). Coefficient of repeatability between DCC images was 0.42, and the coefficient of repeatability between DCC and SLC was 0.58. DCC on slit-lamp with an adaptor is comparable to a SLC. There is an initial learning curve, which is similar for both for an inexperienced person. This opens up the possibility for low cost anterior segment imaging in the clinical, research and teaching settings.

  1. Evaluation of the Safety and Tolerability of Conjunctival Ring for Posterior Segment of the Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Satoshi; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Noda, Kousuke; Murata, Miyuki; Yasueda, Shin-Ichi; Obata, Haruka; Matsunaga, Toru; Fukushima, Tsutomu; Kanda, Atsuhiro; Ishida, Susumu

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of conjunctival rings (CRs), a novel device for drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye. In animal studies, CRs containing 5% dexamethasone sodium phosphate (DSP) or vehicle solution were placed on the right and left eyes of C57BL/6J mice, respectively. Contact lenses (CLs) containing vehicle solution were used as a control. Twenty-four hours after placement of the CRs, corneal fluorescein staining was graded based on the McDonald-Shadduck scoring system, ranging from 0 to 4. In humans, CRs containing vehicle solution were placed on the right eye of healthy volunteers for 9 hours. The corneal curvature, corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, visual acuity, tear production (Schirmer I test), tear film break-up time and fluorescein staining scores of the cornea (scores ranging from 0 to 3) and conjunctiva (scores ranging from 0 to 6) were assessed before and after wearing the CRs. The release characteristics of DSP from CRs were also evaluated. In animal experiments, corneal fluorescein staining scores were 1 or less in all the groups, and there was no significant difference between the CR group and the CL group. In the preclinical safety evaluation of CR for humans, ophthalmic examination revealed that CR caused no significant changes in all the parameters investigated including corneal curvature (p = 0.77), corneal thickness (p = 0.96), intraocular pressure (p = 0.59), visual acuity (p = 0.14), Schirmer I test results (p = 0.76), tear film break-up time (p = 0.68), corneal fluorescein staining scores (p = 0.64), and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores (p = 0.52). The DSP release from CRs occurs within a few hours, which is similar to the drug-release property of medicated CL, as reported previously. The current data showed the safety and tolerability of CR as a drug delivery device for the treatment of posterior segment diseases.

  2. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

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    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    with secondary anterior segment alterations. Data collected from the charts were: age, gender, kind of allergy, time of disease, time that complication appeared after treatment in our Service, side effects and ocular complications. RESULTS: Complications of anterior segment that caused reduction in visual acuity were: shield ulcers, 5 cases; cataract, 3 cases; corneal opacity, 6 cases; ocular perforation, 2 cases and keratoconus 13 cases. There were 7 surgeries: 2 tectonic penetrating keratoplasty, 4 optic keratoplasty, 4 optic penetrating keratoplasty and one superficial keratectomy. CONCLUSION: Patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis should be treated in order to prevent ocular complications like keratitis, keratoconus, opacities and cataract.

  3. Comparison of immersion ultrasonography, ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of traumatic phacoceles

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    Harikrishna Vodapalli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Blunt ocular trauma in the elderly can result in anterior dislocation of the crystalline lens into the subconjunctival space (phacocele. Although rare, this presentation can be missed, especially if the patient presents several days after the injury and if the lid is not everted on examination. While a careful clinical examination is adequate in the diagnosis, imaging techniques can be put to use for the accurate location of the associated sclera rupture. We report three cases of post-traumatic phacocele wherein ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM was compared to the anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and B-scan ultrasonography (B-scan, in order to establish the best imaging tool for this condition. We concluded, based on image quality, that UBM could be the imaging modality of choice to aid in the diagnosis of phacocele.

  4. Low QRS Voltage on Presenting Electrocardiogram Predicts Multi-vessel Disease in Anterior ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Akihiro; Misumida, Naoki; Aoi, Shunsuke; Kanei, Yumiko

    Low QRS voltage was reported to predict adverse outcomes in acute myocardial infarction in the pre-thrombolytic era. However, the association between low voltage and angiographic findings has not been fully addressed. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Low QRS voltage was defined as either peak to peak QRS complex voltage voltage. Patients with low voltage had a higher rate of multi-vessel disease (MVD) (76% vs. 52%, p=0.01). Patients with low voltage were more likely to undergo coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during admission (11% vs. 2%, p=0.028). Low voltage was an independent predictor for MVD (OR 2.50; 95% CI 1.12 to 6.03; p=0.032). Low QRS voltage was associated with MVD and in-hospital CABG in anterior STEMI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Word segmentation by alternating colors facilitates eye guidance in Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Wang, Aiping; Shu, Hua; Kliegl, Reinhold; Yan, Ming

    2018-02-12

    During sentence reading, low spatial frequency information afforded by spaces between words is the primary factor for eye guidance in spaced writing systems, whereas saccade generation for unspaced writing systems is less clear and under debate. In the present study, we investigated whether word-boundary information, provided by alternating colors (consistent or inconsistent with word-boundary information) influences saccade-target selection in Chinese. In Experiment 1, as compared to a baseline (i.e., uniform color) condition, word segmentation with alternating color shifted fixation location towards the center of words. In contrast, incorrect word segmentation shifted fixation location towards the beginning of words. In Experiment 2, we used a gaze-contingent paradigm to restrict the color manipulation only to the upcoming parafoveal words and replicated the results, including fixation location effects, as observed in Experiment 1. These results indicate that Chinese readers are capable of making use of parafoveal word-boundary knowledge for saccade generation, even if such information is unfamiliar to them. The present study provides novel support for the hypothesis that word segmentation is involved in the decision about where to fixate next during Chinese reading.

  6. Recurrent progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome following a descemet-stripping endothelial keratoplasty in an infant with congenital aniridia

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    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive anterior segment fibrosis syndrome (ASFS, after intraocular surgery in older children (≥9 years and adults with congenital aniridia, is described in the literature. In this report, we describe an unique case of ASFS in an infant with congenital aniridia following a combined trabeculotomy-ectomy and its recurrence after a descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty. The ophthalmologists should be well aware of this entity and warn the parents about its possibilities. Use of immunomodulators or prolonged anti-inflammatory therapy may be considered to prevent its occurrence.

  7. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimated "risk region" during acute anterior myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hellemond, Irene E. G.; Bouwmeester, Sjoerd; Olson, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    a falsely low estimated total MaR if determined by using ST segment-based methods. The purpose of this study was to investigate if consideration of the abnormalities in the QRS complex, in addition to those in the ST segment, provides a more accurate estimated total MaR during anterior AMI than...

  8. Autoradiographic demonstration of glucocorticoid receptors in the intermediate lobe of the rat pituitary transplanted to the anterior eye chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, H.J.; Schnabel, C.; Lausch, A.

    1989-01-01

    The neurointermediate lobe of adult male Wistar rats was syngeneic transplanted to the anterior eye chamber. The recipient rats were adrenalectomized 19 days after grafting and injected with (3H)corticosterone 5 days later. After a survival time of 60 min, autoradiograms were prepared by thaw-mount technique and quantitatively evaluated by silver grain counting. Beside the classical targets, anterior pituitary and hippocampal stratum pyramidale, the intraocular transplants showed a nuclear accumulation of radioactivity. This was abolished in rats treated for competition with an excess of unlabelled corticosterone prior to tracer application. No such receptor binding was found in the normotopic intermediate lobe and in the diaphragm studied as a non-target reference. Thus, this study confirmed that the glucocorticoid receptor gene is expressed of the tissue is grafted into an ectopic site. (author)

  9. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach

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    Jeroni Nadal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p=0.015 at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60. Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%, vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%, transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%, and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%. No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  10. Scleral Fixation of Posteriorly Dislocated Intraocular Lenses by 23-Gauge Vitrectomy without Anterior Segment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Jeroni; Kudsieh, Bachar; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P

    2015-01-01

    Background. To evaluate visual outcomes, corneal changes, intraocular lens (IOL) stability, and complications after repositioning posteriorly dislocated IOLs and sulcus fixation with polyester sutures. Design. Prospective consecutive case series. Setting. Institut Universitari Barraquer. Participants. 25 eyes of 25 patients with posteriorly dislocated IOL. Methods. The patients underwent 23-gauge vitrectomy via the sulcus to rescue dislocated IOLs and fix them to the scleral wall with a previously looped nonabsorbable polyester suture. Main Outcome Measures. Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) LogMAR, corneal astigmatism, endothelial cell count, IOL stability, and postoperative complications. Results. Mean follow-up time was 18.8 ± 10.9 months. Mean surgery time was 33 ± 2 minutes. Mean BCVA improved from 0.30 ± 0.48 before surgery to 0.18 ± 0.60 (p = 0.015) at 1 month, which persisted to 12 months (0.18 ± 0.60). Neither corneal astigmatism nor endothelial cell count showed alterations 1 year after surgery. Complications included IOL subluxation in 1 eye (4%), vitreous hemorrhage in 2 eyes (8%), transient hypotony in 2 eyes (8%), and cystic macular edema in 1 eye (4%). No patients presented retinal detachment. Conclusion. This surgical technique proved successful in the management of dislocated IOL. Functional results were good and the complications were easily resolved.

  11. The effect of pharmacologic pupillary dilatation on anterior segment parameters in patients with exfoliation syndrome

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    Mehmet Cem Mocan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Pupillary dilatation with a single drop of 1.0% cyclopentolate, 2.5% phenylephrine or 1% tropicamide is not associated with shallowing of the anterior chamber or narrowing of the ACA in patients with XFS who present with open angles.

  12. Early Clinical Features of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Anterior Segment and Gonioscopy Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gür Güngör, Sirel; Bayer, Atilla; Akman, Ahmet; Asena, Leyla

    2017-01-01

    To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years). Twenty-five patients (73.5%) had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6%) had Sampaolesi's line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes. The other most common findings were loss of peripupillary ruff in 10 patients (29.4%) and pigment dispersion following pupil dilation in 14 patients (41.1%). Pigmentation in the inferior angle and Sampaolesi's line on the inferior angle seem to be the most common early findings associated with PEX. Special attention should be paid to these findings in cases with ocular hypertension for proper management.

  13. Control of anterior segment using an antero-posterior lingual sliding retraction system: a preliminary cone-beam CT study

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    Min Hwang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was performed to evaluate the treatment effects of the antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR, focusing on the 3-dimensional (3D tooth movement of the maxillary anterior teeth and their alveolar bone levels. Methods En masse retraction was performed using either the C-lingual retractor (CLR, C-group, n = 9 or the antero-posterior lingual retractor (APLR, AP-group, n = 8. We evaluated 3D movement of the maxillary anterior teeth and alveolar bone levels, root length of the central incisors, long axes of the maxillary canines, and occlusal plane changes from CBCT images. Results After retraction, the central incisors were more significantly intruded and their root apex was more retracted in the AP-group. The long axis of the canine was well maintained in the AP-group. There were no differences in the steepness of occlusal plane and the incidence of alveolar bone loss or of root resorption during en masse retraction with the two retractors. Conclusions The clockwise bowing effect of the anterior segment was less with the APLR, which prevented unwanted canine movement.

  14. Four-year Follow-up of the Changes in Anterior Segment After Phakic Collamer Lens Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yuanyuan; Yang, Na; Li, Xuedong; Kong, Jun

    2017-06-01

    To assess the changes and relationship in central vaulting, flare intensity, and crystalline lens thickness during a follow-up period of 4 years after implantable collamer lens (ICL) implantation in eyes with high myopia. Retrospective observational study. Ninety-eight eyes of 50 patients were followed up with routine measurements of central vaulting, crystalline lens thickness, endothelial cell density, and aqueous flare postoperatively. Data were analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. The relationship between the annual change in crystal lens thickness after surgery and age was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression. There was a continuous reduction in central vaulting and endothelial cell density as well as an increase in crystalline lens thickness in ICL eyes from 1 month onward to 5 years postoperatively (P lens thickness (r = 0.617, P lens thickness are more prominent during the first year after ICL implantation, tending to be relatively stable afterwards. The anterior inflammation during the early postoperative period synchronizes with the sharp progression of crystalline lens changes within the first year. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Anterior segment dysgenesis (Peters' anomaly) in two snow leopard (Panthera uncia) cubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamoudi, Hassan; Rudnick, Jens-Christian; Prause, Jan Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    remnant of the hyaloid artery. The male had hydrocephalus and thus some of the features of Peters' plus syndrome (Peters' anomaly in addition to systemic malformations). The histological findings in the eyes of these snow leopard siblings are identical with those described in humans with Peters' anomaly....

  16. Anterior Overgrowth in Primary Curves, Compensatory Curves and Junctional Segments in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlösser, Tom P C; van Stralen, M; Chu, Winnie C W; Lam, Tsz-Ping; Ng, Bobby K W; Vincken, Koen L; Cheng, Jack C Y; Castelein, RM

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Although much attention has been given to the global three-dimensional aspect of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the accurate three-dimensional morphology of the primary and compensatory curves, as well as the intervening junctional segments, in the scoliotic spine has not been

  17. Early Clinical Features of Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome in Anterior Segment and Gonioscopy Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirel Gür Güngör

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the early signs of pseudoexfoliation (PEX in fellow eyes of cases with unilateral PEX. Materials and Methods: Fellow eyes of 34 cases with unilateral PEX were evaluated by slit-lamp and gonioscopy. Findings associated with PEX were recorded. Results: Mean age was 67.8±8.1 years (range 55-86 years. Twenty-five patients (73.5% had pigmentation in the inferior angle and 23 patients (67.6% had Sampaolesi’s line located on the inferior angle in fellow eyes. The other most common findings were loss of peripupillary ruff in 10 patients (29.4% and pigment dispersion following pupil dilation in 14 patients (41.1%. Conclusion: Pigmentation in the inferior angle and Sampaolesi’s line on the inferior angle seem to be the most common early findings associated with PEX. Special attention should be paid to these findings in cases with ocular hypertension for proper management.

  18. Structural changes of macula and optic disk of the fellow eye in patients with nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duman, R; Yavas, G F; Veliyev, I; Dogan, M; Duman, R

    2018-05-10

    The aim was to assess the ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness, retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and optic disk features in the affected eyes (AE) and unaffected fellow eyes (FE) of subjects with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and to compare with healthy control eyes (CE) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). This study included 28 patients and age, sex and refraction-matched 28 control subjects. Mean GCC thickness and peripapillary RNFL thickness in four quadrants measured by cirrus SD-OCT were evaluated in both AE and FE of patients and CE. In addition, optic disk measurements obtained with OCT were evaluated. Mean GCC thickness was significantly lower in AE compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk cupping compared with both FE and CE (P optic disk features between the CE and FE. And significantly greater optic disk cupping in the AE compared with both FE and CE supports the acquired enlargement of cupping after the onset of NAION.

  19. A Clinical Assessment of Corticotomy Facilitated Orthodontics in the Retraction of Maxillary Anterior Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chagam Manjunatha Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticotomy facilitated orthodontics has been practising for longer periods, but a novel approach of a periapical incision to make horizontal cuts 5 mm above the apex of the maxillary anteriors along with vertical cuts requires a detailed investigation. The purpose of this study was to assess the outcome of skeletal cases with spacing in the anteriors using a novel method of modified surgical approach utilizing the corticotomy facilitated orthodontics. Patients for this study were randomly selected from a very intensive screening in the Department of Orthodontics, Saveetha Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, out of which seven patients were selected for this procedure. The patients were subjected for corticotomy procedure under local anesthesia after the leveling and aligning stage (0.019" × 0.025" stainless steel wire, and the retraction was continued still the space was closed. AutoCAD and palatal rugae assessment programs were used to assess the orthodontic tooth movement. The results of the study demonstrated that when compared to conventional orthodontics alone, the corticotomy facilitated approach produced faster tooth movements in all the seven patients reducing the overall treatment time by 60%. The use of this modified technique of labial, palatal and apical cuts could be beneficial for adult patients with difficult surgical access from the lingual side.

  20. Transforaminal Anterior Release for the Treatment of Fixed Sagittal Imbalance and Segmental Kyphosis, Minimum 2-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Fred A; Sweet, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Retrospective review of prospectively accrued patient cohort. To report minimum 2 years' follow-up after a single-surgeon series of 47 consecutive patients in whom fixed sagittal imbalance or segmental kyphosis was treated with a novel unilateral transforaminal annular release. Fixed sagittal imbalance has been treated most recently with pedicle subtraction osteotomy with great success but is associated with significant blood loss and neurologic risk. Forty-seven consecutive patients with fixed sagittal imbalance (n = 29) or segmental kyphosis (n = 18) were treated by a single surgeon with a single-level transforaminal anterior release (TFAR) to effect an opening wedge correction. Sagittal and coronal correction was performed with in situ rod contouring. An interbody cage was captured in the disc space with rod compression. Radiographic and clinical outcome analysis was performed with a minimum 2-year follow-up (range 2-7.8 years). The average increase in lordosis was 36° (range 24°-56°) in the fixed sagittal deformity group. Coronal corrections averaged 34° (range 18°-48°). The average improvement in plumb line was 13.6 cm. There were four pseudarthroses, one at the TFAR. Average blood loss was 578 mL (range 200-1,200). One patient had a transient grade 4/5 anterior tibialis weakness. There were no vascular injuries or permanent neurologic deficits. There were significant improvements in the Oswestry Disability Index (p imbalance with relatively low blood loss and was found to be neurologically safe in this single-surgeon series. Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series, no control group). Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sporadic lower motor neuron disease with a snake eyes appearance on the cervical anterior horns by MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shoichi

    2015-09-01

    Lower motor neuron disease (LMND) is the term generally used to describe diseases in which only lower motor neuron signs are detected. A snake eyes appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is associated with a wide spectrum of neurological conditions including LMND. The author reports on three unique LMND patients with upper limb muscle weakness and atrophy who show a snake eyes appearance by MRI. The patients were aged 18, 40 and 52 years, respectively, at the onset of the disease and had a longstanding clinical course (more than 10 years for two patients and 8 years for one patient). They were followed up for more than 6 years. Clinical manifestations were characterized by (1) longstanding slow progression or delayed spontaneous arrest of asymmetric lower motor neuron signs localized exclusively in the upper extremities with unilateral predominance and distal or proximal preponderance; (2) the absence of upper motor neuron signs, bulbar signs, sensory disturbances and respiratory involvement; (3) a snake eyes appearance on the anterior horns of the cervical cord over more than 3 vertebrae by axial T2-weighted MRI and a longitudinal linear-shaped T2-signal hyperintensity by sagittal MRI; (4) neurogenic change with fasciculation and denervation potentials (fibrillation and a positive sharp wave) confined to the affected muscles by needle electromyogram; and (5) normal cerebrospinal fluid and a normal creatine kinase level. These cases did not fall into any existing category of LMND, such as progressive muscular atrophy, flail arm syndrome or Hirayama disease. These patients should be classified as sporadic LMND with snake eyes on MRI with a relatively benign prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Developing an in situ nanosuspension: a novel approach towards the efficient administration of poorly soluble drugs at the anterior eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschmann, Christoph; Tessmar, Joerg; Schoeberl, Simon; Strauss, Olaf; Framme, Carsten; Luschmann, Karl; Goepferich, Achim

    2013-11-20

    With about 50-60 million cases in the US alone, dry eye disease represents a severe health care problem. Cyclosporin A (CsA) would be a potent candidate for a causal therapy. However, CsA is not sufficiently water soluble to be administrated via simple eye drops. We developed an in situ nanosuspension (INS) as a novel approach towards the administration of CsA to the cornea. It precipitates upon contact with the tear fluid and creates CsA nanoparticles that enter the cornea and release the drug by dissolution. We selected two liquid poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) that dissolve CsA and create nanoparticles by precipitation of CsA upon water contact. Aqueous solutions of PEG and Solutol, a non-ionic surfactant, were well tolerated by primary human epithelial cells in vitro. To determine the critical water content needed for a precipitation, the solubility of CsA was investigated in quaternary systems of drug, solvent, surfactant and water. The best INS formulation showed a particle size of 505 ± 5 nm, a polydispersity index (PdI) of 0.23 ± 0.03 and a neutral zeta potential of -0.07 ± 0.05 mV. After single administration to porcine eyes in vitro, 3165 ± 597 ng(CsA)/g(cornea) were detected in corneal tissue, while the levels of Restasis a commercial formulation were, with 545 ± 137 ng(CsA)/g(cornea), significantly lower (P<0.01). These results demonstrate that an INS is a promising, novel approach towards the causal treatment of inflammatory diseases at the anterior eye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The change of adjacent segment after cervical disc arthroplasty compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Liang; Xu, Zhengwei; Chen, Xiujin; Wang, Dongqi; Li, Dichen; Liu, Tuanjing; Hao, Dingjun

    2017-10-01

    Many meta-analyses have been performed to study the efficacy of cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) compared with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF); however, there are few data referring to adjacent segment within these meta-analyses, or investigators are unable to arrive at the same conclusion in the few meta-analyses about adjacent segment. With the increased concerns surrounding adjacent segment degeneration (ASDeg) and adjacent segment disease (ASDis) after anterior cervical surgery, it is necessary to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to analyze adjacent segment parameters. To perform a comprehensive meta-analysis to elaborate adjacent segment motion, degeneration, disease, and reoperation of CDA compared with ACDF. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched for RCTs comparing CDA and ACDF before May 2016. The analysis parameters included follow-up time, operative segments, adjacent segment motion, ASDeg, ASDis, and adjacent segment reoperation. The risk of bias scale was used to assess the papers. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were used to analyze the reason for high heterogeneity. Twenty-nine RCTs fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Compared with ACDF, the rate of adjacent segment reoperation in the CDA group was significantly lower (panalysis. There was no statistically significant difference in ASDeg between CDA and ACDF within the 24-month follow-up period; however, the rate of ASDeg in CDA was significantly lower than that of ACDF with the increase in follow-up time (p.05). Cervical disc arthroplasty provided a lower adjacent segment range of motion (ROM) than did ACDF, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with ACDF, the advantages of CDA were lower ASDeg and adjacent segment reoperation. However, there was no statistically significant difference in ASDis and adjacent segment ROM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of axial length, anterior chamber depth and intraocular lens power between IOLMaster and ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Zhang, Yaqin; Zhang, Haining; Jia, Zhijie; Zhang, Suhua; Wang, Xiaogang

    2018-01-01

    To compare the axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and intraocular lens power (IOLP) of IOLMaster and Ultrasound in normal, long and short eyes. Seventy-four normal eyes (≥ 22 mm and ≤ 25 mm), 74 long eyes (> 25 mm) and 78 short eyes (devices in the order of IOLMaster followed by Ultrasound. The IOLP were calculated using a free online LADAS IOL formula calculator. The difference in AL and IOLP between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant when all three groups were combined. The difference in ACD between IOLMaster and Ultrasound was statistically significant in the normal group (Peye group (Peye group (P = 0.465). For the IOLP difference between IOLMaster and Ultrasound in the normal group, the percentage of IOLP differences eye group, they were 90.5%, 5.4%, 4.1% and 0%, respectively. For the short eye group, they were 61.5%, 23.1%, 10.3%, and 5.1%, respectively. IOLMaster and Ultrasound have statistically significant differences in AL measurements and IOLP (using LADAS formula) for normal, long eye and short eye. The two instruments agree regarding ACD measurements for the long eye group, but differ for the normal and short eye groups. Moreover, the high percentage of IOLP differences greater than |0.5|D in the short eye group is noteworthy.

  5. Plasma bilirubin values on admission and ventricular remodeling after a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Berta; Barrabés, José A; Figueras, Jaume; Pineda, Victor; Rodríguez-Palomares, José; Lidón, Rosa-Maria; Sambola, Antonia; Bañeras, Jordi; Otaegui, Imanol; García-Dorado, David

    2016-01-01

    Bilirubin may elicit cardiovascular protection and heme oxygenase-1 overexpression attenuated post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and post-infarction remodeling is unknown. In 145 patients with a first anterior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), we assessed whether plasma bilirubin on admission predicted adverse remodeling (left ventricular end-diastolic volume [LVEDV] increase ≥20% between discharge and 6 months, estimated by magnetic resonance imaging). Patients' baseline characteristics and management were comparable among bilirubin tertiles. LVEDV increased at 6 months (P bilirubin tertiles (10.8 [30.2], 10.1 [22.9], and 12.7 [24.3]%, P = 0.500). Median (25-75 percentile) bilirubin values in patients with and without adverse remodeling were 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.73 (0.60-0.92) mg/dL (P = 0.693). Absence of final TIMI flow grade 3 (odds ratio 3.92, 95% CI 1.12-13.66) and a history of hypertension (2.04, 0.93-4.50), but not admission bilirubin, were independently associated with adverse remodeling. Bilirubin also did not predict the increase in ejection fraction at 6 months. Admission bilirubin values are not related to LVEDV or ejection fraction progression after a first anterior STEMI and do not predict adverse ventricular remodeling. Key messages Bilirubin levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease, and overexpression of heme oxygenase-1 (the enzyme that determines bilirubin production) has prevented post-infarction ventricular remodeling in experimental animals, but the association between bilirubin levels and the progression of ventricular volumes and function in patients with acute myocardial infarction remained unexplored. In this cohort of patients with a first acute anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving contemporary management, bilirubin levels on admission were not predictive of the changes in left

  6. Lenticonus diagnosis in Alport's syndrome: Anterior capsule apical angle calculation using Scheimpflug imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrín, E; Jarrín, I; Arnalich-Montiel, F

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simplified method to detect anterior lenticonus. Three eyes of 2 patients with anterior lenticonus, plus 16 eyes from 16 healthy controls underwent Scheimpflug imaging of their anterior segment with Pentacam. The anterior capsule apex angle was manually identified and automatically measured by AutoCAD. The mean angle was 173.06° (SD: 1.91) in healthy subjects, and 158.33° (SD: 3.05) in anterior lenticonus eyes. The angle obtained from patients was more than 3 SD steeper than those from healthy subjects. The apical angle calculation method seems to discriminate well between normal eyes and eyes suspected of having anterior lenticonus. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of anterior segment measurements using rotating Scheimpflug imaging and partial coherence interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Fotouhi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available METHODS:As part of the first phase of Shahroud Eye Cohort Study with 5 190 subjects of 40 to 64 years of age, CCT and ACD were measured using Scheimpflug imaging with the Pentacam (Oculus, Inc., Lynnwood, WA, USA and partial coherence interferometry with the Allegro BioGraph (Wavelight, Erlangen, Germany.RESULTS:After applying exclusion criteria, we had data of 4 387 subjects with a mean age of 50.7±6.2 years. Mean CCT with Pentacam and BioGraph were 528.6±33.2μm and 525.6±32μm respectively; the difference was statistically significant (PPCONCLUSION:For both CCT and ACD, the BioGraph gave significantly lower values than the Pentacam (P<0.05. Despite the high inter-device correlation, the 95% limits of agreements were wide, and this may limit their interchangeability in measuring the CCT and ACD.

  8. Anterior maxillary segmental distraction in the treatment of severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongliang; Dai, Jiewen; Si, Jiawen; Zhang, Jianfei; Wang, Minjiao; Shen, Steve Guofang; Yu, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior maxillary segmental distraction (AMSD) is an effective surgical procedure in the treatment of maxillary hypoplasia secondary to cleft lip and palate. Its unique advantage of preserving velopharyngeal function makes this procedure widely applied. In this study, the application of AMSD was described and its long-term stability was explored. Eight patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP were included in this study. They were treated with AMSD using rigid external distraction (RED) device. Cephalometric analysis was performed twice at three time points for evaluation: before surgery (T1), after distraction (T2), and 2 years after treatment (T3). One-way analysis of variance was used to assess the differences statistically. All the distractions completed smoothly, and maxilla was distracted efficiently. The value of SNA, NA-FH, Ptm-A, U1-PP, overjet and PP (ANS-PNS) increased significantly after the AMSD procedure (P 0.05). Changes of palatopharyngeal depth and soft palatal length were insignificant. AMSD with RED device provided an effective way to correct maxillary hypoplasia secondary to CLP, extended the palatal and arch length, avoided damage on velopharyngeal closure function and reduced the relapse rate. It is a promising and valuable technique in this potentially complicated procedure.

  9. Relationship between screw sagittal angle and stress on endplate of adjacent segments after anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion with internal fixation: a Chinese finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Tang, Yibo; Shen, Hongxing

    2017-12-01

    In order to reduce the incidence of adjacent segment disease (ASD), the current study was designed to establish Chinese finite element models of normal 3rd~7th cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) with internal fixation , and analyze the influence of screw sagittal angle (SSA) on stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments. Mimics 8.1 and Abaqus/CAE 6.10 softwares were adopted to establish finite element models. For C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate, their anterior areas had the maximum stress in anteflexion position, and their posterior areas had the maximum stress in posterior extension position. As SSA increased, the stress reduced. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on anterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 12.67% and 7.99% in anteflexion position, respectively. With an increase of 10° in SSA, the stress on posterior areas of C4 superior endplate and C6 inferior endplate reduced by 9.68% and 10.22% in posterior extension position, respectively. The current study established Chinese finite element models of normal C3-C7 and ACCF with internal fixation , and demonstrated that as SSA increased, the stress on endplate of adjacent cervical segments decreased. In clinical surgery, increased SSA is able to play important role in protecting the adjacent cervical segments and reducing the incidence of ASD.

  10. Prevalence and Distribution of Segmentation Errors in Macular Ganglion Cell Analysis of Healthy Eyes Using Cirrus HD-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan A Alshareef

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency of different types of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT scan artifacts and errors in ganglion cell algorithm (GCA in healthy eyes.Infrared image, color-coded map and each of the 128 horizontal b-scans acquired in the macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer scans using the Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, CA macular cube 512 × 128 protocol in 30 healthy normal eyes were evaluated. The frequency and pattern of each artifact was determined. Deviation of the segmentation line was classified into mild (less than 10 microns, moderate (10-50 microns and severe (more than 50 microns. Each deviation, if present, was noted as upward or downward deviation. Each artifact was further described as per location on the scan and zones in the total scan area.A total of 1029 (26.8% out of total 3840 scans had scan errors. The most common scan error was segmentation error (100%, followed by degraded images (6.70%, blink artifacts (0.09% and out of register artifacts (3.3%. Misidentification of the inner retinal layers was most frequent (62%. Upward Deviation of the segmentation line (47.91% and severe deviation (40.3% were more often noted. Artifacts were mostly located in the central scan area (16.8%. The average number of scans with artifacts per eye was 34.3% and was not related to signal strength on Spearman correlation (p = 0.36.This study reveals that image artifacts and scan errors in SD-OCT GCA analysis are common and frequently involve segmentation errors. These errors may affect inner retinal thickness measurements in a clinically significant manner. Careful review of scans for artifacts is important when using this feature of SD-OCT device.

  11. Surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy combined with lensectomy for glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaotian; Zhang, Shaochong; Jiang, Xintong; Qiu, Suo; Wei, Yantao

    2016-01-04

    Glaucoma combined with an extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataracts remains as a complex condition to deal with. And the emergence of microincision vitrectomy surgery (MIVS) system may provide an ideal option for the treatment of that. We report a clinical study of surgical outcomes of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) combined with lensectomy in the treatment of glaucomatous eyes with extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract. Prospective, nonrandomized and noncomparative case series study. Consecutive patients with secondary glaucoma, extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract were recruited to have combined surgeries of 23-gauge transconjunctival pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The main outcomes were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), anterior chamber depth (ACD), number of anti-glaucoma medications and surgery-associated complications. Seventeen consecutive patients with secondary glaucoma, extremely shallow anterior chamber and cataract were recruited. The mean follow-up was 21.2 ± 8.8 months. Postoperatively, there was no significant improvement of BCVA (P = 0.25). The mean intraocular (IOP) decreased significantly from 43.14 ± 6.53 mmHg to 17.29 ± 1.80 mmHg (P shallow anterior chamber and cataract can be managed well with the combined surgeries of 23-gauge pars plana vitrectomy and lensectomy. The surgical procedure is an effective and safe method to resolve the pupillary block and deepen the anterior chamber.

  12. Pattern of Eye Diseases in Kaduna State – A rural community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Senile cataract and anterior segment eye infection were the two eye diseases most frequently seen in Giwa community. The lack of trachoma seems to indicate that the rural water supplies were relatively clean and safe. The majority of eye problems were age-related, and preventable. Objective: The aim of the study was to ...

  13. Automatic anterior chamber angle assessment for HD-OCT images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jing; Marziliano, Pina; Baskaran, Mani; Wong, Hong-Tym; Aung, Tin

    2011-11-01

    Angle-closure glaucoma is a major blinding eye disease and could be detected by measuring the anterior chamber angle in the human eyes. High-definition OCT (Cirrus HD-OCT) is an emerging noninvasive, high-speed, and high-resolution imaging modality for the anterior segment of the eye. Here, we propose a novel algorithm which automatically detects a new landmark, Schwalbe's line, and measures the anterior chamber angle in the HD-OCT images. The distortion caused by refraction is corrected by dewarping the HD-OCT images, and three biometric measurements are defined to quantitatively assess the anterior chamber angle. The proposed algorithm was tested on 40 HD-OCT images of the eye and provided accurate measurements in about 1 second.

  14. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  15. Aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery: A case report

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    Cho, Yong Seok; Kang, Mi Jin; Bae, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jin Hae; Lee, Han Bee; Kim, Jae Hyung; Jeong, Myeong Ja; Kang, Tae Kyung [Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul, (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Aberrant origins of the pulmonary artery are rare anomalies, but are being reported several times in the world literature. Among them, pulmonary artery sling is the most well known anomaly, which is the left pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery. In case of pulmonary artery sling, the left pulmonary artery causes compression of the trachea and esophagus while it courses in between. In this case, we describe a case on incidentally found aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery without any compressions of the esophagus or trachea. In the world literature, aberrant origins of the left pulmonary artery without pulmonary artery sling was reported at one time, but currently, this is the first case of aberrant origin of the upper left lobe anterior and superior lingular segmental pulmonary artery arising from the right pulmonary artery.

  16. CORNEA AND ANTERIOR SEGMENT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yet, fewer than 150,000 corneal transplant surgeries are performed annually worldwide. Corneal blindness arises from a wide variety of causes, from mechanical, chemical, and radiation injury to microbial infections and corneal degenerative diseases. The use of human cadaver donor corneas has been limited by its often.

  17. Transforaminal lumbar interbody graft placement using an articulating delivery arm facilitates increased segmental lordosis with superior anterior and midline graft placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shau, David N; Parker, Scott L; Mendenhall, Stephen K; Zuckerman, Scott L; Godil, Saniya S; Devin, Clinton J; McGirt, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a frequently performed method of lumbar arthrodesis in patients failing medical management of back and leg pain. Accurate placement of the interbody graft and restoration of lordosis has been shown to be crucial when performing lumbar fusion procedures. We performed a single-surgeon, prospective, randomized study to determine whether a novel articulating versus traditional straight graft delivery arm system allows for superior graft placement and increased lordosis for single-level TLIF. Thirty consecutive patients undergoing single-level TLIF were included and prospectively randomized to one of the 2 groups (articulated vs. straight delivery arm system). Three radiographic characteristics were evaluated at 6-week follow-up: (1) degree of segmental lumbar lordosis at the fused level; (2) the percent anterior location of the interbody graft in disk space; and (3) the distance (mm) off midline of the interbody graft placement. Randomization yielded 16 patients in the articulated delivery arm cohort and 14 in the straight delivery arm cohort. The articulating delivery arm system yielded an average of 14.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 35% anterior location, and 3.6 mm off midline. The straight delivery arm system yielded an average of 10.7-degree segmental lordosis at fused level, 46% anterior location, and 7.0 mm off midline. All 3 comparisons were statistically significant (Plordosis compared with a traditional straight delivery arm system.

  18. Sphincter-saving extrasphincteric rectal dissection and proximal segmental sphincteric excision techniques by using combined abdominal and transvaginal anterior perineal access in female patients who have lower rectal cancer (Transvaginal low anterior rectal resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naki Yücesoy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combined abdominal and transvaginal anterior perineal approaches have been used as an alternative surgical method for the surgical treatment of the lower rectal cancer. The main aim of this paper is to describe the surgical stages of the combined abdominal and transvaginal approaches performed for lower rectal cancer, especially in transvaginal anterior perineal stage. Method: We have performed sphincter-saving surgical operations by using transvaginal anterior perineal access by combining with the abdominal access in four female patients who had lower rectal cancer. Results: Sphincter-saving extrasphincteric dissection and proximal segmental sphincteric excision techniques were performed in four female patients operated with combined abdominal and transvaginal anterior perineal approach. All patients were found to have continence. Postoperatively, one patient was converted to abdominoperineal rectal amputation due to the detected distal resection margin positivity. Conclusion: Transvaginal anterior perineal access provides the extrasphincteric rectal dissection possibility in the ischioanal fossa. Therefore, the combined abdominal and transvaginal anterior perineal approaches have been based on the different anatomical and surgical features when compared to intersphincteric dissection technique which is the most common used surgical procedure in lower rectal cancer surgery. Resumo: Introdução: Uma combinação de abordagens abdominal e perineal anterior transvaginal tem sido empregada como método cirúrgico alternativo para o tratamento cirúrgico do câncer de reto baixo. O principal objetivo do presente artigo é a descrição dos estágios cirúrgicos das abordagens abdominal e transvaginal combinadas realizadas para câncer de reto baixo, especialmente no estágio perineal anterior transvaginal. Método: Realizamos operações cirúrgicas com preservação de esfíncter com o uso do acesso perineal anterior transvaginal, em

  19. Iris en sayuela signo clínico nuevo asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior: a new clinical sign associated to the anterior segment toxic syndrome Iris in underskirt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Hernández López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Presentar un nuevo signo clínico como resultado del desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris en el curso de un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior tras una cirugía de catarata. MÉTODOS: Presentamos un paciente intervenido de catarata mediante facoemulsificación con implante de lente intraocular de cámara posterior plegable, sin incidencias ni complicaciones transoperatorias. Se le realizó evaluación biomicroscópica en el posoperatorio inmediato diagnosticándosele un síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior asociado a un desprendimiento gigante del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris. Se tomaron fotos durante la evolución del paciente para documentar este raro signo clínico. RESULTADOS: Al provocar la dilatación pupilar farmacológica nos encontramos con la retracción de todas las capas anteriores del iris, mostrando por debajo al epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris sinequiado al lente intraocular y tan extensamente desprendido que simulaba un segundo iris. No encontramos este hallazgo clínico reportado en la literatura revisada. Denominamos este signo como iris en sayuela. CONCLUSIONES: El desprendimiento del epitelio pigmentado posterior del iris constituye un hallazgo clínico que puede aparecer raramente asociado al síndrome tóxico del segmento anterior y cuando es muy extenso puede presentarse de forma insólita como el signo del iris en sayuela.OBJECTIVE: To present a new clinical sign as a result of a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris in the course of at toxic anterior segment syndrome after a successful cataract surgery. METHOD: A patient who had undergone a cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with posterior chamber foldable intraocular lens implantation, without any incidence or transoperative complication. He was evaluated through biomicroscopy in the immediate postoperative period where a huge posterior pigmented epithelium detachment of the iris

  20. Segmental wall-motion analysis in the right anterior oblique projection: comparison of exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography and exercise contrast ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, T.J.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.; Brymer, J.F.; Walton, J.A.; Pitt, B.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty-nine patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease were studied at rest and during supine bicycle exercise with radionuclide and contrast left ventriculography. Analysis of regional wall motion was made by visual evaluation of the five standard 30 0 right anterior oblique (RAO) wall segments in the contrast images and the corresponding 10 0 RAO radionuclide segments. The radionuclide studies were evaluated independently by three observers using a five-point grading system. The interobserver wall-motion grading agreed completely in more than 80% of segments at rest and exercise, and agreed within one wall-motion grade in more than 95% of segments. The comparison of wall-motion grades between radionuclide and contrast ventriculograms showed complete agreement in 86% of segments at rest and in 78% during exercise, and agreement within one wall-motion grade in 97% of rest and 96% of exercise segments. Visual evaluation of 10 0 RAO rest and exercise radionuclide ventriculograms compares favorably with rest and exercise 30 0 RAO contrast ventriculograms and demonstrates satisfactory interobserver agreement

  1. Illusory bending of a rigidly moving line segment: effects of image motion and smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Lore; Todd, James T; Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2007-04-20

    Four experiments in which observers judged the apparent "rubberiness" of a line segment undergoing different types of rigid motion are reported. The results reveal that observers perceive illusory bending when the motion involves certain combinations of translational and rotational components and that the illusion is maximized when these components are presented at a frequency of approximately 3 Hz with a relative phase angle of approximately 120 degrees . Smooth pursuit eye movements can amplify or attenuate the illusion, which is consistent with other results reported in the literature that show effects of eye movements on perceived image motion. The illusion is unaffected by background motion that is in counterphase with the motion of the line segment but is significantly attenuated by background motion that is in-phase. This is consistent with the idea that human observers integrate motion signals within a local frame of reference, and it provides strong evidence that visual persistency cannot be the sole cause of the illusion as was suggested by J. R. Pomerantz (1983). An analysis of the motion patterns suggests that the illusory bending motion may be due to an inability of observers to accurately track the motions of features whose image displacements undergo rapid simultaneous changes in both space and time. A measure of these changes is presented, which is highly correlated with observers' numerical ratings of rubberiness.

  2. Short-term variation in ocular anterior chamber angle using Scheimpflug photography

    OpenAIRE

    A. Rubin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate short-term variation of ocular Anterior Chamber Angle (ACA) within and across the different meridians of young, healthy eyes. Method: Scheimpflug photography (via an  Oculus Pentacam) was used to repeatedly measure the anterior segment of the right eyes of three young females, all aged 22 years.  For each individual, ten consecutive maps were determined over a short time period and each map contained information for the chamber angles of different meridians acr...

  3. Percutaneous Stent Implantation for Treating Multivessel Coronary Disease in Patients with and without Involvement of the Proximal Segment of the Anterior Descending Coronary Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salgueiro Sandro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess coronary stent placement in patients with multivessel coronary disease and involvement of the proximal portion of the anterior descending coronary artery. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the in-hospital and late evolution of 189 patients with multivessel coronary disease, who underwent percutaneous coronary stent placement. These patients were divided into 2 groups as follows: group I (GI - 59 patients with involvement of the proximal segment of the anterior descending coronary artery; and group II (GII - 130 patients without involvement of the proximal segment of the anterior descending coronary artery. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed in the success rate of the procedure (91.5% versus 97.6%, p=0.86, nor in the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (5.1% versus 1.5%, p=0.38, nor in the occurrence of major vascular complications (1.7% versus 0%, p=0.69 in the in-hospital phase. In the late follow-up, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (15.4% versus 13.7%, p=0.73 and the need for new revascularization (13.5% versus 10.3%, p=0.71 were similar for both groups. CONCLUSION: The in-hospital and late evolution of patients with multivessel coronary disease with and without involvement of the proximal segment of the anterior descending coronary artery treated with coronary stent placement did not differ. This suggests that this revascularization method is an effective procedure and a valuable option for treating these types of patients.

  4. Comparison of peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer loss and visual outcome in fellow eyes following sequential bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotan, Gad; Kesler, Anat; Naftaliev, Elvira; Skarf, Barry

    2015-05-01

    To report on the correlation of structural damage to the axons of the optic nerve and visual outcome following bilateral non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. A retrospective review of the medical records of 25 patients with bilateral sequential non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy was performed. Outcome measures were peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness measured with the Stratus optical coherence tomography scanner, visual acuity and visual field loss. Median peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, mean deviation (MD) of visual field, and visual acuity of initially involved NAION eyes (54.00 µm, -17.77 decibels (dB), 0.4, respectively) were comparable to the same parameters measured following development of second NAION event in the other eye (53.70 µm, p = 0.740; -16.83 dB, p = 0.692; 0.4, p = 0.942, respectively). In patients with bilateral NAION, there was a significant correlation of peripapillary RNFL thickness (r = 0.583, p = 0.002) and MD of the visual field (r = 0.457, p = 0.042) for the pairs of affected eyes, whereas a poor correlation was found in visual acuity of these eyes (r = 0.279, p = 0.176). Peripapillary RNFL thickness following NAION was positively correlated with MD of visual field (r = 0.312, p = 0.043) and negatively correlated with logMAR visual acuity (r = -0.365, p = 0.009). In patients who experience bilateral NAION, the magnitude of RNFL loss is similar in each eye. There is a greater similarity in visual field loss than in visual acuity between the two affected eyes with NAION of the same individual.

  5. The prognostic significance of early and late right precordial lead (V4 R) ST-segment elevation in patients with acute anterior myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Muhammed; Uzun, Ahmet Okan; Börklü, Edibe Betül; Hayıroğlu, Mert İlker; Türkkan, Ceyhan; Tekkeşin, Ahmet İlker; Kozan, Ömer

    2018-03-01

    The predictive significance of ST-segment elevation (STE) in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been well-understood. In this study, we evaluated the prognostic value of early and late STE in lead V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI. A total 451 patients with anterior STEMI who treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) were prospectively enrolled in this study. All patients were classified according to presence of STE (>1 mm) in lead V 4 R at admission and/or 60 min after PPCI. Based on this classification, all patients were divided into three subgroups as no V 4 R STE (Group 1), early but not late V 4 R STE (Group 2) and late V 4 R STE (Group 3). In-hospital mortality had higher rates at group 2 and 3 and that had 2.1 and 4.1-times higher mortality than group 1. Late V 4 R STE remained as an independent risk factor for cardiogenic shock (odds ratio [OR] 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-4.3; p < .001) and in-hospital mortality (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.8-4.1; p < .001). The 12-month overall survival for group 1, 2, and 3 were 91.1%, 82.4%, and 71.4% respectively. However, the long-term mortality also had the higher rate at group 3; late V 4 R STE did not remain as an independent risk factor for long-term mortality (OR 1.5; 95% CI 0.8-4.1; p: .159). Late V 4 R STE in patients with anterior STEMI is strongly associated with poor prognosis. The record of late V 4 R in patients with anterior STEMI has an important prognostic value. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography for Identification of Iris Vasculature and Staging of Iris Neovascularization: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Philipp K; Goldstein, Debra A; Fawzi, Amani A

    2017-08-01

    Purpose/Aim of the study: To assess the ability of optical coherence tomographic angiography (OCTA) to visualize the normal iris vasculature as well as neovascularization of the iris (NVI). Study participants with healthy eyes, patients at risk of NVI development and patients with active or regressed NVI were consecutively included in this cross-sectional observational study. Imaging was performed using a commercially available OCTA system (RTVue- XR Avanti, Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA, USA). Abnormal iris vessels were graded on OCTA according to a modified clinical staging system and compared to slitlamp and gonioscopic findings. Fifty eyes of 26 study participants (16 healthy eyes, 19 eyes at risk, 15 eyes with different stages of NVI) were imaged using OCTA. In 11 out of 16 healthy eyes (69%) with light or moderately dark iris pigmentation, we observed physiological, radially aligned iris vasculature on OCTA imaging, which could not be visualized in five eyes (31%) with darkly pigmented irides. One eye in the "eyes at risk" group was diagnosed with NVI based on OCTA, which was not observed clinically. Fifteen eyes with clinically active or regressed NVI were imaged. Different stages of NVI could be differentiated by OCTA, corresponding well to an established clinical grading system. Four eyes showed regressed NVI by OCTA, not seen clinically, and were graded as a newly defined stage 4. This pilot clinical study showed that OCTA for imaging of the iris vasculature in health and disease is highly dependent on iris pigmentation. Fine, clinically invisible iris vessels can be visualized by OCTA in the very early stages as well as in the regressed stage of NVI.

  7. A methodology based on the "anterior chamber of rabbit eyes" model for noninvasively determining the biocompatibility of biomaterials in an immune privileged site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Pei-Lin; Lai, Jui-Yang; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2008-07-01

    In this study, a novel methodology based on the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes model was developed to evaluate the in vivo biocompatibility of biomaterials in an immune privileged site. The 7-mm-diameter membrane implants made from either a biological tissue material (amniotic membrane, AM group) or a biomedical polymeric material (gelatin, GM group) were inserted in rabbit anterior chamber for 36 months and characterized by biomicroscopic examinations, intraocular pressure measurements, and corneal thickness measurements. The noninvasive ophthalmic parameters were scored to provide a quantitative grading system. In this animal model, both AM and GM implants were visible in an ocular immune privileged site during clinical observations. The implants of the AM group appeared as soft tissue patches and have undergone a slow dissolution process resulting in a partial reduction of their size. Additionally, the AM implants did not induce any foreign body reaction or change in ocular tissue response for the studied period. By contrast, in the GM groups, significant corneal edema, elevated intraocular pressure, and increased corneal thickness were noted in the early postoperative phase (within 3 days), but resolved rapidly with in vivo dissolution of the gelatin. The results from the ocular grading system showed that both implants had good long-term biocompatibility in an ocular immune privileged site for up to 3 years. It is concluded that the anterior chamber of rabbit eyes model is an efficient method for noninvasively determining the immune privileged tissue/biomaterial interactions. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. MMP-3 Deficiency Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammation in the Posterior Eye Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Van Hove

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 is known to mediate neuroinflammatory processes by activating microglia, disrupting blood–central nervous system barriers and supporting neutrophil influx into the brain. In addition, the posterior part of the eye, more specifically the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and the blood–retinal barrier, is affected upon neuroinflammation, but a role for MMP-3 during ocular inflammation remains elusive. We investigated whether MMP-3 contributes to acute inflammation in the eye using the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU model. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression level in the posterior part of the eye. MMP-3 deficiency or knockdown suppressed retinal leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte infiltration into the vitreous cavity in mice subjected to EIU. Moreover, retinal and RPE mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1, interleukin 6 (Il6, cytokine-inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (Nos2 and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα, which are key molecules involved in EIU, were clearly reduced in MMP-3 deficient mice. In addition, loss of MMP-3 repressed the upregulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 and (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1. These findings suggest a contribution of MMP-3 during EIU, and its potential use as a therapeutic drug target in reducing ocular inflammation.

  9. Comparison of anterior segment parameters and axial length measurements performed on a Scheimpflug device with biometry function and a reference optical biometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka-Woźniak, Maria; Oleszko, Adam

    2018-04-26

    To compare measurements of axial length (AL), corneal curvature (K), anterior chamber depth (ACD) and white-to-white (WTW) distance on a new device combining Scheimpflug camera and partial coherence interferometry (Pentacam AXL) with a reference optical biometer (IOL Master 500). To evaluate differences between IOL power calculations based on the two biometers. Ninety-seven eyes of 97 consecutive cataract or refractive lens exchange patients were examined preoperatively on IOL Master 500 and Pentacam AXL units. Comparisons between two devices were performed for AL, K, ACD and WTW. Intraocular lens (IOL) power targeting emmetropia was calculated with SRK/T and Haigis formulas on both devices and compared. There were statistically significant differences between two devices for all measured parameters (P eyes for Haigis formula and in 62% of eyes for SRK/T formula, with a mean difference within ± 0.5 D for 72 and 86% of eyes, respectively. There were statistically significant differences between AL, K and WTW measurements obtained with the compared biometers. Flatter corneal curvature measurements on Pentacam AXL necessitate formulas optimisation for Pentacam AXL.

  10. Incidence and Significance of Spontaneous ST Segment Re-elevation After Reperfused Anterior Acute Myocardial Infarction - Relationship With Infarct Size, Adverse Remodeling, and Events at 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenin, Léo; Lamoureux, Sophie; Schaaf, Mathieu; Bochaton, Thomas; Monassier, Jean-Pierre; Claeys, Marc J; Rioufol, Gilles; Finet, Gérard; Garcia-Dorado, David; Angoulvant, Denis; Elbaz, Meyer; Delarche, Nicolas; Coste, Pierre; Metge, Marc; Perret, Thibault; Motreff, Pascal; Bonnefoy-Cudraz, Eric; Vanzetto, Gérald; Morel, Olivier; Boussaha, Inesse; Ovize, Michel; Mewton, Nathan

    2018-04-25

    Up to 25% of patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have ST segment re-elevation after initial regression post-reperfusion and there are few data regarding its prognostic significance.Methods and Results:A standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded in 662 patients with anterior STEMI referred for primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). ECGs were recorded 60-90 min after PPCI and at discharge. ST segment re-elevation was defined as a ≥0.1-mV increase in STMax between the post-PPCI and discharge ECGs. Infarct size (assessed as creatine kinase [CK] peak), echocardiography at baseline and follow-up, and all-cause death and heart failure events at 1 year were assessed. In all, 128 patients (19%) had ST segment re-elevation. There was no difference between patients with and without re-elevation in infarct size (CK peak [mean±SD] 4,231±2,656 vs. 3,993±2,819 IU/L; P=0.402), left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (50.7±11.6% vs. 52.2±10.8%; P=0.186), LV adverse remodeling (20.1±38.9% vs. 18.3±30.9%; P=0.631), or all-cause mortality and heart failure events (22 [19.8%] vs. 106 [19.2%]; P=0.887) at 1 year. Among anterior STEMI patients treated by PPCI, ST segment re-elevation was present in 19% and was not associated with increased infarct size or major adverse events at 1 year.

  11. [Pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingival smile corrected by anterior maxillary segmental osteotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobing; Xiao, Liwei; Chen, Song; Chen, Yangxi

    2002-11-01

    To discuss the pre-surgical orthodontic treatment of skeletal class II patients with gingiva smile corrected by AMSO. We analyzed the clinical features of 20 skeletal class II patients treated by AMSO combined with Orthodontic treatment and evaluated the effects of AMSO by means of cephalometric analysis. After the AMSO treatment, ANB angle, the height of anterior maxilla, the protrusion of the upper anterior teeth, and the of A point had reduced significantly (P orthodontically to make arch relationship. Extract the upper bicuspid half a year before the surgery was recommended. When necessary, genioplasty could be performed.

  12. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciller, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.cillerruiz@unil.ch [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Centre d’Imagerie BioMédicale, University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Pica, Alessia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Sznitman, Raphael [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); Thiran, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Signal Processing Laboratory, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Maeder, Philippe [Department of Radiology, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland); Munier, Francis L. [Unit of Pediatric Ocular Oncology, Jules Gonin Eye Hospital, Lausanne (Switzerland); Kowal, Jens H. [Ophthalmic Technology Group, ARTORG Center of the University of Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Department of Ophthalmology, Inselspital, Bern University Hospital, Bern (Switzerland); and others

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor.

  13. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro I; Rüegsegger, Michael B; Pica, Alessia; Sznitman, Raphael; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis L; Kowal, Jens H; Cuadra, Meritxell Bach

    2015-07-15

    Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Automatic Segmentation of the Eye in 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Novel Statistical Shape Model for Treatment Planning of Retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro I.; Rüegsegger, Michael B.; Pica, Alessia; Sznitman, Raphael; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Maeder, Philippe; Munier, Francis L.; Kowal, Jens H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Proper delineation of ocular anatomy in 3-dimensional (3D) imaging is a big challenge, particularly when developing treatment plans for ocular diseases. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presently used in clinical practice for diagnosis confirmation and treatment planning for treatment of retinoblastoma in infants, where it serves as a source of information, complementary to the fundus or ultrasonographic imaging. Here we present a framework to fully automatically segment the eye anatomy for MRI based on 3D active shape models (ASM), and we validate the results and present a proof of concept to automatically segment pathological eyes. Methods and Materials: Manual and automatic segmentation were performed in 24 images of healthy children's eyes (3.29 ± 2.15 years of age). Imaging was performed using a 3-T MRI scanner. The ASM consists of the lens, the vitreous humor, the sclera, and the cornea. The model was fitted by first automatically detecting the position of the eye center, the lens, and the optic nerve, and then aligning the model and fitting it to the patient. We validated our segmentation method by using a leave-one-out cross-validation. The segmentation results were evaluated by measuring the overlap, using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the mean distance error. Results: We obtained a DSC of 94.90 ± 2.12% for the sclera and the cornea, 94.72 ± 1.89% for the vitreous humor, and 85.16 ± 4.91% for the lens. The mean distance error was 0.26 ± 0.09 mm. The entire process took 14 seconds on average per eye. Conclusion: We provide a reliable and accurate tool that enables clinicians to automatically segment the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, and the lens, using MRI. We additionally present a proof of concept for fully automatically segmenting eye pathology. This tool reduces the time needed for eye shape delineation and thus can help clinicians when planning eye treatment and confirming the extent of the tumor

  15. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  16. Survey of ophthalmic anterior segment findings and intraocular pressure in 95 North American box turtles (Terrapene spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinheira Gomes, Filipe; Brandão, João; Sumner, Julia; Kearney, Michael; Freitas, Inês; Johnson, James; Cutler, Daniel; Nevarez, Javier

    2016-03-01

    To describe the ophthalmic biomicroscopy findings and intraocular pressures (IOP) in a captive population of box turtles and to determine whether a relationship exists between body morphometrics or health status and IOP. Hundred and three box turtles (69 Gulf coast, 24 three-toed, one ornate, one eastern, and eight unidentified) were triaged into three different color-coded groups: green (healthy), yellow (abnormal physical examination with no need for immediate care), and red (immediate care required). Both eyes were evaluated by rebound tonometry and slit-lamp biomicroscopy. Body weight and morphometric data were recorded. Intraocular pressures measurements were available for 190 eyes, slit-lamp biomicroscopy was available for 170 eyes, and morphometric data were available for 81 turtles. IOP in Gulf coast turtles (138 eyes) was 6.7 ± 1.4 mmHg OU. IOP in three-toed turtles (48 eyes) was 8.3 ± 1.5 mmHg OU, which was significantly higher than in Gulf coast turtles (P turtles only. There was a mild negative correlation between morphometrics and IOP in Gulf coast and three-toed turtles. Fifteen of 87 turtles had unilateral corneal or lenticular opacities; 3/87 had bilateral corneal or lenticular disease; and 3/87 had adnexal abnormalities. Different subspecies of box turtles have different normal intraocular pressures as measured by rebound tonometry, which was influenced by the animals' health status in one subspecies. Some morphometric parameters were found to be associated with IOP. Box turtles are often affected with ophthalmic abnormalities of unknown clinical significance. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  17. [Development of Non-Arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy in the Initially Unaffected Fellow Eye in Patients Treated with Systemic Corticosteroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahor, Artur; Pahor, Dusica

    2017-11-01

    Background The objective of this prospective pilot study was to evaluate the results of systemic corticosteroid therapy in patient with non-arteritic anterior ischaemic neuropathy of the optical nerve (NAION) for an observation period of one year and to measure the NAION incidence in the initially healthy contralateral eye of these patients. Patients and Methods All patients diagnosed with acute NAION who were admitted to our ward during 2014 and who fulfilled all inclusion criteria for systemic corticosteroid therapy were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were corrected visual acuity of 0.3 or less and duration of illness of less than 2 weeks. All patients were examined by a rheumatologist and given a complete ophthalmological examination, including fluorescein angiography and examination of the visual field. Only 3 of the 23 patients fulfilled our inclusion criteria for corticoid treatment and were then treated. 10 patients served as controls. The treatment plan started with an initial dose of 80 mg prednisolone during the first two weeks. The dose was then tapered over 3 to 4 months. Results The mean best corrected visual acuity on admission was 0.12 and 0.35 after one year. The mean duration of treatment was 3.3 months. Treatment was discontinued after 5 to 6 months or 8 to 9 months after the initial examination. All patients then developed NAION on the contralateral eye. The mean visual acuity on the contralateral eye was 0.73. After 4 month follow-up, the visual acuity in two patients had decreased to 1.0 and in one patient was reduced from 0.8 to 0.4. No steroid treatment was initiated for the contralateral eye. No NAION was found in the contralateral eye in the control group. Conclusion Corticosteroid treatment improved vision in all patients with NAION in comparison with the untreated contralateral eye. In a single patient, visual acuity decreased in the contralateral eye. Our study confirmed that corticosteroid treatment may be a

  18. Displacement pattern of the anterior segment using antero-posterior lingual retractor combined with a palatal plate

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Kyung-Won; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Kim, Kyung A; Park, Ki-Ho; Kim, Seong-Hun; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Nelson, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate and compare the effects of two appliances on the en masse retraction of the anterior teeth anchored by temporary skeletal anchorage devices (TSADs). Methods The sample comprised 46 nongrowing hyperdivergent adult patients who planned to undergo upper first premolar extraction using lingual retractors. They were divided into three groups, based on the lingual appliance used: the C-lingual retractor (CLR) group (group 1, n = 16) and two antero-posterior lingual retractor (...

  19. Combination of optical coherence tomography and reflectometry technique for eye measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Wang, Michael R.

    2013-03-01

    A spectral domain optical coherence tomography system is integrated with an optical reflectometer to provide dualfunctional eye measurement. The system is capable of performing anterior segment imaging and tear film thickness evaluation at the same time. The axial resolution of the anterior segment imaging is 6μm while for tear film thickness measurement the resolution is about 21 nm. We use the integrated device to examine a model eye with artificial tear film. Structures such as the cornea, the ciliary muscle, and the front boundary of the crystalline lens are clearly visible. Artificial tear film thickness is determined simultaneously with anterior segment imaging. The integrated device is also flexible for separated anterior segment imaging or tear thickness evaluation.

  20. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  1. Concentration of the combined drag with antimicrobic and antiinflammatory action in rabbits eye anterior chamber at local introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Okolov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim was to research objective consisted in an assessment of penetration of an antibacterial preparation of ciprofloxacin and a corticosteroid preparation of dexamethasone as a part of Kombinil-Duo’s combined medicinal form in moisture of the forward camera of an eye in experiment, and also in detection of the minimum overwhelmingconcentration (MOC of ciprofloxacin in VPKG for the most frequent causative agents of eye infections.Material and methods. In experiment on seven adult individuals of rabbits of breed the Chinchilla (fourteen eyes eye drops Kombinil — Duo, containing in quality of the main substance ciprofloxacin (3 mg / ml and dexamethasone(1 mg / ml are tested. Determination of concentration of the main substances of studied preparations in moisture of the eye camera carried out a method of a highly effective liquid chromatography (VEZhH in combination with mass and spectrometer detecting (MS on the liquid Shimadzu LC-20AB chromatograph with the mass and selectivedetector Shimadzu LCMS-2010EV (ESI.Results and conclusion. The maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in moisture of the forward camera of rabbits eye made 0,25 mkg / ml, and minimum — 0,06 mkg / ml, average concentration — 0,13±0,06 mkg / ml. The anti-inflammatory component presented by dexamethasone in a studied eye form, is defined in the range from 0,14 to 0,63 mkg / ml. Average concentration of dexamethasone equaled 0,24±0,12 mkg / ml. The obtained data testify that average concentration of ciprofloxacin in VPKG exceeds average MPK90 for strains the grampolozhitelnykhof bacteria which are potential activators of postoperative infectious complications: metitsillinchuvstvitelny golden стафилококки (MPK90‑0,06 mkg / ml and ftorkhinolonchuvstvitelny koagulazonegativny стафилококки (mkg / ml MPK90–0,05. The revealed concentration are sufficient for minimization of risk of development of postoperativeinfectious complications. In

  2. More Than Meets the Eye: The Merging of Perceptual and Conceptual Knowledge in the Anterior Temporal Face Area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A. Collins

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An emerging body of research has supported the existence of a small face sensitive region in the ventral anterior temporal lobe (ATL, referred to here as the anterior temporal face area. The contribution of this region in the greater face-processing network remains poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to test the relative sensitivity of this region to perceptual as well as conceptual information about people and objects. We contrasted the sensitivity of this region to that of two highly-studied face-sensitive regions, the fusiform face area and the occipital face area, as well as a control region in early visual cortex. Our findings revealed that multivoxel activity patterns in the anterior temporal face area contain information about facial identity, as well as conceptual attributes such as one’s occupation. The sensitivity of this region to the conceptual attributes of people was greater than that of posterior face processing regions. In addition, the anterior temporal face area overlaps with voxels that contain information about the conceptual attributes of concrete objects, supporting a generalized role of the ventral ATLs in the identification and conceptual processing of multiple stimulus classes.1IntroductionOver a decade of neuroimaging work has characterized the neural basis of face perception and identified several nodes that preferentially respond to faces relative to other objects (Haxby, Hoffman, & Gobbini, 2000; Nancy Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006. Most of this work has focused on the fusiform face area (FFA and the occipital face area (OFA (Kanwisher, McDermott, & Chun, 1997; Kanwisher & Yovel, 2006; Pitcher, Walsh, Yovel, & Duchaine, 2007, however an emerging literature has implicated an anterior temporal face area, on the ventral surface of the right anterior temporal lobes (vATLs in or near perirhinal cortex, in facial processing (Avidan et al., 2013; Pinsk et al., 2009; Rajimehr, Young, & Tootell, 2009; Tsao

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of Spectralis SD OCT Automated Macular Layers Segmentation to Discriminate Normal from Early Glaucomatous Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Marta; Dyrda, Agnieszka Anna; Biarnés, Marc; Gómez, Alicia; Martín, Carlos; Mora, Clara; Fatti, Gianluca; Antón, Alfonso

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of the macular retinal layer segmentation software of the Spectralis spectral-domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) device (Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Heidelberg, Germany) to discriminate between healthy and early glaucoma (EG) eyes. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Forty EG eyes and 40 healthy controls were included. All participants were examined using the standard posterior pole and the peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL) protocols of the Spectralis OCT device. Using an Early Treatment Diagnostic Retinopathy Study circle at the macular level, the automated retinal segmentation software was applied to determine thicknesses of the following parameters: total retinal thickness, inner retinal layer (IRL), macular retinal nerve fiber layer (mRNFL), macular ganglion cell layer (mGCL), macular inner plexiform layer (mIPL), macular inner nuclear layer (mINL), macular outer plexiform layer (mOPL), macular outer nuclear layer (mONL), photoreceptors (PR), and retinal pigmentary epithelium (RPE). The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was determined by adding the mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL parameters and the ganglion cell layer-inner plexiform layer (mGCL-IPL) was determined by combining the mGCL and mIPL parameters. Thickness of each layer was compared between the groups, and the layer and sector with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were identified. Comparison of pRNFL, IRL, mRNFL, mGCL, mIPL, mGCC, mGCL-IPL, mINL, mOPL, mONL, PR, and RPE parameters and total retinal thicknesses between groups for the different areas and their corresponding AUCs. Peripapillary RNFL was significantly thinner in the EG group globally and in all 6 sectors assessed (P < 0.0005). For the macular variables, retinal thickness was significantly reduced in the EG group for total retinal thickness, mIRL, mRNFL, mGCL, and mIPL. The 2 best isolated parameters to discriminate between the 2 groups were pRNFL (AUC, 0.956) and

  4. Bilateral ocular abnormalities in a wild stranded harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) suggestive of anterior segment dysgenesis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Colitz, Carmen M H; Abrams, Ken; Smith, Ainsley; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-06-01

    A male yearling harp seal (Phoca groenlandica) stranded and was brought to Mystic Aquarium & Institute for Exploration's Seal Rescue and Rehabilitation Center. The seal presented with a bilateral pendular vertical nystagmus, negative menace response, and a positive palpebral response. Ophthalmological examination by slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed perilimbal corneal edema, excessive iridal surface structures, pupils that appeared to be shaped improperly (dyscoria), and suspected cataracts. Attempts to dilate the pupils with both dark-lighted conditions and repeated dosages of 10% phenylephrine and 1% atropine ophthalmic solution in each eye (OU) were unsuccessful. Ocular ultrasonography findings suggested bilateral cataracts with flattened anterior-posterior (A-P) diameter and possible persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. It is possible that these structural congenital abnormalities could produce further ocular complications for this seal including uveitis, secondary glaucoma, retinal detachment, and/or vitreal hemorrhage in the future. This case demonstrates the importance of a thorough ophthalmological examination in stranded wild animals, especially if their symptoms appear neurological.

  5. COMPARISON OF THE RESISTANCE OF THREE CERAMIC SYSTEMS IN ANTERIOR FIXED PROSTHETIC SEGMENTS. A FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda Duque, Érika Alejandra; Escobar Restrepo, Julio César; Latorre Correa, Federico; Villarraga Ossa, Junes Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: el propósito de este estudio fue evaluar mediante el método de elementos finitos, la distribución de los esfuerzos en prótesis parcial fija (PPF) de tres unidades en la zona anterior, elaborados en tres sistemas cerámicos con diferentes variaciones en los conectores. Métodos: se modelaron cuatro tramos de PPF; tres de estos representaron los sistemas cerámicos: disilicato de litio, alúmina y circona y un cuarto modelo de disilicato de litio con un conector de 9 mm2 de área. Las ...

  6. Evaluation of white-to-white distance and anterior chamber depth measurements using the IOL Master, slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography and digital photographs in phakic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Michał; Pośpiech-Zabierek, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the anterior chamber internal diameter and depth is important in ophthalmic diagnosis and before some eye surgery procedures. The purpose of the study was to compare the white-to-white distance measurements performed using the IOL-Master and photography with internal anterior chamber diameter determined using slit lamp adapted optical coherence tomography in healthy eyes, and to compare anterior chamber depth measurements by IOL-Master and slit lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. The data were gathered prospectively from a non-randomized consecutive series of patients. The examined group consisted of 46 eyes of 39 patients. White-to-white was measured using IOL-Master and photographs of the eye were taken with a digital camera. Internal anterior chamber diameter was measured with slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. Anterior chamber depth was measured using the IOL Master and slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography. Statistical analysis was performed using parametric tests. A Bland-Altman plot was drawn. White-to-white distance by the IOL Master was 11.8 +/- 0.40 mm, on photographs it was 11.29 +/- 0.58 mm and internal anterior chamber diameter by slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography was 11.34?0.54 mm. A significant difference was found between IOL-Master and slit-lamp adapted optical coherence tomography (pphotographs (pphotographs (p>0.05). All measurements were correlated (Spearman pphotographs. In order to obtain accurate measurements of the internal anterior chamber diameter and anterior chamber depth, a method involving direct visualization of intraocular structures should be used.

  7. Microneurosurgical management of aneurysms at A4 and A5 segments and distal cortical branches of anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehecka, Martin; Dashti, Reza; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Koivisto, Timo; Ronkainen, Antti; Rinne, Jaakko; Jääskeläinen, Juha

    2008-10-01

    Aneurysms originating distal to the A3 segment of the ACA, located on the A4 and the A5 segments or the distal cortical branches of the ACA (AdistAs) are rare, forming about 0.5% of all IAs. There are only few reports on management of AdistAs. In this article, we review the practical anatomy, preoperative planning, and avoidance of complications in the microsurgical dissection and clipping of AdistAs. This review, and the whole series on IAs, is mainly based on the personal microneurosurgical experience of the senior author (J. H.) in 2 Finnish centers (Helsinki and Kuopio), which serve without patient selection the catchment area in Southern and Eastern Finland. These 2 centers have treated more than 10000 patients with IAs since 1951. In the Kuopio Cerebral Aneurysm Database of 3005 patients and 4253 IAs, there were 26 patients carrying 26 AdistAs, forming 0.9% of all patients with IAs, 0.6% of all IAs, and 2% of all ACA aneurysms. A total of 10 (38%) patients presented with ruptured AdistAs, with ICH in 4 (40%) and IVH in 2 (20%); 16 patients (62%) had multiple aneurysms. AdistAs are small, even when ruptured, with relatively wide base, and they are frequently associated with ICHs. Our data suggest that AdistAs rupture at smaller size than IAs in general. The challenge is to locate the aneurysm inside the interhemispheric fissure and to clip the neck adequately without obstructing branching arteries at the base. Unruptured AdistAs also need microneurosurgical clipping even when they are small.

  8. Causes of Adult Blindness at Ecwa Eye Hospital, Kano

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    South America, disorders of the anterior segment of the eye ... associated causes. .... checks, particularly for persons at increased risk, such as ... Cases of refractive errors were not found in this study ... West Afr J Med 2004;23(3):249-52. 8.

  9. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  10. Repeatability of a 3D multi-segment foot model during anterior and lateral step down tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Contani, Luciane Beatriz Grohs; Lima, Bruna; Rabelo, Nayra Deise dos Anjos; Ferreira, Cintia Lopes; Lima, Fernanda Pulpio Silva; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyse the reproducibility of the Oxford Foot Model (OFM) when used with healthy adults during two clinical tests, i.e., the Anterior Step Down Test (SDA) and the Lateral Step Down Test (SDL). Five healthy participants (one male and four females, 10 limbs in total) with a mean age of 22.2 (19-30) years were assessed in four sessions of tests conducted at intervals of one week. Two independent examiners performed two of the sessions of each of the tests. For each session (intra-day), nine repetitions of each clinical test (SDA and SDL) were performed. After an interval of three hours, the data were collected again. The tests were conducted again after an interval of one week using the same experimental conditions. The intra- and inter-session repeatabilities of the ranges of motion of the feet were determined according to the standard error of measurement (SEM) for each examiner and for the differences between the examiners. The repeatabilities of the results were high for both of the conducted tests. The SEM results were as follows: 0.47-1.94° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDA), 0.55-2.01° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDA), 0.44-2.43° for the intra-examiner assessment (SDL), and 0.54-1.89° for the inter-examiner comparison (SDL). The OFM model was shown to be reproducible in terms of assessing the range of motion of healthy adults during functional tests (SDA and SDL). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Two cases of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease presenting shallow anterior chamber].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Daisuke; Ijiri, Shigeyuki; Shimizu, Michiharu; Higashide, Tomomi; Sugiyama, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    We report two cases of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease (VKH) in which shallow anterior chambers were improved after steroid pulse therapy. The patients were women aged 65 and 72. They had headaches, decreased visual acuity and shallow anterior chamber in both eyes. There was no inflammation in the anterior chamber. Ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) showed ciliary edema, ciliochoroidal detachment, and angle closure. One case showed high intraocular pressure (IOP), and a diagnosis of acute primary angle closure was made. Although cataract surgery was performed in the left eye, postoperative optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed serous retinal detachment in both eyes. The shallow anterior chamber and UBM findings were improved and serous retinal detachment disappeared after steroid pulse therapy in both cases. VKH may cause shallow anterior chamber and angle closure. The inflammatory changes of VKH in the anterior segment, i. e. ciliary edema and ciliochoroidal detachment, may exacerbate the shallow anterior chambers and narrow angles and result in an acute increase in IOP in eyes with short axial length. VKH associated with shallow anterior chamber may be misdiagnosed as acute primary angle closure. For differential diagnosis, examinations of the ocular fundus including OCT are useful.

  12. Dominant Drop mutants are gain-of-function alleles of the muscle segment homeobox gene (msh) whose overexpression leads to the arrest of eye development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozer, B A

    2001-05-15

    Dominant Drop (Dr) mutations are nearly eyeless and have additional recessive phenotypes including lethality and patterning defects in eye and sensory bristles due to cis-regulatory lesions in the cell cycle regulator string (stg). Genetic analysis demonstrates that the dominant small eye phenotype is the result of separate gain-of-function mutations in the closely linked muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, encoding a homeodomain transcription factor required for patterning of muscle and nervous system. Reversion of the Dr(Mio) allele was coincident with the generation of lethal loss-of-function mutations in msh in cis, suggesting that the dominant eye phenotype is the result of ectopic expression. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that two dominant Dr alleles contain lesions upstream of the msh transcription start site. In the Dr(Mio) mutant, a 3S18 retrotransposon insertion is the target of second-site mutations (P-element insertions or deletions) which suppress the dominant eye phenotype following reversion. The pattern of 3S18 expression and the absence of msh in eye imaginal discs suggest that transcriptional activation of the msh promoter accounts for ectopic expression. Dr dominant mutations arrest eye development by blocking the progression of the morphogenetic furrow leading to photoreceptor cell loss via apoptosis. Gal4-mediated ubiquitous expression of msh in third-instar larvae was sufficient to arrest the morphogenetic furrow in the eye imaginal disc and resulted in lethality prior to eclosion. Dominant mutations in the human msx2 gene, one of the vertebrate homologs of msh, are associated with craniosynostosis, a disease affecting cranial development. The Dr mutations are the first example of gain-of-function mutations in the msh/msx gene family identified in a genetically tractible model organism and may serve as a useful tool to identify additional genes that regulate this class of homeodomain proteins. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. The effect of Nd:YAG laser treatment of posterior capsule opacification on anterior chamber depth and refraction in pseudophakic eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khambhiphant B

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bharkbhum Khambhiphant,1 Chayata Liumsirijarern,2 Piyada Saehout1 1Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross Society, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: This was a prospective descriptive study to determine the changes in intraocular lens (IOL position after neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet (Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy by measuring anterior chamber depth (ACD and refraction, including the spherical equivalent (SE and cylinder. Materials and methods: Forty-seven pseudophakic eyes with posterior capsule opacification of 29 patients were included. Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy was performed. Patients’ ACD and refraction were measured before the treatment, as well as after the treatment at 1 week and 3 months. IOLMaster® and an automated refractometer were used at the Department of Ophthalmology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Results: There were no statistically significant differences in ACD and SE before and after laser treatment at 1 week and 3 months (repeated analysis of variance, P=0.582 and P=0.269, respectively. Both backward IOL movement (number [n]=29 and forward IOL movement (n=18 were found. Some changes in cylindrical refraction were found at 1 week, but decreased at 3 months after capsulotomy (baseline cylinder: -1.16; cylinder at 1 week and 3 months: -1.00 and -1.14, respectively; P=0.012. These changes were the same with one-piece and three-piece IOLs. Conclusion: Nd:YAG laser posterior capsulotomy did not significantly change ACD and SE. It led to cylinder change at 1 week after laser, but the effect decreased at 3 months. This effect was small and may not be clinically significant. Keywords: posterior capsule opacification, neodymium-doped yttrium–aluminum–garnet, anterior chamber depth, pseudophakia, refraction

  14. Recent advances in laser in situ keratomileusis-associated dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wenjia

    2016-03-01

    Dry eye is the most common complication after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). The major cause of LASIK-associated dry eye is corneal nerve damage. Early identification and treatment of post-operative dry eye are essential to prevent further ocular surface damage. This article reviews the recent studies of LASIK-associated dry eye, including clinical features, aetiology, risk factors, evaluations and treatment. The applications of novel technologies in LASIK-associated dry eye evaluation like anterior segment spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and corneal confocal microscopy are also introduced in this review. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  15. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  16. Intra-session repeatability of iridocorneal angle measurements provided by a Scheimpflug photography-based system in healthy eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Belda, Clara; Piñero, David P.; Ruiz Fortes, Pedro; Soto-Negro, Roberto; Moya, Myriam; Pérez Cambrodí, Rafael J.; Artola, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate intra-session repeatability of measurements of the iridocorneal angle at different meridians in the nasal and temporal areas in healthy eyes using the Sirius Scheimpflug photography-based system in glaucoma analysis mode. Methods: A total of 43 eyes of 43 patients ranging in age from 36 to 79 years were enrolled in the study. All eyes received a comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including a complete anterior segment analysis with the C...

  17. Comparison between anterior segmental osteotomy versus conventional orthodontic treatment in root resorption: a radiographic study using cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Bo-Yeon; Choi, Byung-Joon; Lee, Baek-Soo; Kwon, Yong-Dae; Lee, Jung-Woo; Jung, Junho; Ohe, Joo-Young

    2017-12-01

    Patients who received orthodontic treatment are likely to have apical root shortening. It appears that external apical root resorption results from a combination of patient-related risk factors such as genetic influences, systemic factors, and orthodontic treatment-related factors. Regarding the fact that the anterior segmental osteotomy (ASO) has been known for its possibility of complementing external apical root resorption and of buffering periodontal problems, it has been the preferred treatment. However, the studies on the efficacy of ASO in preserving the root are not sufficient. In this study, we compared the amount of root resorption between the patients who only received orthodontic treatment and the patients who received orthodontic treatment with ASO. This study included 28 patients (the number of incisor = 198) who received orthodontic treatment with or without ASO. We categorize them into groups A and B by the type of orthodontic treatment (group A: conventional orthodontic treatment; group B: orthodontic treatment with ASO). Cone-beam computed tomographic and cephalometric evaluations were retrospectively performed on the radiographs taken for the diagnosis of the treatment before treatment and at the end of active treatment. In group B, root resorption itself and its rate both turned out to have significantly lower than those in group A. Also, the change of incisal angle is significantly smaller in group B than in group A. On the other hand, in group A, the change of incisal angle was positively correlated with the change of AP (anteroposterior) position. In group B, the change of incisal angle was negatively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. In group B, amount of root resorption (mm) was positively correlated with the duration of the orthodontic treatment. The results show lesser root resorption and shorter treatment duration with ASO than with conventional orthodontic treatment. Therefore, if the indications are accurately

  18. Diffuse Anterior Retinoblastoma with Sarcoidosis-Like Nodule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Kitazawa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinoblastomas account for 4% of malignancies in children, 1-2% of which are diffuse infiltrating retinoblastomas. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is rare and does not involve the retina. Here, we report on a diffuse anterior retinoblastoma with large sarcoidosis-like nodules on the iris that were responsive to anti-inflammatory therapy. Case: We present a 6-year-old girl who had anterior uveitis with white nodules on the iris and posterior surface of the cornea in her right eye. The nodules initially responded well to anti-inflammatory treatment. However, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT showed that the nodules gradually grew, shrinking the iris. We then collected the aqueous humor for diagnosis. A biopsy revealed clusters of small cells with a high nuclear-to-cytoplasm ratio with partial rosette formation. Therefore, we diagnosed diffuse anterior retinoblastoma without retinal involvement and performed enucleation of the right eye. The histopathology demonstrated undifferentiated cells similar to those seen on the biopsy, and tumor cells invaded the iris stroma, posterior surface of the cornea, ciliary body, and sclera. After the enucleation, she underwent chemotherapy and remains alive. Conclusion: A differential diagnosis of retinoblastoma should be considered when white nodules refractory to anti-inflammatory therapy occur in the eye, even in the absence of obvious retinal masses. AS-OCT findings are useful in assessing retinoblastoma.

  19. Anterior and posterior ocular biometry in healthy Chinese subjects: data based on AS-OCT and SS-OCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenbin Huang

    Full Text Available To measure the anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics concurrently and to determine the relationship between the iris and choroid in healthy Chinese subjects.A total of 148 subjects (270 eyes were enrolled in this cross-section study. The anterior and posterior ocular biometric characteristics were measured simultaneously by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT and swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT.Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that presented with smaller anterior segment parameters [including anterior chamber depth (ACD, width (ACW, area (ACA, and volume (ACV; (all p<0.001], narrower anterior chamber angle parameters [including angle opening distance (AOD750, trabecular-iris space area (TISA750, and angle recess area (ARA; (all p<0.001], higher iris curvature (ICURV (p = 0.003, and larger lens vaults (LV (p = 0.019. These anterior ocular biometric parameters were correlated with increasing age (p<0.01. Iris thickness (IT750 and iris area (IAREA were associated with age, ACW, and pupil diameter (all p<0.05, while choroidal thickness (CT was associated with age, gender, and axial length (all p<0.05. Univariate regression analysis showed that greater CT was significantly associated with smaller IAREA (p = 0.026.Compared with male eyes, female eyes had narrower anterior biometric parameters that correlated with increasing age, which would be helpful in explaining the higher prevalence of angle closure rates in the female gender and in aging people. Increased CT might be associated with smaller iris area; however, this possibility needs to be investigated in future studies before this conclusion is made.

  20. Spatial relationship between intrahepatic artery and portal vein based on the fusion image of CT-arterial portography (CTAP) and CT-angiography (CTA): New classification for hepatic artery at hepatic hilum and the segmentation of right anterior section of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibukuro, Kenji; Takeguchi, Takaya; Fukuda, Hozumi; Abe, Shoko; Tobe, Kimiko; Tanaka, Rei; Tagawa, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify the variations of the intrahepatic artery and portal vein and to verify the proper segmentation for the right anterior section of the liver. Materials and methods: CT during arterial portography and CT angiography were performed on 64-slice multi detector row CT in 147 patients. All images were transferred to a workstation for analysis using multi-image-fusion mode. We investigated the spatial relationship between hepatic artery and portal vein in the right hemiliver and the segmentation of the right anterior hepatic artery and portal vein. Results: The spatial anatomy of right hepatic arteries and portal vein was (1) anterior and posterior hepatic artery run superior and inferior to anterior portal vein, respectively (47.6%), (2) one anterior hepatic artery runs superior to and another one runs inferior to anterior portal vein (15%), (3) anterior and posterior hepatic arteries run superior to anterior portal vein (11.6%), (4) anterior and posterior hepatic arteries run inferior to anterior portal vein (7.5%), and (5) one posterior hepatic artery runs superior to and another one runs inferior to anterior portal vein (6.8%). The combined anatomy of right anterior artery and portal vein with regard to segmentation was classified as (1) dorso-ventral (26.5%), (2) dorso-ventral and inferior (10.9%), (3) multiple (18.4%), and (4) superior and inferior segments (1.4%). Conclusion: There are various types of spatial anatomy of intrahepatic artery and portal vein. The hepatic arteries as well as portal veins of right anterior section of the liver could be divided into dorsal and ventral, not superior and inferior.

  1. IN-SITU OPHTHALMIC GELS FOR THE TREATMENT OF EYE DISEASES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jothi, S.L. Harikumar* and Geeta Aggarwal

    2012-01-01

    Topical administration of a drug in the conjunctival cul-de-sac is the treatment of choice for diseases of the anterior segment of eye. Development of ophthalmic drug delivery systems has always been challenging because of the drawbacks with this route, like non-productive absorption, drainage, induced lacrimation, tear turn over, impermeability of drugs to cornea. New approaches have been investigated for delivery of drugs to the eye by means of polymeric delivery of ophthalmic drugs to the ...

  2. A case involving an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve transferred from the vitreous into the anterior chamber of the eye with a silicone oil tamponade for the treatment of neovascular glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Michiko Miki, Mari Ueki, Tetsuya Sugiyama, Shota Kojima, Tsunehiko IkedaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, JapanPurpose: To report the short-term efficacy and safety of the transfer of an Ahmed™ glaucoma valve (AGV™ tube from the vitreous into the anterior chamber, in a patient with neovascular glaucoma who had undergone pars plana AGV™ implantation and ultimately needed a silicone oil tamponade.Case: A 41-year-old male with proliferative diabetic retinopathy in both eyes was referred to us for treatment in December 2009. Although the patient previously underwent several surgeries, he ultimately lost vision in his right eye. His left eye suffered from neovascular glaucoma after undergoing a pars plana vitrectomy for tractional retinal detachment. After several vitreous and glaucoma surgeries, the patient underwent implantation of a pars plana AGV™. Postoperatively, although his intraocular pressure was stabilized at approximately 10 mmHg, he had repeated vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema without improvement. He ultimately underwent PPV with a silicone oil tamponade and at the same time, the AGV™ tube was pulled out from the vitreous and inserted into the anterior chamber in order to avoid complications caused by the silicone oil.Results: At 19 months postoperative, the patient’s intraocular pressure had stabilized at 10 mmHg with no recurrence of vitreous hemorrhage and hyphema. Eventually, he lost vision in his left eye because of cerebral hemorrhage.Conclusion: The findings show that insertion of a pars plana AGV™ tube into the anterior chamber in a patient undergoing a silicone oil tamponade is both effective and safe in the short-term.Keyword: tube implantation, glaucoma surgery, tube transfer, pars plana, proliferative diabetic retinopathy, intraocular pressure

  3. Anterior corpectomy via the mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach combined with short-segment posterior fixation for single-level traumatic lumbar burst fractures: analysis of health-related quality of life outcomes and patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theologis, Alexander A; Tabaraee, Ehsan; Toogood, Paul; Kennedy, Abbey; Birk, Harjus; McClellan, R Trigg; Pekmezci, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The authors present clinical outcome data and satisfaction of patients who underwent minimally invasive vertebral body corpectomy and cage placement via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach and posterior short-segment instrumentation for lumbar burst fractures. Patients with unstable lumbar burst fractures who underwent corpectomy and anterior column reconstruction via a mini-open, extreme lateral, transpsoas approach with short-segment posterior fixation were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic information, operative parameters, perioperative radiographic measurements, and complications were analyzed. Patient-reported outcome instruments (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12]) and an anterior scar-specific patient satisfaction questionnaire were recorded at the latest follow-up. Twelve patients (7 men, 5 women, average age 42 years, range 22-68 years) met the inclusion criteria. Lumbar corpectomies with anterior column support were performed (L-1, n = 8; L-2, n = 2; L-3, n = 2) and supplemented with short-segment posterior instrumentation (4 open, 8 percutaneous). Four patients had preoperative neurological deficits, all of which improved after surgery. No new neurological complications were noted. The anterior incision on average was 6.4 cm (range 5-8 cm) in length, caused mild pain and disability, and was aesthetically acceptable to the large majority of patients. Three patients required chest tube placement for pleural violation, and 1 patient required reoperation for cage subsidence/hardware failure. Average clinical follow-up was 38 months (range 16-68 months), and average radiographic follow-up was 37 months (range 6-68 months). Preoperative lumbar lordosis and focal lordosis were significantly improved/maintained after surgery. Patients were satisfied with their outcomes, had minimal/moderate disability (average ODI score 20, range 0-52), and had good physical (SF-12 physical component score 41.7% ± 10

  4. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  5. Identification of intracellular phospholipases A2 in the human eye: involvement in phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Wang, Jinmei; Zhan, Chen

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify intracellular phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) in the human retina and to explore the role of these enzymes in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) phagocytosis of photoreceptor outer segments (POS). METHODS: PCR amplification and Western blot analysis were used to identify m......)-VIA activity was found to be specifically increased 12 hours after ARPE-19 cells were fed with POS. Finally, RPE phagocytosis was inhibited by the iPLA(2)-VIA inhibitor bromoenol lactone. CONCLUSIONS: Various intracellular PLA(2) subtypes are present in the human retina. iPLA(2)-VIA may play...

  6. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanejko, Małgorzata; Turno-Kręcicka, Anna; Tomczyk-Socha, Martyna; Kaczorowski, Kamil; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta

    2017-08-01

    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PEX) is the most frequently identifiable cause of secondary open-angle glaucoma, known as pseudoexfoliation glaucoma. The exact pathophysiology and etiology of PEX and associated glaucoma remains obscure. The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the morphology of the anterior chamber angle in people with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma compared to a control group. We also evaluated the correlation between intraocular pressure (IOP) and pigmentation of the angle with the amount of exfoliated material in the anterior segment. The study group was composed of 155 eyes from 103 patients aged between 43 and 86 years. Each patient underwent a complete ophthalmological examination. Some difference was found in intraocular pressure between the PEX group and the control group and between the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group and the control group, but no significant difference was found between the 2 study groups. There was a significant difference in the incidence of some degree of pigmentation in the anterior chamber angle and no difference in the widths of the angle between each group. A significant positive relationship was observed between intraocular pressure and the degree of pigmentation of the anterior chamber angle in both the PEX group and the pseudoexfoliation glaucoma group. The results of this study indicate that the amount of pigmentation and exfoliation material in the anterior segment significantly correlates with the level of IOP and possibly with the degree of trabecular dysfunction. It seems that for clear identification of PEX and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma factors, clinical assessment appears to be insufficient.

  7. A novel nanoparticles impregnated ocular insert for enhanced bioavailability to posterior segment of eye: In vitro, in vivo and stability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathod, Lalaji V.; Kapadia, Rakhee; Sawant, Krutika K.

    2017-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to demonstrate with the help of in vitro and in vivo studies that nanoparticles impregnated ocular inserts effectively delivers significant concentration of drug to the posterior segment of eye after topical administration for treatment of glaucoma. Drug loaded Nanoparticles and their ocular insert have been reported to reduce side effects of orally administered Acetazolamide. Eudragit NPs were prepared by the solvent diffusion nanoprecipitation technique. The prepared NPs were evaluated for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency, % drug loading, DSC, FTIR, TEM and stability studies. Ocular inserts of NPs were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared ocular inserts were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, folding endurance, disintegration time, morphology and stability study. The NPs and ocular inserts were evaluated for in-vitro drug diffusion study, ex-vivo trans-corneal permeability study, in-vivo ocular tolerability and intra ocular pressure (IOP) reduction study. The optimized batch was stable for a period of 3 months in lyophilized form. The optimized formulations had size range of 367 nm ± 8 nm, zeta potential around + 7 mV ± 1.3 mV and 51.61% ± 3.84% entrapment efficiency with 19% ± 1.40% drug loading. The ex-vivo trans-corneal study showed higher cumulative corneal permeation, flux across corneal tissue (2.460 ± 0.028 μg/ml) and apparent corneal permeability (3.926 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s & 3.863 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s) from drug loaded Eudragit NPs and Ocular inserts as compared to drug solution (0.671 ± 0.020 μg/ml & 3.166 × 10 −6 cm 2 /s). In-vivo study showed the Eudragit NPs and ocular insert produced significant (P < 0.001) lowering in intra ocular pressure compared with the solution of free drug after 3 h of topical ocular administration. Plain Eudragit NPs caused no inflammation and/or discomfort in rabbit eyes and neither affected the intra

  8. A novel nanoparticles impregnated ocular insert for enhanced bioavailability to posterior segment of eye: In vitro, in vivo and stability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathod, Lalaji V.; Kapadia, Rakhee; Sawant, Krutika K., E-mail: dr_krutikasawant@rediffmail.com

    2017-02-01

    The present investigation was carried out to demonstrate with the help of in vitro and in vivo studies that nanoparticles impregnated ocular inserts effectively delivers significant concentration of drug to the posterior segment of eye after topical administration for treatment of glaucoma. Drug loaded Nanoparticles and their ocular insert have been reported to reduce side effects of orally administered Acetazolamide. Eudragit NPs were prepared by the solvent diffusion nanoprecipitation technique. The prepared NPs were evaluated for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, % entrapment efficiency, % drug loading, DSC, FTIR, TEM and stability studies. Ocular inserts of NPs were prepared by solvent casting method. The prepared ocular inserts were evaluated for thickness, content uniformity, folding endurance, disintegration time, morphology and stability study. The NPs and ocular inserts were evaluated for in-vitro drug diffusion study, ex-vivo trans-corneal permeability study, in-vivo ocular tolerability and intra ocular pressure (IOP) reduction study. The optimized batch was stable for a period of 3 months in lyophilized form. The optimized formulations had size range of 367 nm ± 8 nm, zeta potential around + 7 mV ± 1.3 mV and 51.61% ± 3.84% entrapment efficiency with 19% ± 1.40% drug loading. The ex-vivo trans-corneal study showed higher cumulative corneal permeation, flux across corneal tissue (2.460 ± 0.028 μg/ml) and apparent corneal permeability (3.926 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s & 3.863 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s) from drug loaded Eudragit NPs and Ocular inserts as compared to drug solution (0.671 ± 0.020 μg/ml & 3.166 × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/s). In-vivo study showed the Eudragit NPs and ocular insert produced significant (P < 0.001) lowering in intra ocular pressure compared with the solution of free drug after 3 h of topical ocular administration. Plain Eudragit NPs caused no inflammation and/or discomfort in rabbit eyes and

  9. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  10. A holographic waveguide based eye tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Pazzucconi, Beatrice; Liu, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye. The vector connecting the pupil center (PC) and the corneal reflex (CR) of the eye was used to compute eye position in the socket. An eye model, made of a high quality prosthetic eye, was used prototype validation. The benchtop prototype demonstrated a linear relationship between the angular eye position and the PC/CR vector over a range of 60 horizontal degrees and 30 vertical degrees at a resolution of 0.64-0.69 degrees/pixel by simple pixel count. The uncertainties of the measurements at different angular positions were within 1.2 pixels, which indicated that the prototype exhibited a high level of repeatability. These results confirmed that the holographic waveguide technology could be a feasible platform for developing a wearable eye tracker. Further development can lead to a compact, see-through eye tracker, which allows continuous monitoring of eye movement during real life tasks, and thus benefits diagnosis of oculomotor disorders.

  11. The DD genotype of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene independently associates with CMR-derived abnormal microvascular perfusion in patients with a first anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodi, Vicente; Sanchis, Juan; Nunez, Julio; Aliño, Salvador F; Herrero, Maria J; Chorro, Francisco J; Mainar, Luis; Lopez-Lereu, Maria P; Monmeneu, Jose V; Oltra, Ricardo; Chaustre, Fabian; Forteza, Maria J; Husser, Oliver; Riegger, Günter A; Llacer, Angel

    2009-12-01

    The role of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene on the result of thrombolysis at the microvascular level has not been addressed so far. We analyzed the implications of the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the ACE gene on the presence of abnormal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived microvascular perfusion after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We studied 105 patients with a first anterior STEMI treated with thrombolytic agents and an open left anterior descending artery. Microvascular perfusion was assessed using first-pass perfusion CMR at 7+/-1 days. CMR studies were repeated 184+/-11 days after STEMI. The ACE gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism was determined using polymerase chain reaction amplification. Overall genotype frequencies were II-ID 58% and DD 42%. Abnormal perfusion (> or = 1 segment) was detected in 56% of patients. The DD genotype associated to a higher risk of abnormal microvascular perfusion (68% vs. 47%, p=0.03) and to a larger extent of perfusion deficit (median [percentile 25 - percentile 75]: 4 [0-6] vs. 0 [0-4] segments, p=0.003). Once adjusted for baseline characteristics, the DD genotype independently increased the risk of abnormal microvascular perfusion (odds ratio [95% confidence intervals]: 2.5 [1.02-5.9], p=0.04). Moreover, DD patients displayed a larger infarct size (35+/-17 vs. 27+/-15 g, p=0.01) and a lower ejection fraction at 6 months (48+/-14 vs. 54+/-14%, p=0.03). The DD genotype associates to a higher risk of abnormal microvascular perfusion after STEMI.

  12. Capsulorhexis contraction after cataract surgery: Comparison of sharp anterior edge and modified anterior edge acrylic intraocular lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corydon, C.; Lindholt, M.; Knudsen, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    eyes) were included in a prospective randomized study. All had phacoemulsification followed by implantation of an IOL with a modified anterior edge (38 eyes) or a sharp anterior edge (46 eyes). One day (baseline) and 3 months postoperatively, the area of the anterior capsule opening was measured using...... retroillumination photographs. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in the area of the anterior capsule opening from 1 day to 3 months postoperatively in both groups (Psharp...

  13. Simultaneous dual wavelength eye-tracked ultrahigh resolution retinal and choroidal optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterhuber, A.; Povaay, B.; Müller, André

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate an optical coherence tomography device that simultaneously combines different novel ultrabroad bandwidth light sources centered in the 800 and 1060 nm regions, operating at 66 kHz depth scan rate, and a confocal laser scanning ophthalmoscope-based eye tracker to permit motion......-artifact-free, ultrahigh resolution and high contrast retinal and choroidal imaging. The two wavelengths of the device provide the complementary information needed for diagnosis of subtle retinal changes, while also increasing visibility of deeper-lying layers to image pathologies that include opaque media in the anterior...... eye segment or eyes with increased choroidal thickness....

  14. Visual field defects of the contralateral eye of non-arteritic ischemic anterior optic neuropathy: are they related to sleep apnea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Aryal-Charles, Nischal; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Lesoin, Antoine; Chiquet, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate whether obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is responsible for the visual field defects found in the fellow eyes of patients with non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Prospective cross-sectional study. The visual fields of the fellow eyes of NAION subjects with OSA were compared to the visual fields of control OSA patients matched for OSA severity. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmological and general examination including Humphrey 24.2 SITA-Standard visual field and polysomnography. Visual field defects were classified according the Ischemic Optic Neuropathy Decompression Trial (IONDT) classification. From a cohort of 78 consecutive subjects with NAION, 34 unaffected fellow eyes were compared to 34 control eyes of subjects matched for OSA severity (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] 35.5 ± 11.6 vs 35.4 ± 9.4 events per hour, respectively, p = 0.63). After adjustment for age and body mass index, all visual field parameters were significantly different between the NAION fellow eyes and those of the control OSA groups, including mean deviation (-4.5 ± 3.7 vs -1.3 ± 1.8 dB, respectively, p < 0.05), visual field index (91.6 ± 10 vs 97.4 ± 3.5%, respectively, p = 0.002), pattern standard deviation (3.7 ± 2.3 vs 2.5 ± 2 dB, respectively, p = 0.015), and number of subjects with at least one defect on the IONDT classification (20 vs 10, respectively, p < 0.05). OSA alone does not explain the visual field defects frequently found in the fellow eyes of NAION patients.

  15. Uneventful Anterior Migration of Intravitreal Ozurdex Implant in a Patient with Iris-Sutured Intraocular Lens and Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Andleeb; Aslanides, Ioannis M; Selimis, Vasileios; Tsoulnaras, Konstantinos I; Tabibian, David; Kymionis, George D

    2018-01-01

    We report here the case of a patient with anterior segment migration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant as well as its management and outcome. The patient had the following sequence of events: complicated cataract surgery, iris-sutured intraocular lens implant, followed by cystoid macular edema treated with intravitreal Avastin, retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant, corneal decompensation treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK), and finally recurrence of macular edema treated with repeated intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Dexamethasone implant had completely dissolved from the eye 12 weeks after insertion without any complication. A conservative approach with regular monitoring in the situation of a quiet anterior segment without any corneal decompensation can provide enough time for the implant to dissolve without causing any complication to the involved eye, avoiding any additional surgical intervention, as presented in this case report. Despite the fact that the implant was left for natural dissolution, there were no adverse effects related to the graft or the eye.

  16. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirota, Tatsuo; Adel, Mohamed; Takahashi, Masahiro; Haga, Shugo; Nagahama, Ryo; Nakashima, Misato; Furuhata, Mayu; Kamatani, Takaaki; Maki, Koutaro

    2017-01-01

    Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient's malocclusion. The patient's mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course. PMID:28744380

  17. Orthodontic Treatment and Maxillary Anterior Segmental Distraction Osteogenesis of a Subject with Williams–Beuren Syndrome and Isolated Cleft Palate: A Long-Term Follow-Up from the Age of 5 to 24 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsutaro Yamaguchi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS is a rare multisystem disorder caused by a hemizygous deletion of the elastin gene on chromosome 7q11.23. WBS patients have characteristic skeletal features and dental anomalies accompanied by mental retardation, a friendly outgoing personality, and mild to moderate intellectual disability or learning problems. In this case report, we present the combined orthodontic and surgical treatment of a WBS patient with an isolated cleft palate through a long-term follow-up from the age of 5 to 24 years. During the period of active treatment, comprehensive orthodontic treatment combined with maxillary anterior segmental distraction osteogenesis and prosthetic treatment using dental implants were effective in dramatically improving the patient’s malocclusion. The patient’s mental abilities and the cooperation shown by the patient and her family were crucial for the success of this complex and long-term treatment course.

  18. Morphologic Patterns Formed by the Anomalous Fibers Occurring Along the Anterior Capsule of the Crystalline Lens in People With the Long Anterior Zonule Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Daniel K; Yang, Yongyi; Morettin, Christina E; Newman, Tricia L; Roberts, Mary F; Wilensky, Jacob T

    2017-07-01

    People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. To further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL. There were 59 African-Americans (54 female; median age = 70 years, 53-91 years) included in the analysis. After initial review of the zonule tracings, we identified three basic LAZ patterns. We called one pattern (47% of right eyes) a "non-segmental LAZ pattern," which was predominated by fibers that could be visually traced to the dilated pupil border where they became obscured by the iris. Another pattern (35% of right eyes), the "segmental LAZ pattern," was predominated by fibers that appeared to terminate abruptly without detectable extension to the pupil border. The third pattern (18% of right eyes), the "mixed LAZ pattern," had a more equivalent mixture of the other two fiber morphologies. Compared to the "non-segmental" group, the "segmental" LAZ eyes had smaller central zonule-free zones (P < 0.0001), and they tended to exhibit fewer LAZ fibers (P = 0.07). These data improve understanding of LAZ clinical anatomy and may be helpful to future investigation. Anat Rec, 300:1336-1347, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evaluation of anterior segment changes using ultrasound biomicroscopy following phacoemulsification and implantation of one-piece and three-piece intraocular lenses in high myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Mohamed Samy

    2017-01-01

    The study of this correlation is to help in answering an important question − that is, does one diameter IOL fit all capsular bags? The statistical analyses in both groups point to a statistically significant correlation between the diameters of the capsular bags and the diameters of the implanted IOLs in both groups A and B, which demonstrates the absence of fitting of both sorts of IOLs in relation to the enlarged capsular bags of the highly myopic eyes − i.e. it focuses on the divergence between the size of the IOLs and that of the capsular bag.

  20. New comparative clinical and biometric findings between acute primary angle-closure and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Vidal Mérula

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare, clinically and biometrically, affected and fellow acute primary angle-closure (APAC eyes and glaucomatous eyes with narrow angle (NA. Methods: Comparative case series; 30 patients with APAC and 27 glaucomatous patients with NA were evaluated. Keratometry (K, central corneal thickness (CCT, lens thickness (LT, axial length (AL and anterior chamber depth (ACD were measured. Parameters defined as lens posisiton (LP and relative lens position (RLP were calculated. Results: Biometric difference between APAC-affected and fellow eyes was found only in LP (P=0.046. When fellow eyes were compared to glaucomatous eyes with NA, differences were found in ACD (P=0.009, AL (P=0.010, and LT/AL (P=0.005. The comparison between APAC-affected and glaucomatous eyes with NA showed significant differences in almost all biometric parameters, except for LT (P=0.148 and RLP (P=0.374. We found that the logistic regression model (LRM, built with three parameters (K, CCT and LT/AL, higher than 0.334 could be a reasonable instrument to differentiate APAC eyes from glaucomatous eyes with NA. Conclusions: This study showed that APAC-affected and fellow eyes have similar biometric features, and glaucomatous eyes with NA have a less crowded anterior segment. The LRM built showed promising results in distinguishing APAC from glaucomatous eyes with NA.

  1. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong Kim, C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed. (orig.)

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/ ...

  5. Adjacent segment degeneration after lumbar spinal fusion: the impact of anterior column support: a randomized clinical trial with an eight- to thirteen-year magnetic resonance imaging follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videbaek, Tina S; Egund, Niels; Christensen, Finn B; Grethe Jurik, Anne; Bünger, Cody E

    2010-10-15

    Randomized controlled trial. To analyze long-term adjacent segment degeneration (ASD) after lumbar fusion on magnetic resonance imaging and compare randomization groups with and without anterior column support. ASD can be a long-term complication after fusion. The prevalence and the cause of ASD are not well documented, but ASD are one of the main arguments for introducing the use of motion-preserving techniques as an alternative to fusion. Anterior lumbar interbody fusion combined with posterolateral lumbar fusion (ALIF+PLF) has been proved superior to posterolateral fusion alone regarding outcome and cost-effectiveness. Between 1996 and 1999, 148 patients with severe chronic low back pain were randomly selected for ALIF+PLF or for PLF alone. Ninety-five patients participated. ASD was examined on magnetic resonance imaging with regard to disc degeneration, disc herniation, stenosis, and endplate changes. Disc heights on radiographs taken at index surgery and at long-term follow-up were compared. Outcome was assessed by validated questionnaires. The follow-up rate was 76%. ASD was similar between randomization groups. In the total cohort, endplate changes were seen in 26% of the participants and correlated significantly with the presence of disc degeneration and disc herniation. Disc degeneration and dorsal disc herniation were the parameters registered most frequently and were significantly more pronounced at the first adjacent level than at the second and the third adjacent levels. Patients without disc height reduction over time were significantly younger than patients with disc height reduction. Disc degeneration and stenosis correlated significantly with outcome at the first adjacent level. The cause of the superior outcome in the group with anterior support is still unclear. Compared with the findings reported in the literature, the prevalence of ASD is likely to be in concordance with the expected changes in a nonoperated symptomatic population and therefore

  6. Management of long segment anterior urethral stricture (≥ 8cm using buccal mucosal (BM graft and penile skin (PS flap: outcome and predictors of failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal A. Alsagheer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose To evaluate the surgical outcome and predictors of failure of substitution urethroplasty using either dorsal onlay buccal mucosal (BM graft or ventral onlay penile skin flap (PS for anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8cm. Patients and methods Between March 2010 and January 2016, 50 patients with anterior urethral stricture ≥ 8 cm were treated at our hospital. The surgical outcome and success rate were assessed. The predictors of failure were analyzed using multivariate analysis. Failure was considered when subsequent urethrotomy or urethroplasty were needed. Results Dorsal onlay BM graft was carried out in 24 patients, while PS urethroplasty in 26 patients. There was no significant difference between both groups regarding patients demographics, stricture characteristics or follow-up period. One case in the BM group was lost during follow-up. Stricture recurrence was detected in 7 (30.4% patients out of BM group while in 6 (23.1% patients out of PS group (p value= 0.5. No significant differences between both groups regarding overall early and late complications were observed. Occurrence of early complications and the stricture length were the only predictors of failure in univariate analysis, while in multivariate analysis the occurrence of early complications was only significant. Conclusion On short-term follow-up, both dorsal onlay BM graft and ventral onlay PS flap urethroplasty have similar success rates. However, BM graft has a potential advantage to reduce operative time and is also technically easier. The surgeon should avoid early local complications as they represent a higher risk for failure.

  7. Ocular Biometrics of Myopic Eyes With Narrow Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel T; Wen, Joanne C; Su, Daniel Hsien-Wen; Stinnett, Sandra; Asrani, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ocular biometrics between myopic patients with and without narrow angles. Patients with a stable myopic refraction (myopia worse than -1.00 D spherical equivalent) were prospectively recruited. Angle status was assessed using gonioscopy and biometric measurements were performed using an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and an IOLMaster. A total of 29 patients (58 eyes) were enrolled with 13 patients (26 eyes) classified as having narrow angles and 16 patients (32 eyes) classified as having open angles. Baseline demographics of age, sex, and ethnicity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The patients with narrow angles were on average older than those with open angles but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.12). The central anterior chamber depth was significantly less in the eyes with narrow angles (P=0.05). However, the average lens thickness, although greater in the eyes with narrow angles, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). Refractive error, axial lengths, and iris thicknesses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P=0.32, 0.47, 0.15). Narrow angles can occur in myopic eyes. Routine gonioscopy is therefore recommended for all patients regardless of refractive error.

  8. The clinical outcomes of surgical management of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant (Ozurdex®).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyunseung; Lee, Min Woo; Byeon, Suk Ho; Koh, Hyoung Jun; Lee, Sung Chul; Kim, Min

    2017-09-01

    Our purpose was to describe the clinical course, and individualized management approaches, of patients with migration of a dexamethasone implant into the anterior chamber. This was a retrospective review of four patients with seven episodes of anterior chamber migration of a dexamethasone implant. After 924 intravitreal dexamethasone injections, anterior migration of the implant occurred in four eyes of four patients (0.43%). All four eyes were pseudophakic: one eye had a posterior chamber intraocular lens in the capsular bag but in a post-laser posterior capsulotomy state, two eyes had a sulcus intraocular lens (IOL), and one eye had an iris-fixated retropupillary IOL. All eyes had a prior vitrectomy and no lens capsule. The time interval from injection to detection of the implant migration ranged from 2 to 6 weeks. Of the four eyes with corneal edema, only one eye required a corneal transplantation, although it was unclear whether the implant migration was the direct cause of the corneal decompensation because the patient had a history of bullous keratopathy resulting from an extended history of uveitis. All patients underwent surgical intervention: two patients with a repositioning procedure, and the other two patients with removal due to repeated episodes, although surgical removal was not always necessary to reverse the corneal complications. In our study, not all patients required surgical removal of the implants. Repositioning the implant back into the vitreous cavity may be considered as an option in cases involving the first episode with no significant corneal endothelial decompensation. Considering potential anterior segment complications and the loss of drug effectiveness together, an individualized approach is recommended to obtain the best treatment outcomes and to minimize the risk of corneal complications.

  9. Anterior Lens Capsule and Iris Thicknesses in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, Muhammed; Seven, Erbil; Tekin, Serek; Yasar, Tekin

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate anatomic properties of the lens capsule and iris by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This prospective study included 62 eyes of 62 patients with PEX syndrome and 43 eyes of 43 age- and gender-matched controls. All subjects underwent full ophthalmologic examinations including AS-OCT. Pupillary diameter, midperipheral stromal iris thickness, central and temporal lens capsule thicknesses, and peripheral pseudoexfoliation material thickness on the anterior lens capsule surface were measured and recorded. Mean age was 66.8 ± 9.3 years in the PEX group and 65.5 ± 8.9 years in the control group (p = 0.44). The PEX group consisted of 62 patients: 38 men (61.3%) and 24 women (38.7%); the control group included 43 subjects: 25 men (58.1%) and 18 women (41.9%). Pupillary diameter after pharmacologic mydriasis was 21% smaller in the PEX group than controls. Mean midperipheral iris thickness was 36 ± 7.2 μm (7.8%) thinner in the PEX group than that of control group (p = 0.047). The central anterior capsule was a mean of 3.40 ± 0.51 μm (18%) thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.0001). The temporal anterior lens capsule was a mean of 0.17 ± 0.15 μm thicker in the PEX group compared to the control group (p = 0.81). With high-resolution OCT imaging, it has become possible to evaluate the anterior lens capsule without histologic examination and demonstrate that it is thicker than normal in PEX patients.

  10. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  11. Chance and necessity in eye evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Walter J

    2011-01-01

    Charles Darwin has proposed the theory that evolution of live organisms is based on random variation and natural selection. Jacques Monod in his classic book Chance and Necessity, published 40 years ago, presented his thesis "that the biosphere does not contain a predictable class of objects or events, but constitutes a particular occurrence, compatible indeed with the first principles, but not deducible from those principals and therefore, essentially unpredictable." Recent discoveries in eye evolution are in agreement with both of these theses. They confirm Darwin's assumption of a simple eye prototype and lend strong support for the notion of a monophyletic origin of the various eye types. Considering the complexity of the underlying gene regulatory networks the unpredictability is obvious. The evolution of the Hox gene cluster and the specification of the body plan starting from an evolutionary prototype segment is discussed. In the course of evolution, a series of similar prototypic segments gradually undergoes cephalization anteriorly and caudalization posteriorly through diversification of the Hox genes.

  12. Choroidal thickness in Chinese patients with non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Libin; Chen, Lanlan; Qiu, Xiujuan; Jiang, Ran; Wang, Yaxing; Xu, Liang; Lai, Timothy Y Y

    2016-08-31

    Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is one of the most common types of ischemic optic neuropathy. Several recent studies suggested that abnormalities of choroidal thickness might be associated with NA-AION. The main objective of this case-control study was to evaluate whether choroidal thickness is an ocular risk factor for the development of NA-AION by evaluating the peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses in affected Chinese patients. Forty-four Chinese patients with unilateral NA-AION were recruited and compared with 60 eyes of 60 normal age and refractive-error matched control subjects. Peripapillary and subfoveal choroidal thicknesses were measured by enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography. Choroidal thicknesses of eyes with NA-AION and unaffected fellow eyes were compared with normal controls. Choroidal thicknesses of NA-AION eyes with or without optic disc edema were also compared. The correlation between choroidal thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, logMAR best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the mean deviation (MD) of Humphrey static perimetry in NA-AION eyes were analyzed. The peripapillary choroidal thicknesses at the nasal, nasal inferior and temporal inferior segments in NA-AION eyes with optic disc edema were significantly thicker compared with that of normal subjects (P optic disc edema and normal eyes (all P > 0.05). No significant correlation between choroidal thickness and RNFL thickness, logMAR BCVA and perimetry MD was found in eyes affected by NA-AION (all P > 0.05). Increase in peripapillary choroid thickness in some segments was found in NA-ION eyes with optic disc edema. However, our findings do not support the hypothesis that choroidal thickness is abnormal in Chinese patients with NA-AION compared with normal subjects with similar age and refractive error status.

  13. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    Summary A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome. PMID:23362402

  14. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doğan, Aysun Şanal; Gürdal, Canan; Köylü, Mehmet Talay

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy). Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198) and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366). Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90). The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  15. Does Dry Eye Affect Repeatability of Corneal Topography Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysun Şanal Doğan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the repeatability of corneal topography measurements in dry eye patients and healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Participants underwent consecutive corneal topography measurements (Sirius; Costruzione Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Two images with acquisition quality higher than 90% were accepted. The following parameters were evaluated: minimum and central corneal thickness, aqueous depth, apex curvature, anterior chamber volume, horizontal anterior chamber diameter, iridocorneal angle, cornea volume, and average simulated keratometry. Repeatability was assessed by calculating intra-class correlation coefficient. Results: Thirty-three patients with dry eye syndrome and 40 healthy controls were enrolled to the study. The groups were similar in terms of age (39 [18-65] vs. 30.5 [18-65] years, p=0.198 and gender (M/F: 4/29 vs. 8/32, p=0.366. Intra-class correlation coefficients among all topography parameters within both groups showed excellent repeatability (>0.90. Conclusion: The anterior segment measurements provided by the Sirius corneal topography system were highly repeatable for dry eye patients and are sufficiently reliable for clinical practice and research.

  16. Alterations of the outer retina in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy detected using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Philipp; Brachert, Maike; Albrecht, Philipp; Ringelstein, Marius; Finis, David; Geerling, Gerd; Aktas, Orhan; Guthoff, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    A characteristic disease pattern may be reflected by retinal layer thickness changes in non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy measured using spectraldomain optical coherence tomography. Retinal layer segmentation is enabled by advanced software. In this study, retinal layer thicknesses in acute and chronic non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy were compared. A single-centre cross-sectional analysis was used. A total of 27 patients (20 age-matched healthy eyes) were included: 14 with acute (optic neuropathy. Macular volume and 12° peripapillary ring optical coherence tomography scans were used. The peripapillary thicknesses of the following layers were determined by manual segmentation: retinal nerve fibres, ganglion cells + inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer + outer plexiform layer, outer nuclear layer + inner segments of the photoreceptors and outer segments of the photoreceptors to Bruch's membrane. Macular retinal layer thicknesses were automatically determined in volume cubes centred on the fovea. Peripapillary retinal swelling in acute nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was attributable to retinal nerve fibre layer, ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer and outer nuclear layer/segments of the photoreceptors thickening. In chronic cases, peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer, macular ganglion cell layer and inner plexiform layer thinning were observed. In acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy, the inner and outer peripapillary retinal layers are affected by thickness changes. In chronic cases, atrophy of the ganglion cells and their axons and dendrites is evident by inner retinal layer thinning. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Effects of benzydamine eye drops on the rabbit's eye reaction to surgical, physical, and chemical stimuli

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    Tomazzoli, L.; Bonora, A.; Luparini, M.R.; Durando, L.; Ciarniello, M.G.; Cioli, V.; Bonomi, L.

    The effects of benzydamine eye drops on the ocular reaction to different irritating stimuli in rabbits are reported. Benzydamine at the concentration of 0.1% reduces inflammatory tissue changes induced by AgNO3 burning of the cornea and inhibits the blood-aqueous barrier breakdown due to peripheral iridectomy or laser irradiation of the iris. Benzydamine reduces the aqueous PGE2 concentration to a similar extent as a 0.5% commercially available eye drop formulation of piroxicam. This result is in contrast with previous in vitro results demonstrating that benzydamine is devoid of any effects on PG synthesis. The possibility that PGE2 reduction is an indirect effect due to other biochemical activities of benzydamine is discussed. In the normal eye benzydamine manifests a local anaesthetic effect which is not accompanied by irritative changes in the anterior segment of the eye, changes in the intraocular pressure or pupillary size. It is suggested that in the clinical use of benzydamine eye drops the local anaesthetic activity may contribute to reducing both the neurogenic component of ocular inflammation and acute pain following injuries to the eye.

  18. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  19. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  20. Enucleaton of the right eye due to large choroidal melanoma with simultaneous penetrating cornea transplantation from OD to OS (Case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Korchuganova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available There is presentation case report of 75‑year old woman with choroidal melanoma (T3N0M0 on the right eye and failed graft on the left pseudophakic eye with far advanced glaucoma and ARMD. No treatment was given to the leading eye with VA 0,2. VA of OS = 1 / ∞ pr.l.certa; PKP OS in 2008 for pseudophakic bullous keratopathy on the eye with far advanced glaucoma. IOP was normal after previous filtering surgery. After PKP VA = 0,04; clear graft during 2 years; then gradually opacification and vascularization occurred. VA dropped to light perception. Echography OD — tumor h 8,29 mm, d 21,77 mm. No ingrowth of tumor into anterior segment of the eye; VA OD = 0 (no light perception. Concerning the need to enucleate the right eye with large choroidal melanoma, the advantage of using corneal autograft from OD to OS, location of tumor in the posterior pole with no ingrowth in anterior segment, the decision was made to perform the following operation — to enucleate the right eye and transplant simultaneously corneal graft from OD on OS. Patient was discharged from the Ophthalmology Hospital with VA OS = 0,01, during next week VA improved to 0,02. 8,0 mm graft isclear, fixed with 8 interruptured and continious suture 10 / 0‑nylon. Anterior chamber — normal depth, atrophic iris, stable position of PC IOL. Optic nerve head is pale with subtotal deep glaucomatous excavation. Conclusion: presented case report demonstrates the rarepossibility to use cornea after enucleation the eye with large malignant tumor (located in the posterior pole for grafting in the only eye with failed vascularised graft. It was the only possibility for this patient to restore some vision.

  1. A new 4-variable formula to differentiate normal variant ST segment elevation in V2-V4 (early repolarization) from subtle left anterior descending coronary occlusion - Adding QRS amplitude of V2 improves the model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Brian E; Khalil, Ayesha; Henry, Timothy; Kazmi, Faraz; Adil, Amina; Smith, Stephen W

    Precordial normal variant ST elevation (NV-STE), previously often called "early repolarization," may be difficult to differentiate from subtle ischemic STE due to left anterior descending (LAD) occlusion. We previously derived and validated a logistic regression formula that was far superior to STE alone for differentiating the two entities on the ECG. The tool uses R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B). The 3-variable formula is: 1.196 x STE60V3 + 0.059 × QTc-B - 0.326 × RAV4 with a value ≥23.4 likely to be acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Adding QRS voltage in V2 (QRSV2) would improve the accuracy of the formula. 355 consecutive cases of proven LAD occlusion were reviewed, and those that were obvious ST elevation myocardial infarction were excluded. Exclusion was based on one straight or convex ST segment in V2-V6, 1 millimeter of summed inferior ST depression, any anterior ST depression, Q-waves, "terminal QRS distortion," or any ST elevation >5 mm. The NV-STE group comprised emergency department patients with chest pain who ruled out for AMI by serial troponins, had a cardiologist ECG read of "NV-STE," and had at least 1 mm of STE in V2 and V3. R-wave amplitude in lead V4 (RAV4), ST elevation at 60 ms after the J-point in lead V3 (STE60V3) and the computerized Bazett-corrected QT interval (QTc-B) had previously been measured in all ECGs; physicians blinded to outcome then measured QRSV2 in all ECGs. A 4-variable formula was derived to more accurately classify LAD occlusion vs. NV-STE and optimize area under the curve (AUC) and compared with the previous 3-variable formula. There were 143 subtle LAD occlusions and 171 NV-STE. A low QRSV2 added diagnostic utility. The derived 4-variable formula is: 0.052*QTc-B - 0.151*QRSV2 - 0.268*RV4 + 1.062*STE60V3. The 3-variable formula had an AUC of 0.9538 vs. 0.9686 for the 4-variable formula (p = 0

  2. Relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in twin children: the Guangzhou Twin Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Decai; Liu, Bin; Huang, Shengsong; Huang, Wenyong; He, Mingguang

    2014-09-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the relationship between refractive error and ocular biometrics in children from the Guangzhou twin eye study. Twin participants aged 7-15 years were selected from Guangzhou Twin Eye Study. Ocular examinations included visual acuity measurement, ocular motility evaluation, autorefraction under cycloplegia, and anterior segment, media, and fundus examination. Axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature radius were measured using partial coherence laser interferometry. A multivariate linear regression model was used for statistical analysis. Twin children from Guangzhou city showed a decreased spherical equivalent with age, whereas both AL and ACD were increased and corneal curvature radius remained unchanged. When adjusted by age and gender, the data from 77% of twins presenting with spherical equivalent changes indicated that these were caused by predictable variables (R2 = 0.77, P biometrics. Refractive status is largely determined by axial length as the major factor.

  3. Stromal demarcation line induced by corneal cross-linking in eyes with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, João B N; Renesto, Adimara C; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Soong, H K; Campos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate stromal demarcation lines following corneal cross-linking (CXL) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in patients with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography. Fifth-nine eyes of 59 patients were enrolled in a retrospective comparative case series, of which 19 eyes had keratoconus and 40 eyes had asymmetric topography. Eyes with asymmetric topography were treated in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy. One month after CXL, a stromal demarcation line was evaluated at 5 standardized corneal points using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Mean stromal demarcation line depths were measured at 5 points on the cornea, namely, centrally, 3.0 mm temporally, 1.5 mm temporally, 3.0 mm nasally, and 1.5 mm nasally. For the keratoconus group, the values were 178 ± 47, 123 ± 15, 152 ± 47, 125 ± 23, and 160 ± 43 μm, respectively. For the asymmetric corneal topography group (without keratoconus), they were 305 ± 64, 235 ± 57, 294 ± 50, 214 ± 54, and 285 ± 58 μm, respectively. There was no correlation between central corneal pachymetry and stromal demarcation line depth in all 5 measured corneal points in both groups. CXL treatment profiles are similar in keratoconic and nonkeratoconic eyes with asymmetric topography.

  4. Morphometric Study of the Anterior Thalamoperforating Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ho; Yeo, Dong-Kyu; Shim, Jae-Joon; Yoon, Seok-Mann; Chang, Jae-Chil

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the morphometry of the anterior thalamoperforating arteries (ATPA). Methods A microanatomical study was performed in 79 specimens from 42 formalin-fixed adult cadaver brains. The origins of the ATPAs were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior segments according to the crowding pattern. The morphometry of the ATPAs, including the premammillary artery (PMA), were examined under a surgical microscope. Results The anterior and middle segments of the ATPAs arose at mean intervals of 1.75±1.62 mm and 5.86±2.05 mm from the internal carotid artery (ICA), and the interval between these segments was a mean of 3.17±1.64 mm. The posterior segment arose at a mean interval of 2.43±1.46 mm from the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), and the interval between the middle and posterior segments was a mean of 3.45±1.39 mm. The mean numbers of perforators were 2.66±1.19, 3.03±1.84, and 1.67±0.98 in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments, respectively. The PMA originated from the middle segment in 66% of cases. A perforator-free zone was located >2 mm from the ICA in 30.4% and >2 mm from the PCA in 67.1% of cases. Conclusion Most perforators arose from the anterior and middle segments, within the anterior two-thirds of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). The safest perforator-free zone was located closest to the PCA. These anatomical findings may be helpful to verify safety when treating lesions around the PCoA and in the interpeduncular fossa. PMID:26113962

  5. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  6. Pseudoexfoliation Glaucoma in the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, January–October 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Fasa Ramdhani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pseudoexfoliation syndrome is characterized by the deposition of a distinctive fibrillar material in the anterior segment of the eye. This condition is a major risk factor for development of glaucoma, termed pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristic and management of PEXG in the National Eye Center Cicendo Eye Hospital. Methods: A descriptive retrospective study was conducted in October–November 2012 using medical records of PEXG patients in the National Eye Center Cicendo Eye Hospital during January–October 2012. Results: There were 32 patients (43 eyes diagnosed as PEXG, most of them were male (78.1%, age 70–74 years old (34.4% and followed by those in the range of age 65–69 years old (21.9%. Most of the cases were unilateral (65.6% decrease of visual acuity less than 3/60 (76.7%, increase of intraocular pressure (IOP with majority in the range of 31–40 mmHg (32.6% and 41–50 mmHg (32.6%, Cup/Disc Ratio 0.9–1.0 (46.51% and followed by those classified as majority which were hard to assess because of the presence of opaque media (34.89%. The type of glaucoma was open angle glaucoma (88.4%. The treatment received was a combination of two types of antiglaucoma medication and surgery IOP Conclusion: PEXG is mostly found in elderly patients. While most of the patients come with high IOP and late stage of the disease IOP

  7. Laser speckle flowgraphy for differentiating between nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy and anterior optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekubo, Tomoyuki; Chuman, Hideki; Nao-I, Nobuhisa

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) for the differentiation of acute nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from anterior optic neuritis (ON). To investigate blood flow in the optic disc under normal conditions, NAION, and anterior ON, we compared the tissue blood flow of the right eye with that of the left eye in the control group, and that of the affected eye with that of the unaffected eye in the NAION and anterior ON groups. In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had decreased optic disc blood flow in the NAION eye when compared with the unaffected eye. By contrast, in the anterior ON group, all 6 patients had increased optic disc blood flow in the anterior ON eye when compared with the unaffected eye. In the NAION group, the mean blur rate (MBR) of the affected eyes was 29.5 % lower than that of the unaffected eyes. In the anterior ON group, the MBR of the affected eyes was 15.9 % higher than that of the unaffected eyes. LSFG could be useful in differentiating between NAION and anterior ON. In addition, this imaging technique saves time and is noninvasive.

  8. Repeatability and comparison of clinical techniques for anterior chamber angle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter; Redmond, Tony; Agarwal, Rishi; Marshall, Lewis R; Evans, Bruce J W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the repeatability of gonioscopy, van Herick method and anterior segment Optical Coherence Tomography (AS-OCT) and determine the agreement between these techniques within a community optometry setting. Gonioscopy, van Herick method and AS-OCT imaging were performed by an optometrist on two occasions, 1 month apart, on 80 subjects aged over 40 years recruited from community optometry practices. Anterior segment images were captured with a spectral domain OCT (Topcon 3D OCT-2000; wavelength 840 nm) set to the Anterior Segment (AS) mode. Eyes were graded as open or occludable for each method. AS-OCT images from both visits were graded by a second optometrist masked to the gonioscopy and van Herick method results, and the visit on which the images were acquired. Cohen's kappa (κ) was used to describe the intra-observer repeatability. Likelihood ratios, sensitivity and specificity of van Herick method and AS-OCT were calculated, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. Measurements were obtained from 80 eyes of 80 subjects. In four cases, AS-OCT images were un-gradable due to difficulty in locating the scleral spur. The repeatability of gonioscopy was fair κ = 0.29, while that of the van Herick method (κ = 0.54) and AS-OCT (κ = 0.47) were somewhat better. The van Herick method showed good sensitivity (visit 1: 75%, visit 2: 69%) and high specificity (visit 1: 88%, visit 2: 96%). The sensitivity of AS-OCT was fair (visit 1: 46%, visit 2: 25%), but specificity was high (visit 1: 87%. visit 2: 89%). Intra-observer repeatability was better for van Herick method and for AS-OCT than for gonioscopy, despite the latter being considered the gold standard method. The van Herick method appeared to be more sensitive than AS-OCT when identifying eyes at risk of angle closure. A standalone anterior segment OCT with a longer wavelength laser could afford better visualisation of the angle, and might therefore be expected to enable the examiner to make more

  9. Management of complications of cosmetic iris implants in a phakic eye: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Millicent; Choudhari, Nikhil; Chaurasia, Sunita

    2018-03-21

    To report the intricacies of managing complications that arose out of cosmetic iris implants (BrightOcular) placement. Interventional case report. A thirty-year-old gentleman presented with complaint of progressive loss of vision after having cosmetic iris implant surgery to change his eye colour. He then developed raised intraocular pressures and had a right eye trabeculectomy conducted with the implants in situ. Subsequently, he had implant removal surgery because of persistent implant-associated complications. The vision was impaired due to progressive corneal oedema and glaucoma. Various considerations were taken while planning for surgical intervention because of the extensive structural damage to the anterior segment of the eye. This case report highlights that cosmetic iris implants are dangerous intraocular devices and management of the associated complications is also challenging. As these devices cause irreversible structural and functional damage, their use should be discouraged in normal eyes.

  10. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  11. A case of anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with uveitis

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    Sugahara M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Michitaka Sugahara, Takayuki Fujimoto, Kyoko Shidara, Kenji Inoue, Masato Wakakura Inouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, Japan Introduction: Here, we describe a patient who presented with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION and subsequently developed uveitis. Case: A 69-year-old man was referred to our hospital and initially presented with best-corrected visual acuities (BCVA of 20/40 (right eye and 20/1000 (left eye and relative afferent pupillary defect. Slit-lamp examination revealed no signs of ocular inflammation in either eye. Fundus examination revealed left-eye swelling and a pale superior optic disc, and Goldmann perimetry revealed left-eye inferior hemianopia. The patient was diagnosed with nonarteritic AION in the left eye. One week later, the patient returned to the hospital because of vision loss. The BCVA of the left eye was so poor that the patient could only count fingers. Slit-lamp examination revealed 1+ cells in the anterior chamber and the anterior vitreous in both eyes. Funduscopic examination revealed vasculitis and exudates in both eyes. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral panuveitis, and treatment with topical betamethasone was started. No other physical findings resulting from other autoimmune or infectious diseases were found. No additional treatments were administered, and optic disc edema in the left eye improved, and the retinal exudates disappeared in 3 months. The patient's BCVA improved after cataract surgery was performed. Conclusion: Panuveitis most likely manifests after the development of AION. Keywords: anterior ischemic optic neuropathy, uveitis

  12. Hydrogel iontophoresis for gentamicin administration to the rabbit eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarrat-Binstock, Esther; Raiskup, Frederik; Frucht-Pery, Joseph; Domb, Abraham J.

    2005-04-01

    Iontophoresis (IONT) is a non-invasive technique in which a low electric current is used to enhance the penetration of charged molecules into tissue. This technique has been used in various fields of medicine, mostly in transdermal drug delivery. This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy and the distribution profile of gentamicin using corneal IONT on infected and healthy rabbit eyes. Corneal iontophoresis of gentamicin sulfate was studied using drug-loaded disposable hydrogel probes mounted on a portable iontophoretic device, applying a low current for 60 seconds. This study confirmed that a triple iontophoretic treatment of gentamicin for only 60 seconds (0.5mA) significantly reduces the count of pseudomonas in the infected cornea to a non-infectious level. Peak gentamicin concentrations at the healthy corneas (363.1 +/- 127.3 μg/g) and at the aqueous humor (29.4 +/- 17.4 μg/ml) were reached immediately and two hours after a single iontophoretic treatment, respectively. The concentration versus time profile of gentamicin following iontophoresis revealed a gentamicin half life of 2.07 h in the anterior chamber, and a clearance of 1.73 μl/min from the anterior chamber to the posterior segments of the eye. This study indicates that a short iontophoretic treatment using gentamicin-loaded hydrogels has a potential clinical value in treating corneal infections, by increasing drug penetration to the eye and maintaining therapeutic levels for more than eight hours.

  13. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

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    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  14. EVALUATION OF IRIDOCILIARY AND LENTICULAR ELASTICITY USING SHEAR-WAVE ELASTOGRAPHY IN RABBIT EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathios T. Detorakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Methods: Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Results: Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Conclusions: Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.

  15. Evaluation of iridociliary and lenticular elasticity using shear-wave elastography in rabbit eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detorakis, Efstathios T; Drakonaki, Eleni E; Ginis, Harilaos; Karyotakis, Nikolaos; Pallikaris, Ioannis G

    2014-01-01

    A previous study has employed shear-wave ultrasound elastographic imaging to assess corneal rigidity in an ex-vivo porcine eye model. This study employs the same modality in vivo in a rabbit eye model in order to assess lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity changes following the instillation of atropine and pilocarpine. Ten non-pigmented female rabbits were examined. Measurements of the lens, ciliary body and total ocular rigidity as well as lens thickness and anterior chamber depth were taken with the Aixplorer system (SuperSonic Imagine, Aix-en-Provence, France) with the SuperLinear™ SL 15-4 transducer in both eyes at baseline as well as after pilocarpine and atropine instillation. The IOP was also measured with the TonoPen tonometer. Changes in rigidity in the examined areas following atropine instillation were statistically not significant. Ciliary body rigidity was significantly increased whereas lens and total ocular rigidity were significantly reduced following pilocarpine instillation. The decrease in lens rigidity following pilocarpine was significantly associated with the respective increase in ciliary body rigidity. Shear-wave ultrasound elastography can detect in vivo rigidity changes in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye model and may potentially be applied in human eyes, providing useful clinical information on conditions in which rigidity changes play an important role, such as glaucoma, pseudoexfoliation syndrome or presbyopia.

  16. Complications and Management of Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Torun Acar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the intraoperative and postoperative follow-up complications and management of these in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK surgery. Materials and Methods: Two hundred eighty-four eyes of 252 patients followed up in our cornea clinic who underwent DALK using Anwar’s big-bubble technique with healthy Descemet’s membrane and endothelium were included in this study. Intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as the management and treatment of these complications were evaluated. Results: Big bubble was created in 220 (77.5% eyes of 284 eyes, and lamellar dissection was performed in 64 (22.5% eyes. Perforation occurred during trephination in 4 eyes, and the procedure was accomplished by penetrating keratoplasty (PK. Intraoperative microperforation occurred in 44 eyes. Perforation enlarged in 4 eyes and PK was performed. Operation was continued in 40 eyes with air injection into the anterior chamber. In postopertive follow-up period, double anterior chamber (DAC occurred in 32 of 40 eyes. DAC spontaneously regressed in 8 eyes, and air was given into the anterior chamber with a second surgical intervention in 24 eyes. DAC improved in 20 eyes. Four eyes underwent PK. Fungal keratitis evolved at the interface in one eye, because of no healing during the follow-up period, this eye underwent PK under antifungal therapy. Eyes with interface haze and Descemet’s membrane folds were followed. Conclusion: DALK is a difficult technique with a steep learning curve. In addition to the complications seen in PK, specific complications can occur in lamellar surgery. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 337-40

  17. Lamina cribrosa position and Bruch's membrane opening differences between anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebolleda, Gema; Pérez-Sarriegui, Ane; Díez-Álvarez, Laura; De Juan, Victoria; Muñoz-Negrete, Francisco J

    2018-06-01

    To compare the optic nerve head morphology among primary open-angle glaucoma, non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, their fellow healthy eyes and control eyes, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging. Observational cross-sectional study including 88 eyes of 68 patients. In this study, 23 non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes, 17 fellow unaffected eyes, 25 primary open-angle glaucoma eyes, and 23 age-matched control eyes were included. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and optic disk area were evaluated. Bruch's membrane opening diameter, optic cup depth, anterior lamina cribrosa depth, and prelaminar tissue thickness were assessed. Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and primary open-angle glaucoma eyes had similar visual field mean deviation and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (P = 0.6 and P = 0.56, respectively). Bruch's membrane opening diameter was significantly larger in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes than in control eyes (P = 0.02). Lamina cribrosa and disk cup were deeper in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma than both control and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P open-angle glaucoma eyes than in non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy eyes (P opening diameter was found in primary open-angle glaucoma eyes compared with control eyes. This issue has clinical implications because Bruch's membrane opening has been considered a stable reference for disk-related measures.

  18. Anterior capsulotomy using the CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Adiel; Ma-Naim, Tova; Rosner, Mordechai; Eyal, Ophir; Belkin, Michael

    1998-06-01

    Continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) is the preferred technique for removal of the anterior capsule during cataract surgery due to this technique assuring accurate centration of the intraocular lens. During modern cataract surgery, especially with small or foldable intra ocular lenses, centration of the lens is obligatory. Radial tears at the margin of an anterior capsulotomy may be associated with the exit of at least one loop of an intraocular lens out of the capsular bag ('pea pod' effect) and its subsequent decentration. The anterior capsule is more likely to ream intact if the continuous circular capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is used. Although manual capsulorhexis is an ideal anterior capsulectomy technique for adults, many ophthalmologists are still uncomfortable with it and find it difficult to perform, especially in complicated cases such as these done behind small pupil, cataract extraction in children and pseudoexfoliation syndrome. We have developed a technique using a CO2 laser system for safe anterior capsulotomy and tested it in animal eyes.

  19. Peripapillary Pachychoroid in Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagia, Lina; Huisingh, Carrie; Johnstone, John; Kline, Lanning B.; Clark, Mark; Girard, Michael J. A.; Mari, Jean Martial; Girkin, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the peripapillary choroidal thickness (PCT) in nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in comparison to contralateral eyes and normal eyes. Methods We used enhanced depth imaging spectral-domain optical coherence tomography to image the optic nerve head of 20 NAION, 10 contralateral eyes, and 102 normal eyes. Following compensation, the scans were manually delineated to identify relevant surfaces including Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), Bruch's membrane, and anterior sclera. The PCT was defined as the measurement between Bruch's membrane and the anterior sclera and was measured at increasing distance from BMO. Models adjusted for age, BMO area, and axial length were used to compare the mean PCT between NAION and normal eyes, and contralateral eyes and normal eyes. Paired t-tests were used to compare the PCT between NAION and contralateral eyes. Results The mean PCT was thicker in NAION and contralateral eyes when compared with normal eyes at all distances from BMO (P < 0.001). The PCT was not significantly thicker in contralateral eyes when compared with affected NAION eyes. Choroidal thickness was thinnest in the inferior quadrant in all eyes regardless of the group. Conclusions Increased peripapillary choroidal thickness was noted in both NAION and contralateral eyes. The thicker choroid may be an associated feature or a result of the disorder. Although further longitudinal study is required to determine causation, these findings may suggest that a thickened peripapillary choroid may be a component of the disk-at-risk clinical phenotype. PMID:27583829

  20. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  1. NMR spectroscopy applied to the eye: Drugs and metabolic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saether, Oddbjoern

    2005-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy has been extensively applied in biomedical research during the last decades. It has proved to be an analytical tool of great value. From being mainly used in chemistry, technological developments have expanded the application of NMR spectroscopy to a great wealth of disciplines. With this method, biochemical information can be obtained by analysing tissue extracts. Moreover, NMR spectroscopy is increasingly employed for pharmacokinetic studies and analysis of biofluids. Technological progress has provided increased sensitivity and resolution in the spectra, which enable even more of the complexity of biological samples to be elucidated. With the implementation of high-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) NMR spectroscopy in biomedicine, intact tissue samples or biopsies can be investigated. Thus, NMR spectroscopy has an ever-increasing impact in metabolic screening of human samples and in animal models, and methods are also increasingly realised in vivo. The present work, NMR spectroscopy applied to eye research, consists of two main parts. Firstly, the feasibility to monitor fluorinated ophthalmic drugs directly in the eye was assessed. Secondly, HR-MAS H1 NMR spectroscopy was applied for metabolic profiling of the anterior eye segment, specifically to analyse metabolic changes in intact corneal and lenticular samples after cataractogenic insults. This work included metabonomics with the application of pattern recognition methods to analyse HR-MAS spectra of eye tissues. Optimisation strategies were explored for F19 NMR detection of fluorinated drugs in a phantom eye. S/N gains in F19 NMR spectroscopy were achieved by implementing time-share H1 decoupling at 2.35 T. The method is advantageous for compounds displaying broad spectral coupling patterns, though detection of drugs at concentrations encountered in the anterior eye segment after topical application was not feasible. Higher magnetic fields and technological improvements could enable

  2. Characterization of rat model of acute anterior uveitis using optical coherence tomography angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo June; Pepple, Kathryn L.; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2015-03-01

    Uveitis, or ocular inflammation, is a cause of severe visual impairment. Rodent models of uveitis are powerful tools used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of ocular inflammation and to study the efficacy of new therapies prior to human testing. In this paper, we report the utility of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) angiography in characterizing the inflammatory changes induced in the anterior segment of a rat model of uveitis. Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) was induced in two rats by intravitreal injection of a killed mycobacterial extract. One of them received a concurrent periocular injection of steroids to model a treatment effect. OCT imaging was performed prior to inflammation induction on day 0 (baseline), and 2 days post-injection (peak inflammation). Baseline and inflamed images were compared. OCT angiography identified swelling of the cornea, inflammatory cells in the anterior and posterior chambers, a fibrinous papillary membrane, and dilation of iris vessels in the inflamed eyes when compared to baseline images. Steroid treatment was shown to prevent the changes associated with inflammation. This is a novel application of anterior OCT imaging in animal models of uveitis, and provides a high resolution, in vivo assay for detecting and quantifying ocular inflammation and the response to new therapies.

  3. SMARTPHONE-BASED DILATED FUNDUS PHOTOGRAPHY AND NEAR VISUAL ACUITY TESTING AS INEXPENSIVE SCREENING TOOLS TO DETECT REFERRAL WARRANTED DIABETIC EYE DISEASE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toy, Brian C; Myung, David J; He, Lingmin; Pan, Carolyn K; Chang, Robert T; Polkinhorne, Alison; Merrell, Douglas; Foster, Doug; Blumenkranz, Mark S

    2016-05-01

    To compare clinical assessment of diabetic eye disease by standard dilated examination with data gathered using a smartphone-based store-and-forward teleophthalmology platform. 100 eyes of 50 adult patients with diabetes from a health care safety-net ophthalmology clinic. All patients underwent comprehensive ophthalmic examination. Concurrently, a smartphone was used to estimate near visual acuity and capture anterior and dilated posterior segment photographs, which underwent masked, standardized review. Quantitative comparison of clinic and smartphone-based data using descriptive, kappa, Bland-Altman, and receiver operating characteristic analyses was performed. Smartphone visual acuity was successfully measured in all eyes. Anterior and posterior segment photography was of sufficient quality to grade in 96 and 98 eyes, respectively. There was good correlation between clinical Snellen and smartphone visual acuity measurements (rho = 0.91). Smartphone-acquired fundus photographs demonstrated 91% sensitivity and 99% specificity to detect moderate nonproliferative and worse diabetic retinopathy, with good agreement between clinic and photograph grades (kappa = 0.91 ± 0.1, P smartphone-based telemedicine system that demonstrated sensitivity and specificity to detect referral-warranted diabetic eye disease as a proof-of-concept. Additional studies are warranted to evaluate this approach to expanding screening for diabetic retinopathy.

  4. Association of biometric factors with anterior chamber angle widening and intraocular pressure reduction after uneventful phacoemulsification for cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guofu; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Lee, Roland; Chen, Yi-Chun; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate anterior chamber biometric factors associated with the degree of angle widening and intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction after phacoemulsification. University of California, San Francisco, California, USA. Case series. Anterior chamber parameters obtained by anterior segment coherence tomography were compared preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. Measurements included the angle opening distance 500 μm anterior to the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular-iris space area 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500), iris curvature (I-Curv), anterior chamber angle (ACA), trabecular-iris space area, anterior chamber volume, anterior chamber width, and lens vault (LV). The study enrolled 73 eyes. The mean patient age was 77.45 years ± 7.84 (SD); 65.75% of patients were women. From preoperatively to 3 months postoperatively, the mean AOD500 increased significantly (0.254 ± 0.105 to 0.433 ± 0.108 mm) and the mean IOP decreased significantly (14.97 ± 3.35 to 12.62 ± 3.37 mm Hg) (P<.001). The reduction in IOP was correlated with the increase in AOD500 (r = 0.240, P=.041) and preoperative LV (r = 0.235, P=.045). After adjusting for related factors, AOD500 widening was positively correlated with LV (β = 0.458, P=.044) and I-Curv (β = 0.235, P=.043) and negatively correlated with preoperative TISA500 (β = -0.269, P=.025) and ACA (β = -0.919, P=.027). Surgically induced AOD widening was significantly correlated with anterior chamber biometric factors. Preoperative LV appears to be a significant factor in angle widening and IOP reduction after phacoemulsification. Copyright © 2011 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Eye diseases in children in jourdan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, A.M.V.; Suha, A.E.M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate eye diseases in children in Jordan and to see whether it is necessary to conduct a visual screening programme. Methods: The study was conducted between July 2010 and July 2012 at four Royal Medical Service hospitals located in northern, eastern, middle and southern parts of Jordan. Children aged (6-14 years) attending paediatric clinics for various reasons were enrolled. Ophthalmologic assessment included visual acuity and anterior and posterior segment examination. Patients with visual acuity of less than 20/20 underwent refraction under cyclopegia. Results: Of the 3200 children in the study ocular abnormalities were found in 366 (11.4%); 312 (9.8%) had visual acuity less than 20/20 in one or both eyes. Refractive error was seen in 286 (8.9%); while vernal catarrh was the second most common ocular abnormality with 51 (1.6%) patients followed by squint 16(0.5%). Four (0.12%) patients had severe visual impairment and one (0.03%) patient was blind. Conclusion: The prevalence of refractive error was high in school children in the study area. It is important to conduct a visual screening programme in early school years in order to prevent amblyopia. (author)

  6. Endothelial cell density after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (Melles technique)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, Bart T. H.; Mulder, Paul G. H.; Nieuwendaal, Carla P.; Beekhuis, W. Houdijn; Melles, Gerrit R. J.

    2004-01-01

    To measure the recipient endothelial cell loss after the Melles technique for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. In 21 eyes of 21 patients, a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure was performed. Before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, specular microscopy was performed to

  7. Endothelial cell density after deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (Melles technique)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dooren, BTH; Mulder, PGH; Nieuwendaal, CP; Beekhuis, WH; Melles, GRJ

    PURPOSE: To measure the recipient endothelial cell loss after the Melles technique for deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty. METHODS: In 21 eyes of 21 patients, a deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty procedure was performed. Before surgery and at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery, specular microscopy

  8. Different schematic eyes and their accuracy to the in vivo eye: a quantitative comparison study

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, Marina Storani de; Carvalho, Luis Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Current ophthalmic technology allows the manipulation of eye components, such as anterior cornea and lens, of the human eye with a considerable precision and customization. This technology opens up the possibility of exploiting some characteristics of the eye in order to improve the methods of correcting optical aberrations. Moreover, product development and research for the eye-care professional has reached very high standards, since there is nowadays software available to design and simulat...

  9. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  10. Surgical management of anterior chamber epithelial cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Julia A; Stark, Walter J; Azab, Amr; Thomsen, Robert W; Gottsch, John D

    2003-03-01

    To review management strategies for treatment of anterior chamber epithelial cysts. Retrospective review of consecutive interventional case series. Charts of patients treated for epithelial ingrowth over a 10-year period by a single surgeon were reviewed. Cases of anterior chamber epithelial cysts were identified and recorded, including details of ocular history, preoperative and postoperative acuity, intraocular pressure (IOP), and ocular examination, type of surgical intervention, and details of further procedures performed. Seven eyes with epithelial cysts were identified. Patient age ranged from 1.5 to 53 years at presentation. Four patients were children. In four eyes, cysts were secondary to trauma, one case was presumably congenital, one case developed after corneal perforation in an eye with Terrien's marginal degeneration, and one case developed after penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Three eyes were treated with vitrectomy, en bloc resection of the cyst and associated tissue, fluid-air exchange and cryotherapy. The last four eyes were treated with a new conservative strategy of cyst aspiration (three cases) or local excision (one keratin "pearl" cyst), and endolaser photocoagulation of the collapsed cyst wall/base. All epithelial tissue was successfully eradicated by clinical criteria; one case required repeat excision (follow-up, 9 to 78 months, mean 45). Two eyes required later surgery for elevated IOP, two for cataract extraction and one for repeat PK. Final visual acuity ranged from 20/20 to hand motions, depending on associated ocular damage. Best-corrected visual results were obtained in the more conservatively managed eyes. Anterior chamber epithelial cysts can be managed conservatively in selected cases with good results. This strategy may be particularly useful in children's eyes, where preservation of the lens, iris, and other structures may facilitate amblyopia management. Copyright 2003 by Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Rupesh V; Murthy, Somasheila; Sangwan, Virender; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2010-01-01

    Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated...

  12. Long-term results of treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution for aqueous-deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Ikeda, Chikako; Takai, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the preliminary long-term efficacy of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for aqueous-deficient dry eye. Fifteen patients with mild-to-moderate aqueous-deficient dry eye were enrolled. After a washout period, the patients were treated with 3 % diquafosol ophthalmic solution for 6 months. We assessed 12 subjective dry eye symptoms, corneal and conjunctival staining with fluorescein, tear film break-up time (BUT), lower tear meniscus height measured with anterior-segment optical coherence tomography, Schirmer's testing, and adverse reactions at baseline and 1, 3, and 6 months after the start of treatment. Treatment with diquafosol ophthalmic solution significantly improved dry eye symptoms, corneal staining, BUT, and tear meniscus height at 1 month and maintained the effectiveness for 6 months. Conjunctival staining significantly improved 3 and 6 months after treatment. No significant adverse reactions developed. Prolonged use of diquafosol ophthalmic solution for 6 months produced significant improvement both subjectively (dry eye symptom score) and objectively (ocular staining score and tear function tests) for aqueous-deficient dry eye.

  13. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular involvement with Gnathostoma spinigerum occurs years after the initial infection that is acquired by ingestion of poorly cooked, pickled seafood or water contaminated with third stage larvae. Here we report a case of gnathostomiasis of the left eye of a 32-year-old lady hailing from Meghalaya, India. Her vision had deteriorated to hand movement. Slit lamp examination revealed a live, actively motile worm in the anterior chamber, which was extracted by supra temporal limbal incision and visual acuity was restored.

  14. Sistemas de transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho: bases fundamentais e aplicações Drug delivery systems for the posterior segment of the eye: fundamental basis and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Ligório Fialho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available As doenças do segmento posterior do olho são responsáveis pela maioria dos casos de cegueira irreversível no mundo inteiro. Este cenário estimula o desenvolvimento de novas modalidades de tratamento para estas doenças. O sucesso no tratamento visa, essencialmente, o transporte de doses efetivas de drogas diretamente para os locais a serem tratados. Devido às dificuldades encontradas no transporte de drogas para o segmento posterior do olho, pesquisas têm sido realizadas no sentido de desenvolver sistemas de administração intra-oculares que permitam liberar concentrações terapêuticas das drogas por período prolongado. Tais sistemas podem proporcionar inúmeras vantagens, como: aumentar a biodisponibilidade e a concentração local da droga, atingir especificamente um tipo de tecido ou célula, reduzir a freqüência de injeções intra-oculares. Tais vantagens podem aumentar o conforto do paciente e reduzir as complicações observadas com a utilização das injeções intra-oculares. Diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas têm sido desenvolvidos com as finalidades acima descritas. Estes sistemas podem ser compostos por polímeros biodegradáveis ou não-biodegradáveis ou serem formulações lipídicas. Os sistemas de transporte de drogas são representados, principalmente, pelas micro e nanopartículas e pelos implantes, sendo eles compostos por diferentes polímeros; pelos lipossomos, que são compostos por lípides e emulsionantes; e pela iontoforese, que se baseia na aplicação de corrente elétrica. Nesta revisão, as principais características dos diferentes sistemas de transporte de drogas serão descritas, expondo suas potencialidades de aplicação clínica.The diseases of the posterior segment of the eye are responsible for most cases of irreversible blindness worldwide. These conditions stimulate the development of new modalities of treatment for vitreoretinal diseases. The success in the treatment aims, mainly

  15. Fibrinous anterior uveitis following laser in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmar Pragya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old woman who underwent laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for myopic astigmatism in both eyes presented with severe pain, photophobia and decreased visual acuity in the left eye eight days after surgery. Examination revealed severe anterior uveitis with fibrinous exudates in the anterior chamber, flap edema and epithelial bullae. Laboratory investigations for uveitis were negative and the patient required systemic and intensive topical steroids with cycloplegics to control the inflammation. This case demonstrates that severe anterior uveitis may develop after LASIK and needs prompt and vigorous management for resolution.

  16. Uneventful Anterior Migration of Intravitreal Ozurdex Implant in a Patient with Iris-Sutured Intraocular Lens and Descemet Stripping Automated Endothelial Keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andleeb Zafar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report here the case of a patient with anterior segment migration of intravitreal dexamethasone implant as well as its management and outcome. Methods: The patient had the following sequence of events: complicated cataract surgery, iris-sutured intraocular lens implant, followed by cystoid macular edema treated with intravitreal Avastin, retinal vein occlusion treated with intravitreal dexamethasone implant, corneal decompensation treated with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK, and finally recurrence of macular edema treated with repeated intravitreal dexamethasone implant. Results: Dexamethasone implant had completely dissolved from the eye 12 weeks after insertion without any complication. Conclusion: A conservative approach with regular monitoring in the situation of a quiet anterior segment without any corneal decompensation can provide enough time for the implant to dissolve without causing any complication to the involved eye, avoiding any additional surgical intervention, as presented in this case report. Despite the fact that the implant was left for natural dissolution, there were no adverse effects related to the graft or the eye.

  17. Pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule and age-associated pigment dispersion of variable degree in a group of older African-Americans: an age, race, and gender matched study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D K; Winters, J E; Castells, D D; Clark, C A; Teitelbaum, B A

    2001-01-01

    To investigate pigmented striae of the anterior lens capsule in African-Americans, a potential indicator of significant anterior segment pigment dispersion. A group of 40 African-American subjects who exhibited pigmented lens striae (PLS) were identified from a non-referred, primary eye care population in Chicago, IL, USA. These subjects were then compared to an age, race, and gender matched control group relative to refractive error and the presence or absence of diabetes and hypertension. The PLS subjects (mean age = 65.4 +/- 8.8 years, range = 50-87 years) consisted of 36 females and 4 males. PLS were bilateral in 36 (85%) of the 40 subjects. Among the eyes with PLS, 21 (55%) of 38 right eyes and 22 (61%) of 36 left eyes also had significant corneal endothelial pigment dusting, commonly in the shape of a Krukenberg's spindle. Ten (25%) of the PLS subjects had either glaucoma or ocular hypertension (7 bilateral, 3 unilateral). The presence of trabecular meshwork pigment varied from minimal to heavy. The mean +/- SD (range) refractive error of the PLS right eyes was +1.61 +/- 1.43D (-1.50 to +5.00D) and +1.77 +/- 1.37D (-1.00 to +5.00D) for the left eyes. Based on these data, the PLS right eyes were +1.63D (Student's t, p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.82 to +2.44D) more hyperopic on average than the control right eyes, and the PLS left eyes were +1.77D (p = 0.0001; 95% CI = +0.92 to +2.63D) more hyperopic on average than the control left eyes. Trend analysis showed a gradually increasing likelihood of PLS with increasing magnitude of hyperopia in both eyes (Mantel-Haenszel chi-square, p = 0.001). Among PLS subjects, 24 (60%) of 40 were hypertensive and 9 (23%) of 40 were diabetic. However, these proportions were not significantly different (two-tailed Fisher's exact test; hypertension: p = 0.30; diabetes: p = 0.70) from the randomly selected controls. Among our African-American group, which consisted predominately of females >50 years of age, the likelihood of PLS

  18. Anterior perineal hernia after anterior exenteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ka Wing Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Perineal hernia is a rare complication of anterior exenteration. We reported this complication after an anterior exenteration for bladder cancer with bleeding complication requiring packing and second-look laparotomy. Perineal approach is a simple and effective method for repair of perineal hernia.

  19. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  20. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  1. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  2. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  3. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  4. Inferior Oblique Overaction: Anterior Transposition Versus Myectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sayanjali, Shima; Motevaseli, Tahmine; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition for correcting inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). This retrospective study was conducted on 56 patients with IOOA who had either myectomy or anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle from 2010 to 2015. The authors compared preoperative and postoperative inferior oblique muscle function grading (-4 to +4) as the main outcome measure and vertical and horizontal deviation, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and A- and V-pattern between the two surgical groups as secondary outcomes. A total of 99 eyes of 56 patients with a mean age of 5.9 ± 6.5 years were included (47 eyes in the myectomy group and 52 eyes in the anterior transposition group). There were no differences in preoperative best corrected visual acuity, amblyopia, spherical equivalent, and primary versus secondary IOOA between the two groups. Both surgical procedures were effective in reducing IOOA and satisfactory results were similar between the two groups: 61.7% and 67.3% in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively (P = .56). After adjustment for the preoperative DVD, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups postoperatively. The preoperative hypertropia was 6 to 14 and 6 to 18 prism diopters (PD) in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively. After surgery, no patient had a vertical deviation greater than 5 PD. Both the inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition procedures are effective in reducing IOOA with similar satisfactory results. DVD and hypertropia were also corrected similarly by these two surgical procedures. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):232-237.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Biocompatibility and biodegradation studies of subconjunctival implants in rabbit eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Peng

    Full Text Available Sustained ocular drug delivery is difficult to achieve. Most drugs have poor penetration due to the multiple physiological barriers of the eye and are rapidly cleared if applied topically. Biodegradable subconjunctival implants with controlled drug release may circumvent these two problems. In our study, two microfilms (poly [d,l-lactide-co-glycolide] PLGA and poly[d,l-lactide-co-caprolactone] PLC were developed and evaluated for their degradation behavior in vitro and in vivo. We also evaluated the biocompatibility of both microfilms. Eighteen eyes (9 rabbits were surgically implanted with one type of microfilm in each eye. Serial anterior-segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT scans together with serial slit-lamp microscopy allowed us to measure thickness and cross-sectional area of the microfilms. In vitro studies revealed bulk degradation kinetics for both microfilms, while in vivo studies demonstrated surface erosion kinetics. Serial slit-lamp microscopy revealed no significant inflammation or vascularization in both types of implants (mean increase in vascularity grade PLGA50/50 12±0.5% vs. PLC70/30 15±0.6%; P = 0.91 over a period of 6 months. Histology, immunohistochemistry and immuno-fluorescence also revealed no significant inflammatory reaction from either of the microfilms, which confirmed that both microfilms are biocompatible. The duration of the drug delivery can be tailored by selecting the materials, which have different degradation kinetics, to suit the desired clinical therapeutic application.

  6. A novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Tao (陶亮); Juanjuan Gu (顾涓涓); Zhenquan Zhuang (庄镇泉)

    2003-01-01

    Based on geometrical facial features and image segmentation, we present a novel algorithm for automatic localization of human eyes in grayscale or color still images with complex background. Firstly, a determination criterion of eye location is established by the prior knowledge of geometrical facial features. Secondly,a range of threshold values that would separate eye blocks from others in a segmented face image (I.e.,a binary image) are estimated. Thirdly, with the progressive increase of the threshold by an appropriate step in that range, once two eye blocks appear from the segmented image, they will be detected by the determination criterion of eye location. Finally, the 2D correlation coefficient is used as a symmetry similarity measure to check the factuality of the two detected eyes. To avoid the background interference, skin color segmentation can be applied in order to enhance the accuracy of eye detection. The experimental results demonstrate the high efficiency of the algorithm and correct localization rate.

  7. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  8. The eye: A window to the soul of the immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, V L; Saeed, A M; Tan, Y; Urbieta, M; Cruz-Guilloty, F

    2013-09-01

    The eye is considered as an immune privileged site, and with good reason. It has evolved a variety of molecular and cellular mechanisms that limit immune responses to preserve vision. For example, the cornea is mainly protected from autoimmunity by the lack of blood and lymphatic vessels, whereas the retina-blood barrier is maintained in an immunosuppressive state by the retinal pigment epithelium. However, there are several scenarios in which immune privilege is altered and the eye becomes susceptible to immune attack. In this review, we highlight the role of the immune system in two clinical conditions that affect the anterior and posterior segments of the eye: corneal transplantation and age-related macular degeneration. Interestingly, crosstalk between the innate and adaptive immune systems is critical in both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in the eye, with T cells playing a central role in combination with neutrophils and macrophages. In addition, we emphasize the advantage of using the eye as a model for in vivo longitudinal imaging of the immune system in action. Through this technique, it has been possible to identify functionally distinct intra-graft motility patterns of responding T cells, as well as the importance of chemokine signaling in situ for T cell activation. The detailed study of ocular autoimmunity could provide novel therapeutic strategies for blinding diseases while also providing more general information on acute versus chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the anterior chamber parameters after laser iridotomy in primary angle close suspect using Pentacam and gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Alireza; Barazandeh, Behzad; Ahmadi, Sina; Haghi, Alireza; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi; Abolbashari, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the anterior segment parameters of the subjects with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) before and after laser iridotomy (LI) using the Pentacam and gonioscopy. Forty-eight eyes of 48 PACS were included. Anterior chamber angle (ACA), central anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded from the Pentacam before and one month after LI. ACA was graded according to Shaffer classification using the Goldmann gonioscopy. ACA increased significantly from 25.59±4.41 to 26.46±4.33 degrees (P=0.009) and ACV changed from 85.97±16.07mm(3) to 99.25±15.83mm(3) (P=0.000). The changes in ACD, CCT and intraocular pressure were non-significant (P>0.05). Gonioscopy showed significant widening of the Shaffer angle in 4 quadrants (P<0.001). Pentacam can serve as the objective instrument in assessing the efficacy of LI.

  10. Evaluation of the anterior chamber angle in glaucoma: a report by the american academy of ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott D; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C; Chen, Philip P; Chen, Teresa C; Francis, Brian A; Jampel, Henry D

    2013-10-01

    To assess the published literature pertaining to the association between anterior segment imaging and gonioscopy and to determine whether such imaging aids in the diagnosis of primary angle closure (PAC). Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted on July 6, 2011. The searches yielded 371 unique citations. Members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel reviewed the titles and abstracts of these articles and selected 134 of possible clinical significance for further review. The panel reviewed the full text of these articles and identified 79 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on a standardized grading scheme adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Three, 70, and 6 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative parameters defined from ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT), Scheimpflug photography, and the scanning peripheral anterior chamber depth analyzer (SPAC) demonstrate a strong association with the results of gonioscopy. There is substantial variability in the type of information obtained from each imaging method. Imaging of structures posterior to the iris is possible only with UBM. Direct imaging of the anterior chamber angle (ACA) is possible using UBM and OCT. The ability to acquire OCT images in a completely dark environment allows greater sensitivity in detecting eyes with appositional angle closure. Noncontact imaging using OCT, Scheimpflug photography, or SPAC makes these methods more attractive for large-scale PAC screening than contact imaging using UBM. Although there is evidence suggesting that anterior segment imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of PAC, none of these imaging methods provides sufficient information about the ACA anatomy to be considered a substitute for

  11. A Novel Iris Segmentation Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chung Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key steps in the iris recognition system is the accurate iris segmentation from its surrounding noises including pupil, sclera, eyelashes, and eyebrows of a captured eye-image. This paper presents a novel iris segmentation scheme which utilizes the orientation matching transform to outline the outer and inner iris boundaries initially. It then employs Delogne-Kåsa circle fitting (instead of the traditional Hough transform to further eliminate the outlier points to extract a more precise iris area from an eye-image. In the extracted iris region, the proposed scheme further utilizes the differences in the intensity and positional characteristics of the iris, eyelid, and eyelashes to detect and delete these noises. The scheme is then applied on iris image database, UBIRIS.v1. The experimental results show that the presented scheme provides a more effective and efficient iris segmentation than other conventional methods.

  12. Segmentation: Identification of consumer segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høg, Esben

    2005-01-01

    It is very common to categorise people, especially in the advertising business. Also traditional marketing theory has taken in consumer segments as a favorite topic. Segmentation is closely related to the broader concept of classification. From a historical point of view, classification has its...... origin in other sciences as for example biology, anthropology etc. From an economic point of view, it is called segmentation when specific scientific techniques are used to classify consumers to different characteristic groupings. What is the purpose of segmentation? For example, to be able to obtain...... a basic understanding of grouping people. Advertising agencies may use segmentation totarget advertisements, while food companies may usesegmentation to develop products to various groups of consumers. MAPP has for example investigated the positioning of fish in relation to other food products...

  13. Segmental Vitiligo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Geel, Nanja; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2017-04-01

    Segmental vitiligo is characterized by its early onset, rapid stabilization, and unilateral distribution. Recent evidence suggests that segmental and nonsegmental vitiligo could represent variants of the same disease spectrum. Observational studies with respect to its distribution pattern point to a possible role of cutaneous mosaicism, whereas the original stated dermatomal distribution seems to be a misnomer. Although the exact pathogenic mechanism behind the melanocyte destruction is still unknown, increasing evidence has been published on the autoimmune/inflammatory theory of segmental vitiligo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of hemodialysis on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry and intraocular pressure in patients with end-stage renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehtap Caglayan

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hemodialysis (HD on corneal and anterior chamber morphometry, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with end-stage renal disease. Methods: Fifty right eyes were examined 30 minutes before and after HD. IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer, and Ehlers' formula was used to calculate the corrected IOP values. The central corneal thickness (CCT, corneal volume (CV, keratometric values, anterior chamber depth (ACD, aqueous depth (AQD, anterior chamber volume (ACV, and anterior chamber angle (ACA in the nasal and temporal quadrants were measured with a Sirius anterior segment analysis system. Blood urea nitrogen levels, body mass, and systolic and diastolic arterial pressure were also measured before and after HD. Results: The mean age was 60.80 ± 13.38 (range: 35-80 years. The mean uncorrected and corrected IOP values decreased from 18.06 ± 3.91 and 18.31 ± 4.83 mmHg to 16.94 ± 3.87 and 16.95 ± 4.74 mmHg after HD, respectively (p=0.011 and p=0.003, respectively. The mean CCT decreased from 536.38 ± 24.73 to 533.18 ± 27.25 µm (p=0.002, and the mean CV decreased from 57.52 ± 3.15 to 55.68 ± 3.55 mm³ (p0.05 for all values. There were no significant correlations between the ocular and systemic parameters (p>0.05 for all correlations. Conclusions: Uncorrected IOP, corrected IOP, CCT, and CV values decreased after HD, whereas the anterior chamber morphometry values remained similar between the measurements performed before and after HD.

  15. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  16. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okonkwo

    A 55-year-old male non insulin dependent diabetic. (diagnosed 10 years prior to presentation) presented to the retina clinic on the 6 of March 2006, with the complaint of th a one-year history of cloudy vision in his left eye. He had noticed a gradual painless clouding of his left eye vision. Examination revealed right eye visual ...

  17. Visual recovery from optic atrophy following acute optic neuropathy in the fellow eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Kemal; Ornek, Nurgül

    2012-06-01

    The left eye of a 65-year-old male was blind due to optic atrophy and only seeing eye had also dry type age-related macular degeneration. An anterior ischemic optic neuropathy developed in the better seeing eye. Vision recovered in the blind eye in a short time after losing the better eye. Gaining some vision in a blind eye may be an adaptation of visual pathway in such patients.

  18. Assessment of a new hydrophilic acrylic supplementary IOL for sulcus fixation in pseudophakic cadaver eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, N; Werner, L; Guan, J; Li, J; Tsaousis, K T; Mamalis, N; Srinivasan, S

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Management of refractive errors after cataract surgery includes spectacles or contact lens, secondary laser vision correction, intraocular lens (IOL) exchange, or piggyback lens implantation. We evaluated for the first time a single-piece hydrophilic acrylic IOL designed for supplementary sulcus fixation in postmortem pseudophakic human eyes. Methods Pseudophakic human cadaver eyes were imaged by anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS-OCT) to assess position of the primary IOL. Eyes were prepared as per the Miyake-Apple technique. The supplementary IOL (Medicontur A4 Addon IOL family) was then inserted into the ciliary sulcus. AS-OCT and photographs from anterior and posterior views were used to assess IOL centration, tilt, and interlenticular distance from the primary IOL. Results Data were obtained from 12 eyes having primary IOLs of varying materials and designs in the bag and representing different sizes of eyes and severity of Soemmering's ring formation. The A4 Addon IOL was successfully inserted into the ciliary sulcus and was well centered in all cases. Four cases of tilt were observed on AS-OCT: three with mild tilt due to pre-existing zonular dehiscence, and one due to a localized area of Soemmering's ring formation. Interlenticular distance ranged from 0.34 to 1.24 mm and was not dependent on severity of Soemmering's ring or type of primary IOL. Conclusions The A4 Addon IOL was designed for sulcus fixation as a supplementary lens, with a large diameter, a square-shaped optic, four smooth loop haptics, and a convex–concave optical surface. It exhibited appropriate centration and interlenticular distance with different primary in-the-bag IOLs. PMID:28106890

  19. Glaucoma anterior chamber morphometry based on optical Scheimpflug images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Ruiz Simonato; Ambrósio Junior, Renato; Paranhos Junior, Augusto; Sakata, Lisandro Massanori; Ventura, Marcelo Palis

    2010-01-01

    To compare the performance of gonioscopy and noncontact morphometry with anterior chamber tomography (High Resolution Pentacam - HR) using optical Scheimpflug images in the evaluation of the anterior chamber angle (ACA). Transversal study. 112 eyes from 74 subjects evaluated at the Glaucoma Department, Fluminense Federal University, underwent gonioscopy and Pentacam HR. Using gonioscopy, the ACA was graded using the Shaffer Classification (SC) by a single experienced examiner masked to the Pentacam HR findings. Narrow angle was determined in eyes in which the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen in two or more quadrants on non-indentation gonioscopy (SC Grade 2 or less). Pentacam HR images of the nasal and temporal quadrants were evaluated by custom software to automatically obtain anterior chamber measurements, such as: anterior chamber angle (ACA), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and anterior chamber depth (ACD). Based on gonioscopy results, 74 (60.07%) eyes of patients classified as open-angle (SC 3 and 4) and 38 (33.93%) eyes of patients classified as narrow-angle (SC 1 and 2). Noncontact morphometry with Scheimpflug images revealed a mean ACA of 39.20 ± 5.31 degrees for open-angle and 21.18 ± 7.98 degrees for narrow-angle. The open-angle group showed significant greater ACV and ACD values when compared to narrow-angle group (ACV of 193 ± 36 mm³ vs. 90 ± 25 mm³, respectively, p<0.001; and ACD of 3,09 ± 0,42 mm vs. 1,55 ± 0,64 mm, respectively, p<0.0001.). In screening eyes with open-angle and narrow-angle with the Pentacam ACA of 20º (SC Grade 2) using the ROC curves, the analysis showed 52.6% of sensitivity and 100% of specificity. The Pentacam showed ability in detecting eyes at risk for angle closure analyzing ACV and ACD.

  20. Penetrating eye injury in war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, J W; Valdez, J; Hemady, R K; Steidl, S M; Bourke, D L

    1999-11-01

    The percentage of penetrating eye injuries in war has increased significantly in this century compared with the total number of combat injuries. With the increasing use of fragmentation weapons and possibly laser weapons on the battle-field in the future, the rate of eye injuries may exceed the 13% of the total military injuries found in Operations Desert Storm/Shield. During the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), eye injuries revealed that retained foreign bodies and posterior segment injuries have an improved prognosis in future military ophthalmic surgery as a result of modern diagnostic and treatment modalities. Compared with the increasing penetrating eye injuries on the battlefield, advances in ophthalmic surgery are insignificant. Eye armor, such as visors that flip up and down and protect the eyes from laser injury, needs to be developed. Similar eye protection is being developed in civilian sportswear. Penetrating eye injury in the civilian sector is becoming much closer to the military model and is now comparable for several reasons.

  1. A prospective study demonstrating the effect of 5% povidone-iodine application for anterior segment intraocular surgery in Paraguay Estudio prospectivo demostrando el efecto de la instilación de yodo povidona al 5% previo a cirugía de segmento anterior en Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena P. Quiroga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the conjunctival bacterial flora in cataract surgery patients and the effect of presurgical irrigation with 5% povidone-iodine solution. METHODS: Three samples from the inferior conjunctival fornix of the eye to be operated were obtained at baseline before washing (T0 with 10 ml 5% povidone-iodine solution, immediately after washing (T1, and upon completion of surgery (T2. Bacteria from the samples were inoculated in blood agar, chocolate agar, and thioglycolate broth. RESULTS: A total of 221 patients (n=224 eyes with a mean age of 67 ± 13 years were included in the study. Bacteria from the (T0 samples were successfully grown in 73.2% of the thioglycolate agars, 21.0% of the blood agars, and 19.2% of the chocolate agars. Compared with T1 samples, the use of povidone-iodine wash translated into a 60.8% reduction (from 73.2% to 12.5% in colonization of the conjunctiva (pOBJETIVO: Determinar la flora bacteriana de la conjuntiva en los pacientes a ser sometidos a cirugía de catarata y el efecto del lavado prequirúrgico con yodo povidona al 5% sobre dichos microorganismos. MÉTODOS: Se tomaron 3 muestras del fondo de saco conjuntival del ojo a ser operado de catarata antes (T0 de la irrigación de la conjuntiva con 10 ml de yodo povidona al 5%, como control, inmediatamente después (T1 y al término de la cirugía (T2. Se realizaron cultivos en agar sangre, agar chocolate y en caldo de tioglicolato. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron en el estudio 221 pacientes (n=24 ojos con un promedio de edad de 67 ± 13 años. El porcentaje de crecimiento bacteriano en (T0 fue de 73,2% en tioglicolato, 21% en agar sangre y 19,2 % en agar chocolate. Al compararlo con (T1 el efecto de la yodo povidona se tradujo en una reducción del 60,8% (de 73,2% a 12,5% en la colonización conjuntival (p<0.001. Entre las muestras de los tiempos T1 y T2 no hubo diferencia significativa en cuanto al crecimiento bacteriano. CONCLUSIÓN: El lavado conjuntival con

  2. Lipid Peroxidation: Pathophysiology and Pharmacological Implications in the Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya Fatou eNjie-Mbye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-derived free radicals such as hydroxyl and hydroperoxyl species have been shown to oxidize phospholipids and other membrane lipid components leading to lipid peroxidation. In the eye, lipid peroxidation has been reported to play an important role in degenerative ocular diseases (age-related macular degeneration, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy. Indeed, ocular tissues are prone to damage from reactive oxygen species due to stress from constant exposure of the eye to sunlight, atmospheric oxygen and environmental chemicals. Furthermore, free radical catalyzed peroxidation of long chain polyunsaturated acids (LCPUFAs such as arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid leads to generation of LCPUFA metabolites including isoprostanes and neuroprostanes that may further exert pharmacological/toxicological actions in ocular tissues. Evidence from literature supports the presence of endogenous defense mechanisms against reactive oxygen species in the eye, thereby presenting new avenues for the prevention and treatment of ocular degeneration. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and synthetic peroxides can exert pharmacological and toxicological effects on tissues of the anterior uvea of several mammalian species. There is evidence suggesting that the retina, especially retinal ganglion cells can exhibit unique characteristics of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the posterior segment of the eye, H2O2 and synthetic peroxides produce an inhibitory action on glutamate release (using [3H]-D-aspartate as a marker, in vitro and on the endogenous glutamate and glycine concentrations in vivo. In addition to peroxides, isoprostanes can elicit both excitatory and inhibitory effects on norepinephrine (NE release from sympathetic nerves in isolated mammalian iris ciliary bodies. Whereas isoprostanes attenuate dopamine release from mammalian neural retina, in vitro, these novel arachidonic acid metabolites exhibit a biphasic regulatory effect on glutamate release

  3. Topical Delivery of Anti-VEGF Drugs to the Ocular Posterior Segment Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cogan, Felicity; Hill, Lisa J; Lynch, Aisling; Morgan-Warren, Peter J; Lechner, Judith; Berwick, Matthew R; Peacock, Anna F A; Chen, Mei; Scott, Robert A H; Xu, Heping; Logan, Ann

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of anti-VEGF agents for treating choroidal neovascularization (CNV) when delivered topically using novel cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) compared with delivery by intravitreal (ivit) injection. CPP toxicity was investigated in cell cultures. Ivit concentrations of ranibizumab and bevacizumab after topical administration were measured using ELISA. The biological efficacy of topical anti-VEGF + CPP complexes was compared with ivit anti-VEGF injections using an established model of CNV. CPPs were nontoxic in vitro. In vivo, after topical eye drop delivery, CPPs were present in the rat anterior chamber within 6 minutes. A single application of CPP + bevacizumab eye drop delivered clinically relevant concentrations of bevacizumab to the posterior chamber of the rat eye in vivo. Similarly, clinically relevant levels of CPP + ranibizumab and CPP + bevacizumab were detected in the porcine vitreous and retina ex vivo. In an established model of CNV, mice treated with either a single ivit injection of anti-VEGF, twice daily CPP + anti-VEGF eye drops or daily dexamethasone gavage for 10 days all had significantly reduced areas of CNV when compared with lasered eyes without treatment. CPPs are nontoxic to ocular cells and can be used to deliver therapeutically relevant doses of ranibizumab and bevacizumab by eye drop to the posterior segment of mouse, rat, and pig eyes. The CPP + anti-VEGF drug complexes were cleared from the retina within 24 hours, suggesting a daily eye drop dosing regimen. Daily, topically delivered anti-VEGF with CPP was as efficacious as a single ivit injection of anti-VEGF in reducing areas of CNV in vivo.

  4. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose of this current study is to summarize the clinical features and laboratory investigations that could help the differential diagnosis of acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis cases. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: Supplement 57-62

  5. VISUAL OUTCOME OF TRAUMATIC PAEDIATRIC CATARACT AT A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE IN WEST BENGAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiti Rani Srivastava

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Traumatic cataract is common presentation of penetrating and blunt ocular trauma in children. Ocular trauma is the leading cause of unilateral blindness all over the world. The incidence of ocular trauma varies in different parts of the world. From India, the reported incidence is 20.53%. Traumatic cataract causes significant blindness in paediatric populations particularly in developing countries. The aim of the study is to evaluate the final visual outcome of the patients with traumatic cataract. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a prospective study of 100 children from 4 to 16 years of age presenting in Outpatient Department of Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Kolkata, with traumatic cataract between April 2015 to March 2017. Detailed history, systemic and local examinations and relevant investigations done followed by medical and surgical intervention and patients were followed up till six months and final visual acuity recorded. RESULTS There was a male predilection with a male-to-female ratio 2.85:1.56 (56% patients sustained penetrating trauma, while 44 (44% were inflicted with blunt injury. Commonest causative agent was trauma with organic foreign bodies in 20 eyes (20% followed by stones in 14 eyes (14%. Anterior segment was more involved than posterior segment. Final best corrected visual acuity after six months was better than or equal to 6/18 in 64 eyes (64%. The major early postoperative complications include anterior uveitis in 26 (26% and corneal oedema in 8 (8% patients, while late postoperative complication was posterior capsular uveitis in 36% patients. CONCLUSION Paediatric traumatic cataract can cause ocular morbidity. Timely and proper medical and surgical intervention can result in good visual outcome. The parents, caretakers and teachers have an important role to play in prevention by recognising hazardous situation and taking preventing measures.

  6. Light intensity modulates corneal power and refraction in the chick eye exposed to continuous light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Yuval; Belkin, Michael; Yehezkel, Oren; Avni, Isaac; Polat, Uri

    2008-09-01

    Continuous exposure of chicks to light was shown to result in severe hyperopia, accompanied by anterior segment changes, such as severe corneal flattening. Since rearing chicks in complete darkness results only in mild hyperopia and minor changes in corneal curvature, we hypothesized that light intensity may play a role in the development of refractive changes under continuous light illumination. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of rearing chicks under various continuous light intensities. More specifically, we investigated the refractive parameters of the chicks' eyes, and avoided light cycling effects on ocular development. To this end, thirty-eight chicks were reared under 24-h incandescent illumination, at three different light intensities: 10,000 lux (n=13), 500 lux (n=12), and 50 lux (n=13). Their eyes underwent repeated retinoscopy, keratometry, and ultrasound biometry, as well as caliper measurements of enucleated eyes. Both refraction and corneal refractive power were found to be correlated with light intensity. On day 90 after hatching, exposure to light intensities of 10,000, 500, and 50 lux resulted in hyperopia of +11.97+/-3.7 (mean+/-SD) +7.9+/-4.08 and +0.63+/-3.61 diopters (D), respectively. Under those intensities, corneal refractive power was 46.10+/-3.62, 49.72+/-4.16, and 56.88+/-4.92D, respectively. Axial length did not differ significantly among the groups. The vitreous chamber was significantly deeper in the high than in the low-intensity groups. Thus, during the early life of chicks exposed to continuous lighting, light intensity affects the vitreous chamber depth as well as the anterior segment parameters, most notably the cornea. The higher the intensity, the more severe was the corneal flattening observed and the hyperopia that developed, whereas continuous illumination at low intensities resulted in emmetropia. Thus, light intensity is an important factor that should be taken into account when studying refractive

  7. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  8. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  9. Galvanic vestibular stimulation may improve anterior bending posture in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yohei; Kita, Yorihiro; Nakamura, Junji; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Kiriyama, Takao; Ueno, Satoshi; Hiyamizu, Makoto; Morioka, Shu; Shomoto, Koji

    2015-05-06

    This study investigated the effects of binaural monopolar galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), which likely stimulates the bilateral vestibular system, on the anterior bending angle in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) with anterior bending posture in a single-blind, randomized sham-controlled crossover trial. The seven PD patients completed two types of stimulation (binaural monopolar GVS and sham stimulation) applied in a random order 1 week apart. We measured each patient's anterior bending angles while he or she stood with eyes open and eyes closed before/after the stimulations. The anterior bending angles in both the eyes-open and the eyes-closed conditions were significantly reduced after the GVS. The amount of change in the eyes-closed condition post-GVS was significantly larger than that by sham stimulation. The amount of change in anterior bending angles in the GVS condition was not significantly correlated with Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale motor score, disease duration, the duration of the postural deformities, and the anterior bending angles before the GVS. Binaural monopolar GVS might improve anterior bending posture in PD patients, irrespective of the duration and the severity of disease and postural deformities. Binaural monopolar GVS might be a novel treatment strategy to improve anterior bending posture in PD.

  10. Mixed segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Allan Grutt; Bonde, Anders; Aagaard, Morten

    content analysis and audience segmentation in a single-source perspective. The aim is to explain and understand target groups in relation to, on the one hand, emotional response to commercials or other forms of audio-visual communication and, on the other hand, living preferences and personality traits...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  13. Causes of Red Eye-Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Selçuk Sızmaz

    2012-01-01

    Uveitis, being an important cause of ocular morbidity, must be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis and the management of patients with red eye. Uveitis entities can demonstrate variable clinical features. Patients presenting with uveitis must undergo careful systemic evaluation for exact diagnosis and treatment. Studies for standardization of uveitis with variable clinical pictures are emerging. Acute anterior uveitis and panuveitis can cause red eye. The purpose o...

  14. Effects of artificial tear treatment on corneal epithelial thickness and corneal topography findings in dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, B; Doğan, E; Çelik, E; Babashli, T; Uçak, T; Alagöz, G

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the effects of artificial tear treatment on central corneal epithelial thickness, and central, mid-peripheral and peripheral corneal thicknesses in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with DED underwent ocular examinations, including Schirmer-2 test, slit lamp examination for tear break-up time (BUT), corneal topography (CT) for measuring mean central, mid-peripheral and peripheral corneal thickness values and anterior segment optic coherence tomography (AS-OCT) for obtaining central corneal epithelial thickness. After artificial tear treatment (carboxymethylcellulose and sodium hyaluronate formulations) for one month, patients were examined again at a second visit and the results were compared. Sixty-one eyes of 33 female dry eye patients (mean age: 38.3±5.7 years) were enrolled. The mean follow-up time was 36.4±3.3 days. The mean tear BUT and Schirmer-1 tests revealed significant improvement after treatment (P=0.000, P=0.000, respectively). Central corneal epithelium and mean mid-peripheral corneal thicknesses measured significantly higher after treatment (P=0.001, P=0.02). Changes in central and peripheral corneal thicknesses were not statistically significant. Artificial tear treatment in dry eye patients seems to increase central corneal epithelial and mid-peripheral corneal thicknesses. Measurement of corneal epithelial thickness can be a useful tool for evaluation of treatment response in dry eye patients. Further long-term prospective studies are needed to investigate this item. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cerebral artery originates from the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery lateral to the optic chiasm, then joins with its contralateral counterpart via the anterior communicating artery. A1-anterior communicating artery complex is the most frequent anatomical variants and is the major site of aneurysms between 30 to 37%. Know the anatomy microsurgical, variants anatomical and importance of complex precommunicating segment-artery anterior communicating in surgery neurological of the pathology vascular, mainly aneurysms, in Mexican population. The study was performed in 30 brains injected. Microanatomy was studied (length and diameter) of A1-anterior communicating artery complex and its variants. 60 segments A1, the average length of left side was 11.35 mm and 11.84 mm was right. The average diameter of left was 1.67 mm and the right was 1.64 mm. The average number of perforators on the left side was 7.9 and the right side was 7.5. Anterior communicating artery was found in 29 brains of the optic chiasm, its course depended on the length of the A1 segment. The average length of the segment was 2.84 mm, the average diameter was 1.41 mm and the average number of perforators was 3.27. A1-anterior communicating artery complex variants were found in 18 (60%) and the presence of two blister-like aneurysms. It is necessary to understand the A1-anterior communicating artery complex microanatomy of its variants to have a three-dimensional vision during aneurysm surgery.

  16. Capsid Mutated Adeno-Associated Virus Delivered to the Anterior Chamber Results in Efficient Transduction of Trabecular Meshwork in Mouse and Rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Bogner

    Full Text Available Adeno associated virus (AAV is well known for its ability to deliver transgenes to retina and to mediate improvements in animal models and patients with inherited retinal disease. Although the field is less advanced, there is growing interest in AAV's ability to target cells of the anterior segment. The purpose of our study was to fully articulate a reliable and reproducible method for injecting the anterior chamber (AC of mice and rats and to investigate the transduction profiles of AAV2- and AAV8-based capsid mutants containing self-complementary (sc genomes in the anterior segment of the eye.AC injections were performed in C57BL/6 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. The cornea was punctured anterior of the iridocorneal angle. To seal the puncture site and to prevent reflux an air bubble was created in the AC. scAAVs expressing GFP were injected and transduction was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Both parent serotype and capsid modifications affected expression. scAAV2- based vectors mediated efficient GFP-signal in the corneal endothelium, ciliary non-pigmented epithelium (NPE, iris and chamber angle including trabecular meshwork, with scAAV2(Y444F and scAAV2(triple being the most efficient.This is the first study to semi quantitatively evaluate transduction of anterior segment tissues following injection of capsid-mutated AAV vectors. scAAV2- based vectors transduced corneal endothelium, ciliary NPE, iris and trabecular meshwork more effectively than scAAV8-based vectors. Mutagenesis of surface-exposed tyrosine residues greatly enhanced transduction efficiency of scAAV2 in these tissues. The number of Y-F mutations was not directly proportional to transduction efficiency, however, suggesting that proteosomal avoidance alone may not be sufficient. These results are applicable to the development of targeted, gene-based strategies to investigate pathological processes of the anterior segment and may be applied toward the development of gene

  17. Single-segment and double-segment INTACS for post-LASIK ectasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to compare single segment and double segment INTACS rings in the treatment of post-LASIK ectasia. In this interventional study, 26 eyes with post-LASIK ectasia were assessed. Ectasia was defined as progressive myopia regardless of astigmatism, along with topographic evidence of inferior steepening of the cornea after LASIK. We excluded those with a history of intraocular surgery, certain eye conditions, and immune disorders, as well as monocular, pregnant and lactating patients. A total of 11 eyes had double ring and 15 eyes had single ring implantation. Visual and refractive outcomes were compared with preoperative values based on the number of implanted INTACS rings. Pre and postoperative spherical equivalent were -3.92 and -2.29 diopter (P=0.007. The spherical equivalent decreased by 1 ± 3.2 diopter in the single-segment group and 2.56 ± 1.58 diopter in the double-segment group (P=0.165. Mean preoperative astigmatism was 2.38 ± 1.93 diopter which decreased to 2.14 ± 1.1 diopter after surgery (P=0.508; 0.87 ± 1.98 diopter decrease in the single-segment group and 0.67 ± 1.2 diopter increase in the double-segment group (P=0.025. Nineteen patients (75% gained one or two lines, and only three, who were all in the double-segment group, lost one or two lines of best corrected visual acuity. The spherical equivalent and vision significantly decreased in all patients. In these post-LASIK ectasia patients, the spherical equivalent was corrected better with two segments compared to single segment implantation; nonetheless, the level of astigmatism in the single-segment group was significantly better than that in the double-segment group.

  18. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  19. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/ ...

  20. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services ... Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ... Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External ...

  1. Eye Complications of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Skoludek_R

    The introduction of highly active anti-retroretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the epidemiology of AIDS from ... Diagnosis and treatment of anterior segment disorders ... Carbamazepine 200 mg every night. .... AIDS and cancer in Africa.

  2. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education ... Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment ...

  3. Are 3-D Movies Bad for Your Eyes?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Subspecialties Cataract/Anterior Segment Comprehensive Ophthalmology Cornea/External Disease Glaucoma Neuro-Ophthalmology/Orbit Pediatric Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/ ...

  4. Accurate estimation of dose distributions inside an eye irradiated with {sup 106}Ru plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brualla, L.; Sauerwein, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). NCTeam, Strahlenklinik; Sempau, J.; Zaragoza, F.J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Tecniques Energetiques; Wittig, A. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    2013-01-15

    Background: Irradiation of intraocular tumors requires dedicated techniques, such as brachytherapy with {sup 106}Ru plaques. The currently available treatment planning system relies on the assumption that the eye is a homogeneous water sphere and on simplified radiation transport physics. However, accurate dose distributions and their assessment demand better models for both the eye and the physics. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, conveniently adapted to simulate the beta decay of {sup 106}Ru over {sup 106}Rh into {sup 106}Pd, was used to simulate radiation transport based on a computerized tomography scan of a patient's eye. A detailed geometrical description of two plaques (models CCA and CCB) from the manufacturer BEBIG was embedded in the computerized tomography scan. Results: The simulations were firstly validated by comparison with experimental results in a water phantom. Dose maps were computed for three plaque locations on the eyeball. From these maps, isodose curves and cumulative dose-volume histograms in the eye and for the structures at risk were assessed. For example, it was observed that a 4-mm anterior displacement with respect to a posterior placement of a CCA plaque for treating a posterior tumor would reduce from 40 to 0% the volume of the optic disc receiving more than 80 Gy. Such a small difference in anatomical position leads to a change in the dose that is crucial for side effects, especially with respect to visual acuity. The radiation oncologist has to bring these large changes in absorbed dose in the structures at risk to the attention of the surgeon, especially when the plaque has to be positioned close to relevant tissues. Conclusion: The detailed geometry of an eye plaque in computerized and segmented tomography of a realistic patient phantom was simulated accurately. Dose-volume histograms for relevant anatomical structures of the eye and the orbit were obtained with unprecedented accuracy. This represents an important step

  5. Accurate estimation of dose distributions inside an eye irradiated with 106Ru plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brualla, L.; Sauerwein, W.; Sempau, J.; Zaragoza, F.J.; Wittig, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Irradiation of intraocular tumors requires dedicated techniques, such as brachytherapy with 106 Ru plaques. The currently available treatment planning system relies on the assumption that the eye is a homogeneous water sphere and on simplified radiation transport physics. However, accurate dose distributions and their assessment demand better models for both the eye and the physics. Methods: The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE, conveniently adapted to simulate the beta decay of 106 Ru over 106 Rh into 106 Pd, was used to simulate radiation transport based on a computerized tomography scan of a patient's eye. A detailed geometrical description of two plaques (models CCA and CCB) from the manufacturer BEBIG was embedded in the computerized tomography scan. Results: The simulations were firstly validated by comparison with experimental results in a water phantom. Dose maps were computed for three plaque locations on the eyeball. From these maps, isodose curves and cumulative dose-volume histograms in the eye and for the structures at risk were assessed. For example, it was observed that a 4-mm anterior displacement with respect to a posterior placement of a CCA plaque for treating a posterior tumor would reduce from 40 to 0% the volume of the optic disc receiving more than 80 Gy. Such a small difference in anatomical position leads to a change in the dose that is crucial for side effects, especially with respect to visual acuity. The radiation oncologist has to bring these large changes in absorbed dose in the structures at risk to the attention of the surgeon, especially when the plaque has to be positioned close to relevant tissues. Conclusion: The detailed geometry of an eye plaque in computerized and segmented tomography of a realistic patient phantom was simulated accurately. Dose-volume histograms for relevant anatomical structures of the eye and the orbit were obtained with unprecedented accuracy. This represents an important step toward an optimized

  6. Cilioretinal artery occlusion and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy as the initial presentation in a child female carrier of Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoz, M Giray; Ture, Gamze

    2018-04-01

    To report the youngest female carrier of Fabry disease, complicated by cilioretinal artery occlusion and anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). Case report. An 11-year-old girl was referred to our clinic with painless, acute loss of vision in her right eye. Posterior segment examination and fluorescein angiography revealed cilioretinal artery occlusion and AION. Systemic evaluations were unremarkable, except for a low blood α-galactosidase A enzyme level of 242.27 pmol/spot*20 h (reference range: 450-2000 pmol/spot*20 h). The patient was diagnosed with female carrier of Fabry disease. Retinal vascular occlusions are rare in childhood, and Fabry disease may present with retinal vascular occlusion. Ophthalmological examinations may be contributing for early detection of the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a child female carrier of Fabry disease, complicated by cilioretinal artery occlusion and AION.

  7. Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Cheng, Jun; Perera, Shamira A; Tun, Tin A; Liu, Jiang; Aung, Tin

    2014-10-21

    To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCam angle images in comparison with manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were two or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). One hundred forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, most of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and women (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison with 59 eyes (42.1%, P = 0.73) using manual grading, and 67 eyes (47.9%, P = 0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (κ = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (κ = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs. 0.954, P = 0.31) of EyeCam images. Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  8. Retina image–based optic disc segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Lin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The change of optic disc can be used to diagnose many eye diseases, such as glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and macular degeneration. Moreover, retinal blood vessel pattern is unique for human beings even for identical twins. It is a highly stable pattern in biometric identification. Since optic disc is the beginning of the optic nerve and main blood vessels in retina, it can be used as a reference point of identification. Therefore, optic disc segmentation is an important technique for developing a human identity recognition system and eye disease diagnostic system. This article hence presents an optic disc segmentation method to extract the optic disc from a retina image. The experimental results show that the optic disc segmentation method can give impressive results in segmenting the optic disc from a retina image.

  9. Is ultrasonography essential before surgery in eyes with advanced cataracts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Amjad

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. Aim: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. Setting: Tertiary care hospital in South India. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. Results: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6% had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1% was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P=0.003 and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P=0.001 were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P=0.000, iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P=0.000, inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P=0.002, elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P=0.004, and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P=0.004 were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5% without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. Conclusions: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.

  10. In vivo imaging of palisades of Vogt in dry eye versus normal subjects using en-face spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajdene Ghouali

    Full Text Available To evaluate a possible clinical application of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT using en-face module for the imaging of the corneoscleral limbus in normal subjects and dry eye patients.Seventy-six subjects were included in this study. Seventy eyes of 35 consecutive patients with dry eye disease and 82 eyes of 41 healthy control subjects were investigated. All subjects were examined with the Avanti RTVue® anterior segment OCT. En-face OCT images of the corneoscleral limbus were acquired in four quadrants (inferior, superior, nasal and temporal and then were analyzed semi-quantitatively according to whether or not palisades of Vogt (POV were visible. En-face OCT images were then compared to in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM in eleven eyes of 7 healthy and dry eye patients.En-face SD-OCT showed POV as a radially oriented network, located in superficial corneoscleral limbus, with a good correlation with IVCM features. It provided an easy and reproducible identification of POV without any special preparation or any direct contact, with a grading scale from 0 (no visualization to 3 (high visualization. The POV were found predominantly in superior (P<0.001 and inferior (P<0.001 quadrants when compared to the nasal and temporal quadrants for all subjects examined. The visibility score decreased with age (P<0.001 and was lower in dry eye patients (P<0.01. In addition, the score decreased in accordance with the severity of dry eye disease (P<0.001.En-face SD-OCT is a non-contact imaging technique that can be used to evaluate the POV, thus providing valuable information about differences in the limbal anatomy of dry eye patients as compared to healthy patients.

  11. Biometric, B-mode and color Doppler ultrasound assessment of eyes in healthy dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzivânia G. Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: B-scan ultrasonography is an important diagnostic tool that allows characterization of internal organ anatomy and, when complemented by Doppler ultrasound, allows vascular hemodynamic assessment, increasing the diagnostic accuracy. Thus, the aim of the present study was the B-scan ultrasound characterization and measurement of the eyeball segments and assessment of the external ophthalmic artery by color and pulsed Doppler. Sixty eyeballs were assessed from 30 dogs of different breeds using an 8.5MHz microconvex transductor. First, biometry was performed by B-scan of the following segments: axial length (M1, anterior chamber depth (M2, lens thickness (M3, lens length (M4, vitreous chamber depth (M5, optical disc length (M6 and optic nerve diameter (M7. Colored Doppler identified the external ophthalmic article and pulsed Doppler assessed its flow, and the following were measured: systolic peak velocity (VPS, final diastolic velocity (VDF, resistivity index (IR and pulse index (IP. No statistical difference was observed for the biometric values of the eye segments between the right and left eyes (p>0.05. The vitreous chamber depth (M5 was shown to be the biometric variable with greatest bilateral symmetry, varying from 0.79 to 0.87cm and 0.78 to 0.86cm for the right and left eye, respectively. The ophthalmic artery was visualized over the optic nerve towards the eyeball, with flow stained red. There was no significant statistical difference between the Doppler velocimetric values for the ophthalmic artery between the right and left eye of the animals assessed (p>0.05. The mean resistivity index (RI showed average values equal to 0.63±0.03, bilaterally. The mean base velocity was 17.50cm/s and 18.18cm/s at the systolic peak and 6.21cm/s and 6.68cm/s at the end of the diastole, for the right and left eyes respectively. The anatomic, biometric and hemodynamic characterization using the ultrasound B-scan and the Doppler modalities

  12. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  13. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  14. Methods of fixation of intraocular lenses according to the anatomical structures in trauma eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentzis, Miltiadis; Viestenz, Anja; Heichel, Jens; Seitz, Berthold; Hammer, Thomas; Viestenz, Arne

    2018-01-01

    Ocular trauma can lead to severe visual impairment and morbidity, depending on the anatomical structures affected. The main causes of ocular trauma include foreign bodies, impact by an object, falls, and chemicals. Most ocular traumas occur in children or young male adults. A meticulous slit lamp examination is crucial for assessing all anatomical structures. Trauma to the crystalline lens can result in dislocation, an intralenticular foreign body, cataract, fragmentation, and capsular breach. An intraocular lens (IOL) can endure subluxation or luxation under the conjunctiva, into the anterior chamber or the vitreous, or can be extruded. The surgical approach depends on the condition and morphology of the lens and the anatomical structures surrounding it. If there is capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be placed in the sulcus using remnants of the damaged capsule. If there is no capsular bag support, a secondary IOL can be fixated to the anterior chamber angle, to the iris, or to the sclera. A detailed history of injury cannot always be obtained in trauma settings. Proper education, supervision, and certified safety eye protectors could prevent up to 90% of ocular injuries. Lens trauma can be treated with various surgical procedures and fixation techniques, which nevertheless require advanced surgical skills owing to the fine anatomical structure of the anterior segment. A careful surgical strategy should be established for a globe reconstruction after trauma with secondary lens implantation. Clin. Anat. 31:6-15, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Anterior segment surgery IOLs, lasers, and refractive keratoplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, W.J.; Terry, A.C.; Maumenee, A.E.

    1987-01-01

    The contributors to this text combine their expertise to make this book available on intraocular lenses, refractive corneal surgery, and the use of the YAG laser. Included is information on; IOL power calculations; the use of the YAG laser; retinal damage by short wavelength light; reviews of corneal refractive surgery; possibilities for the medical prevention of cataracts; and more.

  16. Relationship between the morphology of A-1 segment of anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-01

    Mar 1, 2014 ... cases and 296 cases of other cerebral vascular diseases in the same period were retrospectively analyzed. ... A: Concave shape; B: Convex shape; C: Lateral “S” shape; ..... computational fluid dynamics study, J. Neurosurg.

  17. Anterior Segment Findings in Vitamin A Deficiency: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangela Rubino

    2015-01-01

    lead to blindness for severe keratomalacia with cornea scarring and perforation or night blindness due to impaired dark adaptation. Conversely, the disease is quite common in developing countries, as a consequence of chronic malnutrition. The correct diagnosis and therapy with prompt vitamin A supplementation avoid blindness. We report a series of 3 local cases with different age and causes for vitamin A deficiency. The diagnostic workup, therapy, and prognosis are discussed.

  18. Effects of Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution on Quality of Life in Dry Eye Assessed Using the Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score Questionnaire: Effectiveness in Patients While Reading and Using Visual Display Terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Tsugiaki; Kawahara, Atsushi; Hanada, Kazuomi; Yoshida, Akitoshi

    2017-08-01

    Diquafosol ophthalmic solution improves objective findings in the ocular surface and subjective symptoms in patients with dry eye. The Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) questionnaire was developed to assess dry eye symptoms and their effects on quality of life. However, because little research using the DEQS has been reported, we evaluated the effects of diquafosol ophthalmic solution on ocular surface findings and quality of life using the DEQS in patients with dry eye. Sixty-three patients with dry eye were assigned to the control group (artificial tears) or diquafosol group. Both groups instilled 1 drop of the solution in both eyes 6 times daily and were evaluated after 2 weeks; the diquafosol group also was instructed to be examined at 1 and 3 months. We evaluated the subjective symptoms using the DEQS, fluorescein staining score, tear film breakup time (BUT), Schirmer testing, and lower tear meniscus height with anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. In the diquafosol group, the fluorescein staining score, BUT, tear meniscus height, and DEQS scores improved significantly compared with before treatment in contrast to the control group. Furthermore, in the diquafosol group, the staining score and BUT improved significantly compared with the control group. Analysis of each DEQS item indicated that diquafosol ophthalmic solution relieved foreign body sensation and problems when reading and using visual display terminals compared with the control group. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution was effective in patients with dry eye, especially those with foreign body sensation and problems when reading and using visual display terminals.

  19. The oculomotor system of decapod cephalopods: eye muscles, eye muscle nerves, and the oculomotor neurons in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budelmann, B U; Young, J Z

    1993-04-29

    Fourteen extraocular eye muscles are described in the decapods Loligo and Sepioteuthis, and thirteen in Sepia; they are supplied by four eye muscle nerves. The main action of most of the muscles is a linear movement of the eyeball, only three muscles produce strong rotations. The arrangement, innervation and action of the decapod eye muscles are compared with those of the seven eye muscles and seven eye muscle nerves in Octopus. The extra muscles in decapods are attached to the anterior and superior faces of the eyes. At least, the anterior muscles, and presumably also the superior muscles, are concerned with convergent eye movements for binocular vision during fixation and capture of prey by the tentacles. The remaining muscles are rather similar in the two cephalopod groups. In decapods, the anterior muscles include conjunctive muscles; these cross the midline and each presumably moves both eyes at the same time during fixation. In the squids Loligo and Sepioteuthis there is an additional superior conjunctive muscle of perhaps similar function. Some of the anterior muscles are associated with a narrow moveable plate, the trochlear cartilage; it is attached to the eyeball by trochlear membranes. Centripetal cobalt fillings showed that all four eye muscle nerves have fibres that originate from somata in the ipsilateral anterior lateral pedal lobe, which is the oculomotor centre. The somata of the individual nerves show different but overlapping distributions. Bundles of small presumably afferent fibres were seen in two of the four nerves. They do not enter the anterior lateral pedal lobe but run to the ventral magnocellular lobe; some afferent fibres enter the brachio-palliovisceral connective and run perhaps as far as the palliovisceral lobe.

  20. Brookhaven segment interconnect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, W.M.; Benenson, G.; Leipuner, L.B.

    1983-01-01

    We have performed a high energy physics experiment using a multisegment Brookhaven FASTBUS system. The system was composed of three crate segments and two cable segments. We discuss the segment interconnect module which permits communication between the various segments

  1. High-frequency harmonic imaging of the eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ronald H.; Coleman, D. Jackson; Ketterling, Jeffrey A.; Lizzi, Frederic L.

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: Harmonic imaging has become a well-established technique for ultrasonic imaging at fundamental frequencies of 10 MHz or less. Ophthalmology has benefited from the use of fundamentals of 20 MHz to 50 MHz. Our aim was to explore the ability to generate harmonics for this frequency range, and to generate harmonic images of the eye. Methods: The presence of harmonics was determined in both water and bovine vitreous propagation media by pulse/echo and hydrophone at a series of increasing excitation pulse intensities and frequencies. Hydrophone measurements were made at the focal point and in the near- and far-fields of 20 MHz and 40 MHz transducers. Harmonic images of the anterior segment of the rabbit eye were obtained by a combination of analog filtering and digital post-processing. Results: Harmonics were generated nearly identically in both water and vitreous. Hydrophone measurements showed the maximum second harmonic to be -5 dB relative to the 35 MHz fundamental at the focus, while in pulse/echo the maximum harmonic amplitude was -15dB relative to the fundamental. Harmonics were absent in the near-field, but present in the far-field. Harmonic images of the eye showed improved resolution. Conclusion: Harmonics can be readily generated at very high frequencies, and at power levels compliant with FDA guidelines for ophthalmology. This technique may yield further improvements to the already impressive resolutions obtainable in this frequency range. Improved imaging of the macular region, in particular, may provide significant improvements in diagnosis of retinal disease.

  2. Model-based segmentation in orbital volume measurement with cone beam computed tomography and evaluation against current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Maximilian E H; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Friese, Karl-Ingo; Becker, Matthias; Wolter, Franz-Erich; Lichtenstein, Juergen T; Stoetzer, Marcus; Rana, Majeed; Essig, Harald

    2016-01-01

    Objective determination of the orbital volume is important in the diagnostic process and in evaluating the efficacy of medical and/or surgical treatment of orbital diseases. Tools designed to measure orbital volume with computed tomography (CT) often cannot be used with cone beam CT (CBCT) because of inferior tissue representation, although CBCT has the benefit of greater availability and lower patient radiation exposure. Therefore, a model-based segmentation technique is presented as a new method for measuring orbital volume and compared to alternative techniques. Both eyes from thirty subjects with no known orbital pathology who had undergone CBCT as a part of routine care were evaluated (n = 60 eyes). Orbital volume was measured with manual, atlas-based, and model-based segmentation methods. Volume measurements, volume determination time, and usability were compared between the three methods. Differences in means were tested for statistical significance using two-tailed Student's t tests. Neither atlas-based (26.63 ± 3.15 mm(3)) nor model-based (26.87 ± 2.99 mm(3)) measurements were significantly different from manual volume measurements (26.65 ± 4.0 mm(3)). However, the time required to determine orbital volume was significantly longer for manual measurements (10.24 ± 1.21 min) than for atlas-based (6.96 ± 2.62 min, p < 0.001) or model-based (5.73 ± 1.12 min, p < 0.001) measurements. All three orbital volume measurement methods examined can accurately measure orbital volume, although atlas-based and model-based methods seem to be more user-friendly and less time-consuming. The new model-based technique achieves fully automated segmentation results, whereas all atlas-based segmentations at least required manipulations to the anterior closing. Additionally, model-based segmentation can provide reliable orbital volume measurements when CT image quality is poor.

  3. Catarata polar anterior piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior causando edema de córnea: relato de caso Corneal edema caused by a pyramidal anterior polar cataract dislocated to the anterior chamber: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Coral Ghanem

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Cataratas polares anteriores piramidais são opacidades cônicas que se projetam para a câmara anterior a partir da cápsula anterior do cristalino. Na grande maioria dos pacientes a opacidade permanece aderida e estável durante toda a vida. O objetivo deste trabalho é documentar uma manifestação incomum desse tipo de catarata: a deiscência espontânea das pirâmides para a câmara anterior causando descompensação endotelial e edema corneal bilateral. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente feminina, de 66 anos, branca, que apresentava edema corneal localizado inferiormente no olho direito associado à lesão nodular branco-esclerótica compatível com a pirâmide anterior da catarata polar. O olho esquerdo apresentava edema corneal difuso intenso e presença de uma catarata polar anterior com a região piramidal deslocada para a câmara anterior. Sabe-se que a pirâmide anterior pode permanecer inabsorvida na câmara anterior por longo período, pois é composta de tecido colágeno denso. Isto causa perda endotelial progressiva e edema corneal e deve ser considerada indicação de remoção cirúrgica da catarata polar anterior e de seu fragmento. Ressalta-se, também, a importância do bom senso no julgamento das cataratas polares anteriores, considerando-se tamanho da opacidade, simetria das opacidades e componente cortical associado, na tentativa de se evitar ambliopia.Pyramidal anterior polar cataracts are conical opacities that project into the anterior chamber from the anterior capsule of the lens. In the vast majority of patients the opacity remains bound and stable throughout life. We report an unusual complication of this type of cataract: spontaneous dehiscence of the pyramids to the anterior chamber causing bilateral endothelial damage and corneal edema. 66-year-old white woman presented with inferior corneal edema in the right eye and diffuse corneal edema in the left eye. A white nodular lesion was observed in the inferior angle

  4. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  6. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  8. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  9. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  10. Acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab but not subsequent ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonopoulos C

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Christina Antonopoulos1, Maxwell Stem2, Grant M Comer21Department of Ophthalmology, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 2WK Kellogg Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USAPurpose: Previous reports have identified noninfectious uveitis as a potential sequela following both intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab injections. We present two unique cases of acute anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab that did not occur with subsequent ranibizumab injections.Methods: Case report.Conclusion: These cases may reflect differences in the etiology of anterior uveitis following intravitreal bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Given these differences, it may be reasonable to offer ranibizumab to patients who have experienced presumed bevacizumab-induced anterior uveitis.Keywords: adverse effect, age-related macular degeneration, anterior uveitis, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, uveitis

  11. Diquafosol Ophthalmic Solution Increases Pre- and Postlens Tear Film During Contact Lens Wear in Rabbit Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahara, Yukiko; Koh, Shizuka; Oshita, Yoshihiro; Nagano, Takashi; Mano, Hidetoshi; Nishida, Kohji; Watanabe, Hitoshi

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the behavior of prelens tear film (PLTF) and postlens tear film (PoLTF) after the instillation of diquafosol using an experimental rabbit model of eyes with contact lens. Cross-sectional, anterior segment optical coherence tomographic images of the inferior midperipheral cornea were obtained at baseline and at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the instillation of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in 10 Japanese white rabbits wearing contact lenses. From the obtained images, the areas of the PLTF and PoLTF were calculated. Both artificial tear solution and 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution were used for comparison. Significant fluid accumulation in both the PLTF and PoLTF was observed after diquafosol instillation, whereas no fluid accumulation was visible after the instillation of artificial tear or sodium hyaluronate. The increase in PLTF area after diquafosol instillation was significantly higher (Pophthalmic solution increases PLTF and PoLTF in rabbit eyes with contact lenses. Diquafosol has potential as a treatment option for contact lens-related dry eye.

  12. Evaluation of the True Wavefront Aberrations in Eyes Implanted With a Rotationally Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akondi, Vyas; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Standard evaluation of aberrations from wavefront slope measurements in patients implanted with a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), results in large magnitude primary vertical coma, which is attributed to the intrinsic IOL design. The new proposed method analyzes aberrometry data, allowing disentangling the IOL power pupillary distribution from the true higher order aberrations of the eye. The new method of wavefront reconstruction uses retinal spots obtained at both the near and far foci. The method was tested using ray tracing optical simulations in a computer eye model virtually implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL, with a generic cornea or with anterior segment geometry obtained from custom quantitative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in a real patient. The method was applied to laser ray tracing aberrometry data at near and far fixation obtained in a patient implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL. Higher order aberrations evaluated from simulated and real retinal spot diagrams following the new reconstruction approach matched the nominal aberrations (approximately 98%). Previously reported primary vertical coma in patients implanted with this IOL lost significance with the application of the proposed reconstruction. Custom analysis of ray tracing-based retinal spot diagrams allowed decoupling of the true higher order aberrations of the patient's eye from the power pupillary distribution of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL, therefore providing the appropriate phase map to accurately evaluate through-focus optical quality. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(4):257-265.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  16. Optical imaging of the chorioretinal vasculature in the living human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Yu; Fingler, Jeff; Zawadzki, Robert J; Park, Susanna S; Morse, Lawrence S; Schwartz, Daniel M; Fraser, Scott E; Werner, John S

    2013-08-27

    Detailed visualization of microvascular changes in the human retina is clinically limited by the capabilities of angiography imaging, a 2D fundus photograph that requires an intravenous injection of fluorescent dye. Whereas current angiography methods enable visualization of some retinal capillary detail, they do not adequately reveal the choriocapillaris or other microvascular features beneath the retina. We have developed a noninvasive microvascular imaging technique called phase-variance optical coherence tomography (pvOCT), which identifies vasculature three dimensionally through analysis of data acquired with OCT systems. The pvOCT imaging method is not only capable of generating capillary perfusion maps for the retina, but it can also use the 3D capabilities to segment the data in depth to isolate vasculature in different layers of the retina and choroid. This paper demonstrates some of the capabilities of pvOCT imaging of the anterior layers of choroidal vasculature of a healthy normal eye as well as of eyes with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to age-related macular degeneration. The pvOCT data presented permit digital segmentation to produce 2D depth-resolved images of the retinal vasculature, the choriocapillaris, and the vessels in Sattler's and Haller's layers. Comparisons are presented between en face projections of pvOCT data within the superficial choroid and clinical angiography images for regions of GA. Abnormalities and vascular dropout observed within the choriocapillaris for pvOCT are compared with regional GA progression. The capability of pvOCT imaging of the microvasculature of the choriocapillaris and the anterior choroidal vasculature has the potential to become a unique tool to evaluate therapies and understand the underlying mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration progression.

  17. Segmentation of knee injury swelling on infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, John; Langet, Hélène; Herry, Christophe; Frize, Monique

    2011-03-01

    Interpretation of medical infrared images is complex due to thermal noise, absence of texture, and small temperature differences in pathological zones. Acute inflammatory response is a characteristic symptom of some knee injuries like anterior cruciate ligament sprains, muscle or tendons strains, and meniscus tear. Whereas artificial coloring of the original grey level images may allow to visually assess the extent inflammation in the area, their automated segmentation remains a challenging problem. This paper presents a hybrid segmentation algorithm to evaluate the extent of inflammation after knee injury, in terms of temperature variations and surface shape. It is based on the intersection of rapid color segmentation and homogeneous region segmentation, to which a Laplacian of a Gaussian filter is applied. While rapid color segmentation enables to properly detect the observed core of swollen area, homogeneous region segmentation identifies possible inflammation zones, combining homogeneous grey level and hue area segmentation. The hybrid segmentation algorithm compares the potential inflammation regions partially detected by each method to identify overlapping areas. Noise filtering and edge segmentation are then applied to common zones in order to segment the swelling surfaces of the injury. Experimental results on images of a patient with anterior cruciate ligament sprain show the improved performance of the hybrid algorithm with respect to its separated components. The main contribution of this work is a meaningful automatic segmentation of abnormal skin temperature variations on infrared thermography images of knee injury swelling.

  18. Iris coloboma in one eye and pigment dispersion syndrome in the fellow eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Valarezo, Paul; Prada, Angélica M

    2013-05-22

    We report a case of a 43-year-old patient with coloboma of the iris, zonule, ciliary body, choroid and retina in the right eye and pigment dispersion syndrome in the left eye. Considering the hypothesis of the pigment dispersion syndrome pathogenesis in which a difference of pressures in the anterior and posterior chambers creates a posterior convexity of the iris leading to reverse pupillary block, iris touch and consequently causing pigment dispersion, we suggest that the presence of an iris coloboma, by equalising the pressures in the two chambers, prevented the onset of syndrome in that eye.

  19. In silico evo-devo: reconstructing stages in the evolution of animal segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, Paulien; ten Tusscher, Kirsten H. W. J.; Davis, GK; Patel, NH; Peel, A; Akam, M; Couso, JP; Budd, GE; Seaver, EC; Minelli, A; Fusco, G; Tautz, D; Jacobs, DK; Hughes, NC; Fitz-Gibbon, ST; Winchell, CJ; Blair, SS; Wanninger, A; Kristof, A; Brinkmann, N; Chipman, AD; Richmond, DL; Oates, AC; Gold, DA; Runnegar, B; Gehling, JG; Jacobs, DK; Rivera, A; Weisblat, D; Williams, T; Blachuta, B; Hegna, TA; Nagy, LM; Balavoine, G; Peel, A; Bénazéraf, B; Pourquié, O; Mayer, G; Kato, C; Quast, B; Chisholm, RH; Landman, KA; Quinn, LM; Nakamoto, A; Hester, SD; Constantinou, SJ; Blaine, WG; Tewksbury, AB; Matei, MT; Nagy, LM; Williams, TA; Graham, A; Butts, T; Lumsden, A; Kiecker, C; François, P; Hakim, V; Siggia, ED; Fujimoto, K; Ishihara, S; Kaneko, K; Tusscher, KH; Hogeweg, P; Crombach, A; Hogeweg, P; Salazar-Ciudad, I; Newman, SA; Solé, RV; Pankratz, MJ; Jäckle, H; Crampin, EJ; Hackborn, WW; Maini, PK; Harper, JL; Rosen, BR; White, J; Tusscher, KHWJ; Petersen, CP; Reddien, PW; Martin, BL; Kimelman, D; Young, T; Rowland, JE; Ven, C; Bialecka, M; Novoa, A; Carapuco, M; Nes, J; Graaff, W; Duluc, I; Freund, J-N; Beck, F; Mallo, M; Deschamps, J; Meinhardt, H; Kappen, C; Schughart, K; Ruddle, FH

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of animal segmentation is a major research focus within the field of evolutionary–developmental biology. Most studied segmented animals generate their segments in a repetitive, anterior-to-posterior fashion coordinated with the extension of the body axis from a posterior growth zone.

  20. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  1. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the ...

  2. Comparison of the Results of Secondary Anterior Chamber and Secondary Scleral-Fixated Intraocular Lens Implantation in Complicated Phacoemulsification Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Yeşim Erçalık

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare the visual prognosis and postoperative complication rates of secondary anterior chamber (AC IOL and scleralfixated (SF intraocular lenses (IOL after complicated phacoemulsification surgery. Materials and Methods: Thirty eyes of thirty patients were reviewed for this retrospective study. The patients with secondary AC IOL implantation formed group 1 (n=15, and the patients with secondary SF IOL implantation formed group 2 (n=15. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA with Snellen chart, biomicroscopic examination, intraocular pressure (IOP measurement with applanation tonometer, gonioscopy performed by Goldmann’s 3-mirror contact lens, and fundus examination were performed preoperatively in all patients. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in postoperative BCVA (p=0.492 and postoperative success (BCVA not changed or better postoperatively between the 2 groups (p=0.598. Postoperative success rate was 80% in group 1 and 93.7% in Group 2. The postoperative cylindrical power of the eyes did not differ significantly between the groups (p=0.220. The postoperative complications in group 1 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 5 eyes, transient IOP elevation in 2 eyes, postoperative fibrinous reaction in the anterior chamber in one eye, late-onset secondary glaucoma in one eye, hyphema in one eye, cystoid macular edema in one eye, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in one eye, and IOL malposition in one eye. The postoperative complications in group 2 were as follows: transient corneal edema in 3 eyes, vitreous prolapse into the anterior chamber in 2 eyes, IOL malposition in 2 eyes, transient IOP elevation in one eye, and retinal detachment in one eye. Conclusion: In this study, both IOL types were observed to be preferable in cases without adequate capsular support following complicated cataract surgery. However, further studies with large numbers of patients are needed to define the best choice

  3. Is it possible to differentiate between Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute anterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vervaat, Fabienne E; Christensen, Thomas E; Smeijers, Loes

    2015-01-01

    . The latter group was divided into the following subgroups: 46 patients with proximal, 47 with mid and 10 with distal LAD occlusion. Three ST-segment based ECG features were investigated: (1) Existing criterion for differentiating anterior STEMI from TC: ST-segment depression >0.5mm in lead aVR...

  4. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  5. Small eyes big problems: is cataract surgery the best option for the nanophthalmic eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utman, S.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Nanophthalmos refers to an eyeball of short axial length, usually less than 20 mm which leads to angle closure glaucoma due to relatively large lens. Intra-ocular lens extraction relieves the angle closure in nanophthalmos. Cataract surgery in a nanophthalmic eye is technically difficult with high risk of complications such as posterior capsular rupture, uveal effusion, choroidal haemorrhage, vitreous haemorrhage, malignant glaucoma, retinal detachment and aqueous misdirection. Various options are explained in the literature to perform cataract surgery in nanophthalmos, like extracapsular cataract extraction with or without sclerostomy; small-incision cataract extraction by phacoemulsification which not only helps maintain the anterior chamber during surgery but also reduces the incidence of complications due to less fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) during the surgery. Cataract surgery deepens and widens the anterior chamber angle in nanophthalmic eyes and has beneficial effects on IOP in eyes with nanophthalmos but is associated with a high incidence of complications. (author)

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  8. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  10. Distribution of axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in an aged population in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Haotian; Lin, Zhuoling; Chen, Jingjing; Chen, Weirong

    2016-05-01

    Ocular biometry is important for preoperative assessment in cataract and anterior segment surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate normative ocular biometric parameters and their associations in an older Chinese population. This was a cross-sectional observational study. From 2013 to 2014, we recruited inhabitants aged 50 years or older in Guangzhou, China. Among 1,117 participants in the study, data from 1,015 phakic right eyes were used for analyses. Ocular parameters including axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and corneal curvature (K) were measured using an IOL Master. The mean AL, ACD, and K were 23.48 mm [95 % confidence interval (CI), 23.40-23.55], 3.03 mm (CI, 3.01-3.05), and 44.20 mm (CI, 44.11-44.29), respectively. A mean reduction in ACD with age was observed (P = 0.002) in male subjects but not in female subjects (P = 0.558). Male subjects had significantly longer ALs (23.68 mm versus 23.23 mm, P population in South China. The AL in this Chinese cohort was greater than that observed in the Singaporean Chinese but smaller than that observed in Malaysia and for Caucasians. The Chinese have a shallower ACD than some other racial groups. Age and sex were the most consistent predictors of ocular biometry in the older population from South China.

  11. Anterior vaulting of single piece in-the-bag intraocular lens after blunt trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Oh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 64-year-old man complained of difficulty with far vision in the right eye after blunt trauma by his hand during sleep. He had undergone uneventful phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL implantation of both eyes one week before the event. On slit lamp examination, the anterior chamber was shallow compared to postoperative one day or the left eye. After mydriasis, IOL position was perfect, within the capsulorrhexis margin, and no haptics were protruded. SE of his right eye was −4.00 diopter after trauma, although spherical equivalent (SE of both eyes was near emmetropia one day after cataract surgery. We decided on IOL reposition or exchange. Intraoperatively, we pushed the IOL posteriorly; the IOL was vaulted posteriorly, as expected. After surgery, his SE was +0.25 with the same diopter IOL. We report the case on the possibility of 4-point haptic IOL vaulting anteriorly by blunt trauma within the capsular bag.

  12. Incipient nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayreh, Sohan Singh; Zimmerman, M Bridget

    2007-09-01

    To describe the clinical entity of incipient nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Cohort study. Fifty-four patients (60 eyes) seen in our clinic from 1973 through 2000. At their first visit to our clinic, all patients gave a detailed ophthalmic and medical history and underwent a comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation, color fundus photography, and fluorescein fundus angiography. At each follow-up visit (of 49 patients [55 eyes]), the same ophthalmic evaluation was performed, except for fluorescein fundus angiography. Clinical features of incipient NAION. Mean age (+/- standard deviation) of the patients was 58.7+/-15.9 years. Median follow-up time was 6.3 years (interquartile range [IQR], 2.1-8.5). At initial visit, all had optic disc edema (ODE) without any visual loss attributable to NAION. In 55%, the fellow eye had classic NAION; in 25%, incipient progressed to classic NAION (after a median time of 5.8 weeks [IQR, 3.2-10.1]); and in 20%, classic NAION developed after resolution of the first episode of incipient NAION. Patients with incipient, compared with classic, NAION had a greater prevalence of diabetes mellitus (Pheart disease (P = 0.046). Patients who progressed to classic NAION versus those who did not were significantly younger (P = 0.025), and their visual acuity worsened in 31% and 0%, respectively, and remained stable in 62% and 98%, respectively; in the eyes with progression, central (in 31%) and peripheral (in 77%) visual fields worsened compared with only 1 eye and 2 eyes, respectively, that did not (P = 0.01 and Pversus 9.6 weeks (IQR, 6.0-17.7) in those who did not progress. The results show that incipient NAION is a distinct clinical entity, with asymptomatic ODE and no visual loss attributable to NAION. When a patient seeks treatment with asymptomatic ODE, incipient NAION must be borne in mind as a strong possibility in those who have had classic NAION in the fellow eye, in diabetics of all ages, and in those with high risk

  13. Evaluation and comparison of indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy in relative pupillary block, peripheral anterior synechia, and plateau iris configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Koichi; Ito, Kunio; Esaki, Koji; Sugimoto, Kota; Sano, Toru; Miura, Katsuya; Sasoh, Mikio; Uji, Yukitaka

    2004-12-01

    To evaluate and compare the findings and changes of the anterior chamber angle configuration with indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) gonioscopy in relative pupillary block (RPB), peripheral anterior synechia (PAS), and plateau iris configuration (PIC). This study included 73 eyes of 52 patients with RPB (n = 26), PAS (n = 21), or PIC (n = 26). First, a conventional UBM scan was performed using a normal size standard eye cup before indentation. Then, for indentation UBM gonioscopy, scans were performed using a new eye cup that we designed. For evaluation of the angle, angle opening distance 500 and angle recess area were recorded and evaluated with regard to the effect of expansion on the anterior chamber angle. Indentation UBM gonioscopy showed the characteristic images in each of the eyes. The angle of all examined eyes was significantly widened with indentation (P gonioscopy is a very useful method for observing the angle and diagnosis of RPB, PAS, and PIC.

  14. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  15. Anterior knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLopis, Eva; Padron, Mario

    2007-01-01

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries

  16. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  19. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  4. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  5. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  6. Effects of lens extirpation with anterior vitrectomy on vitreous three-dimensional mesh structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the changes in vitreous gel structure after lens extirpation combined with anterior vitrectomy in rabbit eyes. METHODS: Twenty-eight chinchilla rabbits were divided into three groups. The control group (Group I included 16 eyes from eight rabbits who did not receive any treatment. Group II included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration only. Group III included 20 eyes from 10 rabbits that underwent lens aspiration combined with posterior capsulotomy and anterior vitrectomy. Eyes were harvested on the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, respectively. Changes in vitreous gel stretch length due to gravity and the rate of vitreous liquefaction were observed. The collagen content in the vitreous body was examined using the L-hydroxyproline test. Electronic microscopic images were obtained from each eyeball. RESULTS: On both the 30th and 60th day postoperatively, the vitreous gel length of group III was significantly shorter than group I and group II (P<0.05, while the rate of liquefaction of the vitreous body in group III was significantly higher than group I and group II (P<0.05. The collagen content in group III was also higher than that in group I and group II (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Loss of vitreous gel mass is more likely to occur in the eyes of rabbits receiving anterior vitrectomy. Lensectomy combined with anterior vitrectomy may damage the stable three-dimensional mesh structure of collagen, which could aggravate vitreous gel liquefaction.

  7. The change of volume of each hepatic segment in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kazunori; Takashima, Tsutomu; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Kameyama, Tomiaki; Nishijima, Hiroshi; Takanaka, Tsuyoshi; Gabata, Toshifumi

    1986-01-01

    We studied morphological changes of liver due to liver cirrhosis by evaluating the volume of liver and each hepatic segments (left lateral, left medial, right anterior, right posterior, and caudate lobe) divided using dynamic sequential CT during arterial portography. In liver cirrhosis, left lateral segment and caudate lobe were relatively enlarged, while right lobe and left medial segment showed significant shrinkage. But when posterior inferior right hepatic vein was evident on CT, right posterior segment did not shrink. (author)

  8. Changes of Corneal Wavefront Aberrations in Dry Eye Patients after Treatment with Artificial Lubricant Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the corneal aberration changes in dry eye patients after treatment with artificial eye drops. Methods. Thirty mild to moderate dry eye patients treated with artificial eye drops and twenty comparable dry eye patients were recruited as controls. Anterior corneal aberrations over 3 mm and 5 mm analytical zones including total, 3rd to 5th high order aberrations (HOAs, spherical aberration (SA, and vertical (V-coma and horizontal coma (H-coma obtained from corneal topography data at baseline and 2 weeks after treatment were evaluated. Results. For 3 mm zone, trefoils, V-coma, H-coma terms, and 3rd and 5th HOAs were significantly decreased (p0.05. Conclusions. Treatment with artificial eye drops can effectively improve the corneal optical quality of dry eye patients by ameliorating the HOAs of anterior corneal surface.

  9. Gold internal standard correction for elemental imaging of soft tissue sections by LA-ICP-MS: element distribution in eye microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konz, Ioana; Fernández, Beatriz; Fernández, M Luisa; Pereiro, Rosario; González, Héctor; Alvarez, Lydia; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo

    2013-04-01

    Laser ablation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has been developed for the elemental imaging of Mg, Fe and Cu distribution in histological tissue sections of fixed eyes, embedded in paraffin, from human donors (cadavers). This work presents the development of a novel internal standard correction methodology based on the deposition of a homogeneous thin gold film on the tissue surface and the use of the (197)Au(+) signal as internal standard. Sample preparation (tissue section thickness) and laser conditions were carefully optimized, and internal normalisation using (197)Au(+) was compared with (13)C(+) correction for imaging applications. (24)Mg(+), (56)Fe(+) and (63)Cu(+) distributions were investigated in histological sections of the anterior segment of the eye (including the iris, ciliary body, cornea and trabecular meshwork) and were shown to be heterogeneously distributed along those tissue structures. Reproducibility was assessed by imaging different human eye sections from the same donor and from ten different eyes from adult normal donors, which showed that similar spatial maps were obtained and therefore demonstrate the analytical potential of using (197)Au(+) as internal standard. The proposed analytical approach could offer a robust tool with great practical interest for clinical studies, e.g. to investigate trace element distribution of metals and their alterations in ocular diseases.

  10. Comparison of endoscopic-assisted and temporary keratoprosthesis-assisted vitrectomy in combat ocular trauma: experience at a tertiary eye center in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyildiz, Onder; Hakan Durukan, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study was performed to compare the functional and anatomical results of endoscopic-assisted and temporary keratoprosthesis (TKP)-assisted vitrectomy in patients with combat ocular trauma (COT). Methods The medical records of 14 severely injured eyes of 12 patients who underwent endoscopy or TKP implantation in combination with vitreoretinal surgery from 2007 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated. The patients' ocular history and functional and anatomic anterior and posterior segment results were analyzed. Results Eight eyes (57%) underwent TKP-assisted vitrectomy and six eyes (43%) underwent endoscopic vitrectomy. The most common cause of COT was detonation of improvised explosive devices (72%), and the most common type of injury was an intraocular foreign body (50%). The median time from trauma to surgery and the median surgical time were significantly shorter in the endoscopy than TKP group. The postoperative functional and anatomical results were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions TKP-assisted vitrectomy should be performed in eyes requiring extensive bimanual surgery. In such cases, a corneal graft must be preserved for the TKP at the end of the surgery. Endoscopy shortens the surgical time and can reduce the complication rate.

  11. The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on corneal neovascularization induced by alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on rabbit corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkali burn. Methods: Forty-eight adult rabbits were randomized into four groups after alkali burning: Group A (2.5 mg/ml, Group B (5 mg/ml, and Group C (10 mg/ml by different concentrations of KH902 eye drops and Group D by saline solution as control with three times a day for 2 weeks. At days 7, 14, and 28, the anterior segment photographs, confocal microscopy, and histopathology were performed to evaluate corneal opacity, neovascularization, inflammatory cell density, vessel size, and edema. Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level. Results: (1 The CNV in the medicine-treated groups showed a reduction without obvious corneal side effects histologically. (2 Compared to the control group, the three medicine-treated groups showed a reduction in the VEGF levels and CNV areas on days 7, 14, and 28 and in the inflammatory cell density on days 14 and 28 (P 0.05. Conclusion: KH902 eye drops in lower concentration showed an obvious reduction of the CNV growing for rabbit corneal alkali burn without side effects.

  12. Influence of changes in an eye's optical system on refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Janina

    1998-10-01

    The optical system of eye is composed of cornea, lens, anterior chamber, and vitreous body. In the standard schematic eye there are 6 refracting surfaces. The changes of the curvature radii, of the distances between them, of the refractive indices influence the ametropia, refractive power of the eye and retinal image size. The influence of these changes can be appreciated by ray tracing or by an analytical method. There are presented simplified formulae for the differentials of ametropia and refractive power of the eye with respect to the surfaces curvatures, refracting power of cornea and lens, refractive indices. The relations are valid too for bigger changes if ametropia is measured in the cornea vertex. The formulae for the differentials with respect to distances, lens translation, eye axis length are valid if ametropia is measured in the object focus of the eye.

  13. Ab interno trabeculectomy: ultrastructural evidence and early tissue response in a human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Ettore; Ortolani, Fulvia; Petrelli, Lucia; Contin, Magali; Pognuz, Derri Roman; Marchini, Maurizio; Bandello, Francesco

    2007-10-01

    To report the results of ultrastructural analysis of the postoperative effects of ab interno trabeculectomy in a human eye. Department of Ophthalmology, Palmanova Hospital, Palmanova, Udine, Italy. A 60-year-old woman with cataract and glaucoma had enucleation for a choroidal melanoma 10 days after ab interno trabeculectomy combined with phacoemulsification. A second ab interno trabeculectomy was performed after enucleation to evaluate the outcomes of the previous trabeculectomy. Light and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed on samples excised from areas (1) not subjected to a procedure (control samples), (2) that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, and (3) that had ab interno trabeculectomy immediately after enucleation. Control samples showed normal trabecular features. Semithin sections of all ab interno trabeculectomy samples showed full-thickness removal of trabeculum segments, with Schlemm's canal lumen opening into the anterior chamber and apparent preservation of the adjacent structures. On ultrathin sections of samples that had ab interno trabeculectomy before enucleation, the endothelium lining the outer wall of Schlemm's canal and other angle components showed intact ultrastructural features. In trabecular beams that were not removed, the extracellular matrix appeared to have maintained its fine texture and was free of activated fibroblasts or leucocyte infiltrates. Observations confirm that ab interno trabeculectomy causes direct communication between Schlemm's canal lumen and the anterior chamber in vivo and immediately after enucleation during the early postoperative period. The absence of an evident inflammatory reaction in the examined case should be considered with caution because of possible tumor-induced immune suppression.

  14. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  15. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  16. Anterior corneal profile with variable asphericity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Marco A; Juárez-Aubry, Montserrat; López-Olazagasti, Estela; Ibarra, Jorge; Tepichín, Eduardo

    2009-12-10

    We present a corneal profile in which the eccentricity, e(Q=-e(2)), has a nonlinear continuous variation from the center outwards. This nonlinear variation is intended to fit and reproduce our current experimental data in which the anterior corneal surface of the human eye exhibits different values of e at different diameters. According to our clinical data, the variation is similar to an exponential decay. We propose a linear combination of two exponential functions to describe the variation of e. We then calculate the corneal sagittal height by substituting e in the first-order aspherical surface equation to obtain the corneal profile. This corneal profile will be used as a reference to analyze the resultant profiles of the customized corneal ablation in refractive surgery.

  17. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  18. anomalous left anterior cerebral artery with hypoplastic right anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-28

    Feb 28, 2018 ... We report an extremely rare anomalous variation of left anterior cerebral artery arising from the ... paraclinoid internal carotid artery and right ... Studies on the arteries of the brain: II-The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic ...

  19. Orbscan II anterior elevation changes following corneal collagen cross-linking treatment for keratoconus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Kyaw Lin; Aslanides, Ioannis M

    2009-08-01

    To analyze anterior corneal elevation changes on Orbscan II following corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) with riboflavin. This retrospective study included 8 patients (14 eyes) with keratoconus who underwent CXL, with a mean follow-up of 7 months (range: 5 to 10 months). Pre- and postoperative (at last clinic attendance) anterior elevation difference maps were examined for overall patterns of change. On preoperative maps, distances from maximum anterior elevation to pupil center and to topographic geometric center were compared between the two patterns identified. Pre- and postoperative topography, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and refraction were also compared between the two patterns. Two patterns of anterior elevation change were visually identified: (1) paracentral steepening, no change, or flattening centrally; and (2) central steepening. The preoperative maps of eyes that manifested pattern 1 had shorter mean distances for maximum anterior elevation to pupil center (1.70 vs. 2.27 mm) and maximum anterior elevation to geometric center (1.45 vs. 1.99 mm) than those that resulted in pattern 2. Mean maximum topographic simulated keratometry decreased (P = .004) and mean irregularity indices at 3 mm (P =.03) and 5 mm (P =.04) were reduced postoperatively in pattern 1 eyes; all increased in pattern 2 eyes. Mean BSCVA improved postoperatively for both patterns. Mean preoperative myopia decreased in pattern 1 eyes by 0.44 diopters (D), whereas it increased for pattern 2 eyes by 1.83 D. Corneal shape change influenced by anisotropy of collagen distribution is a factor in the outcome of CXL treatment for keratoconus.

  20. Quality of Vision in Eyes With Epiphora Undergoing Lacrimal Passage Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Inoue, Yasushi; Ochi, Shintaro; Takai, Yoshihiro; Maeda, Naoyuki; Nishida, Kohji

    2017-09-01

    To investigate visual function and optical quality in eyes with epiphora undergoing lacrimal passage intubation. Prospective case series. Thirty-four eyes of 30 patients with lacrimal passage obstruction were enrolled. Before and 1 month after lacrimal passage intubation, functional visual acuity (FVA), higher-order aberrations (HOAs), lower tear meniscus, and tear clearance were assessed. An FVA measurement system was used to examine changes in continuous visual acuity (VA) over time, and visual function parameters such as FVA, visual maintenance ratio, and blink frequency were obtained. Sequential ocular HOAs were measured for 10 seconds after the blink using a wavefront sensor. Aberration data were analyzed in the central 4 mm for coma-like, spherical-like, and total HOAs. Fluctuation and stability indices of the total HOAs over time were calculated. Lower tear meniscus was assessed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography. After lacrimal passage intubation, visual function significantly improved, as indicated by improved FVA (P = .003) and visual maintenance ratio (P function and optical quality via patency of the lacrimal passage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ISOLATED INFRANUCLEAR ABDUCENS NERVE PALSY IN A TERTIARY EYE CARE CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dhamodara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A comprehensive analysis of the aetiology and clinical profile of isolated infranuclear abducens nerve palsy in a tertiary eye care centre. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based retrospective case series analysis of 90 isolated infranuclear neurogenic abducens nerve palsies. Documentation included age, gender, presenting complaints, history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, mode of onset, progression of the disease, treatment given and recovery rate was evaluated. Detailed ophthalmic evaluation of both eyes including anterior segment examination, extraocular movements, diplopia charting and Hess charting. Thorough central nervous system examination and systemic examination was done. Inclusion Criteria- All isolated infranuclear neurogenic lesions of abducens nerve palsy. Exclusion Criteria- Conditions like supranuclear lesions, myasthenia, orbital inflammation and myopathies, false localising sign of abducens nerve palsy were excluded by appropriate testing and investigations. RESULTS Total cases were 90 patients. Mean age of presentation was between 3rd to 5th decades with male preponderance. Commonest presenting symptom was diplopia (71.1%, commonest cause being idiopathic neuritis (48%, diabetes mellitus (20%, hypertension (15%, trauma (10% and others (7%. CONCLUSION In our study, isolated infranuclear abducens nerve palsy with nonspecific aetiology predominantly affecting males of 3 rd to 5 th decade with variable recovery rates were seen. Hence, careful clinical examination in all cases is essential with close follow up on a long-time basis.

  2. Does the foveal shape influence the image formation in human eyes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Katharina; Zimmerling, Beatrice; Scheibe, Patrick; Rauscher, Franziska G.; Reichenbach, Andreas; Francke, Mike; Brunner, Robert

    2017-10-01

    In human eyes, the maximum visual acuity correlates locally with the fovea, a shallow depression in the retina. Previous examinations have been reduced to simple geometrical fovea models derived from postmortem preparations and considering only a few superficial ray propagation aspects. In the current study, an extended and realistic analysis of ray-optical simulations for a comprehensive anatomical realistic eye model for the anterior part and realistic aspherical human foveal topographical profiles deduced from in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) are presented, and the refractive index step at the transition from vitreous to retinal tissue is taken into account. The optical effect of a commonly shaped (averaged) and an extraordinarily shaped foveal pit were both compared to the analysis of an assumed pure spherical boundary layer. The influence of the aperture size, wavelength, and incident angle on the spot size and shape, as well as the axial focal and lateral centroid position is investigated, and a lateral displacement of about 2 μm and an axial shift of the best focal position of less than 4 μm are found. These findings indicate only small optical effects that are laterally in the range of inter-receptor distances and axially less than the photoreceptor outer segment dimension.

  3. Human secretory phospholipase A(2), group IB in normal eyes and in eye diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; Prause, Jan U; Bazan, Nicolas G

    2007-01-01

    , retinitis pigmentosa and glaucoma were evaluated. RESULTS: Expression of hGIB was found in various cells of the eye. The most abundant expression was found in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, the inner photoreceptor segments, ganglion cells and the corneal endothelium. We explored diseases involving...

  4. Ultrasonographic biometry of the normal eye of the Persian cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, A; Shafigh, S H; Azizzadeh, M

    2014-07-01

    To describe the normal ultrasonographic biometry of the Persian cat's eyes using B-mode ultrasonography. In a cross-sectional study, 20 healthy Persian cats with no history of previous ophthalmic disease were examined. Ocular biometry of the left and right eyes was measured using B-mode ultrasonography. Comparison of the average measurements between left and right eyes and between vertical and horizontal planes was performed using paired-sample t test. Correlation of ocular parameters with sex, age, head circumference and eye colour was evaluated. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) measurements of the ocular structures of anterior chamber, lens thickness, vitreous chamber and anterior to posterior dimension of the globe in 40 eyes were 4.1 ± 0.7, 7.7 ± 0.5, 8.2 ± 0.4 and 20.7 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. No significant difference was found between the ocular biometry of the left and right eyes or the horizontal and vertical planes. Of the ocular parameters, the following had a significant positive correlation with head circumference: axial globe length, anterior chamber and lens thickness. The vitreous body had a positive correlation with age. Regarding the breed predisposition of Persian cats to ocular problems, the present study provides baseline information for further clinical investigations of ocular abnormalities using B-mode ultrasonography. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  5. Eye structure and amphibious foraging in albatrosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G. R.

    1998-01-01

    Anterior eye structure and retinal visual fields were determined in grey-headed and black-browed albatrosses, Diomedea melanophris and D. chrysostoma (Procellariiformes, Diomedeidae), using keratometry and an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique. Results for the two species were very similar and indicate that the eyes are of an amphibious optical design suggesting that albatross vision is well suited to the visual pursuit of active prey both on and below the ocean surface. The corneas are relatively flat (radius ca. 14.5 mm) and hence of low absolute refractive power (ca. 23 dioptres). In air the binocular fields are relatively long (vertical extent ca. 70 degrees) and narrow (maximum width in the plane of the optic axes 26–32 degrees), a topography found in a range of bird species that employ visual guidance of bill position when foraging. The cyclopean fields measure approximately 270 degrees in the horizontal plane, but there is a 60 degrees blind sector above the head owing to the positioning of the eyes below the protruding supraorbital ridges. Upon immersion the monocular fields decrease in width such that the binocular fields are abolished. Anterior eye structure, and visual field topography in both air and water, show marked similarity with those of the Humboldt penguin.

  6. Increasing of the ST segment in the derivations with Q wave in the early effort test after acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanfins, V.M.; Machado, I.; Sousa, F.; Quelhas, I.; Fernandes, J.; Reis, F.; Lourenco, A.; Goncalo, L.; Correia, L.; Amorim, I.; Pereira, A.; Almeida, J. de

    1997-01-01

    Full text: : The objective of this work is to evaluate the raising of the ST segment in the Q wave derivations in the precocious effort test (ET) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients with AMI of the anterior wall, submitted to thrombolysis. It is a prospective study involving 36 patients (P) with AMI of the anterior wall, consecutively interned in the Coronary Unit and submitted to thrombolysis, between June 1995 to June 1996. All the patients realized ET, according Bruce protocol and isotopic study with Thallium 201, with reinjection until 24 h, both without anti-ischemic therapy. The additional raising of ST greater or equal to 1mm, in two or more consecutive Q wave derivations was considered as positivity criterion in the ET. The quantification of the ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201 was made through analysis of the tomographic images and the bull's eye, using the habitual criterion of positivity. The obtained results were compared and the sensibility, the specificity, the acuity and the positive and negative predictive values of the ST segment raising were evaluated, in the identification of the ischemia and/or viability detected in the isotopic study. The average age was of 53,4 years old (36-73), 29 (80,5%) were male. From the 21 (58,3%) of the patients who had ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201, 18 (86%) presented alterations in the ST segment in ET. 24 (66,7%) of the patients who presented alterations in the ST segment in ET, 18 (75%) had also ischemia and/or viability in Thallium-201. Relatively to Thallium-201, the sensibility, specificity, acuity and positive and negative predictive values of the ST segment raising in the Q wave derivations in ET were, respectively of 86%, 60%, 75%, 75% and 75%. The ST segment raising in the Q wave derivations were positively correlated with the existence of ischemia and/or viability in the infarction area. However, it is necessary to continue the study and increase the sample size to

  7. Evaluation of segmental left ventricular wall motion by equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nostrand, D; Janowitz, W R; Holmes, D R; Cohen, H A

    1979-01-01

    The ability of equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography to detect segmental left ventricular (LV) wall motion abnormalities was determined in 26 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Multiple gated studies obtained in 30 degrees right anterior oblique and 45 degrees left anterior oblique projections, played back in a movie format, were compared to the corresponding LV ventriculograms. The LV wall in the two projections was divided into eight segments. Each segment was graded as normal, hypokinetic, akinetic, dyskinetic, or indeterminate. Thirteen percent of the segments in the gated images were indeterminate; 24 out of 27 of these were proximal or distal inferior wall segments. There was exact agreement in 86% of the remaining segments. The sensitivity of the radionuclide technique for detecting normal versus any abnormal wall motion was 71%, with a specificity of 99%. Equilibrium gated ventriculography is an excellent noninvasive technique for evaluating segmental LV wall motion. It is least reliable in assessing the proximal inferior wall and interventricular septum.

  8. Anterior capsular staining with trypan blue for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothari Kulin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of 0.1% Trypan Blue dye to stain the anterior capsule for capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts. Methods: This preliminary study included 25 eyes of 25 patients with a unilateral mature or hypermature cataract, including one case of traumatic mature cataract. In all these cases 0.2ml of 0.1% trypan blue dye was used to stain the anterior capsule. The efficacy and safety of the dye was evaluated on the basis of intraoperative and postoperative observations. Results: In all 25 eyes the capsulorhexis was completed. There was peripheral extension of the capsulorhexis in the eye with traumatic cataract and the stained edge of the anterior capsule helped identification and redirection of the capsulorhexis. Successful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation was performed in all eyes. Adverse reactions related to the dye such as raised intraocular pressure, anterior chamber inflammation and endothelial damage were not observed in the immediate postoperative period or at the end of mean follow-up of 3 months. Conclusion: Trypan blue dye staining of the anterior capsule appears to be a very useful and safe technique that simplifies capsulorhexis in mature and hypermature cataracts.

  9. SMILE and Wavefront-Guided LASIK Out-Compete Other Refractive Surgeries in Ameliorating the Induction of High-Order Aberrations in Anterior Corneal Surface

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min-jie; Liu, Cai-yuan; Liao, Rong-feng; Gu, Zheng-yu; Zhao, Bing-ying; Liao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the change of anterior corneal higher-order aberrations (HOAs) after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), wavefront-guided LASIK with iris registration (WF-LASIK), femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK), and small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). Methods. In a prospective study, 82 eyes underwent LASIK, 119 eyes underwent WF-LASIK, 88 eyes underwent FS-LASIK, and 170 eyes underwent SMILE surgery. HOAs were measured with Pentacam device pr...

  10. Comparison of corneal measurements in keratoconic eyes using rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naderan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the anterior segment measurements obtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam and Scanning-slit topography (Orbscan IIz in keratoconic eyes. METHODS: A total of 121 patients, 71 males (58.7% and 50 females (41.3% (214 eyes with the diagnosis of keratoconus (KC were enrolled in this study. Following diagnosis of KC by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, central corneal thickness (CCT, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and pupil diameter (PD were measured by a single examiner using successive instrumentation by Pentacam and Orbscan. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two instruments for the measurement of CCT and TCT. In contrast, scanning-slit topography measured ACD (3.46±0.40 mm vs. 3.38±0.33 mm, P=0.019 and PD (4.97±1.26 mm vs 4.08±1.19 mm, P<0.001 significantly larger than rotating Scheimpflug camera. The two devices made similar measurements for CCT (95% CI: -2.94 to 5.06, P=0.602. However, the mean difference for TCT was -6.28 (95% CI: -10.51 to -2.06, P=0.004 showing a thinner measurement by Orbscan than by Pentacam. In terms of the ACD, the mean difference was 0.08 mm (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.12, P<0.001 with Orbscan giving a slightly larger value than Pentacam. Similarly, Orbscan measurement for PD was longer than Pentacam (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.08, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: A good agreement was found between Pentacam and Orbscan concerning CCT measurement while comparing scanning-slit topography and rotating Scheimpflug camera there was an underestimation for TCT and overestimation for ACD and PD.

  11. The anterior hypothalamus in cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkink, Enrico B; Schmitz, Nicole; Schoonman, Guus G; van Vliet, Jorine A; Haan, Joost; van Buchem, Mark A; Ferrari, Michel D; Kruit, Mark C

    2017-10-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence, localization, and specificity of structural hypothalamic and whole brain changes in cluster headache and chronic paroxysmal hemicrania (CPH). Methods We compared T1-weighted magnetic resonance images of subjects with cluster headache (episodic n = 24; chronic n = 23; probable n = 14), CPH ( n = 9), migraine (with aura n = 14; without aura n = 19), and no headache ( n = 48). We applied whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) using two complementary methods to analyze structural changes in the hypothalamus: region-of-interest analyses in whole brain VBM, and manual segmentation of the hypothalamus to calculate volumes. We used both conservative VBM thresholds, correcting for multiple comparisons, and less conservative thresholds for exploratory purposes. Results Using region-of-interest VBM analyses mirrored to the headache side, we found enlargement ( p cluster headache compared to controls, and in all participants with episodic or chronic cluster headache taken together compared to migraineurs. After manual segmentation, hypothalamic volume (mean±SD) was larger ( p cluster headache compared to controls (1.72 ± 0.15 ml) and migraineurs (1.68 ± 0.19 ml). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for participants with probable cluster headache (1.82 ± 0.19 ml; p = 0.07) and CPH (1.79 ± 0.20 ml; p = 0.15). Increased hypothalamic volume was primarily explained by bilateral enlargement of the anterior hypothalamus. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses showed widespread changes in pain-modulating areas in all subjects with headache. Interpretation The anterior hypothalamus is enlarged in episodic and chronic cluster headache and possibly also in probable cluster headache or CPH, but not in migraine.

  12. 'An eye, for eyes - mission' - From dream to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikumar P

    2013-10-01

    shortage of donor corneas [2]. At this juncture Yokoo et al isolated and expanded corneal endothelial precursors using the sphere forming assay in vitro [3] and demonstrated the in vivo transplantation of these corneal endothelial precursors in a rabbit model of bullous keratopathy [4]. Following this, we studied the transportation of cadaver donor derived corneal endothelial tissue (CET from human cadaver donors in a thermoreversible gelation polymer (TGP (4 based transportation cocktail without cool preservation and demonstrated the viability of human corneal endothelial precursor (HCEP cells isolated from these CETs even after 72 hours of transportation without cool preservation [5]. This was done to suit the conditions existing in developing nations like India where hospitals might be located far from eye banks and maintaining cold chain preservation is relatively difficult. Further, these HCEPs were expanded in vitro using a polymer based expansion protocol [5]. This was the first step in the realisation of the dream of 'Eye for eyes' in a manner suitable for Indian conditions. Hurdle faced in Clinical Translation and its solution: After HCEP transplantation, the eye balls need to be fixed 24- 36 hours facing down, to facilitate the gravity-assisted settling of the cells injected into the anterior chamber on to the endothelium which is possible in animals but difficult in humans. To overcome this hurdle, we used the nanocomposite gel sheet (D25-NC gel sheet developed by Haraguchi [6] as a supporting material to support the HCEP cells during transplantation and the HCEP transplantation using this NC gel sheet was successfully demonstrated in a cadaver bovine's eye cornea [7]. Thus the second step in the 'Eye for eyes' mission was accomplished. The Pilot Clinical study: The study was undertaken in three patients, two suffering from bullous keratopathy and one patient with congenital corneal dystrophy after proper informed consent. The right eye was affected in each

  13. Ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Shizuka; Maeda, Naoyuki; Ikeda, Chikako; Asonuma, Sanae; Mitamura, Hayato; Oie, Yoshinori; Soma, Takeshi; Tsujikawa, Motokazu; Kawasaki, Satoshi; Nishida, Kohji

    2014-09-18

    To evaluate ocular forward light scattering and corneal backward light scattering in patients with dry eye. Thirty-five eyes in 35 patients with dry eye and 20 eyes of 20 healthy control subjects were enrolled. The 35 dry eyes were classified into two groups according to whether superficial punctate keratopathy in the central 6-mm corneal zone (cSPK) was present or not. Ocular forward light scattering was quantified with a straylight meter. Corneal backward light scattering from the anterior, middle, and posterior corneal parts was assessed with a corneal densitometry program using the Scheimpflug imaging system. Both dry eye groups had significantly higher intraocular forward light scattering than the control group (both Pdry eye group with cSPK had significantly higher values in anterior and total corneal backward light scattering than the other two groups. Moderate positive correlations were observed between the cSPK score and corneal backward light scattering from the anterior cornea (R=0.60, Pdry eyes than in normal eyes. Increased corneal backward light scattering in dry eye at least partially results from cSPK overlying the optical zone. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  14. Segmented trapped vortex cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammel, Jr., Leonard Paul (Inventor); Pennekamp, David Lance (Inventor); Winslow, Jr., Ralph Henry (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An annular trapped vortex cavity assembly segment comprising includes a cavity forward wall, a cavity aft wall, and a cavity radially outer wall there between defining a cavity segment therein. A cavity opening extends between the forward and aft walls at a radially inner end of the assembly segment. Radially spaced apart pluralities of air injection first and second holes extend through the forward and aft walls respectively. The segment may include first and second expansion joint features at distal first and second ends respectively of the segment. The segment may include a forward subcomponent including the cavity forward wall attached to an aft subcomponent including the cavity aft wall. The forward and aft subcomponents include forward and aft portions of the cavity radially outer wall respectively. A ring of the segments may be circumferentially disposed about an axis to form an annular segmented vortex cavity assembly.

  15. Pavement management segment consolidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Dividing roads into "homogeneous" segments has been a major problem for all areas of highway engineering. SDDOT uses Deighton Associates Limited software, dTIMS, to analyze life-cycle costs for various rehabilitation strategies on each segment of roa...

  16. Right bundle branch block and anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofin, Monica; Israel, Carsten W; Barold, S Serge

    2017-09-01

    We report the case of an acute anterior wall ST elevation myocardial infarction with new left anterior fascicular block and pre-existing right bundle branch block. Due to a wide right bundle branch block, no ST segment elevation was visible in lead V1. The left anterior fascicular block was caused by proximal occlusion of the left artery descending and disappeared after acute revascularization. However, also the R' of the right bundle branch block became significantly shorter after revascularization, dismanteling a minor ST segment elevation. The ST elevation in lead V1 in anterior wall infarction and right bundle branch block may merge with the R' and cause a further QRS widening as an "equivalent" to the ST elevation.

  17. Speaker segmentation and clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Kotti, M; Moschou, V; Kotropoulos, C

    2008-01-01

    07.08.13 KB. Ok to add the accepted version to Spiral, Elsevier says ok whlile mandate not enforced. This survey focuses on two challenging speech processing topics, namely: speaker segmentation and speaker clustering. Speaker segmentation aims at finding speaker change points in an audio stream, whereas speaker clustering aims at grouping speech segments based on speaker characteristics. Model-based, metric-based, and hybrid speaker segmentation algorithms are reviewed. Concerning speaker...

  18. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  19. Anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses following vitreous loss in endocapsular surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Pushpa

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We used anterior capsular support for posterior chamber intraocular lenses (PC IOLs in fourteen eyes with large posterior capsular ruptures. An endocapsular technique preserved the anterior capsule and facilitated implantation. With a median follow up of 8.5 months, all patients had a visual acuity of 6/9 or better. One lens was lost in the vitreous and one patient had a clinically significant cystoid macular edema. In the event of a posterior capsular rupture we suggest this technique as an alternative to anterior chamber or scleral-fixated lenses

  20. Automatic Melody Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez López, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The work presented in this dissertation investigates music segmentation. In the field of Musicology, segmentation refers to a score analysis technique, whereby notated pieces or passages of these pieces are divided into “units” referred to as sections, periods, phrases, and so on. Segmentation

  1. Angle assessment by EyeCam, goniophotography, and gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, Mani; Perera, Shamira A; Nongpiur, Monisha E; Tun, Tin A; Park, Judy; Kumar, Rajesh S; Friedman, David S; Aung, Tin

    2012-09-01

    To compare EyeCam (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) and goniophotography in detecting angle closure, using gonioscopy as the reference standard. In this hospital-based, prospective, cross-sectional study, participants underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging and goniophotography by different operators. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. A masked observer categorized the eyes as per the number of closed quadrants, and an eye was classified as having angle closure if there were 2 or more quadrants of closure. Agreement between the methods was analyzed by κ statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Eighty-five participants (85 eyes) were included, the majority of whom were Chinese. Angle closure was detected in 38 eyes (45%) with gonioscopy, 40 eyes (47%) using EyeCam, and 40 eyes (47%) with goniophotography (P=0.69 in both comparisons, McNemar test). The agreement for angle closure diagnosis (by eye) between gonioscopy and the 2 imaging modalities was high (κ=0.86; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.75-0.97), whereas the agreement between EyeCam and goniophotography was not as good (κ=0.72; 95% CI, 0.57-0.87); largely due to lack of agreement in the nasal and temporal quadrants (κ=0.55 to 0.67). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was similar for goniophotography and EyeCam (AUC 0.93, sensitivity=94.7%, specificity=91.5%; P>0.95). EyeCam and goniophotography have similarly high sensitivity and specificity for the detection of gonioscopic angle closure.

  2. Video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yingzi; Arslanturk, Emrah; Zhou, Zhi; Belcher, Craig

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a video-based noncooperative iris image segmentation scheme that incorporates a quality filter to quickly eliminate images without an eye, employs a coarse-to-fine segmentation scheme to improve the overall efficiency, uses a direct least squares fitting of ellipses method to model the deformed pupil and limbic boundaries, and develops a window gradient-based method to remove noise in the iris region. A remote iris acquisition system is set up to collect noncooperative iris video images. An objective method is used to quantitatively evaluate the accuracy of the segmentation results. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this method. The proposed method would make noncooperative iris recognition or iris surveillance possible.

  3. Anterior Cervical Osteophytes Causing Dysphagia and Dyspnea: An Uncommon Entity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Giger, Roland; Dulguerov, Pavel; Payer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Large anterior cervical osteophytes can occur in degeneration of the cervical spine or in diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). We present the case of an 83-year-old patient with progressive dysphagia and acute dyspnea, necessitating emergency tracheotomy. Voluminous anterior cervical osteophytes extending from C3 to C7 and narrowing the pharyngoesophageal segment by external compression and bilateral vocal fold immobility were diagnosed radiologically and by fiberoptic laryngoscop...

  4. Effect of lipid-based dry eye supplements on the tear film in wearers of eye cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael T M; Cho, Irene Sung Hee; Jung, Soo Hee; Craig, Jennifer P

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects on tear film parameters and contamination in cosmetic eyeliner wearers, after single application of two lipid-based dry eye treatments: a lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and a phospholipid liposomal spray. Fifty participants were enrolled in a prospective, randomised, paired-eye, investigator-masked trial. Pencil eyeliner (Body Shop ® Crayon Eye Definer) was applied to the upper eyelid periocular skin of both eyes, anterior to the lash line. Baseline tear film quality was assessed fifteen minutes after eyeliner application. A lubricant drop (Systane ® Balance) was then applied to one eye (randomised), and liposomal spray (Tears Again ® ) to the contralateral eye. Tear film contamination, lipid layer grade, non-invasive tear film break-up time and tear evaporation rate were evaluated fifteen minutes post-treatment and compared to pre-treatment values. Pre-treatment measurements did not differ between eyes assigned to lubricant drop and liposomal spray. Tear film contamination was observed in a greater proportion of eyes following both treatments (both p0.05). Changes in tear film parameters did not differ between treatments (all p>0.05). Both the lipid-containing lubricant eye drop and phospholipid liposomal spray result in clinically apparent tear film contamination in eyeliner cosmetic wearers. Although both treatments effected an increase in lipid layer thickness, neither displayed clinical efficacy in improving tear film stability. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of eyes with relative pupillary block by indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Koichi; Ito, Kunio; Esaki, Koji; Sugimoto, Kota; Sano, Toru; Miura, Katsuya; Sasoh, Mikio; Uji, Yukitaka

    2004-03-01

    To investigate changes in anterior chamber angle configuration with indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy of relative pupillary block (RPB). Cross-sectional study. This study included 26 eyes of 26 patients with RPB. We determined angle opening distance 500 and angle recess area using indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy gonioscopy and compared a small-sized standard eye cup with a new eye cup with an area for inducing pressure. Indentation ultrasound biomicroscopy images documented concavity of the iris in eyes with RPB. Both the new and the small standard eye cups widened the anterior chamber angle significantly (P gonioscopy is a useful technique for observation and diagnosis of RPB. Using a small standard or the newly designed eye cup, the procedure can be performed easily and without causing corneal damage.

  6. [Eye development in children. Part I. Eyeball dimensions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachowicz, Ewelina; Czepita, Damian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of an article is to introduce and elaborate on the available literature concerning eyeball development. The information content in the article comes from studies performed on groups of children of different ages. In some analysis study groups were chosen depending on sex. Axial length of the eye, depth of anterior chamber, lens's thickness and vitreous's dimension was defined. Intensive changes of eyeball dimensions progress with age. A period of fast and slow growth of the eye can be discerned. Axial length of the eye, depth of anterior chamber, lens's thickness and vitreous's dimension increase over time. Growth of the axial length is mainly caused by increasing axial length of vitreous cavity. The increase in depth of the anterior chamber plays a lesser role. Girls tend to have shorter eyes compared with boys. Both age and male gender are associated with deeper anterior chambers and larger vitreous cavity. Lens thickness decreases with the growth of the eyeball. However gender does not play a role. Based on current literature, it is difficult exactly indicate what are the standards of eyeball growth in children and youths. To establish these parameters, further studies on the another examination in representative group of children and teenagers are necessary.

  7. Relative Frequencies of Arteritic and Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy in an Arab Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruener, Anna M; Chang, Jessica R; Bosley, Thomas M; Al-Sadah, Zakeya M; Kum, Clarissa; McCulley, Timothy J

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the relative frequencies of arteritic and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) in an Arab population and to compare and contrast these findings with known epidemiological data from Caucasian populations. A retrospective review of the medical records of all patients diagnosed with AION at the King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital (KKESH) in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, between 1997 and 2012. Of 171 patients with AION, 4 had biopsy-proven giant-cell arteritis (GCA). The relative frequencies of arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AAION) and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) in this Arab cohort were 2.3% and 97.7%, respectively. The relative frequencies of arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy differ between Arab and North American clinic-based populations, with giant-cell arteritis-related ischemia being much less frequent in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  9. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  10. Age, Gender, Biometry, Refractive Error, and the Anterior Chamber Angle among Alaskan Eskimos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Robert; Congdon, Nathan; Anninger, William; Broman, Aimee Teo

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) is greater for Eskimos/Inuit than it is for any other ethnic group in the world. Although it has been suggested that this prevalence may be due to a population tendency toward shallower anterior chamber angles, available evidence for other populations such as Chinese with high rates of ACG has not consistently demonstrated such a tendency. Methods A reticule, slit-lamp, and standard Goldmann one-mirror goniolens were used to make measurements in the anterior chamber (AC) angle according to a previously reported protocol for biometric gonioscopy (BG) (Ophthalmology 1999;106:2161–7). Measurements were made in all four quadrants of one eye among 133 phakic Alaskan Eskimos aged 40 years and older. Automatic refraction, dilated examination of the anterior segment and optic nerve, and A-scan measurements of AC depth, lens thickness, and axial length were also carried out for all subjects. Results Both central and peripheral AC measurements for the Eskimo subjects were significantly lower than those previously reported by us for Chinese, blacks, and whites under the identical protocol. Eskimos also seemed to have somewhat more hyperopia. There were no differences in biometric measurements between men and women in this Eskimo population. Angle measurements by BG seemed to decline more rapidly over life among Eskimos and Chinese than blacks or whites. Although there was a significant apparent decrease in AC depth, increase in lens thickness, and increase in hyperopia with age among Eskimos, all of these trends seemed to reverse in the seventh decade and beyond. Conclusions Eskimos do seem to have shallower ACs than do other racial groups. Measurements of the AC angle seem to decline more rapidly over life among Eskimos than among blacks or whites, a phenomenon also observed by us among Chinese, another group with high ACG prevalence. This apparent more rapid decline may be due to a cohort effect with higher

  11. The Palatal Approach to Distraction Osteogenesis of the Anterior Maxillary Alveolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robert E

    2015-07-01

    This report describes the palatal approach to gain access for osteodistraction of the anterior maxilla to improve the vector of force during distraction. This case report illustrates a novel approach to anterior maxillary osteodistraction. The palatal approach allows the maxillary segment to be moved anteriorly and inferiorly. This is in contrast to the buccal approach, in which the palatal tissue creates a vector of force toward the palate. The vascular pedicle for the transport segment is the labial mucosa and musculature. In the present case, the alveolar segment was advanced 3.6 mm anteriorly and 12.2 mm inferiorly as measured by pre- and postoperative computed tomograms. This patient with a large vertical alveolar defect and high smile line had successful restoration with dental implants. The result has been stable for 14 months. In this case, the palatal approach to the anterior maxillary osteotomy was shown to be an effective method of reconstructing a large vertical anterior defect. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior cervical fusion: the role of anterior plating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Scott D; Wang, Jeffrey C

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of cervical pathology requires a clear understanding of the biomechanical benefits and limitations of cervical plates, their indications, and their associated complications. The use of anterior cervical plates has evolved significantly since their early application in cervical trauma. They have become widely used for anterior cervical decompression and fusion for cervical spondylosis. Plate design has undergone significant refinement and innovation, from the initial unlocked plates requiring bicortical purchase to the latest rotationally and translationally semiconstrained dynamic plates. Excellent clinical results have been reported for single-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion with or without plate fixation; however, the addition of an anterior cervical plate clearly leads to earlier fusion and better clinical results in longer fusions. Longer fusions should ideally consist of corpectomies and strut grafting because the decreased number of fusion surfaces tends to lead to higher fusion rates. Although anterior plate fixation leads to higher fusion rates in fusions of three or more levels, the associated pseudarthrosis rate is still high. The use of