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Sample records for anterior cingulate cortex

  1. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Pain Processing

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    Perry Neil Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to higher order pain processing in rodents.

  3. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

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    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  4. Anterior cingulate cortex involvement in subclinical social anxiety.

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    Duval, Elizabeth R; Hale, Lisa R; Liberzon, Israel; Lepping, Rebecca; N Powell, Joshua; Filion, Diane L; Savage, Cary R

    2013-12-30

    We demonstrated differential activation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) between subjects with high and low social anxiety in response to angry versus neutral faces. Activation in the ACC distinguished between facial expressions in the low, but not the high, anxious group. The ACC's role in threat processing is discussed.

  5. Value, search, persistence and model updating in anterior cingulate cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolling, N.; Wittmann, M.K.; Behrens, T.E.J.; Boorman, E.D.; Mars, R.B.; Rushworth, M.F.S.

    2016-01-01

    Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) carries a wealth of value-related information necessary for regulating behavioral flexibility and persistence. It signals error and reward events informing decisions about switching or staying with current behavior. During decision-making, it encodes the avera

  6. Motivation of extended behaviors by anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Holroyd, Clay B; Yeung, Nick

    2012-02-01

    Intense research interest over the past decade has yielded diverse and often discrepant theories about the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). In particular, a dichotomy has emerged between neuropsychological theories suggesting a primary role for ACC in motivating or 'energizing' behavior, and neuroimaging-inspired theories emphasizing its contribution to cognitive control and reinforcement learning. To reconcile these views, we propose that ACC supports the selection and maintenance of 'options' - extended, context-specific sequences of behavior directed toward particular goals - that are learned through a process of hierarchical reinforcement learning. This theory accounts for ACC activity in relation to learning and control while simultaneously explaining the effects of ACC damage as disrupting the motivational context supporting the production of goal-directed action sequences.

  7. Action initiation in the human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Lakshminarayan Srinivasan

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has previously been implicated in processes that influence action initiation. In humans however, there has been little direct evidence connecting dACC to the temporal onset of actions. We studied reactive behavior in patients undergoing therapeutic bilateral cingulotomy to determine the immediate effects of dACC ablation on action initiation. In a simple reaction task, three patients were instructed to respond to a specific visual cue with the movement of a joystick. Within minutes of dACC ablation, the frequency of false starts increased, where movements occurred prior to presentation of the visual cue. In a decision making task with three separate patients, the ablation effect on action initiation persisted even when action selection was intact. These findings suggest that human dACC influences action initiation, apart from its role in action selection.

  8. Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring.

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    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Green, David W; Hernandez, Mireia; Scifo, Paola; Keim, Roland; Cappa, Stefano F; Costa, Albert

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring and controlling 2 language systems is fundamental to language use in bilinguals. Here, we reveal in a combined functional (event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging) and structural neuroimaging (voxel-based morphometry) study that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a structure tightly bound to domain-general executive control functions, is a common locus for language control and resolving nonverbal conflict. We also show an experience-dependent effect in the same region: Bilinguals use this structure more efficiently than monolinguals to monitor nonlinguistic cognitive conflicts. They adapted better to conflicting situations showing less ACC activity while outperforming monolinguals. Importantly, for bilinguals, brain activity in the ACC, as well as behavioral measures, also correlated positively with local gray matter volume. These results suggest that early learning and lifelong practice of 2 languages exert a strong impact upon human neocortical development. The bilingual brain adapts better to resolve cognitive conflicts in domain-general cognitive tasks.

  9. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects.

  10. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the value of control.

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    Shenhav, Amitai; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2016-09-27

    Debates over the function(s) of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) have persisted for decades. So too have demonstrations of the region's association with cognitive control. Researchers have struggled to account for this association and, simultaneously, dACC's involvement in phenomena related to evaluation and motivation. We describe a recent integrative theory that achieves this goal. It proposes that dACC serves to specify the currently optimal allocation of control by determining the overall expected value of control (EVC), thereby licensing the associated cognitive effort. The EVC theory accounts for dACC's sensitivity to a wide array of experimental variables, and their relationship to subsequent control adjustments. Finally, we contrast our theory with a recent theory proposing a primary role for dACC in foraging-like decisions. We describe why the EVC theory offers a more comprehensive and coherent account of dACC function, including dACC's particular involvement in decisions regarding foraging or otherwise altering one's behavior.

  11. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions

    OpenAIRE

    van Steenbergen, H.; E. Haasnoot; Bocanegra, B.R.; Berretty, E.W.; Hommel, B.

    2015-01-01

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anteri...

  12. Reduced event-related current density in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

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    Mulert, C; Gallinat, J; Pascual-Marqui, R; Dorn, H; Frick, K; Schlattmann, P; Mientus, S; Herrmann, W M; Winterer, G

    2001-04-01

    There is good evidence from neuroanatomic postmortem and functional imaging studies that dysfunction of the anterior cingulate cortex plays a prominent role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. So far, no electrophysiological localization study has been performed to investigate this deficit. We investigated 18 drug-free schizophrenic patients and 25 normal subjects with an auditory choice reaction task and measured event-related activity with 19 electrodes. Estimation of the current source density distribution in Talairach space was performed with low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). In normals, we could differentiate between an early event-related potential peak of the N1 (90-100 ms) and a later N1 peak (120-130 ms). Subsequent current-density LORETA analysis in Talairach space showed increased activity in the auditory cortex area during the first N1 peak and increased activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus during the second N1 peak. No activation difference was observed in the auditory cortex between normals and patients with schizophrenia. However, schizophrenics showed significantly less anterior cingulate gyrus activation and slowed reaction times. Our results confirm previous findings of an electrical source in the anterior cingulate and an anterior cingulate dysfunction in schizophrenics. Our data also suggest that anterior cingulate function in schizophrenics is disturbed at a relatively early time point in the information-processing stream (100-140 ms poststimulus).

  13. Attention and sentence processing deficits in Parkinson's disease: the role of anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Grossman, M; Crino, P; Reivich, M; Stern, M B; Hurtig, H I

    1992-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative condition involving a motor disorder that is related to reduced dopaminergic input to the striatum. Intellectual deficits are also seen in PD, but the pathophysiology of these difficulties is poorly understood. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied in neurologically intact subjects during the performance of attention-demanding, sentence processing tasks using positron emission tomography (PET). The results demonstrated significantly increased rCBF in a distributed set of cerebral regions during the detection of an adjective or a particular agent in a sentence, including anterior cingulate cortex, left inferior and middle frontal cortex, left inferior temporo-occipital cortex, posterolateral temporal cortex, left caudate, and left thalamus. We identified defects in this cerebral network by studying PD patients with two PET techniques. Resting PET studies revealed a significant correlation between regional cerebral glucose metabolism in anterior cingulate cortex and deficits in attending to subtle grammatical aspects of sentences. Studies of PD patients with the PET activation technique revealed little change in anterior cingulate and left frontal CBF during performance of the adjective detection or agent detection tasks. These data suggest that a defect in anterior cingulate cortex contributes to the cognitive impairments observed in PD.

  14. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

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    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  15. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis.

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    Wang, Jue; Yang, Ning; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Han; Yan, Chao-Gan; Zang, Yu-Feng; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6-16 years, 42 boys). We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right) in its superior part, rightward (left lateral temporal cortex) was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex) was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure-function relationships during the development.

  16. Contrasting reward signals in the orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Wallis, Jonathan D; Kennerley, Steven W

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) impairs decision making, but the underlying value computations that cause such impairments remain unclear. Both the OFC and ACC encode a wide variety of signals correlated with decision making. The current challenge is to determine how these two different areas support decision-making processes. Here, we review a series of experiments that have helped define these roles. A special population of neurons in the ACC, but not the OFC, multiplex value information across decision parameters using a unified encoding scheme, and encode reward prediction errors. In contrast, neurons in the OFC, but not the ACC, encode the value of a choice relative to the recent history of choice values. Together, these results suggest complementary valuation processes: OFC neurons dynamically evaluate current choices relative to the value contexts recently experienced, while ACC neurons encode choice predictions and prediction errors using a common valuation currency reflecting the integration of multiple decision parameters.

  17. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

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    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  18. Errors without Conflict: Implications for Performance Monitoring Theories of Anterior Cingulate Cortex

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    van Veen, V.; Holroyd, C.B.; Cohen, J.D.; Stenger, V.A.; Carter, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent theories of the neural basis of performance monitoring have emphasized a central role for the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Replicating an earlier event-related potential (ERP) study, which showed an error feedback negativity that was modeled as having an ACC generator, we used event-related fMRI to investigate whether the ACC would…

  19. Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Cognitive Control: Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Findings in Two Patients with Lesions to Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

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    Lovstad, M.; Funderud, I.; Meling, T.; Kramer, U. M.; Voytek, B.; Due-Tonnessen, P.; Endestad, T.; Lindgren, M.; Knight, R. T.; Solbakk, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects have demonstrated an association between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cognitive control functions, including response monitoring and error detection, lesion studies are sparse and have produced mixed results. Due to largely normal behavioral test results in two patients with medial…

  20. A causal role for the anterior mid-cingulate cortex in negative affect and cognitive control.

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    Tolomeo, Serenella; Christmas, David; Jentzsch, Ines; Johnston, Blair; Sprengelmeyer, Reiner; Matthews, Keith; Douglas Steele, J

    2016-06-01

    Converging evidence has linked the anterior mid-cingulate cortex to negative affect, pain and cognitive control. It has previously been proposed that this region uses information about punishment to control aversively motivated actions. Studies on the effects of lesions allow causal inferences about brain function; however, naturally occurring lesions in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex are rare. In two studies we therefore recruited 94 volunteers, comprising 15 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had received bilateral anterior cingulotomy, which consists of lesions made within the anterior mid-cingulate cortex, 20 patients with treatment-resistant depression who had not received surgery and 59 healthy control subjects. Using the Ekman 60 faces paradigm and two Stroop paradigms, we tested the hypothesis that patients who received anterior cingulotomy were impaired in recognizing negative facial affect expressions but not positive or neutral facial expressions, and impaired in Stroop cognitive control, with larger lesions being associated with more impairment. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted more impairment in recognizing fear, disgust and anger, and no impairment in recognizing facial expressions of surprise or happiness. However, we found no impairment in recognizing expressions of sadness. Also consistent with the hypothesis, we found that larger volume lesions predicted impaired Stroop cognitive control. Notably, this relationship was only present when anterior mid-cingulate cortex lesion volume was defined as the overlap between cingulotomy lesion volume and Shackman's meta-analysis-derived binary masks for negative affect and cognitive control. Given substantial evidence from healthy subjects that the anterior mid-cingulate cortex is part of a network associated with the experience of negative affect and pain, engaging cognitive control processes for optimizing behaviour in the presence of such

  1. Error Negativity Does Not Reflect Conflict: A Reappraisal of Conflict Monitoring and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Our ability to detect and correct errors is essential for our adaptive behavior. The conflict-loop theory states that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a key role in detecting the need to increase control through conflict monitoring. Such monitoring is assumed to manifest itself in an electroencephalographic (EEG) component, the "error negativity" (Ne or "error-related negativity" [ERN]). We have directly tested the hypothesis that the ACC monitors conflict through simulation and expe...

  2. Practice explains abolished behavioural adaptation after human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lesions.

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    van Steenbergen, H; Haasnoot, E; Bocanegra, B R; Berretty, E W; Hommel, B

    2015-04-08

    The role of mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), also referred to as dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, in regulating cognitive control is a topic of primary importance in cognitive neuroscience. Although many studies have shown that MCC responds to cognitive demands, lesion studies in humans are inconclusive concerning the causal role of the MCC in the adaptation to these demands. By elegantly combining single-cell recordings with behavioural methods, Sheth et al. [Sheth, S. et al. Human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex neurons mediate ongoing behavioural adaptation. Nature 488, 218-22 (2012).] recently were able to show that neurons in MCC encode cognitive demand. Importantly, this study also claimed that focal lesions of the MCC abolished behavioural adaptation to cognitive demands. Here we show that the absence of post-cingulotomy behavioural adaptation reported in this study may have been due to practice effects. We run a control condition where we tested subjects before and after a dummy treatment, which substituted cingulotomy with a filler task (presentation of a documentary). The results revealed abolished behavioural adaptation following the dummy treatment. Our findings suggest that future work using proper experimental designs is needed to advance the understanding of the causal role of the MCC in behavioural adaptation.

  3. Mirth and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the human anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Caruana, Fausto; Avanzini, Pietro; Gozzo, Francesca; Francione, Stefano; Cardinale, Francesco; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Laughter is a complex motor behavior that, typically, expresses mirth. Despite its fundamental role in social life, knowledge about the neural basis of laughter is very limited and mostly based on a few electrical stimulation (ES) studies carried out in epileptic patients. In these studies laughter was elicited from temporal areas where it was accompanied by mirth and from frontal areas plus an anterior cingulate case where laughter without mirth was observed. On the basis of these findings, it has been proposed a dichotomy between temporal lobe areas processing the emotional content of laughter and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and motor areas responsible of laughter production. The present study is aimed to understand the role of ACC in laughter. We report the effects of stimulation of 10 rostral, pregenual ACC (pACC) patients in which the ES elicited laughter. In half of the patients ES elicited a clear burst of laughter with mirth, while in the other half mirth was not evident. This large dataset allow us to offer a more reliable picture of the functional contribute of this region in laughter, and to precisely localize it in the cingulate cortex. We conclude that the pACC is involved in both the motor and the affective components of emotions, and challenge the validity of a sharp dichotomy between motor and emotional centers for laughing. Finally, we suggest a possible anatomical network for the production of positive emotional expressions.

  4. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

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    Vitoria ePiai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word interference, PWI; vocal colour naming while ignoring distractors (Stroop; and manual object discrimination while ignoring spatial position (Simon task. All three tasks had congruent and incongruent stimuli, while PWI and Stroop also had neutral stimuli. Analyses focusing on common activation across tasks identified a portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was active in incongruent trials for all three tasks, suggesting that this region subserves a domain-general attentional control function. In the language tasks, this area showed increased activity for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli, consistent with the involvement of domain-general mechanisms of attentional control in word production. The two language tasks also showed activity in anterior-superior temporal gyrus. Activity increased for neutral PWI stimuli (picture and word did not share the same semantic category relative to incongruent (categorically related and congruent stimuli. This finding is consistent with the involvement of language-specific areas in word production, possibly related to retrieval of lexical-semantic information from memory. The current results thus suggest that in addition to engaging language-specific areas for core linguistic processes, speaking also engages the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that is likely implementing domain

  5. Changes in functional connectivity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex in heroin abusers

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    WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; QIN Wei; YUAN Kai; TIAN Jie; LI Qiang; YANG Lan-ying; LU Lin; GUO You-min

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies with animal experiments, autopsy, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and task-related functional MRI (fMRI) have confirmed that brain functional connectivity in addicts has become impaired. The goal of this study was to investigate the alteration of resting-state functional connectivity of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) in the heroin abusers' brain.Methods Fifteen heroin abusers and fifteen matched healthy volunteers were studied using vACC as the region-of interest (ROI) seed. A 3.0 T scanner with a standard head coil was the imagining apparatus. T2*-weighted gradient-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) was the scanning protocol. A ROI seed based correlation analysis used a SPM5 software package as the tool for all images processing.Results This study showed a functional connection to the insula vACC in heroin abusers. Compared with controls,heroin users showed decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and vACC, between the parahippocampala gyrus/amgdala (PHC/amygdala) and vACC, between the thalamus and vACC, and between the posterior cingulated cortex/precuneus (PCC/pC) and vACC.Conclusion The altered resting-state functional connectivity to the vACC suggests the neural circuitry on which the addictive drug has an affect and reflects the dysfunction of the addictive brain.

  6. The expected value of control: an integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function.

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    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M; Cohen, Jonathan D

    2013-07-24

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function.

  7. Decreased ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity is associated with reduced social pain during emotional support.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-01-01

    People feel psychological pain when they are excluded, and this pain is often attenuated when emotional support is received. It is therefore likely that a specific neural mechanism underlies the detection of social exclusion. Similarly, specific neural mechanisms may underlie the beneficial effects of emotional support. Although neuroimaging researchers have recently examined the neural basis of social pain, there is presently no agreement as to which part of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in the perception and modulation of social pain. We hypothesized that activity in those brain regions that are associated with social pain would be correlated with decrements in social pain induced by emotional support. To examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants played a virtual ball-tossing game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session from which participants were excluded, participants received emotionally supportive text messages. We found that emotional support led to increased activity in the left lateral/medial prefrontal cortices and some temporal regions. Those individuals who experienced greater attenuation of social pain exhibited lower ventral ACC and higher left lateral prefrontal cortex activation. These results suggest that the ventral ACC underlies social pain, and that emotional support enhances prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn may lead to a weakened affective response.

  8. Decreased expression of axon-guidance receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in autism

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    Suda Shiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axon-guidance proteins play a crucial role in brain development. As the dysfunction of axon-guidance signaling is thought to underlie the microstructural abnormalities of the brain in people with autism, we examined the postmortem brains of people with autism to identify any changes in the expression of axon-guidance proteins. Results The mRNA and protein expression of axon-guidance proteins, including ephrin (EFNA4, eEFNB3, plexin (PLXNA4, roundabout 2 (ROBO2 and ROBO3, were examined in the anterior cingulate cortex and primary motor cortex of autistic brains (n = 8 and n = 7, respectively and control brains (n = 13 and n = 8, respectively using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the relative expression levels of EFNB3, PLXNA4A and ROBO2 were significantly lower in the autistic group than in the control group. The protein levels of these three genes were further analyzed by western blotting, which showed that the immunoreactive values for PLXNA4 and ROBO2, but not for EFNB3, were significantly reduced in the ACC of the autistic brains compared with control brains. Conclusions In this study, we found decreased expression of axon-guidance proteins such as PLXNA4 and ROBO2 in the brains of people with autism, and suggest that dysfunctional axon-guidance protein expression may play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism.

  9. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors increases parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Graham, Devon L; Durai, Heather H; Garden, Jamie D; Cohen, Evan L; Echevarria, Franklin D; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2015-02-18

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  10. Fast oscillatory activity in the anterior cingulate cortex: dopaminergic modulation and efect of perineuronal net loss

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    Pascal eSteullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive function such as working memory, attention and planning. Dopamine exerts complex modulation on excitability of pyramidal neurons and interneurons, and regulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Because of the complexity of this modulation, it is difficult to fully comprehend the effect of dopamine on neuronal network activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of dopamine on local high-frequency oscillatory neuronal activity (in  band in slices of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We found that dopamine enhanced the power of these oscillations induced by kainate and carbachol, but did not affect their peak frequency. Activation of D2R and in a lesser degree D1R increased the oscillation power, while activation of D4R had no effect. These high-frequency oscillations in the ACC relied on both phasic inhibitory and excitatory transmission and functional gap junctions. Thus, dopamine released in the ACC promotes high-frequency synchronized local cortical activity which is known to favor information transfer, fast selection and binding of distributed neuronal responses. Finally, the power of these oscillations was significantly enhanced after degradation of the perineuronal nets enwrapping most parvalbumin interneurons. This study provides new insights for a better understanding of the abnormal prefrontal gamma activity in schizophrenia patients who display prefrontal anomalies of both the dopaminergic system and the perineuronal nets.

  11. Resting-state functional connectivity in anterior cingulate cortex in normal aging

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    Weifang eCao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence suggests that normal aging is associated with cognitive decline and well-maintained emotional well-being. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is an important brain region involved in emotional and cognitive processing. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (FC of two ACC subregions in 30 healthy older adults versus 33 healthy younger adults, by parcellating into rostral (rACC and dorsal (dACC ACC based on clustering of FC profiles. Compared with younger adults, older adults demonstrated greater connection between rACC and anterior insula, suggesting that older adults recruit more proximal dACC brain regions connected with insula to maintain a salient response. Older adults also demonstrated increased FC between rACC and superior temporal gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, decreased integration between rACC and default mode, and decreased dACC-hippocampal and dACC-thalamic connectivity. These altered FCs reflected rACC and dACC reorganization, and might be related to well emotion regulation and cognitive decline in older adults. Our findings provide further insight into potential functional substrates of emotional and cognitive alterations in the aging brain.

  12. Activation of mu opioid receptor inhibits the excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex of the rats with peripheral inflammation.

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    Zheng, Weihong

    2010-02-25

    Emerging evidence recently indicates that the anterior cingulate cortex is critically involved in the central processing and modulation of noxious stimulus, although the neuroadaptation in the anterior cingulate cortex has not been well documented in the conditions of chronic pain. Meanwhile, the cellular mechanism underlying opiate analgesia in the anterior cingulate cortex remains unclear. To address these issues, the present study was undertaken to explore the adaptation of excitatory glutamatergic transmission and mu opioid receptor-mediated modulation of glutamatergic transmission in the anterior cingulate cortex slices from the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-inflamed rats. The results demonstrated that glutamatergic paired-pulse facilitation was decreased in the anterior cingulate cortex neurons from the CFA-inflamed rats, indicating an enhanced presynaptic glutamate release. In addition, activation of mu opioid receptor significantly inhibited the glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in the anterior cingulate cortex neurons, which was attained through the suppression of presynaptic glutamate release. Taken together, these findings provided the evidence for the functional adaptation of central glutamatergic transmission induced by peripheral inflammation, and elucidated the cellular mechanism underlying opiate analgesia in the anterior cingulate cortex.

  13. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  14. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  15. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

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    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN. PMID:28198813

  16. Functional Connectivity of the Caudal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Is Decreased in Autism.

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    Zhou, Yuanyue; Shi, Lijuan; Cui, Xilong; Wang, Suhong; Luo, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is frequently reported to have functionally distinct sub-regions that play key roles in different intrinsic networks. However, the contribution of the ACC, which is connected to several cortical areas and the limbic system, to autism is not clearly understood, although it may be involved in dysfunctions across several distinct but related functional domains. By comparing resting-state fMRI data from persons with autism and healthy controls, we sought to identify the abnormalities in the functional connectivity (FC) of ACC sub-regions in autism. The analyses found autism-related reductions in FC between the left caudal ACC and the right rolandic operculum, insula, postcentral gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and the middle temporal gyrus. The FC (z-scores) between the left caudal ACC and the right insula was negatively correlated with the Stereotyped Behaviors and Restricted Interests scores of the autism group. These findings suggest that the caudal ACC is recruited selectively in the pathomechanism of autism.

  17. Role of right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex in self-conscious emotional reactivity.

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    Sturm, Virginia E; Sollberger, Marc; Seeley, William W; Rankin, Katherine P; Ascher, Elizabeth A; Rosen, Howard J; Miller, Bruce L; Levenson, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Self-conscious emotions such as embarrassment arise when one's actions fail to meet salient social expectations and are accompanied by marked physiological and behavioral activation. We investigated the neural correlates of self-conscious emotional reactivity in 27 patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), a neurodegenerative disease that disrupts self-conscious emotion and targets brain regions critical for emotional functioning early in the disease course, and in 33 healthy older controls. Subjects participated in an embarrassing karaoke task in which they watched a video clip of themselves singing. They also watched a sad film clip; these data were used to control for non-self-conscious emotional reactivity in response to audiovisual stimuli. Using Freesurfer to quantify regional brain volumes from structural magnetic resonance imaging, right pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) gray matter volume was the only brain region that was a significant predictor of self-conscious emotion. Smaller pACC volume was associated with attenuated physiological and behavioral self-conscious emotional reactivity, and this relationship was not specific to diagnosis. We argue that these results reflect the significant role that right pACC plays in the visceromotor responding that accompanies self-conscious emotion and that neurodegeneration in this region may underlie the self-conscious emotional decline seen in bvFTD.

  18. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

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    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  19. Upregulation of glutamatergic transmission in anterior cingulate cortex in the diabetic rats with neuropathic pain.

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    Li, Weifang; Wang, Peng; Li, Hua

    2014-05-07

    Peripheral neuropathic pain is a common complication in the diabetic patients, and the underlying central mechanism remains unclear. Forebrain anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is critically involved in the supraspinal perception of physical and affective components of noxious stimulus and pain modulation. Excitatory glutamatergic transmission in the ACC extensively contributed to the maintenance of negative affective component of chronic pain. The present study examined the adaptation of glutamatergic transmission in the ACC in rats with diabetic neuropathic pain. Injection with streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemia, thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in the rats. In these rats, significant enhanced basal glutamatergic transmission was observed in the ACC neurons. The increased presynaptic glutamate release and enhanced conductance of postsynaptic glutamate receptors were also observed in the ACC neurons of these modeled rats. Increased phosphorylation of PKMζ, but not the expression of total PKMζ, was also observed in the ACC. Microinjection of PKMζ inhibitor ZIP into ACC attenuated the upregulation of glutamate transmission and painful behaviors in STZ-injected rats. These results revealed a substantial central sensitization in the ACC neurons in the rodents with diabetic neuropathic pain, which may partially underlie the negative affective components of patients with diabetic neuropathic pain.

  20. Dopaminergic Modulation of Excitatory Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Adult Mice

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    Darvish-Ghane, Soroush; Yamanaka, Manabu

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) possesses potent neuromodulatory properties in the central nervous system. In the anterior cingulate cortex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) are key ion channels in mediating nerve injury induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and chronic pain phenotype. In the present study, we reported the effects of DA on glutamate mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in pyramidal neurons of layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. Bath application of DA (50 μM) caused a significant, rapid and reversible inhibition of evoked EPSCs (eEPSC). This inhibitory effect is dose-related and was absent in lower concentration of DA (5 μM). Furthermore, selective postsynaptic application of GDP-β-S (1.6 mM) in the internal solution completely abolished the inhibitory effects of DA (50 μM). We also investigated modulation of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and TTX sensitive, miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) by DA. Our results indicated mixed effects of potentiation and inhibition of frequency and amplitude for sEPSCs and mEPSCs. Furthermore, high doses of SCH23390 (100 μM) and sulpiride (100 μM) revealed that, inhibition of eEPSCs is mediated by postsynaptic D2-receptors (D2R). Our finding posits a pre- and postsynaptic mode of pyramidal neuron EPSC modulation in mice ACC by DA. PMID:27317578

  1. Folding of the anterior cingulate cortex partially explains inhibitory control during childhood: A longitudinal study

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    G. Borst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is one of the core structures responsible for IC. Although quantitative structural characteristics of the ACC contribute to IC efficiency, the qualitative structural brain characteristics contributing to IC development are less-understood. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether the ACC sulcal pattern at age 5, a stable qualitative characteristic of the brain determined in utero, explains IC at age 9. 18 children performed Stroop tasks at age 5 and age 9. Children with asymmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 7 had better IC efficiency at age 5 and age 9 than children with symmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 11. The ACC sulcal patterns appear to affect specifically IC efficiency given that the ACC sulcal patterns had no effect on verbal working memory. Our study provides the first evidence that the ACC sulcal pattern – a qualitative structural characteristic of the brain not affected by maturation and learning after birth – partially explains IC efficiency during childhood.

  2. Temporal and spatial dynamics of thalamus-evoked activity in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Chang, Wei-Chih; Lee, Chia-Ming; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2012-10-11

    In the present study, multielectrode array (MEA) recording was used to illustrate the spatial-temporal progression of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity following stimulation of the thalamus in a thalamocingulate pathway-preserved slice. The MEA was placed under the slice that contained the ACC, and 60 channels of extracellular local field potentials evoked by bipolar electrical stimulation within the thalamus were analyzed. Several distinct thalamic-evoked responses were identified. The early negative component (N1; amplitude, -35.7 ± 5.9 μV) emerged in layer VI near the cingulum 8.4 ± 0.5 ms after stimulation. N1 progressed upward to layers V and II/III in a lateral-to-medial direction. Subsequently, a positive component (P; amplitude, 27.0 ± 3.2 μV) appeared 12.0 ± 0.6 ms after stimulation in layer VI. At 26.8 ± 1.1 ms, a second negative component (N2; amplitude, -20.9 ± 2.7 μV) became apparent in layers II/III and V, followed by a more ventrolateral component (N3; amplitude, -18.9 ± 2.9 μV) at 42.8 ± 2.6 ms. These two late components spread downward to layer VI in a medial-to-lateral direction. The trajectory paths of the evoked components were consistently represented with varied medial thalamic stimulation intensities and sites. Both AMPA/kainate and N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate receptors involved in monosynaptic and polysynaptic transmission participated in this thalamocortical pathway. Morphine mainly diminished the two negative synaptic components, and this suppressive effect was reversed by naloxone. The present study confirmed that functional thalamocingulate activity was preserved in the brain-slice preparation. The thalamus-evoked responses were activated and progressed along a deep surface-deep trajectory loop across the ACC layers. Glutamatergic neurotransmitters were crucially involved in information processing. Opioid interneurons may play a modulatory role in regulating the signal flows in the cingulate cortex.

  3. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex modulates supplementary motor area in coordinated unimanual motor behavior

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    Avisa eAsemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Motor control is integral to all types of human behavior, and the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC is thought to play an important role in the brain network underlying motor control. Yet the role of the dACC in motor control is under-characterized. Here we aimed to characterize the dACC’s role in adolescent brain network interactions during a simple motor control task involving visually coordinated unimanual finger movements. Network interactions were assessed using both undirected and directed functional connectivity analysis of fMRI BOLD signals, comparing the task with a rest condition. The relation between the dACC and Supplementary Motor Area (SMA was compared to that between the dACC and Primary Motor Cortex (M1. The directed signal from dACC to SMA was significantly elevated during motor control in the task. By contrast, the directed signal from SMA to dACC, both directed signals between dACC and M1, and the undirected functional connections of dACC with SMA and M1, all did not differ between task and rest. Undirected coupling of dACC with both SMA and dACC, and only the dACC-to-SMA directed signal, were significantly greater for a proactive than a reactive task condition, suggesting that dACC plays a role in motor control by maintaining stimulus timing expectancy. Overall, these results suggest that the dACC selectively modulates the SMA during visually coordinated unimanual behavior in adolescence. The role of the dACC as an important brain area for the mediation of task-related motor control may be in place in adolescence, continuing into adulthood. The task and analytic approach described here should be extended to the study of healthy adults to examine network profiles of the dACC during basic motor behavior.

  4. Neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis in the anterior cingulate cortex in acute ciguatera poisoning.

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    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Li, Ying

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific ciguatoxin 1 (P-CTX-1), we performed in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and identified the increase in spontaneous firings and enhanced responses to visceral noxious stimulation. Local field recordings characterized the P-CTX-1-induced synaptic potentiation and blockage of the induction of electrical stimulation-induced long-term potentiation in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC pathway. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of P-CTX-1 at doses of 1.0, 5.0, and 10 nM produced a dose-dependent increase in ACC neuronal firings and MT-ACC synaptic transmission. Further studies showed upregulated Na(+) channel expression in astrocytes under pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the astrocytes might have been activated in the ciguatera poisoning in vivo. Increases in glial fibrillary acid protein expression were detected in reactive astrocytes in the rat ACC. The activation of astroglia was further indicated by activation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and upregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression suggesting that glutamate was normally rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft during acute ciguatera poisoning. However, neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis were not detected in the ACC after 7 days of P-CTX-1 exposure. The present results are the first characterization of P-CTX-1-invoked brain cortex neuronal excitotoxicity in vivo and supported the theme that neuron and astroglia signals might play roles in acute ciguatera poisoning.

  5. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

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    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  6. Hyperlexia and ambient echolalia in a case of cerebral infarction of the left anterior cingulate cortex and corpus callosum.

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    Suzuki, Tadashi; Itoh, Shouichi; Hayashi, Mototaka; Kouno, Masako; Takeda, Katsuhiko

    2009-10-01

    We report the case of a 69-year-old woman with cerebral infarction in the left anterior cingulate cortex and corpus callosum. She showed hyperlexia, which was a distinctive reading phenomenon, as well as ambient echolalia. Clinical features also included complex disorders such as visual groping, compulsive manipulation of tools, and callosal disconnection syndrome. She read words written on the cover of a book and repeated words emanating from unrelated conversations around her or from hospital announcements. The combination of these two features due to a focal lesion has never been reported previously. The supplementary motor area may control the execution of established subroutines according to external and internal inputs. Hyperlexia as well as the compulsive manipulation of tools could be interpreted as faulty inhibition of preexisting essentially intact motor subroutines by damage to the anterior cingulate cortex reciprocally interconnected with the supplementary motor area.

  7. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

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    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  8. Nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain causes disinhibition of the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Blom, Sigrid Marie; Pfister, Jean-Pascal; Santello, Mirko; Senn, Walter; Nevian, Thomas

    2014-04-23

    Neuropathic pain caused by peripheral nerve injury is a debilitating neurological condition of high clinical relevance. On the cellular level, the elevated pain sensitivity is induced by plasticity of neuronal function along the pain pathway. Changes in cortical areas involved in pain processing contribute to the development of neuropathic pain. Yet, it remains elusive which plasticity mechanisms occur in cortical circuits. We investigated the properties of neural networks in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region mediating affective responses to noxious stimuli. We performed multiple whole-cell recordings from neurons in layer 5 (L5) of the ACC of adult mice after chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve of the left hindpaw and observed a striking loss of connections between excitatory and inhibitory neurons in both directions. In contrast, no significant changes in synaptic efficacy in the remaining connected pairs were found. These changes were reflected on the network level by a decrease in the mEPSC and mIPSC frequency. Additionally, nerve injury resulted in a potentiation of the intrinsic excitability of pyramidal neurons, whereas the cellular properties of interneurons were unchanged. Our set of experimental parameters allowed constructing a neuronal network model of L5 in the ACC, revealing that the modification of inhibitory connectivity had the most profound effect on increased network activity. Thus, our combined experimental and modeling approach suggests that cortical disinhibition is a fundamental pathological modification associated with peripheral nerve damage. These changes at the cortical network level might therefore contribute to the neuropathic pain condition.

  9. Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the relationship between O3PUFAs and executive functions in APOE e4 carriers

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    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between biomarkers of diet and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs and executive functions in at-risk (APOE e4 carriers, cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher levels of O3PUFAs are associated with better performance in a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter volume of a specific region thought to be important for cognitive flexibility, the anterior cingulate cortex. Methods: We examined 40 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 with the APOE e4 polymorphism to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of O3PUFAs, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter volume within regions of the prefrontal cortex. Results: A mediation analysis revealed that gray matter volume within the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex partially mediates the relationship between O3PUFA biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between O3PUFAs and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact adults thought to be at risk for cognitive decline. Through their link to executive functions and neuronal measures of prefrontal cortex volume, O3PUFAs show potential as a nutritional therapy to prevent dysfunction in the aging brain.

  10. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus.

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    Hiroki eNakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation’. In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation.

  11. Gene expression changes in the prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and nucleus accumbens of mood disorders subjects that committed suicide.

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    Adolfo Sequeira

    Full Text Available Suicidal behaviors are frequent in mood disorders patients but only a subset of them ever complete suicide. Understanding predisposing factors for suicidal behaviors in high risk populations is of major importance for the prevention and treatment of suicidal behaviors. The objective of this project was to investigate gene expression changes associated with suicide in brains of mood disorder patients by microarrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus2.0 in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC: 6 Non-suicides, 15 suicides, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 6NS, 9S and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc: 8NS, 13S. ANCOVA was used to control for age, gender, pH and RNA degradation, with P ≤ 0.01 and fold change ± 1.25 as criteria for significance. Pathway analysis revealed serotonergic signaling alterations in the DLPFC and glucocorticoid signaling alterations in the ACC and NAcc. The gene with the lowest p-value in the DLPFC was the 5-HT2A gene, previously associated both with suicide and mood disorders. In the ACC 6 metallothionein genes were down-regulated in suicide (MT1E, MT1F, MT1G, MT1H, MT1X, MT2A and three were down-regulated in the NAcc (MT1F, MT1G, MT1H. Differential expression of selected genes was confirmed by qPCR, we confirmed the 5-HT2A alterations and the global down-regulation of members of the metallothionein subfamilies MT 1 and 2 in suicide completers. MTs 1 and 2 are neuro-protective following stress and glucocorticoid stimulations, suggesting that in suicide victims neuroprotective response to stress and cortisol may be diminished. Our results thus suggest that suicide-specific expression changes in mood disorders involve both glucocorticoids regulated metallothioneins and serotonergic signaling in different regions of the brain.

  12. Prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in Tourette Syndrome: evidence from voxel-based morphometry and magnetization transfer imaging

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    Dengler Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathophysiological evidence suggests an involvement of fronto-striatal circuits in Tourette syndrome (TS. To identify TS related abnormalities in gray and white matter we used optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM and magnetization transfer imaging (MTI which are more sensitive to tissue alterations than conventional MRI and provide a quantitative measure of macrostructural integrity. Methods Volumetric high-resolution anatomical T1-weighted MRI and MTI were acquired in 19 adult, unmedicated male TS patients without co-morbidities and 20 age- and sex-matched controls on a 1.5 Tesla neuro-optimized GE scanner. Images were pre-processed and analyzed using an optimized version of VBM in SPM2. Results Using VBM, TS patients showed significant decreases in gray matter volumes in prefrontal areas, the anterior cingulate gyrus, sensorimotor areas, left caudate nucleus and left postcentral gyrus. Decreases in white matter volumes were detected in the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus and the anterior corpus callosum. Increases were found in the left middle frontal gyrus and left sensorimotor areas. In MTI, white matter reductions were seen in the right medial frontal gyrus, the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally and the right cingulate gyrus. Tic severity was negatively correlated with orbitofrontal structures, the right cingulate gyrus and parts of the parietal-temporal-occipital association cortex bilaterally. Conclusion Our MRI in vivo neuropathological findings using two sensitive and unbiased techniques support the hypothesis that alterations in frontostriatal circuitries underlie TS pathology. We suggest that anomalous frontal lobe association and projection fiber bundles cause disinhibition of the cingulate gyrus and abnormal basal ganglia function.

  13. rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates dopamine release in the ipsilateral anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex.

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    Sang Soo Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain dopamine is implicated in the regulation of movement, attention, reward and learning and plays an important role in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia and drug addiction. Animal experiments have demonstrated that brain stimulation is able to induce significant dopaminergic changes in extrastriatal areas. Given the up-growing interest of non-invasive brain stimulation as potential tool for treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders, it would be critical to investigate dopaminergic functional interactions in the prefrontal cortex and more in particular the effect of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC (areas 9/46 stimulation on prefrontal dopamine (DA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Healthy volunteers were studied with a high-affinity DA D2-receptor radioligand, [(11C]FLB 457-PET following 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS of the left and right DLPFC. rTMS on the left DLPFC induced a significant reduction in [(11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BP in the ipsilateral subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC (BA 25/12, pregenual ACC (BA 32 and medial orbitofrontal cortex (BA 11. There were no significant changes in [(11C]FLB 457 BP following right DLPFC rTMS. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide evidence of extrastriatal DA modulation following acute rTMS of DLPFC with its effect limited to the specific areas of medial prefrontal cortex. [(11C]FLB 457-PET combined with rTMS may allow to explore the neurochemical functions of specific cortical neural networks and help to identify the neurobiological effects of TMS for the treatment of different neurological and psychiatric diseases.

  14. Activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and ventral hippocampus underlie increases in contextual fear generalization.

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    Cullen, Patrick K; Gilman, T Lee; Winiecki, Patrick; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Memories for context become less specific with time resulting in animals generalizing fear from training contexts to novel contexts. Though much attention has been given to the neural structures that underlie the long-term consolidation of a context fear memory, very little is known about the mechanisms responsible for the increase in fear generalization that occurs as the memory ages. Here, we examine the neural pattern of activation underlying the expression of a generalized context fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice. Animals were context fear conditioned and tested for fear in either the training context or a novel context at recent and remote time points. Animals were sacrificed and fluorescent in situ hybridization was performed to assay neural activation. Our results demonstrate activity of the prelimbic, infralimbic, and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices as well as the ventral hippocampus (vHPC) underlie expression of a generalized fear memory. To verify the involvement of the ACC and vHPC in the expression of a generalized fear memory, animals were context fear conditioned and infused with 4% lidocaine into the ACC, dHPC, or vHPC prior to retrieval to temporarily inactivate these structures. The results demonstrate that activity of the ACC and vHPC is required for the expression of a generalized fear memory, as inactivation of these regions returned the memory to a contextually precise form. Current theories of time-dependent generalization of contextual memories do not predict involvement of the vHPC. Our data suggest a novel role of this region in generalized memory, which should be incorporated into current theories of time-dependent memory generalization. We also show that the dorsal hippocampus plays a prolonged role in contextually precise memories. Our findings suggest a possible interaction between the ACC and vHPC controls the expression of fear generalization.

  15. Macro and micro structures in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex contribute to individual differences in self-monitoring.

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    Yang, Junyi; Tian, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Liu, Huijuan; Zhang, Qinglin; Wang, Kangcheng; Chen, Qunlin; Qiu, Jiang

    2016-06-01

    Individual differences in self-monitoring, which are the capability to adjust behavior to adapt to social situations, influence a wide range of social behaviors. However, understanding of focal differences in brain structures related to individual self-monitoring is minimal, particularly when micro and macro structures are considered simultaneously. The present study investigates the relationship between self-monitoring and brain structure in a relatively large sample of young adults. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) revealed a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and gray matter volume in the dorsal cingulate anterior cortex (dACC), dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and bilateral ventral striatum (VS). Further analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between self-monitoring and white matter (WM) integrity, as indexed by fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior cingulum (ACG) bundle. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between self-monitoring and mean radius diffusion (RD). These results shed light on the structural neural basis of variation in self-monitoring.

  16. Glutamine and Glutamate Levels in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 4.0-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Constance M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Glod, Carol A.; Breeze, Janis L.; Dieterich, Megan; Finn, Chelsea T.; deB. Frederick, Blaise; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at 4.0 T, to explore the glutamine and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD; medicated and unmedicated) and healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). We hypothesized that unmedicated children with…

  17. Abnormalities in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Associated with Attentional and Inhibitory Control Deficits: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

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    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Leung, Connie; Wong, Virginia C. N.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated when individuals engage in attention and inhibitory control tasks. The present study examined whether ACC activity is associated with behavioral performance of the two tasks. Twenty normal and 20 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were subjected to…

  18. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study.

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    Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  19. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

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    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  20. Characterization of neuronal intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in layer I of anterior cingulate cortex from adult mice

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    Li Xiang-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurons in neocortex layer I (LI provide inhibition to the cortical networks. Despite increasing use of mice for the study of brain functions, few studies were reported about mouse LI neurons. In the present study, we characterized intrinsic properties of LI neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key cortical area for sensory and cognitive functions, by using whole-cell patch clamp recording approach. Seventy one neurons in LI and 12 pyramidal neurons in LII/III were recorded. Although all of the LI neurons expressed continuous adapting firing characteristics, the unsupervised clustering results revealed five groups in the ACC, including: Spontaneous firing neurons; Delay-sAHP neurons, Delay-fAHP neurons, and two groups of neurons with ADP, named ADP1 and ADP2, respectively. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that LI neurons received both excitatory (mediated by AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors, and inhibitory inputs (which were mediated by GABAA receptors. Our studies provide the first report characterizing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in LI of the ACC from adult mice.

  1. The facilitatory influence of anterior cingulate cortex on ON-OFF response of tactile neuron in thalamic ventrobasal nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The structures of limbic system have been found to modulate the auditory, visual and pain afferent signals in the related nuclei of thalamus. One of those structures is anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that influences nocuous response of the pain-sensitive neurons in the ventropostero-lateral nucleus of thalamus. Thus, we inferred that ACC would also modulate tactile information at the thalamic level. To test this assumption, single units were recorded extracellularly from thalamic ventrobasal nucleus (VB). Tactile ON-OFF response and the relationship between different patterns of the responses and the parameters of tactile stimulation were examined. Furthermore, the influence of ACC on the tactile ON-OFF response was studied. ACC stimulation was found to produce a facilitatory effect on the OFF-response of ON-OFF neurons. It lowered the threshold of the off-response of that neuron, and therefore changed the response pattern or enhanced the firing rate of the OFF-response of the neuron. The study on receptive fields of ON-OFF neurons showed that the excitation of the ACC could change an ON-response on the verge of a receptive field into an ON-OFF response. The above results suggest that the ACC modulation sharpens the response of a VB neuron to a moving stimulus within its receptive field, indicating that the limbic system can modulate tactile ascending sensory information.

  2. The facilitatory influence of anterior cingulate cortex on ON-OFF response of tactile neuron in thalamic ventrobasal nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓华; 卢湘岳; 周绍慈

    2000-01-01

    The structures of limbic system have been found to modulate the auditory, visual and pain afferent signals in the related nuclei of thalamus. One of those structures is anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that influences nocuous response of the pain-sensitive neurons in the ventropos-tero-lateral nucleus of thalamus. Thus, we inferred that ACC would also modulate tactile information at the thalamic level. To test this assumption, single units were recorded extracellularly from thalamic ventrobasal nucleus (VB). Tactile ON-OFF response and the relationship between different patterns of the responses and the parameters of tactile stimulation were examined. Furthermore, the influence of ACC on the tactile ON-OFF response was studied. ACC stimulation was found to produce a facilitatory effect on the OFF-response of ON-OFF neurons. It lowered the threshold of the off-response of that neuron, and therefore changed the response pattern or enhanced the firing rate of the OFF-response of the neuron. The study on rec

  3. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  4. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XinLing; LIU Fang; WU XingWen; LI BaoMing

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolaterel nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at '0' or 6 h post-treining. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h poet-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD '0' h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  5. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Kep Kee Loh

    Full Text Available Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today's society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multitasking activity and brain structure. Research has demonstrated that brain structure can be altered upon prolonged exposure to novel environments and experience. Thus, we expected differential engagements in media multitasking to correlate with brain structure variability. This was confirmed via Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses: Individuals with higher Media Multitasking Index (MMI scores had smaller gray matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Functional connectivity between this ACC region and the precuneus was negatively associated with MMI. Our findings suggest a possible structural correlate for the observed decreased cognitive control performance and socio-emotional regulation in heavy media-multitaskers. While the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow us to specify the direction of causality, our results brought to light novel associations between individual media multitasking behaviors and ACC structure differences.

  6. Therapygenetics: anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling is associated with 5-HTTLPR and treatment response in panic disorder with agoraphobia.

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    Lueken, Ulrike; Straube, Benjamin; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Konrad, Carsten; Ströhle, Andreas; Wittmann, André; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Deckert, Jürgen; Reif, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the 5'-flanking promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene SLC6A4, the 5-HTT-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) has been inconclusively associated with response to cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT). As genomic functions are stronger related to neural than to behavioural markers, we investigated the association of treatment response, 5-HTTLPR and functional brain connectivity in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD/AG). Within the national research network PANIC-NET 231 PD/AG patients who provided genetic information underwent a manualized exposure-based CBT. A subset of 41 patients participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) add-on study prior to treatment applying a differential fear conditioning task. Neither the treatment nor the reduced fMRI sample showed a direct effect of 5-HTTLPR on treatment response as defined by a reduction in the Hamilton Anxiety Scale score ≥50 % from baseline to post assessment. On a neural level, inhibitory anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)-amygdala coupling during fear conditioning that had previously been shown to characterize treatment response in this sample was driven by responders with the L/L genotype. Building upon conclusive evidence from basic and preclinical findings on the association of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with emotion regulation and related brain connectivity patterns, present findings translate these to a clinical sample of PD/AG patients and point towards a potential intermediate connectivity phenotype modulating response to exposure-based CBT.

  7. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

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    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  8. Cognitive MR spectroscopy of anterior cingulate cortex in ADHD: elevated choline signal correlates with slowed hit reaction times.

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    Colla, Michael; Ende, Gabriele; Alm, Barbara; Deuschle, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Kronenberg, Golo

    2008-06-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a major role in modulating executive control of attention. Here, 15 medication-nai ve patients with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and 10 carefully matched healthy controls were studied with 2D (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the ACC [Brodmann areas 24b'-c' and 32']. Attentional skills were assessed using the identical pairs version of the continuous performance task (CPT-IP). Analysis of regional brain spectra revealed a significantly increased signal of choline-containing compounds (Ch) in the ACC of ADHD patients (p<0.05). Across and within groups, the Ch signal showed high correlations with slowed hit reaction times on the CPT-IP. No group differences in N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) and creatine (tCr) were detectable. The combination of performance deficits and elevated Ch levels in the ACC supports the hypothesis that subtle structural abnormalities underlie the functional alterations in ACC activation previously observed in ADHD patients.

  9. Role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder: converging evidence from cognitive neuroscience and psychiatric neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Robert A; Sheth, Sameer A

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders will improve the ability to refine neuromodulatory procedures for treatment-refractory patients. One of the core dysfunctions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a deficit in cognitive control, especially involving the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). The authors' aim was to derive a neurobiological understanding of the successful treatment of refractory OCD with psychiatric neurosurgical procedures targeting the dACC. METHODS First, the authors systematically conducted a review of the literature on the role of the dACC in OCD by using the search terms "obsessive compulsive disorder" and "anterior cingulate." The neuroscience literature on cognitive control mechanisms in the dACC was then combined with the literature on psychiatric neurosurgical procedures targeting the dACC for the treatment of refractory OCD. RESULTS The authors reviewed 89 studies covering topics that included structural and functional neuroimaging and electrophysiology. The majority of resting-state functional neuroimaging studies demonstrated dACC hyperactivity in patients with OCD relative to that in controls, while task-based studies were more variable. Electrophysiological studies showed altered dACC-related biomarkers of cognitive control, such as error-related negativity in OCD patients. These studies were combined with the cognitive control neurophysiology literature, including the recently elaborated expected value of control theory of dACC function. The authors suggest that a central feature of OCD pathophysiology involves the generation of mis-specified cognitive control signals by the dACC, and they elaborate on this theory and provide suggestions for further study. CONCLUSIONS Although abnormalities in brain structure and function in OCD are distributed across a wide network, the dACC plays a central role. The authors propose a theory of cognitive control dysfunction in OCD that

  10. Cortical thinning of the right anterior cingulate cortex in spider phobia: a magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, I M P; Jackowski, A P; Trzesniak, C M F; Arrais, K C; Chagas, M H N; Sato, J R; Santos, A C; Hallak, J E C; Zuardi, A W; Nardi, A E; Coimbra, N C; Crippa, J A S

    2014-08-12

    There a lack of consistent neuroimaging data on specific phobia (SP) and a need to assess volumetric and metabolic differences in structures implicated in this condition. The aim of this study is investigate possible metabolic (via (1)H MRS) and cortical thickness abnormalities in spider-phobic patients compared to healthy volunteers. Participants were recruited via public advertisement and underwent clinical evaluations and MRI scans. The study started in 2010 and the investigators involved were not blind in respect to patient groupings. The study was conducted at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with spider phobia (n=19) were matched to 17 healthy volunteers with respect to age, education and socio-economic status. The spider SP group fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for spider phobia according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. None of the participants had a history of neurological, psychiatric or other relevant organic diseases, use of prescribed psychotropic medication or substance abuse. All imaging and spectroscopy data were collected with a 3 T MRI scanner equipped with 25 mT gradient coils in 30-minute scans. The Freesurfer image analysis package and LC Model software were used to analyze data. The hypothesis being tested was formulated before the data collection (neural correlates of SP would include the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus and others). The results indicated the absence of metabolic alterations, but thinning of the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the SP group when compared to the healthy control group (mean cortical thickness±SD: SP=2.11±0.45 mm; HC=2.16±0.42 mm; t (34)=3.19, p=0.001 [-35.45, 71.00, -23.82]). In spectroscopy, the ratios between N-acetylaspartate and creatine and choline levels were measured. No significant effect or correlation was found between MRS metabolites and scores in the Spider Phobia Questionnaire and Beck

  11. Error effects in anterior cingulate cortex reverse when error likelihood is high

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    Jessup, Ryan K.; Busemeyer, Jerome R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2010-01-01

    Strong error-related activity in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown repeatedly with neuroimaging and event-related potential studies for the last several decades. Multiple theories have been proposed to account for error effects, including comparator models and conflict detection models, but the neural mechanisms that generate error signals remain in dispute. Typical studies use relatively low error rates, confounding the expectedness and the desirability of an error. Here we show with a gambling task and fMRI that when losses are more frequent than wins, the mPFC error effect disappears, and moreover, exhibits the opposite pattern by responding more strongly to unexpected wins than losses. These findings provide perspective on recent ERP studies and suggest that mPFC error effects result from a comparison between actual and expected outcomes. PMID:20203206

  12. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of metabolite status of the anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain patients and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ito,1 Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno,2,3 Narihito Iwashita,4 Ikuo Tooyama,5 Akihiko Shiino,6 Katsuyuki Miura,1,7 Sei Fukui4 1Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, 2Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; 3The Center for Data Science Education and Research, Shiga University, Hikone, Japan; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Interdisciplinary Pain Management Center, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, 5Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 6Biomedical MR Science Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 7Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan Background: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. Patients and methods: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics. The concentrations of glutamic acid (Glu, myo-inositol (Ins, N-acetylaspartate (NAA, Glu + glutamine (Glx, and creatine + phosphocreatine (total creatine [tCr] in the anterior cingulate cortex of participants were measured using 1H-MRS. We used age- and gender-adjusted general linear models and receiver-operating characteristic analyses for this investigation. Patients were also assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to reveal the existence of any mental health issues. Results: Our analysis indicates that pain patients have statistically significantly higher levels of Glu/tCr (p=0.039 and Glx/tCr (p<0.001 and lower levels of NAA/tCr than controls, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.052. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis

  13. Astrocyte activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and altered glutamatergic gene expression during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willias Masocha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Spinal astrocyte activation contributes to the pathogenesis of paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP in animal models. We examined glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP; an astrocyte marker immunoreactivity and gene expression of GFAP, glutamate transporters and receptor subunits by real time PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at 7 days post first administration of paclitaxel, a time point when mice had developed thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC, an area in the brain involved in pain perception and modulation, was chosen because changes in this area might contribute to the pathophysiology of PINP. GFAP transcripts levels were elevated by more than fivefold and GFAP immunoreactivity increased in the ACC of paclitaxel-treated mice. The 6 glutamate transporters (GLAST, GLT-1 EAAC1, EAAT4, VGLUT-1 and VGLUT-2 quantified were not significantly altered by paclitaxel treatment. Of the 12 ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits transcripts analysed 6 (GLuA1, GLuA3, GLuK2, GLuK3, GLuK5 and GLuN1 were significantly up-regulated, whereas GLuA2, GLuK1, GLuK4, GLuN2A and GLuN2B were not significantly altered and GLuA4 was lowly expressed. Amongst the 8 metabotropic receptor subunits analysed only mGLuR8 was significantly elevated. In conclusion, during PINP there is astrocyte activation, with no change in glutamate transporter expression and differential up-regulation of glutamate receptor subunits in the ACC. Thus, targeting astrocyte activation and the glutamatergic system might be another therapeutic avenue for management of PINP.

  14. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Julia S; Mathiak, Krystyna A; Dyck, Miriam; Alawi, Eliza M; Gaber, Tilman J; Zepf, Florian D; Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gur, Ruben C; Mathiak, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF) seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the brain regions known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over 3 days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI). Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. In a stepwise regression analysis, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, patients with schizophrenia can learn to regulate localized brain activity. However, cognitive strategies and neural network location differ from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in patients with schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social NF based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  15. Assessment of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) and Left Cerebellar Metabolism in Asperger's Syndrome with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)

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    Goji, Aya; Ito, Hiromichi; Mori, Kenji; Harada, Masafumi; Hisaoka, Sonoka; Toda, Yoshihiro; Mori, Tatsuo; Abe, Yoko; Miyazaki, Masahito; Kagami, Shoji

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging method to quantify biochemical metabolites in vivo and it can serve as a powerful tool to monitor neurobiochemical profiles in the brain. Asperger’s syndrome (AS) is a type of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities, while intellectual levels and language skills are relatively preserved. Despite clinical aspects have been well-characterized, neurometabolic profiling in the brain of AS remains to be clear. The present study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) to investigate whether pediatric AS is associated with measurable neurometabolic abnormalities that can contribute new information on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder. Methods Study participants consisted of 34 children with AS (2–12 years old; mean age 5.2 (±2.0); 28 boys) and 19 typically developed children (2–11 years old; mean age 5.6 (±2.6); 12 boys) who served as the normal control group. The 1H MRS data were obtained from two regions of interest: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and left cerebellum. Results In the ACC, levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), total creatine (tCr), total choline-containing compounds (tCho) and myo-Inositol (mI) were significantly decreased in children with AS compared to controls. On the other hand, no significant group differences in any of the metabolites were found in the left cerebellum. Neither age nor sex accounted for the metabolic findings in the regions. Conclusion The finding of decreased levels of NAA, tCr, tCho, and mI in the ACC but not in left cerebellar voxels in the AS, suggests a lower ACC neuronal density in the present AS cohort compared to controls. PMID:28060873

  16. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

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    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  17. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem.

  18. Analysis of coherent activity between retrosplenial cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and anterior cingulate cortex during retrieval of recent and remote context fear memory.

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    Corcoran, Kevin A; Frick, Brendan J; Radulovic, Jelena; Kay, Leslie M

    2016-01-01

    Memory for contextual fear conditioning relies upon the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) regardless of how long ago conditioning occurred, whereas areas connected to the RSC, such as the dorsal hippocampus (DH) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) appear to play time-limited roles. To better understand whether these brain regions functionally interact during memory processing and how the passage of time affects these interactions, we simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from these three regions as well as anterior dorsal thalamus (ADT), which provides one of the strongest inputs to RSC, and measured coherence of oscillatory activity within the theta (4-12Hz) and gamma (30-80Hz) frequency bands. We identified changes of theta coherence related to encoding, retrieval, and extinction of context fear, whereas changes in gamma coherence were restricted to fear extinction. Specifically, exposure to a novel context and retrieval of recently acquired fear conditioning memory were associated with increased theta coherence between RSC and all three other structures. In contrast, RSC-DH and RSC-ADT theta coherence were decreased in mice that successfully retrieved, relative to mice that failed to retrieve, remote memory. Greater RSC-ADT theta and gamma coherence were observed during recent, compared to remote, extinction of freezing responses. Thus, the degree of coherence between RSC and connected brain areas may predict and contribute to context memory retrieval and retrieval-related phenomena such as fear extinction. Importantly, although theta coherence in this circuit increases during memory encoding and retrieval of recent memory, failure to decrease RSC-DH theta coherence might be linked to retrieval deficit in the long term, and possibly contribute to aberrant memory processing characteristic of neuropsychiatric disorders.

  19. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

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    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  20. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

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    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  1. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

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    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  2. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

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    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  3. The use of sequential hippocampal-dependent and -non-dependent tasks to study the activation profile of the anterior cingulate cortex during recent and remote memory tests.

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    Wartman, Brianne C; Holahan, Matthew R

    2013-11-01

    Recent findings suggest that as time passes, cortical networks become recruited for memory storage. In animal models, this has been studied by exposing rodents to one task, allowing them to form a memory representation for the task then waiting different periods of time to determine, either through brain imaging or region-specific inactivation, the location of the memory representation. A number of reports show that 30 days after a memory has been encoded, it comes to be stored in cortical areas such as the anterior cingulate cortex. The present study sought to determine what factors, in addition to the passage of time, would influence whether memory retrieval was associated with cortical activation. To this end, rats were assigned to one of three behavioural groups: (1) Training on one hippocampal-dependent memory task, the water maze (WM); (2) Training on two, different hippocampal-dependent memory tasks, the WM followed by the radial arm maze; (3) Training on one hippocampal-dependent memory task (WM) followed by training on one, non-hippocampal-dependent task, operant conditioning. After training, each group received a recent (2d) or remote (31d) water maze probe test. The group trained on two different hippocampal-dependent tasks and tested 2d later, showed the strongest preference for the platform location during the probe test. This group also displayed a pattern of c-Fos staining in the anterior cingulate cortex similar to the pattern of staining observed in the remotely-tested groups and different from that seen in the other recently-tested groups. These results suggest the formation of multiple hippocampal-dependent memories accelerate the speed at which cortical network recruitment is seen and leads to enhanced behavioural performance in the recent term.

  4. Differential emotional experience induces elevated spine densities on basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of Octodon degus.

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    Helmeke, C; Poeggel, G; Braun, K

    2001-01-01

    It appears likely that, in analogy to the synaptic development of sensory and motor cortices, which critically depends on sensory or motor stimulation (Rosenzweig and Bennett, 1996), the synaptic development of limbic cortical regions are modulated by early postnatal cognitive and emotional experiences. The very first postnatal experience, which takes place in a confined and stable familial environment, is the interaction of the newborn individual with the parents and siblings (Gray, 1958). The aim of this quantitative morphological study was to analyze the impact of different degrees of juvenile emotional experience on the synaptic development in a limbic cortical area, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a region which is involved in the perception and regulation of emotions. We study the precocious trumpet-tailed rat (Octodon degus) as the animal model, because, like human babies, this species is born with functional visual and acoustic systems and the pups are therefore capable of detecting even subtle environmental changes immediately after birth (Reynolds and Wright, 1979; Poeggel and Braun, 1996; Braun et al., 2000; Ovtscharoff and Braun, 2001). The results demonstrate that already a subtle disturbance of the familial environment such as handling induced significantly elevated spine densities on the basal dendrites of layer III cortical pyramidal neurons. More severe disturbances of the emotional environment, such as periodic parental deprivation with or without subsequent chronic social isolation, resulted in an elevation of spine densities of similar magnitude as seen after handling and in addition, altered spine densities confined to specific dendritic segments were observed in these groups. These observations unveil the remarkable sensitivity of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex towards environmental influences and behavioral experiences during phases of postnatal development. The behavioral consequences of these experience-induced synaptic changes

  5. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

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    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  6. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents

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    Julia E. Cohen-Gilbert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+ for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH− peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. This study examined glutamate (Glu and glutamine (Gln, amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12–14 yrs and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18–25 yrs, stratified into FH− and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH− but not FH+ groups. In FH− adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life.

  7. Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

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    Lee, Seojung; Ran Kim, Kyung; Ku, Jeonghun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Namkoong, Kee; Jung, Young-Chul

    2014-01-30

    Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity was analyzed in women with anorexia nervosa (N=18), women with bulimia nervosa (N=20) and age matched healthy controls (N=20). Between group comparisons revealed that the anorexia nervosa group exhibited stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and retrosplenial cortex, whereas the bulimia nervosa group showed stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both groups demonstrated stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and precuneus, which correlated with higher scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire. The dACC-precuneus resting-state synchrony might be associated with the disorder-specific rumination on eating, weight and body shape in patients with eating disorders.

  8. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  9. BOLD response to direct thalamic stimulation reveals a functional connection between the medial thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex in the rat.

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    Shyu, Bai-Chung; Lin, Chun-Yu; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Chen, Shin-Lang; Chang, Chen

    2004-07-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies in humans and rodents have shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated by painful stimuli, and plays an important role in the affective aspect of pain sensation. The aim of the present study was to develop a suitable stimulation method for direct activation of the brain in fMRI studies and to investigate the functional connectivity in the thalamo-cingulate pathway. In the first part of the study, tungsten, stainless steel, or glass-coated carbon fiber microelectrodes were implanted in the left medial thalamus (MT) of anesthetized rats, and T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) images were obtained in the sagittal plane on a 4.7 T system (Biospec BMT 47/40). Only the images obtained with the carbon fiber electrode were acceptable without a reduction of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and image distortion. In the second part of the study, a series of two-slice GE images were acquired during electrical stimulation of the MT with the use of a carbon fiber electrode. A cross-correlation analysis showed that the signal intensities of activated areas in the ipsilateral ACC were significantly increased by about 4.5% during MT stimulation. Functional activation, as assessed by the distribution of c-Fos immunoreactivity, showed strong c-Fos expression in neurons in the ipsilateral ACC. The present study shows that glass-coated carbon fiber electrodes are suitable for fMRI studies and can be used to investigate functional thalamocortical activation.

  10. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

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    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  11. Distribution of D1 and D2-dopamine receptors in calcium-binding-protein expressing interneurons in rat anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Xu, Lei; Zhang, Xue-Han

    2015-04-25

    Dopamine plays an important role in cognitive functions including decision making, attention, learning and memory in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). However, little is known about dopamine receptors (DAR) expression patterns in ACC neurons, especially GABAergic interneurons. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of the most abundant DAR subtypes, D1 receptors (D1Rs) and D2 receptors (D2Rs), in major types of GABAergic interneurons in rat ACC, including parvalbumin (PV)-, calretinin (CR)-, and calbindin D-28k (CB)-containing interneurons. Double immunofluorescence staining and confocal scanning were used to detect protein expression in rat brain sections. The results showed a high proportion of PV-containing interneurons express D1Rs and D2Rs, while a low proportion of CR-positive interneurons express D1Rs and D2Rs. D1R- and D2R-expressing PV interneurons are more prevalently distributed in deep layers than superficial layers of ACC. Moreover, we found the proportion of D2Rs expressed in CR cells is much greater than that of D1Rs. These regional and interneuron type-specific differences of D1Rs and D2Rs indicate functionally distinct roles for dopamine in modulating ACC activities via stimulating D1Rs and D2Rs.

  12. Mechanical Stimulus-Induced Wthdrawal Behavior Increases Subsequent Pre-Stimulus Local Field Potential Power in the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unanesthetized Rats.

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    Shen, Zui; Sun, Jing; Liu, Boyi; Jiang, Yongliang; Wu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jialing; Shao, Xiaomei; Fang, Jianqiao

    2017-03-02

    BACKGROUND The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is important in pain expectation. Previous studies demonstrated that mechanical stimulus-induced withdrawal behaviors are spinally-mediated nocifensive reflexes in rats, but it is not known whether pain expectation is influenced by withdrawal behaviors. MATERIAL AND METHODS We reanalyzed previous mechanosensitivity measurements of 244 rats measured 5 times in succession. To study neural oscillation in the rACC, 1 recording microwire array was surgically implanted. Then, we simultaneously recorded the local field potential (LFP) of the rACC over the course of multiple withdrawal behaviors in unanesthetized rats. RESULTS From our previous withdrawal behavioral data in 244 rats, we observed that the distributions of paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were denser and more concentrated after the first withdrawal behavior. Compared to the first mechanical stimulus, increased neuronal synchrony and a stronger delta band component existed in each pre-stimulus LFP in the rACC during subsequent stimuli. CONCLUSIONS Pain expectation could be involved in withdrawal behaviors, which is related to increased total power and delta band power of the subsequent pre-stimulus LFPs in the rACC.

  13. Volitional reduction of anterior cingulate cortex activity produces decreased cue craving in smoking cessation: a preliminary real-time fMRI study.

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    Li, Xingbao; Hartwell, Karen J; Borckardt, Jeffery; Prisciandaro, James J; Saladin, Michael E; Morgan, Paul S; Johnson, Kevin A; Lematty, Todd; Brady, Kathleen T; George, Mark S

    2013-07-01

    Numerous research groups are now using analysis of blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and relaying back information about regional activity in their brains to participants in the scanner in 'real time'. In this study, we explored the feasibility of self-regulation of frontal cortical activation using real-time fMRI (rtfMRI) neurofeedback in nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers during exposure to smoking cues. Ten cigarette smokers were shown smoking-related visual cues in a 3 Tesla MRI scanner to induce their nicotine craving. Participants were instructed to modify their craving using rtfMRI feedback with two different approaches. In a 'reduce craving' paradigm, participants were instructed to 'reduce' their craving, and decrease the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity. In a separate 'increase resistance' paradigm, participants were asked to increase their resistance to craving and to increase middle prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity. We found that participants were able to significantly reduce the BOLD signal in the ACC during the 'reduce craving' task (P=0.028). There was a significant correlation between decreased ACC activation and reduced craving ratings during the 'reduce craving' session (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no modulation of the BOLD signal in mPFC during the 'increase resistance' session. These preliminary results suggest that some smokers may be able to use neurofeedback via rtfMRI to voluntarily regulate ACC activation and temporarily reduce smoking cue-induced craving. Further research is needed to determine the optimal parameters of neurofeedback rtfMRI, and whether it might eventually become a therapeutic tool for nicotine dependence.

  14. Relationship of γ-aminobutyric acid and glutamate+glutamine concentrations in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex with performance of Cambridge Gambling Task.

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    Fujihara, Kazuyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Suzuki, Yusuke; Takei, Yuichi; Suda, Masashi; Tagawa, Minami; Ujita, Koichi; Sakai, Yuki; Narumoto, Jin; Near, Jamie; Fukuda, Masato

    2015-04-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), consisting of the perigenual ACC (pgACC) and mid-ACC (i.e., affective and cognitive areas, respectively), plays a significant role in the performance of gambling tasks, which are used to measure decision-making behavior under conditions of risk. Although recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentration in the pgACC is associated with decision-making behavior, knowledge regarding the relationship of GABA concentrations in subdivisions of the ACC with gambling task performance is still limited. The aim of our magnetic resonance spectroscopy study is to investigate in 20 healthy males the relationship of concentrations of GABA and glutamate+glutamine (Glx) in the pgACC, mid-ACC, and occipital cortex (OC) with multiple indexes of decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). The GABA/creatine (Cr) ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with delay aversion score, which corresponds to the impulsivity index. The Glx/Cr ratio in the pgACC negatively correlated with risk adjustment score, which is reported to reflect the ability to change the amount of the bet depending on the probability of winning or losing. The scores of CGT did not significantly correlate with the GABA/Cr or Glx/Cr ratio in the mid-ACC or OC. Results of this study suggest that in the pgACC, but not in the mid-ACC or OC, GABA and Glx concentrations play a distinct role in regulating impulsiveness and risk probability during decision-making behavior under conditions of risk, respectively.

  15. Identification of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, in particular the subcallosal area, as an effective auxiliary means of diagnosis for major depressive disorder

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    Niida A

    2012-08-01

    cingulate cortex (sACC on the z-score map obtained.Results: No significant difference in atrophy was noted between the left and right sACCs. The VSRAD advance used in the present study was more effective than the VSRAD plus for diagnosis of MDD, with a sensitivity of 90.7%, specificity of 86.7%, accuracy of 89.5%, a positive predictive value of 94.4%, and a negative predictive value of 78.8%. In particular, atrophy was observed in the subcallosal area of the sACC.Conclusion: The identification of atrophy in the sACC, in particular of the subcallosal area, with the use of updated voxel-based morphometric software proved to be effective as an auxiliary diagnostic method for MDD.Keywords: major depressive disorder, magnetic resonance imaging, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, voxel-based morphometry, VSRAD

  16. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study

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    Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Kan, Cornelis C.; Goebel, Rainer; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group) attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session), during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study’s small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies. Trial Registration: ISRCTN12390961 PMID:28125735

  17. 5-Hydroxytryptamine (serotonin)2A receptors in rat anterior cingulate cortex mediate the discriminative stimulus properties of d-lysergic acid diethylamide.

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    Gresch, Paul J; Barrett, Robert J; Sanders-Bush, Elaine; Smith, Randy L

    2007-02-01

    d-Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), an indoleamine hallucinogen, produces profound alterations in mood, thought, and perception in humans. The brain site(s) that mediates the effects of LSD is currently unknown. In this study, we combine the drug discrimination paradigm with intracerebral microinjections to investigate the anatomical localization of the discriminative stimulus of LSD in rats. Based on our previous findings, we targeted the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to test its involvement in mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD. Rats were trained to discriminate systemically administered LSD (0.085 mg/kg s.c.) from saline. Following acquisition of the discrimination, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the ACC (AP, +1.2 mm; ML, +/-1.0 mm; DV, -2.0 mm relative to bregma). Rats were tested for their ability to discriminate varying doses of locally infused LSD (0.1875, 0.375, and 0.75 microg/side) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (n = 3-7). LSD locally infused into ACC dose-dependently substituted for systemically administered LSD, with 0.75 microg/side LSD substituting completely (89% correct). Systemic administration of the selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist R-(+)-alpha-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-[2-(4-fluorophenylethyl)]-4-piperidine-methanol (M100907; 0.4 mg/kg) blocked the discriminative cue of LSD (0.375 microg/side) infused into ACC (from 68 to 16% drug lever responding). Furthermore, M100907 (0.5 microg/microl/side) locally infused into ACC completely blocked the stimulus effects of systemic LSD (0.04 mg/kg; from 80 to 12% on the LSD lever). Taken together, these data indicate that 5-HT(2A) receptors in the ACC are a primary target mediating the discriminative stimulus properties of LSD.

  18. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

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    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  19. The impact of multiple memory formation on dendritic complexity in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex assessed at recent and remote time points.

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    Wartman, Brianne C; Holahan, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Consolidation processes, involving synaptic and systems level changes, are suggested to stabilize memories once they are formed. At the synaptic level, dendritic structural changes are associated with long-term memory storage. At the systems level, memory storage dynamics between the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) may be influenced by the number of sequentially encoded memories. The present experiment utilized Golgi-Cox staining and neuron reconstruction to examine recent and remote structural changes in the hippocampus and ACC following training on three different behavioral procedures. Rats were trained on one hippocampal-dependent task only (a water maze task), two hippocampal-dependent tasks (a water maze task followed by a radial arm maze task), or one hippocampal-dependent and one non-hippocampal-dependent task (a water maze task followed by an operant conditioning task). Rats were euthanized recently or remotely. Brains underwent Golgi-Cox processing and neurons were reconstructed using Neurolucida software (MicroBrightField, Williston, VT, USA). Rats trained on two hippocampal-dependent tasks displayed increased dendritic complexity compared to control rats, in neurons examined in both the ACC and hippocampus at recent and remote time points. Importantly, this behavioral group showed consistent, significant structural differences in the ACC compared to the control group at the recent time point. These findings suggest that taxing the demand placed upon the hippocampus, by training rats on two hippocampal-dependent tasks, engages synaptic and systems consolidation processes in the ACC at an accelerated rate for recent and remote storage of spatial memories.

  20. The impact of multiple memory formation on dendritic complexity in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex assessed at recent and remote time points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne Courtney Wartman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consolidation processes, involving synaptic and systems level changes, are suggested to stabilize memories once they are formed. At the synaptic level, dendritic structural changes are associated with long-term memory storage. At the systems level, memory storage dynamics between the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC may be influenced by the number of sequentially encoded memories. The present experiment utilized Golgi-Cox staining and neuron reconstruction to examine recent and remote structural changes in the hippocampus and ACC following training on three different behavioural procedures.Rats were trained on one hippocampal-dependent task only (a water maze task, two hippocampal-dependent tasks (a water maze task followed by a radial arm maze task, or one hippocampal-dependent and one non-hippocampal-dependent task (a water maze task followed by an operant conditioning task. Rats were euthanized recently or remotely. Brains underwent Golgi-Cox processing and neurons were reconstructed using Neurolucida software (MicroBrightField, Williston, VT, USA. Rats trained on two hippocampal-dependent tasks displayed increased dendritic complexity compared to control rats, in neurons examined in both the ACC and hippocampus at recent and remote time points. Importantly, this behavioural group showed consistent, significant structural differences in the ACC compared to the control group at the recent time point. These findings suggest that taxing the demand placed upon the hippocampus, by training rats on two hippocampal-dependent tasks, engages synaptic and systems consolidation processes in the ACC at an accelerated rate for recent and remote storage of spatial memories.

  1. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex attenuates pain-related negative emotion in rats.

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    Cao, Hong; Zang, Kai-Kai; Han, Mei; Zhao, Zhi-Qi; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Qiu

    2014-08-01

    The emotional components of pain are far less studied than the sensory components. Previous studies have indicated that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in the affective response to noxious stimuli. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the spinal cord has been documented to play an important role in diverse kinds of pathological pain states. We used formalin-induced conditioned place aversion (F-CPA) in rats, an animal model believed to reflect the emotional response to pain, to investigate the involvement of p38 MAPK in the rACC after the induction of affective pain. Intraplantar formalin injection produced a significant activation of p38 MAPK, as well as mitogen-activated kinase kinase (MKK) 3 and MKK6, its upstream activators, in the bilateral rACC. p38 MAPK was elevated in both NeuN-positive neurons and Iba1-positive microglia in the rACC, but not GFAP-positive cells. Blocking p38 MAPK activation in the bilateral rACC using its specific inhibitor SB203580 or SB239063 dose-dependently suppressed the formation of F-CPA. Inhibiting p38 MAPK activation did not affect formalin-induced two-phase spontaneous nociceptive response and low intensity electric foot-shock induced CPA. The present study demonstrated that p38 MAPK signaling pathway in the rACC contributes to pain-related negative emotion. Thus, a new pharmacological strategy targeted at the p38 MAPK cascade may be useful in treating pain-related emotional disorders.

  2. 4-Methylcatechol prevents derangements of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB-related signaling in anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain with depression-like behavior.

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    Ishikawa, Kozo; Yasuda, Seiko; Fukuhara, Kayoko; Iwanaga, Yasutake; Ida, Yuika; Ishikawa, Junko; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Ono, Midori; Kakeda, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Toshizo

    2014-03-05

    Chronic pain with mood disorder, resulting from a peripheral nerve injury, is a serious clinical problem affecting the quality of life. A lack of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and abnormal intercellular signaling in the brain can mediate this symptom. BDNF is induced in cultured neurons by 4-methylcatechol (4-MC), but little is known about its role in pain-emotion. Thus, we characterized the actions of 4-MC on TrkB receptor-related pERK and BDNF mRNA in discreet brain regions related to pain-emotion after chronic pain in rat. Rats implanted with a stainless steel cannula into the lateral ventricular were subjected to chronic constriction injury (CCI). Pain was assessed by changes in paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat stimuli after CCI. Immobility time during the forced swimming testing was measured for depression-like behavior. Analgesic and antidepression modulations with 4-MC were examined by an anti-BDNF antibody (K252a, a TrkB receptor inhibitor). The animals were perfused and fixed (4% paraformaldehyde) for immunohistochemistry analysis (c-FOS/pERK). BDNF mRNA expression (anterior cingulate cortex) was determined using reverse transcription-PCR. Rats showed a sustained decrease in PWL, associated with a prolonged immobility time after CCI. 4-MC reduced decreases in PWL and increased immobility time. 4-MC reduced increases in pERK immunoreactivity and decreases in BDNF mRNA expression in regions related to pain and the limbic system. Anti-BDNF blocked effects induced by 4-MC. We suggest that a lack of BDNF associated with activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the pain-emotion network may be involved in depression-like behavior during chronic pain. 4-MC ameliorates pain-emotion symptoms by inducing BDNF and normalizing pERK activities.

  3. Segregated and integrated coding of reward and punishment in the cingulate cortex.

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    Fujiwara, Juri; Tobler, Philippe N; Taira, Masato; Iijima, Toshio; Tsutsui, Ken-Ichiro

    2009-06-01

    Reward and punishment have opposite affective value but are both processed by the cingulate cortex. However, it is unclear whether the positive and negative affective values of monetary reward and punishment are processed by separate or common subregions of the cingulate cortex. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a free-choice task and compared cingulate activations for different levels of monetary gain and loss. Gain-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing gain, but no activation change in relation to loss) occurred mainly in the anterior part of the anterior cingulate and in the posterior cingulate cortex. Conversely, loss-specific activation (increasing activation for increasing loss, but no activation change in relation to gain) occurred between these areas, in the middle and posterior part of the anterior cingulate. Integrated coding of gain and loss (increasing activation throughout the full range, from biggest loss to biggest gain) occurred in the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate, at the border with the medial prefrontal cortex. Finally, unspecific activation increases to both gains and losses (increasing activation to increasing gains and increasing losses, possibly reflecting attention) occurred in dorsal and middle regions of the cingulate cortex. Together, these results suggest separate and common coding of monetary reward and punishment in distinct subregions of the cingulate cortex. Further meta-analysis suggested that the presently found reward- and punishment-specific areas overlapped with those processing positive and negative emotions, respectively.

  4. Systematic Regional Variations of GABA, Glutamine, and Glutamate Concentrations Follow Receptor Fingerprints of Human Cingulate Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dou, Weiqiang; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kaufmann, Joern; Zhong, Kai; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of glutamatergic or GABAergic measures in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was found altered in psychiatric disorders and predictive of interindividual variations of functional responses in healthy populations. Several ACC subregions have been parcellated into re

  5. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

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    Willias Masocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  6. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav) subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct) values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP) there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain. PMID:27896032

  7. Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients

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    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain by altering the activity of cortical areas involved in pain sensation. However, current single-coil rTMS technology only allows for effects in surface cortical structures. The ability to affect activity in certain deep brain structures may however, allow for a better efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This study used PET imaging to determine whether a novel multi-coil rTMS would allow for preferential targeting of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), an area always activated with pain, and to provide preliminary evidence as to whether this targeted approach would allow for efficacious, safe, and tolerable analgesia both in a volunteer/acute pain model as well as in fibromyalgia chronic pain patients. Methods Part 1: Different coil configurations were tested in a placebo-controlled crossover design in volunteers (N = 16). Tonic pain was induced using a capsaicin/thermal pain model and functional brain imaging was performed by means of H215O positron emission tomography – computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Differences in NRS pain ratings between TMS and sham treatment (NRSTMS-NRSplacebo) which were recorded each minute during the 10 minute PET scans. Part 2: 16 fibromyalgia patients were subjected to 20 multi-coil rTMS treatments over 4 weeks and effects on standard pain scales (Brief Pain Inventory, item 5, i.e. average pain NRS over the last 24 hours) were recorded. Results A single 30 minute session using one of 3 tested rTMS coil configurations operated at 1 Hz consistently produced robust reduction (mean 70% on NRS scale) in evoked pain in volunteers. In fibromyalgia patients, the 20 rTMS sessions also produced a significant pain inhibition (43% reduction in NRS pain over last 24 hours), but only when operated at 10 Hz. This degree of pain control was maintained for at least 4 weeks after the final session

  8. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without past history of Major Depressive Disorder

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    Katarina eDedovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels. Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the

  9. Cytoarchitecture of mouse and rat cingulate cortex with human homologies.

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    Vogt, Brent A; Paxinos, George

    2014-01-01

    A gulf exists between cingulate area designations in human neurocytology and those used in rodent brain atlases with a major underpinning of the former being midcingulate cortex (MCC). The present study used images extracted from the Franklin and Paxinos mouse atlas and Paxinos and Watson rat atlas to demonstrate areas comprising MCC and modifications of anterior cingulate (ACC) and retrosplenial cortices. The laminar architecture not available in the atlases is also provided for each cingulate area. Both mouse and rat have a MCC with neurons in all layers that are larger than in ACC and layer Va has particularly prominent neurons and reduced neuron densities. An undifferentiated ACC area 33 lies along the rostral callosal sulcus in rat but not in mouse and area 32 has dorsal and ventral subdivisions with the former having particularly large pyramidal neurons in layer Vb. Both mouse and rat have anterior and posterior divisions of retrosplenial areas 29c and 30, although their cytology is different in rat and mouse. Maps of the rodent cingulate cortices provide for direct comparisons with each region in the human including MCC and it is significant that rodents do not have a posterior cingulate region composed of areas 23 and 31 like the human. It is concluded that rodents and primates, including humans, possess a MCC and this homology along with those in ACC and retrosplenial cortices permit scientists inspired by human considerations to test hypotheses on rodent models of human diseases.

  10. Anterior cingulate integrity: executive and neuropsychiatric features in Parkinson's disease.

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    Lewis, Simon J G; Shine, James M; Duffy, Shantel; Halliday, Glenda; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-09-01

    Patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly suffer with significant executive dysfunction and concomitant visual hallucinations. Although the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood, numerous studies have highlighted the strong association between these neuropsychiatric features, suggesting common neural pathways. Although previous neuroimaging studies have identified widespread volume loss across a number of cortical regions, to date, no studies have utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide insights into how neurometabolic changes may relate to such symptoms. Twenty patients with PD and 20 healthy controls underwent spectroscopy to determine the N-acetyl aspartate/creatine (NAA/Cr) ratio, which reflects the degree of neuronal integrity in neurodegenerative diseases. Voxels were obtained from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area critical for a wide range of executive mechanisms as well as from a control volume in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Compared to controls, patients with PD had lower NAA/Cr ratios in the ACC. In turn, lower NAA/Cr ratios significantly correlated with poorer executive function on tasks of attentional set-shifting and response inhibition, as well as more-severe psychotic symptoms and poorer performance on the Bistable Percept Paradigm, a neuropsychological probe of visual hallucinations. NAA/Cr ratios were significantly lower in hallucinators, compared to nonhallucinators, within the ACC, but did not differ in the PCC. These results suggest that loss of neuronal integrity within the ACC plays an important role in the pathophysiology underlying executive functioning and visual hallucinations in PD. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society.

  11. 双相抑郁患者前额叶和前扣带回皮质氢质子波谱研究%A 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study on prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in patients with bipolar depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海波; 宁厚梅; 李国海; 王冬青; 李一云; 张礼荣

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To measure the levels of metabolites in the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex of patients with bipolar depression. Method:1 H-MRS was performed on prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex in 30 unmedicated patients with bipolar depression and 30 healthy controls. The patients underwent 1 H-MRS again after six weeks of drug treatment. The compounds measured were N-acetylaspartate (NAA) ,choline (Cho) , glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and creatine (Cr). Results: Bipolar depressive patients had significantly lower NAA/Cr ratios in left prefrontal cortex and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex than healthy controls (P 0. 05). After drug treatment , the ratios of NAA/Cr in left prefrontal cortex and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex were significantly increased compared with those before treatment (P <0. 05) , and the ratios of Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr in left prefrontal cortex and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex were significantly decreased compared with those before treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion:Alterations in the levels of NAA,Cho,Glx in prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulated cortex may be implicated in the pathogenesis of bipolar depression and are related to the efficacy of drug. A%目的:研究双相抑郁患者前额叶皮质、前扣带回皮质代谢物的相对含量. 方法:对30例未服药双相抑郁患者和30名健康志愿者的前额叶皮质、前扣带回皮质进行氢质子波谱(1 H-MRS)扫描,双相抑郁患者经6周药物治疗后再次做1 H-MRS扫描,检测N-乙酰天门冬氨酸(NAA)、胆碱(Cho)、谷氨酸复合物(Glx)、肌酸(Cr)4种代谢物. 结果:双相抑郁组左侧前额叶皮质、双侧前扣带回皮质NAA/Cr值均显著低于正常对照组(P<0.05),Cho/Cr值、Glx/Cr值均显著高于正常对照组(P<0.05),双相抑郁组右侧前额叶皮质NAA/Cr、Cho/Cr、Glx/Cr值两组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).经药物治疗后,左侧前额叶皮质、双侧前扣带回皮质NAA/Cr值较

  12. Functional and structural amygdala - anterior cingulate connectivity correlates with attentional bias to masked fearful faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2013-10-01

    An attentional bias to threat has been causally related to anxiety. Recent research has linked nonconscious attentional bias to threat with variability in the integrity of the amygdala - anterior cingulate pathway, which sheds light on the neuroanatomical basis for a behavioral precursor to anxiety. However, the extent to which structural variability in amygdala - anterior cingulate integrity relates to the functional connectivity within this pathway and how such functional connectivity may relate to attention bias behavior, remain critical missing pieces of the puzzle. In 15 individuals we measured the structural integrity of the amygdala - prefrontal pathway with diffusion tensor-weighted MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), amygdala-seeded intrinsic functional connectivity to the anterior cingulate, and attentional bias toward backward masked fearful faces with a dot-probe task. We found that greater biases in attention to threat predicted greater levels of uncinate fasciculus integrity, greater positive amygdala - anterior cingulate functional connectivity, and greater amygdala coupling with a broader social perception network including the superior temporal sulcus, tempoparietal junction (TPJ), and somatosensory cortex. Additionally, greater levels of uncinate fasciculus integrity correlated with greater levels of amygdala - anterior cingulate intrinsic functional connectivity. Thus, high bias individuals displayed a heightened degree of amygdala - anterior cingulate connectivity during basal conditions, which we believe predisposes these individuals to focus their attention on signals of threat within their environment.

  13. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

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    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  14. Anterior Cingulate Volumetric Alterations in Treatment-Naive Adults with ADHD: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.; Valera, Eve M.; Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Kennedy, David N.; Caviness, Verne S., Jr.; Bush, George; Crum, Katherine; Brown, Ariel B.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We sought to examine preliminary results of brain alterations in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in treatment-naive adults with ADHD. The ACC is a central brain node for the integration of cognitive control and allocation of attention, affect and drive. Thus its anatomical alteration may give rise to impulsivity, hyperactivity and…

  15. Reduced Activation in Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate during Attention and Cognitive Control Functions in Medication-Naive Adolescents with Depression Compared to Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of…

  16. 电针改变CFA炎症痛大鼠前扣带回脑区神经元放电活动%ELECTRO-ACUPUNCTURE MODULATES THE NEURONAL FIRINGS OF ANTERIOR CINGULATE CORTEX IN RATS WITH INFLAMMATORY PAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萌萌; 刘风雨; 岳路鹏; 蔡捷; 廖斐斐; 朱兵; 景向红; 万有; 伊鸣

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究电针对炎症痛大鼠前扣带回(anterior cingulate cortex,ACC)神经元放电的影响.方法:实验大鼠分为4组:CFA炎症痛模型组加电针,CFA炎症痛模型组加假电针,对照组加电针,对照组加假电针.应用多通道在体记录技术,记录在电针前、后1h内以及给予激光痛刺激前、后ACC神经元的放电,处理记录到的神经信号并进行统计分析.结果:电针后,CFA炎症痛组和对照组大鼠ACC神经元的平均放电率均增高,CFA炎症痛组大鼠ACC脑区内对激光痛刺激有反应的兴奋性神经元反应性降低.结论:电针激活炎症痛大鼠ACC脑区的神经元,但抑制ACC脑区内对痛刺激起兴奋性反应的神经元.推测电针通过调节ACC脑区神经元活动而镇痛.

  17. Stress-Related Functional Connectivity Changes Between Auditory Cortex and Cingulate in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanneste, Sven; De Ridder, Dirk

    2015-08-01

    The question arises whether functional connectivity (FC) changes between the distress and tinnitus loudness network during resting state depends on the amount of distress tinnitus patients' experience. Fifty-five patients with constant chronic tinnitus were included in this study. Electroencephalography (EEG) recordings were performed and seed-based (at the auditory cortex) source localized FC (lagged phase synchronization) was computed for the different EEG frequency bands. Results initially demonstrate that the correlation between loudness and distress is nonlinear. Loudness correlates with beta3 and gamma band activity in the auditory cortices, and distress with alpha1 and beta3 changes in the subgenual, dorsal anterior, and posterior cingulate cortex. In comparison to nontinnitus controls, seed-based FC differed between the left auditory cortices for the alpha1 and beta3 bands in a network encompassing the posterior cingulate cortex extending into the parahippocampal area, the anterior cingulate, and insula. Furthermore, distress changes the FC between the auditory cortex, encoding loudness, and different parts of the cingulate, encoding distress: the subgenual anterior, the dorsal anterior, and the posterior cingulate. These changes are specific for the alpha1 and beta3 frequency bands. These results fit with a recently proposed model that states that tinnitus is generated by multiple dynamically active separable but overlapping networks, each characterizing a specific aspect of the unified tinnitus percept, but adds to this concept that the interaction between these networks is a complex interplay of correlations and anti-correlations between areas involved in distress and loudness depending on the distress state of the tinnitus patient.

  18. Activation of glycine site and GluN2B subunit of NMDA receptors is necessary for ERK/CREB signaling cascade in rostral anterior cingulate cortex in rats: Implications for affective pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Cao; Wen-Hua Ren; Mu-Ye Zhu; Zhi-Qi Zhao; Yu-Qiu Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is implicated in processing the emotional component of pain.N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are highly expressed in the rACC and mediate painrelated affect by activating a signaling pathway that involves cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) and/or extracellular regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB).The present study investigated the contributions of the NMDAR glycine site and GluN2B subunit to the activation of ERK and CREB both in vitro and in vivo in rat rACC.Methods Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were used to separately assess the expression of phospho-ERK (pERK) and phospho-CREB (pCREB) in vitro and in vivo.Double immunostaining was also used to determine the colocalization of pERK and pCREB.Results Both bath application of NMDA in brain slices in vitro and intraplantar injection of formalin into the rat hindpaw in vivo induced significant up-regulation of pERK and pCREB in the rACC,which was inhibited by the NMDAR antagonist DL-2-amino-5-phospho-novaleric acid.Selective blockade of the NMDAR GluN2B subunit and the glycinebinding site,or degradation of endogenous D-serine,a co-agonist for the glycine site,significantly decreased the upregulation of pERK and pCREB expression in the rACC.Further,the activated ERK predominantly colocalized with CREB.Conclusion Either the glycine site or the GluN2B subunit of NMDARs participates in the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB induced by bath application of NMDA in brain slices or hindpaw injection of 5% formalin in rats,and these might be fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying pain affect.

  19. Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Lowers BOLD Responses in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A Walter

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the neural underpinnings of the negative blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is still limited. We hypothesized that pharmacological GABAergic modulation attenuates BOLD responses, and that blood concentrations of a positive allosteric modulator of GABA correlate inversely with BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex. We investigated whether or not pure task-related negative BOLD responses were co-localized with pharmacologically modulated BOLD responses. Twenty healthy adults received either 5 mg diazepam or placebo in a double blind, randomized design. During fMRI the subjects performed a working memory task. Results showed that BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex were inversely correlated with diazepam blood concentrations; that is, the higher the blood diazepam concentration, the lower the BOLD response. This inverse correlation was most pronounced in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex. For subjects with diazepam plasma concentration > 0.1 mg/L we observed negative BOLD responses with respect to fixation baseline. There was minor overlap between cingulate regions with task-related negative BOLD responses and regions where the BOLD responses were inversely correlated with diazepam concentration. We interpret that the inverse correlation between the BOLD response and diazepam was caused by GABA-related neural inhibition. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that GABA attenuates BOLD responses in fMRI. The minimal overlap between task-related negative BOLD responses and responses attenuated by diazepam suggests that these responses might be caused by different mechanisms.

  20. Anterior cingulate dopamine turnover and behavior change in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Catherine L; Bell, Brian; Palotti, Matthew; Oh, Jen; Christian, Bradley T.; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Sojkova, Jitka; Buyan-Dent, Laura; Nickles, Robert J.; Harding, Sandra J.; Stone, Charles K.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Holden, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Subtle cognitive and behavioral changes are common in early Parkinson’s disease. The cause of these symptoms is probably multifactorial but may in part be related to extra-striatal dopamine levels. 6-[18F]-Fluoro-L-dopa (FDOPA) positron emission tomography has been widely used to quantify dopamine metabolism in the brain; the most frequently measured kinetic parameter is the tissue uptake rate constant, Ki. However, estimates of dopamine turnover, which also account for the small rate of FDOPA loss from areas of specific trapping, may be more sensitive than Ki for early disease-related changes in dopamine biosynthesis. The purpose of the present study was to compare effective distribution volume ratio (eDVR), a metric for dopamine turnover, to cognitive and behavioral measures in Parkinson’s patients. We chose to focus the investigation on anterior cingulate cortex, which shows highest FDOPA uptake within frontal regions and has known roles in executive function. 15 Non-demented early-stage PD patients were pretreated with carbidopa and tolcapone, a central catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) inhibitor and then underwent extended imaging with FDOPA PET. Anterior cingulate eDVR was compared with composite scores for language, memory, and executive function measured by neuropsychological testing, and behavior change measured using two informant-based questionnaires, the Cambridge Behavioral Inventory and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function- Adult Version. Lower mean eDVR (thus higher dopamine turnover) in anterior cingulate cortex was related to lower (more impaired) behavior scores. We conclude that subtle changes in anterior cingulate dopamine metabolism may contribute to dysexecutive behaviors in Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25511521

  1. 芍药苷对急性缺氧前扣带回锥体神经元的影响%Effect of Paeoniflorin on Anterior Cingulate Cortex Pyramidal Neurons After Acute Hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李果; 杜永平; 张月萍; 徐晖; 胡三觉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the neuroprotective effect of paeoniflorin (PF) on the anterior cingulate cortex(ACC) pyramidal neurons after acute hypoxia. Methods: Before and after the application of PF,variations of frequencies on the neuronal miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) in ACC were recorded by the whole-cell patch clamp techniques of rat brain slices following acute hypoxia. Results: After acute hypoxic insult,the frequence of the mEPSC was significantly increased in the pyramidal neurons of the ACC. When perfusion with 300μmol/L PF of artificial cerebrospinal fluid,the frequency of the mEPSC was remarkably reduced in comparison with the frequency determined following acute hypoxia. Conclusion: PF may modulate the plasticity of synaptic activities through decreasing the frequency of the neuronal mEPSC induced by acute hypoxic insult. All these results indicate that PF may have neuroprotective effects.%目的 探讨芍药昔对急性缺氧形成的前扣带回(ACC)锥体神经元损伤的保护作用.方法 应用全细胞膜片钳技术记录急性缺氧ACC锥体神经元微小兴奋性突触后电流(mEPSC)频率的变化,观察芍药苷对急性缺氧后mEPSC的影响.结果 急性缺氧后,ACC锥体神经元的mEPSC频率明显增加;灌流含有芍药苷(300μmol/L)的正常人工脑脊液(ACSF),神经元的mEPSC频率与急性缺氧后相比明显降低.结论 芍药苷可能通过抑制急性缺氧ACC锥体神经元mEPSC的频率,调节突触活动的可塑性变化,达到神经保护作用.

  2. NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic transmission in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice%NMDA受体参与小鼠的前额扣带回的神经突触传递

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jason LIAUW; 王过渡; 卓敏

    2003-01-01

    谷氨酸性突触是哺乳动物神经系统的主要兴奋性突触.在正常条件下, 大多数的突触反应是由谷氨酸的AMPA受体传递的.NMDA受体在静息电位下为镁离子抑制.在被激活时, NMDA受体主要参与突触的可塑性变化.但是, 许多NMDA受体拮抗剂在全身或局部注射时能产生行为效应, 提示NMDA受体可能参与静息状态的生理功能.此文中, 我们在离体的前额扣带回脑片上进行电生理记录, 发现NMDA受体参与前额扣带回的突触传递.在重复刺激或近于生理性温度时, NMDA受体传递的反应更为明显.本文直接显示了NMDA受体参与前额扣带回的突触传递, 并提示NMDA受体在前额扣带回中起着调节神经元兴奋的重要作用.%Glutamatergic synapses are common excitatory chemical connections in mammalian central nervous system. At these synapses, most of baseline synaptic transmission is mediated by glutamate AMPA receptors. NMDA receptors that are sensitive to voltage-dependent magnesium blockade selectively contribute to activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. However, inhibition of NMDA receptors by systemic or local administration of NMDA receptor antagonists produced significant effects on different physiological functions that are not believed to depend on NMDA receptor related synaptic plasticity. Here we show that NMDA receptors contribute to synaptic responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a region important for cognitive and other brain functions. The contribution of NMDA receptors became more prominent when synapses are stimulated at higher frequencies. Furthermore, at temperatures more close to physiological brain temperatures, more NMDA receptor mediated responses were recorded as compared to the room temperature. These data suggest a new function for NMDA receptors in the ACC as important postsynaptic receptors involved in synaptic transmission, in particular when cells are firing at high frequencies.

  3. Morphine decreases extracellular levels of glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex: an in vivo microdialysis study in freely moving rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YueHAO; Jing-yuYANG; MingGUO; Chun-fuWU; Ming-fanWU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important region of prefrontal cortex for cognitive functions, has been implicated in drug abuse and addiction. In the present study, we intended to investigate the effect of morphine on the extracellular levels of glutamate in the ACC in freely moving rats. METHODS: In vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection had been used for the

  4. Neural dissociations in attitude strength: Distinct regions of cingulate cortex track ambivalence and certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luttrell, Andrew; Stillman, Paul E; Hasinski, Adam E; Cunningham, William A

    2016-04-01

    People's behaviors are often guided by valenced responses to objects in the environment. Beyond positive and negative evaluations, attitudes research has documented the importance of attitude strength--qualities of an attitude that enhance or attenuate its impact and durability. Although neuroscience research has extensively investigated valence, little work exists on other related variables like metacognitive judgments about one's attitudes. It remains unclear, then, whether the various indicators of attitude strength represent a single underlying neural process or whether they reflect independent processes. To examine this, we used functional MRI (fMRI) to identify the neural correlates of attitude strength. Specifically, we focus on ambivalence and certainty, which represent metacognitive judgments that people can make about their evaluations. Although often correlated, prior neuroscience research suggests that these 2 attributes may have distinct neural underpinnings. We investigate this by having participants make evaluative judgments of visually presented words while undergoing fMRI. After scanning, participants rated the degree of ambivalence and certainty they felt regarding their attitudes toward each word. We found that these 2 judgments corresponded to distinct brain regions' activity during the process of evaluation. Ambivalence corresponded to activation in anterior cingulate cortex, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex. Certainty, however, corresponded to activation in unique areas of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These results support a model treating ambivalence and certainty as distinct, though related, attitude strength variables, and we discuss implications for both attitudes and neuroscience research.

  5. Posterior cingulate cortex: adapting behavior to a changing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, John M; Heilbronner, Sarah R; Barack, David L; Hayden, Benjamin Y; Platt, Michael L

    2011-04-01

    When has the world changed enough to warrant a new approach? The answer depends on current needs, behavioral flexibility and prior knowledge about the environment. Formal approaches solve the problem by integrating the recent history of rewards, errors, uncertainty and context via Bayesian inference to detect changes in the world and alter behavioral policy. Neuronal activity in posterior cingulate cortex - a key node in the default network - is known to vary with learning, memory, reward and task engagement. We propose that these modulations reflect the underlying process of change detection and motivate subsequent shifts in behavior.

  6. N-acetylaspartate levels in the prefrontal cortex,anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of major depressive patients:A proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study%抑郁症患者额叶、前扣带回、海马N-乙酰天冬氨酸磁共振质子波谱研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国海; 刘珺; 申变红; 张礼荣; 尉传社

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨抑郁症患者额叶、前扣带回皮质、海马N-乙酰天冬氨酸(NAA)的相对含量.方法 对13例未服药的抑郁症患者及13位健康志愿者前扣带回行多体素磁共振氢质子波谱(1H-MRS)扫描,抑郁症患者经6周抗抑郁治疗后再次作1H-MRS扫描,测定的生化物质为NAA和肌酸(Cr).结果 抑郁症组左侧和右侧额前皮质、左侧和右侧海马NAA/Cr值[分别为(1.29±0.18),(1.33±0.23),(0.93±0.21),(0.96±0.19)]低于正常对照组,差异有显著性(均P <0.01),双侧前扣带回皮质NAA/Cr值与正常对照组差异无显著性( P >0.05).抗抑郁治疗后,左侧额前皮质NAA/Cr值(1.63±0.42)较治疗前(1.29±0.18)升高( P =0.010);右侧额前皮质、双侧海马、右侧前扣带回皮质NAA/Cr值较治疗前均有所升高,但无统计学意义( P >0.05);双侧额前皮质、双侧前扣带回皮质、左侧海马NAA/Cr值治疗后与正常对照组无显著差异( P >0.05).结论 额前皮质和海马N-乙酰天冬氨酸的含量改变与抑郁症的发生和抗抑郁剂的疗效有关.%Objective To measure the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) in the prefrontal cortex,anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of major depressive patients. Methods Multi voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) was performed to assess NAA levels in 13 unmedicated patients with major depressive disorder and 13 healthy controls. The patients underwent 1H-MRS again after six weeks of antidepressant treatment. The compounds measured were NAA and creatine (Cr). Results Depressive patients had significantly lower NAA/Cr ratios in left and right prefrontal cortex,and left and right hippocampus (1.29±0.18,1.33±0.23,0.93±0.21,0.96±0.19,respectively)than healthy controls( P =0.00). No significant difference was found in the N-acetylaspartate levels in bilateral anterior cingulate cortex between depressive patients and healthy controls( P >0.05). After antidepressant treatment,N-acetylaspartate level

  7. Resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex jointly predicts agreeableness and stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, John P; Sheu, Lei K; Gianaros, Peter J

    2011-03-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of corticolimbic brain systems, particularly areas of the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the associations between (i) a particular personality trait, Agreeableness, which is associated with emotional reactions to conflict, (ii) resting state functional connectivity within the cingulate cortex, and (iii) stressor-evoked blood pressure (BP) reactivity. Participants (N=39, 19 men, aged 20-37 years) completed a resting functional connectivity MRI protocol, followed by two standardized stressor tasks that engaged conflict processing and evoked BP reactivity. Agreeableness covaried positively with BP reactivity across individuals. Moreover, connectivity analyses demonstrated that a more positive functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate (BA31) and the perigenual anterior cingulate (BA32) covaried positively with Agreeableness and with BP reactivity. Finally, statistical mediation analyses demonstrated that BA31-BA32 connectivity mediated the covariation between Agreeableness and BP reactivity. Functional connectivity within the cingulate appears to link Agreeableness and a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, stressor-evoked BP reactivity.

  8. 广泛性焦虑症患者额中回、扣带回、海马磁共振质子波谱成像研究%A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging study on frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of patients with generalized anxiety disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏杰; 王建安; 杨庚林; 张薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the feature of brain functional in front gyrus,anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).Methods 19 patients with GAD and 20 healthy volunteers were scanned on brain using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (1H-MRS).The levels of Choline (Cho),Creatine (Cr),N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) were measured in the frontal gyrus,anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus of all subjects.The 1H-MRS data were compared between two groups.Results Compared with the healthy matched control,the levels of Cho (7.22 ± 1.99),Cr (5.44 ± 1.68),NAA (12.09 ±2.30)in right frontal gyrus white matter,the levels of Cho(9.89 ±2.40),Cr(8.59 ± 1.71) in right anterior cingulate cortex and the levels of NAA in left anterior cingulate cortex were significantly high (P < 0.05).The ratio of NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were not difference in two groups.In the hippocampus of the patients,the Cho,Cr,NAA,NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr ratio were not significantly higher or lower than those in control (P > 0.05).Conclusion The brain substance metabolisms of the patients with GAD are abnormal and asymmetrical between left and right brain,especially occurred in right brain.%目的 探讨广泛性焦虑症患者(Generalized Anxiety Disorder,GAD)脑额中回、扣带回和海马功能.方法 19名符合ICD-10诊断标准的GAD患者为试验组,20名条件匹配的健康志愿者为对照组,用磁共振质子波谱成像技术(1 H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy,1H-MRS)对所有入组者行脑额中回、扣带回和海马中胆碱化合物(Cho)、肌酸(Cr)、N-乙酰天冬氨酸(NAA)物质水平测定,并行两组间比较.结果 GAD组右额中回白质Cho(7.22±1.99)、Cr(5.44 ±1.68)、NAA(12.09±2.30)及右扣带回皮质Cho(9.89±2.40)、Cr(8.59±1.71)、左扣带回皮质NAA(13.49±2.27)明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组右扣带回皮质NAA、左扣带回皮质Cho、Cr及左额中回白质Cho、Cr

  9. Effects of functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on executive control of attention in healthy individuals%前扣带回与背外侧额前皮质的功能连接影响执行控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕; 徐君海; 尹训涛; 张栋; 徐文坚; 逄增昌; 葛海涛; 刘树伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨执行控制过程中健康人大脑前扣带回(ACC)与背外侧额前皮质(DLPFC)之间的功能连接及其与行为学表现之间的关系.方法 2011年1至5月25名17~20岁的健康志愿者在青岛大学医学院附属医院放射科进行3.0T功能磁共振扫描,采用注意网络测试(ANT)作为试验范式,计算ACC和DLPFC之间的功能连接,并与ANT的行为学得分做相关分析.结果 在执行控制过程中,背侧ACC(dACC)与两侧的DLPFC之间存在显著的功能连接,其中左侧的dACC和DLPFC之间的功能连接系数与执行控制的行为学得分存在显著负相关(r=-0.63;P <0.01).结论 ACC与DLPFC之间存在功能连接,并对注意的执行控制功能存在有利的影响,这有助于我们理解注意功能中相关脑区的功能整合作用.%Objective To explore the presence of functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the manipulation of attentional network test (ANT) and its relationship with behavioral performance.Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 25 healthy subjects aged 17-20 years.And ANT was used as a paradigm.Functional connectivity between ACC-DLPFC was tested and correlation analysis conducted between functional connectivity coefficients and behavioral scores of ANT.Results Significant functional connectivity between the dorsal ACC (dACC) with bilateral DLPFC was found.Furthermore,event-related functional connectivity coefficients between left dACC and lefi DLPFC were negatively associated with the behavioral scores of executive control (r =-0.63 ; P < 0.01).Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence that ACC and DLPFC are functionally connected and such functional connectivity has advantageous influence on executive control function of attention so as to contribute to our understanding of the integrated role of these brain regions in attentional network.

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nieuwenhuis; N. Yeung; W. van den Wildenberg; K.R. Ridderinkhof

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging and computational modeling studies have led to the suggestion that response conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in cognitive control. For example, response conflict is high when a response must be withheld (no-go) in contexts in which there is a prepote

  11. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  12. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

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    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  13. The anterior insular cortex represents breaches of taste identity expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuizen, Maria G; Douglas, Danielle; Aschenbrenner, Katja; Gitelman, Darren R; Small, Dana M

    2011-10-12

    Despite the importance of breaches of taste identity expectation for survival, its neural correlate is unknown. We used fMRI in 16 women to examine brain response to expected and unexpected receipt of sweet taste and tasteless/odorless solutions. During expected trials (70%), subjects heard "sweet" or "tasteless" and received the liquid indicated by the cue. During unexpected trials (30%), subjects heard sweet but received tasteless or they heard tasteless but received sweet. After delivery, subjects indicated stimulus identity by pressing a button. Reaction time was faster and more accurate after valid cuing, indicating that the cues altered expectancy as intended. Tasting unexpected versus expected stimuli resulted in greater deactivation in fusiform gyri, possibly reflecting greater suppression of visual object regions when orienting to, and identifying, an unexpected taste. Significantly greater activation to unexpected versus expected stimuli occurred in areas related to taste (thalamus, anterior insula), reward [ventral striatum (VS), orbitofrontal cortex], and attention [anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS)]. We also observed an interaction between stimulus and expectation in the anterior insula (primary taste cortex). Here response was greater for unexpected versus expected sweet compared with unexpected versus expected tasteless, indicating that this region is preferentially sensitive to breaches of taste expectation. Connectivity analyses confirmed that expectation enhanced network interactions, with IPS and VS influencing insular responses. We conclude that unexpected oral stimulation results in suppression of visual cortex and upregulation of sensory, attention, and reward regions to support orientation, identification, and learning about salient stimuli.

  14. Aberrant functional connectivity differentiates retrosplenial cortex from posterior cingulate cortex in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

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    Dillen, Kim N H; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kukolja, Juraj; von Reutern, Boris; Richter, Nils; Onur, Özgür A; Dronse, Julian; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-08-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key hub of the default mode network, a resting-state network involved in episodic memory, showing functional connectivity (FC) changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, PCC is a cytoarchitectonically heterogeneous region. Specifically, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), often subsumed under the PCC, is an area functionally and microanatomically distinct from PCC. To investigate FC patterns of RSC and PCC separately, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy aging participants, patients with subjective cognitive impairment, and prodromal AD. Compared to the other 2 groups, we found higher FC from RSC to frontal cortex in subjective cognitive impairment but higher FC to occipital cortex in prodromal AD. Conversely, FC from PCC to the lingual gyrus was higher in prodromal AD. Furthermore, data indicate that RSC and PCC are characterized by differential FC patterns represented by hub-specific interactions with memory and attentions scores in prodromal AD compared to cognitively normal individuals, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms for RSC and neurodegenerative processes for PCC. Data thus confirm and extend previous studies suggesting that the RSC is functionally distinct from PCC.

  15. Bone cancer pain induce anxiety-like behavior and high expression of NR2B subunit in anterior cingulate cortex of rats%骨癌痛诱发大鼠焦虑样行为和前扣带回脑区NR2B 的上调表达

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宇; 刘瑾瑜

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of bone cancer pain on emotion and NMDA re-ceptor NR2B subunit expression level in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)in rats.Methods One hun-dred and fifty healthy male Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g aged 3 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 50 in each group):sham operation group (group S),bone cancer pain group (group BCP),RO25-6981 group (group RO).The BCP model was established by inoculating Walker 256 breast cancer cells into right intra-tibial.Rats in group S were given the same dose of d-hanks. Group RO was injected intraperitoneally with RO25-6981 (5 mg/kg/d)on the day of inoculation, while rats in the group S and group BCP were given the same dose of normal saline.Mechanical with-drawal threshold (MWT)and thermal withdrawal latency (TWL)of right hind legs were measured on day 7,10,14 after inoculation respectively.Elevated plus-maze test was carried out to investigate the effect of bone cancer pain on emotion in rats after pain threshold detection,then the percentage of the times entering the open arms (OE)and the percentage of the time staying in the open arms (OT) duration the total period were evaluated.Then the anterior cingulate cortex tissue was removed to e-valuate the NR2B protein and mRNA expression levels by RT-PCR,Western blot and immunofluo-rescence methods on day 14 after elevated plus-maze test.Results All the parameters did not differ with significant difference between group S and group RO.MWT decreased and TWL shortened on day 7,10,14 after inoculation in group BCP compared with those before inoculation and those of group S and group RO.OE and OT in group BCP reduced remarkably than those before inoculation and those of group S and group RO.Relative absorbance of NR2B mRNA,the expression of NR2B pro-tein,average NR2B relative fluorescence intensity value is obviously higher than that of group S and group RO (P <0.05).Conclusion Bone cancer pain can induce pain-related aversion and anxiety

  16. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Lactate and Glutathione Levels in Euthymic Bipolar I Disorder: 1H-MRS Study

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    Pastorello, Bruno F.; Leite, Cláudia da Costa; Henning, Anke; Moreno, Ricardo A.; Garcia Otaduy, Maria Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are 2 closely integrated processes implicated in the physiopathology of bipolar disorder. Advanced proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques enable the measurement of levels of lactate, the main marker of mitochondrial dysfunction, and glutathione, the predominant brain antioxidant. The objective of this study was to measure brain lactate and glutathione levels in bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Methods: Eighty-eight individuals (50 bipolar disorder and 38 healthy controls) underwent 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (2x2x4.5cm3) using a 2-D JPRESS sequence. Lactate and glutathione were quantified using the ProFit software program. Results: Bipolar disorder patients had higher dorsal anterior cingulate cortex lactate levels compared with controls. Glutathione levels did not differ between euthymic bipolar disorder and controls. There was a positive correlation between lactate and glutathione levels specific to bipolar disorder. No influence of medications on metabolites was observed. Conclusion: This is the most extensive magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of lactate and glutathione in bipolar disorder to date, and results indicated that euthymic bipolar disorder patients had higher levels of lactate, which might be an indication of altered mitochondrial function. Moreover, lactate levels correlated with glutathione levels, indicating a compensatory mechanism regardless of bipolar disorder diagnosis. PMID:27207914

  17. In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion

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    Austen Krill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with.

  18. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

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    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  19. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

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    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  20. Excitation and inhibition in anterior cingulate predict use of past experiences

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    Nelissen, Natalie; Stagg, Charlotte J

    2017-01-01

    Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) mediates updating and maintenance of cognitive models of the world used to drive adaptive reward-guided behavior. We investigated the neurochemical underpinnings of this process. We used magnetic resonance spectroscopy in humans, to measure levels of glutamate and GABA in dACC. We examined their relationship to neural signals in dACC, measured with fMRI, and cognitive task performance. Both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters in dACC were predictive of the strength of neural signals in dACC and behavioral adaptation. Glutamate levels were correlated, first, with stronger neural activity representing information to be learnt about the tasks’ costs and benefits and, second, greater use of this information in the guidance of behavior. GABA levels were negatively correlated with the same neural signals and the same indices of behavioral influence. Our results suggest that glutamate and GABA in dACC affect the encoding and use of past experiences to guide behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20365.001 PMID:28055824

  1. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arns, M.W.; Etkin, A.; Hegerl, U.; Williams, L.M.; DeBattista, C.; Palmer, D.M.; Fitzgerald, P.B.; Harris, A.; deBeuss, R.; Gordon, E.

    2015-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been link

  2. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Correlate With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Activity and Connectivity in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Du, Lian; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately before and then following 8 ECT sessions (brief-pulse square-wave apparatus, bitemporal). They also computed voxel-wise amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as a measure of regional brain activity and selected the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) to evaluate functional connectivity between the sgACC and other brain regions. Increased regional brain activity measured by ALFF mainly in the left sgACC following ECT. Functional connectivity of the left sgACC increased in the ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual ACC, contralateral middle temporal pole, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, reduction in depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with increased ALFF in the left sgACC and left hippocampus, and with distant functional connectivity between the left sgACC and contralateral middle temporal pole. That is, across subjects, as depression improved, regional brain activity in sgACC and its functional connectivity increased in the brain. Eight ECT sessions in MDD patients modulated activity in the sgACC and its networks. The antidepressant effects of ECT were negatively correlated with sgACC brain activity and connectivity. These findings suggest that sgACC-associated prefrontal-limbic structures are associated with the therapeutic effects of ECT in MDD. PMID:26559309

  3. Impact of the genome wide supported NRGN gene on anterior cingulate morphology in schizophrenia.

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    Kazutaka Ohi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rs12807809 single-nucleotide polymorphism in NRGN is a genetic risk variant with genome-wide significance for schizophrenia. The frequency of the T allele of rs12807809 is higher in individuals with schizophrenia than in those without the disorder. Reduced immunoreactivity of NRGN, which is expressed exclusively in the brain, has been observed in Brodmann areas (BA 9 and 32 of the prefrontal cortex in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia compared with those in controls. METHODS: Genotype effects of rs12807809 were investigated on gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with a voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique in a sample of 99 Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 263 healthy controls. RESULTS: Although significant genotype-diagnosis interaction either on GM or WM volume was not observed, there was a trend of genotype-diagnosis interaction on GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Thus, the effects of NRGN genotype on GM volume of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were separately investigated. In patients with schizophrenia, carriers of the risk T allele had a smaller GM volume in the left ACC (BA32 than did carriers of the non-risk C allele. Significant genotype effect on other regions of the GM or WM was not observed for either the patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the genome-wide associated genetic risk variant in the NRGN gene may be related to a small GM volume in the ACC in the left hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia.

  4. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice.

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    Víctor Rovira

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14-20 days, the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7 than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05, which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s. We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere, and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges.

  5. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice

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    Rovira, Víctor; Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade) generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14–20 days), the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7) than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05), which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s). We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere), and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges. PMID:26930051

  6. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Víctor; Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade) generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14-20 days), the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7) than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; ppropagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s). We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere), and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges.

  7. Reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume correlates with executive dysfunction in men with first-episode schizophrenia.

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    Szeszko, P R; Bilder, R M; Lencz, T; Ashtari, M; Goldman, R S; Reiter, G; Wu, H; Lieberman, J A

    2000-06-16

    Although frontal lobe structural and functional abnormalities have been identified in schizophrenia, their relationship remains elusive. Because the frontal lobes are both structurally and functionally heterogeneous, it is possible that some measures of frontal lobe structure may not have accurately identified relevant frontal lobe subregions. The authors hypothesized that the volumes of two dorsal, 'archicortical' subregions (i.e. superior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus), but not a ventral, 'paleocortical' subregion (i.e. orbital frontal region) would be significantly and selectively correlated with executive and motor dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia as previously reported for the anterior hippocampal region. Volumes of these frontal lobe subregions were measured from magnetic resonance images based on sulcal anatomy in 20 men and 15 women with first-episode schizophrenia. All patients completed a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery while clinically stabilized that encompassed six domains of functioning: attention, executive, motor, visuospatial, memory and language. Findings indicated that reduced anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly correlated with worse executive functioning in men; among women, there were no significant correlations. Among men, anterior cingulate gyrus volume was significantly more strongly correlated with executive functioning than with attention, visuospatial, memory, language and general intellectual functioning. Neither executive nor motor functioning was significantly more strongly correlated with the dorsal 'archicortical' volumes than with orbital frontal volume. These findings suggest a link between executive deficits and dysfunction of the dorsal 'archicortical' system and implicate sex differences in their relationship in first-episode schizophrenia.

  8. Posterior cingulated cortex functional connectivity in deficit schizophrenia: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of the network of resting brain functional connectivity related to posterior cingulated cortex(PCC)between deficit schizophrenia patients and normal control.Methods Thirty male patients of deficit schizophrenia,nondeficit schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were enrolled,and the age,education level and sex were matched between three

  9. The structural involvement of the cingulate cortex in premanifest and early Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Nicola Z; Pedrick, Amy V; Say, Miranda J; Frost, Chris; Dar Santos, Rachelle; Coleman, Allison; Sturrock, Aaron; Craufurd, David; Stout, Julie C; Leavitt, Blair R; Barnes, Josephine; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Scahill, Rachael I

    2011-08-01

    The impact of Huntington's disease neuropathology on the structure of the cingulate is uncertain, with evidence of both cortical enlargement and atrophy in this structure in early clinical disease. We sought to determine differences in cingulate volume between premanifest Huntington's disease and early Huntington's disease groups compared with controls using detailed manual measurements. Thirty controls, 30 subjects with premanifest Huntington's disease, and 30 subjects with early Huntington's disease were selected from the Vancouver site of the TRACK-HD study. Subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and motor, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric assessment. The cingulate was manually delineated and subdivided into rostral, caudal, and posterior segments. Group differences in volume and associations with performance on 4 tasks thought to utilize cingulate function were examined, with adjustment for appropriate covariates. Cingulate volumes were, on average, 1.7 mL smaller in early Huntington's disease (P=.001) and 0.9 mL smaller in premanifest Huntington's disease (P=.1) compared with controls. Smaller volumes in subsections of the cingulate were associated with impaired recognition of negative emotions (P=.04), heightened depression (P=.009), and worse visual working memory performance (P=.01). There was no evidence of associations between volume and ability on a performance-monitoring task. This study disputes previous findings of enlargement of the cingulate cortex in Huntington's disease and instead suggests that the cingulate undergoes structural degeneration during early Huntington's disease with directionally consistent, nonsignificant differences seen in premanifest Huntington's disease. Cingulate atrophy may contribute to deficits in mood, emotional processing, and visual working memory in Huntington's disease.

  10. Sleep debt elicits negative emotional reaction through diminished amygdala-anterior cingulate functional connectivity.

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    Yuki Motomura

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Sleep debt reportedly increases emotional instability, such as anxiety and confusion, in addition to sleepiness and psychomotor impairment. However, the neural basis of emotional instability due to sleep debt has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated changes in emotional responses that are elicited by the simulation of short-term sleep loss and the brain regions responsible for these changes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fourteen healthy adult men aged 24.1±3.3 years (range, 20-32 years participated in a within-subject crossover study consisting of 5-day sessions of both sleep debt (4 h for time in bed and sleep control (8 h for time in bed. On the last day of each session, participants underwent polysomnography and completed the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and Profile of Mood States questionnaires. In addition, functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted while performing an emotional face viewing task. RESULTS: Restricted sleep over the 5-day period increased the activity of the left amygdala in response to the facial expression of fear, whereas a happy facial expression did not change the activity. Restricted sleep also resulted in a significant decrease in the functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC in proportion to the degree of sleep debt (as indicated by the percentage of slow wave sleep and δ wave power. This decrease was significantly correlated with activation of the left amygdala and deterioration of subjective mood state. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that continuous and accumulating sleep debt that can be experienced in everyday life can downregulate the functional suppression of the amygdala by the vACC and consequently enhance the response of the amygdala to negative emotional stimuli. Such functional alteration in emotional control may, in part, be attributed to the neural basis of emotional instability during sleep debt.

  11. Fiction feelings in Harry Potter: haemodynamic response in the mid-cingulate cortex correlates with immersive reading experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-12-03

    Immersion in reading, described as a feeling of 'getting lost in a book', is a ubiquitous phenomenon widely appreciated by readers. However, it has been largely ignored in cognitive neuroscience. According to the fiction feeling hypothesis, narratives with emotional contents invite readers more to be empathic with the protagonists and thus engage the affective empathy network of the brain, the anterior insula and mid-cingulate cortex, than do stories with neutral contents. To test the hypothesis, we presented participants with text passages from the Harry Potter series in a functional MRI experiment and collected post-hoc immersion ratings, comparing the neural correlates of passage mean immersion ratings when reading fear-inducing versus neutral contents. Results for the conjunction contrast of baseline brain activity of reading irrespective of emotional content against baseline were in line with previous studies on text comprehension. In line with the fiction feeling hypothesis, immersion ratings were significantly higher for fear-inducing than for neutral passages, and activity in the mid-cingulate cortex correlated more strongly with immersion ratings of fear-inducing than of neutral passages. Descriptions of protagonists' pain or personal distress featured in the fear-inducing passages apparently caused increasing involvement of the core structure of pain and affective empathy the more readers immersed in the text. The predominant locus of effects in the mid-cingulate cortex seems to reflect that the immersive experience was particularly facilitated by the motor component of affective empathy for our stimuli from the Harry Potter series featuring particularly vivid descriptions of the behavioural aspects of emotion.

  12. Functions of the orbitofrontal and pregenual cingulate cortex in taste, olfaction, appetite and emotion.

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    Rolls, E T

    2008-06-01

    Complementary neurophysiological recordings in macaques and functional neuroimaging in humans show that the primary taste cortex in the rostral insula and adjoining frontal operculum provides separate and combined representations of the taste, temperature, and texture (including viscosity and fat texture) of food in the mouth independently of hunger and thus of reward value and pleasantness. One synapse on, in the orbitofrontal cortex, these sensory inputs are for some neurons combined by learning with olfactory and visual inputs. Different neurons respond to different combinations, providing a rich representation of the sensory properties of food. The representation of taste and other food-related stimuli in the orbitofrontal cortex of macaques is found from its lateral border throughout area 13 to within 7 mm of the midline, and in humans the representation of food-related and other pleasant stimuli is found particularly in the medial orbitofrontal cortex. In the orbitofrontal cortex, feeding to satiety with one food decreases the responses of these neurons to that food, but not to other foods, showing that sensory-specific satiety is computed in the primate (including human) orbitofrontal cortex. Consistently, activation of parts of the human orbitofrontal cortex correlates with subjective ratings of the pleasantness of the taste and smell of food. Cognitive factors, such as a word label presented with an odour, influence the pleasantness of the odour, and the activation produced by the odour in the orbitofrontal cortex. Food intake is thus controlled by building a multimodal representation of the sensory properties of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and gating this representation by satiety signals to produce a representation of the pleasantness or reward value of food which drives food intake. A neuronal representation of taste is also found in the pregenual cingulate cortex, which receives inputs from the orbitofrontal cortex, and in humans many pleasant

  13. Transient alcohol craving suppression by rTMS of dorsal anterior cingulate: an fMRI and LORETA EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Kovacs, Silvia; Sunaert, Stefan; Dom, Geert

    2011-05-27

    It has recently become clear that alcohol addiction might be related to a brain dysfunction, in which a genetic background and environmental factors shape brain mechanisms involved with alcohol consumption. Craving, a major component determining relapses in alcohol abuse has been linked to abnormal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and amygdala. We report the results of a patient who underwent rTMS targeting the dACC using a double cone coil in an attempt to suppress very severe intractable alcohol craving. Functional imaging studies consisting of fMRI and resting state EEG were performed before rTMS, after successful rTMS and after unsuccessful rTMS with relapse. Craving was associated with EEG beta activity and connectivity between the dACC and PCC in the patient in comparison to a healthy population, which disappeared after successful rTMS. Cue induced worsening of craving pre-rTMS activated the ACC-vmPFC and PCC on fMRI, as well as the nucleus accumbens area, and lateral frontoparietal areas. The nucleus accumbens, ACC-vmPFC and PCC activation disappeared on fMRI following successful rTMS. Relapse was associated with recurrence of ACC and PCC EEG activity, but in gamma band, in comparison to a healthy population. On fMRI nucleus accumbens, ACC and PCC activation returned to the initial activation pattern. A pathophysiological approach is described to suppress alcohol craving temporarily by rTMS directed at the anterior cingulate. Linking functional imaging changes to craving intensity suggests this approach warrants further exploration.

  14. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?

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    Mawrin Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been described. Methods Microglial immunoreactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC of 12 acutely depressed suicidal patients (major depressive disorder/MDD, n = 7; bipolar disorder/BD, n = 5 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with its expression in 10 healthy control subjects. Results Depressed patients had a significantly increased density of QUIN-positive cells in the sACC (P = 0.003 and the aMCC (P = 0.015 compared to controls. In contrast, counts of QUIN-positive cells in the pACC did not differ between the groups (P = 0.558. Post-hoc tests showed that significant findings were attributed to MDD and were absent in BD. Conclusions These results add a novel link to the immune hypothesis of depression by providing evidence for an upregulation of microglial QUIN in brain regions known to be responsive to infusion of NMDA antagonists such as ketamine. Further work in this area could lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and pave the way for novel NMDA receptor therapies or immune-modulating strategies.

  15. Abnormalities of cingulate cortex in antipsychotic-naïve chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Xijin; Lai, Yunyao; Hao, Chuanxi; Chen, Lei; Zhou, Zhenyu; Yu, Xin; Hong, Nan

    2016-05-01

    While several morphometric studies have postulated a critical contribution of the cingulate cortex (CC) to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia based on abnormalities in CC volume, other studies have been inconclusive. Most such studies have focused only on changes in cortical volume, whereas other morphometric parameters such as surface area and cortical thickness could be more relevant and possibly account for these discrepancies. Furthermore, factors such as antipsychotic drug use and treatment duration may also influence cortical morphology. To clarify the association between schizophrenia and CC deficits, we investigated morphometric abnormalities of the CC in antipsychotic drug (AD)-naïve chronic schizophrenia patients by comparing T1-weighted magnetic resonance images (T1WI-MRI) from patients (n=17) to healthy controls (n=17) using the surface-based morphometry program FreeSurfer. Partial correlations were examined between abnormal morphometric measures and both clinical variables and cognitive performance scores. Compared to healthy controls, drug-naïve schizophrenia patients exhibited significantly lower volumes in both left rostral anterior CC (rACC) and left posterior CC (PCC). These reductions in CC volume resulted from reduced surface area rather than reduced cortical thickness. There was also a significant relationship between left PCC volume and working memory in patients. No significant correlations were observed between CC volume and clinical variables. The results suggest that abnormalities in the CC as manifested by reduced surface area may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: PSC and the brain.

  16. PARCELLATION OF THE CINGULATE CORTEX AT REST AND DURING TASKS: A META-ANALYTIC CLUSTERING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

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    Diana M.E. Torta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical, morphological and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.

  17. 认知行为治疗对首次发病轻中度抑郁症患者膝下前扣带回功能连接的影响%The effect of cognitive behavior therapy on functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulated cortex in first-episode treatment-na(i)ve mild to moderate patients with major depressive disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕昌军; 王纯; 张宁; 马辉; 谭雅容; 肖朝勇; 高帅; 李鸿磊; 张文瑄

    2016-01-01

    目的 通过静息态功能连接探讨认知行为治疗(cognitive behavior therapy,CBT)早期对首次发病轻中度抑郁症患者膝下前扣带回(subgenual anterior cingulated cortex,sgACC)功能连接的影响,初步探讨CBT对抑郁症患者的神经作用机制.方法 对18例首次发病未服药轻中度抑郁症患者(抑郁症组)及相匹配的20名健康对照者(对照组)进行静息态功能磁共振扫描.抑郁症组接受6周CBT后进行第2次扫描.采用DPARSF和REST软件以sgACC为种子点进行基于感兴趣区的全脑功能连接分析并比较差异.结果 治疗前,抑郁症组sgACC与左侧额上回(t=-5.50)、左侧额中回(t=-3.78)、左侧角回(t=-3.38)功能连接低于对照组(均P<0.05).治疗后,抑郁症组sgACC与右侧额下回(蒙特利尔神经科学研究所坐标:x=42,y=33,z=6;t=3.61)、右侧小脑(蒙特利尔神经科学研究所坐标:x=36,y=-42,z=-48;t=4.08)功能连接较对照组增高(均P<0.05),与右侧额上回(t=-4.02)、左侧额上回(t=-3.67)、左侧内侧额上回(t=-4.38)、右侧楔前叶(t=-4.59)、左侧角回(t=-4.71)功能连接低于对照组(均P<0.05).治疗后,抑郁症组sgACC与左侧额下回(t=6.22)、右侧额下回(t=4.66)、左侧颞中回(t=4.76)、右侧颞中回(t=4.43)、左侧颞下回(t=5.33)、右侧缘上回(t=5.51)、左侧中央前回(t=4.68)和右侧小脑(t=3.88)功能连接较治疗前增加(均P<0.05).结论 CBT早期可能通过直接调节sgACC与额下回、默认网络内节点的功能连接而改善抑郁症患者反应抑制功能、降低自我参照性加工和反刍.%Objective To explore the neurobiological mechanism of cognitive behavior therapy(CBT) by detecting alterations of resting state functional connectivitiy of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) of CBT for first episode patients with mild to moderate depression.Methods Resting state fMRI data were collected from 18 first-episode treatment na(i)ve patients who suffered from major

  18. Resting State Functional Connectivity within the Cingulate Cortex Jointly Predicts Agreeableness and Stressor-Evoked Cardiovascular Reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, John P.; Sheu, Lei K.; Peter J Gianaros

    2010-01-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to stress confers risk for cardiovascular disease. Further, individual differences in stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity covary with the functionality of cortical and limbic brain areas, particularly within the cingulate cortex. What remains unclear, however, is how individual differences in personality traits interact with cingulate functionality in the prediction of stressor-evoked cardiovascular reactivity. Accordingly, we tested the association...

  19. Identification by [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario [National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome and Padua (Italy); Salvatore, Elena; Amboni, Marianna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [{sup 99m}Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  20. Abnormal Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate and Executive Functioning in Treatment-Resistant Depression After rTMS Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Fujun; Guo, Guangquan; Quan, Dongming; Li, Gang; Wu, Huawang; Zhang, Bin; Fan, Changhe; He, Xiajun; Huang, Huiyan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a key feature of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and can be related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an antidepressant intervention has increasingly been investigated in the last two decades. However, no studies to date have investigated the association between neurobiochemical changes within the anterior cingulate and executive dysfunction measured in TRD being treated with rTMS. Methods: Thirty-two young depressed patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study [active (n=18) vs. sham (n=14)]. ACC metabolism was investigated before and after high-frequency (15Hz) rTMS using 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The results were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Executive functioning was measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) among 34 subjects with TRD and 28 healthy subjects. Results: Significant reductions in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing Compound levels in the left ACC were found in subjects with TRD pre-rTMS when compared with healthy controls. After successful treatment, NAA levels increased significantly in the left ACC of subjects and were not different from those of age-matched controls. In the WCST, more perseverative errors and fewer correct numbers were observed in TRD subjects at baseline. Improvements in both perseverative errors and correct numbers occurred after active rTMS. In addition, improvement of perseverative errors was positively correlated with enhancement of NAA levels in the left ACC in the active rTMS group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the NAA concentration in the left ACC is associated with an improvement in cognitive functioning among subjects with TRD response to active rTMS. PMID:26025780

  1. [Facilitation of the retention and acceleration of operant conditioning extinction after cingulate cortex lesions in BALB/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, C; Gauthier, M

    1981-12-21

    One week after receiving bilateral electrolytic lesions of the cingulate cortex, BALB/c Mice underwent acquisition, retention and extinction of an appetitive operant-conditioning task in a Skinner box. There was no significant difference between lesioned and control animals in acquisition; however, lesioned mice exhibited improved retention and faster extinction. These results suggest a possible involvement of the cingulate cortex in memory processes.

  2. Cigarette smoking leads to persistent and dose-dependent alterations of brain activity and connectivity in anterior insula and anterior cingulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Brody, Arthur L; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Kopel, Rotem; Emmert, Kirsten; Preti, Maria Giulia; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Haller, Sven

    2015-11-01

    Although many smokers try to quit smoking, only about 20-25 percent will achieve abstinence despite 6 months or more of gold-standard treatment. This low success rate suggests long-term changes in the brain related to smoking, which remain poorly understood. We compared ex-smokers to both active smokers and non-smokers using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore persistent modifications in brain activity and network organization. This prospective and consecutive study includes 18 non-smokers (29.5 ± 6.7 years of age, 11 women), 14 smokers (≥10 cigarettes a day >2 years of smoking, 29.3 ± 6.0 years of age, 10 women) and 14 ex-smokers (>1 year of quitting 30.5 ± 5.7 years of age, 10 women). Participants underwent a block-design fMRI study contrasting smoking cue with control (neutral cue) videos. Data analyses included task-related general linear model, seed-based functional connectivity, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of gray matter and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) of white matter. Smoking cue videos versus control videos activated the right anterior insula in ex-smokers compared with smokers, an effect correlating with cumulative nicotine intake (pack-years). Moreover, ex-smokers had a persistent decrease in functional connectivity between right anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compared with control participants, but similar to active smokers. Potentially confounding alterations in gray or white matter were excluded in VBM and TBSS analyses. In summary, ex-smokers with long-term nicotine abstinence have persistent and dose-dependent brain network changes notably in the right anterior insula and its connection to the ACC.

  3. Anterior cingulate hyperactivations during negative emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violent behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikàsz A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andràs Tikàsz,1,2 Stéphane Potvin,1,2 Ovidiu Lungu,2–4 Christian C Joyal,5,6 Sheilagh Hodgins,2,5 Adrianna Mendrek,1,7 Alexandre Dumais1,2,5 1Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, 3Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, 4Centre for Research in Aging, Donald Berman Maimonides Geriatric Centre, 5Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal, 6Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 7Department of Psychology, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Background: Evidence suggests a 2.1–4.6 times increase in the risk of violent behavior in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Current theories propose that the processing of negative emotions is defective in violent individuals and that dysfunctions within the neural circuits involved in emotion processing are implicated in violence. Although schizophrenia patients show enhanced sensitivity to negative stimuli, there are only few functional neuroimaging studies that have examined emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violence. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the brain regions with greater neurofunctional alterations, as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion processing task, of men with schizophrenia who had engaged in violent behavior compared with those who had not. Methods: Sixty men were studied; 20 with schizophrenia and a history of violence, 19 with schizophrenia and no violence, and 21 healthy men were scanned while viewing positive, negative, and neutral images. Results: Negative images elicited hyperactivations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, left and right lingual gyrus, and the left precentral gyrus in violent men with schizophrenia, compared to nonviolent men with schizophrenia and healthy men. Neutral images elicited

  4. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  5. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  6. Reduced Error-Related Activation in Two Anterior Cingulate Circuits Is Related to Impaired Performance in Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Frida E.; Barton, Jason J. S.; Thakkar, Katharine N.; Greve, Douglas N.; Goff, Donald C.; Rauch, Scott L.; Manoach, Dara S.

    2008-01-01

    To perform well on any challenging task, it is necessary to evaluate your performance so that you can learn from errors. Recent theoretical and experimental work suggests that the neural sequellae of error commission in a dorsal anterior cingulate circuit index a type of contingency- or reinforcement-based learning, while activation in a rostral…

  7. Impaired cognitive control and reduced cingulate activity during mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, MM; Boksem, MAS; Ridderinkhof, KR

    2005-01-01

    Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying the effects of mental fatigue are poorly understood. Here, we examined whether error-related brain activity, indexing performance monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and strategic behavioural adjustments were modulated by mental fatigue, as induced

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals thalamus and posterior cingulate cortex abnormalities in internet gaming addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guangheng; DeVito, Elise; Huang, Jie; Du, Xiaoxia

    2012-09-01

    Internet gaming addiction (IGA) is increasingly recognized as a widespread disorder with serious psychological and health consequences. Diminished white matter integrity has been demonstrated in a wide range of other addictive disorders which share clinical characteristics with IGA. Abnormal white matter integrity in addictive populations has been associated with addiction severity, treatment response and cognitive impairments. This study assessed white matter integrity in individuals with internet gaming addiction (IGA) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). IGA subjects (N = 16) showed higher fractional anisotropy (FA), indicating greater white matter integrity, in the thalamus and left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) relative to healthy controls (N = 15). Higher FA in the thalamus was associated with greater severity of internet addiction. Increased regional FA in individuals with internet gaming addiction may be a pre-existing vulnerability factor for IGA, or may arise secondary to IGA, perhaps as a direct result of excessive internet game playing.

  9. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and 18F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer

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    Matthieu Bailly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, using FreeSurfer. Methods. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC were included. MRI and PET images using 18F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr was measured. Results. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p<0.05; mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of 18F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker.

  10. Cross-modal sensory processing in the anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurienti, Paul J; Wallace, Mark T; Maldjian, Joseph A; Susi, Christina M; Stein, Barry E; Burdette, Jonathan H

    2003-08-01

    One of the principal functions of the nervous system is to synthesize information from multiple sensory channels into a coherent behavioral and perceptual gestalt. A critical feature of this multisensory synthesis is the sorting and coupling of information derived from the same event. One of the singular features of stimuli conveying such information is their contextual or semantic congruence. Illustrating this fact, subjects are typically faster and more accurate when performing tasks that include congruent compared to incongruent cross-modal stimuli. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we demonstrate that activity in select brain areas is sensitive to the contextual congruence among cross-modal cues and to task difficulty. The anterior cingulate gyrus and adjacent medial prefrontal cortices showed significantly greater activity when visual and auditory stimuli were contextually congruent (i.e., matching) than when they were nonmatching. Although activity in these regions was also dependent on task difficulty, showing decreased activity with decreasing task difficulty, the activity changes associated with stimulus congruence predominated.

  11. Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Omura, Kazufumi; Constable, R Todd; Canli, Turhan

    2007-04-01

    The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (AC) have been associated with anxiety and mood disorders, for which trait neuroticism is a risk factor. Prior work has not related individual differences in amygdala or subgenual AC activation with neuroticism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate changes in blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and subgenual AC associated with trait neuroticism in a nonclinical sample of 36 volunteers during an emotional conflict task. Neuroticism correlated positively with amygdala and subgenual AC activation during trials of high emotional conflict, compared with trials of low emotional conflict. The subscale of neuroticism that reflected the anxious form of neuroticism (N1) explained a greater proportion of variance within the observed clusters than the subscale of neuroticism that reflected the depressive form of neuroticism (N3). Using a task that is sensitive to individual differences in the detection of emotional conflict, the authors have provided a neural correlate of the link between neuroticism and anxiety and mood disorders. This effect was driven to a greater extent by the anxious relative to the depressive characteristics of neuroticism and may constitute vulnerability markers for anxiety-related disorders.

  12. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigmyle, Nancy A

    2013-01-01

    During functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during "awareness of mind wandering," "shifting," and "sustained attention." The anterior cingulate (AC) is activated during "awareness of mind wandering." The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the central locus coeruleus (LC) norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE) and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine and activates the LC, increasing C-NE. Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set-shifting, and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS, and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  13. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  14. Effortless awareness: using real time neurofeedback to investigate correlates of posterior cingulate cortex activity in meditators’ self-report.

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    Kathleen eGarrison

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurophenomenological studies seek to utilize first-person self-report to elucidate cognitive processes related to physiological data. Grounded theory offers an approach to the qualitative analysis of self-report, whereby theoretical constructs are derived from empirical data. Here we used grounded theory methodology to assess how the first-person experience of meditation relates to neural activity in a core region of the default mode network –the posterior cingulate cortex. We analyzed first-person data consisting of meditators’ accounts of their subjective experience during runs of a real-time fMRI neurofeedback study of meditation, and third-person data consisting of corresponding feedback graphs of posterior cingulate cortex activity during the same runs. We found that for meditators, the subjective experiences of ‘undistracted awareness’ such as ‘concentration’ and ‘observing sensory experience’, and ‘effortless doing’ such as ‘observing sensory experience’, ‘not efforting’, and ‘contentment’, correspond with posterior cingulate cortex deactivation. Further, the subjective experiences of ‘distracted awareness’ such as ‘distraction’ and ‘interpreting’, and ‘controlling’ such as ‘efforting’ and ‘discontentment’, correspond with posterior cingulate cortex activation. Moreover, we derived several novel hypotheses about how specific qualities of cognitive processes during meditation relate to posterior cingulate cortex activity, such as the difference between meditation and ‘trying to meditate’. These findings offer novel insights into the relationship between meditation and self-related thinking and neural activity in the default mode network, driven by the first-person experience.

  15. Effects of serotonin depletion on punishment processing in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices of healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmbold, K; Zvyagintsev, M; Dahmen, B; Bubenzer-Busch, S; Gaber, T J; Crockett, M J; Klasen, M; Sánchez, C L; Eisert, A; Konrad, K; Habel, U; Herpertz-Dahlmann, B; Zepf, F D

    2015-06-01

    Diminished synthesis of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) has been linked to disrupted impulse control in aversive contexts. However, the neural correlates underlying a serotonergic modulation of female impulsivity remain unclear. The present study investigated punishment-induced inhibition in healthy young women. Eighteen healthy female subjects (aged 20-31) participated in a double-blinded, counterbalanced, placebo-controlled, within subjects, repeated measures study. They were assessed on two randomly assigned occasions that were controlled for menstrual cycle phase. In a randomized order, one day, acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) was used to reduce 5-HT synthesis in the brain. On the other day, participants received a tryptophan-balanced amino acid load (BAL) as a control condition. Three hours after administration of ATD/BAL, neural activity was recorded during a modified Go/No-Go task implementing reward or punishment processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neural activation during No-Go trials in punishment conditions after BAL versus ATD administration correlated positively with the magnitude of central 5-HT depletion in the ventral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). Furthermore, neural activation in the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and the dorsal ACC correlated positively with trait impulsivity. The results indicate reduced neural sensitivity to punishment after short-term depletion of 5-HT in brain areas related to emotion regulation (subgenual ACC) increasing with depletion magnitude and in brain areas related to appraisal and expression of emotions (mOFC and dorsal ACC), increasing with trait impulsivity. This suggests a serotonergic modulation of neural circuits related to emotion regulation, impulsive behavior, and punishment processing in females.

  16. Inactivation of the anterior cingulate reveals enhanced reliance on cortical networks for remote spatial memory retrieval after sequential memory processing.

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    Brianne C Wartman

    Full Text Available One system consolidation model suggests that as time passes, ensembles of cortical neurons form strong connections to represent remote memories. In this model, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC serves as a cortical region that represents remote memories. However, there is debate as to whether remote spatial memories go through this systems consolidation process and come to rely on the ACC. The present experiment examined whether increasing the processing demand on the hippocampus, by sequential training on two spatial tasks, would more fully engage the ACC during retrieval of a remote spatial memory. In this scenario, inactivation of the ACC at a remote time point was hypothesized to produce a severe memory deficit if rats had been trained on two, sequential spatial tasks. Rats were trained on a water maze (WM task only or a WM task followed by a radial arm maze task. A WM probe test was given recently or remotely to all rats. Prior to the probe test, rats received an injection of saline or muscimol into the ACC. A subtle deficit in probe performance was found at the remote time point in the group trained on only one spatial task and treated with muscimol. In the group trained on two spatial tasks and treated with muscimol, a subtle deficit in probe performance was noted at the recent time point and a substantial deficit in probe performance was observed at the remote time point. c-Fos labeling in the hippocampus revealed more labeling in the CA1 region in all remotely tested groups than recently tested groups. Findings suggest that spatial remote memories come to rely more fully on the ACC when hippocampal processing requirements are increased. Results also suggest continued involvement of the hippocampus in spatial memory retrieval along with a progressive strengthening of cortical connections as time progresses.

  17. Inactivation of the anterior cingulate reveals enhanced reliance on cortical networks for remote spatial memory retrieval after sequential memory processing.

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    Wartman, Brianne C; Gabel, Jennifer; Holahan, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    One system consolidation model suggests that as time passes, ensembles of cortical neurons form strong connections to represent remote memories. In this model, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) serves as a cortical region that represents remote memories. However, there is debate as to whether remote spatial memories go through this systems consolidation process and come to rely on the ACC. The present experiment examined whether increasing the processing demand on the hippocampus, by sequential training on two spatial tasks, would more fully engage the ACC during retrieval of a remote spatial memory. In this scenario, inactivation of the ACC at a remote time point was hypothesized to produce a severe memory deficit if rats had been trained on two, sequential spatial tasks. Rats were trained on a water maze (WM) task only or a WM task followed by a radial arm maze task. A WM probe test was given recently or remotely to all rats. Prior to the probe test, rats received an injection of saline or muscimol into the ACC. A subtle deficit in probe performance was found at the remote time point in the group trained on only one spatial task and treated with muscimol. In the group trained on two spatial tasks and treated with muscimol, a subtle deficit in probe performance was noted at the recent time point and a substantial deficit in probe performance was observed at the remote time point. c-Fos labeling in the hippocampus revealed more labeling in the CA1 region in all remotely tested groups than recently tested groups. Findings suggest that spatial remote memories come to rely more fully on the ACC when hippocampal processing requirements are increased. Results also suggest continued involvement of the hippocampus in spatial memory retrieval along with a progressive strengthening of cortical connections as time progresses.

  18. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutfi Incesu; Meral Baydin; Kerim Aslan; Baris Diren; Huseyin Sahin; Omer Boke; Senol Dane

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits the assessment of cerebral neurometabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, in vivo and has been used to study schizophrenia. The present study used 1H-MRS to compare the spectroscopy change of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus of both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, as well as between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the schizophrenia patients. Results showed that N-acetylaspartate and creatine metabolite levels in the left anterior cingulate gyrus were significantly lower in the schizophrenia patients than in the healthy controls, indicating hypometabolism. In addition, choline concentration in the left caudate nucleus of schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than in the right caudate nucleus, indicating that it is necessary to study the cerebral lateralization of 1H-MRS in schizophrenia patients.

  19. Self-esteem modulates dorsal anterior cingulate cortical response in self-referential processing.

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    Yang, Juan; Dedovic, Katarina; Chen, Weihai; Zhang, Qinglin

    2012-06-01

    Self-esteem can be defined as evaluations that individuals make about their worth as human beings. These evaluations are in part based on how we evaluate ourselves on our abilities, values, opinions, etc. compared with others or our past or ideal self; and they are also influenced by a thought that what others may think about us. Studies to date investigating the neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in self-esteem have focused mostly on the latter process (i.e. on how self-esteem is associated with neural correlates of processing feedback from others). However, given that people spend a lot of time thinking about themselves and evaluating their worth, we aimed to investigate neural mechanism underlying the association between levels of self-esteem and processing of self-relevant information. Seventeen participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan during which they were asked to evaluate whether a given statement is true about them (Self), an acquaintance of theirs (Other), or about general knowledge (Semantic). A whole brain correlational analysis revealed a significant negative correlation between levels of self-esteem and changes in activation of dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC, BA32) in response to evaluating self-relevant information (Self versus Other contrast). This result extends previous findings implicating this region in the association between processing evaluative feedback and levels of self-esteem and suggests that activity in this region is affected by self-esteem levels also when individuals are engaged in self-referencing and self-evaluation. Future studies should investigate whether these associations are affected differently based on valence of self-evaluations.

  20. What about the self is processed in the posterior cingulate cortex?

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    Judson eBrewer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade, neuroimaging research has begun to identify key brain regions involved in self-referential processing, most consistently midline structures such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The majority of studies have employed cognitive tasks such as judgment about trait adjectives or mind-wandering, that have been associated with increased PCC activity. Conversely, tasks that share an element of present centered attention (being on task, ranging from working memory to meditation, have been associated with decreased PCC activity. Given the complexity of cognitive processes that likely contribute to these tasks, the specific contribution of the PCC to self-related processes still remains unknown. Building on this prior literature, recent studies have employed sampling methods that more precisely link subjective experience to brain activity, such as real-time fMRI neurofeedback. This recent work suggests that PCC activity may represent a sub-component cognitive process of self-reference – getting caught up in one’s experience. For example, getting caught up in a drug craving or a particular viewpoint. In this paper, we will review evidence across a number of different domains of cognitive neuroscience that converges in activation and deactivation of the PCC including recent neurophenomenological studies of PCC activity using real-time fMRI neurofeedback.

  1. Pregnancy and maternal behavior induce changes in glia, glutamate and its metabolism within the cingulate cortex.

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    Natalina Salmaso

    Full Text Available An upregulation of the astrocytic proteins GFAP and bFGF within area 2 of the cingulate cortex (Cg2 occurs within 3 hours of parturition in rats. These changes are the result of an interaction between hormonal state and maternal experience and are associated with increased dendritic spine density in this area. Here, we examined whether this upregulation of astrocytic proteins generalized to other glial markers and, in particular those associated with glutamate metabolism. We chose glial markers commonly used to reflect different aspects of glial function: vimentin, like GFAP, is a marker of intermediate filaments; glutamine synthetase (GS, and S-100beta, are used as markers for mature astrocytes and GS has also been used as a specific marker for glutamatergic enzymatic activity. In addition, we examined levels of proteins associated with glutamine synthetase, glutamate, glutamine and two excitatory amino acid transporters found in astrocytes, glt-1 and glast. S100beta immunoreactivity did not vary with reproductive state in either Cg2 or MPOA suggesting no change in the number of mature astrocytes across these conditions. Vimentin-ir did not differ across groups in Cg2, but expression of this protein decreased from Day 1 postpartum onwards in the MPOA. By contrast, GS-ir was increased within 24 h postpartum in Cg2 but not MPOA and similarly to GFAP and bFGF this upregulation of GS resulted from an interaction between hormonal state and maternal experience. Within Cg2, upregulation of GS was not accompanied by changes in the astrocytic glutamatergic transporters, glt-1 and glast, however, an increase in both glutamate and glutamine proteins were observed within the Cg2 of postpartum animals. Together, these changes suggest postpartum upregulation of glutamatergic activity and metabolism within Cg2 that is stimulated by pregnancy hormones and maternal experience.

  2. Scene construction impairments in Alzheimer's disease - A unique role for the posterior cingulate cortex.

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    Irish, Muireann; Halena, Stephanie; Kamminga, Jody; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John R

    2015-12-01

    Episodic memory dysfunction represents one of the most prominent and characteristic clinical features of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), attributable to the degeneration of medial temporal and posterior parietal regions of the brain. Recent studies have demonstrated marked impairments in the ability to envisage personally relevant events in the future in AD. It remains unclear, however, whether AD patients can imagine fictitious scenes free from temporal constraints, a process that is proposed to rely fundamentally upon the integrity of the hippocampus. The objective of the present study was to investigate the capacity for atemporal scene construction, and its associated neural substrates, in AD. Fourteen AD patients were tested on the scene construction task and their performance was contrasted with 14 age- and education-matched healthy older Control participants. Scene construction performance was strikingly compromised in the AD group, with significant impairments evident for provision of contextual details, spatial coherence, and the overall richness of the imagined experience. Voxel-based morphometry analyses based on structural MRI revealed significant associations between scene construction capacity and atrophy in posterior parietal and lateral temporal brain structures in AD. In contrast, scene construction performance in Controls was related to integrity of frontal, parietal, and medial temporal structures, including the parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus. The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) emerged as the common region implicated for scene construction performance across participant groups. Our study highlights the importance of regions specialised for spatial and contextual processing for the construction of atemporal scenes. Damage to these regions in AD compromises the ability to construct novel scenes, leading to the recapitulation of content from previously experienced events.

  3. Metabolic changes in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices of the normal aging brain: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 3 T.

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    Chiu, Pui-Wai; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Yau, Kelvin Kai-Wing; Chan, Queenie; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Chu, Leung-Wing

    2014-02-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can explore aging at a molecular level. In this study, we investigated the relationships between regional concentrations of metabolites (such as choline, creatine, myo-inositol, and N-acetyl-aspartate) and normal aging in 30 cognitively normal subjects (15 women and 15 men, age range 22-82, mean = 49.9 ± 18.3 years) using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All MR scans were performed using a 3 T scanner. Point resolved spectroscopy was used as the volume selection method for the region-of-interest and the excitation method for water suppression. Single voxel spectroscopy with short echo time of 39 ms and repetition time of 2,000 ms was employed. Single voxels were placed in the limbic regions, i.e., anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and left and right hippocampi. Cerebrospinal fluid normalization and T1 and T2 correction factors were implemented in the calculation of absolute metabolite concentrations. A standardized T1W 3D volumetric fast field echo and axial T2-weighted fast spin-echo images were also acquired. Our results showed significant positive correlation of choline (r = 0.545, p = 0.002), creatine (r = 0.571, p = 0.001), and N-acetyl-aspartate (r = 0.674, p age. No significant gender effect on metabolite concentrations was found. In aging, increases in choline and creatine might suggest glial proliferation, and an increase in N-acetyl-aspartate might indicate neuronal hypertrophy. Such findings highlight the metabolic changes of ACC and PCC with age, which could be compensatory to an increased energy demand coupled with a lower cerebral blood flow.

  4. Abnormal function of the posterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicted users during resting-state and drug-cue stimulation task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; YANG Wei-chuan; WANG Ya-rong; HUANG Yu-fang; LI Wei; ZHU Jia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that brain function in heroin addicted users is impaired.However,the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has not received much attention.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic heroin use is associated with craving-related changes in the functional connectivity of the PCC of heroin addicted users.Methods Fourteen male adult chronic heroin users and fifteen age and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the present study.The participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and a cue-induced craving task fMRI scan.The activated PCC was identified in the cue-induced craving task by means of a group contrast test.Functional connectivity was analyzed based on resting-state fMRI data in order to determine the correlation between brain regions.The relationship between the connectivity of specific regions and heroin dependence was investigated.Results The activation of PCC,bilateral anterior cingulate cortex,caudate,putamen,precuneus,and thalamus was significant in the heroin group compared to the healthy group in the cue-induced craving task.The detectable functional connectivity of the heroin users was stronger between the PCC and bilateral insula,bilateral dorsal striatum,right inferior parietal Iobule (IPL) and right supramarginal gyrus (P<0.001) compared to that of the healthy subjects in the resting-state data analysis.The strength of the functional connectivity,both for the PCC-insula (r=0.60,P <0.05) and for PCC-striatum (r=0.58,P<0.05),was positively correlated with the duration of heroin use.Conclusion The altered functional connectivity patterns in the PCC-insula and PCC-striatum areas may be regarded as biomarkers of brain damage severity in chronic heroin users.

  5. A ‘complex’ of brain metabolites distinguish altered chemistry in the cingulate cortex of episodic migraine patients

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    L. Becerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of migraine, the pathophysiology of the disease remains unclear. Current understanding of migraine has alluded to the possibility of a hyperexcitable brain. The aim of the current study is to investigate human brain metabolite differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during the interictal phase in migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory neurotransmitters and/or their derivatives in the migraine cohort in support of the theory of hyperexcitability in migraine. 2D J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS data were acquired on a 3 Tesla (3 T MRI from a voxel placed over the ACC of 32 migraine patients (MP; 23 females, 9 males, age 33 ± 9.6 years and 33 healthy controls (HC; 25 females, 8 males, age 32 ± 9.6 years. Amplitude correlation matrices were constructed for each subject to evaluate metabolite discriminability. ProFit-estimated metabolite peak areas were normalized to a water reference signal to assess subject differences. The initial analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to test for group differences for all metabolites/creatine (Cre ratios between healthy controls and migraineurs but showed no statistically significant differences. In addition, we used a multivariate approach to distinguish migraineurs from healthy subjects based on the metabolite/Cre ratio. A quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA model was used to identify 3 metabolite ratios sufficient to minimize minimum classification error (MCE. The 3 selected metabolite ratios were aspartate (Asp/Cre, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA/Cre, and glutamine (Gln/Cre. These findings are in support of a ‘complex’ of metabolite alterations, which may underlie changes in neuronal chemistry in the migraine brain. Furthermore, the parallel changes in the three-metabolite ‘complex’ may confer more subtle but biological processes that are ongoing. The data also support the current theory

  6. NK-3 receptor activation depolarizes and induces an after-depolarization in pyramidal neurons in gerbil cingulate cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, Jens C

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of tachykinins in cortical function is poorly understood. To study the actions of neurokinin-3 (NK3) receptor activation in frontal cortex, whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed from pyramidal neurons in slices of cingulate cortex from juvenile gerbils. Senktide (500n......M), a selective NK3 receptor agonist, induced a transient increase in spontaneous EPSPs in layer V pyramidal neurons, accompanied by a small depolarization ( approximately 4 mV). EPSPs during senktide had a larger amplitude and faster 10-90% rise time than during control. Senktide induced a transient...... depolarization in layer II/III pyramidal neurons, which often reached threshold for spikes. The depolarization ( approximately 6 mV) persisted in TTX, and was accompanied by an increase in input resistance. Senktide also transiently induced a slow after-depolarization, which appeared following a depolarizing...

  7. Abulia following penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery with disruption of the anterior cingulate circuit: Case report

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    Login Ivan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common knowledge that the frontal lobes mediate complex human behavior and that damage to these regions can cause executive dysfunction, apathy, disinhibition and personality changes. However, it is less well known that subcortical structures such as the caudate and thalamus are part of functionally segregated fronto-subcortical circuits, that can also alter behavior after injury. Case presentation We present a 57 year old woman who suffered penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery causing right basal ganglia injury which resulted in an abulic syndrome. Conclusion Abulia does not result solely from cortical injury but can occur after disruption anywhere in the anterior cingulate circuit – in the case of our patient, most prominently at the right caudate.

  8. Asymmetry of the endogenous opioid system in the human anterior cingulate: a putative molecular basis for lateralization of emotions and pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Fitting, Sylvia; Hussain, Muhammad Z; Kononenko, Olga; Iatsyshyna, Anna; Yoshitake, Takashi; Kehr, Jan; Alkass, Kanar; Druid, Henrik; Wadensten, Henrik; Andren, Per E; Nylander, Ingrid; Wedell, Douglas H; Krishtal, Oleg; Hauser, Kurt F; Nyberg, Fred; Karpyak, Victor M; Yakovleva, Tatjana; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2015-01-01

    Lateralization of the processing of positive and negative emotions and pain suggests an asymmetric distribution of the neurotransmitter systems regulating these functions between the left and right brain hemispheres. By virtue of their ability to selectively mediate euphoria, dysphoria, and pain, the μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors and their endogenous ligands may subserve these lateralized functions. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing the levels of the opioid receptors and peptides in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a key area for emotion and pain processing. Opioid mRNAs and peptides and 5 "classical" neurotransmitters were analyzed in postmortem tissues from 20 human subjects. Leu-enkephalin-Arg (LER) and Met-enkephalin-Arg-Phe, preferential δ-/μ- and κ-/μ-opioid agonists, demonstrated marked lateralization to the left and right ACC, respectively. Dynorphin B (Dyn B) strongly correlated with LER in the left, but not in the right ACC suggesting different mechanisms of the conversion of this κ-opioid agonist to δ-/μ-opioid ligand in the 2 hemispheres; in the right ACC, Dyn B may be cleaved by PACE4, a proprotein convertase regulating left-right asymmetry formation. These findings suggest that region-specific lateralization of neuronal networks expressing opioid peptides underlies in part lateralization of higher functions, including positive and negative emotions and pain in the human brain.

  9. Dysfunctional activation and brain network profiles in youth with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A focus on the dorsal anterior cingulate during working memory

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    Vaibhav A. Diwadkar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Brain network dysfunction is emerging as a central biomarker of interest in psychiatry, in large part because psychiatric conditions are increasingly seen as disconnection syndromes. Understanding dysfunctional brain network profiles in task-active states provides important information on network engagement in an experimental context. This in turn may be predictive of many of the cognitive and behavioral deficits associated with complex behavioral phenotypes. Here we investigated brain network profiles in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD, contrasting them with a group of age-comparable controls. Network interactions were assessed during simple working memory: in particular, we focused on the modulation by the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of cortical, striatal and thalamic regions. The focus on the dACC was motivated by its hypothesized role in the pathophysiology of OCD. However, its task-active network signatures have not been investigated before. Network interactions were modeled using psychophysiological interaction, a simple directional model of seed to target brain interactions. Our results indicate that OCD is characterized by significantly increased dACC modulation of cortical, striatal and thalamic targets during working memory, and that this aberrant increase in OCD patients is maintained regardless of working memory demand. The results constitute compelling evidence of dysfunctional brain network interactions in OCD and suggest that these interactions may be related to a combination of network inefficiencies and dACC hyper-activity that has been associated with the phenotype.

  10. Reversible Akinetic Mutism after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in the Territory of the Anterior Cerebral Artery without Permanent Ischaemic Damage to Anterior Cingulate Gyri

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    François-Xavier Sibille

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two cases of transient akinetic mutism after massive subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA. In the two cases, vasospasm could not be demonstrated by imaging studies throughout the clinical course. Both patients shared common radiological features: a hydrocephalus due to haemorrhagic contamination of the ventricular system and a mass effect of a subpial hematoma on the borders of the corpus callosum. Patients were also investigated using auditory event-related evoked potentials at acute stage. In contrast to previous observations of akinetic mutism, P300 wave could not be recorded. Both patients had good recovery and we hypothesized that this unexpectedly favourable outcome was due to the absence of permanent structural damage to the ACA territory, with only transient dysfunction due to a reversible mass effect on cingulate gyri.

  11. Right anterior cingulate gyrus in encephalic region associated with integrating and processing Chinese words information in working memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Shuqiao Yao; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Wai Cheong Carl Tam; Yadong Liu; Zongtan Zhou; Xiang Wang; Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    scanner (GE Signa Twinspeed) (slice thickness 5 mm, slice gap 1.5 mm, slice parallel to line between pars geniculate and splenium in corpus callosum from corona capitis to superior part of cerebellum, totally 16 to 18 layers). ③The obtained images were pre-processed and statistically analysed with SPM 99 software. The procedure included timeslice adjusted, realigned, nomalized and smoothed. According to experimental task, data from each subject were analysed to obtain t value of each voxel. Brain activation image was got by Student's t test and statistic was presented by pseudo-color. Statistical parameter image was formed by overlapping brain activation image on three-dimensional structure image, and the threshold value was set at P< 0.05 with ten or more continous voxels (T ≥ 4.64, K ≥ 10 voxels). The brain activation images of all the subjects were calculated and overlapped into mean brain activation images. The regions with different activation density were found out. The activation voxels in regions-of-interest were checked to calculate a laterality index for each condition. The negative value indicated right hemisphere dominance.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: fMRI activation and laterality coefficient of Chinese numerial working task. RESULTS: Thirteen ealthy subjects participated in the result analysis. ①fMRI activation of Chinese numerial working task: The results showed that the working memory task with Chinese words not only activated left cerebral cortex including left superior frontal gyrus (BA6/10), left middle frontal gyrus (BA9), left inferior frontal gyrus (BA45/9/47), but also activated right cerebral cortex including right middle frontal gyrus (BA10/46/8), right inferior frontal lobe (BA47). Specially, peak activation was located in right anterior cingulate gyrus (BA32) with an activation volume of 879 (voxels). It indicated that superior, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral Broca regions and anterior cingutate involved in the working memory

  12. Development of anterior cingulate functional connectivity from late childhood to early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A M Clare; Di Martino, Adriana; Uddin, Lucina Q; Shehzad, Zarrar; Gee, Dylan G; Reiss, Philip T; Margulies, Daniel S; Castellanos, F Xavier; Milham, Michael P

    2009-03-01

    Human cerebral development is remarkably protracted. Although microstructural processes of neuronal maturation remain accessible only to morphometric post-mortem studies, neuroimaging tools permit the examination of macrostructural aspects of brain development. The analysis of resting-state functional connectivity (FC) offers novel possibilities for the investigation of cerebral development. Using seed-based FC methods, we examined the development of 5 functionally distinct cingulate-based intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) in children (n = 14, 10.6 +/- 1.5 years), adolescents (n = 12, 15.4 +/- 1.2) and young adults (n=14, 22.4 +/- 1.2). Children demonstrated a more diffuse pattern of correlation with voxels proximal to the seed region of interest (ROI) ("local FC"), whereas adults exhibited more focal patterns of FC, as well as a greater number of significantly correlated voxels at long distances from the seed ROI. Adolescents exhibited intermediate patterns of FC. Consistent with evidence for different maturational time courses, ICNs associated with social and emotional functions exhibited the greatest developmental effects. Our findings demonstrate the utility of FC for the study of developing functional organization. Moreover, given that ICNs are thought to have an anatomical basis in neuronal connectivity, measures of FC may provide a quantitative index of brain maturation in healthy subjects and those with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  13. Opposite effective connectivity in the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex between first-episode schizophrenic patients with suicide risk and healthy controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiran Zhang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The schizophrenic patients with high suicide risk are characterized by depression, better cognitive function, and prominent positive symptoms. However, the neurobiological basis of suicide attempts in schizophrenia is not clear. The suicide in schizophrenia is implicated in the defects in emotional process and decision-making, which are associated with prefrontal-cingulate circuit. In order to explore the possible neurobiological basis of suicide in schizophrenia, we investigated the correlation of prefrontal-cingulate circuit with suicide risk in schizophrenia via dynamic casual modelling. METHOD: Participants were 33 first-episode schizophrenic patients comprising of a high suicide risk group (N = 14 and a low suicide risk group (N = 19. A comparison group of healthy controls (N = 15 were matched for age, gender and education. N-back tasking functional magnetic resonance imaging data was collected. RESULTS: Compared with healthy controls group, the two patients groups showed decreased task-related suppression during 2-back task state versus baseline state in the left posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex; the hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex existed in both schizophrenic patients groups, but hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction only existed in the schizophrenic patients group with high suicide risk. CONCLUSIONS: The hyper-connectivity from the left posterior cingulate cortex to the left medial prefrontal cortex may suggest that the abnormal effective connectivity was associated with risk for schizophrenia. The hypo-connectivity in the opposite direction may represent a possible correlate of increased vulnerability to suicide attempt.

  14. Adolescent maturation of inhibitory inputs onto cingulate cortex neurons is cell-type specific and TrkB dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eVandenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory circuits during adolescence may be tied to the onset of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Neurotrophin signaling likely plays a critical role in supporting inhibitory circuit development and is also implicated in psychiatric disease. Within the neocortex, subcircuits may mature at different times and show differential sensitivity to neurotrophin signaling. We measured miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC and mEPSCs in Layer 5 cell-types in the mouse anterior cingulate across the periadolescent period. We differentiated cell-types mainly by Thy1 YFP transgene expression and also retrobead injection labeling in the contralateral cingulate and ipsilateral pons. We found that YFP- neurons and commissural projecting neurons had lower frequency of mIPSCs than neighboring YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons in juvenile mice (P21-25. YFP- neurons and to a lesser extent commissural projecting neurons also showed a significant increase in mIPSC amplitude during the periadolescent period (P21-25 vs. P40-50, which was not seen in YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons. Systemic disruption of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB signaling during P23-50 in TrkBF616A mice blocked developmental changes in mIPSC amplitude, without affecting miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs. Our data suggest that the maturation of inhibitory inputs onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons is cell-type specific. These data may inform our understanding of adolescent brain development across species and aid in identifying candidate subcircuits that may show greater vulnerability in mental illness.

  15. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Acheson, D.J.; Takashima, A.

    2013-01-01

    ulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and mon

  16. Metabolite Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predict High Neuropathic Pain Impact After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    domains of pain severity, pain interference, and emotional function recommended by the Initiative on Methods, Measurement, and Pain Assessment in Clinical...with depressed patients described in the psychiatric literature. The BDI has been recommended specifically for use in assessing emotional function in...Project. References 1. Waring WP 3rd, Biering-Sorensen F, Burns S, Donovan W, Graves D, Jha A, Jones L, Kirshblum S, Marino R, Mulcahey MJ, Reeves R, Scelza

  17. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific.

  18. Frontal and anterior cingulate activation during overt verbal fluency in patients with first episode psychosis Ativação frontal e do cíngulo anterior durante tarefa de fluência verbal em pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Schaufelberger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging studies using phonological verbal fluency tasks allow the assessment of neural circuits relevant to the neuropsychology of psychosis. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus present different activation patterns in subjects with chronic schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. We assessed the functioning in these brain regions during phonological verbal fluency in subjects with recent-onset functional psychoses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI. METHODS: Seven patients with functional psychoses (3 schizophreniform, 4 affective and 9 healthy controls were studied. We compared functional magnetic resonance images acquired during articulation of words beginning with letters classified as easy for word production in Portuguese. Statistical comparisons were performed using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients and controls in task performance. Controls showed greater activation than patients in the left rostral anterior cingulate gyrus and right inferior prefrontal cortex, whereas patients showed stronger activation than controls in a more dorsal part of the anterior cingulate gyrus bilaterally and in a more superior portion of the right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings of attenuated engagement of inferior prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus in patients with recent onset psychosis during phonological verbal fluency are consistent with those of previous studies. The greater activation found in other parts of the anterior cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex in patients may be related to a compensatory response that is required to maintain normal task performance, and suggests a pattern of disorganized activity of different functional anterior cingulate gyrus units in association with psychotic conditions.OBJETIVO: Estudos de neuroimagem funcional empregando tarefa de fluência verbal fonol

  19. The trajectory of sensory pathways from the lamina terminalis to the insular and cingulate cortex: a neuroanatomical framework for the generation of thirst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Jacob H; McKinley, Michael J; D'Souza, Moyra; Kampe, Juliane; Oldfield, Brian J

    2008-04-01

    The pathways involved in the emotional aspects of thirst, the arousal and affect associated with the generation of thirst and the motivation to obtain satiation, have been studied but remain poorly understood. Rats were therefore injected with the neurotropic virus pseudorabies in either the insular or cingulate cortex. After 2 days of infection, pseudorabies-positive neurons were identified within the thalamus and lamina terminalis. In a separate group of rats, the retrograde tracer cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) was used in combination with either isotonic (0.15 M NaCl) or hypertonic (0.8 M NaCl) saline (1 ml/100 g body wt ip). Rats injected with CTb in the insular cortex and stimulated with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the paraventricular, rhomboid, and reuniens thalamic nuclei, whereas those rats injected with CTb in the cingulate cortex and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons in the medial part of the mediodorsal, interanteromedial, anteromedial, and ventrolateral part of the laterodorsal thalamic nuclei. Rats injected with CTb in the dorsal midline of the thalamus and challenged with hypertonic saline had increased numbers of Fos/CTb double-positive neurons within the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus, and insular cortex but not the subfornical organ. A small proportion of the CTb-positive neurons in the OVLT were immunopositive for transient receptor potential vanilloid 1, a putative osmoresponsive membrane protein. These results identify functional thalamocortical pathways involved in relaying osmotic signals to the insular and cingulate cortex and may provide a neuroanatomical framework for the emotional aspects of thirst.

  20. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  1. Feelings of warmth correlate with neural activity in right anterior insular cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olausson, H; Charron, J; Marchand, S; Villemure, C; Strigo, I A; Bushnell, M C

    2005-11-25

    The neural coding of perception can differ from that for the physical attributes of a stimulus. Recent studies suggest that activity in right anterior insular cortex may underlie thermal perception, particularly that of cold. We now examine whether this region is also important for the perception of warmth. We applied cutaneous warm stimuli on the left leg (warmth) in normal subjects (n = 7) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). After each stimulus, subjects rated their subjective intensity of the stimulus using a visual analogue scale (VAS), and correlations were determined between the fMRI signal and the VAS ratings. We found that intensity ratings of warmth correlated with the fMRI signal in the right (contralateral to stimulation) anterior insular cortex. These results, in conjunction with previous reports, suggest that the right anterior insular cortex is important for different types of thermal perception.

  2. Computational Image Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Multigenerational Differences between Anterior and Posterior Cerebral Cortex Neural Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Winter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Time-lapse microscopy can capture patterns of development through multiple divisions for an entire clone of proliferating cells. Images are taken every few minutes over many days, generating data too vast to process completely by hand. Computational analysis of this data can benefit from occasional human guidance. Here we combine improved automated algorithms with minimized human validation to produce fully corrected segmentation, tracking, and lineaging results with dramatic reduction in effort. A web-based viewer provides access to data and results. The improved approach allows efficient analysis of large numbers of clones. Using this method, we studied populations of progenitor cells derived from the anterior and posterior embryonic mouse cerebral cortex, each growing in a standardized culture environment. Progenitors from the anterior cortex were smaller, less motile, and produced smaller clones compared to those from the posterior cortex, demonstrating cell-intrinsic differences that may contribute to the areal organization of the cerebral cortex.

  3. Experience-dependent spatial expectations in mouse visual cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiser, Aris; Mahringer, David; Oyibo, Hassana K.

    2016-01-01

    primary visual cortex (V1) becomes increasingly informative of spatial location. We found that a subset of V1 neurons exhibited responses that were predictive of the upcoming visual stimulus in a spatially dependent manner and that the omission of an expected stimulus drove strong responses in V1....... Stimulus-predictive responses also emerged in V1-projecting anterior cingulate cortex axons, suggesting that anterior cingulate cortex serves as a source of predictions of visual input to V1. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that visual cortex forms an internal representation of the visual...... scene based on spatial location and compares this representation with feed-forward visual input....

  4. The Anterior Prefrontal Cortex and the Hippocampus Are Negatively Correlated during False Memories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany M. Jeye

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available False memories commonly activate the anterior/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (A/DLPFC and the hippocampus. These regions are assumed to work in concert during false memories, which would predict a positive correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions across participants. However, the A/DLPFC may also inhibit the hippocampus, which would predict a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in these regions. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, during encoding, participants viewed abstract shapes in the left or right visual field. During retrieval, participants classified each old shape as previously in the “left” or “right” visual field followed by an “unsure”–“sure”–“very sure” confidence rating. The contrast of left-hits and left-misses produced two activations in the hippocampus and three activations in the left A/DLPFC. For each participant, activity associated with false memories (right–“left”–“very sure” responses from the two hippocampal regions was plotted as a function of activity in each A/DLPFC region. Across participants, for one region in the left anterior prefrontal cortex, there was a negative correlation between the magnitudes of activity in this region and the hippocampus. This suggests that the anterior prefrontal cortex might inhibit the hippocampus during false memories and that participants engage either the anterior prefrontal cortex or the hippocampus during false memories.

  5. Communication Apprehension and Resting Alpha Range Asymmetry in the Anterior Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Michael J.; Heisel, Alan D.; Lewis, Robert J.; Pence, Michelle E.; Reinhart, Amber; Tian, Yan

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between trait-like communication apprehension (CA) and resting alpha range asymmetry in the anterior cortex (AC). Although theory and research in cognitive neuroscience suggest that asymmetry in the AC constitutes a relatively stable, inborn, substrate of emotion, some studies indicate that asymmetry can…

  6. Long-range functional interactions of anterior insula and medial frontal cortex are differently modulated by visuospatial and inductive reasoning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebisch, Sjoerd J H; Mantini, Dante; Romanelli, Roberta; Tommasi, Marco; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Colom, Roberto; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-09-01

    The brain is organized into functionally specific networks as characterized by intrinsic functional relationships within discrete sets of brain regions. However, it is poorly understood whether such functional networks are dynamically organized according to specific task-states. The anterior insular cortex (aIC)-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)/medial frontal cortex (mFC) network has been proposed to play a central role in human cognitive abilities. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at testing whether functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network in terms of temporally correlated patterns of neural activity across brain regions are dynamically modulated by transitory, ongoing task demands. For this purpose, functional interactions of the aIC-dACC/mFC network are compared during two distinguishable fluid reasoning tasks, Visualization and Induction. The results show an increased functional coupling of bilateral aIC with visual cortices in the occipital lobe during the Visualization task, whereas coupling of mFC with right anterior frontal cortex was enhanced during the Induction task. These task-specific modulations of functional interactions likely reflect ability related neural processing. Furthermore, functional connectivity strength between right aIC and right dACC/mFC reliably predicts general task performance. The findings suggest that the analysis of long-range functional interactions may provide complementary information about brain-behavior relationships. On the basis of our results, it is proposed that the aIC-dACC/mFC network contributes to the integration of task-common and task-specific information based on its within-network as well as its between-network dynamic functional interactions.

  7. Increased anterior cingulate and temporal lobe activity during visuospatial working memory in children and adolescents with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. White (Tonya); D. Hongwanishkul (Donaya); M. Schmidt (Manfred)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Similar to adults, children and adolescents with schizophrenia present with significant working memory (WkM) deficits. However, unlike adults, findings of abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) are not consistently reported. Since WkM con

  8. The anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex of the echidna and platypus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwell, Ken W S; Phillips, Jennifer M

    2006-01-01

    The cyto- and chemoarchitecture of the anterior olfactory nucleus and piriform cortex of the short-beaked echidna and platypus were studied to determine: (1) if these areas contain chemically distinct subdivisions, and (2) if the chemoarchitecture of those cortical olfactory regions differs from therians. Nissl and myelin staining were applied in conjunction with enzyme reactivity for NADPH diaphorase and acetylcholinesterase, and immunoreactivity for calcium-binding proteins (parvalbumin, calbindin and calretinin) and tyrosine hydroxylase. Golgi impregnations were also available for the echidna. In the echidna, the anterior olfactory nucleus is negligible in extent and merges at very rostral levels with a four-layered piriform cortex. Several rostrocaudally running subregions of the echidna piriform lobe could be identified on the basis of Nissl staining and calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity. Laminar-specific differences in calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity and NADPH-d-reactive neuron distribution were also noted. Neuron types identified in echidna piriform cortex included pyramidal neurons predominating in layers II and III and non-pyramidal neurons (e.g., multipolar profusely spiny and neurogliaform cells) in deeper layers. Horizontal cells were identified in both superficial and deep layers. By contrast, the platypus had a distinct anterior olfactory nucleus and a three-layered piriform cortex with no evidence of chemically distinct subregions within the piriform cortex. Volume of the paleocortex of the echidna was comparable to prosimians of similar body weight and, in absolute volume, exceeded that for eutherian insectivores such as T. ecaudatus and E. europaeus. The piriform cortex of the echidna shows evidence of regional differentiation, which in turn suggests highly specialized olfactory function.

  9. High familial risk for mood disorder is associated with low dorsolateral prefrontal cortex serotonin transporter binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frokjaer, Vibe G; Vinberg, Maj; Erritzoe, David;

    2009-01-01

    was measured with [(11)C]DASB PET. The volumes of interest included the orbitofrontal cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, thalamus, and midbrain. We found that individuals at high familial risk for mood disorders had a 35...

  10. Posterior cingulate cortex-related co-activation patterns: a resting state FMRI study in propofol-induced loss of consciousness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Amico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have been shown that functional connectivity of cerebral areas is not a static phenomenon, but exhibits spontaneous fluctuations over time. There is evidence that fluctuating connectivity is an intrinsic phenomenon of brain dynamics that persists during anesthesia. Lately, point process analysis applied on functional data has revealed that much of the information regarding brain connectivity is contained in a fraction of critical time points of a resting state dataset. In the present study we want to extend this methodology for the investigation of resting state fMRI spatial pattern changes during propofol-induced modulation of consciousness, with the aim of extracting new insights on brain networks consciousness-dependent fluctuations. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI volumes on 18 healthy subjects were acquired in four clinical states during propofol injection: wakefulness, sedation, unconsciousness, and recovery. The dataset was reduced to a spatio-temporal point process by selecting time points in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC at which the signal is higher than a given threshold (i.e., BOLD intensity above 1 standard deviation. Spatial clustering on the PCC time frames extracted was then performed (number of clusters = 8, to obtain 8 different PCC co-activation patterns (CAPs for each level of consciousness. RESULTS: The current analysis shows that the core of the PCC-CAPs throughout consciousness modulation seems to be preserved. Nonetheless, this methodology enables to differentiate region-specific propofol-induced reductions in PCC-CAPs, some of them already present in the functional connectivity literature (e.g., disconnections of the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, auditory cortex, some others new (e.g., reduced co-activation in motor cortex and visual area. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results indicate that the employed methodology can help in improving and refining the characterization of local

  11. The default modes of reading: Modulation of posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex connectivity associated with subjective and objective differences in reading experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan eSmallwood

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a fundamental human capacity and yet it can easily be derailed by the simple act of mind-wandering. A large-scale brain network, referred to as the default mode network (DMN, has been shown to be involved in both mind-wandering and reading, raising the question as to how the same neural system could be implicated in processes with both costs and benefits to narrative comprehension. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to explore whether the intrinsic functional connectivity of the two key midline hubs of the DMN — the posterior cingulate (PCC and medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC — was predictive of individual differences in reading effectiveness (better comprehension, superior and task focus recorded outside of the scanner. Worse comprehension was associated with greater functional connectivity between the PCC and a region of the ventral striatum. By contrast reports of increasing task focus were associated with functional connectivity from the aMPFC to clusters in the PCC, the left parietal and temporal cortex, and the cerebellum. Our results suggest that the DMN has both costs (such as poor comprehension and benefits to reading (such as an on-task focus because its midline core can couple its activity with other regions to form distinct functional communities that allow seemingly opposing mental states to occur. This flexible coupling allows the DMN to participate in cognitive states that complement the act of reading as well as others that do not.

  12. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  13. Combat Veterans with Comorbid PTSD and Mild TBI Exhibit a Greater Inhibitory Processing ERP from the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-08

    bipolar disorder , attention deficit hyperactivity disorder , or psychotic disorders ; or (4) acute medical problems. Included subjects returned for Session...event-related potential study of attention deficits in posttraumatic stress disorder during auditory and visual Go/NoGo continuous performance tasks...varying effects of depressive symptoms on N200 amplitudes likely arise from depression being a heterogeneous disorder , with some patients exhibiting

  14. Nociceptive responses of anterior cingulate cortical ensembles in behaving rats%清醒大鼠前扣带皮层神经元群的伤害性反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锦琰; 罗非; 张含荑; 张景渝; Donald J.WOODWARD; 韩济生

    2004-01-01

    目的:利用多通道记录技术在清醒大鼠前扣带回(ACC)记录神经元群的痛反应模式,以证实ACC在痛觉情绪编码中的作用.方法:在5只成年雄性SD大鼠的双侧ACC脑区植入微电极阵列,在大鼠术后清醒状态下给予尾部及四肢足底伤害性辐射热刺激,神经元的放电信号经由电缆和连接器传送至多通道记录系统.结果:伤害性辐射热刺激在大鼠ACC引起以兴奋为主的反应,该反应持续时间较长,可能与痛情绪有关;刺激开始附近ACC神经元有与痛刺激相关的预期性反应,可能与准备逃避的动机有关;同侧和对侧肢体刺激引起的ACC神经元的反应差别不显著,表明神经元感受野大,不适合精确定位.结论:ACC主要参与编码痛觉的情绪动机成分.%Objective: To confirm the role of anterior cingulated cortices (ACC) in the coding of pain affect by exploring the neural ensemble coding pattern within the anterior cingulate cortex in behaving rats with a multichannel recording technique. Methods: In five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, two arrays of eight stainless steel microwires were bilaterally implanted into ACC. Noxious radiant heat stimulation was applied to the tail, bilateral fore-paws and hind-paws of freely moving rats. Neuroelectric signals were obtained from the microwires and sent to a multichannel recording device via cables and connectors. The time stamps of neuronal activities were stored on a personal computer for off-line analysis. Results:Noxious heat stimuli evoked predominantly excitatory and sustained neural activity within ACC, reflecting the processing of pain unpleasantness; pain-related anticipatory responses could be seen near the stimulation start, indicating the behavioral preparation for escape; ACC neurons had broad receptive fields by showing quite similar pain-related responses to stimuli on either side of the hind-paw, suggesting that they are not eligible for the localization of a stimulus

  15. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Keita; Kakeda, Shingo; Yoshimura, Reiji; Ide, Satoru; Hayashi, Kenji; Katsuki, Asuka; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Watanabe, Rieko; Abe, Osamu; Korogi, Yukunori

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR)-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects. PMID:26566126

  16. Genetic Variation in the Catechol-O-Methyl Transferase Val108/158Met Is Linked to the Caudate and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Volume in Healthy Subjects: Voxel-Based Morphometry Analysis of Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Watanabe

    Full Text Available The effect of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism on brain morphology has been investigated but remains controversial. We hypothesized that a comparison between Val/Val and Val/Met individuals, which may represent the most different combinations concerning the effects of the COMT genotype, may reveal new findings. We investigated the brain morphology using 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in 27 Val/Val and 22 Val/Met individuals. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that the volumes of the bilateral caudate and posterior cingulate cortex were significantly smaller in Val/Val individuals than in Val/Met individuals [right caudate: false discovery rate (FDR-corrected p = 0.048; left caudate: FDR-corrected p = 0.048; and bilateral posterior cingulate cortex: FDR-corrected p = 0.048]. This study demonstrates that interacting functional variants of COMT affect gray matter regional volumes in healthy subjects.

  17. On the role of the anterior prefrontal cortex in cognitive 'branching': An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahine, George; Diekhof, Esther Kristina; Tinnermann, Alexandra; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-10-01

    The most anterior portion of prefrontal cortex (aPFC), more specifically Brodman Area 10 (BA10), has been implicated in 'branching operations', or the ability to perform tasks related to one goal, while keeping in working memory information related to a secondary goal. Such findings have been based on fMRI recordings under complex behavioral paradigms that compare 'branching' tasks with tasks where one goal is pursued at a time, but are limited by their complete reliance on verbal working memory and by small sample sizes. Here, we test the specificity of BA 10 to branching in similar behavioral paradigms but with a larger sample and in two different conditions involving verbal and visual working memory respectively. We find that BA 10 and other frontal and parietal brain areas are activated in all tasks, with an extent and level of significance increasing with the complexity of the task. We conclude that the activation of BA 10 is not specific to branching as previously hypothesized, but is related to the level of complexity of working memory performance. For further insight into the specific role of anterior portions of the frontal cortex we highlight the importance of simple control tasks with gradual and incremental increase in complexity.

  18. Structural basis of empathy and the domain general region in the anterior insular cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella eMutschler

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Empathy is key for healthy social functioning and individual differences in empathy have strong implications for manifold domains of social behavior. Empathy comprises emotional and cognitive components, such as feeling and knowing what another person is feeling, and may also be closely linked to sensorimotor processes, which go along with the motivation and behavior to respond compassionately to another person’s feelings and to reduce another person’s pain. There is growing evidence for local plastic change in the structure of the healthy adult human brain in response to environmental demands or intrinsic factors. Here we have investigated changes in brain structure resulting from or predisposing to empathy. Structural MRI data of 101 healthy adult females was analyzed. Empathy in fictitious as well as real-life situations was assessed by using a widely used and validated self-evaluation measure. Furthermore, empathy-related structural effects were also put into the context of a functional map of the anterior insular cortex determined by activation likelihood estimate (ALE meta-analysis of previous functional imaging studies. We found that gray matter density in the left dorsal anterior insular cortex correlates with empathy and that this area overlaps with the domain general region of the anterior insula that is situated in-between functional systems involved in emotion-cognition, pain and motor tasks as determined by our meta-analysis. Thus, we propose that this insular region where we find structural differences depending on individual empathy might play a crucial role in modulating the efficiency of neural integration underlying emotional, cognitive, and sensorimotor information which is essential for global empathy.

  19. Bilateral lesions of the central but not anterior or posterior parts of the piriform cortex retard amygdala kindling in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, K; Ebert, U; Löscher, W

    2000-01-01

    The piriform cortex is thought to be involved in temporal lobe seizure propagation, such as that occurring during kindling of the amygdala or hippocampus. A number of observations suggested that the circuits of the piriform cortex might act as a critical pathway for limbic seizure discharges to assess motor systems, but direct evidence for this suggestion is scarce. Furthermore, the piriform cortex is not a homogeneous structure, which complicates studies on its role in limbic epileptogenesis. We have previously reported data indicating that the central part of the piriform cortex might be particularly involved during amygdala kindling. In order to further evaluate the role of different parts of the piriform cortex during kindling development, we bilaterally destroyed either the central, anterior or posterior piriform cortex by microinjections of ibotenate two weeks before onset of amygdala kindling. Lesions of the anterior piriform cortex hardly affected kindling acquisition, except that fewer animals exhibited stage 3 (unilateral forelimb) seizures compared to sham controls. Lesions of the central piriform cortex significantly retarded kindling, which was due to a decreased progression from stage 3 to stage 4/5 seizures, i.e. the lesioned rats needed significantly longer for the acquisition of generalized clonic seizures in the late stages of kindling development. Lesions of the posterior piriform cortex did not significantly affect kindling development. The data demonstrate that different parts of the piriform cortex mediate qualitatively different effects on amygdala kindling. The central piriform cortex seems to be a neural substrate involved in the continuous development of kindling from stage 3 to stages 4/5, indicating that this part of the piriform cortex may have preferred access, either directly or indirectly, to structures capable of supporting generalized kindled seizure expression.

  20. Role of anterior piriform cortex in the acquisition of conditioned flavour preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediavilla, Cristina; Martin-Signes, Mar; Risco, Severiano

    2016-09-14

    Flavour aversion learning (FAL) and conditioned flavour preference (CFP) facilitate animal survival and play a major role in food selection, but the neurobiological mechanisms involved are not completely understood. Neuroanatomical bases of CFP were examined by using Fos immunohistochemistry to record neuronal activity. Rats were trained over eight alternating one-bottle sessions to acquire a CFP induced by pairing a flavour with saccharin (grape was CS+ in Group 1; cherry in Group 2; in Group 3, grape/cherry in half of animals; Group 4, grape/cherry in water). Animals were offered the grape flavour on the day immediately after the training and their brains were processed for c-Fos. Neurons evidencing Fos-like immunoreactivity were counted in the infralimbic cortex, nucleus accumbens core, and anterior piriform cortex (aPC). Analysis showed a significantly larger number of activated cells after learning in the aPC alone, suggesting that the learning process might have produced a change in this cortical region. Ibotenic lesions in the aPC blocked flavour-taste preference but did not interrupt flavour-toxin FAL by LiCl. These data suggest that aPC cells may be involved in the formation of flavour preferences and that the integrity of this region may be specifically necessary for the acquisition of a CFP.

  1. Evidence for loss of synaptic AMPA receptors in anterior piriform cortex of aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocel, James; Larson, John

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that age-related impairments in learning and memory may be due to age-related deficits in long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synaptic transmission. For example, olfactory discrimination learning is significantly affected by aging in mice and this may be due, in part, to diminished synaptic plasticity in piriform cortex. In the present study, we tested for alterations in electrophysiological properties and synaptic transmission in this simple cortical network. Whole-cell recordings were made from principal neurons in slices of anterior piriform cortex from young (3-6 months old) and old (24-28 months) C57Bl/6 mice. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) mediated by AMPA receptors were collected from cells in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) and held at -80 mV in voltage-clamp. Amplitudes of mEPSCs were significantly reduced in aged mice, suggesting that synaptic AMPA receptor expression is decreased during aging. In a second set of experiments, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (s/mEPSCs) were recorded in slices from different cohorts of young and old mice, in the absence of TTX. These currents resembled mEPSCs and were similarly reduced in amplitude in old mice. The results represent the first electrophysiological evidence for age-related declines in glutamatergic synaptic function in the mammalian olfactory system.

  2. Projections from Orbitofrontal Cortex to Anterior Piriform Cortex in the Rat Suggest a Role in Olfactory Information Processing

    OpenAIRE

    ILLIG, KURT R.

    2005-01-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been characterized as a higher-order, multimodal sensory cortex. Evidence from electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat has suggested that OFC plays a role in modulating olfactory guided behavior, and a significant projection to OFC arises from piriform cortex, the traditional primary olfactory cortex. To discern how OFC interacts with primary olfactory structures, the anterograde tracer Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin was injected into orbi...

  3. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Plays a Critical and Selective Role in "Feeling of Knowing" Meta-Memory Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modirrousta, Mandana; Fellows, Lesley K.

    2008-01-01

    The frontal lobes are thought to play a role in the monitoring of memory performance, or "meta-memory," but the specific circuits involved have yet to be definitively established. Medial prefrontal cortex in general and the anterior cingulate cortex in particular, have been implicated in other forms of monitoring, such as error and conflict…

  4. Alcohol consumption impairs detection of performance errors in mediofrontal cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridderinkhof, K.R.; de Vlugt, Y.; Bramlage, A.; Spaan, M.; Elton, M.; Snel, J.

    2002-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a critical component of the human mediofrontal neural circuit that monitors ongoing processing in the cognitive system for signs of erroneous outcomes. Here, we show that the consumption of alcohol in moderate doses induces a significant deterioration of the ab

  5. Matching of feedback inhibition with excitation ensures fidelity of information flow in the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, D C; Hughes, A R; Erdélyi, F; Szabó, G; Hentges, S T; Schoppa, N E

    2014-09-05

    Odor-evoked responses in mitral cells of the olfactory bulb are characterized by prolonged patterns of action potential (spike) activity. If downstream neurons are to respond to each spike in these patterns, the duration of the excitatory response to one spike should be limited, enabling cells to respond to subsequent spikes. To test for such mechanisms, we performed patch-clamp recordings in slices of the mouse anterior piriform cortex. Mitral cell axons in the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) were stimulated electrically at different intensities and with various frequency patterns to mimic changing input conditions that the piriform cortex likely encounters in vivo. We found with cell-attached measurements that superficial pyramidal (SP) cells in layer 2 consistently responded to LOT stimulation across conditions with a limited number (1-2) of spikes per stimulus pulse. The key synaptic feature accounting for the limited spike number appeared to be somatic inhibition derived from layer 3 fast-spiking cells. This inhibition tracked the timing of the first spike in SP cells across conditions, which naturally limited the spike number to 1-2. These response features to LOT stimulation were, moreover, not unique to SP cells, also occurring in a population of fluorescently labeled interneurons in glutamic acid decarboxylase 65-eGFP mice. That these different cortical cells respond to incoming inputs with 1-2 spikes per stimulus may be especially critical for relaying bulbar information contained in synchronized oscillations at beta (15-30Hz) or gamma (30-80Hz) frequencies.

  6. The role of the cingulate cortex as neural generator of the N200 and P300 in a tactile response inhibition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huster, R J; Westerhausen, R; Pantev, C; Konrad, C

    2010-08-01

    Both the N200 and P300, which are, for example, evoked by Go/Nogo or Stop-Signal tasks, have long been interpreted as indicators for inhibition processes. Such interpretations have recently been challenged, and interest in the exact neural generators of these brain responses is continuously growing. Using recent methodological advancements, source estimations for the N200 and P300 as evoked by a tactile response inhibition task were computed. Current density reconstructions were also calculated accounting for interindividual differences in head geometry by incorporating information from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. To ease comparability with relevant paradigms, the task was designed to mimic important characteristics of both Go/Nogo and Stop-Signal tasks as prototypes for a larger set of paradigms probing response inhibition. A network of neural generators was revealed, which has previously been shown to act in concert with executive control processes and thus is in full agreement with observations from other modalities. Importantly, a spatial segregation of midcingulate sources was observed. Our experimental data indicate that a left anterior region of the midcingulate cortex (MCC) is a major neural generator of the N200, whereas the midcingulate generator of the P300 is located in the right posterior MCC. Analyses of the P300 also revealed several areas, which have previously been associated with motor functions, for example, the precentral region. Our data clearly suggest a neuroanatomical and therefore also functional dissociation of the N200 and P300, a finding that cannot easily be provided by other imaging techniques.

  7. Neurochemical, morphologic, and laminar characterization of cortical projection neurons in the cingulate motor areas of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Hof, P. R.; Young, W. G.; Morrison, J. H.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The primate cingulate gyrus contains multiple cortical areas that can be distinguished by several neurochemical features, including the distribution of neurofilament protein-enriched pyramidal neurons. In addition, connectivity and functional properties indicate that there are multiple motor areas in the cortex lining the cingulate sulcus. These motor areas were targeted for analysis of potential interactions among regional specialization, connectivity, and cellular characteristics such as neurochemical profile and morphology. Specifically, intracortical injections of retrogradely transported dyes and intracellular injection were combined with immunocytochemistry to investigate neurons projecting from the cingulate motor areas to the putative forelimb region of the primary motor cortex, area M1. Two separate groups of neurons projecting to area M1 emanated from the cingulate sulcus, one anterior and one posterior, both of which furnished commissural and ipsilateral connections with area M1. The primary difference between the two populations was laminar origin, with the anterior projection originating largely in deep layers, and the posterior projection taking origin equally in superficial and deep layers. With regard to cellular morphology, the anterior projection exhibited more morphologic diversity than the posterior projection. Commissural projections from both anterior and posterior fields originated largely in layer VI. Neurofilament protein distribution was a reliable tool for localizing the two projections and for discriminating between them. Comparable proportions of the two sets of projection neurons contained neurofilament protein, although the density and distribution of the total population of neurofilament protein-enriched neurons was very different in the two subareas of origin. Within a projection, the participating neurons exhibited a high degree of morphologic heterogeneity, and no correlation was observed between somatodendritic morphology and

  8. Response Patterns of GABAergic Neurons in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Awake Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rongfeng; Zhang, Juen; Luo, Minmin; Hu, Ji

    2016-06-01

    Local inhibition by γ-amino butyric acid (GABA)-containing neurons is of vital importance for the operation of sensory cortices. However, the physiological response patterns of cortical GABAergic neurons are poorly understood, especially in the awake condition. Here, we utilized the recently developed optical tagging technique to specifically record GABAergic neurons in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) in awake mice. The identified aPC GABAergic neurons were stimulated with robotic delivery of 32 distinct odorants, which covered a broad range of functional groups. We found that aPC GABAergic neurons could be divided into 4 types based on their response patterns. Type I, type II, and type III neurons displayed broad excitatory responses to test odorants with different dynamics. Type I neurons were constantly activated during odorant stimulation, whereas type II neurons were only transiently activated at the onset of odorant delivery. In addition, type III neurons displayed transient excitatory responses both at the onset and termination of odorant presentation. Interestingly, type IV neurons were broadly inhibited by most of the odorants. Taken together, aPC GABAergic neurons adopt different strategies to affect the cortical circuitry. Our results will allow for better understanding of the role of cortical GABAergic interneurons in sensory information processing.

  9. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  10. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  11. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Sebastian J; Scherberger, Hansjörg

    2015-01-01

    The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand) has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013), and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP). To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP) in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively). Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach) information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  12. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  13. Pain and Emotion Interactions in Subregions of the Cingulate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Brent A.

    2005-01-01

    Acute pain and emotion are processed in two forebrain networks and cingulate cortex is in both. Although Brodmann’s cingulate gyrus had two divisions and was not based on any functional criteria, functional imaging reports the location of activity by this model. Recent cingulate cytoarchitectural studies support a four-region model with subregions based on connections and qualitatively unique functions. Although pain and emotion activity have been widely reported, some view these as emergent ...

  14. Combined omega-3 fatty acids, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation prevents decline in gray matter volume of the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex in patients with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köbe, Theresa; Witte, A Veronica; Schnelle, Ariane; Lesemann, Anne; Fabian, Sonja; Tesky, Valentina A; Pantel, Johannes; Flöel, Agnes

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies in older adults suggested beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation, aerobic exercise, or cognitive stimulation on brain structure and function. However, combined effects of these interventions in patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are unknown. Using a randomized interventional design, we evaluated the effect of combined omega-3 FA supplementation, aerobic exercise and cognitive stimulation (target intervention) versus omega-3 FA supplementation and non-aerobic exercise (control intervention) on cognitive function and gray matter volume in patients with MCI. Moreover, we analyzed potential vascular, metabolic or inflammatory mechanisms underlying these effects. Twenty-two MCI patients (8 females; 60-80years) successfully completed six months of omega-3 FA intake, aerobic cycling training and cognitive stimulation (n=13) or omega-3 FA intake and non-aerobic stretching and toning (n=9). Before and after the interventions, cognitive performance, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain at 3T (n=20), intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery and serum markers of glucose control, lipid and B-vitamin metabolism, and inflammation were assessed. Intervention-related changes in gray matter volume of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain regions, i.e., frontal, parietal, temporal and cingulate cortex were examined using voxel-based morphometry of high resolution T1-weighted images. After the intervention period, significant differences emerged in brain structure between groups: Gray matter volume decreased in the frontal, parietal and cingulate cortex of patients in the control intervention, while gray matter volume in these areas was preserved or even increased after the target intervention. Decreases in homocysteine levels in the target intervention group were associated with increases in gray matter volume in the middle frontal cortex (p=0.010). No significant differences in cognitive performance or

  15. The Impact of Density and Ratio on Object-Ensemble Representation in Human Anterior-Medial Ventral Visual Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cant, Jonathan S; Xu, Yaoda

    2015-11-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated that observers can extract summary statistics from ensembles of multiple objects. We recently showed that a region of anterior-medial ventral visual cortex, overlapping largely with the scene-sensitive parahippocampal place area (PPA), participates in object-ensemble representation. Here we investigated the encoding of ensemble density in this brain region using fMRI-adaptation. In Experiment 1, we varied density by changing the spacing between objects and found no sensitivity in PPA to such density changes. Thus, density may not be encoded in PPA, possibly because object spacing is not perceived as an intrinsic ensemble property. In Experiment 2, we varied relative density by changing the ratio of 2 types of objects comprising an ensemble, and observed significant sensitivity in PPA to such ratio change. Although colorful ensembles were shown in Experiment 2, Experiment 3 demonstrated that sensitivity to object ratio change was not driven mainly by a change in the ratio of colors. Thus, while anterior-medial ventral visual cortex is insensitive to density (object spacing) changes, it does code relative density (object ratio) within an ensemble. Object-ensemble processing in this region may thus depend on high-level visual information, such as object ratio, rather than low-level information, such as spacing/spatial frequency.

  16. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiro eShiba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral PFC (vlPFC and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e. human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e. a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied aetiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies.

  17. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  18. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  19. 前扣带皮层的痛觉情绪感知作用%Pain-related effect of the anterior cingulate cortex on emotion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学斌; 张德宽

    2011-01-01

    @@ 痛觉(pain)是由于潜在的或者实际的伤害性刺激作用于机体所引起的不愉快的主观感受.由于这样的刺激可能导致组织和机体的损伤或危害,因此痛觉的产生可以使动物处于防御、抵抗或退缩等状态,是一种生理性的防御反应和保护性感觉.

  20. Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have…

  1. Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: Preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based biofield treatment modality on human neurophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, C.; Vernon, D.; Hald, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic studies of mindfulness link the health benefits of meditation to activation of the left-anterior cerebral cortex. The similarity and functional importance of intention and attentional stance in meditative and biofield therapeutic practices suggest that modulation of recipient anteri

  2. Temporal prediction errors modulate cingulate-insular coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Sutherland, Steven C; Zhu, Jian; Young, Michael E; Habib, Reza

    2013-05-01

    Prediction error (i.e., the difference between the expected and the actual event's outcome) mediates adaptive behavior. Activity in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC) and in the anterior insula (aINS) is associated with the commission of prediction errors under uncertainty. We propose a dynamic causal model of effective connectivity (i.e., neuronal coupling) between the aMCC, the aINS, and the striatum in which the task context drives activity in the aINS and the temporal prediction errors modulate extrinsic cingulate-insular connections. With functional magnetic resonance imaging, we scanned 15 participants when they performed a temporal prediction task. They observed visual animations and predicted when a stationary ball began moving after being contacted by another moving ball. To induced uncertainty-driven prediction errors, we introduced spatial gaps and temporal delays between the balls. Classical and Bayesian fMRI analyses provided evidence to support that the aMCC-aINS system along with the striatum not only responds when humans predict whether a dynamic event occurs but also when it occurs. Our results reveal that the insula is the entry port of a three-region pathway involved in the processing of temporal predictions. Moreover, prediction errors rather than attentional demands, task difficulty, or task duration exert an influence in the aMCC-aINS system. Prediction errors debilitate the effect of the aMCC on the aINS. Finally, our computational model provides a way forward to characterize the physiological parallel of temporal prediction errors elicited in dynamic tasks.

  3. Cerebral cortex modulation of pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-feng XIE; Fu-quan HUO; Jing-shi TANG

    2009-01-01

    Pain is a complex experience encompassing sensory-discriminative, affective-motivational and cognitiv e-emotional com-ponents mediated by different mechanisms. Contrary to the traditional view that the cerebral cortex is not involved in pain perception, an extensive cortical network associated with pain processing has been revealed using multiple methods over the past decades. This network consistently includes, at least, the anterior cingulate cortex, the agranular insular cortex, the primary (SⅠ) and secondary somatosensory (SⅡ) cortices, the ventrolateral orbital cortex and the motor cortex. These corti-cal structures constitute the medial and lateral pain systems, the nucleus submedius-ventrolateral orbital cortex-periaque-ductal gray system and motor cortex system, respectively. Multiple neurotransmitters, including opioid, glutamate, GABA and dopamine, are involved in the modulation of pain by these cortical structures. In addition, glial cells may also be in-volved in cortical modulation of pain and serve as one target for pain management research. This review discusses recent studies of pain modulation by these cerebral cortical structures in animals and human.

  4. Entorhinal cortex and consolidated memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2014-07-01

    The entorhinal cortex is thought to support rapid encoding of new associations by serving as an interface between the hippocampus and neocortical regions. Although the entorhinal-hippocampal interaction is undoubtedly essential for initial memory acquisition, the entorhinal cortex contributes to memory retrieval even after the hippocampus is no longer necessary. This suggests that during memory consolidation additional synaptic reinforcement may take place within the cortical network, which may change the connectivity of entorhinal cortex with cortical regions other than the hippocampus. Here, I outline behavioral and physiological findings which collectively suggest that memory consolidation involves the gradual strengthening of connection between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (mPFC/ACC), a region that may permanently store the learned association. This newly formed connection allows for close interaction between the entorhinal cortex and the mPFC/ACC, through which the mPFC/ACC gains access to neocortical regions that store the content of memory. Thus, the entorhinal cortex may serve as a gatekeeper of cortical memory network by selectively interacting either with the hippocampus or mPFC/ACC depending on the age of memory. This model provides a new framework for a modification of cortical memory network during systems consolidation, thereby adding a fresh dimension to future studies on its biological mechanism.

  5. Insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders: a review of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M; Kishi, K; Kato, S

    2007-09-01

    The insular cortex is located in the centre of the cerebral hemisphere, having connections with the primary and secondary somatosensory areas, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdaloid body, prefrontal cortex, superior temporal gyrus, temporal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, frontal and parietal opercula, primary and association auditory cortices, visual association cortex, olfactory bulb, hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and motor cortex. Accordingly, dense connections exist among insular cortex neurons. The insular cortex is involved in the processing of visceral sensory, visceral motor, vestibular, attention, pain, emotion, verbal, motor information, inputs related to music and eating, in addition to gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile data. In this article, the literature on the relationship between the insular cortex and neuropsychiatric disorders was summarized following a computer search of the Pub-Med database. Recent neuroimaging data, including voxel based morphometry, PET and fMRI, revealed that the insular cortex was involved in various neuropsychiatric diseases such as mood disorders, panic disorders, PTSD, obsessive-compulsive disorders, eating disorders, and schizophrenia. Investigations of functions and connections of the insular cortex suggest that sensory information including gustatory, olfactory, visual, auditory, and tactile inputs converge on the insular cortex, and that these multimodal sensory information may be integrated there.

  6. Ketamine modulates subgenual cingulate connectivity with the memory-related neural circuit—a mechanism of relevance to resistant depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing J. Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ketamine has been reported to have efficacy as an antidepressant in several studies of treatment-resistant depression. In this study, we investigate whether an acute administration of ketamine leads to reductions in the functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC with other brain regions. Methods. Thirteen right-handed healthy male subjects underwent a 15 min resting state fMRI with an infusion of intravenous ketamine (target blood level = 150 ng/ml starting at 5 min. We used a seed region centred on the sgACC and assessed functional connectivity before and during ketamine administration. Results. Before ketamine administration, positive coupling with the sgACC seed region was observed in a large cluster encompassing the anterior cingulate and negative coupling was observed with the anterior cerebellum. Following ketamine administration, sgACC activity became negatively correlated with the brainstem, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and thalamus. Discussion. Ketamine reduced functional connectivity of the sgACC with brain regions implicated in emotion, memory and mind wandering. It is possible the therapeutic effects of ketamine may be mediated via this mechanism, although further work is required to test this hypothesis.

  7. Functional ultrasound imaging reveals different odor-evoked patterns of vascular activity in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanski, B F; Martin, C; Montaldo, G; Lanièce, P; Pain, F; Tanter, M; Gurden, H

    2014-07-15

    Topographic representation of the outside world is a key feature of sensory systems, but so far it has been difficult to define how the activity pattern of the olfactory information is distributed at successive stages in the olfactory system. We studied odor-evoked activation patterns in the main olfactory bulb and the anterior piriform cortex of rats using functional ultrasound (fUS) imaging. fUS imaging is based on the use of ultrafast ultrasound scanners and detects variations in the local blood volume during brain activation. It makes deep brain imaging of ventral structures, such as the piriform cortex, possible. Stimulation with two different odors (hexanal and pentylacetate) induced the activation of odor-specific zones that were spatially segregated in the main olfactory bulb. Interestingly, the same odorants triggered the activation of the entire anterior piriform cortex, in all layers, with no distinguishable odor-specific areas detected in the power Doppler images. These fUS imaging results confirm the spatial distribution of odor-evoked activity in the main olfactory bulb, and furthermore, they reveal the absence of such a distribution in the anterior piriform cortex at the macroscopic scale in vivo.

  8. Being asked to tell an unpleasant truth about another person activates anterior insula and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa M; Dietz, Martin J; Fitzgerald, Des; Knudsen, Kasper J; Tonks, James

    2015-01-01

    "Truth" has been used as a baseline condition in several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of deception. However, like deception, telling the truth is an inherently social construct, which requires consideration of another person's mental state, a phenomenon known as Theory of Mind. Using a novel ecological paradigm, we examined blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses during social and simple truth telling. Participants (n = 27) were randomly divided into two competing teams. Post-competition, each participant was scanned while evaluating performances from in-group and out-group members. Participants were asked to be honest and were told that their evaluations would be made public. We found increased BOLD responses in the medial prefrontal cortex, bilateral anterior insula and precuneus when participants were asked to tell social truths compared to simple truths about another person. At the behavioral level, participants were slower at responding to social compared to simple questions about another person. These findings suggest that telling the truth is a nuanced cognitive operation that is dependent on the degree of mentalizing. Importantly, we show that the cortical regions engaged by truth telling show a distinct pattern when the task requires social reasoning.

  9. Characterization of intrinsic properties of cingulate pyramidal neurons in adult mice after nerve injury

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    Chen Tao

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is important for cognitive and sensory functions including memory and chronic pain. Glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission undergo long-term potentiation in ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral injury. Less information is available for the possible long-term changes in neuronal action potentials or intrinsic properties. In the present study, we characterized cingulate pyramidal cells in the layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. We then examined possible long-term changes in intrinsic properties of the ACC pyramidal cells after peripheral nerve injury. In the control mice, we found that there are three major types of pyramidal cells according to their action potential firing pattern: (i regular spiking (RS cells (24.7%, intrinsic bursting (IB cells (30.9%, and intermediate (IM cells (44.4%. In a state of neuropathic pain, the population distribution (RS: 21.3%; IB: 31.2%; IM: 47.5% and the single action potential properties of these three groups were indistinguishable from those in control mice. However, for repetitive action potentials, IM cells from neuropathic pain animals showed higher initial firing frequency with no change for the properties of RS and IB neurons from neuropathic pain mice. The present results provide the first evidence that, in addition to synaptic potentiation reported previously, peripheral nerve injury produces long-term plastic changes in the action potentials of cingulate pyramidal neurons in a cell type-specific manner.

  10. Unlearning: NMDA receptor-mediated metaplasticity in the anterior piriform cortex following early odor preference training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bandhan; Morrison, Gillian L; Fontaine, Christine J; Hou, Qinlong; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2014-04-09

    Here we demonstrate metaplastic effect of a change in NMDA receptor (NMDAR) number in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) in rat induced by a 10 min pairing of peppermint odor + stroking, which significantly modifies later learning and memory. Using isolated synaptoneurosomes, we found NR1 receptor downregulation 3 h after training and upregulation at 24 h. Consistent with the NR1 pattern, the NMDAR-mediated EPSP was smaller at 3 h and larger at 24 h. Subunit composition was unchanged. Whereas LTP was reduced at both times by training, LTD was facilitated only at 3 h. Behaviorally, pups, given a pairing of peppermint + stroking 3 h after an initial peppermint + stroking training, lost the normally acquired peppermint preference 24 h later. To probe the pathway specificity of this unlearning effect, pups were trained first with peppermint and then, at 3 h, given a second training with peppermint or vanillin. Pups given peppermint training at both times lost the learned peppermint preference. Pups given vanillin retraining at 3 h had normal peppermint preference. Downregulating NR1 with siRNA prevented odor preference learning. Finally, the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 blocked the LTD facilitation seen 3 h after training, and giving MK-801 before the second peppermint training trial eliminated the loss of peppermint odor preference. A training-associated reduction in NMDARs facilitates LTD 3 h later; training at the time of LTD facilitation reverses an LTP-dependent odor preference. Experience-dependent, pathway-specific metaplastic effects in a cortical structure have broad implications for the optimal spacing of learning experiences.

  11. Synaptic NMDA receptor-mediated currents in anterior piriform cortex are reduced in the adult fragile X mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gocel, James; Larson, John

    2012-09-27

    Fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by the transcriptional silencing of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. The Fmr1 knockout (KO) mouse exhibits age-dependent deficits in long term potentiation (LTP) at association (ASSN) synapses in anterior piriform cortex (APC). To investigate the mechanisms for this, whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings of ASSN stimulation-evoked synaptic currents were made in APC of slices from adult Fmr1-KO and wild-type (WT) mice, using the competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, CPP, to distinguish currents mediated by NMDA and AMPA receptors. NMDA/AMPA current ratios were lower in Fmr1-KO mice than in WT mice, at ages ranging from 3-18months. Since amplitude and frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) mediated by AMPA receptors were no different in Fmr1-KO and WT mice at these ages, the results suggest that NMDA receptor-mediated currents are selectively reduced in Fmr1-KO mice. Analyses of voltage-dependence and decay kinetics of NMDA receptor-mediated currents did not reveal differences between Fmr1-KO and WT mice, suggesting that reduced NMDA currents in Fmr1-KO mice are due to fewer synaptic receptors rather than differences in receptor subunit composition. Reduced NMDA receptor signaling may help to explain the LTP deficit seen at APC ASSN synapses in Fmr1-KO mice at 6-18months of age, but does not explain normal LTP at these synapses in mice 3-6months old. Evoked currents and mEPSCs were also examined in senescent Fmr1-KO and WT mice at 24-28months of age. NMDA/AMPA ratios were similar in senescent WT and Fmr1-KO mice, due to a decrease in the ratio in the WT mice, without significant change in AMPA receptor-mediated mEPSCs.

  12. Cingulate metabolites during pain and morphine treatment as assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen TM

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tine Maria Hansen,1 Anne Estrup Olesen,2 Carsten Wiberg Simonsen,1 Asbjørn Mohr Drewes,2,3 Jens Brøndum Frøkjær11Mech-Sense, Department of Radiology, 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology, 3Center for Sensory-Motor Interaction, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Experimental investigation of cerebral mechanisms underlying pain and analgesia are important in the development of methods for diagnosis and treatment of pain. The aim of the current study was to explore brain metabolites in response to pain and treatment with morphine.Methods: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate cortex was performed in 20 healthy volunteers (13 males and seven females, aged 24.9±2.6 years during rest and acute pain before and during treatment with 30 mg of oral morphine or placebo in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study design. Pain was evoked by skin stimulation applied to the right upper leg using a contact heat-evoked potential stimulator.Results: Data from 12 subjects were valid for analysis. Painful stimulation induced an increase in N-acetylaspartate/creatine compared with rest (F=5.5, P=0.04. During treatment with morphine, painful stimulation induced decreased glutamate/creatine (F=7.3, P=0.02, myo-inositol/creatine (F=8.38, P=0.02, and N-acetylaspartate/creatine (F=13.8, P=0.004 concentrations, whereas an increase in the pain-evoked N-acetylaspartate/creatine concentration (F=6.1, P=0.04 was seen during treatment with placebo.Conclusion: This explorative study indicates that neuronal metabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex, such as N-acetylaspartate, glutamate, and myo-inositol, could be related to the physiology of pain and treatment with morphine. This experimental method has the potential to enable the study of brain metabolites involved in pain and its treatment, and may in the future be used to provide further insight into these mechanisms

  13. Specialized elements of orbitofrontal cortex in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, Helen

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is associated with encoding the significance of stimuli within an emotional context, and its connections can be understood in this light. This large cortical region is architectonically heterogeneous, but its connections and functions can be summarized by a broad grouping of areas by cortical type into posterior and anterior sectors. The posterior (limbic) orbitofrontal region is composed of agranular and dysgranular-type cortices and has unique connections with primary olfactory areas and rich connections with high-order sensory association cortices. Posterior orbitofrontal areas are further distinguished by dense and distinct patterns of connections with the amygdala and memory-related anterior temporal lobe structures that may convey signals about emotional import and their memory. The special sets of connections suggest that the posterior orbitofrontal cortex is the primary region for the perception of emotions. In contrast to orbitofrontal areas, posterior medial prefrontal areas in the anterior cingulate are not multi-modal, but have strong connections with auditory association cortices, brain stem vocalization, and autonomic structures, in pathways that may mediate emotional communication and autonomic activation in emotional arousal. Posterior orbitofrontal areas communicate with anterior orbitofrontal areas and, through feedback projections, with lateral prefrontal and other cortices, suggesting a sequence of information processing for emotions. Pathology in orbitofrontal cortex may remove feedback input to sensory cortices, dissociating emotional context from sensory content and impairing the ability to interpret events.

  14. Spinogenesis and pruning in the anterior ventral inferotemporal cortex of the macaque monkey: an intracellular injection study of layer III pyramidal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy N. Elston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cortical pyramidal cells grow and mature at different rates in visual, auditory and prefrontal cortex of the macaque monkey. In particular, differences across the areas have been reported in both the timing and magnitude of growth, branching, spinogenesis and pruning in the basal dendritic trees of cells in layer III. Presently available data suggest that these different growth profiles reflect the type of functions performed by these cells in the adult brain. However, to date, studies have focussed on only a relatively few cortical areas. In the present investigation we quantified the growth of the dendritic trees of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of cytoarchitectonic area TE (TEav to better comprehend developmental trends in the cerebral cortex. We quantified the growth and branching of the dendrities, and spinogenesis and pruning of spines, from post-natal day 2 (PND2 to four and a half years of age. We found that the dendritic trees increase in size from PND2 to 7 months of age and thereafter become smaller. The dendritic trees became increasingly more branched from PND2 into adulthood. There was a 2-fold increase in the number of spines in the basal dendritic trees of pyramidal cells from PND2 to 3½ months of age and then a 10% net decrease in spine number into adulthood. Thus, the growth profile of layer III pyramidal cells in the anterior ventral portion of the inferotemporal cortex differs to that in other cortical areas associated with visual processing.

  15. The cytoskeleton-associated protein SCHIP1 is involved in axon guidance, and is required for piriform cortex and anterior commissure development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingler, Esther; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Garcia, Marta; Moreau-Fauvarque, Caroline; Falk, Julien; Chareyre, Fabrice; Giovannini, Marco; Chédotal, Alain; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Goutebroze, Laurence

    2015-06-01

    SCHIP1 is a cytoplasmic partner of cortical cytoskeleton ankyrins. The IQCJ-SCHIP1 isoform is a component of axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier of mature axons in peripheral and central nervous systems, where it associates with membrane complexes comprising cell adhesion molecules. SCHIP1 is also expressed in the mouse developing central nervous system during embryonic stages of active axonogenesis. Here, we identify a new and early role for SCHIP1 during axon development and establishment of the anterior commissure (AC). The AC is composed of axons from the piriform cortex, the anterior olfactory nucleus and the amygdala. Schip1 mutant mice displayed early defects in AC development that might result from impaired axon growth and guidance. In addition, mutant mice presented a reduced thickness of the piriform cortex, which affected projection neurons in layers 2/3 and was likely to result from cell death rather than from impairment of neuron generation or migration. Piriform cortex neurons from E14.5 mutant embryos displayed axon initiation/outgrowth delay and guidance defects in vitro. The sensitivity of growth cones to semaphorin 3F and Eph receptor B2, two repulsive guidance cues crucial for AC development, was increased, providing a possible basis for certain fiber tract alterations. Thus, our results reveal new evidence for the involvement of cortical cytoskeleton-associated proteins in the regulation of axon development and their importance for the formation of neuronal circuits.

  16. Altered functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yinbao Qi; Xianming Fu; Ruobing Qian; Chaoshi Niu; Xiangpin Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated alterations in the resting-state functional connectivity of the pre-frontal cortex in chronic heroin abusers using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that, compared with normal controls, in heroin abusers the left prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus and right precuneus. However, the right prefrontal cortex showed decreased functional connectivity with the left orbital frontal cortex and the left middle frontal gyrus in chronic heroin abusers. These alterations of resting-state functional connectivity in the prefrontal cortices of heroin abusers suggest that their frontal executive neural network may be impaired, and that this may contribute to their continued heroin abuse and relapse after withdrawal.

  17. Mining the posterior cingulate: Segregation between memory and pain components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    We present a general method for automatic meta-analyses in neuroscience and apply it on text data from published functional imaging studies to extract main functions associated with a brain area --- the posterior cingulate cortex. Abstracts from PubMed are downloaded, words extracted and converted...

  18. Arc visualization of odor objects reveals experience-dependent ensemble sharpening, separation, and merging in anterior piriform cortex in adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhawat, Amin Md; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2014-07-30

    Visualization using the immediate early gene Arc revealed sparser and more robust odor representations in the anterior piriform cortex of adult rats when odor was associated with water reward over 2-3 d. Rewarded odor "mixtures" resulted in rats responding to either component odor similarly, and, correspondingly, the odor representations became more similar as indexed by increased overlap in piriform Arc-expressing (Arc(+)) pyramidal neurons. The increased overlap was consistent with the rats' generalization from component odors. Discriminating among highly similar odor mixtures for reward led to increased differentiation of the neural representations as indexed by a reduction in overlap for piriform Arc(+) pyramidal neurons after training. Similar odor mixture discrimination also required more trials to criterion. The visible reduction in the overlap of odor representations indexes pattern separation. The Arc visualization of odor representations in the anterior piriform network suggests that odor objects are widely distributed representations and can be rapidly modified by reward training in adult rats. We suggest that dynamic changes such as those observed here in piriform odor encoding are at the heart of perceptual learning and reflect the continuing plastic nature of mature associative cortex as an outcome of successful problem solving.

  19. 静息状态功能磁共振成像观察轻度阿尔茨海默病后扣带回功能连通性的变化%Changes in posterior cingulated cortex functional connectivity of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in mild Alzheimer's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪英; 王世杰; 杨明; 任利群; 张志珺; 滕皋军

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate how functional connectivity changes within default-mode network related to posterior cingulated cortex employing resting-state functional MRI (tMRI). Methods fMRI was compared between 16 mild Alzheimer' s disease (AD) patients and 16 normal elder subjects. Regions of functional connectivity to posterior cingulated cortex were gathered by calculating temporal correlations in low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations. SPM2 was applied to calculate significant differences of connectivity between group and within group. Significance threshold was set up at the corrected P 5. A random effect two-example t test was performed by SPM2 to achieve significant difference of functional connection between groups ( P 5 ). Results Regions showing disrupted connectivity to posterior cingulated cortex were: ventral medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), bilateral visual cortex, infero-temporal cortex (ITC), and left hippocampus, right thalamus, right dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex ( DLPFC), and precuneus. There were also regions showing increased connectivity with leftward asymmetry, these regions included: MPFC, left ITC, bilateral DLPFC, left pre- central motor cortex and left basal ganglia. Conclusions Impairments of memory and high visual-related functions in AD can be explained by functional disconnection in resting-state. Remoldability is reserved in mild AD to compensate for brain function which is taxed by left hemisphere preferentially. Our findings suggest that resting-state fMRI might be an appropriate approach for evaluating AD brain mechanism.%目的 利用静息状态功能磁共振成像(fMRI)研究阿尔茨海默病(AD)早期后扣带回相关的静息脑网络连通性是如何变化的.方法 运用fMRI研究了16例轻度AD患者和16名健康对照者在静息状态后扣带回的功能连通性.与后扣带回有功能连通性的脑区是通过检测低频波动信号的时程相关性获得的.应用通用的SPM2图像统计软件计算组

  20. Painful tonic heat stimulation induces GABA accumulation in the prefrontal cortex in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Danielsen, Else R; Kehlet, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    in pain processing. Using a 3T MR scanner, we acquired spectra from the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in 13 healthy right-handed subjects at rest and during painful heat stimulation. The painful stimulus consisted of a suprathreshold painful tonic heat pulse, which was delivered to the right...... that GABA is released in the human cerebral cortex during painful stimulation. The results are in line with animal findings on the role of GABA in pain processing and with studies in humans showing analgesic efficacy of GABA-related drugs in clinical pain conditions....

  1. Tourette's syndrome: a disorder of cingulate and orbitofrontal function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, R A; Turjanski, N; Brooks, D J

    1996-06-01

    We discuss the clinical characteristics of tics and Tourette's syndrome (TS) and also possible treatment options. Based upon an overview of published pathophysiological and PET data, and the results of a recent PET study of changes in opioid receptor binding in TS, we hypothesize that the disease arises due to dysfunction within the cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex. The beneficial effects of dopamine receptor antagonists and dopamine-depleting agents in TS are suggested to be mediated via basal ganglia-thalamofrontal circuits, while opioid agents may act directly on the cingulate.

  2. Propagation of seizures in a case of lesional mid-cingulate gyrus epilepsy studied by stereo-EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge; Gaspard, Nicolas; Alexopoulos, Andreas V

    2016-12-01

    Little is known about the propagation of seizures arising from the cingulate gyrus, as cingulate coverage with interhemispheric subdural electrodes is usually challenging and incomplete due to inherent anatomical and vascular limitations. We present a case of lesional mid-cingulate epilepsy confirmed by stereotactically implanted intracranial depth electrodes and subsequent surgical resection. Hypermotor symptomatology was seen during the first seven seconds of seizure onset while the seizure was still confined to the mid-cingulate gyrus contacts. The patient had brief contralateral clonic movements as seizure propagated to the primary motor cortex. There was a high concordance between the primary propagation contacts, as delineated by intracranial EEG, and the contacts, with higher coherence values in the connectivity matrix. Interestingly, cingulate-extra-cingulate connectivity and spread to the primary motor, premotor, and prefrontal cortex was seen preceding spread to other cingulate contacts, of which one was less than 15 mm from the onset contact. This report is one of a few published, documenting propagation of seizures arising from the mid-cingulate cortex. As illustrated by these data, hypermotor semiology correlated with direct activation of the cingulate cortex. Subsequent seizure propagation activated an extensive extra-cingulate rather than an intra-cingulate epileptogenic network. Interestingly, had the region of onset not sampled, the seizure onset would have appeared as non-localizing widespread rhythms over the fronto-parietal convexities. Further studies to explore the propagation of seizures arising from the cingulate gyrus and the physiological and pathological connectivity patterns within the cingulate gyrus in humans are needed, preferably using stereotactic implantation. Specific targets to be investigated are also discussed.

  3. Atrophy pattern and significance of frontal cortex and cingulate cortex in patients with Alzheimer′s disease%阿尔茨海默病患者额叶、扣带回皮层萎缩模式观察及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 武文博; 钱来; 李政; 张冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the atrophy pattern and its significance of frontal cortex and cingulate cortex in Alzheimer′s disease ( AD) .Methods According to the scors of MMSE and CDR , 28 AD patients were divided into the mild AD group (n=14) and the moderate AD group (n=14);20 healthy person were as the normol control group (NC group).The cognitive function were assessed by MMSE , CDR, MOCA, ADL, HAMD and NPI.All subjects received MRI inspection.Then analysis of image and data was based on the model using FreeSurfer v 5.1.0 software.Results In NC, the mild and moderate AD groups , the scores of MMSE and MOCA decreased gradually , the scores of CDR , ADL and NPI increased gradually (all P0.05).The left caudal middle frontal and the left lateral or-bito frontal were the risk factors for dementia in AD (all P<0.05).Conclusions The atrophy of frontal lobe and cingu-late cortex existed in mild AD patients and the atrophy of each subregion was inhomogeneity .The left caudal middle frontal and the left lateral orbito frontal could predict cognitive impairment in AD .%目的:观察阿尔茨海默病( AD)患者额叶、扣带回皮层的萎缩模式,并探讨其意义。方法根据简易智能状态检查( MMSE)评分及临床痴呆评定量表( CDR)评分将28例AD患者分为轻度AD组、中度AD组各14例,同期体检健康者20例作为正常对照组。采用MMSE、CDR、蒙特利尔认知评估量表( MOCA )、日常生活活动量表(ADL)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、神经精神量表(NPI),评估各组的认知功能。各组均行头颅MRI检查,Free-Surfer v5.1.0软件分析图像及数据。结果正常对照组、轻度AD组及中度AD组的MMSE、MOCA均依次降低, CDR、ADL、NPI均依次升高;组间两两比较,P均<0.05。额叶皮层各亚区中,轻度AD组、中度AD组双侧内侧眶回、外侧眶回及眶部皮层厚度均小于正常对照组,中度AD组左侧额中

  4. β-Adrenoceptor activation enhances L-type calcium channel currents in anterior piriform cortex pyramidal cells of neonatal mice: implication for odor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Mukherjee, Bandhan; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2017-03-01

    Early odor preference learning occurs in one-week-old rodents when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation mimicking maternal care. β-Adrenoceptors and L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) are critically involved in this learning. However, whether β-adrenoceptors interact directly with LTCCs in aPC pyramidal cells is unknown. Here we show that pyramidal cells expressed significant LTCC currents that declined with age. β-Adrenoceptor activation via isoproterenol age-dependently enhanced LTCC currents. Nifedipine-sensitive, isoproterenol enhancement of calcium currents was only observed in post-natal day 7-10 mice. APC β-adrenoceptor activation induced early odor preference learning was blocked by nifedipine coinfusion.

  5. Effects of essential amino acid deficiency: down-regulation of KCC2 and the GABAA receptor; disinhibition in the anterior piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, James W; Ross-Inta, Catherine M; Baccelli, Irène; Payne, John A; Rudell, John B; Gietzen, Dorothy W

    2013-11-01

    The anterior piriform cortex (APC) is activated by, and is the brain area most sensitive to, essential (indispensable) amino acid (IAA) deficiency. The APC is required for the rapid (20 min) behavioral rejection of IAA deficient diets and increased foraging, both crucial adaptive functions supporting IAA homeostasis in omnivores. The biochemical mechanisms signaling IAA deficiency in the APC block initiation of translation in protein synthesis via uncharged tRNA and the general amino acid control kinase, general control nonderepressing kinase 2. Yet, how inhibition of protein synthesis activates the APC is unknown. The neuronal K(+) Cl(-) cotransporter, neural potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC2), and GABAA receptors are essential inhibitory elements in the APC with short plasmalemmal half-lives that maintain control in this highly excitable circuitry. After a single IAA deficient meal both proteins were reduced (vs. basal diet controls) in western blots of APC (but not neocortex or cerebellum) and in immunohistochemistry of APC. Furthermore, electrophysiological analyses support loss of inhibitory elements such as the GABAA receptor in this model. As the crucial inhibitory function of the GABAA receptor depends on KCC2 and the Cl(-) transmembrane gradient it establishes, these results suggest that loss of such inhibitory elements contributes to disinhibition of the APC in IAA deficiency. The circuitry of the anterior piriform cortex (APC) is finely balanced between excitatory (glutamate, +) and inhibitory (GABA, -) transmission. GABAA receptors use Cl(-), requiring the neural potassium chloride co-transporter (KCC2). Both are rapidly turning-over proteins, dependent on protein synthesis for repletion. In IAA (indispensable amino acid) deficiency, within 20 min, blockade of protein synthesis prevents restoration of these inhibitors; they are diminished; disinhibition ensues. GCN2 = general control non-derepressing kinase 2, eIF2α = α-subunit of the eukaryotic

  6. Lateralized odor preference training in rat pups reveals an enhanced network response in anterior piriform cortex to olfactory input that parallels extended memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-09-18

    The present study examines synaptic plasticity in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) using ex vivo slices from rat pups given lateralized odor preference training. In the early odor preference learning model, a brief 10 min training session yields 24 h memory, while four daily sessions yield 48 h memory. Odor preference memory can be lateralized through naris occlusion as the anterior commissure is not yet functional. AMPA receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses in the aPC to lateral olfactory tract input, shown to be enhanced at 24 h, are no longer enhanced 48 h after a single training session. Following four spaced lateralized trials, the AMPA receptor-mediated fEPSP is enhanced in the trained aPC at 48 h. Calcium imaging of aPC pyramidal cells within 48 h revealed decreased firing thresholds in the pyramidal cell network. Thus multiday odor preference training induced increased odor input responsiveness in previously weakly activated aPC cells. These results support the hypothesis that increased synaptic strength in olfactory input networks mediates odor preference memory. The increase in aPC network activation parallels behavioral memory.

  7. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  8. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  9. COMT Val158Met genotypes differentially influence subgenual cingulate functional connectivity in healthy females

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    Chris eBaeken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging studies have consistently shown subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortical (sgACC involvement in emotion processing. COMT Val158 and Met158 polymorphisms may influence such emotional brain processes in specific ways. Given that resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI may increase our understanding on brain functioning, we integrated genetic and rsfMRI data and focused on sgACC functional connections. No studies have yet investigated the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 on sgACC resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in healthy individuals. A homogeneous group of sixty-one Caucasian right-handed healthy female university students, all within the same age range, underwent rsfMRI. Compared to Met158 homozygotes, Val158 allele carriers displayed significantly stronger rsFC between the sgACC and the left parahippocampal gyrus, ventromedial parts of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc. On the other hand, compared to Val158 homozygotes, we found in Met158 allele carriers stronger sgACC rsFC with the medial frontal gyrus, more in particular the anterior parts of the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Although we did not use emotional or cognitive tasks, our sgACC rsFC results point to possible distinct differences in emotional and cognitive processes between Val158 and Met158 allele carriers. However, the exact nature of these directions remains to be determined.

  10. Forming a negative impression of another person correlates with activation in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Harada, Tokiko; Sadato, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    Neural correlates involved in the formation of negative impression from face were investigated using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging and a partial conditioning paradigm. Eighteen normal volunteers underwent imaging while they viewed the faces of two unfamiliar individuals: one individual's face was partially accompanied by negative emotion but the other's was not. After the volunteers learned the relationship between the faces and the emotion, they formed a more negative impression of the person's face when the emotion was presented. Subtraction analysis of the individuals' neutral faces revealed activation in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal sulcus, but this activity did not correlate with the change of impression from face. On the other hand, the response in the left amygdala negatively correlated with the change of impression from face in the first run. Time modulation analysis revealed that activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex associated with negative emotion was the largest in the initial part of the acquisition. These results suggest that a negative impression from face may be formed by orchestrated activity in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, and that the activity has a prominent role in the initial acquisition of negative emotion.

  11. Quantified regional and laminar distribution of the noradrenaline innervation in the anterior half of the adult rat cerebral cortex

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    Audet, M.A.; Doucet, G.; Oleskevich, S.; Descarries, L.

    1988-08-15

    The regional and laminar distribution of the noradrenaline (NA) innervation in the adult rat cerebral cortex was quantified in radioautographs of semithin sections from whole hemisphere slices incubated with tritiated catecholamines and a monoamine oxidase inhibitor. Uptake-labeled axonal varicosities (aggregates of silver grains) were counted with the help of a computerized image analyzer in seven cytoarchitectonic areas of the rostral half of the cortex: Cg3, rostral AID, Cg2, Fr1, Par1, caudal AID, and Pir (prepiriform) according to Zilles's nomenclature. Both dopamine (DA) and NA terminals were detected after incubation with (3H)DA and citalopram or with (3H)NA alone. In the presence of desipramine (DMI), DA terminals alone were demonstrated; the number of NA terminals was then obtained by subtraction from counts in adjacent slices incubated with or without DMI. These counts suggested that DA and NA varicosities were fully visualized only after labeling with their respective tritiated amine. Similar numbers of labeled NA varicosities as inferred after (3H)NA incubation with or without DMI were observed after (3H)NA incubation in the presence of benztropine (BZ). This indicated that NA terminals were then maximally detected to the exclusion of the DA ones, and the latter approach was adopted for the acquisition of normative data. Since the average diameter of the labeled NA varicosities was known from earlier measurements in electron microscope radioautographs, the initial counts of labeled sites/mm2 of histological section could be expressed as numbers of varicosities/mm3 of tissue following a double correction for incomplete detection at the chosen duration of radioautographic exposure and section thickness.

  12. Temperament trait Harm Avoidance associates with μ-opioid receptor availability in frontal cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuominen, Lauri; Salo, Johanna; Hirvonen, Jussi;

    2012-01-01

    Avoidance are largely unknown. We hypothesized that variability in Harm Avoidance trait would be explained by differences in the activity of μ-opioid system as the opioid system is known to regulate affective states and stress sensitivity. Brain μ-opioid receptor availability was measured in 22 healthy...... subjects using positron emission tomography and [(11)C]carfentanil, a selective μ-opioid receptor agonist. The subjects were selected from a large Finish population-based cohort (N=2075) on the basis of their pre-existing Temperament and Character Scores. Subjects scoring consistently in the upper (10......) and lower (12) quartiles for the Harm Avoidance trait were studied. High Harm Avoidance score associated with high μ-opioid receptor availability (i.e. lower endogenous μ-opioid drive) in anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices and anterior insular cortex...

  13. Functional organization of human intraparietal and frontal cortex for attending, looking, and pointing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astafiev, Serguei V.; Shulman, Gordon L.; Stanley, Christine M.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Van Essen, David C.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2003-01-01

    We studied the functional organization of human posterior parietal and frontal cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to map preparatory signals for attending, looking, and pointing to a peripheral visual location. The human frontal eye field and two separate regions in the intraparietal sulcus were similarly recruited in all conditions, suggesting an attentional role that generalizes across response effectors. However, the preparation of a pointing movement selectively activated a different group of regions, suggesting a stronger role in motor planning. These regions were lateralized to the left hemisphere, activated by preparation of movements of either hand, and included the inferior and superior parietal lobule, precuneus, and posterior superior temporal sulcus, plus the dorsal premotor and anterior cingulate cortex anteriorly. Surface-based registration of macaque cortical areas onto the map of fMRI responses suggests a relatively good spatial correspondence between human and macaque parietal areas. In contrast, large interspecies differences were noted in the topography of frontal areas.

  14. NMDA receptors in mouse anterior piriform cortex initialize early odor preference learning and L-type calcium channels engage for long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Bandhan; Yuan, Qi

    2016-10-14

    The interactions of L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) in memories are poorly understood. Here we investigated the specific roles of anterior piriform cortex (aPC) LTCCs and NMDARs in early odor preference memory in mice. Using calcium imaging in aPC slices, LTCC activation was shown to be dependent on NMDAR activation. Either D-APV (NMDAR antagonist) or nifedipine (LTCC antagonist) reduced somatic calcium transients in pyramidal cells evoked by lateral olfactory tract stimulation. However, nifedipine did not further reduce calcium in the presence of D-APV. In mice that underwent early odor preference training, blocking NMDARs in the aPC prevented short-term (3 hr) and long-term (24 hr) odor preference memory, and both memories were rescued when BayK-8644 (LTCC agonist) was co-infused. However, activating LTCCs in the absence of NMDARs resulted in loss of discrimination between the conditioned odor and a similar odor mixture at 3 hr. Elevated synaptic AMPAR expression at 3 hr was prevented by D-APV infusion but restored when LTCCs were directly activated, mirroring the behavioral outcomes. Blocking LTCCs prevented 24 hr memory and spared 3 hr memory. These results suggest that NMDARs mediate stimulus-specific encoding of odor memory while LTCCs mediate intracellular signaling leading to long-term memory.

  15. Ultrastructure and synaptic connectivity of main and accessory olfactory bulb efferent projections terminating in the rat anterior piriform cortex and medial amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sook Kyung; Kim, Jong Ho; Yang, Eun Sun; Ahn, Dong Kuk; Moon, Cheil; Bae, Yong Chul

    2014-09-01

    Neurons in the main olfactory bulb relay peripheral odorant signals to the anterior piriform cortex (aPir), whereas neurons of the accessory olfactory bulb relay pheromone signals to the medial amygdala (MeA), suggesting that they belong to two functionally distinct systems. To help understand how odorant and pheromone signals are further processed in the brain, we investigated the synaptic connectivity of identified axon terminals of these neurons in layer Ia of the aPir and posterodorsal part of the MeA, using anterograde tracing with horseradish peroxidase, quantitative ultrastructural analysis of serial thin sections, and immunogold staining. All identified boutons contained round vesicles and some also contained many large dense core vesicles. The number of postsynaptic dendrites per labeled bouton was significantly higher in the aPir than in the MeA, suggesting higher synaptic divergence at a single bouton level. While a large fraction of identified boutons (29%) in the aPir contacted 2-4 postsynaptic dendrites, only 7% of the identified boutons in the MeA contacted multiple postsynaptic dendrites. In addition, the majority of the identified boutons in the aPir (95%) contacted dendritic spines, whereas most identified boutons in the MeA (64%) contacted dendritic shafts. Identified boutons and many of the postsynaptic dendrites showed glutamate immunoreactivity. These findings suggest that odorant and pheromone signals are processed differently in the brain centers of the main and accessory olfactory systems.

  16. Entorhinal cortex structure and functional MRI response during an associative verbal memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braskie, Meredith N; Small, Gary W; Bookheimer, Susan Y

    2009-12-01

    Entorhinal cortex (ERC) volume in adults with mild cognitive impairment has been shown to predict prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD). Likewise, neuronal loss in ERC has been associated with AD, but not with normal aging. Because ERC is part of a major pathway modulating input to the hippocampus, structural changes there may result in changes to cognitive performance and functional brain activity during memory tasks. In 32 cognitively intact older adults, we examined the relationship between left ERC thickness and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during an associative verbal memory task. This task has been shown previously to activate regions that are sensitive to aging and AD risk. ERC was manually defined on native space, high resolution, oblique coronal MRI scans. Subjects having thicker left ERC showed greater activation in anterior cingulate and medial frontal regions during memory retrieval, but not encoding. This result was independent of hippocampal volume. Anterior cingulate cortex is directly connected to ERC, and is, along with medial frontal cortex, implicated in error detection, which is impaired in AD. Our results suggest that in healthy older adults, processes that engage frontal regions during memory retrieval are related to ERC structure.

  17. Activation of anterior insula during self-reflection.

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    Gemma Modinos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested activation of midline frontoparietal brain regions to be at the core of self-related processes. However, although some studies reported involvement of the insula, little attention has been paid to this region as forming part of the "self"-network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we aimed at replicating and extending previous studies by scanning subjects whilst reflecting upon their own personal qualities as compared to those of an acquaintance. A third condition with statements about general knowledge was used to control for attention, semantic processing and decision making processes. The results showed a significant effect of task in brain activity, consistent with previous findings, by which both person conditions recruited a common set of medial prefrontal and posterior regions, yet significant differences between self and other were found in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Notably, significant neural activation in the left anterior insula was observed as uniquely associated with self-reflection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide further evidence for the specific recruitment of anterior MPFC and ACC regions for self-related processing, and highlight a role for the insula in self-reflection. As the insula is closely connected with ascending internal body signals, this may indicate that the accumulation of changes in affective states that might be implied in self-processing may contribute to our sense of self.

  18. Development of temperamental effortful control mediates the relationship between maturation of the prefrontal cortex and psychopathology during adolescence: a 4-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Dennison, Meg; Yücel, Murat; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the development of effortful control (EC), a temperamental measure of self-regulation, and concurrent development of three regions of the prefrontal cortex (anterior cingulate cortex, ACC; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dlPFC; ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, vlPFC) between early- and mid-adolescence. It also examined whether development of EC mediated the relationship between cortical maturation and emotional and behavioral symptoms. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline assessments when they were approximately 12 years old and follow-up assessments approximately 4 years later. At each assessment, participants had MRI scans and completed the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised, as well as measures of depressive and anxious symptoms, and aggressive and risk taking behavior. Cortical thicknesses of the ACC, dlPFC and vlPFC, estimated using the FreeSurfer software, were found to decrease over time. EC also decreased over time in females. Greater thinning of the left ACC was associated with less reduction in EC. Furthermore, change in effortful control mediated the relationship between greater thinning of the left ACC and improvements in socioemotional functioning, including reductions in psychopathological symptoms. These findings highlight the dynamic association between EC and the maturation of the anterior cingulate cortex, and the importance of this relationship for socioemotional functioning during adolescence.

  19. Enhanced metabolic capacity of the frontal cerebral cortex after Pavlovian conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchey, A K; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2008-03-18

    While Pavlovian conditioning alters stimulus-evoked metabolic activity in the cerebral cortex, less is known about the effects of Pavlovian conditioning on neuronal metabolic capacity. Pavlovian conditioning may increase prefrontal cortical metabolic capacity, as suggested by evidence of changes in cortical synaptic strengths, and evidence for a shift in memory initially processed in subcortical regions to more distributed prefrontal cortical circuits. Quantitative cytochrome oxidase histochemistry was used to measure cumulative changes in brain metabolic capacity associated with both cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning in rats. The cued conditioned group received tone-foot-shock pairings to elicit a conditioned freezing response to the tone conditioned stimulus, while the contextually conditioned group received pseudorandom tone-foot-shock pairings in an excitatory context. Untrained control group was handled daily, but did not receive any tone presentations or foot shocks. The cued conditioned group had higher cytochrome oxidase activity in the infralimbic and anterior cingulate cortex, and lower cytochrome oxidase activity in dorsal hippocampus than the other two groups. A significant increase in cytochrome oxidase activity was found in anterior cortical areas (medial, dorsal and lateral frontal cortex; agranular insular cortex; lateral and medial orbital cortex and prelimbic cortex) in both conditioned groups, as compared with the untrained control group. In addition, no differences in cytochrome oxidase activity in the somatosensory regions and the amygdala were detected among all groups. The findings indicate that cued and contextual Pavlovian conditioning induces sustained increases in frontal cortical neuronal metabolic demand resulting in regional enhancement in the metabolic capacity of anterior cortical regions. Enhanced metabolic capacity of these anterior cortical areas after Pavlovian conditioning suggests that the frontal cortex may play a

  20. Specialized core stability exercise: a neglected component of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-liang; Li, Jing-long; Zhai, Hua; Wang, Hui-fang; Meng, Han; Wang, Yu-bin

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury has continued to increase over the last two decades. This injury is associated with abnormal gait patterns and osteoarthritis of the knee. In order to accelerate recovery, the introduction of core stability exercises into the rehabilitation program is proposed. The theory underlying the use of core stability exercise relates to the neuroplasticity that follows anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroplasticity in lumbar, thoracic, cervical and brain regions diminish activation in the contralateral thalamus, postparietal cortex, SM1, basal ganglia-external globus pallidus, SII, cingulated motor area, premotor cortex, and in the ipsilateral cerebellum and SM1 and increase activation in pre-SMA, SIIp, and pITG, indicating modifications of the CNS. In addition, the neuroplasticity can regulate the movement of trunk muscles, for example, sternocleidomastoid and lower trapezius muscles. Core stability also demonstrates a negative correlation with the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, we propose that core stability exercises may improve the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries by increasing core motor control. Specialized core stability exercises aimed at rectifying biomechanical problems associated with gait and core stability may play a key role in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  1. Norepinephrine modulates pyramidal cell synaptic properties in the anterior piriform cortex of mice: age-dependent effects of β-adrenoceptors

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    Abhinaba eGhosh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period (≤postnatal day (P10-12, during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g. stroking. Norepinephrine (NE release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older pups, stroking loses its ability to induce learning. The cellular and circuitry mechanisms underpinning the sensitive period for odor preference learning is not well understood. We first established the sensitive period learning model in mice - odor paired with stroking induced odor preference in P8 but not P14 mice. This learning was dependent on NE-β-adrenoceptors as it was prevented by propranolol injection prior to training. We then tested whether there are developmental changes in pyramidal cell excitability and NE responsiveness in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC in mouse pups. Although significant differences of pyramidal cell intrinsic properties were found in two age groups (P8-11 and P14+, NE at two concentrations (0.1 and 10 μM did not alter intrinsic properties in either group. In contrast, in P8-11 pups, NE at 0.1 μM presynaptically decreased miniature IPSC and increased miniature EPSC frequencies. These effects were reversed with a higher dose of NE (10 μM, suggesting involvement of different adrenoceptor subtypes. In P14+ pups, NE at higher doses (1 and 10 μM acted both pre- and postsynaptically to promote inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced synaptic excitation and reduced inhibition by NE in the aPC network may underlie the sensitive period.

  2. A role for the anterior piriform cortex in early odor preference learning: evidence for multiple olfactory learning structures in the rat pup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Gillian L; Fontaine, Christine J; Harley, Carolyn W; Yuan, Qi

    2013-07-01

    cFos activation in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) occurs in early odor preference learning in rat pups (Roth and Sullivan 2005). Here we provide evidence that the pairing of odor as a conditioned stimulus and β-adrenergic activation in the aPC as an unconditioned stimulus generates early odor preference learning. β-Adrenergic blockade in the aPC prevents normal preference learning. Enhancement of aPC cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation in trained hemispheres is consistent with a role for this cascade in early odor preference learning in the aPC. In vitro experiments suggested theta-burst-mediated long-term potentiation (LTP) at the lateral olfactory tract (LOT) to aPC synapse depends on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and can be significantly enhanced by β-adrenoceptor activation, which causes increased glutamate release from LOT synapses during LTP induction. NMDA receptors in aPC are also shown to be critical for the acquisition, but not expression, of odor preference learning, as would be predicted if they mediate initial β-adrenoceptor-promoted aPC plasticity. Ex vivo experiments 3 and 24 h after odor preference training reveal an enhanced LOT-aPC field excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP). At 3 h both presynaptic and postsynaptic potentiations support EPSP enhancement while at 24 h only postsynaptic potentiation is seen. LOT-LTP in aPC is excluded by odor preference training. Taken together with earlier work on the role of the olfactory bulb in early odor preference learning, these outcomes suggest early odor preference learning is normally supported by and requires multiple plastic changes at least at two levels of olfactory circuitry.

  3. Norepinephrine Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhinaba; Purchase, Nicole C; Chen, Xihua; Yuan, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Early odor preference learning in rodents occurs within a sensitive period [≤postnatal day (P)10-12], during which pups show a heightened ability to form an odor preference when a novel odor is paired with a tactile stimulation (e.g., stroking). Norepinephrine (NE) release from the locus coeruleus during stroking mediates this learning. However, in older pups, stroking loses its ability to induce learning. The cellular and circuitry mechanisms underpinning the sensitive period for odor preference learning is not well understood. We first established the sensitive period learning model in mice - odor paired with stroking induced odor preference in P8 but not P14 mice. This learning was dependent on NE-β-adrenoceptors as it was prevented by propranolol injection prior to training. We then tested whether there are developmental changes in pyramidal cell excitability and NE responsiveness in the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) in mouse pups. Although significant differences of pyramidal cell intrinsic properties were found in two age groups (P8-11 and P14+), NE at two concentrations (0.1 and 10 μM) did not alter intrinsic properties in either group. In contrast, in P8-11 pups, NE at 0.1 μM presynaptically decreased miniature IPSC and increased miniature EPSC frequencies. These effects were reversed with a higher dose of NE (10 μM), suggesting involvement of different adrenoceptor subtypes. In P14+ pups, NE at higher doses (1 and 10 μM) acted both pre- and postsynaptically to promote inhibition. These results suggest that enhanced synaptic excitation and reduced inhibition by NE in the aPC network may underlie the sensitive period.

  4. Positive Association Between Posterior Subgenual Cingulate and Pituitary Volumes in Psychotic Major Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantina Vassilopoulou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Posterior subgenual cingulate cortex has been consistently linked with the pathophysiology of major depression in both structural and functional brain imaging studies. Likewise, the hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in major depression is well established, especially in its psychotic subtype. Moreover, posterior subgenual cingulate cortex exerts an inhibitory effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. While studies show pituitary volume to be a valid marker of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity, none have investigated the volumetric relationships between posterior subgenual cingulate cortex and pituitary volume in subtypes of major depressive disorder, which was precisely the aim of our study. We hypothesized a differential volumetric relationship in psychotic depression. We assessed posterior subgenual cingulate and pituitary volume using Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanning and investigated their volumetric relationships in 39 patients with major depressive disorder (17 psychotic and 22 melancholic and 18 normal controls. We found strong positive correlations between both left and right posterior subgenual volumes and pituitary volume only in the psychotic depression group (left: rs=0.77, p<0.001, right: rs=0.67, p=0.003. These positive associations were confirmed by regression analyses controlling for patient’s age and type of medications. By contrast, no significant volumetric associations were detected in the groups of melancholic patients and normal controls. Our findings provide support to the hypothesis that posterior subgenual cingulate is differentially involved in the pathophysiology of psychotic symptoms in major depressive disorder.

  5. Atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is associated with poor performance in verbal fluency in elderly poststroke women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang-Kun Chen; Wei-Min Xiao; Defeng Wang; Lin Shi; Winnie CW Chu; Vincent CT Mok; Ka Sing Wong; Gabor S Ungvari; Wai Kwong Tang

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between atrophy in the prefrontal cortex with executive function and verbal fluency in elderly male and female patients poststroke. Thirty elderly female patients with non-aphasic ischemic stroke aged ≥ 60 years and 30 age-matched non-aphasic male patients with ischemic stroke were recruited. Automatic magnetic resonance imaging segmentation was used to assess the volume of the whole prefrontal cortex, along with its subdivisions: anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The Semantic Verbal Fluency Test was administered at 3 and 15 months poststroke. At 3 months poststroke, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume was significantly correlated with Verbal Fluency Test score in female patients only (partial coefficient = 0.453, P = 0.045), after controlling for age, education, diabetes, neurological deficit, white matter lesions volume, as well as the location and volume of infarcts. At 15 months poststroke, there remained a significant association between the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.661, P = 0.001) and between the left prefrontal cortex volume and Verbal Fluency Test (partial coefficient = 0.573, P = 0.004) in female patients after the same adjustments. These findings indicate that atrophy of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contributes to the impairment of verbal fluency in elderly female patients with stroke. Sex differences may be present in the neuropsychological mechanisms of verbal fluency impairment in patients with stroke.

  6. Executive function and error detection: The effect of motivation on cingulate and ventral striatum activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões-Franklin, Cristina; Hester, Robert; Shpaner, Marina; Foxe, John J; Garavan, Hugh

    2010-03-01

    Reacting appropriately to errors during task performance is fundamental to successful negotiation of our environment. This is especially true when errors will result in a significant penalty for the person performing a given task, be they financial or otherwise. Error responses and monitoring states were manipulated in a GO/NOGO task by introducing a financial punishment for errors. This study employed a mixed block design alternating between punishment and no punishment (neutral) conditions, enabling an assessment of tonic changes associated with cognitive control as well as trial-specific effects. Behavioural results revealed slower responses and fewer commission errors in the punishment condition. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) had equal trial-specific activity for errors in the neutral and punishment conditions but had greater tonic activity throughout the punishment condition. A region of interest analysis revealed different activation patterns between the dorsal and the rostral parts of the ACC with the rostral ACC having only trial-specific activity for errors in the punishment condition, an activity profile similar to one observed in the nucleus accumbens. This study suggests that there is a motivational influence on cognitive processes in the ACC and nucleus accumbens and hints at a dissociation between tonic proactive activity and phasic reactive error-related activity.

  7. An analysis of von Economo neurons in the cerebral cortex of cetaceans, artiodactyls, and perissodactyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghanti, Mary Ann; Spurlock, Linda B; Treichler, F Robert; Weigel, Sara E; Stimmelmayr, Raphaela; Butti, Camilla; Thewissen, J G M Hans; Hof, Patrick R

    2015-07-01

    Von Economo neurons (VENs) are specialized projection neurons with a characteristic spindle-shaped soma and thick basal and apical dendrites. VENs have been described in restricted cortical regions, with their most frequent appearance in layers III and V of the anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and frontopolar cortex of humans, great apes, macaque monkeys, elephants, and some cetaceans. Recently, a ubiquitous distribution of VENs was reported in various cortical areas in the pygmy hippopotamus, one of the closest living relatives of cetaceans. That finding suggested that VENs might not be unique to only a few species that possess enlarged brains. In the present analysis, we assessed the phylogenetic distribution of VENs within species representative of the superordinal clade that includes cetartiodactyls and perissodactyls, as well as afrotherians. In addition, the distribution of fork cells that are often found in close proximity to VENs was also assessed. Nissl-stained sections from the frontal pole, anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and occipital pole of bowhead whale, cow, sheep, deer, horse, pig, rock hyrax, and human were examined using stereologic methods to quantify VENs and fork cells within layer V of all four cortical regions. VENs and fork cells were found in each of the species examined here with species-specific differences in distributions and densities. The present results demonstrated that VENs and fork cells were not restricted to highly encephalized or socially complex species, and their repeated emergence among distantly related species seems to represent convergent evolution of specialized pyramidal neurons. The widespread phylogenetic presence of VENs and fork cells indicates that these neuron morphologies readily emerged in response to selective forces,whose variety and nature are yet to be identified.

  8. Behavioral Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus, Entorhinal Cortex and Fornix in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Zhang; Wen-Han Hu; De-Long Wu; Kai Zhang; Jian-Guo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Recent clinical and preclinical studies have suggested that deep brain stimulation (DBS) can be used as a tool to enhance cognitive functions.The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of DBS at three separate targets in the Papez circuit,including the anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT),the entorhinal cortex (EC),and the fornix (FX),on cognitive behaviors in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) rat model.Methods:Forty-eight rats were subjected to an intrahippocampal injection ofamyloid peptides 1-42 to induce an AD model.Rats were divided into six groups:DBS and sham DBS groups of ANT,EC,and FX.Spatial learning and memory were assessed by the Morris water maze (MWM).Recognition memory was investigated by the novel object recognition memory test (NORM).Locomotor and anxiety-related behaviors were detected by the open field test (OF).By using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA),behavior differences between the six groups were analyzed.Results:In the MWM,the ANT,EC,and FX DBS groups performed differently in terms of the time spent in the platform zone (F(2.23) =6.04,P < 0.01),the frequency of platform crossing (F(2,23) =11.53,P < 0.001),and the percent time spent within the platform quadrant (F(2,23) =6.29,P < 0.01).In the NORM,the EC and FX DBS groups spent more time with the novel object,although the ANT DBS group did not (F(2,23) =10.03,P < 0.001).In the OF,all of the groups showed a similar total distance moved (F(1.42) =1.14,P =0.29)and relative time spent in the center (F(2,42) =0.56,P =0.58).Conclusions:Our results demonstrated that DBS of the EC and FX facilitated hippocampus-dependent spatial memory more prominently thanANT DBS.In addition,hippocampus-independent recognition memory was enhanced by EC and FX DBS.None of the targets showed side-effects of anxiety or locomotor behaviors.

  9. Recognition of Mother's voice evokes metabolic activation in the medial prefrontal cortex and lateral thalamus of Octodon degus pups.

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    Braun, K; Poeggel, G

    2001-01-01

    In a variety of animal species, including primates, vocal communication is an essential part to establish and maintain social interactions, including the emotional bond between the newborn, its parents and siblings. The aim of this study in pups of the trumpet-tailed rat, Octodon degus, was to identify cortical and subcortical brain regions, which are involved in the perception of vocalizations uttered by the mother. In this species, which is characterized by an elaborated vocal repertoire, the (14C)-2-fluoro-deoxyglucose autoradiography was applied to measure region-specific metabolic activation in response to the presentation of a learned emotionally relevant acoustic stimulus, the maternal calls. Already at the age of eight days the precentral medial cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the lateral thalamus could be identified by their enhanced metabolic activation in response to the presentation of the emotionally relevant maternal nursing calls, whereas other brain areas, such as the hippocampus and amygdala did not show stimulus-induced activation. Since in humans changes of activity patterns in relation to the emotional content of spoken language have been observed in similar brain regions, e.g. in the anterior cingulate cortex, Octodon degus may provide a suitable animal model to study the cellular and synaptic mechanisms underlying perception, production and processing of conspecific vocalizations.

  10. Digital morphometric study of the extrasulcal surface of the cingulate gyrus in man

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    Spasojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The frequency of different morphological types and extrasulcal (visible surface area of the cingulate gyms, were measured and analyzed in order to obtain more precise data about morphology, right/left and sex differences in the human brain. Material and methods. The study included 42 brains (84 hemispheres from persons of both sexes and of different age (26 males, 16 females, 20-65 years old, without neuropathological changes. After fixation in 10% formaline (3-4 weeks and removal of meninges the brains were photographed under standard conditions by digital camera. Following determination of morphological type, regions of interest of cingulate gyrus were determined in stereotactic system system of coordinates and the extrasulcal surface was measured by digital AutoCAD planimetry. Results and discussion. Three basic morphological types of cingulate gyrus were found: the continuous type (34.5%, segmented type (35.7% and double paralel type (29.8%. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of morphological types related to the side (right/left or sex (p>0.05. The area of extrasulcal cortex of cingulate gyrus was statistically significantly (p<0.O5 larger on the left hemispheres (for 1.13 cm than on the right (left: 14.58 cm; right: 13.45 cm. The extrasulcal surface of the left cingulate gyrus was significantly larger (p0.05 in males (males 15.9 cm: females - 13.6 cm, while for the right cingulate gyrus this difference was not significant. Conclusion. Morphometry indicated sex and right/left differences of extrasulcal surface area of the human cingulate gyrus. However, the morphological analysis itself did not indicate corresponding differences, suggesting complexity of the problem of sex dimorphism and of right/left asymmetries in the domain of limbic cortex.

  11. Entorhinal cortex of the rat: cytoarchitectonic subdivisions and the origin and distribution of cortical efferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insausti, R; Herrero, M T; Witter, M P

    1997-01-01

    The origins and terminations of entorhinal cortical projections in the rat were analyzed in detail with retrograde and anterograde tracing techniques. Retrograde fluorescent tracers were injected in different portions of olfactory, medial frontal (infralimbic and prelimbic areas), lateral frontal (motor area), temporal (auditory), parietal (somatosensory), occipital (visual), cingulate, retrosplenial, insular, and perirhinal cortices. Anterograde tracer injections were placed in various parts of the rat entorhinal cortex to demonstrate the laminar and topographical distribution of the cortical projections of the entorhinal cortex. The retrograde experiments showed that each cortical area explored receives projections from a specific set of entorhinal neurons, limited in number and distribution. By far the most extensive entorhinal projection was directed to the perirhinal cortex. This projection, which arises from all layers, originates throughout the entorhinal cortex, although its major origin is from the more lateral and caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Projections to the medial frontal cortex and olfactory structures originate largely in layers II and III of much of the intermediate and medial portions of the entorhinal cortex, although a modest component arises from neurons in layer V of the more caudal parts of the entorhinal cortex. Neurons in layer V of an extremely laterally located strip of entorhinal cortex, positioned along the rhinal fissure, give rise to the projections to lateral frontal (motor), parietal (somatosensory), temporal (auditory), occipital (visual), anterior insular, and cingulate cortices. Neurons in layer V of the most caudal part of the entorhinal cortex originate projections to the retrosplenial cortex. The anterograde experiments confirmed these findings and showed that in general, the terminal fields of the entorhinal-cortical projections were densest in layers I, II, and III, although particularly in the more densely

  12. Reward Sensitivity Modulates Brain Activity in the Prefrontal Cortex, ACC and Striatum during Task Switching

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    Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Ávila, César; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Bustamante, Juan C.; Costumero, Víctor; Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS) sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies. PMID:25875640

  13. Von Economo neurons are present in the dorsolateral (dysgranular) prefrontal cortex of humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajardo, C; Escobar, M I; Buriticá, E; Arteaga, G; Umbarila, J; Casanova, M F; Pimienta, H

    2008-04-25

    Von Economo neurons (VENs), also known as spindle cells, have been described in layer V of the anterior cingulate (BA 24) and frontoinsular cortex (FI) of humans and other great apes. In the present study we used immunohistochemistry against two specific neuronal markers (NeuN and MAP2) in order to establish the presence of these cell types in Brodmann area 9 (BA 9) of the human prefrontal cortex. We evaluated tissue samples of eight human postmortem brains (age range 26-50) from BAs 9, 24, 4, 46, 45, 10 and 17. We identified a group of cells with similar morphology to that previously described for VENs in all specimens of BA 9 examined, albeit less frequently than in BA 24. This is the first description of this cell type in a human brain area with well developed granular layers (BA 9).

  14. CNQX对伤害性电刺激隐神经引起大鼠扣带回前部多巴胺含量变化的影响%Effect of CNQX on the Change of Dopamine Content in Anterior Cingulate Gyrus of Rats Induced by Noxious Electrical Stimulation of Saphenous Nerve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏范; 刘忠; 杨宇; 商丽宏; 陈魁敏; 张坤松

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究谷氨酸A MPA/Kainate受体拮抗剂CNQX对伤害性电刺激隐神经引起大鼠扣带回前部(ACG)多巴胺含量变化的影响.方法 用高效液相色谱-电化学检测技术研究伤害性电刺激隐神经后不同时间,ACG多巴胺含量的变化,以及静脉注射CNQX对多巴胺含量变化的影响.结果 伤害性电刺激隐神经后15 min,ACG多巴胺含量显著增高,30 min后增高最明显,1h后开始恢复,2h后逐渐恢复接近对照水平;静脉注射CNQX拮抗了伤害性电刺激隐神经引起的ACG多巴胺含量的显著增高.结论 伤害性电刺激隐神经能够引起ACG多巴胺含量呈时间依赖性增高,提示ACG接受隐神经伤害性信息的传入,引起ACG多巴胺能神经元功能活动增强.CNQX能拮抗伤害性电刺激隐神经引起的ACG多巴胺含量的增高,提示AMPA/Kainate受体参与隐神经伤害性信息传入引起的ACG多巴胺含量增高的过程.%Objective To study the effect of glutamic acid receptor antagonist,CNQX on the change of dopamine content in anterior cingu-late gyrus (ACG) of rats induced by nociceptive electrical stimulation of saphenous nerve (SN). Methods High performance liquid chro-matography-electrochemical detection was used to study effect of different time after electrical stimulation of SN on dopamine content in ACG of rats, and the influence of CNQX intravenous injection to the change of dopamine content in ACG of rats induced by electrical stimulation of SN. Results Dopamine content in ACG significantly increased at 15min after electrical stimulation of SN.andit reached its peak at 30min after the stimulation of SN,and started to decrease at lh after the stimulation of SN ,and recovered gradually 2h after the stimulation of SN. In addition, intravenous injection of CNQX antagonized significant increase in dopamine content in ACG caused by nociceptive electrical stimulation of SN. Conclusion Significant time dependent increase in dopamine content in ACG

  15. Effects of the Bee Venom Herbal Acupuncture on the Neurotransmitters of the Rat Brain Cortex

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    Hyoung-Seok Yun

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of bee venom Herbal Acupuncture on neurotransmitters in the rat brain cortex, herbal acupuncture with bee venom group and normal saline group was performed at LI4 bilaterally of the rat. the average optical density of neurotransmitters from the cerebral cortex was analysed 30 minutes after the herbal aqupuncture, by the immunohistochemistry. The results were as follows: 1. The density of NADPH-diaphorase in bee venom group was increased significantly at the motor cortex, visual cortex, auditory cortex, cingulate cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex compared to the normal saline group. 2. The average optical density of vasoactive intestinal peptide in bee venom group had significant changes at the insular cortex, retrosplenial cortex and perirhinal cortex, compared to the normal saline group. 3. The average optical density of neuropeptide-Y in bee venom group increased significantly at the visual cortex and cingulate cortex, compared to the normal saline group.

  16. Prefrontal cortex based sex differences in tinnitus perception: same tinnitus intensity, same tinnitus distress, different mood.

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    Sven Vanneste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tinnitus refers to auditory phantom sensation. It is estimated that for 2% of the population this auditory phantom percept severely affects the quality of life, due to tinnitus related distress. Although the overall distress levels do not differ between sexes in tinnitus, females are more influenced by distress than males. Typically, pain, sleep, and depression are perceived as significantly more severe by female tinnitus patients. Studies on gender differences in emotional regulation indicate that females with high depressive symptoms show greater attention to emotion, and use less anti-rumination emotional repair strategies than males. METHODOLOGY: The objective of this study was to verify whether the activity and connectivity of the resting brain is different for male and female tinnitus patients using resting-state EEG. CONCLUSIONS: Females had a higher mean score than male tinnitus patients on the BDI-II. Female tinnitus patients differ from male tinnitus patients in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC extending to the frontopolar cortex in beta1 and beta2. The OFC is important for emotional processing of sounds. Increased functional alpha connectivity is found between the OFC, insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC, parahippocampal (PHC areas and the auditory cortex in females. Our data suggest increased functional connectivity that binds tinnitus-related auditory cortex activity to auditory emotion-related areas via the PHC-sgACC connections resulting in a more depressive state even though the tinnitus intensity and tinnitus-related distress are not different from men. Comparing male tinnitus patients to a control group of males significant differences could be found for beta3 in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. The PCC might be related to cognitive and memory-related aspects of the tinnitus percept. Our results propose that sex influences in tinnitus research cannot be ignored and should be taken into account in functional

  17. Affective ambiguity for a group recruits ventromedial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Alan; Stein, Murray B; Matthews, Scott C; Feinstein, Justin S; Paulus, Martin P

    2006-01-15

    Affective appraisal often involves processing complex and ambiguous stimuli, such as the mood of a group people. However, affective neuroimaging research often uses individual faces as stimuli when exploring the neural circuitry involved in social appraisal. Results from studies using single face paradigms may not generalize to settings where multiple faces are simultaneously processed. The goal of the current study was to use a novel task that presents groups of affective faces to probe the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), a region that is critically involved in appraisal of ambiguous affective stimuli, in healthy volunteers. In the current study, 27 subjects performed the Wall of Faces (WOF) task in which multiple matrices of faces were briefly presented during functional MRI. Subjects were asked to decide whether there were more angry or happy faces (emotional decision) or whether there were more male or female faces (gender decision). In each condition, the array contained either an equal (ambiguous trials) or an unequal (unambiguous trials) distribution of one affect or gender. Ambiguous trials relative to unambiguous trials activated regions implicated in conflict monitoring and cognitive control, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral PFC, and posterior parietal cortex. When comparing ambiguous affective decisions with ambiguous gender decisions, the ventromedial PFC (including the ventral ACC) was significantly more active. This supports the dissociation of the ACC into dorsal cognitive and ventral affective divisions, and suggests that the ventromedial PFC may play a critical role in appraising affective tone in a complex display of multiple human faces.

  18. Thinning of the lateral prefrontal cortex during adolescence predicts emotion regulation in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Nandita; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Dennison, Meg; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B

    2014-11-01

    Adolescence is a crucial period for the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies. Despite the fact that structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex during adolescence is often assumed to underlie the maturation of emotion regulation strategies, no longitudinal studies have directly assessed this relationship. This study examined whether use of cognitive reappraisal strategies during late adolescence was predicted by (i) absolute prefrontal cortical thickness during early adolescence and (ii) structural maturation of the prefrontal cortex between early and mid-adolescence. Ninety-two adolescents underwent baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans when they were aged approximately 12 and 16 years, respectively. FreeSurfer software was used to obtain cortical thickness estimates for three prefrontal regions [anterior cingulate cortex; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC); ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC)]. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire was completed when adolescents were aged approximately 19 years. Results showed that greater cortical thinning of the left dlPFC and left vlPFC during adolescence was significantly associated with greater use of cognitive reappraisal in females, though no such relationship was evident in males. Furthermore, baseline left dlPFC thickness predicted cognitive reappraisal at trend level. These findings suggest that cortical maturation may play a role in the development of adaptive emotion regulation strategies during adolescence.

  19. Migration abnormality in the left cingulate gyrus presenting with autistic disorder.

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    Korkmaz, Bariş; Benbir, Gülçin; Demirbilek, Veysi

    2006-07-01

    Autism, characterized by an impairment in communication, including language, narrowly focused interests, and poor sociability, is a neurodevelopmental disorder of still largely unknown pathogenesis. In children with autistic symptomatology, the most consistent functional or anatomic abnormalities are found in the cingulate gyrus, particularly in the anterior regions. Neuronal migration malformations caused by incomplete neuronal migration and characterized by loss of the normal gyral patterns in the cerebral hemispheres and prominent disorganization of the cerebral cortical cytoarchitecture are generally associated with profound neurologic deficits, epilepsy, and autism. In this report, we present a case with an isolated migration abnormality located in the anterior part of the left cingulate gyrus who was admitted with the complaints of epileptic seizures and autism. In addition, the role of the localization of the migration abnormality in the appearance of autistic symptomatology is discussed.

  20. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

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    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  1. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

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    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  2. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

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    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  3. Pyramidal neurons of the prefrontal cortex in post-stroke, vascular and other ageing-related dementias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Vincent; Oakley, Arthur E; Slade, Janet Y; Hall, Roslyn; Polvikoski, Tuomo M; Burke, Matthew; Thomas, Alan J; Khundakar, Ahmad; Allan, Louise M; Kalaria, Raj N

    2014-09-01

    Dementia associated with cerebrovascular disease is common. It has been reported that ∼30% of elderly patients who survive stroke develop delayed dementia (post-stroke dementia), with most cases being diagnosed as vascular dementia. The pathological substrates associated with post-stroke or vascular dementia are poorly understood, particularly those associated with executive dysfunction. Three separate yet interconnecting circuits control executive function within the frontal lobe involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. We used stereological methods, along with immunohistological and related cell morphometric analysis, to examine densities and volumes of pyramidal neurons of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex in the frontal lobe from a total of 90 elderly subjects (age range 71-98 years). Post-mortem brain tissues from post-stroke dementia and post-stroke patients with no dementia were derived from our prospective Cognitive Function After Stroke study. We also examined, in parallel, samples from ageing controls and similar age subjects pathologically diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, mixed Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia, and vascular dementia. We found pyramidal cell volumes in layers III and V in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of post-stroke and vascular dementia and, of mixed and Alzheimer's disease subjects to be reduced by 30-40% compared to post-stroke patients with no dementia and controls. There were no significant changes in neuronal volumes in either the anterior cingulate or orbitofrontal cortices. Remarkably, pyramidal neurons within the orbitofrontal cortex were also found to be smaller in size when compared to those in the other two neocortical regions. To relate the cell changes to cognitive function, we noted significant correlations between neuronal volumes and total CAMCOG, orientation and memory scores and clinical

  4. Differential effects of hunger and satiety on insular cortex and hypothalamic functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Hazel; Li, Xiaoyun; Fallon, Nicholas B; Crookall, Rebecca; Giesbrecht, Timo; Thomas, Anna; Halford, Jason C G; Harrold, Joanne; Stancak, Andrej

    2016-05-01

    The insula cortex and hypothalamus are implicated in eating behaviour, and contain receptor sites for peptides and hormones controlling energy balance. The insula encompasses multi-functional subregions, which display differential anatomical and functional connectivities with the rest of the brain. This study aimed to analyse the effect of fasting and satiation on the functional connectivity profiles of left and right anterior, middle, and posterior insula, and left and right hypothalamus. It was hypothesized that the profiles would be altered alongside changes in homeostatic energy balance. Nineteen healthy participants underwent two 7-min resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans, one when fasted and one when satiated. Functional connectivity between the left posterior insula and cerebellum/superior frontal gyrus, and between left hypothalamus and inferior frontal gyrus was stronger during fasting. Functional connectivity between the right middle insula and default mode structures (left and right posterior parietal cortex, cingulate cortex), and between right hypothalamus and superior parietal cortex was stronger during satiation. Differences in blood glucose levels between the scans accounted for several of the altered functional connectivities. The insula and hypothalamus appear to form a homeostatic energy balance network related to cognitive control of eating; prompting eating and preventing overeating when energy is depleted, and ending feeding or transferring attention away from food upon satiation. This study provides evidence of a lateralized dissociation of neural responses to energy modulations.

  5. Evolutionary appearance of Von Economo’s Neurons in the mammalian cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco eCauda

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Von Economo’s neurons (VENs are large, spindle-shaped projection neurons in layer V of the frontoinsular (FI cortex, and the anterior cingulate cortex. During human ontogenesis, the VENs can first be differentiated at late stages of gestation, and increase in number during the first eight postnatal months.VENs have been identified in humans, chimpanzee, bonobos, gorillas, orangutan and, more recently, in the macaque. Their distribution in great apes seems to correlate with human-like social cognitive abilities and self-awareness. VENs are also found in whales, in a number of different cetaceans, and in the elephant. This phylogenetic distribution may suggest a correlation among the VENs, brain size and the social brain. VENs may be involved in the pathogenesis of specific neurological and psychiatric diseases, such as autism, callosal agenesis and schizophrenia. VENs are selectively affected in a behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia in which empathy, social awareness and self-control are seriously compromised, thus associating VENs with the social brain.However, the presence of VENs has also been related to special functions such as mirror self-recognition. Areas containing VENs have been related to motor awareness or sense-of-knowing, discrimination between self and other, and between self and the external environment. Along this line, VENs have been related to the global Workspace architecture: in accordance the VENs have been correlated to emotional and interoceptive signals by providing fast connections (large axons = fast communication between salience-related insular and cingulate and other widely separated brain areas.Nevertheless, the lack of a characterization of their physiology and anatomical connectivity allowed only to infer their functional role based on their location and on the fMRI data. The recent finding of VENs in the anterior insula of the macaque opens the way to new insights and experimental investigatio

  6. The changes of regional cerebral blood flow: successful pain relief of intractable CRPS type II patients by motor cortex stimulation

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    Jung, J. A.; Son, H. S.; Kim, S. H.; Jung, S. G [The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Authors report the effectiveness of MCS in extraordinarily extended pain due to intractable CRPS type II and rCBF study result for mechanism of pain control by MCS. A 43-year-old male presented severe spontaneous burning pain in his left hand and forearm and allodynia over the left arm and left hemibody. Authors planned MCS as a neuromodulation therapy for this intractable peripheral neuropathic pain patient because further neurodestructive procedure did not work anymore and have a potential risk of further aggrevation of neuopathic pain. We performed baseline and stimulation brain perfusion SPECT using 20 mCi of Tc-99m ECD. The baseline CBD studies were done with stimulator 'off' state and stimulation studies were done after stimulator 'on' with satisfactory pain relief. For the stimulation study, the radioisotope was injected immediately after pain-relief and the images were taken about 50 minutes after injection of radioisotope. In resting rCBF in the patient was compared with normal control datas, we found significant increase in rCBF in the bilateral prefrontal cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, left temporooccipital area. When rCBF datas obtained after alleviation of pain with stimulator 'on' . there were significant increase in rCBF in bilateral prefrontal cortex and left temporoocipital area. After subtraction of ECD SPECT, we found significant increase in rCBF in the right premotor and supplementary motor cortex left sensorimotor cortex, right cingulated cortex, right posterior insular cortex, right anterior limb of internal capsule. left orbitofrontal cortex and right pyramidal tract in cerebral peduncle. Authors report exellent pain control by MCS in a case of severe CRPS type II with hemibody involvement and regional cerebral blood flow changes according to successful pain control.

  7. Enhanced peripheral visual processing in congenitally deaf humans is supported by multiple brain regions, including primary auditory cortex.

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    Scott, Gregory D; Karns, Christina M; Dow, Mark W; Stevens, Courtney; Neville, Helen J

    2014-01-01

    Brain reorganization associated with altered sensory experience clarifies the critical role of neuroplasticity in development. An example is enhanced peripheral visual processing associated with congenital deafness, but the neural systems supporting this have not been fully characterized. A gap in our understanding of deafness-enhanced peripheral vision is the contribution of primary auditory cortex. Previous studies of auditory cortex that use anatomical normalization across participants were limited by inter-subject variability of Heschl's gyrus. In addition to reorganized auditory cortex (cross-modal plasticity), a second gap in our understanding is the contribution of altered modality-specific cortices (visual intramodal plasticity in this case), as well as supramodal and multisensory cortices, especially when target detection is required across contrasts. Here we address these gaps by comparing fMRI signal change for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual stimulation (11-15° vs. 2-7°) in congenitally deaf and hearing participants in a blocked experimental design with two analytical approaches: a Heschl's gyrus region of interest analysis and a whole brain analysis. Our results using individually-defined primary auditory cortex (Heschl's gyrus) indicate that fMRI signal change for more peripheral stimuli was greater than perifoveal in deaf but not in hearing participants. Whole-brain analyses revealed differences between deaf and hearing participants for peripheral vs. perifoveal visual processing in extrastriate visual cortex including primary auditory cortex, MT+/V5, superior-temporal auditory, and multisensory and/or supramodal regions, such as posterior parietal cortex (PPC), frontal eye fields, anterior cingulate, and supplementary eye fields. Overall, these data demonstrate the contribution of neuroplasticity in multiple systems including primary auditory cortex, supramodal, and multisensory regions, to altered visual processing in congenitally deaf adults.

  8. Effects of bupropion SR on anterior paralimbic function during waking and REM sleep in depression: preliminary findings using.

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    Nofzinger, E A; Berman, S; Fasiczka, A; Miewald, J M; Meltzer, C C; Price, J C; Sembrat, R C; Wood, A; Thase, M E

    2001-04-10

    This study sought to clarify the effects of bupropion SR on anterior paralimbic function in depressed patients by studying changes in the activation of these structures from waking to REM sleep both before and after treatment. Twelve depressed patients underwent concurrent EEG sleep studies and [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) scans during waking and during their second REM period of sleep before and after treatment with bupropion SR. Nine subjects completed pre- and post-treatment waking PET studies. Five subjects completed pre- and post-treatment waking and REM sleep PET studies. Bupropion SR treatment did not suppress electrophysiologic measures of REM sleep, nor did it alter an indirect measure of global metabolism during either waking or REM sleep. Bupropion SR treatment reversed the previously observed deficit in anterior cingulate, medial prefrontal cortex and right anterior insula activation from waking to REM sleep. In secondary analyses, this effect was related to a reduction in waking relative metabolism in these structures following treatment in the absence of a significant effect on REM sleep relative metabolism. The implications of these findings for the relative importance of anterior paralimbic function in REM sleep in depression and for the differential effects of anti-depressant treatment on brain function during waking vs. REM sleep are discussed.

  9. Functional Connectivity Between Superior Parietal Lobule and Primary Visual Cortex "at Rest" Predicts Visual Search Efficiency.

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    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Parcet, María-Antonia; Ávila, César

    2015-10-01

    Spatiotemporal activity that emerges spontaneously "at rest" has been proposed to reflect individual a priori biases in cognitive processing. This research focused on testing neurocognitive models of visual attention by studying the functional connectivity (FC) of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), given its central role in establishing priority maps during visual search tasks. Twenty-three human participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session that featured a resting-state scan, followed by a visual search task based on the alphanumeric category effect. As expected, the behavioral results showed longer reaction times and more errors for the within-category (i.e., searching a target letter among letters) than the between-category search (i.e., searching a target letter among numbers). The within-category condition was related to greater activation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules, occipital cortex, inferior frontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the superior colliculus than the between-category search. The resting-state FC analysis of the SPL revealed a broad network that included connections with the inferotemporal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal frontal areas like the supplementary motor area and frontal eye field. Noteworthy, the regression analysis revealed that the more efficient participants in the visual search showed stronger FC between the SPL and areas of primary visual cortex (V1) related to the search task. We shed some light on how the SPL establishes a priority map of the environment during visual attention tasks and how FC is a valuable tool for assessing individual differences while performing cognitive tasks.

  10. In vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recording of sensory synaptic responses of cingulate pyramidal neurons to noxious mechanical stimuli in adult mice

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    Descalzi Giannina

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of the adult mouse ACC can be characterized into three types: regular spiking (RS, intermediate (IM and intrinsic bursting (IB cells, according to their action potential (AP firing patterns. However, no in vivo information is available for the intrinsic properties and sensory responses of ACC neurons of adult mice. Here, we performed in vivo whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal neurons in adult mice ACC under urethane anesthetized conditions. First, we classified the intrinsic properties and analyzed their slow oscillations. The population ratios of RS, IM and IB cells were 10, 62 and 28%, respectively. The mean spontaneous APs frequency of IB cells was significantly greater than those of RS and IM cells, while the slow oscillations were similar among ACC neurons. Peripheral noxious pinch stimuli induced evoked spike responses in all three types of ACC neurons. Interestingly, IB cells showed significantly greater firing frequencies than RS and IM cells. In contrast, non-noxious brush did not induce any significant response. Our studies provide the first in vivo characterization of ACC neurons in adult mice, and demonstrate that ACC neurons are indeed nociceptive. These findings support the critical roles of ACC in nociception, from mice to humans.

  11. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses.

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    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-02-15

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy-projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace.

  12. Anterior insula coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile mismatch responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Micah; Fardo, Francesca; Dietz, Martin J.; Hillebrandt, Hauke; Friston, Karl J.; Rees, Geraint; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The body underlies our sense of self, emotion, and agency. Signals arising from the skin convey warmth, social touch, and the physical characteristics of external stimuli. Surprising or unexpected tactile sensations can herald events of motivational salience, including imminent threats (e.g., an insect bite) and hedonic rewards (e.g., a caressing touch). Awareness of such events is thought to depend upon the hierarchical integration of body-related mismatch responses by the anterior insula. To investigate this possibility, we measured brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging, while healthy participants performed a roving tactile oddball task. Mass-univariate analysis demonstrated robust activations in limbic, somatosensory, and prefrontal cortical areas previously implicated in tactile deviancy, body awareness, and cognitive control. Dynamic Causal Modelling revealed that unexpected stimuli increased the strength of forward connections along a caudal to rostral hierarchy—projecting from thalamic and somatosensory regions towards insula, cingulate and prefrontal cortices. Within this ascending flow of sensory information, the AIC was the only region to show increased backwards connectivity to the somatosensory cortex, augmenting a reciprocal exchange of neuronal signals. Further, participants who rated stimulus changes as easier to detect showed stronger modulation of descending PFC to AIC connections by deviance. These results suggest that the AIC coordinates hierarchical processing of tactile prediction error. They are interpreted in support of an embodied predictive coding model where AIC mediated body awareness is involved in anchoring a global neuronal workspace. PMID:26584870

  13. A dorsolateral prefrontal cortex semi-automatic segmenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hakim, Ramsey; Fallon, James; Nain, Delphine; Melonakos, John; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2006-03-01

    Structural, functional, and clinical studies in schizophrenia have, for several decades, consistently implicated dysfunction of the prefrontal cortex in the etiology of the disease. Functional and structural imaging studies, combined with clinical, psychometric, and genetic analyses in schizophrenia have confirmed the key roles played by the prefrontal cortex and closely linked "prefrontal system" structures such as the striatum, amygdala, mediodorsal thalamus, substantia nigra-ventral tegmental area, and anterior cingulate cortices. The nodal structure of the prefrontal system circuit is the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), or Brodmann area 46, which also appears to be the most commonly studied and cited brain area with respect to schizophrenia. 1, 2, 3, 4 In 1986, Weinberger et. al. tied cerebral blood flow in the DLPFC to schizophrenia.1 In 2001, Perlstein et. al. demonstrated that DLPFC activation is essential for working memory tasks commonly deficient in schizophrenia. 2 More recently, groups have linked morphological changes due to gene deletion and increased DLPFC glutamate concentration to schizophrenia. 3, 4 Despite the experimental and clinical focus on the DLPFC in structural and functional imaging, the variability of the location of this area, differences in opinion on exactly what constitutes DLPFC, and inherent difficulties in segmenting this highly convoluted cortical region have contributed to a lack of widely used standards for manual or semi-automated segmentation programs. Given these implications, we developed a semi-automatic tool to segment the DLPFC from brain MRI scans in a reproducible way to conduct further morphological and statistical studies. The segmenter is based on expert neuroanatomist rules (Fallon-Kindermann rules), inspired by cytoarchitectonic data and reconstructions presented by Rajkowska and Goldman-Rakic. 5 It is semi-automated to provide essential user interactivity. We present our results and provide details on

  14. Widespread heterogeneous neuronal loss across the cerebral cortex in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nana, Alissa L; Kim, Eric H; Thu, Doris C V; Oorschot, Dorothy E; Tippett, Lynette J; Hogg, Virginia M; Synek, Beth J; Roxburgh, Richard; Waldvogel, Henry J; Faull, Richard L M

    2014-01-01

    Huntington's disease is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease characterized by neuronal degeneration in the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex, and a variable symptom profile. Although progressive striatal degeneration is known to occur and is related to symptom profile, little is known about the cellular basis of symptom heterogeneity across the entire cerebral cortex. To investigate this, we have undertaken a double blind study using unbiased stereological cell counting techniques to determine the pattern of cell loss in six representative cortical regions from the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes in the brains of 14 Huntington's disease cases and 15 controls. The results clearly demonstrate a widespread loss of total neurons and pyramidal cells across all cortical regions studied, except for the primary visual cortex. Importantly, the results show that cell loss is remarkably variable both within and between Huntington's disease cases. The results also show that neuronal loss in the primary sensory and secondary visual cortices relate to Huntington's disease motor symptom profiles, and neuronal loss across the associational cortices in the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes is related to both Huntington's disease motor and to mood symptom profiles. This finding considerably extends a previous study (Thu et al., Brain, 2010; 133:1094-1110) which showed that neuronal loss in the primary motor cortex was related specifically to the motor symptom profiles while neuronal loss in the anterior cingulate cortex was related specifically to mood symptom profiles. The extent of cortical cell loss in the current study was generally related to the striatal neuropathological grade, but not to CAG repeat length on the HTT gene. Overall our findings show that Huntington's disease is characterized by a heterogeneous pattern of neuronal cell loss across the entire cerebrum which varies with symptom profile.

  15. Prefrontal cortex and drug abuse vulnerability: translation to prevention and treatment interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Joseph, Jane E; Jiang, Yang; Zimmerman, Rick S; Kelly, Thomas H; Darna, Mahesh; Huettl, Peter; Dwoskin, Linda P; Bardo, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug abuse is related to both reward seeking and impulsivity, two constructs thought to have a biological basis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). This review addresses similarities and differences in neuroanatomy, neurochemistry and behavior associated with PFC function in rodents and humans. Emphasis is placed on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitter systems located in anatomically distinct subregions: medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC); anterior cingulate cortex (ACC); and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). While there are complex interconnections and overlapping functions among these regions, each is thought to be involved in various functions related to health-related risk behaviors and drug abuse vulnerability. Among the various functions implicated, evidence suggests that mPFC is involved in reward processing, attention and drug reinstatement; lPFC is involved in decision-making, behavioral inhibition and attentional gating; ACC is involved in attention, emotional processing and self-monitoring; and OFC is involved in behavioral inhibition, signaling of expected outcomes and reward/punishment sensitivity. Individual differences (e.g., age and sex) influence functioning of these regions, which, in turn, impacts drug abuse vulnerability. Implications for the development of drug abuse prevention and treatment strategies aimed at engaging PFC inhibitory processes that may reduce risk-related behaviors are discussed, including the design of effective public service announcements, cognitive exercises, physical activity, direct current stimulation, feedback control training and pharmacotherapies. A major challenge in drug abuse prevention and treatment rests with improving intervention strategies aimed at strengthening PFC inhibitory systems among at-risk individuals.

  16. Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention.

  17. Increased NAA and reduced choline levels in the anterior cingulum following chronic methylphenidate. A spectroscopic test-retest study in adult ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Golo; Ende, Gabriele; Alm, Barbara; Deuschle, Michael; Heuser, Isabella; Colla, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucially involved in executive control of attention. Here, seven medication-naïve adult patients suffering from attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were studied with 2D (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the ACC [Brodmann areas 24b'-c' and 32'] twice, once before initiation of stimulant treatment and once after 5-6 weeks of methylphenidate. Upon retest, all patients demonstrated marked clinical improvement. Analysis of regional brain spectra revealed a significantly decreased signal of choline containing compounds as well as increased N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA) levels following treatment with methylphenidate whereas total creatine remained unchanged. Our results add to a growing body of evidence implicating the ACC in the pathophysiology of ADHD and suggest that subtle structural changes might be associated with aspects of clinical improvement under stimulant treatment.

  18. The posterior medial cortex in urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome: detachment from default mode network-a resting-state study from the MAPP Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Katherine T; Shirer, William R; Bagarinao, Epifanio; Johnson, Kevin A; Farmer, Melissa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Apkarian, A Vania; Deutsch, Georg; Harris, Richard E; Mayer, Emeran A; Clauw, Daniel J; Greicius, Michael D; Mackey, Sean C

    2015-09-01

    Altered resting-state (RS) brain activity, as a measure of functional connectivity (FC), is commonly observed in chronic pain. Identifying a reliable signature pattern of altered RS activity for chronic pain could provide strong mechanistic insights and serve as a highly beneficial neuroimaging-based diagnostic tool. We collected and analyzed RS functional magnetic resonance imaging data from female patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome (N = 45) and matched healthy participants (N = 45) as part of an NIDDK-funded multicenter project (www.mappnetwork.org). Using dual regression and seed-based analyses, we observed significantly decreased FC of the default mode network to 2 regions in the posterior medial cortex (PMC): the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the left precuneus (threshold-free cluster enhancement, family-wise error corrected P pain, sensory, motor, and emotion regulation processes (eg, insular cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, thalamus, globus pallidus, putamen, amygdala, hippocampus). The left precuneus demonstrated decreased FC to several regions of pain processing, reward, and higher executive functioning within the prefrontal (orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal) and parietal cortices (angular gyrus, superior and inferior parietal lobules). The altered PMC connectivity was associated with several phenotype measures, including pain and urologic symptom intensity, depression, anxiety, quality of relationships, and self-esteem levels in patients. Collectively, these findings indicate that in patients with urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome, regions of the PMC are detached from the default mode network, whereas neurological processes of self-referential thought and introspection may be joined to pain and emotion regulatory processes.

  19. Emotional and Utilitarian Appraisals of Moral Dilemmas Are Encoded in Separate Areas and Integrated in Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcherson, Cendri A; Montaser-Kouhsari, Leila; Woodward, James; Rangel, Antonio

    2015-09-09

    Moral judgment often requires making difficult tradeoffs (e.g., is it appropriate to torture to save the lives of innocents at risk?). Previous research suggests that both emotional appraisals and more deliberative utilitarian appraisals influence such judgments and that these appraisals often conflict. However, it is unclear how these different types of appraisals are represented in the brain, or how they are integrated into an overall moral judgment. We addressed these questions using an fMRI paradigm in which human subjects provide separate emotional and utilitarian appraisals for different potential actions, and then make difficult moral judgments constructed from combinations of these actions. We found that anterior cingulate, insula, and superior temporal gyrus correlated with emotional appraisals, whereas temporoparietal junction and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with utilitarian appraisals. Overall moral value judgments were represented in an anterior portion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Critically, the pattern of responses and functional interactions between these three sets of regions are consistent with a model in which emotional and utilitarian appraisals are computed independently and in parallel, and passed to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex where they are integrated into an overall moral value judgment. Significance statement: Popular accounts of moral judgment often describe it as a battle for control between two systems, one intuitive and emotional, the other rational and utilitarian, engaged in winner-take-all inhibitory competition. Using a novel fMRI paradigm, we identified distinct neural signatures of emotional and utilitarian appraisals and used them to test different models of how they compete for the control of moral behavior. Importantly, we find little support for competitive inhibition accounts. Instead, moral judgments resembled the architecture of simple economic choices: distinct regions represented emotional

  20. Nocifensive behavior-related laser heat-evoked component in the rostral agranular insular cortex revealed using morphine analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Yi; Liu, Chan-Ying; Tsai, Meng-Li; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2016-02-01

    The rostral agranular insular cortex (RAIC), an opioid-responsive site, is essential for modulating nociception in rats. Our previous studies have shown that morphine suppressed long latency laser heat-evoked nociceptive responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (SmI). By contrast, morphine significantly attenuated both short and long latency responses in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). The present study assessed the effect of morphine on laser heat-evoked responses in the RAIC. Laser heat irradiation applied to the rat forepaws at graded levels was used as a specific noxious stimulus. In the RAIC, the first part of the long latency component (140-250ms) of the laser heat-evoked response was enhanced by intraperitoneal morphine (5mg/kg). When the laser heat-evoked cortical responses were examined for trials showing strong nocifensive movement (paw licking), moderate nocifensive movement (paw lifting), and no nocifensive movement, a 140-250ms period enhancement was observed in the RAIC only for the paw lifting movement. This enhancement was absent in the SmI. Thus, our data suggest that the RAIC has a pain-related behavior-dependent neuronal component. Furthermore, the RAIC, ACC, and SmI are differentially modulated by morphine analgesia.

  1. Selective visual attention to emotional words: Early parallel frontal and visual activations followed by interactive effects in visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Sebastian; Kissler, Johanna

    2016-10-01

    Human brains spontaneously differentiate between various emotional and neutral stimuli, including written words whose emotional quality is symbolic. In the electroencephalogram (EEG), emotional-neutral processing differences are typically reflected in the early posterior negativity (EPN, 200-300 ms) and the late positive potential (LPP, 400-700 ms). These components are also enlarged by task-driven visual attention, supporting the assumption that emotional content naturally drives attention. Still, the spatio-temporal dynamics of interactions between emotional stimulus content and task-driven attention remain to be specified. Here, we examine this issue in visual word processing. Participants attended to negative, neutral, or positive nouns while high-density EEG was recorded. Emotional content and top-down attention both amplified the EPN component in parallel. On the LPP, by contrast, emotion and attention interacted: Explicit attention to emotional words led to a substantially larger amplitude increase than did explicit attention to neutral words. Source analysis revealed early parallel effects of emotion and attention in bilateral visual cortex and a later interaction of both in right visual cortex. Distinct effects of attention were found in inferior, middle and superior frontal, paracentral, and parietal areas, as well as in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Results specify separate and shared mechanisms of emotion and attention at distinct processing stages. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3575-3587, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, Fatemeh; Kinnaird, Catherine; Wood, Scott; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Seidler, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to characterize the brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit saccular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (VEMP) (Colebatch & Halmagyi 1992; Colebatch et al. 1994). Some researchers have reported that airconducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects (Curthoys et al. 2009, Wackym et al., 2012). However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying the vestibular disorders related to otolith deficits. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, pre and post central gyri, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation (Bottini et al., 1994; Dieterich et al., 2003; Emri et al., 2003; Schlindwein et al., 2008; Janzen et al., 2008). Here we hypothesized that the skull tap elicits the similar pattern of cortical activity as the auditory tone burst. Subjects put on a set of MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in supine position, with eyes closed. All subjects received both forms of the stimulation, however, the order of stimulation with auditory tone burst and air-conducted skull tap was counterbalanced across subjects. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular cortex, resulting in vestibular response (Halmagyi et al., 1995). Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate

  3. Adolescent earthquake survivors' show increased prefrontal cortex activation to masked earthquake images as adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xue; Wei, Dongtao; Ganzel, Barbara L; Kim, Pilyoung; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang

    2015-03-01

    The great Sichuan earthquake in China on May 12, 2008 was a traumatic event to many who live near the earthquake area. However, at present, there are few studies that explore the long-term impact of the adolescent trauma exposure on adults' brain function. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the brain activation evoked by masked trauma-related stimuli (earthquake versus neutral images) in 14 adults who lived near the epicenter of the great Sichuan earthquake when they were adolescents (trauma-exposed group) and 14 adults who lived farther from the epicenter of the earthquake when they were adolescents (control group). Compared with the control group, the trauma-exposed group showed significant elevation of activation in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in response to masked earthquake-related images. In the trauma-exposed group, the right ACC activation was negatively correlated with the frequency of symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These findings differ markedly from the long-term effects of trauma exposure in adults. This suggests that trauma exposure during adolescence may have a unique long-term impact on ACC/MPFC function, top-down modulation of trauma-related information, and subsequent symptoms of PTSD.

  4. Extraversion is linked to volume of the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Cremers

    Full Text Available Neuroticism and extraversion are personality factors associated with the vulnerability for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and are possibly differentially related to brain structures implicated in the processing of emotional information and the generation of mood states. To date, studies on brain morphology mainly focused on neuroticism, a dimension primarily related to negative affect, yielding conflicting findings concerning the association with personality, partially due to methodological issues and variable population samples under study. Recently, extraversion, a dimension primarily related to positive affect, has been repeatedly inversely related to with symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. In the present study, high resolution structural T1-weighted MR images of 65 healthy adults were processed using an optimized Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM approach. Multiple regression analyses were performed to test for associations of neuroticism and extraversion with prefrontal and subcortical volumes. Orbitofrontal and right amygdala volume were both positively related to extraversion. Extraversion was differentially related to volume of the anterior cingulate cortex in males (positive and females (negative. Neuroticism scores did not significantly correlate with these brain regions. As extraversion is regarded a protective factor for developing anxiety disorders and depression and has been related to the generation of positive affect, the present results indicate that the reduced likelihood of developing affective disorders in individuals high on extraversion is related to modulation of emotion processing through the orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala.

  5. The interaction of emotion and pain in the insula and secondary somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenius, Tage I; Raij, Tuukka T; Nuortimo, Antti; Näätänen, Petri; Lipsanen, Jari; Karlsson, Hasse

    2017-03-01

    Pain is processed in a large neural network that partially overlaps structures involved in emotion processing. Despite the fact that pain and emotion are known to share neural regions and interact in numerous clinical conditions, relatively little is known about the interaction of pain and emotion at the neural level. This study on healthy adults aimed to investigate the interaction between negative and positive emotional stimuli and experimental pain in an essential pain processing network. Sixteen healthy young adult subjects were exposed to pictures from the International Affective Picture System with negative, neutral or positive valence, along with laser pain stimuli. The stimuli were pseudo-randomly arranged in three 15-min experiment series comprising 49 stimuli each (picture, laser or simultaneous picture and laser stimuli). The whole-brain blood-oxygen-level dependent signal was acquired using 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As expected, the pain stimulus elicited activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) when compared to the baseline. The interaction of negative emotion and laser stimuli related to the activation of the left SII. The interaction of positive emotion and pain stimuli led to bilateral activation of the SII and left insula. These findings reveal interaction in parts of the pain processing network during simultaneous emotion and physical pain. We demonstrated a valence-independent interaction of emotion and pain in SII.

  6. 猫扣带回前部内脏与躯体伤害感受神经元膜电学特性的对比研究%A Comparative Study of Membrane Electrical Properties of Visceral and Somatic Nociceptive Neurons of Anterior Cingulate Gyrus in Cats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏范; 张勇; 杨宇; 姚阳; 马积昊; 商丽宏

    2015-01-01

    Objective To perform a comparative study on membrane electrical properties of visceral and somatic nociceptive neurons of anterior cin⁃gulate gyrus(ACG)in cats,so as to provide the experimental basis for elucidating the mechanism of differences in perceptual qualities between vis⁃ceral pain and somatic pain from the membrane electrical aspects. Methods A total of 77 adult cats,female or male,weighting 2.0 to 3.5 kg were selected for the study. According to the properties of the greater splanchnic nerve(GSN)or saphenous nerve(SN)evoked responses of neurons in ACG and effect of morphine on the evoked responses,visceral nociceptive neurons(VNNs)having the long latency(≥50 ms)GSN evoked re⁃sponses or somatic nociceptive neurons(SNNs)having the long latency(≥50 ms)SN evoked responses were detected. With a glass microelectrode in vivo,a series of polarizing current of different intensity from-5 nA to+5 nA with a 50 ms duration were injected to these neurons in ACG,and the membrane electrical responses of these neurons were recorded. Finally,the membrane electrical parameters of these neurons were calculated. Re⁃sults Totally 254 VNNs and 172 SNNs were recorded in ACG. GSN evoked response threshold of VNNs were higher than SN evoked response threshold of SNNs. Compared with SNNs,the membrane resistance,the membrane capacity and the time constant of VNNs were larger. Conclusion Our data proved that there are some differences in the membrane electrical properties between VNNs and SNNs in ACG,which might be the mem⁃brane electrical basis for differences in perceptual qualities between visceral pain and somatic pain.%目的:对比研究猫扣带回前部内脏伤害感受神经元与躯体伤害感受神经元膜电学特性,从膜电学方面为阐明内脏痛与躯体痛具有不同感受特性的机制提供实验依据。方法选择成龄猫77只,体质量2.0~3.5 kg,雄雌不限。根据在体微电极记录的扣带回前部神经元对电刺激

  7. Thinner Cortex in Collegiate Football Players With, but not Without, a Self-Reported History of Concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Timothy B; Bellgowan, Patrick S F; Bergamino, Maurizio; Ling, Josef M; Mayer, Andrew R

    2016-02-15

    Emerging evidence suggests that a history of sports-related concussions can lead to long-term neuroanatomical changes. The extent to which similar changes are present in young athletes is undetermined at this time. Here, we tested the hypothesis that collegiate football athletes with (n = 25) and without (n = 24) a self-reported history of concussion would have cortical thickness differences and altered white matter integrity relative to healthy controls (n = 27) in fronto-temporal regions that appear particularly susceptible to traumatic brain injury. Freesurfer software was used to estimate cortical thickness, fractional anisotropy was calculated in a priori white matter tracts, and behavior was assessed using a concussion behavioral battery. Groups did not differ in self-reported symptoms (p > 0.10) or cognitive performance (p > 0.10). Healthy controls reported significantly higher happiness levels than both football groups (all p 0.10). However, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the left anterior cingulate cortex, orbital frontal cortex, and medial superior frontal cortex relative to healthy controls (p = 0.02, d = -0.69). Further, football athletes with a history of concussion had significantly thinner cortex in the right central sulcus and precentral gyrus relative to football athletes without a history of concussion (p = 0.03, d = -0.71). No differences were observed between football athletes without a history of concussion and healthy controls. These results suggest that previous concussions, but not necessarily football exposure, may be associated with cortical thickness differences in collegiate football athletes.

  8. 阿尔茨海默病及轻度认知功能障碍患者后扣带回皮质与全脑有向功能连接研究%Posterior cingulate cortex and global cerebral directed functional connectivity in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于恩彦; 谭云飞; 廖峥娈; 仇雅菊; 朱俊鹏; 丁忠祥

    2015-01-01

    讨阿尔茨海默病(alzheimer disease,AD)和轻度认知功能障碍(mild cognitive impairment,MCI)患者及正常老年人之间后扣带回皮质(posterior cingulate cortex,PCC)与全脑间有向功能连接的差异。方法选取2012年7月至2014年6月浙江省人民医院收治的 AD 患者32例(AD 组)及MCI 患者26例(MCI 组),同期另择健康体检正常老年人58例作为正常对照组。在静息态脑功能成像的基础上,利用Granger causality 分析(GCA)和独立成分分析进行有向功能连接的研究。采用单因素方差分析筛选出3组间有向功能强度有差异的连接,然后对其脑区进行感兴趣区分析;再利用DPARSF 及REST 软件进行静息态脑功能原始数据分析,采用t 检验删选出两组间有差异的功能连接。结果(1)差异有统计学意义的有向连接都是单向的,即全脑到PCC 有向连接的异常节点在接受PCC 信息时并未出现异常,反之亦然;(2)与正常对照组比较,AD 组的异常有向连接主要在默认脑网络(default mode network,DMN)脑区外;而与MCI 组比较,AD 组的异常有向连接则大多是在DMN 脑区内,主要集中在左侧大脑半球,并呈现左右不对称的特点。结论 PCC 作为 DMN 脑区中一个重要的枢纽节点,在AD 的进展中起着非常重要的作用。PCC 的有向连接异常进一步证实AD 的信息传递异常是有方向性的,且左右侧连接异常的不对称与优势大脑的使用相关。

  9. Corticotrigeminal Projections from the Insular Cortex to the Trigeminal Caudal Subnucleus Regulate Orofacial Pain after Nerve Injury via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Activation in Insular Cortex Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Zhi-Hua; Feng, Ban; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Han; Li, Hui; Chen, Tao; Cui, Jing; Zang, Wei-Dong; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cortical neuroplasticity alterations are implicated in the pathophysiology of chronic orofacial pain. However, the relationship between critical cortex excitability and orofacial pain maintenance has not been fully elucidated. We recently demonstrated a top-down corticospinal descending pain modulation pathway from the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to the spinal dorsal horn that could directly regulate nociceptive transmission. Thus, we aimed to investigate possible corticotrigeminal connections that directly influence orofacial nociception in rats. Infraorbital nerve chronic constriction injury (IoN-CCI) induced significant orofacial nociceptive behaviors as well as pain-related negative emotions such as anxiety/depression in rats. By combining retrograde and anterograde tract tracing, we found powerful evidence that the trigeminal caudal subnucleus (Vc), especially the superficial laminae (I/II), received direct descending projections from granular and dysgranular parts of the insular cortex (IC). Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), an important signaling molecule involved in neuroplasticity, was significantly activated in the IC following IoN-CCI. Moreover, in IC slices from IoN-CCI rats, U0126, an inhibitor of ERK activation, decreased both the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) and reduced the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) of Vc-projecting neurons. Additionally, U0126 also reduced the number of action potentials in the Vc-projecting neurons. Finally, intra-IC infusion of U0126 obviously decreased Fos expression in the Vc, accompanied by the alleviation of both nociceptive behavior and negative emotions. Thus, the corticotrigeminal descending pathway from the IC to the Vc could directly regulate orofacial pain, and ERK deactivation in the IC could effectively alleviate neuropathic pain as well as pain-related negative emotions in IoN-CCI rats, probably through this top-down pathway. These findings may help

  10. The neural mechanisms of affect infusion in social economic decision-making: a mediating role of the anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlé, Katia M; Chang, Luke J; van 't Wout, Mascha; Sanfey, Alan G

    2012-05-15

    Though emotions have been shown to have sometimes dramatic effects on decision-making, the neural mechanisms mediating these biases are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated how incidental affect (i.e. emotional states unrelated to the decision at hand) may influence decisions, and how these biases are implemented in the brain. Nineteen adult participants made decisions which involved accepting or rejecting monetary offers from others in an Ultimatum Game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Prior to each set of decisions, participants watched a short video clip aimed at inducing either a sad or neutral emotional state. Results demonstrated that, as expected, sad participants rejected more unfair offers than those in the neutral condition. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that receiving unfair offers while in a sad mood elicited activity in brain areas related to aversive emotional states and somatosensory integration (anterior insula) and to cognitive conflict (anterior cingulate cortex). Sad participants also showed a diminished sensitivity in neural regions associated with reward processing (ventral striatum). Importantly, insular activation uniquely mediated the relationship between sadness and decision bias. This study is the first to reveal how subtle mood states can be integrated at the neural level to influence decision-making.

  11. Global resting-state fMRI analysis identifies frontal cortex, striatal, and cerebellar dysconnectivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticevic, Alan; Hu, Sien; Zhang, Sheng; Savic, Aleksandar; Billingslea, Eileen; Wasylink, Suzanne; Repovs, Grega; Cole, Michael W.; Bednarski, Sarah; Krystal, John H.; Bloch, Michael H.; Li, Chiang-shan R.; Pittenger, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with regional hyperactivity in cortico-striatal circuits. However, the large-scale patterns of abnormal neural connectivity remain uncharacterized. Resting-state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI) studies have shown altered connectivity within the implicated circuitry, but they have used seed-driven approaches wherein a circuit of interest is defined a priori. This limits their ability to identify network abnormalities beyond the prevailing framework. This limitation is particularly problematic within the prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is large and heterogeneous and where a priori specification of seeds is therefore difficult. A hypothesis-neutral data-driven approach to the analysis of connectivity is vital. Method We analyzed rs-fcMRI data collected at 3T in 27 OCD patients and 66 matched controls using a recently developed data-driven global brain connectivity (GBC) method, both within the PFC and across the whole brain. Results We found clusters of decreased connectivity in the left lateral PFC in both whole-brain and PFC-restricted analyses. Increased GBC was found in the right putamen and left cerebellar cortex. Within ROIs in the basal ganglia and thalamus, we identified increased GBC in dorsal striatum and anterior thalamus, which was reduced in patients on medication. The ventral striatum/nucleus accumbens exhibited decreased global connectivity, but increased connectivity specifically with the ventral anterior cingulate cortex in subjects with OCD. Conclusion These findings identify previously uncharacterized PFC and basal ganglia dysconnectivity in OCD and reveal differentially altered GBC in dorsal and ventral striatum. Results highlight complex disturbances in PFC networks, which could contribute to disrupted cortical-striatal-cerebellar circuits in OCD. PMID:24314349

  12. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Correlate With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Activity and Connectivity in Depression

    OpenAIRE

    LIU Yi; DU, LIAN; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; FU, YIXIAO; QIU, HAITANG; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately be...

  13. Early adverse events, HPA activity and rostral anterior cingulate volume in MDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD, elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. METHODS/RESULTS: Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  14. Stimulus-Outcome Learnability Differentially Activates Anterior Cingulate and Hippocampus at Feedback Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Memory systems are known to be influenced by feedback and error processing, but it is not well known what aspects of outcome contingencies are related to different memory systems. Here we use the Rescorla-Wagner model to estimate prediction errors in an fMRI study of stimulus-outcome association learning. The conditional probabilities of outcomes…

  15. Improvement of cognitive flexibility and cingulate blood flow correlates after atypical antipsychotic treatment in drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bernardo M; Garolera, Maite; Ariza, Mar; Pareto, Deborah; Salamero, Manel; Valles, Vicenç; Delgado, Luis; Alberni, Joan

    2011-12-30

    The aim of this study was to examine the changes in cognitive flexibility and associated cerebral blood flow in the anterior cingulate lobe of drug-naive patients with first-episode schizophrenia who were treated with atypical antipsychotics for 6 weeks. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were obtained from 8 healthy subjects both at rest and while performing the flexibility subtest of the TAP (Test for Attentional Performance). SPECT images were obtained in parallel from 8 first-episode drug-naive schizophrenic patients while they were performing the same task both before and after 6 weeks of neuroleptic treatment. In the control group, an increase in the perfusion indices of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate gyrus was observed in the activation condition. Task performance was altered and the level of perfusion of the brain region related to the task execution was significantly decreased in the patients at baseline. After treatment, there was a significant improvement in both task performance and the level of perfusion of the dorsal section of the anterior cingulate. We conclude that treatment with second-generation neuroleptics improves cognitive flexibility, and there was a relationship between such improvements and normalization of perfusion indices of the involved brain areas.

  16. Oxytocin blurs the self-other distinction during trait judgments and reduces medial prefrontal cortex responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihua; Yao, Shuxia; Li, Qin; Geng, Yayuan; Ma, Xiaole; Luo, Lizhu; Xu, Lei; Kendrick, Keith M

    2016-07-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) may act either to increase or blur the distinction between self and other and thereby promote either more selfish or altruistic behaviors. To attempt to distinguish between these two possibilities we performed a double-blind, between-subject, placebo-controlled design study to investigate the effect of intranasal OXT on self and other (mother, classmate, or stranger) trait judgments in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that OXT reduced response times for making both self and other judgments, but also reduced the accuracy of their subsequent recall, thereby abolishing the normal self-bias observed in this task. OXT also abolished the positive correlation between response and self-esteem scale scores seen in the PLC group, suggesting that its effects were strongest in individuals with higher levels of self-esteem. A whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis revealed that OXT also reduced responses during both self and other trait judgments in the dorsal (dmPFC) and ventral (vmPFC) medial prefrontal cortex. A subsequent region of interest analysis revealed that behavioral performance and self-esteem scale scores were associated with dmPFC activation and its functional connectivity with the anterior cingulate and between the vmPFC and posterior cingulate. Thus overall, while OXT may improve speed of decision making in self -vs. other trait judgments it also blunts the normal bias towards remembering self-attributes and reduces mPFC responses and connectivity with other cortical midline regions involved in self-processing. This is consistent with the view that OXT can reduce self-centered behavior. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2512-2527, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Entorhinal cortex stimulation modulates amygdala and piriform cortex responses to olfactory bulb inputs in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouly, A-M; Di Scala, G

    2006-01-01

    The rodent olfactory bulb sends direct projections to the piriform cortex and to two structures intimately implicated in memory processes, the entorhinal cortex and the amygdala. The piriform cortex has monosynaptic projections with the amygdala and the piriform cortex and is therefore in a position to modulate olfactory input either directly in the piriform cortex, or via the amygdala. In order to investigate this hypothesis, field potential signals induced in anesthetized rats by electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb or the entorhinal cortex were recorded simultaneously in the piriform cortex (anterior part and posterior part) and the amygdala (basolateral nucleus and cortical nucleus). Single-site paired-pulse stimulation was used to assess the time courses of short-term inhibition and facilitation in each recording site in response to electrical stimulation of the olfactory bulb and entorhinal cortex. Paired-pulse stimulation of the olfactory bulb induced homosynaptic inhibition for short interpulse interpulse intervals (20-30 ms) in all the recording sites, with a significantly lower degree of inhibition in the anterior piriform cortex than in the other structures. At longer intervals (40-80 ms), paired-pulse facilitation was observed in all the structures. Paired-pulse stimulation of the entorhinal cortex mainly resulted in inhibition for the shortest interval duration (20 ms) in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. Double-site paired-pulse stimulation was then applied to determine if stimulation of the entorhinal cortex can modulate responses to olfactory bulb stimulation. For short interpulse intervals (20 ms) heterosynaptic inhibition was observed in anterior piriform cortex, posterior piriform cortex and amygdala basolateral but not cortical nucleus. The level of inhibition was greater in the basolateral nucleus than in the other structures. Taken together these data suggest that the

  18. Altered functional connectivity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in first-episode patients with major depressive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Ting, E-mail: yeting@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Peng, Jing, E-mail: ppengjjing@sina.com.cn [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Nie, Binbin, E-mail: niebb@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Gao, Juan, E-mail: gaojuan@ihep.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 918, Yu-Quan St, Shijingshan District, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jiangtao, E-mail: Liujiangtao813@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); Li, Yang, E-mail: Liyang2007428@hotmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Wang, Gang, E-mail: gangwang@gmail.com [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: lijianshe@medmail.com.cn [Department of Psychiatry, Anding Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 5, An Kang Hutong, Deshengmen wai, Xicheng District, Beijing 100088 (China); Li, Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital of Capital Medical University, No. 45, Chang-Chun St, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100053 (China); and others

    2012-12-15

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate resting-state functional connectivity alteration of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in patients with first-episode major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods: Twenty-two first-episode MDD patients and thirty age-, gender- and education-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled. Rest state functional magnetic resonance images and structure magnetic resonance images were scanned. The functional connectivity analysis was done based on the result of voxel-based morphometry (VBM). And the right DLPFC was chosen as the seed region of interests (ROI), as its gray matter density (GMD) decreased in the MDD patients compared with controls and its GMD values were negative correlation with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) scores. Results: Compared to healthy controls, the MDD patients showed increased functional connectivity with right the DLPFC in the left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), left parahippocampal gyrus (PHG), thalamus and precentral gyrus. In contrast, there were decreased functional connectivity between the right DLPFC and right parietal lobe. Conclusions: By applying the VBM results to the functional connectivity analysis, the study suggested that abnormality of GMD in right DLPFC might be related to the functional connectivity alteration in the pathophysiology of MDD, which might be useful in further characterizing structure–function relations in this disorder.

  19. From conflict management to reward-based decision making: actors and critics in primate medial frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvetti, Massimo; Alexander, William; Verguts, Tom; Brown, Joshua W

    2014-10-01

    The role of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and especially the anterior cingulate cortex has been the subject of intense debate for the last decade. A number of theories have been proposed to account for its function. Broadly speaking, some emphasize cognitive control, whereas others emphasize value processing; specific theories concern reward processing, conflict detection, error monitoring, and volatility detection, among others. Here we survey and evaluate them relative to experimental results from neurophysiological, anatomical, and cognitive studies. We argue for a new conceptualization of mPFC, arising from recent computational modeling work. Based on reinforcement learning theory, these new models propose that mPFC is an Actor-Critic system. This system is aimed to predict future events including rewards, to evaluate errors in those predictions, and finally, to implement optimal skeletal-motor and visceromotor commands to obtain reward. This framework provides a comprehensive account of mPFC function, accounting for and predicting empirical results across different levels of analysis, including monkey neurophysiology, human ERP, human neuroimaging, and human behavior.

  20. Frequency-Dependent Representation of Reinforcement-Related Information in the Human Medial and Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Elliot H; Banks, Garrett P; Mikell, Charles B; Cash, Syndey S; Patel, Shaun R; Eskandar, Emad N; Sheth, Sameer A

    2015-12-01

    The feedback-related negativity (FRN) is a commonly observed potential in scalp electroencephalography (EEG) studies related to the valence of feedback about a subject's performance. This potential classically manifests as a negative deflection in medial frontocentral EEG contacts following negative feedback. Recent work has shown prominence of theta power in the spectral composition of the FRN, placing it within the larger class of "frontal midline theta" cognitive control signals. Although the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is thought to be the cortical generator of the FRN, conclusive data regarding its origin and propagation are lacking. Here we examine intracranial electrophysiology from the human medial and lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) to better understand the anatomical localization and communication patterns of the FRN. We show that the FRN is evident in both low- and high-frequency local field potentials (LFPs) recorded on electrocorticography. The FRN is larger in medial compared with lateral PFC, and coupling between theta band phase and high-frequency LFP power is also greater in medial PFC. Using Granger causality and conditional mutual information analyses, we provide evidence that feedback-related information propagates from medial to lateral PFC, and that this information transfer oscillates with theta-range periodicity. These results provide evidence for the dACC as the cortical source of the FRN, provide insight into the local computation of frontal midline theta, and have implications for reinforcement learning models of cognitive control.

  1. Anterior tension band plating for anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance female athletes - A report of 4 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O. Borens; M.K. Sen; R.C. Huang; J. Richmond; P. Kloen; J.B. Jupiter; D.L. Helfet

    2006-01-01

    Stress fracture of the anterior tibial cortex is an extremely challenging fracture to treat, especially in the high-performance female athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Previous reports have not addressed treating these fractures in the world-class athlete with anterior plating. We h

  2. Undetected iatrogenic lesions of the anterior femoral shaft during intramedullary nailing: a cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepherd Lane

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of undetected radiographically iatrogenic longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex during intramedullary nailing of the femur has not been well documented. Methods Cadaveric study using nine pairs of fresh-frozen femora from adult cadavers. The nine pairs of femora underwent a standardized antegrade intramedullary nailing and the detection of iatrogenic lesions, if any, was performed macroscopically and by radiographic control. Results Longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex was revealed in 5 of 18 cadaver femora macroscopically. Anterior splitting was not detectable in radiographic control. Conclusion Longitudinal splitting in the anterior cortex during intramedullary nailing of the femur cannot be detected radiographically.

  3. The correlation between abnormal metabolism in anterior cingulum cortex and executive dysfunction with major depression patients before and after antidepressant treatment%重性抑郁症患者药物治疗前后前扣带回代谢物水平与执行功能的相关性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽萍; 许崇涛

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨重性抑郁症患者治疗前后生化物质改变及其与执行功能之间的关系.方法 对15例重性抑郁患者(MDD)给予五羟色胺再摄取抑制剂(SSRIs)治疗,共8周.于治疗基线及治疗末利用质子磁共振波谱技术(1H-MRS)测量患者组前扣带回皮质(ACC)的N-乙酰天门冬氨酸(NAA)、谷氨酸复合物(Glx)、胆碱复合物(Cho)及肌醇(MI)的浓度,并与15例正常对照者(对照组)作比较.此外,分别对患者组在治疗前后和正常组进行执行功能测试及比较.结果 1)治疗前患者组双侧ACC三种代谢物的绝对浓度[NAA(7.36±1.67) mmol/L、Glx(11.68±1.65) mmol/L、MI(5.28±0.66) mmol/L]明显低于正常组[NAA(9.27±1.37) mmol/L、Glx(15.20±1.91) mmol/L、MI(7.80±2.73)mmol/L] (P<0.01),治疗后患者组ACC NAA及Glx的绝对浓度[NAA(9.34±2.45) mmol/L、Glx(16.79±3.96) mmol/L]较治疗前[NAA(7.36±1.67) mmol/L,Glx(11.68±1.65) mmol/L]明显升高(P<0.05).2)治疗前患者组的WCST成绩及SCWT成绩均差于正常对照组(P<0.05或者P<0.01);治疗后患者组的WCST和SCWT的成绩均较治疗前明显提高(P<0.05或P<0.01).3)治疗后患者组ACC Glx的绝对浓度与WCST中的完成分类数正相关(r=0.739,P=0.009)且分别与完成第一个分类所需应答数(r=-0.699,P=0.017)及SCWT中的甲表完成时间成负相关(r=-0.651,P=0.030);治疗后MDD患者ACC提高的MI(r=-0.705,P=0.023)及NAA(r=-0.735,P=0.010)的浓度均与WCST中的完成第一个分类所需应答数负相关.结论 ACC可能是对抗抑郁治疗起反应的关键脑区.治疗后重性抑郁症患者ACC提高的NAA,Glx及MI浓度可能与其执行功能的改善有关.%Objective To investigate neuro-biochemical changes of bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and the correlation between abnormal metabolism and the cognitive function before and after treatment.Methods Fifteen patients with major depression and 15age

  4. Rule activity related to spatial and numerical magnitudes: comparison of prefrontal, premotor, and cingulate motor cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Anne-Kathrin; Nieder, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In everyday situations, quantitative rules, such as "greater than/less than," need to be applied to a multitude of magnitude comparisons, be they sensory, spatial, temporal, or numerical. We have previously shown that rules applied to different magnitudes are encoded in the lateral PFC. To investigate if and how other frontal lobe areas also contribute to the encoding of quantitative rules applied to multiple magnitudes, we trained monkeys to switch between "greater than/less than" rules applied to either line lengths (spatial magnitudes) or dot numerosities (discrete numerical magnitudes). We recorded single-cell activity from the dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC) and cingulate motor cortex (CMA) and compared it with PFC activity. We found the largest proportion of quantitative rule-selective cells in PFC (24% of randomly selected cells), whereas neurons in dPMC and CMA rarely encoded the rule (6% of the cells). In addition, rule selectivity of individual cells was highest in PFC neurons compared with dPMC and CMA neurons. Rule-selective neurons that simultaneously represented the "greater than/less than" rules applied to line lengths and numerosities ("rule generalists") were exclusively present in PFC. In dPMC and CMA, however, neurons primarily encoded rules applied to only one of the two magnitude types ("rule specialists"). Our data suggest a special involvement of PFC in representing quantitative rules at an abstract level, both in terms of the proportion of neurons engaged and the coding capacities.

  5. Food related processes in the insular cortex

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    Sabine eFrank

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insular cortex is a multimodal brain region with regional cytoarchitectonic differences indicating various functional specializations. As a multisensory neural node, the insular cortex integrates perception, emotion, interoceptive awareness, cognition, and gustation. Regarding the latter, predominantly the anterior part of the insular cortex is regarded as the primary taste cortex.In this review, we will specifically focus on the involvement of the insula in food processing and on multimodal integration of food-related items. Influencing factors of insular activation elicited by various foods range from calorie-content to the internal physiologic state, body mass index or eating behavior. Sensory perception of food-related stimuli including seeing, smelling, and tasting elicits increased activation in the anterior and mid-dorsal part of the insular cortex. Apart from the pure sensory gustatory processing, there is also a strong association with the rewarding/hedonic aspects of food items, which is reflected in higher insular activity and stronger connections to other reward-related areas. Interestingly, the processing of food items has been found to elicit different insular activation in lean compared to obese subjects and in patients suffering from an eating disorder (anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa. The knowledge of functional differences in the insular cortex opens up the opportunity for possible noninvasive treatment approaches for obesity and eating disorders. To target brain functions directly, real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback offers a state-of-the-art tool to learn to control the anterior insular cortex activity voluntarily. First evidence indicates that obese adults have an enhanced ability to regulate the anterior insular cortex.

  6. Self-regulation of the anterior insula: Reinforcement learning using real-time fMRI neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Emma J; Su, Li; Barker, Gareth J; Medford, Nick; Dalton, Jeffrey; Williams, Steve C R; Birbaumer, Niels; Veit, Ralf; Ranganatha, Sitaram; Bodurka, Jerzy; Brammer, Michael; Giampietro, Vincent; David, Anthony S

    2014-03-01

    The anterior insula (AI) plays a key role in affective processing, and insular dysfunction has been noted in several clinical conditions. Real-time functional MRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-NF) provides a means of helping people learn to self-regulate activation in this brain region. Using the Blood Oxygenated Level Dependant (BOLD) signal from the right AI (RAI) as neurofeedback, we trained participants to increase RAI activation. In contrast, another group of participants was shown 'control' feedback from another brain area. Pre- and post-training affective probes were shown, with subjective ratings and skin conductance response (SCR) measured. We also investigated a reward-related reinforcement learning model of rtfMRI-NF. In contrast to the controls, we hypothesised a positive linear increase in RAI activation in participants shown feedback from this region, alongside increases in valence ratings and SCR to affective probes. Hypothesis-driven analyses showed a significant interaction between the RAI/control neurofeedback groups and the effect of self-regulation. Whole-brain analyses revealed a significant linear increase in RAI activation across four training runs in the group who received feedback from RAI. Increased activation was also observed in the caudate body and thalamus, likely representing feedback-related learning. No positive linear trend was observed in the RAI in the group receiving control feedback, suggesting that these data are not a general effect of cognitive strategy or control feedback. The control group did, however, show diffuse activation across the putamen, caudate and posterior insula which may indicate the representation of false feedback. No significant training-related behavioural differences were observed for valence ratings, or SCR. In addition, correlational analyses based on a reinforcement learning model showed that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex underpinned learning in both groups. In summary, these data demonstrate that it

  7. Associative Encoding in Posterior Piriform Cortex during Odor Discrimination and Reversal Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Calu, Donna J.; Roesch, Matthew R.; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2006-01-01

    Recent proposals have conceptualized piriform cortex as an association cortex, capable of integrating incoming olfactory information with descending input from higher order associative regions such as orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala (ABL). If true, encoding in piriform cortex should reflect associative features prominent in these areas during associative learning involving olfactory cues. We recently reported that neurons in anterior piriform cortex (APC) in rats exhibited signi...

  8. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex

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    Hiroshi Ueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28 or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV, calbindin (CB, and calretinin (CR neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6. Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  9. Orbitofrontal cortex involvement in chronic analgesic-overuse headache evolving from episodic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumal, Arnaud; Laureys, Steven; Di Clemente, Laura; Boly, Mélanie; Bohotin, Valentin; Vandenheede, Michel; Coppola, Gianluca; Salmon, Eric; Kupers, Ron; Schoenen, Jean

    2006-02-01

    The way in which medication overuse transforms episodic migraine into chronic daily headache is unknown. To search for candidate brain areas involved in this process, we measured glucose metabolism with 18-FDG PET in 16 chronic migraineurs with analgesic overuse before and 3 weeks after medication withdrawal and compared the data with those of a control population (n = 68). Before withdrawal, the bilateral thalamus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate gyrus, insula/ventral striatum and right inferior parietal lobule were hypometabolic, while the cerebellar vermis was hypermetabolic. All dysmetabolic areas recovered to almost normal glucose uptake after withdrawal of analgesics, except the OFC where a further metabolic decrease was found. A subanalysis showed that most of the orbitofrontal hypometabolism was due to eight patients overusing combination analgesics and/or an ergotamine-caffeine preparation. Medication overuse headache is thus associated with reversible metabolic changes in pain processing structures like other chronic pain disorders, but also with persistent orbitofrontal hypofunction. The latter is known to occur in drug dependence and could predispose subgroups of migraineurs to recurrent analgesic overuse.

  10. Less efficient and costly processes of frontal cortex in childhood chronic fatigue syndrome

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    Kei Mizuno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to divide one's attention deteriorates in patients with childhood chronic fatigue syndrome (CCFS. We conducted a study using a dual verbal task to assess allocation of attentional resources to two simultaneous activities (picking out vowels and reading for story comprehension and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patients exhibited a much larger area of activation, recruiting additional frontal areas. The right middle frontal gyrus (MFG, which is included in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, of CCFS patients was specifically activated in both the single and dual tasks; this activation level was positively correlated with motivation scores for the tasks and accuracy of story comprehension. In addition, in patients, the dorsal anterior cingulate gyrus (dACC and left MFG were activated only in the dual task, and activation levels of the dACC and left MFG were positively associated with the motivation and fatigue scores, respectively. Patients with CCFS exhibited a wider area of activated frontal regions related to attentional resources in order to increase their poorer task performance with massive mental effort. This is likely to be less efficient and costly in terms of energy requirements. It seems to be related to the pathophysiology of patients with CCFS and to cause a vicious cycle of further increases in fatigue.

  11. Sensory Deprivation during Early Postnatal Period Alters the Density of Interneurons in the Mouse Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiroshi; Suemitsu, Shunsuke; Matsumoto, Yosuke; Okamoto, Motoi

    2015-01-01

    Early loss of one sensory system can cause improved function of other sensory systems. However, both the time course and neuronal mechanism of cross-modal plasticity remain elusive. Recent study using functional MRI in humans suggests a role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cross-modal plasticity. Since this phenomenon is assumed to be associated with altered GABAergic inhibition in the PFC, we have tested the hypothesis that early postnatal sensory deprivation causes the changes of inhibitory neuronal circuit in different regions of the PFC of the mice. We determined the effects of sensory deprivation from birth to postnatal day 28 (P28) or P58 on the density of parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB), and calretinin (CR) neurons in the prelimbic, infralimbic, and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices. The density of PV and CB neurons was significantly increased in layer 5/6 (L5/6). Moreover, the density of CR neurons was higher in L2/3 in sensory deprived mice compared to intact mice. These changes were more prominent at P56 than at P28. These results suggest that long-term sensory deprivation causes the changes of intracortical inhibitory networks in the PFC and the changes of inhibitory networks in the PFC may contribute to cross-modal plasticity.

  12. Projection from the perirhinal cortex to the frontal motor cortex in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyuhou, Shin ichi; Gemba, Hisae

    2002-03-01

    Stimulation of the anterior perirhinal cortex (PERa) induced marked surface-negative and depth-positive field potentials in the rat frontal motor cortex (MC) including the rostral and caudal forelimb areas. Injection of biotinylated dextran into the PERa densely labeled axon terminals in the superficial layers of the MC, where vigorous unit responses were evoked after PERa stimulation, indicated that the perirhinal-frontal projection preferentially activates the superficial layer neurons of the MC.

  13. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the frontal, cingulate and perirolandic cortices and its relationship to skin conductance in patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, R.F.; Crippa, J.A.S.; Hallak, J.E.C.; Sousa, J.P.M. de; Zuardi, A.W. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurociencias e Ciencias do Comportamento]. E-mail: awzuardi@fmrp.usp.br; Araujo, D.; Santos, A.C. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Div. de Radiologia

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether specific subgroups of schizophrenic patients, grouped according to electrodermal characteristics, show differences in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine plus choline (NAA / (Cr + Cho)) ratios in the frontal, cingulate and perirolandic cortices. Skin conductance levels (SCL) and skin conductance responses to auditory stimulation were measured in 38 patients with schizophrenia and in the same number of matched healthy volunteers (control). All subjects were submitted to multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging. When compared to the control group, patients presented significantly lower NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratios in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (schizophrenia 0.95 {+-} 0.03; control = 1.12 {+-} 0.04) and in the right (schizophrenia 0.88 {+-} 0.02; control = 0.94 {+-} 0.03) and left (schizophrenia 0.84 {+-} 0.03; control = 0.94 {+-} 0.03) cingulates. These ratios did not differ between electrodermally responsive and non-responsive patients. When patients were divided into two groups: lower SCL (less than the mean SCL of the control group minus two standard deviations) and normal SCL (similar to the control group), the subgroup with a lower level of SCL showed a lower NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratio in the left cingulate (0.78 {+-} 0.05) than the controls (0.95 {+-} 0.02, P < 0.05) and the subgroup with normal SCL (0.88 {+-} 0.03, P < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between the NAA / (Cr + Cho) ratio in the left cingulate of patients with schizophrenia and the duration of the disease and years under medication. These data suggest the existence of a schizophrenic subgroup characterized by low SCL that could be a consequence of the lower neuronal viability observed in the left cingulate of these patients. (author)

  14. Towards clinically useful neuroimaging in depression treatment: Is subgenual cingulate activity robustly prognostic for depression outcome in Cognitive Therapy across studies, scanners, and patient characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegle, Greg J.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Collier, Amanda; Berman, Susan R.; Feldmiller, Joshua; Thase, Michael E.; Friedman, Edward S.

    2013-01-01

    Context 40–60% of unmedicated depressed individuals respond to Cognitive Therapy (CT) in controlled trials. Multiple previous studies suggest that activity in the subgenual anterior cingulate predicts outcome in CT for depression, but there have been no prospective replications. Objective This study prospectively examined whether subgenual cingulate activity is a reliable and robust prognostic outcome marker for CT for depression and whether its activity changes in treatment. Design Two inception cohorts were assessed with fMRI on different scanners on a task sensitive to sustained emotional information processing before and after 16–20 sessions of CT, along with a sample of control participants tested at comparable intervals. Setting Therapy took place in a hospital outpatient clinic. Patients Participants included 49 unmedicated depressed adults and 35 healthy control participants. Main Outcome Measures Pre-treatment subgenual anterior cingulate activity in an a priori region in response to negative words was correlated with residual severity and used to classify response and remission. Results As expected, in both samples, participants with the lowest pre-treatment sustained subgenual cingulate (sgACC; BA25) reactivity in response to negative words displayed the most improvement in CT (R2=.29, >75% correct classification of response, >70% correct classification of remission). Other a priori regions explained additional variance. Response/Remission in Cohort 2 was predicted based on thresholds from Cohort 1. sgACC activity remained low for remitters following treatment. Conclusions Neuroimaging provides a quick, valid, and clinically applicable way of assessing neural systems associated with treatment response/remission. sgACC activity, in particular, may reflect processes which interfere with treatment, e.g,. emotion generation in addition to its putative regulatory role; alternately, its absence may facilitate treatment response. PMID:22945620

  15. Curcumin and sertraline prevent the reduction of the number of neurons and glial cells and the volume of rats' medial prefrontal cortex induced by stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noorafshan, Ali; Abdollahifar, Mohammad-Amin; Asadi-Golshan, Reza; Rashidian-Rashidabadi, Ali; Karbalay-Doust, Saied

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress induces morphological changes in the neurons of several brain regions, including medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). This region is involved in variety of behavioral tasks, including learning and memory. Our previous work showed that stress impaired function. The present work extends the earlier work to study mPFC in stressed and non-stressed rats with or without sertraline or curcumin treatments using stereological methods. Sertraline is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and curcumin is the main ingredient of turmeric with neuroprotective effects. In this study, 42 male rats were randomly assigned to seven groups: stress + distilled water, stress + olive oil, stress + curcumin (100 mg/kg/day), stress + sertraline (10 mg/kg/day), curcumin, sertraline, and control groups. After 56 days, the right mPFC was removed. The volume of mPFC and its subdivisions and the total number of neurons and glia were estimated. The results showed ~8%, ~8%, and 24% decrease in the volume of the mPFC and its prelimbic and infralimbic subdivisions, respectively. However, the anterior cingulated cortex remained unchanged. Also, the total number of the neurons and glial cells was significantly reduced (11% and 5%, respectively) in stress (+distilled water or olive oil) group in comparison to the non-stressed rats (Psertraline and stress + curcumin groups in comparison to the non-treated stressed rats (Psertraline could prevent the stress-induced changes in mPFC.

  16. Performance monitoring and the medial prefrontal cortex: A review of individual differences and context effects as a window on self-regulation

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    Stefon evan Noordt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC is central to self-regulation and has been implicated in generating a cluster of event-related potential components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs. These MFNs are elicited while individuals monitor behavioural and environmental consequences, and include the error-related negativity, Nogo N2, and the feedback-related negativity. A growing cognitive and affective neuroscience literature indicates that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and surrounding medial prefrontal regions during performance monitoring is not only influenced by task context, but that these patterns of activity also vary as a function of individual differences (e.g., personality, temperament, clinical and non-clinical symptomatology, socio-political orientation, and genetic polymorphisms, as well as interactions between individual differences and task context. In this review we survey the neuroscience literature on the relations between performance monitoring, personality, task context, and brain functioning with a focus on the MPFC. We relate these issues to the role of affect in the paradigms used to elicit performance-monitoring neural responses and highlight some of the theoretical and clinical implications of this research. We conclude with a discussion of the complexity of these issues and how some of the basic assumptions required for their interpretation may be clarified with future research.

  17. A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J; Menon, Vinod

    2008-08-26

    Cognitively demanding tasks that evoke activation in the brain's central-executive network (CEN) have been consistently shown to evoke decreased activation (deactivation) in the default-mode network (DMN). The neural mechanisms underlying this switch between activation and deactivation of large-scale brain networks remain completely unknown. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the mechanisms underlying switching of brain networks in three different experiments. We first examined this switching process in an auditory event segmentation task. We observed significant activation of the CEN and deactivation of the DMN, along with activation of a third network comprising the right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when participants perceived salient auditory event boundaries. Using chronometric techniques and Granger causality analysis, we show that the rFIC-ACC network, and the rFIC, in particular, plays a critical and causal role in switching between the CEN and the DMN. We replicated this causal connectivity pattern in two additional experiments: (i) a visual attention "oddball" task and (ii) a task-free resting state. These results indicate that the rFIC is likely to play a major role in switching between distinct brain networks across task paradigms and stimulus modalities. Our findings have important implications for a unified view of network mechanisms underlying both exogenous and endogenous cognitive control.

  18. Synaptic change in the posterior cingulate gyrus in the progression of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheff, Stephen W; Price, Douglas A; Ansari, Mubeen A; Roberts, Kelly N; Schmitt, Frederick A; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Mufson, Elliott J

    2015-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered to be an early stage in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) providing an opportunity to investigate brain pathogenesis prior to the onset of dementia. Neuroimaging studies have identified the posterior cingulate gyrus (PostC) as a cortical region affected early in the onset of AD. This association cortex is involved in a variety of different cognitive tasks and is intimately connected with the hippocampal/entorhinal cortex region, a component of the medial temporal memory circuit that displays early AD pathology. We quantified the total number of synapses in lamina 3 of the PostC using unbiased stereology coupled with electron microscopy from short postmortem autopsy tissue harvested from cases at different stage of AD progression. Individuals in the early stages of AD showed a significant decline in synaptic numbers compared to individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI). Subjects with MCI exhibited synaptic numbers that were between the AD and NCI cohorts. Adjacent tissue was evaluated for changes in both pre and postsynaptic proteins levels. Individuals with MCI demonstrated a significant loss in presynaptic markers synapsin-1 and synaptophysin and postsynaptic markers PSD-95 and SAP-97. Levels of [3H]PiB binding was significantly increased in MCI and AD and correlated strongly with levels of synaptic proteins. All synaptic markers showed a significant association with Mini-Mental Status Examination scores. These results support the idea that the PostC synaptic function is affected during the prodromal stage of the disease and may underlie some of the early clinical sequelae associated with AD.

  19. Supplementary motor complex and disturbed motor control – a retrospective clinical and lesion analysis of patients after anterior cerebral artery stroke

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    Florian eBrugger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Both the supplementary motor complex (SMC, consisting of the supplementary motor area (SMA-proper, the pre-SMA and the supplementary eye field, and the rostral cingulate cortex (ACC are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA and are involved in higher motor control. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP originates from the SMC and reflects cognitive preparation processes before volitional movements. ACA strokes may lead to impaired motor control in the absence of limb weakness and evoke an alien-hand syndrome (AHS in its extreme form.Aim: To characterize the clinical spectrum of disturbed motor control after ACA strokes including signs attributable to AHS and to identify the underlying neuroanatomical correlates.Methods: A clinical assessment focusing on signs of disturbed motor control including intermanual conflict (i.e. bilateral hand movements directed at opposite purposes, lack of self-initiated movements, exaggerated grasping, motor perseverations, mirror movements and gait apraxia was performed. Symptoms were grouped into A AHS specific and B non-AHS specific signs of upper limbs and C gait apraxia. Lesion summation mapping was applied to the patients’ MRI or CT scans to reveal associated lesion patterns. The BP was recorded in two patients.Results: Ten patients with ACA strokes (9 unilateral, 1 bilateral; mean age: 74.2 years; median NIH-SS at admission: 13.0 were included in this case series. In the acute stage, all cases had marked difficulties to perform volitional hand movements, while movements in response to external stimuli were preserved. In the chronic stage (median follow-up: 83.5 days initiation of voluntary movements improved, although all patients showed persistent signs of disturbed motor control. Impaired motor control is predominantly associated with damaged voxels within the SMC and the anterior and medial cingulate cortex, while lesions within the pre-SMA are specifically related to AHS. No BP was detected

  20. Altered anterior visual system development following early monocular enucleation

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    Krista R. Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The novel finding of an asymmetry in morphology of the anterior visual system following long-term survival from early monocular enucleation indicates altered postnatal visual development. Possible mechanisms behind this altered development include recruitment of deafferented cells by crossing nasal fibres and/or geniculate cell retention via feedback from primary visual cortex. These data highlight the importance of balanced binocular input during postnatal maturation for typical anterior visual system morphology.

  1. Hierarchical error representation in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarr, Noah; Brown, Joshua W

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is reliably activated by both performance and prediction errors. Error signals have typically been treated as a scalar, and it is unknown to what extent multiple error signals may co-exist within mPFC. Previous studies have shown that lateral frontal cortex (LFC) is arranged in a hierarchy of abstraction, such that more abstract concepts and rules are represented in more anterior cortical regions. Given the close interaction between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, we explored the hypothesis that mPFC would be organized along a similar rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction, such that more abstract prediction errors are represented further anterior and more concrete errors further posterior. We show that multiple prediction error signals can be found in mPFC, and furthermore, these are arranged in a rostro-caudal gradient of abstraction which parallels that found in LFC. We used a task that requires a three-level hierarchy of rules to be followed, in which the rules changed without warning at each level of the hierarchy. Task feedback indicated which level of the rule hierarchy changed and led to corresponding prediction error signals in mPFC. Moreover, each identified region of mPFC was preferentially functionally connected to correspondingly anterior regions of LFC. These results suggest the presence of a parallel structure between lateral and medial prefrontal cortex, with the medial regions monitoring and evaluating performance based on rules maintained in the corresponding lateral regions.

  2. Medial prefrontal cortex acetylcholine injection-induced hypotension: the role of hindlimb vasodilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crippa, G. E.; Lewis, S. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Correa, F. M.

    2000-01-01

    The injection of acetylcholine (ACh) into the cingulate region of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) causes a marked fall in arterial blood pressure which is not accompanied by changes in heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the hemodynamic basis for this stimulus-induced hypotension in Sprague-Dawley rats. The study was designed to determine whether a change in the vascular resistance of hindlimb, renal or mesenteric vascular beds contributes to the fall in arterial pressure in response to ACh injection into the cingulate cortex. Miniature pulsed-Doppler flow probes were used to measure changes in regional blood flow and vascular resistance. The results indicated that the hypotensive response was largely due to a consistent and marked vasodilation in the hindlimb vascular bed. On this basis, an additional experiment was then undertaken to determine the mechanisms that contribute to hindlimb vasodilation. The effect of interrupting the autonomic innervation of one leg on the hindlimb vasodilator response was tested. Unilateral transection of the lumbar sympathetic chain attenuated the cingulate ACh-induced vasodilation in the ipsilateral, but not in the contralateral hindlimb. These results suggest that the hypotensive response to cingulate cortex-ACh injection is caused by skeletal muscle vasodilation mediated by a sympathetic chain-related vasodilator system.

  3. Deficient reinforcement learning in medial frontal cortex as a model of dopamine-related motivational deficits in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvetti, Massimo; Wiersema, Jan R; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Verguts, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a pathophysiologically complex and heterogeneous condition with both cognitive and motivational components. We propose a novel computational hypothesis of motivational deficits in ADHD, drawing together recent evidence on the role of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and associated mesolimbic dopamine circuits in both reinforcement learning and ADHD. Based on findings of dopamine dysregulation and ACC involvement in ADHD we simulated a lesion in a previously validated computational model of ACC (Reward Value and Prediction Model, RVPM). We explored the effects of the lesion on the processing of reinforcement signals. We tested specific behavioral predictions about the profile of reinforcement-related deficits in ADHD in three experimental contexts; probability tracking task, partial and continuous reward schedules, and immediate versus delayed rewards. In addition, predictions were made at the neurophysiological level. Behavioral and neurophysiological predictions from the RVPM-based lesion-model of motivational dysfunction in ADHD were confirmed by data from previously published studies. RVPM represents a promising model of ADHD reinforcement learning suggesting that ACC dysregulation might play a role in the pathogenesis of motivational deficits in ADHD. However, more behavioral and neurophysiological studies are required to test core predictions of the model. In addition, the interaction with different brain networks underpinning other aspects of ADHD neuropathology (i.e., executive function) needs to be better understood.

  4. Role of dopamine in the plasticity of glutamic acid decarboxylase messenger RNA in the rat frontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rétaux, S; Trovero, F; Besson, M J

    1994-12-01

    The modulatory role of dopamine (DA) on the expression of mRNA encoding the large isoform of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD67), the biosynthesis enzyme of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), was examined in GABA neurons of two structures innervated by DA neurons originating from the ventral tegmental area (VTA): the medial frontal cortex (MFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). A bilateral electrolytic lesion of VTA was performed in rats to produce a DA denervation of both the MFC and NAcc. The efficacy of VTA lesions was verified by measurement of locomotor activity and by immunohistochemical detection of tyrosine hydroxylase in the mesencephalon. GAD67 mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization histochemistry using a 35S-labelled cDNA probe. Densitometric analysis of GAD67 mRNA hybridization signals revealed in VTA-lesioned rats a significant decrease (-24%) in GAD67 mRNA levels in the prelimbic area of the MFC and no significant effect in the anterior cingulate area or the frontoparietal cortex. Single cell analyses by computer-assisted grain counting showed that the decrease in GAD67 mRNA levels in prelimbic MFC was due to a change in GAD67 mRNA expression in a subpopulation of GABA interneurons located in the deep cortical layers (V-VI). By contrast, in the NAcc of VTA-lesioned rats, GAD67 mRNA levels were significantly increased in the anterior part and in the core but were unchanged in the shell part. These results suggest that in two target structures of VTA DA neurons, GAD67 mRNA expression is, in normal conditions, under a tonic stimulatory and a tonic inhibitory DA control in the MFC and the NAcc respectively. A schematic diagram is proposed for functional interactions between these structures.

  5. Enlargement of Axo-Somatic Contacts Formed by GAD-Immunoreactive Axon Terminals onto Layer V Pyramidal Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Adolescent Female Mice Is Associated with Suppression of Food Restriction-Evoked Hyperactivity and Resilience to Activity-Based Anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Wen; Wable, Gauri Satish; Chowdhury, Tara Gunkali; Aoki, Chiye

    2016-06-01

    Many, but not all, adolescent female mice that are exposed to a running wheel while food restricted (FR) become excessive wheel runners, choosing to run even during the hours of food availability, to the point of death. This phenomenon is called activity-based anorexia (ABA). We used electron microscopic immunocytochemistry to ask whether individual differences in ABA resilience may correlate with the lengths of axo-somatic contacts made by GABAergic axon terminals onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5P) in the prefrontal cortex. Contact lengths were, on average, 40% greater for the ABA-induced mice, relative to controls. Correspondingly, the proportion of L5P perikaryal plasma membrane contacted by GABAergic terminals was 45% greater for the ABA mice. Contact lengths in the anterior cingulate cortex correlated negatively and strongly with the overall wheel activity after FR (R = -0.87, P < 0.01), whereas those in the prelimbic cortex correlated negatively with wheel running specifically during the hours of food availability of the FR days (R = -0.84, P < 0.05). These negative correlations support the idea that increases in the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) terminal contact lengths onto L5P contribute toward ABA resilience through suppression of wheel running, a behavior that is intrinsically rewarding and helpful for foraging but maladaptive within a cage.

  6. Exogenous Glucocorticoids Decrease Subgenual Cingulate Activity Evoked by Sadness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheimer, Keith D; Abelson, James L; Taylor, Stephan F; Martis, Brian; Welsh, Robert C; Warner, Christine; Samet, Mira; Manduzzi, Andrea; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    The glucocorticoid hormone cortisol is known to have wide-ranging effects on a variety of physiological systems, including the morphology and physiology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Disruptions of cortisol regulation and signaling are also linked with psychiatric disorders involving emotional disturbances. Although there is much evidence to suggest a relationship between cortisol signaling and the brain physiology underlying emotion, few studies have attempted to test for direct effects of cortisol on the neurophysiology of emotion. We administered exogenous synthetic cortisol (hydrocortisone, HCT) using two different dosing regimens (25 mg/day over 4 days, 100 mg single dose), in a double-blind placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study. During fMRI scanning, healthy subjects viewed images designed to induce happy, sad, and neutral emotional states. Subjective emotional reactions were collected for each experimental stimulus after fMRI scanning. Mood ratings were also collected throughout the 4 days of the study. Both dose regimens of HCT resulted in decreased subgenual cingulate activation during sadness conditions. The 25 mg/day regimen also resulted in higher arousal ratings of sad stimuli. No effects of HCT were observed on any mood ratings. Few reliable effects of HCT were observed on brain activity patterns or subjective emotional responses to stimuli that were not sad. The inhibitory effects of cortisol on sadness-induced subgenual cingulate activity may have critical relevance to the pathophysiology of major depression, as both subgenual hyperactivity and decreased sensitivity to cortisol signaling have been documented in patients with depression. PMID:23303057

  7. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

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    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  8. The role of prefrontal cortex in psychopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by remorseless and impulsive antisocial behavior. Given the significant societal costs of the recidivistic criminal activity associated with the disorder, there is a pressing need for more effective treatment strategies, and hence, a better understanding of the psychobiological mechanisms underlying the disorder. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is likely to play an important role in psychopathy. In particular, the ventromedial and anterior cingu...

  9. The role of the midcingulate cortex in monitoring others’ decisions

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    Matthew A J Apps

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of research has implicated the cingulate cortex in the processing of social information (i.e. processing elicited by, about, and directed towards others and reward-related information that guides decision-making. However, it is often overlooked that there is variability in the cytoarchitectonic properties and anatomical connections across the cingulate cortex, which is indicative of functional variability. Here we review evidence from lesion, single-unit recording and functional imaging studies. Taken together, these support the claim that the processing of information that has the greatest influence on social behaviour can be localised to the gyral surface of the midcingulate cortex (MCCg. We propose that the MCCg is engaged when predicting and monitoring the outcomes of decisions during social interactions. In particular, the MCCg processes statistical information that tracks the extent to which the outcomes of decisions meet goals when interacting with others. We provide a novel framework for the computational mechanisms that underpin such social information processing in the MCCg. This framework provides testable hypotheses for the social deficits displayed in autism spectrum disorders and psychopathy.

  10. Depth-Dependent Temporal Response Properties in Core Auditory Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Christianson, G. Björn; Sahani, Maneesh; Linden, Jennifer F.

    2011-01-01

    The computational role of cortical layers within auditory cortex has proven difficult to establish. One hypothesis is that interlaminar cortical processing might be dedicated to analyzing temporal properties of sounds; if so, then there should be systematic depth-dependent changes in cortical sensitivity to the temporal context in which a stimulus occurs. We recorded neural responses simultaneously across cortical depth in primary auditory cortex and anterior auditory field of CBA/Ca mice, an...

  11. Neural correlates of superior intelligence: stronger recruitment of posterior parietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun Ho; Choi, Yu Yong; Gray, Jeremy R; Cho, Sun Hee; Chae, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Seungheun; Kim, Kyungjin

    2006-01-15

    General intelligence (g) is a common factor in diverse cognitive abilities and a major influence on life outcomes. Neuroimaging studies in adults suggest that the lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices play a crucial role in related cognitive activities including fluid reasoning, the control of attention, and working memory. Here, we investigated the neural bases for intellectual giftedness (superior-g) in adolescents, using fMRI. The participants consisted of a superior-g group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 33.9 +/- 0.8, >99%) from the national academy for gifted adolescents and the control group (n = 18, mean RAPM = 22.8 +/- 1.6, 60%) from local high schools in Korea (mean age = 16.5 +/- 0.8). fMRI data were acquired while they performed two reasoning tasks with high and low g-loadings. In both groups, the high g-loaded tasks specifically increased regional activity in the bilateral fronto-parietal network including the lateral prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and posterior parietal cortices. However, the regional activations of the superior-g group were significantly stronger than those of the control group, especially in the posterior parietal cortex. Moreover, regression analysis revealed that activity of the superior and intraparietal cortices (BA 7/40) strongly covaried with individual differences in g (r = 0.71 to 0.81). A correlated vectors analysis implicated bilateral posterior parietal areas in g. These results suggest that superior-g may not be due to the recruitment of additional brain regions but to the functional facilitation of the fronto-parietal network particularly driven by the posterior parietal activation.

  12. Colocalized structural and functional changes in the cortex of patients with trigeminal neuropathic pain.

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    Alexandre F DaSilva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent data suggests that in chronic pain there are changes in gray matter consistent with decreased brain volume, indicating that the disease process may produce morphological changes in the brains of those affected. However, no study has evaluated cortical thickness in relation to specific functional changes in evoked pain. In this study we sought to investigate structural (gray matter thickness and functional (blood oxygenation dependent level - BOLD changes in cortical regions of precisely matched patients with chronic trigeminal neuropathic pain (TNP affecting the right maxillary (V2 division of the trigeminal nerve. The model has a number of advantages including the evaluation of specific changes that can be mapped to known somatotopic anatomy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cortical regions were chosen based on sensory (Somatosensory cortex (SI and SII, motor (MI and posterior insula, or emotional (DLPFC, Frontal, Anterior Insula, Cingulate processing of pain. Both structural and functional (to brush-induced allodynia scans were obtained and averaged from two different imaging sessions separated by 2-6 months in all patients. Age and gender-matched healthy controls were also scanned twice for cortical thickness measurement. Changes in cortical thickness of TNP patients were frequently colocalized and correlated with functional allodynic activations, and included both cortical thickening and thinning in sensorimotor regions, and predominantly thinning in emotional regions. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, such patterns of cortical thickness suggest a dynamic functionally-driven plasticity of the brain. These structural changes, which correlated with the pain duration, age-at-onset, pain intensity and cortical activity, may be specific targets for evaluating therapeutic interventions.

  13. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  14. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  15. Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Legind, Christian Stefan; Mandl, Rene C W;

    . Outliers detected by Tukey’s outlier labelling were discarded from further analyses. Results Brain volumes: ANOVA revealed a significant effect of group (probands, healthy co-twins, healthy controls) for normalized WM (F2,119 = 3.18; p = 0.0453) and TB (F2,119 = 3.49; p = 0.0338). No group effects were...

  16. Structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to white matter lesions

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    Simon M. Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Reduced structural integrity of ACC tracts appears to be important in UCP, in particular the connection to the superior frontal gyrus. Although damage to this area is heterogeneous it may be important in early identification of children with impaired executive function.

  17. Characterization of excitatory and inhibitory neuron activation in the mouse medial prefrontal cortex following palatable food ingestion and food driven exploratory behavior

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    Ronald P Gaykema

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is implicated in aspects of executive function, that include the modulation of attentional and memory processes involved in goal selection. Food-seeking behavior has been shown to involve activation of the mPFC, both during the execution of strategies designed to obtain food and during the consumption of food itself. As these behaviors likely require differential engagement of the prefrontal cortex, we hypothesized that the pattern of neuronal activation would also be behavior dependent. In this study we describe, for the first time, the expression of Fos in different layers and cell types of the infralimbic/dorsal peduncular (IL/DP and prelimbic/anterior cingulate (PL/AC subdivisions of mouse mPFC following both the consumption of palatable food and following exploratory activity of the animal directed at obtaining food reward. While both manipulations led to increases of Fos expression in principal excitatory neurons relative to control, food-directed exploratory activity produced a significantly greater increase in Fos expression than observed in the food intake condition. Consequently, we hypothesized that mPFC interneuron activation would also be differentially engaged by these manipulations. Interestingly, Fos expression patterns differed substantially between treatments and interneuron subtype, illustrating how the differential engagement of subsets of mPFC interneurons depends on the behavioral state. In our experiments, both vasoactive intestinal peptide- and parvalbumin-expressing neurons showed enhanced Fos expression only during the food-dependent exploratory task and not during food intake. Conversely, elevations in arcuate and paraventricular hypothalamic fos expression were only observed following food intake and not following food driven exploration. Our data suggest that activation of select mPFC interneurons may be required to support high cognitive demand states while being dispensable during

  18. Representing Representation: Integration between the Temporal Lobe and the Posterior Cingulate Influences the Content and Form of Spontaneous Thought.

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    Jonathan Smallwood

    Full Text Available When not engaged in the moment, we often spontaneously represent people, places and events that are not present in the environment. Although this capacity has been linked to the default mode network (DMN, it remains unclear how interactions between the nodes of this network give rise to particular mental experiences during spontaneous thought. One hypothesis is that the core of the DMN integrates information from medial and lateral temporal lobe memory systems, which represent different aspects of knowledge. Individual differences in the connectivity between temporal lobe regions and the default mode network core would then predict differences in the content and form of people's spontaneous thoughts. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between seed-based functional connectivity and the contents of spontaneous thought recorded in a laboratory study several days later. Variations in connectivity from both medial and lateral temporal lobe regions was associated with different patterns of spontaneous thought and these effects converged on an overlapping region in the posterior cingulate cortex. We propose that the posterior core of the DMN acts as a representational hub that integrates information represented in medial and lateral temporal lobe and this process is important in determining the content and form of spontaneous thought.

  19. Visual processing of optic flow and motor control in the human posterior cingulate sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, David T; Inman, Laura A; Li, Li

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the human posterior cingulate contains a visual processing area selective for optic flow (CSv). However, other studies performed in both humans and monkeys have identified a somatotopic motor region at the same location (CMA). Taken together, these findings suggested the possibility that the posterior cingulate contains a single visuomotor integration region. To test this idea we used fMRI to identify both visual and motor areas of the posterior cingulate in the same brains and to test the activity of those regions during a visuomotor task. Results indicated that rather than a single visuomotor region the posterior cingulate contains adjacent but separate motor and visual regions. CSv lies in the fundus of the cingulate sulcus, while CMA lies in the dorsal bank of the sulcus, slightly superior in terms of stereotaxic coordinates. A surprising and novel finding was that activity in CSv was suppressed during the visuomotor task, despite the visual stimulus being identical to that used to localize the region. This may provide an important clue to the specific role played by this region in the utilization of optic flow to control self-motion.

  20. Observation on local and/or unilateral pathologic changes in renal cortex by CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Isao; Shinoda, Akira (Kanazawa Medical Univ. (Japan)); Onouchi, Zengoro; Saito, Yasuhito; Matsuura, Hajime

    1984-03-01

    Renal cortex visualization after bolus injection of contrast medium using computed tomography (CT), was obtained in 132 consecutive patients with renal disease. Local pathological changes in the functioning cortex of the kidney were easily recognized in 37 cases and unilateral cortical thinning was found in 17 cases. Unilateral poor enhancement of the cortex with bilateral equal cortex thickness was noted in 4 cases. Several representative cases are reported with CT scans. The cortex at the posterior aspect of the renal graft compressed on psoas muscle was thinner than that at the anterior aspect in renal transplant cases. The macroscopic observation on the renal cortex presented here is far superior to the nephrogram or pyelogram seen through conventional radiographic examination. In vivo cortex visualization will correlate renal biopsy findings with the state of the whole kidney.

  1. Anterior hippocampus and goal-directed spatial decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viard, Armelle; Doeller, Christian F; Hartley, Tom; Bird, Chris M; Burgess, Neil

    2011-03-23

    Planning spatial paths through our environment is an important part of everyday life and is supported by a neural system including the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we investigated the precise functional roles of the components of this system in humans by using fMRI as participants performed a simple goal-directed route-planning task. Participants had to choose the shorter of two routes to a goal in a visual scene that might contain a barrier blocking the most direct route, requiring a detour, or might be obscured by a curtain, requiring memory for the scene. The participant's start position was varied to parametrically manipulate their proximity to the goal and the difference in length of the two routes. Activity in medial prefrontal cortex, precuneus, and left posterior parietal cortex was associated with detour planning, regardless of difficulty, whereas activity in parahippocampal gyrus was associated with remembering the spatial layout of the visual scene. Activity in bilateral anterior hippocampal formation showed a strong increase the closer the start position was to the goal, together with medial prefrontal, medial and posterior parietal cortices. Our results are consistent with computational models in which goal proximity is used to guide subsequent navigation and with the association of anterior hippocampal areas with nonspatial functions such as arousal and reward expectancy. They illustrate how spatial and nonspatial functions combine within the anterior hippocampus, and how these functions interact with parahippocampal, parietal, and prefrontal areas in decision making and mnemonic function.

  2. Immunohistochemical localization of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in frontal cortex and related limbic areas in obese Zucker rats: effects of chronic fluoxetine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, J; Churruca, I; Echevarría, E; Casis, L; López de Jesús, M; Saenz del Burgo, L; Sallés, J

    2008-10-21

    In the present study, we report on the application of two specific polyclonal antibodies to different intracellular domains of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor to define the expression of the neural CB1 cannabinoid receptor at the histochemical level in frontal cortex and related limbic areas of the obese Zucker rats. Higher levels of CB1 receptor expression in frontal, cingulated and piriform cortex, without differences in temporal, parietal and occipital cortex, were observed in obese Zucker rats, with respect to their lean littermates. CB1 phosphorylated receptor (CB1-P) levels were also higher in frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortex in obese rats with respect to lean controls. Potential involvement of brain cortical CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the long-term effects of fluoxetine was studied. Experimental animals were administered with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. In obese Zucker rats, a significant decrease in CB1 receptor levels, measured by western blot, was observed in brain cortex after fluoxetine treatment. Immunostaining for CB1 receptor expression was also carried out, showing a significant decrease in the density of neural cells positive for CB1 receptor in frontal, cingulate and piriform cortex, without changes in parietal, temporal and occipital regions. Regional prosencephalic immunostaining for CB1-P receptor level showed a significant decrease in the density of stained neural cells in frontal, temporal and parietal cortex, without changes in cingulated, piriform and occipital cortex. These results suggest the involvement of endocannabinoid system in the chronic effects of fluoxetine, especially in the frontal cortex.

  3. Action preparation shapes processing in early visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutteling, Tjerk P; Petridou, Natalia; Dumoulin, Serge O; Harvey, Ben M; Aarnoutse, Erik J; Kenemans, J Leon; Neggers, Sebastian F W

    2015-04-22

    Preparation for an action, such as grasping an object, is accompanied by an enhanced perception of the object's action-relevant features, such as orientation and size. Cortical feedback from motor planning areas to early visual areas may drive this enhanced perception. To examine whether action preparation modulates activity in early human visual cortex, subjects grasped or pointed to oriented objects while high-resolution fMRI data were acquired. Using multivoxel pattern analysis techniques, we could decode with >70% accuracy whether a grasping or pointing action was prepared from signals in visual cortex as early as V1. These signals in early visual cortex were observed even when actions were only prepared but not executed. Anterior parietal cortex, on the other hand, showed clearest modulation for actual movements. This demonstrates that preparation of actions, even without execution, modulates relevant neuronal populations in early visual areas.

  4. Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... may be injured. This is a medical emergency. Prevention Use proper techniques when playing sports or exercising. ...

  5. Transient Global Amnesia Associated with an Acute Infarction at the Cingulate Gyrus

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    Alejandro Gallardo-Tur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small size (15 mm of maximal diameter at the right cerebral cingulate gyrus diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. No lesions involving other limbic system structures such as thalamus, fornix, corpus callosum, or hippocampal structures were seen. The remainder of the examination was normal. Conclusion. Unilateral ischemic lesions of limbic system structures may result in TGA. We must bear in mind that TGA can be an associated clinical disorder of cingulate gyrus infarct.

  6. Anterior prefrontal involvement in implicit contextual change detection

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    Stefan Pollmann

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anterior prefrontal cortex is usually associated with high level executive functions. Here, we show that the frontal pole, specifically left lateral frontopolar cortex, is involved in signaling change in implicitly learned spatial contexts, in the absence of conscious change detection. In a variant of the contextual cueing paradigm, participants first learned implicitly contingencies between distractor contexts and target locations. After learning, repeated distractor contexts were paired with new target locations. Left lateral frontopolar (BA10 and superior frontal (BA9 cortices showed selective signal increase for this target location change in repeated displays in an event-related fMRI experiment, which was most pronounced in participants with high contextual facilitation before the change. The data support the view that left lateral frontopolar cortex is involved in signaling contextual change to posterior brain areas as a precondition for adaptive changes of attentional resource allocation. This signaling occurs in the absence of awareness of learned contingencies or contextual change.

  7. Facetas em dentes anteriores

    OpenAIRE

    Veloso, Helena Rafaela Lourenço Martins

    2015-01-01

    Projeto de Pós-Graduação/Dissertação apresentado à Universidade Fernando Pessoa como parte dos requisitos para obtenção do grau de Mestre em Medicina Dentária A presente revisão bibliográfica aborda as facetas estéticas em dentes anteriores, pela crescente valorização de um sorriso esteticamente agradável, facto que faz com que as pessoas procurem cada vez mais alternativas de tratamento para melhorar a aparência do seu sorriso. Os dentes anteriores são decisivos na aparência estética e, c...

  8. Spatiotemporal integration of tactile information in human somatosensory cortex

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    Zumer Johanna M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our goal was to examine the spatiotemporal integration of tactile information in the hand representation of human primary somatosensory cortex (anterior parietal somatosensory areas 3b and 1, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2, and the parietal ventral area (PV, using high-resolution whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG. To examine representational overlap and adaptation in bilateral somatosensory cortices, we used an oddball paradigm to characterize the representation of the index finger (D2; deviant stimulus as a function of the location of the standard stimulus in both right- and left-handed subjects. Results We found that responses to deviant stimuli presented in the context of standard stimuli with an interstimulus interval (ISI of 0.33s were significantly and bilaterally attenuated compared to deviant stimulation alone in S2/PV, but not in anterior parietal cortex. This attenuation was dependent upon the distance between the deviant and standard stimuli: greater attenuation was found when the standard was immediately adjacent to the deviant (D3 and D2 respectively, with attenuation decreasing for non-adjacent fingers (D4 and opposite D2. We also found that cutaneous mechanical stimulation consistently elicited not only a strong early contralateral cortical response but also a weak ipsilateral response in anterior parietal cortex. This ipsilateral response appeared an average of 10.7 ± 6.1 ms later than the early contralateral response. In addition, no hemispheric differences either in response amplitude, response latencies or oddball responses were found, independent of handedness. Conclusion Our findings are consistent with the large receptive fields and long neuronal recovery cycles that have been described in S2/PV, and suggest that this expression of spatiotemporal integration underlies the complex functions associated with this region. The early ipsilateral response suggests that anterior parietal fields also

  9. Intradural anterior transpetrosal approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Shinya; Hori, Satoshi; Hecht, Nils; Czabanka, Marcus; Vajkoczy, Peter

    2016-10-01

    The standard anterior transpetrosal approach (ATPA) for petroclival lesions is fundamentally an epidural approach and has been practiced for many decades quite successfully. However, this approach has some disadvantages, such as epidural venous bleeding around foramen ovale. We describe here our experience with a modified technique for anterior petrosectomy via an intradural approach that overcomes these disadvantages. Five patients with petroclival lesions underwent surgery via the intradural ATPA. The intraoperative hallmarks are detailed, and surgical results are reported. Total removal of the lesions was achieved in two patients with petroclival meningioma and two patients with pontine cavernoma, whereas subtotal removal was achieved in one patient with petroclival meningioma without significant morbidity. No patient experienced cerebrospinal fluid leakage. The intradural approach is allowed to tailor the extent of anterior petrosectomy to the individually required exposure, and the surgical procedure appeared to be more straightforward than via the epidural route. Caveats encountered with the approach were the temporal basal veins that could be spared as well as identification of the petrous apex due to the lack of familial epidural landmarks. The risk of injury to the temporal bridging veins is higher in this approach than in the epidural approach. Intradural approach is recommended in patients with a large epidural venous route, such as sphenobasal and sphenopetrosal vein. Navigation via bone-window computed tomography is useful to identify the petrous apex.

  10. Positive Emotionality is Associated with Baseline Metabolism in Orbitofrontal Cortex and in Regions of the Default Network

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Positive Emotionality (personality construct of well being, achievement/motivation, social and closeness) has been associated with striatal dopamine D2 receptor availability in healthy controls. Since striatal D2 receptors modulate activity in orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate (brain regions that process natural and drug rewards) we hypothesized that these regions underlie positive emotionality. To test this we assessed the correlation between baseline brain glucose metabolism (measured with...

  11. The orbitofrontal cortex: novelty, deviation from expectation, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrides, Michael

    2007-12-01

    The orbitofrontal cortex is strongly connected with limbic areas of the medial temporal lobe that are critically involved in the establishment of declarative memories (entorhinal and perirhinal cortex and the hippocampal region) as well as the amygdala and the hypothalamus that are involved in emotional and motivational states. The present article reviews evidence regarding the role of the orbitofrontal cortex in the processing of novel information, breaches of expectation, and memory. Functional neuroimaging evidence is provided that there is a difference between the anterior and posterior orbitofrontal cortex in such processing. Exposure to novel information gives rise to a selective increase of activity in the granular anterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex (area 11) and this activity increases when subjects attempt to encode this information in memory. If the stimuli violate expectations (e.g., inspection of graffiti-like stimuli in the context of other regular stimuli) or are unpleasant (i.e., exposure to the sounds of car crashes), there is increased response in the posteromedial agranular/dysgranular area 13 of the orbitofrontal region. The anatomic data provide a framework within which to understand these functional neuroimaging findings.

  12. Associative encoding in posterior piriform cortex during odor discrimination and reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calu, Donna J; Roesch, Matthew R; Stalnaker, Thomas A; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Recent proposals have conceptualized piriform cortex as an association cortex, capable of integrating incoming olfactory information with descending input from higher order associative regions such as orbitofrontal cortex and basolateral amygdala (ABL). If true, encoding in piriform cortex should reflect associative features prominent in these areas during associative learning involving olfactory cues. We recently reported that neurons in anterior piriform cortex (APC) in rats exhibited significant plasticity in their responses to odor cues during associative learning. Here, we have repeated this study, recording from neurons in posterior piriform cortex (PPC), a region of piriform cortex that receives much stronger input from ABL. If associative encoding in piriform cortex is driven by inputs from ABL, then we should see more plasticity in PPC neurons than we observed in APC. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that PPC neurons were highly associative and appeared to be somewhat more likely than neurons recorded in APC to alter their responses to the odor cues after reversal of the odor-outcome associations in the task. Further, odor-selective PPC populations exhibited markedly different firing patterns based on the valence of the odor cue. These results suggest associative encoding in piriform cortex is represented in a topographical fashion, reflecting the stronger and more specific input from olfactory bulb concerning the sensory features of odors in anterior regions and stronger input from ABL concerning the meaning of odors in posterior regions.

  13. 6-Hydroxydopamine and radiofrequency lesions of the lateral entorhinal cortex facilitate an operant appetitive conditioning task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, M; Soumireu-Mourat, B

    1981-07-02

    The entorhinal cortex seems heterogeneous as dopaminergic terminals are present only in the anterior part of the lateral entorhinal cortex. In order to clarify the interaction of this cortex with the hippocampus in memory processes, the effects of either 6-hydroxydopamine or radiofrequency bilateral lesions were compared. Both lesions enhance the retention of a Skinner task with continuous reinforcement schedule. Involvement of dopamine in memory processes is discussed.

  14. Adaptive coding of action values in the human rostral cingulate zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jocham, G.; Neumann, J.; Klein, T.A.; Danielmeier, C.; Ullsperger, M.

    2009-01-01

    Correctly selecting appropriate actions in an uncertain environment requires gathering experience about the available actions by sampling them over several trials. Recent findings suggest that the human rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) is important for the integration of extended action-outcome associat

  15. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  16. Neuropsychology of prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The history of clinical frontal lobe study is long and rich which provides valuable insights into neuropsychologic determinants of functions of prefrontal cortex (PFC). PFC is often classified as multimodal association cortex as extremely processed information from various sensory modalities is integrated here in a precise fashion to form the physiologic constructs of memory, perception, and diverse cognitive processes. Human neuropsychologic studies also support the notion of different funct...

  17. A Pilot Study of Mindfulness-Based Exposure Therapy in OEF/OIF Combat Veterans with PTSD: Altered Medial Frontal Cortex and Amygdala Responses in Social–Emotional Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Anthony P.; Block, Stefanie R.; Sripada, Rebecca K.; Rauch, Sheila A. M.; Porter, Katherine E.; Favorite, Todd K.; Giardino, Nicholas; Liberzon, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is common among returning veterans, and is a serious and debilitating disorder. While highly effective treatments involving trauma exposure exist, difficulties with engagement and early drop may lead to sub-optimal outcomes. Mindfulness training may provide a method for increasing emotional regulation skills that may improve engagement in trauma-focused therapy. Here, we examine potential neural correlates of mindfulness training and in vivo exposure (non-trauma focused) using a novel group therapy [mindfulness-based exposure therapy (MBET)] in Afghanistan (OEF) or Iraq (OIF) combat veterans with PTSD. OEF/OIF combat veterans with PTSD (N = 23) were treated with MBET (N = 14) or a comparison group therapy [Present-centered group therapy (PCGT), N = 9]. PTSD symptoms were assessed at pre- and post-therapy with Clinician Administered PTSD scale. Functional neuroimaging (3-T fMRI) before and after therapy examined responses to emotional faces (angry, fearful, and neutral faces). Patients treated with MBET had reduced PTSD symptoms (effect size d = 0.92) but effect was not significantly different from PCGT (d = 0.43). Improvement in PTSD symptoms from pre- to post-treatment in both treatment groups was correlated with increased activity in rostral anterior cingulate cortex, dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), and left amygdala. The MBET group showed greater increases in amygdala and fusiform gyrus responses to Angry faces, as well as increased response in left mPFC to Fearful faces. These preliminary findings provide intriguing evidence that MBET group therapy for PTSD may lead to changes in neural processing of social–emotional threat related to symptom reduction. PMID:27703434

  18. Functional Imaging of Human Vestibular Cortex Activity Elicited by Skull Tap and Auditory Tone Burst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noohi, F.; Kinnaird, C.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J.; Mulavara, A.; Seidler, R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study characterizes brain activation in response to two modes of vestibular stimulation: skull tap and auditory tone burst. The auditory tone burst has been used in previous studies to elicit either the vestibulo-spinal reflex (saccular-mediated colic Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials (cVEMP)), or the ocular muscle response (utricle-mediated ocular VEMP (oVEMP)). Some researchers have reported that air-conducted skull tap elicits both saccular and utricle-mediated VEMPs, while being faster and less irritating for the subjects. However, it is not clear whether the skull tap and auditory tone burst elicit the same pattern of cortical activity. Both forms of stimulation target the otolith response, which provides a measurement of vestibular function independent from semicircular canals. This is of high importance for studying otolith-specific deficits, including gait and balance problems that astronauts experience upon returning to earth. Previous imaging studies have documented activity in the anterior and posterior insula, superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior frontal gyrus, and the anterior cingulate cortex in response to different modes of vestibular stimulation. Here we hypothesized that skull taps elicit similar patterns of cortical activity as the auditory tone bursts, and previous vestibular imaging studies. Subjects wore bilateral MR compatible skull tappers and headphones inside the 3T GE scanner, while lying in the supine position, with eyes closed. Subjects received both forms of the stimulation in a counterbalanced fashion. Pneumatically powered skull tappers were placed bilaterally on the cheekbones. The vibration of the cheekbone was transmitted to the vestibular system, resulting in the vestibular cortical response. Auditory tone bursts were also delivered for comparison. To validate our stimulation method, we measured the ocular VEMP outside of the scanner. This measurement showed that both skull tap and auditory

  19. Role of fusiform and anterior temporal cortical areas in facial recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasr, Shahin; Tootell, Roger B H

    2012-11-15

    Recent fMRI studies suggest that cortical face processing extends well beyond the fusiform face area (FFA), including unspecified portions of the anterior temporal lobe. However, the exact location of such anterior temporal region(s), and their role during active face recognition, remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that (in addition to FFA) a small bilateral site in the anterior tip of the collateral sulcus ('AT'; the anterior temporal face patch) is selectively activated during recognition of faces but not houses (a non-face object). In contrast to the psychophysical prediction that inverted and contrast reversed faces are processed like other non-face objects, both FFA and AT (but not other visual areas) were also activated during recognition of inverted and contrast reversed faces. However, response accuracy was better correlated to recognition-driven activity in AT, compared to FFA. These data support a segregated, hierarchical model of face recognition processing, extending to the anterior temporal cortex.

  20. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  1. Measuring our natural painkiller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, Stuart W G

    2002-02-01

    Studies of the brain during noxious experience converge on the anterior cingulate cortex as a key region in the processing of pain. A recent exciting study extends this understanding to include the anterior cingulate as a center for endogenous opioid activation specific to negative pain affect.

  2. Monetary reward suppresses anterior insula activity during social pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofori, Irene; Harquel, Sylvain; Isnard, Jean; Mauguière, François; Sirigu, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Social pain after exclusion by others activates brain regions also involved in physical pain. Here we evaluated whether monetary reward could compensate for the negative feeling of social pain in the brain. To address this question we used the unique technique of intracranial electroencephalography in subjects with drug resistant epilepsy. Specifically, we recorded theta activity from intracranial electrodes implanted in the insular cortex while subjects experienced conditions of social inclusion and exclusion associated with monetary gain and loss. Our study confirmed that theta rhythm in the insular cortex is the neural signature of social exclusion. We found that while monetary gain suppresses the effect of social pain in the anterior insula, there is no such effect in the posterior insula. These results imply that the anterior insula can use secondary reward signals to compensate for the negative feeling of social pain. Hence, here we propose that the anterior insula plays a pivotal role in integrating contingencies to update social pain feelings. Finally, the possibility to modulate the theta rhythm through the reward system might open new avenues of research for treating pathologies related to social exclusion.

  3. Processing of sound location in human cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewald, Jörg; Riederer, Klaus A J; Lentz, Tobias; Meister, Ingo G

    2008-03-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging study was focused on the neural substrates underlying human auditory space perception. In order to present natural-like sound locations to the subjects, acoustic stimuli convolved with individual head-related transfer functions were used. Activation foci, as revealed by analyses of contrasts and interactions between sound locations, formed a complex network, including anterior and posterior regions of temporal lobe, posterior parietal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and inferior frontal cortex. The distinct topography of this network was the result of different patterns of activation and deactivation, depending on sound location, in the respective voxels. These patterns suggested different levels of complexity in processing of auditory spatial information, starting with simple left/right discrimination in the regions surrounding the primary auditory cortex, while the integration of information on hemispace and eccentricity of sound may take place at later stages. Activations were identified as being located in regions assigned to both the dorsal and ventral auditory cortical streams, that are assumed to be preferably concerned with analysis of spatial and non-spatial sound features, respectively. The finding of activations also in the ventral stream could, on the one hand, reflect the well-known functional duality of auditory spectral analysis, that is, the concurrent extraction of information based on location (due to the spectrotemporal distortions caused by head and pinnae) and spectral characteristics of a sound source. On the other hand, this result may suggest the existence of shared neural networks, performing analyses of auditory 'higher-order' cues for both localization and identification of sound sources.

  4. [Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Gutiérrez, Mario H; Sánchez-Corona, José; García-Ortiz, José E; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Nory O; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; García-Cruz, Diana

    2016-10-01

    The non-syndromic anterior cervical hypertrichosis (OMIM N° 600457) is a genetic disorder characterized by a patch of hair at the level of the laryngeal prominence. We present a 12-year-old boy with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and mild generalized hypertrichosis. He has no neurological, ophthalmological or skeletal anomalies. The clinical follow up is 10 years.

  5. Paternal deprivation affects the development of corticotrophin-releasing factor-expressing neurones in prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus of the biparental Octodon degus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, K; Poeggel, G; Holetschka, R; Helmeke, C; Braun, K

    2011-11-01

    Although the critical role of maternal care on the development of brain and behaviour of the offspring has been extensively studied, knowledge about the importance of paternal care is comparatively scarce. In biparental species, paternal care significantly contributes to a stimulating socio-emotional family environment, which most likely also includes protection from stressful events. In the biparental caviomorph rodent Octodon degus, we analysed the impact of paternal care on the development of neurones in prefrontal-limbic brain regions, which express corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF). CRF is a polypeptidergic hormone that is expressed and released by a neuronal subpopulation in the brain, and which not only is essential for regulating stress and emotionality, but also is critically involved in cognitive functions. At weaning age [postnatal day (P)21], paternal deprivation resulted in an elevated density of CRF-containing neurones in the orbitofrontal cortex and in the basolateral amygdala of male degus, whereas a reduced density of CRF-expressing neurones was measured in the dentate gyrus and stratum pyramidale of the hippocampal CA1 region at this age. With the exception of the CA1 region, the deprivation-induced changes were no longer evident in adulthood (P90), which suggests a transient change that, in later life, might be normalised by other socio-emotional experience. The central amygdala, characterised by dense clusters of CRF-immunopositive neuropil, and the precentral medial, anterior cingulate, infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, were not affected by paternal deprivation. Taken together, this is the first evidence that paternal care interferes with the developmental expression pattern of CRF-expressing interneurones in an age- and region-specific manner.

  6. Area-specific information processing in prefrontal cortex during a probabilistic inference task: a multivariate fMRI BOLD time series analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Demanuele

    Full Text Available Discriminating spatiotemporal stages of information processing involved in complex cognitive processes remains a challenge for neuroscience. This is especially so in prefrontal cortex whose subregions, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC, anterior cingulate (ACC and orbitofrontal (OFC cortices are known to have differentiable roles in cognition. Yet it is much less clear how these subregions contribute to different cognitive processes required by a given task. To investigate this, we use functional MRI data recorded from a group of healthy adults during a "Jumping to Conclusions" probabilistic reasoning task.We used a novel approach combining multivariate test statistics with bootstrap-based procedures to discriminate between different task stages reflected in the fMRI blood oxygenation level dependent signal pattern and to unravel differences in task-related information encoded by these regions. Furthermore, we implemented a new feature extraction algorithm that selects voxels from any set of brain regions that are jointly maximally predictive about specific task stages.Using both the multivariate statistics approach and the algorithm that searches for maximally informative voxels we show that during the Jumping to Conclusions task, the DLPFC and ACC contribute more to the decision making phase comprising the accumulation of evidence and probabilistic reasoning, while the OFC is more involved in choice evaluation and uncertainty feedback. Moreover, we show that in presumably non-task-related regions (temporal cortices all information there was about task processing could be extracted from just one voxel (indicating the unspecific nature of that information, while for prefrontal areas a wider multivariate pattern of activity was maximally informative.We present a new approach to reveal the different roles of brain regions during the processing of one task from multivariate activity patterns measured by fMRI. This method can be a valuable

  7. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  8. Chemical shift magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cingulate grey matter in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechtcheriakov, Sergei; Kugener, Andre; Mattedi, Michael; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Marksteiner, Josef [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of General Psychiatry, Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Radiology I, Innsbruck (Austria); Graziadei, Ivo W.; Vogel, Wolfgang [Innsbruck Medical University, Department of Gastroenterology, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2005-01-01

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is frequently diagnosed in patients with liver cirrhosis who do not show overt clinical cirrhosis-associated neurological deficits. This condition manifests primarily with visuo-motor and attention deficits. We studied the association between visuo-motor deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters in cingulate grey matter and white matter of centrum semiovale in patients with liver cirrhosis. The data revealed an increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio and a decrease in choline/creatine and inositol/creatine ratios in patients with liver cirrhosis. The analysis of the data showed that cirrhosis-associated deterioration of the visuo-motor function significantly correlates with a decrease in the choline/creatine ratio and an increase in N-acetylaspartate/choline in cingulate grey matter but not in the neighbouring white matter. Furthermore, the increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio correlated significantly with the increase in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio. These data suggest an association between altered choline, glutamate-glutamine and NAA metabolism in cingulate grey matter and symptoms of MHE, and underline the importance of differentiation between grey and white matter in magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on patients with cirrhosis-associated brain dysfunction. (orig.)

  9. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  10. [Neuroanatomy of Frontal Association Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Masahiko

    2016-11-01

    The frontal association cortex is composed of the prefrontal cortex and the motor-related areas except the primary motor cortex (i.e., the so-called higher motor areas), and is well-developed in primates, including humans. The prefrontal cortex receives and integrates large bits of diverse information from the parietal, temporal, and occipital association cortical areas (termed the posterior association cortex), and paralimbic association cortical areas. This information is then transmitted to the primary motor cortex via multiple motor-related areas. Given these facts, it is likely that the prefrontal cortex exerts executive functions for behavioral control. The functional input pathways from the posterior and paralimbic association cortical areas to the prefrontal cortex are classified primarily into six groups. Cognitive signals derived from the prefrontal cortex are conveyed to the rostral motor-related areas to transform them into motor signals, which finally enter the primary motor cortex via the caudal motor-related areas. Furthermore, it has been shown that, similar to the primary motor cortex, areas of the frontal association cortex form individual networks (known as "loop circuits") with the basal ganglia and cerebellum via the thalamus, and hence are extensively involved in the expression and control of behavioral actions.

  11. The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kringelbach, Morten L; Rolls, Edmund T

    2004-04-01

    The human orbitofrontal cortex is an important brain region for the processing of rewards and punishments, which is a prerequisite for the complex and flexible emotional and social behaviour which contributes to the evolutionary success of humans. Yet much remains to be discovered about the functions of this key brain region, and new evidence from functional neuroimaging and clinical neuropsychology is affording new insights into the different functions of the human orbitofrontal cortex. We review the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological literature on the human orbitofrontal cortex, and propose two distinct trends of neural activity based on a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies. One is a mediolateral distinction, whereby medial orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to monitoring the reward value of many different reinforcers, whereas lateral orbitofrontal cortex activity is related to the evaluation of punishers which may lead to a change in ongoing behaviour. The second is a posterior-anterior distinction with more complex or abstract reinforcers (such as monetary gain and loss) represented more anteriorly in the orbitofrontal cortex than simpler reinforcers such as taste or pain. Finally, we propose new neuroimaging methods for obtaining further evidence on the localisation of function in the human orbitofrontal cortex.

  12. The planar cell polarity protein Strabismus promotes Pins anterior localization during asymmetric division of sensory organ precursor cells in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellaïche, Yohanns; Beaudoin-Massiani, Olivia; Stuttem, Isabella; Schweisguth, François

    2004-01-01

    Cell fate diversity is generated in part by the unequal segregation of cell-fate determinants during asymmetric cell division. In the Drosophila bristle lineage, the sensory organ precursor (pI) cell is polarized along the anteroposterior (AP) axis by Frizzled (Fz) receptor signaling. We show here that Fz localizes at the posterior apical cortex of the pI cell prior to mitosis, whereas Strabismus (Stbm) and Prickle (Pk), which are also required for AP polarization of the pI cell, co-localize at the anterior apical cortex. Thus, asymmetric localization of Fz, Stbm and Pk define two opposite cortical domains prior to mitosis of the pI cell. At mitosis, Stbm forms an anterior crescent that overlaps with the distribution of Partner of Inscuteable (Pins) and Discs-large (Dlg), two components of the anterior Dlg-Pins-Galphai complex that regulates the localization of cell-fate determinants. At prophase, Stbm promotes the anterior localization of Pins. By contrast, Dishevelled (Dsh) acts antagonistically to Stbm by excluding Pins from the posterior cortex. We propose that the Stbm-dependent recruitment of Pins at the anterior cortex of the pI cell is a novel read-out of planar cell polarity.

  13. 1 Hz rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex reduces vigilant attention to unmasked but not to masked fearful faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; d'Alfonso, A.A.L.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Haan, E.H.F. de

    2002-01-01

    Background: Recent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) research in healthy subjects suggests that the emotions anger and anxiety are lateralized in the prefrontal cortex. Low-frequency rTMS over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) shifts the anterior asymmetry in brain activation to th

  14. Regulating prefrontal cortex activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aznar, Susana; Klein, Anders Bue

    2013-01-01

    of emotion-based actions, such as addiction and other impulse-related behaviors. In this review, we give an overview of the 5-HT2A receptor distribution (neuronal, intracellular, and anatomical) along with its functional and physiological effect on PFC activation, and how that relates to more recent findings......The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in mediating important higher-order cognitive processes such as decision making, prompting thereby our actions. At the same time, PFC activation is strongly influenced by emotional reactions through its functional interaction with the amygdala...... is highly expressed in the prefrontal cortex areas, playing an important role in modulating cortical activity and neural oscillations (brain waves). This makes it an interesting potential pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropsychiatric modes characterized by lack of inhibitory control...

  15. [Orbitofrontal cortex and morality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Michitaka; Mimura, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Research on the neural substrates of morality is a recently emerging field in neuroscience. The anatomical structures implicated to play a role in morality include the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, and basal ganglia. In particular, the orbitofrontal or ventromedial prefrontal areas are thought to be involved in decision-making, and damage to these areas is likely to cause decision-making deficits and/or problems in impulsive control, which may lead to antisocial and less moral behaviors. In this article, we focus on case presentation and theory development with regard to moral judgment. First, we discuss notable cases and syndromes developing after orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, such as the famous cases of Gage and EVR, cases of childhood orbitofrontal damage, forced collectionism, squalor syndrome, and hypermoral syndrome. We then review the proposed theories and neuropsychological mechanisms underlying decision-making deficits following orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal damage, including the somatic-marker hypothesis, reversal learning, preference judgment, theory of mind, and moral dilemma.

  16. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  17. Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma: current concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jing Yang,1–3 Yalong Dang,1–3 Yu Zhu,1 Chun Zhang2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou City, Henan Province, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, 3Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is a rare variant of retinoblastoma seeding in the area of the vitreous base and anterior chamber. Patients with diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are older than those with the classical types, with the mean age being 6.1 years. The original cells of diffuse anterior retinoblastoma are supposed to be cone precursor. Patients most commonly present with pseudouveitis, pseudohypopyon, and increased intraocular pressure. The retina under fundus examination is likely to be normal, and the clinical features mimic the inflammation progress, which can often lead to misdiagnosis. The published diffuse anterior retinoblastoma cases were diagnosed after fine-needle aspiration biopsy running the potential risk of inducing metastasis. The most common treatment for diffuse anterior retinoblastoma is enucleation followed by systematic chemotherapy according to the patient’s presentation and clinical course. This review summarizes the recent advances in etiology (including tumorigenesis and cell origin, pathology, diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and new treatment. The challenges of early diagnosis and prospects are also discussed. Keywords: pathology, microenvironment, treatment, diagnosis 

  18. Cytoarchitecture and probability maps of the human medial orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henssen, Anton; Zilles, Karl; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Schleicher, Axel; Mohlberg, Hartmut; Gerboga, Fatma; Eickhoff, Simon B; Bludau, Sebastian; Amunts, Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Previous architectonical studies of human orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) provided divergent maps regarding number, location, and extent of areas. To solve this controversy, an observer-independent cytoarchitectonical mapping of medial OFC (mOFC) was performed. Borders of cortical areas were detected in histological sections of ten human post-mortem brains using a quantitative, statistically testable method, and their stereotaxic localization and intersubject variability were determined. Three areas were identified: granular Fo1 mainly on the rostral Gyrus rectus and medial of the olfactory sulcus; granular to dysgranular Fo2, mainly on the posterior part of the ventromedial Gyrus rectus and the medial and lateral banks of the olfactory sulcus; granular Fo3 between the olfactory and medial or intermediate orbital sulci. Fo3 was bordered medially by Fo1 and Fo2 and laterally by the lateral OFC (lOFC). A cluster analysis of the cytoarchitectonical features of Fo1-Fo3, subgenual cingulate areas, BA12, lateral and medial areas of the frontopolar cortex, lOFC and areas of Broca's region demonstrated the cytoarchitectonical similarity between the mOFC areas in contrast to all other frontal areas. Probabilistic maps of mOFC areas show a considerable intersubject variability in extent and position in stereotaxic space, and provide spatial templates for anatomical localization of in vivo neuroimaging data via the JuBrain atlas and the Anatomy Toolbox.

  19. Does posterior cingulate hypometabolism result from disconnection or local pathology across preclinical and clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teipel, Stefan [University of Rostock, Department of Psychosomatic Medicine, Rostock (Germany); DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States); Grothe, Michel J. [DZNE, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, Rostock (Germany); Alzheimer' s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) hypometabolism as measured by FDG PET is an indicator of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in prodromal stages, such as in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and has been found to be closely associated with hippocampus atrophy in AD dementia.We studied the effects of local and remote atrophy and of local amyloid load on the PCC metabolic signal in patients with different preclinical and clinical stages of AD. We determined the volume of the hippocampus and PCC grey matter based on volumetric MRI scans, PCC amyloid load based on AV45 PET, and PCC metabolism based on FDG PET in 667 subjects participating in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative spanning the range from cognitively normal ageing through prodromal AD to AD dementia. In cognitively normal individuals and those with early MCI, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively associated with hippocampus atrophy, whereas in subjects with late MCI it was associated with both local and remote effects of atrophy as well as local amyloid load. In subjects with AD dementia, PCC hypometabolism was exclusively related to local atrophy. Our findings suggest that the effects of remote pathology on PCC hypometabolism decrease and the effects of local pathology increase from preclinical to clinical stages of AD, consistent with a progressive disconnection of the PCC from downstream cortical and subcortical brain regions. (orig.)

  20. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the brain, which is linked to thought and emotion. It is also linked to reward systems in ... or-flight response and is also involved in emotions and memory. anterior cingulate cortex —Is involved in ...

  1. Two principles of organization in the prefrontal cortex are cognitive hierarchy and degree of automaticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Hyeon-Ae; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    The lateral prefrontal cortex is known to be organized by cognitive hierarchies following a posterior-to-anterior gradient. Here we test whether this model applies across different cognitive domains by varying levels of cognitive hierarchy in first language, second language and non-language domains. These domains vary in their degree of automaticity with first language being the most automatic. For second language/non-language a clear gradient pattern of activation depending on the level of hierarchy is observed in the prefrontal cortex with the highest level of hierarchy recruiting its most anterior region, whereas for first language the highest level of hierarchy recruits its most posterior region. Moreover, second language/non-language and first language differ in the structural connectivity of their underlying networks. The current data strongly suggest that functional segregation of the prefrontal cortex is determined by cognitive hierarchy and the degree of automaticity.

  2. Functional connectivity of prefrontal cortex in chronic heroin addicts:a resting-state functional MRI study%长期海洛因成瘾者前额叶功能连接的静息态fMRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐印宝; 傅先明; 钱若兵; 魏祥品; 牛朝诗; 王昌新; 曾飞雁; 汪业汉

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用静息态fMRI探讨长期海洛因成瘾者前额叶功能连接的变化情况.方法 13例长期海洛因成瘾者和14例正常者接受静息态fMRI检查,对数据进行相关的预处理后,以前额叶为种子点与全脑每个体素进行相关分析,比较海洛因成瘾组与正常对照组前额叶功能连接的变化情况.结果 以左侧前额叶为种子点进行功能连接分析,海洛因成瘾组左侧前额叶与左侧海马、右侧前扣带回、左侧额中回、右侧额中回、右侧楔前叶功能连接明显低于正常对照组:以右侧前额叶为种子点进行功能连接分析,海洛因成瘾组右侧前额叶与左侧眶额叶、左侧额中回功能连接明显低于正常对照组.结论 长期海洛因成瘾者前额叶与相关脑区的功能连接减弱,前额叶可能参与了海洛因成瘾的维持与戒断后复吸.%Objective To explore the changes of functional connectivity of the prefrontal cortex in chronic heroin addicts under resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods Resting fMRI examination was performed on 13 chronic heroin addicts and 14 healthy volunteers. After pre-processing the resting-state fMRI data, the prefrontal cortex was selected as the seed region, with which a whole-brain voxel temporal correlation in Iow frequency fMRI fluctuations was analyzed and the changes of functional connectivity of the prefrontal lobe in both chronic heroin addicts and healthy volunteers were calculated with SPM5 software. Results Compared with that in the control group, the functional connectivity between the left prefrontal cortex and the left hippocampus, right anterior cingulate, left middle frontal gyrus, right middle frontal gyrus, right precuneus in the heroin addiction group was significantly decreased. The functional connectivity between the right prefrontal cortex and the left orbital frontal cortex, left middle frontal gyrus in thc heroin addiction group was also significantly decreased as compared

  3. Current direction specificity of continuous θ-burst stimulation in modulating human motor cortex excitability when applied to somatosensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Mark F; Zapallow, Christopher M; Tsang, Philemon; Lee, Kevin G H; Asmussen, Michael J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2012-11-14

    The present study examines the influence of primary somatosensory cortex (SI) on corticospinal excitability within primary motor cortex (M1) using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Two groups of subjects participated and both received continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) over SI. One group received cTBS oriented to induce anterior-to-posterior (AP) followed by posterior-to-anterior (PA) current flow in the cortex and the other group received cTBS in the opposite direction (PA-AP). Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were measured from the first dorsal interosseous muscle of the left and right hand before and at three time points (5, 25, 45 min) following cTBS over left-hemisphere SI. CTBS over SI in the AP-PA direction increased contralateral MEPs at 5 and 45 min with a near significant increase at 25 min. In contrast, PA-AP cTBS decreased contralateral MEPs at 25 min. We conclude that cTBS over SI modulates neural output directed to the hand with effects that depend on the direction of induced current.

  4. Segregation of the human medial prefrontal cortex in social cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo eBzdok

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary measures of functional connectivity: co-activation across a wide range of neuroimaging studies archived in the BrainMap database and correlated signal fluctuations during unconstrained (resting cognition. Furthermore, we characterized the functions associated with these two regions using the BrainMap database. Across methods, the ventral mPFC was more strongly connected with the nucleus accumbens, hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, and retrosplenial cortex, while the dorsal mPFC was more strongly connected with the inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction, and middle temporal gyrus. Further, the ventral mPFC was selectively associated with action execution, olfaction, and reward related tasks, while the dorsal mPFC was selectively associated with perspective-taking and episodic memory retrieval. The ventral mPFC is therefore predominantly involved in sensory-driven, approach/avoidance-modulating, and evaluation-related processing, whereas the dorsal mPFC is predominantly involved in internally driven, memory-informed, and metacognition-related processing in social cognition.

  5. Cortical Connectivity Maps Reveal Anatomically Distinct Areas in the Parietal Cortex of the Rat

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    Aaron eWilber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A central feature of theories of spatial navigation involves the representation of spatial relationships between objects in complex environments. The parietal cortex has long been linked to the processing of spatial visual information and recent evidence from single unit recording in rodents suggests a role for this region in encoding egocentric and world-centered frames. The rat parietal cortex can be subdivided into up to four distinct rostral-caudal and medial-lateral regions, which includes a zone previously characterized as secondary visual cortex. At present, very little is known regarding the relative connectivity of these parietal subdivisions. Thus, we set out to map the connectivity of the entire anterior-posterior and medial-lateral span of this region. To do this we used anterograde and retrograde tracers in conjunction with open source neuronal segmentation and tracer detection tools to generate whole brain connectivity maps of parietal inputs and outputs. Our present results show that inputs to the parietal cortex varied significantly along the medial-lateral, but not the rostral-caudal axis. Specifically, retrosplenial connectivity is greater medially, but connectivity with visual cortex, though generally sparse, is more significant laterally. Finally, based on connection density, the connectivity between parietal cortex and hippocampus is indirect and likely achieved largely via dysgranular retrosplenial cortex. Thus, similar to primates, the parietal cortex of rats exhibits a difference in connectivity along the medial-lateral axis, which may represent functionally distinct areas.

  6. Auditory and visual connectivity gradients in frontoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Hellyer, Peter J; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A frontoparietal network of brain regions is often implicated in both auditory and visual information processing. Although it is possible that the same set of multimodal regions subserves both modalities, there is increasing evidence that there is a differentiation of sensory function within frontoparietal cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans was used to investigate whether different frontoparietal regions showed intrinsic biases in connectivity with visual or auditory modalities. Structural connectivity was assessed with diffusion tractography and functional connectivity was tested using functional MRI. A dorsal-ventral gradient of function was observed, where connectivity with visual cortex dominates dorsal frontal and parietal connections, while connectivity with auditory cortex dominates ventral frontal and parietal regions. A gradient was also observed along the posterior-anterior axis, although in opposite directions in prefrontal and parietal cortices. The results suggest that the location of neural activity within frontoparietal cortex may be influenced by these intrinsic biases toward visual and auditory processing. Thus, the location of activity in frontoparietal cortex may be influenced as much by stimulus modality as the cognitive demands of a task. It was concluded that stimulus modality was spatially encoded throughout frontal and parietal cortices, and was speculated that such an arrangement allows for top-down modulation of modality-specific information to occur within higher-order cortex. This could provide a potentially faster and more efficient pathway by which top-down selection between sensory modalities could occur, by constraining modulations to within frontal and parietal regions, rather than long-range connections to sensory cortices. Hum Brain Mapp 38:255-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dimensionality of object representations in monkey inferotemporal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehky, Sidney R; Kiani, Roozbeh; Esteky, Hossein; Tanaka, Keiji

    2014-10-01

    We have calculated the intrinsic dimensionality of visual object representations in anterior inferotemporal (AIT) cortex, based on responses of a large sample of cells stimulated with photographs of diverse objects. Because dimensionality was dependent on data set size, we determined asymptotic dimensionality as both the number of neurons and number of stimulus image approached infinity. Our final dimensionality estimate was 93 (SD: ± 11), indicating that there is basis set of approximately 100 independent features that characterize the dimensions of neural object space. We believe this is the first estimate of the dimensionality of neural visual representations based on single-cell neurophysiological data. The dimensionality of AIT object representations was much lower than the dimensionality of the stimuli. We suggest that there may be a gradual reduction in the dimensionality of object representations in neural populations going from retina to inferotemporal cortex as receptive fields become increasingly complex.

  8. Genetic influences on thinning of the cerebral cortex during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Soelen, I L C; Brouwer, R M; van Baal, G C M; Schnack, H G; Peper, J S; Collins, D L; Evans, A C; Kahn, R S; Boomsma, D I; Hulshoff Pol, H E

    2012-02-15

    During development from childhood to adulthood the human brain undergoes considerable thinning of the cerebral cortex. Whether developmental cortical thinning is influenced by genes and if independent genetic factors influence different parts of the cortex is not known. Magnetic resonance brain imaging was done in twins at age 9 (N = 190) and again at age 12 (N = 125; 113 repeated measures) to assess genetic influences on changes in cortical thinning. We find considerable thinning of the cortex between over this three year interval (on average 0.05 mm; 1.5%), particularly in the frontal poles, and orbitofrontal, paracentral, and occipital cortices. Cortical thinning was highly heritable at age 9 and age 12, and the degree of genetic influence differed for the various areas of the brain. One genetic factor affected left inferior frontal (Broca's area), and left parietal (Wernicke's area) thinning; a second factor influenced left anterior paracentral (sensory-motor) thinning. Two factors influenced cortical thinning in the frontal poles: one of decreasing influence over time, and another independent genetic factor emerging at age 12 in left and right frontal poles. Thus, thinning of the cerebral cortex is heritable in children between the ages 9 and 12. Furthermore, different genetic factors are responsible for variation in cortical thickness at ages 9 and 12, with independent genetic factors acting on cortical thickness across time and between various brain areas during childhood brain development.

  9. Peripheral sounds rapidly activate visual cortex: evidence from electrocorticography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brang, David; Towle, Vernon L; Suzuki, Satoru; Hillyard, Steven A; Di Tusa, Senneca; Dai, Zhongtian; Tao, James; Wu, Shasha; Grabowecky, Marcia

    2015-11-01

    Neurophysiological studies with animals suggest that sounds modulate activity in primary visual cortex in the presence of concurrent visual stimulation. Noninvasive neuroimaging studies in humans have similarly shown that sounds modulate activity in visual areas even in the absence of visual stimuli or visual task demands. However, the spatial and temporal limitations of these noninvasive methods prevent the determination of how rapidly sounds activate early visual cortex and what information about the sounds is relayed there. Using spatially and temporally precise measures of local synaptic activity acquired from depth electrodes in humans, we demonstrate that peripherally presented sounds evoke activity in the anterior portion of the contralateral, but not ipsilateral, calcarine sulcus within 28 ms of sound onset. These results suggest that auditory stimuli rapidly evoke spatially specific activity in visual cortex even in the absence of concurrent visual stimulation or visual task demands. This rapid auditory-evoked activation of primary visual cortex is likely to be mediated by subcortical pathways or direct cortical projections from auditory to visual areas.

  10. Prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala plasticity in a rat model of autism spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa-Díaz, Nuvia; Bringas, Maria Elena; Atzori, Marco; Flores, Gonzalo

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of valproic acid (VPA) (500 mg/kg) at embryonic day 12.5 on the anatomical properties of the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and basolateral amygdala, at three different ages: immediately after weaning (postnatal day 21 [PD21]), prepubertal (PD35), and postpubertal (PD70) ages in a rat model of autistic spectrum disorder. Quantitative analysis of the thickness of the prefrontal cortex revealed a reduced size at all study ages in the cingulate 1 area of the prefrontal cortex and CA1 of the dorsal hippocampus in prenatally exposed animals compared to controls. At the level of the basolateral amygdala, a reduction in the size was observed at PD35 and PD70 in the VPA group. In addition, a reduced thickness was observed in the prelimbic region of the prefrontal cortex in VPA animals at PD35. Interestingly, no differences in cortical thickness were observed between control and VPA animals in the infralimbic region of the prefrontal at any age. Our results suggest that prenatal exposure to VPA differentially alters cortical limbic regions anatomical parameters, with implication in the autistic spectrum disorder.

  11. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Malheiros Luzo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  13. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  14. The embryonic septum and ventral pallium, new sources of olfactory cortex cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Laura Ceci

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory cortex is a complex structure located along the rostro-caudal extension of the ventrolateral prosencephalon, which is divided into several anatomically and functionally distinct areas: the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform cortex, olfactory tubercle, amygdaloid olfactory nuclei, and the more caudal entorhinal cortex. Multiple forebrain progenitor domains contribute to the cellular diversity of the olfactory cortex, which is invaded simultaneously by cells originating in distinct germinal areas in the dorsal and ventral forebrain. Using a combination of dye labeling techniques, we identified two novel areas that contribute cells to the developing olfactory cortices, the septum and the ventral pallium, from which cells migrate along a radial and then a tangential path. We characterized these cell populations by comparing their expression of calretinin, calbindin, reelin and Tbr1 with that of other olfactory cell populations.

  15. Visual Cortex Plasticity Following Peripheral Damage To The Visual System: fMRI Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, João; Pereira, Daniela; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-10-01

    Over the last two decades, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has become a powerful research method to investigate cortical visual plasticity. Abnormal fMRI response patterns have been occasionally detected in the visually deprived cortex of patients with bilateral retinal diseases. Controversy remains whether these observations indicate structural reorganization of the visual cortex or unmasking of previously silent cortico-cortical connections. In optic nerve diseases, there is weak evidence showing that early visual cortex seems to lack reorganization, while higher-order visual areas undergo plastic changes which may contribute to optimise visual function. There is however accumulating imaging evidence demonstrating trans-synaptic degeneration of the visual cortex in patients with disease of the anterior visual pathways. This may preclude the use of restorative treatments in these patients. Here, we review and update the body of fMRI evidence on visual cortical plasticity.

  16. Dyslexic children lack word selectivity gradients in occipito-temporal and inferior frontal cortex

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    O.A. Olulade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available fMRI studies using a region-of-interest approach have revealed that the ventral portion of the left occipito-temporal cortex, which is specialized for orthographic processing of visually presented words (and includes the so-called “visual word form area”, VWFA, is characterized by a posterior-to-anterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in typically reading adults, adolescents, and children (e.g. Brem et al., 2006, 2009. Similarly, the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC has been shown to exhibit a medial-to-lateral gradient of print selectivity in typically reading adults (Vinckier et al., 2007. Functional brain imaging studies of dyslexia have reported relative underactivity in left hemisphere occipito-temporal and inferior frontal regions using whole-brain analyses during word processing tasks. Hence, the question arises whether gradient sensitivities in these regions are altered in dyslexia. Indeed, a region-of-interest analysis revealed the gradient-specific functional specialization in the occipito-temporal cortex to be disrupted in dyslexic children (van der Mark et al., 2009. Building on these studies, we here (1 investigate if a word-selective gradient exists in the inferior frontal cortex in addition to the occipito-temporal cortex in normally reading children, (2 compare typically reading with dyslexic children, and (3 examine functional connections between these regions in both groups. We replicated the previously reported anterior-to-posterior gradient of increasing selectivity for words in the left occipito-temporal cortex in typically reading children, and its absence in the dyslexic children. Our novel finding is the detection of a pattern of increasing selectivity for words along the medial-to-lateral axis of the left inferior frontal cortex in typically reading children and evidence of functional connectivity between the most lateral aspect of this area and the anterior aspects of the occipito-temporal cortex. We

  17. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K; Winston, Gavin P.; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50–80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investiga...

  18. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  19. Diversity of cingulate xenarthrans in the middle-late Eocene of Northwestern Argentina

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    Martín R. Ciancio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of Paleogene mammals of intermediate and low latitudes has increased in the last decades and has been clearly demonstrated their importance in the comprehension of the evolution and faunistic changes outside Patagonia. The study of these faunas permits establishing new comparisons among contemporaneous faunistic associations, completing the distributional patterns, and evaluating evolutionary changes in the lineages in relation to climatic conditions prevailing in each of the different regions. In this work we study the diversity of Dasypodidae recovered from the Geste Formation (Northwestern Argentina. Bearing levels of Geste Formation were referred alternatively to a Barrancan subage of Casamayoran SALMA (middle Eocene, Lutetian–Bartonian or a Mustersan SALMA (middle–late Eocene, Bartonian–Priabonian on faunistic comparations with their equivalent in Patagonia, although absolute isotopic data indicates ca. 37–35 Ma (late Eocene, Priabonian. We described the following taxa of Dasypodidae: (i Dasypodinae Astegotheriini: cf. Astegotherium sp., ?Prostegotherium sp., Parastegosimpsonia cf. P. peruana; (ii Dasypodinae indet.; (iii Euphractinae Euphractini: Parutaetus punaensis sp. nov.; (iv Dasypodidae incertae sedis: Pucatherium parvum, Punatherium catamarcensis gen. et sp. nov. In comparison with other beds bearing Eocene cingulate faunas from Northwestern Argentina, Geste Formation presents the greatest diversity of dasypodids. This association is consistent with a late Eocene age and shows a taxonomic and biogeographic relevant features given by a unique specific composition: (i it differs from that known for contemporaneous faunas from Southern latitudes and younger associations from more tropical areas; (ii it includes genera with close affinities to those distant areas; (iii it presents unique taxa typical from Eocene units exposed at Northwestern Argentina. This highlights the evolutionary and biogeographic meaning of the

  20. Disrupted MEK/ERK signaling in the medial orbital cortex and dorsal endopiriform nuclei of the prefrontal cortex in a chronic restraint stress mouse model of depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Yea-Hyun; Yoon, Sang-Sun; Kim, Yu-Han; Jo, Sangmee Ahn

    2014-09-19

    Depression is one of the most prevalent mental illnesses, and causes a constant feeling of sadness and lose of interest, which often leads to suicide. Evidence suggests that depression is associated with aberrant MEK/ERK signaling. However, studies on MEK/ERK signaling in depression have only been done in a few brain regions, such as the hippocampus and mesolimbic reward pathways. Recent studies also implicate the involvement of the prefrontal cortex in depression. Thus, we examined the changes in MEK/ERK signaling in subregions of the prefrontal cortex of C57BL/6 mice by immunohistochemistry using phospho-MEK1/2 (Ser 217/221) and ERK1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204) antibodies. Mice were subjected to 21 consecutive days of restraint stress (for 2h daily), and depression-like behavior was evaluated using a sociability test and tail suspension test. The antidepressant, imipramine (20mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30min before restraint stress exposure. Chronic/repeated restraint stress produced depressive-like behavior, such as increased social avoidance in the social interaction test, and enhanced immobility time in the tail suspension test. This depressive behavior was ameliorated by imipramine. The behavioral changes well corresponded to a decrease in MEK/ERK immunoreactivity in the medial orbital (MO) cortex and dorsal endopiriform nuclei (DEn), which was averted by imipramine, but not in cingulate, prelimbic, infralimbic, and motor cortex. These results suggest that MEK/ERK signaling is disrupted in the DEn and MO subregions of the prefrontal cortex in the depressive phenotype, and that blocking a decrease in activated MEK/ERK is inherent to the antidepressant imipramine response.

  1. A case of anterior cerebral artery dissection caused by scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Kato, Yuji; Ohe, Yasuko; Deguchi, Ichiro; Maruyama, Hajime; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tanahashi, Norio

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted with right hemiparesis during scuba diving, without headache. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging depicted high-intensity areas in the left superior frontal and cingulate gyri on diffusion-weighted imaging. Dissection of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was detected using axial MR angiography and 3-dimensional MR cisternography. Dissection of the ACA during and after scuba diving has not been reported before. Dissection of the arteries should be included in the differential diagnosis when neurologic symptoms occur both during and after scuba diving, even if the patient does not experience headache. Furthermore, the combination of MR cisternography and MR angiography is useful to detect ACA dissection.

  2. Why do lesions in the rodent anterior thalamic nuclei cause such severe spatial deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggleton, John P.; Nelson, Andrew J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Lesions of the rodent anterior thalamic nuclei cause severe deficits to multiple spatial learning tasks. Possible explanations for these effects are examined, with particular reference to T-maze alternation. Anterior thalamic lesions not only impair allocentric place learning but also disrupt other spatial processes, including direction learning, path integration, and relative length discriminations, as well as aspects of nonspatial learning, e.g., temporal discriminations. Working memory tasks, such as T-maze alternation, appear particularly sensitive as they combine an array of these spatial and nonspatial demands. This sensitivity partly reflects the different functions supported by individual anterior thalamic nuclei, though it is argued that anterior thalamic lesion effects also arise from covert pathology in sites distal to the thalamus, most critically in the retrosplenial cortex and hippocampus. This two-level account, involving both local and distal lesion effects, explains the range and severity of the spatial deficits following anterior thalamic lesions. These findings highlight how the anterior thalamic nuclei form a key component in a series of interdependent systems that support multiple spatial functions. PMID:25195980

  3. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

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    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong, K.C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-08-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed.<