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Sample records for anterior cingulate activation

  1. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. Personality predicts working-memory-related activation in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Gray, Jeremy R; Braver, Todd S

    2002-03-01

    Behavioral studies suggest that two affective dimensions of personality are associated with working memory (WM) function. WM load is known to modulate neural activity in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain region critical for the cognitive control of behavior. On this basis, we hypothesized that neural activity in the caudal ACC during a WM task should be associated with personality: correlated negatively with behavioral approach sensitivity (BAS) and positively with behavioral inhibition sensitivity (BIS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we measured brain activity in 14 participants performing a three-back WM task. Higher self-reported BAS predicted better WM performance (r = .27) and lower WM-related activation in the caudal ACC (r = -.84), suggesting personality differences in cognitive control. The data bolster approach-withdrawal (action control) theories of personality and suggest refinements to the dominant views of ACC and personality.

  3. Increased rostral anterior cingulate activity following positive mental imagery training in healthy older adults.

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    Murphy, Susannah E; O'Donoghue, Melissa Clare; Blackwell, Simon E; Nobre, Anna Christina; Browning, Michael; Holmes, Emily A

    2017-12-01

    The ability to form positive mental images may be an important aspect of mental health and well-being. We have previously demonstrated that the vividness of positive prospective imagery is increased in healthy older adults following positive imagery cognitive training. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is involved in the simulation of future affective episodes. Here, we investigate the effect of positive imagery training on rACC activity during the imagination of novel, ambiguous scenarios vs closely matched control training. Seventy-five participants received 4 weeks of positive imagery or control training. Participants underwent a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, during which they completed an Ambiguous Sentences Task, which required them to form mental images in response to cues describing ambiguous social events. rACC activity was positively correlated with the pleasantness ratings of images formed. Positive imagery training increased rACC and bilateral hippocampal activity compared with the control training. Here, we demonstrate that rACC activity during positive imagery can be changed by the cognitive training. This is consistent with other evidence that this training enhances the vividness of positive imagery, and suggests the training may be acting to increase the intensity and affective quality of imagery simulating the future. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Smoking reduces conflict-related anterior cingulate activity in abstinent cigarette smokers performing a Stroop task.

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    Azizian, Allen; Nestor, Liam J; Payer, Doris; Monterosso, John R; Brody, Arthur L; London, Edythe D

    2010-02-01

    Prior research suggests that abrupt initiation of abstinence from cigarette smoking reduces neural cognitive efficiency. When cognitive efficiency is high, processing speed and accuracy are maximized with minimal allocation of cognitive resources. The study presented here tested the effects of resumption of smoking on cognitive response conflict after overnight abstinence from smoking, hypothesizing that smoking would enhance cognitive efficiency. Twenty paid research volunteers who were chronic cigarette smokers abstained from smoking overnight (>12 h) before undergoing fMRI while performing a color-word Stroop task during two separate test sessions: one that did not include smoking before testing and another one that did. Statistical analyses were performed by modeling the Stroop effect (incongruent >congruent) BOLD response within a collection of a priori regions of interest that have consistently been associated with cognitive control. Behavioral assessment alone did not reveal any significant differences in the Stroop effect between the two sessions. BOLD activations, however, indicated that in the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), smokers had significantly less task-related activity following smoking (pconflict activity together with improvement in conflict resolution involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  5. Emotional conflict and neuroticism: personality-dependent activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate.

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    Haas, Brian W; Omura, Kazufumi; Constable, R Todd; Canli, Turhan

    2007-04-01

    The amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (AC) have been associated with anxiety and mood disorders, for which trait neuroticism is a risk factor. Prior work has not related individual differences in amygdala or subgenual AC activation with neuroticism. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate changes in blood oxygen level-dependent signal within the amygdala and subgenual AC associated with trait neuroticism in a nonclinical sample of 36 volunteers during an emotional conflict task. Neuroticism correlated positively with amygdala and subgenual AC activation during trials of high emotional conflict, compared with trials of low emotional conflict. The subscale of neuroticism that reflected the anxious form of neuroticism (N1) explained a greater proportion of variance within the observed clusters than the subscale of neuroticism that reflected the depressive form of neuroticism (N3). Using a task that is sensitive to individual differences in the detection of emotional conflict, the authors have provided a neural correlate of the link between neuroticism and anxiety and mood disorders. This effect was driven to a greater extent by the anxious relative to the depressive characteristics of neuroticism and may constitute vulnerability markers for anxiety-related disorders. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Kun Xie

    Full Text Available There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder.

  7. Alleviating Bone Cancer-induced Mechanical Hypersensitivity by Inhibiting Neuronal Activity in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

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    Chiou, Chiuan-Shiou; Chen, Chien-Chung; Tsai, Tsung-Chih; Huang, Chiung-Chun; Chou, Dylan; Hsu, Kuei-Sen

    2016-10-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain region that has been critically implicated in the processing of pain perception and modulation. While much evidence has pointed to an increased activity of the ACC under chronic pain states, less is known about whether pain can be alleviated by inhibiting ACC neuronal activity. The authors used pharmacologic, chemogenetic, and optogenetic approaches in concert with viral tracing technique to address this issue in a mouse model of bone cancer-induced mechanical hypersensitivity by intratibia implantation of osteolytic fibrosarcoma cells. Bilateral intra-ACC microinjections of γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A receptor agonist muscimol decreased mechanical hypersensitivity in tumor-bearing mice (n =10). Using adenoviral-mediated expression of engineered Gi/o-coupled human M4 (hM4Di) receptors, we observed that activation of Gi/o-coupled human M4 receptors with clozapine-N-oxide reduced ACC neuronal activity and mechanical hypersensitivity in tumor-bearing mice (n = 11). In addition, unilateral optogenetic silencing of ACC excitatory neurons with halorhodopsin significantly decreased mechanical hypersensitivity in tumor-bearing mice (n = 4 to 9), and conversely, optogenetic activation of these neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 was sufficient to provoke mechanical hypersensitivity in sham-operated mice (n = 5 to 9). Furthermore, we found that excitatory neurons in the ACC send direct descending projections to the contralateral dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord via the dorsal corticospinal tract. The findings of this study indicate that enhanced neuronal activity in the ACC contributes to maintain bone cancer-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and suggest that the ACC may serve as a potential therapeutic target for treating bone cancer pain.

  8. Antidepressant Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy Correlate With Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Activity and Connectivity in Depression

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    Liu, Yi; Du, Lian; Li, Yongmei; Liu, Haixia; Zhao, Wenjing; Liu, Dan; Zeng, Jinkun; Li, Xingbao; Fu, Yixiao; Qiu, Haitang; Li, Xirong; Qiu, Tian; Hu, Hua; Meng, Huaqing; Luo, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The mechanisms underlying the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depressive disorder (MDD) are not fully understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a new tool to study the effects of brain stimulation interventions, particularly ECT. The authors aim to investigate the mechanisms of ECT in MDD by rs-fMRI. They used rs-fMRI to measure functional changes in the brain of first-episode, treatment-naive MDD patients (n = 23) immediately before and then following 8 ECT sessions (brief-pulse square-wave apparatus, bitemporal). They also computed voxel-wise amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as a measure of regional brain activity and selected the left subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) to evaluate functional connectivity between the sgACC and other brain regions. Increased regional brain activity measured by ALFF mainly in the left sgACC following ECT. Functional connectivity of the left sgACC increased in the ipsilateral parahippocampal gyrus, pregenual ACC, contralateral middle temporal pole, and orbitofrontal cortex. Importantly, reduction in depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with increased ALFF in the left sgACC and left hippocampus, and with distant functional connectivity between the left sgACC and contralateral middle temporal pole. That is, across subjects, as depression improved, regional brain activity in sgACC and its functional connectivity increased in the brain. Eight ECT sessions in MDD patients modulated activity in the sgACC and its networks. The antidepressant effects of ECT were negatively correlated with sgACC brain activity and connectivity. These findings suggest that sgACC-associated prefrontal-limbic structures are associated with the therapeutic effects of ECT in MDD. PMID:26559309

  9. Childhood and adult trauma both correlate with dorsal anterior cingulate activation to threat in combat veterans.

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    Herringa, R J; Phillips, M L; Fournier, J C; Kronhaus, D M; Germain, A

    2013-07-01

    Prior studies of adult post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest abnormal functioning of prefrontal and limbic regions. Cumulative childhood and adult trauma exposures are major risk factors for developing adult PTSD, yet their contribution to neural dysfunction in PTSD remains poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the neural correlates of childhood and adult trauma exposure and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) within a single model. Method Medication-free male combat veterans (n = 28, average age 26.6 years) with a wide range of PTSS were recruited from the community between 2010 and 2011. Subjects completed an emotional face-morphing task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Clinical ratings included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Combat Exposure Scale (CES). A priori regions were examined through multivariate voxelwise regression in SPM8, using depressive symptoms and IQ as covariates. In the angry condition, CAPS scores correlated positively with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC; Brodmann area (BA) 10, z = 3.51], hippocampus (z = 3.47), insula (z = 3.62) and, in earlier blocks, the amygdala. CES and CTQ correlated positively with activation in adjacent areas of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC; BA 32, z = 3.70 and BA 24, z = 3.88 respectively). In the happy condition, CAPS, CTQ and CES were not correlated significantly with activation patterns. dACC activation observed in prior studies of PTSD may be attributable to the cumulative effects of childhood and adult trauma exposure. By contrast, insula, hippocampus and amygdala activation may be specific to PTSS. The specificity of these results to threat stimuli, but not to positive stimuli, is consistent with abnormalities in threat processing associated with PTSS.

  10. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain.

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    Navratilova, Edita; Xie, Jennifer Yanhua; Meske, Diana; Qu, Chaoling; Morimura, Kozo; Okun, Alec; Arakawa, Naohisa; Ossipov, Michael; Fields, Howard L; Porreca, Frank

    2015-05-06

    Pain is aversive, and its relief elicits reward mediated by dopaminergic signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a part of the mesolimbic reward motivation pathway. How the reward pathway is engaged by pain-relieving treatments is not known. Endogenous opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area encoding pain aversiveness, contributes to pain modulation. We examined whether endogenous ACC opioid neurotransmission is required for relief of pain and subsequent downstream activation of NAc dopamine signaling. Conditioned place preference (CPP) and in vivo microdialysis were used to assess negative reinforcement and NAc dopaminergic transmission. In rats with postsurgical or neuropathic pain, blockade of opioid signaling in the rostral ACC (rACC) inhibited CPP and NAc dopamine release resulting from non-opioid pain-relieving treatments, including peripheral nerve block or spinal clonidine, an α2-adrenergic agonist. Conversely, pharmacological activation of rACC opioid receptors of injured, but not pain-free, animals was sufficient to stimulate dopamine release in the NAc and produce CPP. In neuropathic, but not sham-operated, rats, systemic doses of morphine that did not affect withdrawal thresholds elicited CPP and NAc dopamine release, effects that were prevented by blockade of ACC opioid receptors. The data provide a neural explanation for the preferential effects of opioids on pain affect and demonstrate that engagement of NAc dopaminergic transmission by non-opioid pain-relieving treatments depends on upstream ACC opioid circuits. Endogenous opioid signaling in the ACC appears to be both necessary and sufficient for relief of pain aversiveness. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357264-08$15.00/0.

  11. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

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    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  12. Amitriptyline reduces rectal pain related activation of the anterior cingulate cortex in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

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    Morgan, V; Pickens, D; Gautam, S; Kessler, R; Mertz, H

    2005-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a disorder of intestinal hypersensitivity and altered motility, exacerbated by stress. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during painful rectal distension in IBS has demonstrated greater activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an area relevant to pain and emotions. Tricyclic antidepressants are effective for IBS. The aim of this study was to determine if low dose amitriptyline reduces ACC activation during painful rectal distension in IBS to confer clinical benefits. Secondary aims were to identify other brain regions altered by amitriptyline, and to determine if reductions in cerebral activation are greater during mental stress. Nineteen women with painful IBS were randomised to amitriptyline 50 mg or placebo for one month and then crossed over to the alternate treatment after washout. Cerebral activation during rectal distension was compared between placebo and amitriptyline groups by fMRI. Distensions were performed alternately during auditory stress and relaxing music. Rectal pain induced significant activation of the perigenual ACC, right insula, and right prefrontal cortex. Amitriptyline was associated with reduced pain related cerebral activations in the perigenual ACC and the left posterior parietal cortex, but only during stress. The tricyclic antidepressant amitriptyline reduces brain activation during pain in the perigenual (limbic) anterior cingulated cortex and parietal association cortex. These reductions are only seen during stress. Amitriptyline is likely to work in the central nervous system rather than peripherally to blunt pain and other symptoms exacerbated by stress in IBS.

  13. Subgenual anterior cingulate cortex activity covariation with cardiac vagal control is altered in depression.

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    Lane, Richard D; Weidenbacher, Hollis; Smith, Ryan; Fort, Carolyn; Thayer, Julian F; Allen, John J B

    2013-09-05

    We tested the hypothesis that subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) participates in concurrently regulating shifts in both affective state and cardiac vagal control. Eleven healthy adults and 8 depressed subjects performed the Emotional Counting Stroop task in alternating 15-second blocks of emotion words and neutral words while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electrocardiography (ECG). We measured the absolute value of change between adjacent 15-second blocks in both cardiac vagal control and the BOLD signal in specific regions of interest. Strong positive correlations were observed in healthy control participants between changes in cardiac vagal control and changes in BOLD signal intensity in sgACC (BA25) (right: r=.67, pemotion blocks to neutral blocks, the correlation between BOLD signal change in BA25 and cardiac vagal control change was significantly greater in controls than in depressed subjects (paffective state shifting. The latter function appears to be altered in depressed individuals, and may have implications for the unvarying mood and vagal dysfunction associated with depression. Limitations include a small sample size, an inability to disentangle afferent versus efferent contributions to the results, and the lack of a whole-brain analysis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Modulation of Beta-Band Activity in the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex during Emotional Empathy in Treatment-Resistant Depression.

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    Merkl, Angela; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Huebl, Julius; Aust, Sabine; Horn, Andreas; Krauss, Joachim K; Dziobek, Isabel; Kuhn, Jens; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Bajbouj, Malek; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD is associated with problems in interpersonal relationships, which might be linked to impaired empathy. Here, we investigate the influence of DBS in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on empathy in patients with TRD and explore the pattern of oscillatory sgACC activity during performance of the multifaceted empathy test. We recorded local field potential activity directly from sgACC via DBS electrodes in patients. Based on previous behavioral findings, we expected disrupted empathy networks. Patients showed increased empathic involvement ratings toward negative stimuli as compared with healthy subjects that were significantly reduced after 6 months of DBS. Stimulus-related oscillatory activity pattern revealed a broad desynchronization in the beta (14-35 Hz) band that was significantly larger during patients' reported emotional empathy for negative stimuli than when patients reported to have no empathy. Beta desynchronization for empathic involvement correlated with self-reported severity of depression. Our results indicate a "negativity bias" in patients that can be reduced by DBS. Moreover, direct recordings show activation of the sgACC area during emotional processing and propose that changes in beta-band oscillatory activity in the sgACC might index empathic involvement of negative emotion in TRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

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    Barak Francisco Caracheo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractForaging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  16. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment.

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    Caracheo, Barak F; Emberly, Eldon; Hadizadeh, Shirin; Hyman, James M; Seamans, Jeremy K

    2013-01-01

    Foraging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  17. A chan dietary intervention enhances executive functions and anterior cingulate activity in autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Chan, Agnes S; Sze, Sophia L; Han, Yvonne M Y; Cheung, Mei-Chun

    2012-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month) and the control (no modification) groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG) activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  18. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

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    Agnes S. Chan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one month and the control (no modification groups. Each child was assessed on his/her executive functions, behavioral problems based on parental ratings, and event-related electroencephalography (EEG activity during a response-monitoring task before and after the one month. The experimental group demonstrated significantly improved mental flexibility and inhibitory control after the diet modification, which continued to have a large effect size within the low-functioning subgroup. Such improvements coincided with positive evaluations by their parents on social communication abilities and flexible inhibitory control of daily behaviors and significantly enhanced event-related EEG activity at the rostral and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex. In contrast, the control group did not show any significant improvements. These positive outcomes of a one-month dietary modification on children with ASD have implicated its potential clinical applicability for patients with executive function deficits.

  19. Exposure to blue wavelength light modulates anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to 'uncertain' versus 'certain' anticipation of positive stimuli.

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    Alkozei, Anna; Smith, Ryan; Killgore, William D S

    2016-03-11

    Blue wavelength light has been used as an effective treatment for some types of mood disorders and circadian rhythm related sleep problems. We hypothesized that acute exposure to blue wavelength light would directly affect the functioning of neurocircuity implicated in emotion regulation (i.e., ventromedial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, insula, and anterior cingulate cortex [ACC]) during 'certain' and 'uncertain' anticipation of negative and positive stimuli. Thirty-five healthy adults were randomized to receive a thirty-minute exposure to either blue (active) or amber (placebo) light, immediately followed by an emotional anticipation task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In contrast to placebo, participants in the blue light group showed significantly reduced activation within the rostral ACC during 'uncertain' anticipation (i.e., uncertainty regarding whether a positive or negative stimulus would be shown) in comparison to 'certain' anticipation of a positive stimulus. These findings may be explicable in terms of interactions between blue light exposure and the influence of specific neuromodulators on ACC-mediated decision-making mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation? An fMRI study.

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    Kawamoto, Taishi; Onoda, Keiichi; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an "overinclusion" condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  1. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Kep Kee Loh

    Full Text Available Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today's society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multitasking activity and brain structure. Research has demonstrated that brain structure can be altered upon prolonged exposure to novel environments and experience. Thus, we expected differential engagements in media multitasking to correlate with brain structure variability. This was confirmed via Voxel-Based Morphometry (VBM analyses: Individuals with higher Media Multitasking Index (MMI scores had smaller gray matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Functional connectivity between this ACC region and the precuneus was negatively associated with MMI. Our findings suggest a possible structural correlate for the observed decreased cognitive control performance and socio-emotional regulation in heavy media-multitaskers. While the cross-sectional nature of our study does not allow us to specify the direction of causality, our results brought to light novel associations between individual media multitasking behaviors and ACC structure differences.

  2. The Time Course of Activity within the Dorsal and Rostral-Ventral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Emotional Stroop Task.

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    Feroz, Farah Shahnaz; Leicht, Gregor; Steinmann, Saskia; Andreou, Christina; Mulert, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence from neuroimaging studies suggest that emotional and cognitive processes are interrelated. Anatomical key structures in this context are the dorsal and rostral-ventral anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and rvACC). However, up to now, the time course of activations within these regions during emotion-cognition interactions has not been disentangled. In the present study, we used event-related potentials (ERP) and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) region of interest (ROI) source localization analyses to explore the time course of neural activations within the dACC and rvACC using a modified emotional Stroop paradigm. ERP components related to Stroop conflict (N200, N450 and late negativity) were analyzed. The time course of brain activations in the dACC and rvACC was strikingly different with more pronounced initial responses in the rvACC followed by increased dACC activity mainly at the late negativity window. Moreover, emotional valence modulated the earlier N450 stage within the rvACC region with higher neural activations in the positive compared to the negative and neutral conditions. Emotional arousal modulated the late negativity stage; firstly in the significant arousal × congruence ERP effect and then the significant higher current density in the low arousal condition within the dACC. Using sLORETA source localization, substantial differences in the activation time courses in the dACC and rvACC could be found during the emotional Stroop task. We suggest that during late negativity, within the dACC, emotional arousal modulated the processing of response conflict, reflected in the correlation between the ex-Gaussian µ and the current density in the dACC.

  3. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus.

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    Hiroki eNakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation’. In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation.

  4. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus

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    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography and electroencephalography, have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural responses to pain stimulation during meditation in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and insula, whereas others showed a decrease in these regions. There have been inconsistent findings to date. Moreover, in general, since the activities of the ACC and insula are correlated with pain perception, the increase in neural activities during meditation would be related to the enhancement of pain perception rather than its reduction. These contradictions might directly contribute to the ‘mystery of meditation.’ In this review, we presented previous findings for brain regions during meditation and the anatomical changes that occurred in the brain with long-term meditation training. We then discussed the findings of previous studies that examined pain-related neural activity during meditation. We also described the brain mechanisms responsible for pain relief during meditation, and possible reasons for paradoxical evidence among previous studies. By thoroughly overviewing previous findings, we hypothesized that meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the ACC, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus. We suggest that the characteristics of the modulation of this activity may depend on the kind of meditation and/or number of years of experience of meditation, which were associated with paradoxical findings among previous studies that investigated pain-related neural activities during meditation. PMID:25566158

  5. Picture novelty attenuates semantic interference and modulates concomitant neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex and the locus coeruleus.

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    Krebs, Ruth M; Fias, Wim; Achten, Eric; Boehler, Carsten N

    2013-07-01

    Goal-directed behavior requires the ability to focus on information that is relevant to a given task and to ignore information that might interfere with it. In the Stroop task, for example, the influence of an irrelevant word needs to be overcome, which is believed to be difficult because it arises in a fast and automatic fashion, which effectively renders it very salient. Here we address the question of whether this can be counteracted by increasing the saliency of the task-relevant input, for example by modulating its relative novelty, which increases saliency in a fairly implicit and controlled fashion. To test the influence of novelty on interference processing, we employed a picture-word interference task in the fMRI scanner, in which we manipulated the novelty of the task-relevant picture. We found that picture novelty indeed reduced typical behavioral interference from incongruent words. Moreover, familiar incongruent trials were associated with activity increases in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a prime conflict-processing region, as well as in the noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC), which entertains connections both to and from the ACC. The lack of analogous activations in novel incongruent trials suggests that the reduction of behavioral interference was not related to enhanced conflict-resolution processes, but rather to the automatic prioritization of novel pictures which appears to avert the influence of irrelevant words at the front end. Interestingly, activity in the ACC and LC was slightly stronger in novel congruent trials compared to incongruent ones, which may reflect increased relevance of novel stimuli when encoded in a congruent context. In summary, the present data demonstrate that stimulus novelty clearly reduces semantic interference, and highlights a complex interaction of interference and novelty processing on the neural level, including an involvement of the noradrenergic system in the processing of cognitively and perceptually

  6. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

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    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  7. Spindle neurons of the human anterior cingulate cortex

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    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Vogt, B. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding their precise distribution along both ventrodorsal and anteroposterior axes of the cingulate gyrus are still lacking. In the present study, morphological features and the anatomic distribution of this cell type were studied using computer-assisted mapping and immunocytochemical techniques. Spindle neurons are restricted to the subfields of the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 24), exhibiting a greater density in anterior portions of this area than in posterior portions, and tapering off in the transition zone between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, a majority of the spindle cells at any level is located in subarea 24b on the gyral surface. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the neurofilament protein triple was present in a large percentage of these neurons and that they did not contain calcium-binding proteins. Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons. Finally, spindle cells were consistently affected in Alzheimer's disease cases, with an overall loss of about 60%. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spindle cells of the human cingulate cortex represent a morphological subpopulation of pyramidal neurons whose restricted distribution may be associated with functionally distinct areas.

  8. Functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy of glutamate in schizophrenia and major depressive disorder: anterior cingulate activity during a color-word Stroop task.

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    Taylor, Reggie; Neufeld, Richard W J; Schaefer, Betsy; Densmore, Maria; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Williamson, Peter C; Théberge, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Glutamate abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with symptoms of schizophrenia. Using functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-fMRS), it is possible to monitor glutamate dynamically in the activated brain areas, which has yet to be reported in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would have weaker glutamatergic responses in the anterior cingulate to a color-word Stroop Task. The aim of this study was to gain insight into the health of GLU neurotransmission and the GLU-GLN cycle in SZ using a (1)H-fMRS protocol. Spectra were acquired from the anterior cingulate of 16 participants with schizophrenia, 16 healthy controls and 16 participants with major depressive disorder (MDD) while performing the Stroop task in a 7T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. (1)H-fMRS spectra were acquired for 20 min in which there were three 4-min blocks of cross fixation interleaved with two 4-min blocks of the Stroop paradigm. A repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a main effect of time for glutamate concentrations of all groups (PStroop task (P=0.006) followed by a decrease in the recovery period (P=0.007). Neither the schizophrenia (P=0.107) nor MDD (P=0.081) groups had significant glutamate changes in the first run of the task, while the schizophrenia group had a significant increase in glutamine (P=0.005). The MDD group decreased glutamate concentrations in the second run of the task (P=0.003), as did all the groups combined (P=0.003). (1)H-fMRS data were successfully acquired from psychiatric subjects with schizophrenia and mood disorder using a cognitive paradigm for the first time. Future study designs should further elucidate the glutamatergic response to functional activation in schizophrenia.

  9. Bilingualism tunes the anterior cingulate cortex for conflict monitoring.

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    Abutalebi, Jubin; Della Rosa, Pasquale Anthony; Green, David W; Hernandez, Mireia; Scifo, Paola; Keim, Roland; Cappa, Stefano F; Costa, Albert

    2012-09-01

    Monitoring and controlling 2 language systems is fundamental to language use in bilinguals. Here, we reveal in a combined functional (event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging) and structural neuroimaging (voxel-based morphometry) study that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a structure tightly bound to domain-general executive control functions, is a common locus for language control and resolving nonverbal conflict. We also show an experience-dependent effect in the same region: Bilinguals use this structure more efficiently than monolinguals to monitor nonlinguistic cognitive conflicts. They adapted better to conflicting situations showing less ACC activity while outperforming monolinguals. Importantly, for bilinguals, brain activity in the ACC, as well as behavioral measures, also correlated positively with local gray matter volume. These results suggest that early learning and lifelong practice of 2 languages exert a strong impact upon human neocortical development. The bilingual brain adapts better to resolve cognitive conflicts in domain-general cognitive tasks.

  10. Conflict processing in the anterior cingulate cortex constrains response priming.

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    Pastötter, Bernhard; Hanslmayr, Simon; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2010-05-01

    A prominent function of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is to process conflict between competing response options. In this study, we investigated the role of conflict processing in a response-priming task in which manual responses were either validly or invalidly cued. Examining electrophysiological measurements of oscillatory brain activity on the source level, we found response priming to be related to a beta power decrease in the premotor cortex and conflict processing to be linked to a theta power increase in the ACC. In particular, correlation of oscillatory brain activities in the ACC and the premotor cortex showed that conflict processing reduces response priming by slowing response time in valid trials and lowering response errors in invalid trials. This relationship emerged on a between subjects level as well as within subjects, on a single trial level. These findings suggest that conflict processing in the ACC constrains the automatic priming process. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  12. Differential Abnormal Pattern of Anterior Cingulate Gyrus Activation in Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: an fMRI and Pattern Classification Approach.

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    Bürger, Christian; Redlich, Ronny; Grotegerd, Dominik; Meinert, Susanne; Dohm, Katharina; Schneider, Ilona; Zaremba, Dario; Förster, Katharina; Alferink, Judith; Bölte, Jens; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald; Arolt, Volker; Dannlowski, Udo

    2017-06-01

    Distinguishing bipolar disorder from major depressive disorder is a major challenge in psychiatric treatment. Consequently, there has been growing interest in identifying neuronal biomarkers of disorder-specific pathophysiological processes to differentiate affective disorders. Thirty-six depressed bipolar patients, 36 depressed unipolar patients, and 36 matched healthy controls (HCs) participated in an fMRI experiment. Emotional faces served as stimuli in a matching task. We investigated neural activation towards angry, fearful, and happy faces focusing on prototypical regions related to emotion processing, ie, the amygdala and the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG). Furthermore, we employed a whole-brain and a multivariate pattern classification analysis. Unipolar patients showed abnormally reduced ACG activation toward happy and fearful faces compared with bipolar patients and HCs respectively. Furthermore, the whole-brain analysis revealed significantly increased activation in bipolar patients compared with unipolar patients in the fearful condition in the right frontal and parietal cortex. Moreover, the multivariate pattern classification analysis yielded significant classification rates of up to 72% based on ACG activation elicited by fearful faces. Our results question the rather 'amygdalocentric' neurobiological models of mood disorders. We observed patterns of abnormally reduced ventral and supragenual ACG activation, potentially indicating impaired bottom-up emotion processing and automatic emotion regulation specifically in unipolar but not in bipolar individuals.

  13. fMRI Neurofeedback Training for Increasing Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation in Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. An Exploratory Randomized, Single-Blinded Study.

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    Zilverstand, Anna; Sorger, Bettina; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Kan, Cornelis C; Goebel, Rainer; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by poor cognitive control/attention and hypofunctioning of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). In the current study, we investigated for the first time whether real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rt-fMRI) training targeted at increasing activation levels within dACC in adults with ADHD leads to a reduction of clinical symptoms and improved cognitive functioning. An exploratory randomized controlled treatment study with blinding of the participants was conducted. Participants with ADHD (n = 7 in the neurofeedback group, and n = 6 in the control group) attended four weekly MRI training sessions (60-min training time/session), during which they performed a mental calculation task at varying levels of difficulty, in order to learn how to up-regulate dACC activation. Only neurofeedback participants received continuous feedback information on actual brain activation levels within dACC. Before and after the training, ADHD symptoms and relevant cognitive functioning was assessed. Results showed that both groups achieved a significant increase in dACC activation levels over sessions. While there was no significant difference between the neurofeedback and control group in clinical outcome, neurofeedback participants showed stronger improvement on cognitive functioning. The current study demonstrates the general feasibility of the suggested rt-fMRI neurofeedback training approach as a potential novel treatment option for ADHD patients. Due to the study's small sample size, potential clinical benefits need to be further investigated in future studies. ISRCTN12390961.

  14. Dissociating response conflict and error likelihood in anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Yeung, Nick; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2009-11-18

    Neuroimaging studies consistently report activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in conditions of high cognitive demand, leading to the view that ACC plays a crucial role in the control of cognitive processes. According to one prominent theory, the sensitivity of ACC to task difficulty reflects its role in monitoring for the occurrence of competition, or "conflict," between responses to signal the need for increased cognitive control. However, a contrasting theory proposes that ACC is the recipient rather than source of monitoring signals, and that ACC activity observed in relation to task demand reflects the role of this region in learning about the likelihood of errors. Response conflict and error likelihood are typically confounded, making the theories difficult to distinguish empirically. The present research therefore used detailed computational simulations to derive contrasting predictions regarding ACC activity and error rate as a function of response speed. The simulations demonstrated a clear dissociation between conflict and error likelihood: fast response trials are associated with low conflict but high error likelihood, whereas slow response trials show the opposite pattern. Using the N2 component as an index of ACC activity, an EEG study demonstrated that when conflict and error likelihood are dissociated in this way, ACC activity tracks conflict and is negatively correlated with error likelihood. These findings support the conflict-monitoring theory and suggest that, in speeded decision tasks, ACC activity reflects current task demands rather than the retrospective coding of past performance.

  15. What role for the anterior cingulate in analogical reasoning?

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    O'Boyle, Michael W

    2010-06-01

    Abstract While prefrontal and frontal cortex of the brain are well documented to mediate many executive functions, including creativity, flexibility, and adaptability, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to be involved in error detection and conflict resolution, and is crucial to reward-based learning. A case is made for the notion that any neural model of analogical reasoning must incorporate the critical (and specialized) contributions of the ACC.

  16. Activation of the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices during the expression of a naturalistic compulsive-like behavior in the rabbit.

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    Cano-Ramírez, Hugo; Hoffman, Kurt L

    2017-03-01

    We propose that maternal nest building in the female laboratory rabbit is a useful model for compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This repetitive behavior comprises collecting straw, depositing it into the nest box, and then returning to collect more straw. We reasoned that if "straw carrying" behavior is homologous to compulsive behavior, then it should be associated with activation of prefrontal regions associated with OCD, namely, the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (OFC and ACC, respectively). In the present study, we quantified c-FOS immunoreactivity in the ACC, OFC, premotor (PM), infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and piriform (PI) cortices of: (1) pregnant female rabbits that were given straw (PREG+STRAW); (2) pregnant rabbits that were not given straw (PREG); (3) estrous rabbits that were given straw (ESTROUS+STRAW); (4) estrous rabbits that were not given straw (ESTROUS). After 1h, all females were sacrificed and processed for brain c-FOS immunoreactivity. We found that pregnant rabbits showed lower latencies to interact with the straw than estrous rabbits, and that pregnant rabbits displayed straw carrying, while estrous rabbits did not. c-FOS expression was increased in the OFC, ACC, and PI in the PREG+STRAW compared to all other groups. By contrast, c-FOS expression in all other regions was greater in PREG+STRAW compared to PREG, but not different from ESTROUS+STRAW. These results point to an important role for the OFC, ACC, and PI in initiating repetitive straw-carrying behavior, and further support the proposal that this behavior can serve as a model for compulsions in OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

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    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  18. Astrocytic hypertrophy in anterior cingulate white matter of depressed suicides.

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    Torres-Platas, Susana G; Hercher, Christa; Davoli, Maria Antonietta; Maussion, Gilles; Labonté, Benoit; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2011-12-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cortical astrocytic function is disrupted in mood disorders and suicide. The fine neuroanatomy of astrocytes, however, remains to be investigated in these psychiatric conditions. In this study, we performed a detailed morphometric analysis of 3D-reconstructed gray and white matter astrocytes in Golgi-impregnated anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) samples from depressed suicides and matched controls. Postmortem ACC samples (BA24) from 10 well-characterized depressed suicides and 10 matched sudden-death controls were obtained from the Quebec Suicide Brain Bank. Golgi-impregnated protoplasmic astrocytes (gray matter, layer VI) and fibrous astrocytes (adjacent white matter) were reconstructed, and their morphometric features were analyzed using the Neurolucida software. For each cell, the soma size as well as the number, length, and branching of processes were determined. The densities of thorny protrusions found along the processes of both astrocytic subtypes were also determined. Protoplasmic astrocytes showed no significant difference between groups for any of the quantified parameters. However, fibrous astrocytes had significantly larger cell bodies, as well as longer, more ramified processes in depressed suicides, with values for these parameters being about twice as high as those measured in controls. These results provide the first evidence of altered cortical astrocytic morphology in mood disorders. The presence of hypertrophic astrocytes in BA24 white matter is consistent with reports suggesting white matter alterations in depression, and provides further support to the neuroinflammatory theory of depression.

  19. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the value of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Cohen, Jonathan D; Botvinick, Matthew M

    2016-09-27

    Debates over the function(s) of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) have persisted for decades. So too have demonstrations of the region's association with cognitive control. Researchers have struggled to account for this association and, simultaneously, dACC's involvement in phenomena related to evaluation and motivation. We describe a recent integrative theory that achieves this goal. It proposes that dACC serves to specify the currently optimal allocation of control by determining the overall expected value of control (EVC), thereby licensing the associated cognitive effort. The EVC theory accounts for dACC's sensitivity to a wide array of experimental variables, and their relationship to subsequent control adjustments. Finally, we contrast our theory with a recent theory proposing a primary role for dACC in foraging-like decisions. We describe why the EVC theory offers a more comprehensive and coherent account of dACC function, including dACC's particular involvement in decisions regarding foraging or otherwise altering one's behavior.

  20. Reward-based contextual learning supported by anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; HajiHosseini, Azadeh; Yates, Michael E; Holroyd, Clay B

    2017-06-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is commonly associated with cognitive control and decision making, but its specific function is highly debated. To explore a recent theory that the ACC learns the reward values of task contexts (Holroyd & McClure in Psychological Review, 122, 54-83, 2015; Holroyd & Yeung in Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 122-128, 2012), we recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) from participants as they played a novel gambling task. The participants were first required to select from among three games in one "virtual casino," and subsequently they were required to select from among three different games in a different virtual casino; unbeknownst to them, the payoffs for the games were higher in one casino than in the other. Analysis of the reward positivity, an ERP component believed to reflect reward-related signals carried to the ACC by the midbrain dopamine system, revealed that the ACC is sensitive to differences in the reward values associated with both the casinos and the games inside the casinos, indicating that participants learned the values of the contexts in which rewards were delivered. These results highlight the importance of the ACC in learning the reward values of task contexts in order to guide action selection.

  1. Reduced Activation in Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate during Attention and Cognitive Control Functions in Medication-Naive Adolescents with Depression Compared to Controls

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    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of…

  2. Amygdala Reactivity and Anterior Cingulate Habituation Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Maintenance After Acute Civilian Trauma.

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    Stevens, Jennifer S; Kim, Ye Ji; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R; Reddy, Renuka; Ely, Timothy D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Hudak, Lauren A; Jovanovic, Tanja; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Ressler, Kerry J

    2017-06-15

    Studies suggest that exaggerated amygdala reactivity is a vulnerability factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, our understanding is limited by a paucity of prospective, longitudinal studies. Recent studies in healthy samples indicate that, relative to reactivity, habituation is a more reliable biomarker of individual differences in amygdala function. We investigated reactivity of the amygdala and cortical areas to repeated threat presentations in a prospective study of PTSD. Participants were recruited from the emergency department of a large level I trauma center within 24 hours of trauma. PTSD symptoms were assessed at baseline and approximately 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after trauma. Growth curve modeling was used to estimate symptom recovery trajectories. Thirty-one individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging around the 1-month assessment, passively viewing fearful and neutral face stimuli. Reactivity (fearful > neutral) and habituation to fearful faces was examined. Amygdala reactivity, but not habituation, 5 to 12 weeks after trauma was positively associated with the PTSD symptom intercept and predicted symptoms at 12 months after trauma. Habituation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex was positively associated with the slope of PTSD symptoms, such that decreases in ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation over repeated presentations of fearful stimuli predicted increasing symptoms. Findings point to neural signatures of risk for maintaining PTSD symptoms after trauma exposure. Specifically, chronic symptoms were predicted by amygdala hyperreactivity, and poor recovery was predicted by a failure to maintain ventral anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to fearful stimuli. The importance of identifying patients at risk after trauma exposure is discussed. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Reduced anterior and posterior cingulate gray matter in borderline personality disorder.

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    Hazlett, Erin A; New, Antonia S; Newmark, Randall; Haznedar, M Mehmet; Lo, Jennifer N; Speiser, Lisa J; Chen, Amy D; Mitropoulou, Vivian; Minzenberg, Michael; Siever, Larry J; Buchsbaum, Monte S

    2005-10-15

    Structural abnormalities in prefrontal and cingulate gyrus regions-important in affective processing, impulse control and cognition may contribute to the psychopathology of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Previous MRI studies examining volume have reported that compared with healthy controls, BPD patients have decreases in right anterior cingulate, no differences in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and mixed findings for prefrontal cortex. We extended this investigation by examining gray and white matter volume of frontal and cingulate gyrus Brodmann areas (BAs) in a large group of patients and healthy controls. MRI scans were acquired in 50 BPD patients (n = 13 with comorbid diagnosis of BPD and Schizotypal Personality Disorder (SPD) and n = 37 without SPD) and 50 healthy controls, and gray/white matter volume in cingulate gyrus and frontal lobe BAs were assessed. Normal BPD and BPD subgroup comparisons were conducted. Compared with controls, BPD patients showed reduced gray matter volume in BA 24 and 31 of the cingulate. BPD patients without comorbid SPD had isolated gray matter volume loss in BA 24, but were spared for BA 31 in contrast to BPD patients with SPD. There were no group differences in whole cingulate or frontal lobe volume. The finding of more pervasive cingulate shrinkage in the patients with BPD and SPD comorbidity resembles recent observations with the same methods in patients with schizophrenia. The pattern of reduced anterior and posterior cingulate gray matter volume in BPD patients, particularly those comorbid for SPD is consistent with the affective and attentional deficits observed in these personality disorders.

  4. Cognitive Functioning after Medial Frontal Lobe Damage Including the Anterior Cingulate Cortex: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee; Dewar, Bonnie-Kate; Critchley, Hugo; Gilbert, Sam J.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Two patients with medial frontal lobe damage involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) performed a range of cognitive tasks, including tests of executive function and anterior attention. Both patients lesions extended beyond the ACC, therefore caution needs to be exerted in ascribing observed deficits to the ACC alone. Patient performance was…

  5. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

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    Vitoria ePiai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word interference, PWI; vocal colour naming while ignoring distractors (Stroop; and manual object discrimination while ignoring spatial position (Simon task. All three tasks had congruent and incongruent stimuli, while PWI and Stroop also had neutral stimuli. Analyses focusing on common activation across tasks identified a portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was active in incongruent trials for all three tasks, suggesting that this region subserves a domain-general attentional control function. In the language tasks, this area showed increased activity for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli, consistent with the involvement of domain-general mechanisms of attentional control in word production. The two language tasks also showed activity in anterior-superior temporal gyrus. Activity increased for neutral PWI stimuli (picture and word did not share the same semantic category relative to incongruent (categorically related and congruent stimuli. This finding is consistent with the involvement of language-specific areas in word production, possibly related to retrieval of lexical-semantic information from memory. The current results thus suggest that in addition to engaging language-specific areas for core linguistic processes, speaking also engages the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that is likely implementing domain

  6. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Modulation of the Ventral Tegmental Area in an Effort Task

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    Thomas W. Elston

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Information gained during goal pursuit motivates adaptive behavior. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC supports adaptive behavior, but how ACC signals are translated into motivational signals remains unclear. Rats with implants in the ACC and ventral tegmental area (VTA, a dopaminergic brain area implicated in motivation, were trained to run laps around a rectangular track for a fixed reward, where each lap varied in physical effort (a 30-cm climbable barrier. Partial directed coherence analysis of local field potentials revealed that ACC theta (4–12 Hz activity increased as rats entered the barrier-containing region of the maze in trials when the barrier was absent and predicted similar changes in VTA theta activity. This did not occur in effortful, barrier-present trials. These data suggest that the ACC provides a top-down modulating signal to the VTA that can influence the motivation with which to pursue a reward.

  7. Distributed representations of action sequences in anterior cingulate cortex: A recurrent neural network approach.

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    Shahnazian, Danesh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2018-02-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been the subject of intense debate over the past 2 decades, but its specific computational function remains controversial. Here we present a simple computational model of ACC that incorporates distributed representations across a network of interconnected processing units. Based on the proposal that ACC is concerned with the execution of extended, goal-directed action sequences, we trained a recurrent neural network to predict each successive step of several sequences associated with multiple tasks. In keeping with neurophysiological observations from nonhuman animals, the network yields distributed patterns of activity across ACC neurons that track the progression of each sequence, and in keeping with human neuroimaging data, the network produces discrepancy signals when any step of the sequence deviates from the predicted step. These simulations illustrate a novel approach for investigating ACC function.

  8. Short-term meditation increases blood flow in anterior cingulate cortex and insula

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    Yi-Yuan eTang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been reported to be associated with positive mood. One form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body-mind training (IBMT improves positive mood and neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether short-term IBMT improves mood and induces frontal asymmetry. This study showed that five-day (30-min per day IBMT significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF in subgenual/adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, medial prefrontal cortex and insula. The results showed that both IBMT and relaxation training increased left laterality of CBF, but only IBMT improved CBF in left ACC and insula, critical brain areas in self-regulation.

  9. Increased Task Demand during Spatial Memory Testing Recruits the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

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    Carr, Joshua K.; Fournier, Neil M.; Lehmann, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    We examined whether increasing retrieval difficulty in a spatial memory task would promote the recruitment of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) similar to what is typically observed during remote memory retrieval. Rats were trained on the hidden platform version of the Morris Water Task and tested three or 30 d later. Retrieval difficulty was…

  10. Divergent influences of anterior cingulate cortex GABA concentrations on the emotion circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M. C.; Denys, Damiaan; van Wingen, Guido A.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has revealed that emotion processing recruits a widespread neural network including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate the role of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid

  11. Divergent influences of anterior cingulate cortex GABA concentrations on the emotion circuitry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M C; Denys, Damiaan; Van Wingen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging research has revealed that emotion processing recruits a widespread neural network including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), hippocampus, and amygdala. Recent studies have started to investigate the role of the primary inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

  12. A meta-analysis of the anterior cingulate contribution to social pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemogne, Cedric; Hinfray, Sophie; Huguet, Pascal; Grynszpan, Ouriel; Tartour, Eric; George, Nathalie; Fossati, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Many functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have explored the neural correlates of social pain that results from social threat, exclusion, rejection, loss or negative evaluation. Although activations have consistently been reported within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), it remains unclear which ACC subdivision is particularly involved. To provide a quantitative estimation of the specific involvement of ACC subdivisions in social pain, we conducted a voxel-based meta-analysis. The literature search identified 46 articles that included 940 subjects, the majority of which used the cyberball task. Significant likelihoods of activation were found in both the ventral and dorsal ACC for both social pain elicitation and self-reported distress during social pain. Self-reported distress involved more specifically the subgenual and pregenual ACC than social pain-related contrasts. The cyberball task involved the anterior midcingulate cortex to a lesser extent than other experimental tasks. During social pain, children exhibited subgenual activations to a greater extent than adults. Finally, the ventro-dorsal gradient of ACC activations in cyberball studies was related to the length of exclusion phases. The present meta-analysis contributes to a better understanding of the role of ACC subdivisions in social pain, and it could be of particular importance for guiding future studies of social pain and its neural underpinnings. PMID:25140048

  13. Frontal and anterior cingulate activation during overt verbal fluency in patients with first episode psychosis Ativação frontal e do cíngulo anterior durante tarefa de fluência verbal em pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico

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    Maristela Schaufelberger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging studies using phonological verbal fluency tasks allow the assessment of neural circuits relevant to the neuropsychology of psychosis. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus present different activation patterns in subjects with chronic schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. We assessed the functioning in these brain regions during phonological verbal fluency in subjects with recent-onset functional psychoses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI. METHODS: Seven patients with functional psychoses (3 schizophreniform, 4 affective and 9 healthy controls were studied. We compared functional magnetic resonance images acquired during articulation of words beginning with letters classified as easy for word production in Portuguese. Statistical comparisons were performed using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients and controls in task performance. Controls showed greater activation than patients in the left rostral anterior cingulate gyrus and right inferior prefrontal cortex, whereas patients showed stronger activation than controls in a more dorsal part of the anterior cingulate gyrus bilaterally and in a more superior portion of the right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings of attenuated engagement of inferior prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus in patients with recent onset psychosis during phonological verbal fluency are consistent with those of previous studies. The greater activation found in other parts of the anterior cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex in patients may be related to a compensatory response that is required to maintain normal task performance, and suggests a pattern of disorganized activity of different functional anterior cingulate gyrus units in association with psychotic conditions.OBJETIVO: Estudos de neuroimagem funcional empregando tarefa de fluência verbal fonol

  14. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

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    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  15. Theta–gamma coordination between anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex indexes correct attention shifts

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    Voloh, Benjamin; Valiante, Taufik A.; Everling, Stefan; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortex (ACC/PFC) are believed to coordinate activity to flexibly prioritize the processing of goal-relevant over irrelevant information. This between-area coordination may be realized by common low-frequency excitability changes synchronizing segregated high-frequency activations. We tested this coordination hypothesis by recording in macaque ACC/PFC during the covert utilization of attention cues. We found robust increases of 5–10 Hz (theta) to 35–55 Hz (gamma) phase–amplitude correlation between ACC and PFC during successful attention shifts but not before errors. Cortical sites providing theta phases (i) showed a prominent cue-induced phase reset, (ii) were more likely in ACC than PFC, and (iii) hosted neurons with burst firing events that synchronized to distant gamma activity. These findings suggest that interareal theta–gamma correlations could follow mechanistically from a cue-triggered reactivation of rule memory that synchronizes theta across ACC/PFC. PMID:26100868

  16. Impaired rapid error monitoring but intact error signaling following rostral anterior cingulate cortex lesions in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin E; Di Gregorio, Francesco; Muricchio, Teresa; Di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Detecting one's own errors and appropriately correcting behavior are crucial for efficient goal-directed performance. A correlate of rapid evaluation of behavioral outcomes is the error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) which emerges at the time of the erroneous response over frontal brain areas. However, whether the error monitoring system's ability to distinguish between errors and correct responses at this early time point is a necessary precondition for the subsequent emergence of error awareness remains unclear. The present study investigated this question using error-related brain activity and vocal error signaling responses in seven human patients with lesions in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and adjoining ventromedial prefrontal cortex, while they performed a flanker task. The difference between errors and correct responses was severely attenuated in these patients indicating impaired rapid error monitong, but they showed no impairment in error signaling. However, impaired rapid error monitoring coincided with a failure to increase response accuracy on trials following errors. These results demonstrate that the error monitoring system's ability to distinguish between errors and correct responses at the time of the response is crucial for adaptive post-error adjustments, but not a necessary precondition for error awareness.

  17. Spatiotemporal Spike Coding of Behavioral Adaptation in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

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    Laureline Logiaco

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The frontal cortex controls behavioral adaptation in environments governed by complex rules. Many studies have established the relevance of firing rate modulation after informative events signaling whether and how to update the behavioral policy. However, whether the spatiotemporal features of these neuronal activities contribute to encoding imminent behavioral updates remains unclear. We investigated this issue in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC of monkeys while they adapted their behavior based on their memory of feedback from past choices. We analyzed spike trains of both single units and pairs of simultaneously recorded neurons using an algorithm that emulates different biologically plausible decoding circuits. This method permits the assessment of the performance of both spike-count and spike-timing sensitive decoders. In response to the feedback, single neurons emitted stereotypical spike trains whose temporal structure identified informative events with higher accuracy than mere spike count. The optimal decoding time scale was in the range of 70-200 ms, which is significantly shorter than the memory time scale required by the behavioral task. Importantly, the temporal spiking patterns of single units were predictive of the monkeys' behavioral response time. Furthermore, some features of these spiking patterns often varied between jointly recorded neurons. All together, our results suggest that dACC drives behavioral adaptation through complex spatiotemporal spike coding. They also indicate that downstream networks, which decode dACC feedback signals, are unlikely to act as mere neural integrators.

  18. Rapid processing of both reward probability and reward uncertainty in the human anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Rongjun Yu

    Full Text Available Reward probability and uncertainty are two fundamental parameters of decision making. Whereas reward probability indicates the prospect of winning, reward uncertainty, measured as the variance of probability, indicates the degree of risk. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays an important role in reward processing. What is lacking is a quantitative analysis of the encoding of reward probability and uncertainty in the human ACC. In this study, we addressed this issue by analyzing the feedback-related negativity (FRN, an event-related potential (ERP component that reflects the ACC activity, in a simple gambling task in which reward probability and uncertainty were parametrically manipulated through predicting cues. Results showed that at the outcome evaluation phase, while both win and loss-related FRN amplitudes increased as the probability of win or loss decreased, only the win-related FRN was modulated by reward uncertainty. This study demonstrates the rapid encoding of reward probability and uncertainty in the human ACC and offers new insights into the functions of the ACC.

  19. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying

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    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H.; Wilhelm, Frank H.; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca’s homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and

  20. Reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortical activity during emotional regulation and top-down attentional control in generalized social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, and comorbid generalized social phobia/generalized anxiety disorder.

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    Blair, Karina S; Geraci, Marilla; Smith, Bruce W; Hollon, Nick; DeVido, Jeffrey; Otero, Marcela; Blair, James R; Pine, Daniel S

    2012-09-15

    Generalized social phobia (GSP) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) are both associated with emotion dysregulation. Research implicates dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in both explicit emotion regulation (EER) and top-down attentional control (TAC). Although studies have examined these processes in GSP or GAD, no work compares findings across the two disorders or examines functioning in cases comorbid for both disorders (GSP/GAD). Here we compare the neural correlates of EER and TAC in GSP, GAD, and GSP/GAD. Medication-free adults with GSP (EER n = 19; TAC n = 18), GAD (EER n = 17; TAC n = 17), GSP/GAD (EER n = 17; TAC n = 15), and no psychopathology (EER n = 18; TAC n = 18) participated. During EER, individuals alternatively viewed and upregulated and downregulated responses to emotional pictures. During TAC, they performed an emotional Stroop task. For both tasks, significant group × condition interactions emerged in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortices. Healthy adults showed significantly increased recruitment during emotion regulation, relative to emotion-picture viewing. GAD, GSP, and GSP/GAD subjects showed no such increases, with all groups differing from healthy adults but not from each other. Evidence of emotion-related disorder-specificity emerged in medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala. This disorder-specific responding varied as a function of emotion content but not emotion-regulatory demands. GSP and GAD both involve reduced capacity for engaging emotion-regulation brain networks, whether explicitly or via TAC. A reduced ability to recruit regions implicated in top-down attention might represent a general risk factor for anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High definition transcranial pink noise stimulation of anterior cingulate cortex on food craving: An explorative study.

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    Leong, Sook Ling; De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Sutherland, Wayne; Ross, Samantha; Manning, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Dysfunctional neural activity in the cortical reward system network has been implicated in food addiction. This is the first study exploring the potential therapeutic effects of high definition transcranial pink noise stimulation (HD-tPNS) targeted at the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on craving and brain activity in women with obesity who showed features of food addiction (Yale Food Addiction Scale score of ≥3). Sixteen eligible females participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Participants received six 20-minute sessions of either 1 mA (n = 8) or sham (n = 8) stimulation with HD-tPNS over two weeks. Anode was placed above the ACC (Fz) with 4 cathodes (F7, T3, F8, and T4). Food craving was assessed using the Food Cravings Questionnaire State (FCQ-S) and brain activity was measured using electroencephalogram (EEG). Assessments were at baseline, and two days, four weeks, and six weeks after stimulation. A 22% decrease (mean decrease of -1.11, 95% CI -2.09, -0.14) was observed on the 5-point 'intense desire to eat' subscale two days after stimulation in the HD-tPNS group compared to sham. Furthermore, whole brain analysis showed a significant decrease in beta 1 activity in the ACC in the stimulation group compared to sham (threshold 0.38, p = 0.04). These preliminary findings suggest HD-tPNS of the ACC transiently inhibits the desire to eat and, thus, warrants further examination as a potential tool in combating food craving. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing the actions of lanicemine and ketamine in depression: key role of the anterior cingulate.

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    Downey, Darragh; Dutta, Arpan; McKie, Shane; Dawson, Gerard R; Dourish, Colin T; Craig, Kevin; Smith, Mark A; McCarthy, Dennis J; Harmer, Catherine J; Goodwin, Guy M; Williams, Steve; Deakin, J F William

    2016-06-01

    Intravenous infusion of lanicemine (formerly AZD6765), a low trapping non-selective N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, induces antidepressant effects with a similar time course to ketamine. We investigated whether a single dose lanicemine infusion would reproduce the previously reported decrease in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) activity evoked by ketamine, a potential mechanism of antidepressant efficacy. Sixty un-medicated adults meeting the criteria for major depressive disorder were randomly assigned to receive constant intravenous infusions of ketamine, lanicemine or saline during a 60min pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) scan. Both ketamine and lanicemine gradually increased the blood oxygen level dependent signal in sgACC and rostral ACC as the primary outcome measure. No decreases in signal were seen in any region. Interviewer-rated psychotic and dissociative symptoms were minimal following administration of lanicemine. There was no significant antidepressant effect of either infusion compared to saline. The previously reported deactivation of sgACC after ketamine probably reflects the rapid and pronounced subjective effects evoked by the bolus-infusion method used in the previous study. Activation of the ACC was observed following two different NMDA compounds in both Manchester and Oxford using different 3T MRI scanners, and this effect predicted improvement in mood 1 and 7 days post-infusion. These findings suggest that the initial site of antidepressant action for NMDA antagonists may be the ACC (NCT01046630. A Phase I, Multi-centre, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Parallel Group Study to Assess the pharmacoMRI Effects of AZD6765 in Male and Female Subjects Fulfilling the Criteria for Major Depressive Disorder; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01046630). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  3. Anterior cingulate cortex and the Stroop task: neuropsychological evidence for topographic specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Diane; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2002-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have implicated the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in many aspects of attention and cognition. Major theories of ACC function have proposed a role in conflict monitoring, executive control, response selection, and general arousal. Although the ACC is often treated as a unitary structure, extensive evidence suggests it exhibits anatomical and functional specificity. ACC activity during the Stroop color word interference task has been of particular interest. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether two different ACC subregions are necessary for intact color naming performance in the Stroop task. One experiment utilized blocked trial and mixed trial designs to emulate neuroimaging studies and to compare interference and facilitation effects, respectively. A third variant manipulated the probabilities of congruent and incongruent trials to alter levels of interference and cognitive control, or engagement of strategic processes, on a block by block basis. Two patients with focal lesions in either right mid-caudal (patient D.L.) or left rostral to mid-dorsal ACC (patient R.N.) exhibited distinctive performance profiles in these three versions of the Stroop task, providing further support for topographic specificity of function within the human ACC. Contrary to predictions from some neuroimaging experiments, damage to right mid-caudal ACC was associated with normal levels of interference and accurate performance on incongruent trials. Instead, D.L. showed reduced levels of facilitation relative to controls. Further, interference was not modulated by the probability manipulation in D.L., suggesting equivalently high levels of cognitive control in both conditions. Conversely, damage to left mid-dorsal ACC resulted in consistently lower accuracy on incongruent trials, indicating deficits in maintaining task set and inhibiting the automatic response. These results can help to constrain interpretations of ACC activations in functional

  4. Impaired learning from errors in cannabis users: Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus hypoactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Susan E; Nestor, Liam; Jones, Jennifer; Garavan, Hugh; Hester, Robert

    2015-10-01

    The chronic use of cannabis has been associated with error processing dysfunction, in particular, hypoactivity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during the processing of cognitive errors. Given the role of such activity in influencing post-error adaptive behaviour, we hypothesised that chronic cannabis users would have significantly poorer learning from errors. Fifteen chronic cannabis users (four females, mean age=22.40 years, SD=4.29) and 15 control participants (two females, mean age=23.27 years, SD=3.67) were administered a paired associate learning task that enabled participants to learn from their errors, during fMRI data collection. Compared with controls, chronic cannabis users showed (i) a lower recall error-correction rate and (ii) hypoactivity in the dACC and left hippocampus during the processing of error-related feedback and re-encoding of the correct response. The difference in error-related dACC activation between cannabis users and healthy controls varied as a function of error type, with the control group showing a significantly greater difference between corrected and repeated errors than the cannabis group. The present results suggest that chronic cannabis users have poorer learning from errors, with the failure to adapt performance associated with hypoactivity in error-related dACC and hippocampal regions. The findings highlight a consequence of performance monitoring dysfunction in drug abuse and the potential consequence this cognitive impairment has for the symptom of failing to learn from negative feedback seen in cannabis and other forms of dependence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased NMDA and AMPA receptor densities in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitsanou, K.; Huang, X.-F.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain area of potential importance to our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Since a disturbed balance between excitatory and inhibitory activity is suggested to occur in the ACC in schizophrenia, the present study has focused on the analysis of binding of [ 3 H]MK801, [ 3 H]AMPA and [ 3 H]kainate, radioligands which respectively label the NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family in the ACC of 10 schizophrenia patients and 10 matched controls, using quantitative autoradiography. AMPA receptor densities were higher in cortical layer II whereas NMDA receptor densities were higher in cortical layers II-III in the ACC of both control and schizophrenia group. In contrast, kainate receptors displayed the highest density in cortical layer V. [ 3 H]AMPA binding was significantly increased by 25% in layer II in the schizophrenia group as compared to the control group. Similarly, a significant 17% increase of [ 3 H]MK801 binding was observed in layers II-III in the schizophrenia group. No statistically significant differences were observed for [ 3 H] kainate binding between the two groups. These results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors are differentially altered in the ACC of schizophrenia. The increase in [ 3 H]AMPA and [ 3 H]MK801 binding points to a postsynaptic compensation for impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission in the ACC in schizophrenia. Such abnormality could lead to an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this brain area that may contribute to the emergence of some schizophrenia symptoms. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  6. Structural and functional associations of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is one of the most fundamental human goals, which has led researchers to examine the source of individual happiness. Happiness has usually been discussed regarding two aspects (a temporary positive emotion and a trait-like long-term sense of being happy) that are interrelated; for example, individuals with a high level of trait-like subjective happiness tend to rate events as more pleasant. In this study, we hypothesized that the interaction between the two aspects of happiness could be explained by the interaction between structure and function in certain brain regions. Thus, we first assessed the association between gray matter density (GMD) of healthy participants and trait-like subjective happiness using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Further, to assess the association between the GMD and brain function, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the task of positive emotion induction (imagination of several emotional life events). VBM indicated that the subjective happiness was positively correlated with the GMD of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Functional MRI demonstrated that experimentally induced temporal happy feelings were positively correlated with subjective happiness level and rACC activity. The rACC response to positive events was also positively correlated with its GMD. These results provide convergent structural and functional evidence that the rACC is related to happiness and suggest that the interaction between structure and function in the rACC may explain the trait-state interaction in happiness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup; Stenbæk, Dea Siggaard; Sestoft, Dorte; Knudsen, Gitte M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non-offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT 1B R) binding with [ 11 C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5-HT 1B R would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT 1B R binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli and neutral faces were nogo stimuli (p = 0.05, corrected alpha = 0.0125), but not with false alarms for non-emotional stimuli (failures to inhibit geometric figures). A posthoc analysis revealed the strongest association in anterior cingulate cortex (p = 0.006). In summary, 5-HT 1B Rs in the anterior cingulate are involved in withholding a prepotent response in the context of angry faces. Our findings suggest that serotonin modulates response inhibition in the context of certain emotional stimuli. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Improved social interaction and increased anterior cingulate metabolism after group reminiscence with reality orientation approach for vascular dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Meguro, Mitsue; Sasaki, Eriko; Chiba, Kentaro; Ishii, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Naofumi

    2011-06-30

    A group reminiscence approach (GRA) with reality orientation (RO) is widely used as a psychosocial intervention for dementia. Since clinical effectiveness was reported for the intervention, interest has been directed toward areas of the neuronal network that might be being stimulated. We hypothesized that the frontal lobe associated with social interaction was being stimulated. To test this hypothesis, we studied 24 patients with vascular dementia. In addition to conventional care, a 1-h session of GRA with RO was provided once a week for 3 months in the GRA-RO arm (n=12). Only supportive care was provided in the control arm (n=12). Before and after the interventions, cognitive function, depressive state, and social activities were assessed. Since glucose metabolism is associated with brain function, cerebral glucose metabolism was measured by positron emission tomography (PET). Regarding behavioral improvement, 10 patients in the GRA-RO arm showed improvement compared with only two patients in the control arm, a significant difference. PET demonstrated that metabolism in the anterior cingulate was increased in the GRA-RO arm, whereas no significant changes were observed in the control arm. These results suggest that GRA-RO stimulates the anterior cingulate and has a positive effect on social interaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proton MR Spectroscopy: Higher Right Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate/Choline Ratio in Asperger Syndrome Compared with Healthy Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, O.; Devrimci-Ozguven, H.; Oktem, F.; Yagmurlu, B.; Baskak, B.; Munir, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE One former study reported higher prefrontal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) levels in patients with Asperger syndrome (AS). The objective of the current study was to test the hypothesis that patients with AS would have higher dorsolateral prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex NAA/creatine (Cr) and that NAA/Cr would be correlated with symptom severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS NAA/choline (Cho), NAA/Cr, and Cho/Cr values revealed by 1H-MR spectroscopy in 14 right-handed male patients with AS (6 medicated with risperidone), 17–38 years of age, diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria were compared with those of 21 right-handed male controls frequency-matched by age and intelligence quotient scores. RESULTS Patients with AS had significantly higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels (z = –2.18, P = .028); there was a statistical trend for higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cr (z = –1.81, P = .069) that was significant when only the unmedicated patients with AS were taken into account (z = –1.95, P = .050). There were no significant differences in dorsolateral prefrontal MR spectroscopy values. CONCLUSIONS Our findings show that individuals with AS had higher NAA/Cho levels in the right anterior cingulate compared with healthy controls and that higher anterior cingulate NAA/Cho levels were correlated with higher Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale total scores. PMID:17846198

  10. Aberrant salience network (bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex) connectivity during information processing in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas P; Joseph, Verghese; Francis, Susan T; Liddle, Peter F

    2010-11-01

    A salience network, comprising bilateral insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is thought to play a role in recruiting relevant brain regions for the processing of sensory information. Here, we present a functional network connectivity (FNC) analysis of spatial networks identified during somatosensation, performed to test the hypothesis that salience network connectivity is disturbed during information processing in schizophrenia. 19 medicated individuals with schizophrenia and 19 matched healthy controls participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. 100 Hz vibrotactile stimuli were presented to the right index fingertip while whole-head blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast gradient-echo echo-planar images were acquired. Six spatial components of interest were identified using group independent component analysis: (1) bilateral insula, superior temporal and precentral gyrus (INS); (2) dorsal ACC; (3) left dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortex (left central executive network (LCEN)); (4) right dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortex (RCEN); (5) ventromedial frontal cortex (FDMN); and (6) precuneus, posterior cingulate and angular gyrus (PDMN). Maximal-lagged correlation was examined between all pairwise combinations of components. Significantly reduced FNC was observed in schizophrenia compared to controls between: INS and ACC; INS and FDMN; and LCEN and PDMN. There was no evidence of increased FNC in schizophrenia. Reduced salience network connectivity during information processing in schizophrenia suggests disturbance to the system which effects changes between contextually-relevant functional brain states. This aberrance may provide a mechanistic explanation of several clinical features of the disorder. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Reduced dorsal anterior cingulate cortical activity during emotional regulation and top-down attentional control in Generalized Social Phobia (GSP), Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and comorbid GSP/GAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Karina S.; Geraci, Marilla; Smith, Bruce; Hollon, Nick; DeVido, Jeffrey; Otero, Marcela; Blair, R. J. R.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) are both associated with emotion dysregulation. In healthy subjects, research implicates dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) in both explicit emotion regulation and top-down attentional control. While studies have examined these processes in GSP or GAD, no work compares findings across the two disorders. Moreover, no work examines functioning in cases comorbid for both disorders (GSP/GAD). Here we compare the neural correlates of explicit emotion regulation (EER) and top-down attentional control (TAC) in GSP, GAD, and GSP/GAD. Method Medication-free adults with GSP (EER n=19; TAC n=18), GAD (EER n=17; TAC n =17), GSP/GAD (EER n=17; TAC=15), or no psychopathology (EER n=18; TAC n=18). During EER, individuals alternatively viewed, up-regulated, and down-regulated responses to emotional pictures. During TAC, they performed an emotional Stroop task. Results For both tasks, significant group-by-condition interactions emerged in dACC and parietal cortices. Healthy adults showed significantly increased recruitment during emotion regulation, relative to emotion-picture viewing. GAD, GSP, and GSP/GAD subjects showed no such increases, with all three groups differing from healthy adults but not from each other. Evidence of emotion-related disorder-specificity emerged in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and amygdala. This disorder-specific responding varied as a function of stimulus emotion content but not emotion-regulatory demands. Conclusions GSP and GAD both involve reduced capacity for engaging emotion-regulation brain networks, whether explicitly or via top-down attentional control. A reduced ability to recruit regions implicated in top-down attention might represent a general risk factor for anxiety disorders. PMID:22592057

  12. The expected value of control: An integrative theory of anterior cingulate cortex function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenhav, Amitai; Botvinick, Matthew M.; Cohen, Jonathan D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has a near-ubiquitous presence in the neuroscience of cognitive control. It has been implicated in a diversity of functions, from reward processing and performance monitoring to the execution of control and action selection. Here, we propose that this diversity can be understood in terms of a single underlying function: allocation of control based on an evaluation of the expected value of control (EVC). We present a normative model of EVC that integrates three critical factors: the expected payoff from a controlled process, the amount of control that must be invested to achieve that payoff, and the cost in terms of cognitive effort. We propose that dACC integrates this information, using it to determine whether, where and how much control to allocate. We then consider how the EVC model can explain the diverse array of findings concerning dACC function. PMID:23889930

  13. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. From Thirst to Satiety: The Anterior Mid-Cingulate Cortex and Right Posterior Insula Indicate Dynamic Changes in Incentive Value

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    Christoph A. Becker

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The cingulate cortex and insula are among the neural structures whose activations have been modulated in functional imaging studies examining discrete states of thirst and drinking to satiation. Building upon these findings, the present study aimed to identify neural structures that change their pattern of activation elicited by water held in the mouth in relation to the internal body state, i.e., proportional to continuous water consumption. Accordingly, participants in a thirsty state were scanned while receiving increments of water until satiety was reached. As expected, fluid ingestion led to a clear decrease in self-reported thirst and the pleasantness ratings of the water ingested. Furthermore, linear decreases in the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response to water ingestion were observed in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC and right posterior insula as participants shifted towards the non-thirsty state. In addition, regions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG, supplementary motor area (SMA, superior parietal lobule (SPL, precuneus and calcarine sulcus also showed a linear decrease with increasing fluid consumption. Further analyses related single trial BOLD responses of associated regions to trial-by-trial ratings of thirst and pleasantness. Overall, the aMCC and posterior insula may be key sites of a neural network representing the motivation for drinking based on the dynamic integration of internal state and external stimuli.

  15. The effect of regulatory mode on procrastination: Bi-stable parahippocampus connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and anterior prefrontal cortex.

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    Zhang, Chenyan; Ni, Yan; Feng, Tingyong

    2017-06-30

    Previous research has elucidated that procrastination can be influenced by regulatory mode orientations. However, the neural mechanism of regulatory modes affecting procrastination is not well understood. To address this question, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to test the influence of two regulatory modes (assessment and locomotion) on procrastination. The behavioral results showed that procrastination was positively correlated with assessment orientation but negatively correlated with locomotion orientation. Neuroimaging results indicated that the functional connectivity between parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) was negatively correlated with assessment scores, while the functional connectivity between anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) and parahippocampal cortex (PHC) was negatively correlated with locomotion scores. Critically, mediation analysis showed that the different effects of two distinct regulatory modes on procrastination were mediated by PHC-dACC and aPFC-PHC functional connectivity respectively. These results suggested that people's procrastination could be predicted by regulatory mode orientations, which is mediated by PHC connectivity with dACC and aPFC respectively. The present study extends our knowledge on procrastination and provides neural mechanism for understanding the link between regulatory mode orientations and procrastination. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Cognitive Control: Neuropsychological and Electrophysiological Findings in Two Patients with Lesions to Dorsomedial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovstad, M.; Funderud, I.; Meling, T.; Kramer, U. M.; Voytek, B.; Due-Tonnessen, P.; Endestad, T.; Lindgren, M.; Knight, R. T.; Solbakk, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas neuroimaging studies of healthy subjects have demonstrated an association between the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and cognitive control functions, including response monitoring and error detection, lesion studies are sparse and have produced mixed results. Due to largely normal behavioral test results in two patients with medial…

  17. Resting state functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in veterans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennis, Mitzy; Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Rooij, Sanne J H; Kahn, René S.; Geuze, Elbert

    2015-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that is associated with structural and functional alterations in several brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Here, we examine resting state functional connectivity of ACC subdivisions in PTSD, using a seed-based

  18. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296 ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  19. Physiological responses to brain stimulation during limbic surgery: further evidence of anterior cingulate modulation of autonomic arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentil, André Felix; Eskandar, Emad N; Marci, Carl David; Evans, Karleyton Conroy; Dougherty, Darin Dean

    2009-10-01

    In view of conflicting neuroimaging results regarding autonomic-specific activity within the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), we investigated autonomic responses to direct brain stimulation during stereotactic limbic surgery. Skin conductance activity and accelerative heart rate responses to multi-voltage stimulation of the ACC (n = 7) and paralimbic subcaudate (n = 5) regions were recorded during bilateral anterior cingulotomy and bilateral subcaudate tractotomy (in patients that had previously received an adequate lesion in the ACC), respectively. Stimulations in both groups were accompanied by increased autonomic arousal. Skin conductance activity was significantly increased during ACC stimulations compared with paralimbic targets at 2 V (2.34 +/- .68 [score in microSiemens +/- SE] vs. .34 +/- .09, p = .013) and 3 V (3.52 +/- .86 vs. 1.12 +/- .37, p = .036), exhibiting a strong "voltage-response" relationship between stimulus magnitude and response amplitude (difference from 1 to 3 V = 1.15 +/- .90 vs. 3.52 +/- .86, p = .041). Heart rate response was less indicative of between-group differences. This is the first study of its kind aiming at seeking novel insights into the mechanisms responsible for central autonomic modulation. It supports a concept that interregional interactions account for the coordination of autonomic arousal.

  20. Strength and Diversity of Inhibitory Signaling Differentiates Primate Anterior Cingulate from Lateral Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medalla, Maria; Gilman, Joshua P; Wang, Jing-Yi; Luebke, Jennifer I

    2017-05-03

    The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of the primate play distinctive roles in the mediation of complex cognitive tasks. Compared with the LPFC, integration of information by the ACC can span longer timescales and requires stronger engagement of inhibitory processes. Here, we reveal the synaptic mechanism likely to underlie these differences using in vitro patch-clamp recordings of synaptic events and multiscale imaging of synaptic markers in rhesus monkeys. Although excitatory synaptic signaling does not differ, the level of synaptic inhibition is much higher in ACC than LPFC layer 3 pyramidal neurons, with a significantly higher frequency (∼6×) and longer duration of inhibitory synaptic currents. The number of inhibitory synapses and the ratio of cholecystokinin to parvalbumin-positive inhibitory inputs are also significantly higher in ACC compared with LPFC neurons. Therefore, inhibition is functionally and structurally more robust and diverse in ACC than in LPFC, resulting in a lower excitatory: inhibitory ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and network oscillation by the ACC. These differences in inhibitory circuitry likely underlie the distinctive network dynamics in ACC and LPC during normal and pathological brain states. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play temporally distinct roles during the execution of cognitive tasks (rapid working memory during ongoing tasks and long-term memory to guide future action, respectively). Compared with LPFC-mediated tasks, ACC-mediated tasks can span longer timescales and require stronger engagement of inhibition. This study shows that inhibitory signaling is much more robust and diverse in the ACC than in the LPFC. Therefore, there is a lower excitatory: inhibitory synaptic ratio and a greater dynamic range for signal integration and oscillatory behavior in the ACC. These significant differences in

  1. Antinociception induced by galanin in anterior cingulate cortex in rats with acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng-Lin; Fu, Feng-Hua; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2017-01-18

    The present study was performed to explore the role of galanin in nociceptive modulation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of rats with acute inflammation, and the changes in galanin and galanin receptor 2 (Gal R2) expressions in rats with acute inflammation. Intra-ACC injection of galanin induced antinociception in rats with acute inflammation, the antinociceptive effects induced by galanin were attenuated significantly by intra-ACC injection of the Gal R2 antagonist M871, indicating an involvement of Gal R2 in nociceptive modulation in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. Furthermore, we found that both the galanin mRNA expression and galanin content increased significantly in ACC in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. Moreover, both the mRNA levels of Gal R2 and the content of Gal R2 in ACC increased significantly in rats with acute inflammation than that in normal rats. These results demonstrated that galanin induced antinociception in ACC in rats with acute inflammation. And there were changes in the expression of galanin and Gal R2 in rats with acute inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-02-13

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a well-established probabilistic reversal learning task during fMRI. We analysed hemodynamic responses in empirically-defined regions of interest during positive feedback and negative feedback not followed/followed by behavioural adaptation and conducted functional connectivity analyses. Although overall task performance was comparable between groups, AN showed increased shifting after receiving negative feedback (lose-shift behaviour) and altered dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) responses as a function of feedback. Specifically, patients had increased dACC responses (which correlated with perfectionism) and task-related coupling with amygdala preceding behavioural adaption. Given the generally preserved task performance in young AN, elevated dACC responses specifically during behavioural adaption is suggestive of increased monitoring for the need to adjust performance strategies. Higher dACC-amygdala coupling and increased adaptation after negative feedback underlines this interpretation and could be related to intolerance of uncertainty which has been suggested for AN.

  3. Effects of dopamine D1 modulation of the anterior cingulate cortex in a fear conditioning procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezze, M A; Marshall, H J; Domonkos, A; Cassaday, H J

    2016-02-04

    The anterior cingulate cortex (AC) component of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in attention and working memory as measured by trace conditioning. Since dopamine (DA) is a key modulator of mPFC function, the present study evaluated the role of DA receptor agents in rat AC, using trace fear conditioning. A conditioned stimulus (CS, noise) was followed by an unconditioned stimulus (US, shock) with or without a 10s trace interval interposed between these events in a between-subjects design. Conditioned suppression of drinking was assessed in response to presentation of the CS or an experimental background stimulus (flashing lights, previously presented for the duration of the conditioning session). The selective D1 agonist SKF81297 (0.05μg/side) or D1 antagonist SCH23390 (0.5μg/side) was administered by intra-cerebral microinfusion directly into AC. It was predicted that either of these manipulations should be sufficient to impair trace (but not delay) conditioning. Counter to expectation, there was no effect of DA D1 modulation on trace conditioning as measured by suppression to the noise CS. However, rats infused with SKF81297 acquired stronger conditioned suppression to the experimental background stimulus than those infused with SCH23390 or saline. Thus, the DA D1 agonist SKF81297 increased conditioned suppression to the contextual background light stimulus but was otherwise without effect on fear conditioning. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannekoek, Justine Nienke; van der Werff, Steven J.A.; van den Bulk, Bianca G.; van Lang, Natasja D.J.; Rombouts, Serge A.R.B.; van Buchem, Mark A.; Vermeiren, Robert R.J.M.; van der Wee, Nic J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents. PMID:24501702

  5. Decreased expression of axon-guidance receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suda Shiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axon-guidance proteins play a crucial role in brain development. As the dysfunction of axon-guidance signaling is thought to underlie the microstructural abnormalities of the brain in people with autism, we examined the postmortem brains of people with autism to identify any changes in the expression of axon-guidance proteins. Results The mRNA and protein expression of axon-guidance proteins, including ephrin (EFNA4, eEFNB3, plexin (PLXNA4, roundabout 2 (ROBO2 and ROBO3, were examined in the anterior cingulate cortex and primary motor cortex of autistic brains (n = 8 and n = 7, respectively and control brains (n = 13 and n = 8, respectively using real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR and western blotting. Real-time RT-PCR revealed that the relative expression levels of EFNB3, PLXNA4A and ROBO2 were significantly lower in the autistic group than in the control group. The protein levels of these three genes were further analyzed by western blotting, which showed that the immunoreactive values for PLXNA4 and ROBO2, but not for EFNB3, were significantly reduced in the ACC of the autistic brains compared with control brains. Conclusions In this study, we found decreased expression of axon-guidance proteins such as PLXNA4 and ROBO2 in the brains of people with autism, and suggest that dysfunctional axon-guidance protein expression may play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism.

  6. Abnormal Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unilateral Chronic Tinnitus Patients

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    Yu-Chen Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been suggested to be involved in chronic subjective tinnitus. Tinnitus may arise from aberrant functional coupling between the ACC and cerebral cortex. To explore this hypothesis, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to illuminate the functional connectivity (FC network of the ACC subregions in chronic tinnitus patients.Methods: Resting-state fMRI scans were obtained from 31 chronic right-sided tinnitus patients and 40 healthy controls (age, sex, and education well-matched in this study. Rostral ACC and dorsal ACC were selected as seed regions to investigate the intrinsic FC with the whole brain. The resulting FC patterns were correlated with clinical tinnitus characteristics including the tinnitus duration and tinnitus distress.Results: Compared with healthy controls, chronic tinnitus patients showed disrupted FC patterns of ACC within several brain networks, including the auditory cortex, prefrontal cortex, visual cortex, and default mode network (DMN. The Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaires (THQ scores showed positive correlations with increased FC between the rostral ACC and left precuneus (r = 0.507, p = 0.008 as well as the dorsal ACC and right inferior parietal lobe (r = 0.447, p = 0.022.Conclusions: Chronic tinnitus patients have abnormal FC networks originating from ACC to other selected brain regions that are associated with specific tinnitus characteristics. Resting-state ACC-cortical FC disturbances may play an important role in neuropathological features underlying chronic tinnitus.

  7. Folding of the anterior cingulate cortex partially explains inhibitory control during childhood: A longitudinal study

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    G. Borst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is one of the core structures responsible for IC. Although quantitative structural characteristics of the ACC contribute to IC efficiency, the qualitative structural brain characteristics contributing to IC development are less-understood. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether the ACC sulcal pattern at age 5, a stable qualitative characteristic of the brain determined in utero, explains IC at age 9. 18 children performed Stroop tasks at age 5 and age 9. Children with asymmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 7 had better IC efficiency at age 5 and age 9 than children with symmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 11. The ACC sulcal patterns appear to affect specifically IC efficiency given that the ACC sulcal patterns had no effect on verbal working memory. Our study provides the first evidence that the ACC sulcal pattern – a qualitative structural characteristic of the brain not affected by maturation and learning after birth – partially explains IC efficiency during childhood.

  8. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  9. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Lauren A; Olson, Elizabeth A; Crowley, David J; Rauch, Scott L; Rosso, Isabelle M

    2015-01-01

    Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC) completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20) and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  10. Reduced anterior cingulate gray matter volume in treatment-naïve clinically depressed adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Nienke Pannekoek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescent depression is associated with increased risk for suicidality, social and educational impairment, smoking, substance use, obesity, and depression in adulthood. It is of relevance to further our insight in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this disorder in the developing brain, as this may be essential to optimize treatment and prevention of adolescent depression and its negative clinical trajectories. The equivocal findings of the limited number of studies on neural abnormalities in depressed youth stress the need for further neurobiological investigation of adolescent depression. We therefore performed a voxel-based morphometry study of the hippocampus, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in 26 treatment-naïve, clinically depressed adolescents and 26 pair-wise matched healthy controls. Additionally, an exploratory whole-brain analysis was performed. Clinically depressed adolescents showed a volume reduction of the bilateral dorsal ACC compared to healthy controls. However, no association was found between gray matter volume of the ACC and clinical severity scores for depression or anxiety. Our finding of a smaller ACC in clinically depressed adolescents is consistent with literature on depressed adults. Future research is needed to investigate if gray matter abnormalities precede or follow clinical depression in adolescents.

  11. Impaired reward processing by anterior cingulate cortex in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, Akina; Lukie, Carmen N; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Holroyd, Clay B

    2014-06-01

    Decades of research have examined the neurocognitive mechanisms of cognitive control, but the motivational factors underlying task selection and performance remain to be elucidated. We recently proposed that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) utilizes reward prediction error signals carried by the midbrain dopamine system to learn the value of tasks according to the principles of hierarchical reinforcement learning. According to this position, disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface can disrupt the selection and execution of extended, task-related behaviors. To investigate this issue, we recorded the event-related brain potential (ERP) from children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which is strongly associated with ACC-dopamine dysfunction, and from typically developing children while they navigated a simple "virtual T-maze" to find rewards. Depending on the condition, the feedback stimuli on each trial indicated that the children earned or failed to earn either money or points. We found that the reward positivity, an ERP component proposed to index the impact of dopamine-related reward signals on ACC, was significantly larger with money feedback than with points feedback for the children with ADHD, but not for the typically developing children. These results suggest that disruption of the ACC-dopamine interface may underlie the impairments in motivational control observed in childhood ADHD.

  12. Posterior Orbitofrontal and Anterior Cingulate Pathways to the Amygdala Target Inhibitory and Excitatory Systems with Opposite Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikopoulos, Basilis; Höistad, Malin; John, Yohan; Barbas, Helen

    2017-05-17

    The bidirectional dialogue of the primate posterior orbitofrontal cortex (pOFC) with the amygdala is essential in cognitive-emotional functions. The pOFC also sends a uniquely one-way excitatory pathway to the amygdalar inhibitory intercalated masses (IM), which inhibit the medial part of the central amygdalar nucleus (CeM). Inhibition of IM has the opposite effect, allowing amygdalar activation of autonomic structures and emotional arousal. Using multiple labeling approaches to identify pathways and their postsynaptic sites in the amygdala in rhesus monkeys, we found that the anterior cingulate cortex innervated mostly the basolateral and CeM amygdalar nuclei, poised to activate CeM for autonomic arousal. By contrast, a pathway from pOFC to IM exceeded all other pathways to the amygdala by density and size and proportion of large and efficient terminals. Moreover, whereas pOFC terminals in IM innervated each of the three distinct classes of inhibitory neurons, most targeted neurons expressing dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32+), known to be modulated by dopamine. The predominant pOFC innervation of DARPP-32+ neurons suggests activation of IM and inhibition of CeM, resulting in modulated autonomic function. By contrast, inhibition of DARPP-32 neurons in IM by high dopamine levels disinhibits CeM and triggers autonomic arousal. The findings provide a mechanism to help explain how a strong pOFC pathway, which is poised to moderate activity of CeM, through IM, can be undermined by the high level of dopamine during stress, resulting in collapse of potent inhibitory mechanisms in the amygdala and heightened autonomic drive, as seen in chronic anxiety disorders. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dialogue between prefrontal cortex and amygdala allows thoughts and emotions to influence actions. The posterior orbitofrontal cortex sends a powerful pathway that targets a special class of amygdalar intercalated mass (IM) inhibitory neurons, whose wiring may help

  13. Muscarinic M2 and M4 receptors in anterior cingulate cortex: relation to neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia with Lewy bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaktong, Thanasak; Piggott, Margaret A; Mckeith, Ian G; Perry, Robert H; Ballard, Clive G; Perry, Elaine K

    2005-06-20

    Alterations in cholinergic functions have been reported to be associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia. Increased M1 muscarinic receptor binding in temporal cortex is associated with delusions in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) patients and increased M2/M4 receptor binding with psychosis in Alzheimer's disease. However, the relation between M2 and M4 muscarinic receptor and psychotic symptoms in DLB is unknown. The aim of this study was to measure M2 and M4 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in DLB and to correlate the neurochemical findings with neuropsychiatric symptoms. Muscarinic M2 and M4 receptor levels in the anterior cingulate cortex and adjacent cortex (Brodmann's area [BA] 32) were measured separately by using a radioligand binding protocol based on binding of [(3)H]AF-DX 384 in the presence and absence of dicyclomine, a potent M4 receptor antagonist. M2 receptor binding was significantly increased, while M4 receptor binding was unchanged in the cingulate cortex and BA32 of DLB patients compared with age-matched controls. Impaired consciousness was significantly associated with increased M4 binding and delusions were significantly associated with increased M2 binding. Increased M2 and M4 receptor binding in DLB was also associated with visual hallucinations. Upregulation of M2 and M4 muscarinic receptors in cingulate and adjacent cortex may thus contribute to the development of psychosis in DLB, with potential implications for treatments with drugs acting on these receptors.

  14. M2/M4 muscarinic receptor binding in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsanou, Katerina; Katsifis, Andrew; Yu, Yinghua; Huang, Xu Feng

    2005-05-15

    We have previously shown a decrease in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding to M1/M4 muscarinic receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia but not in major depression or bipolar disorder. The present study aimed to extend these findings by examining the binding of [(3)H]AF-DX 384 to M2/M4 receptors in the same cohort of subjects. Using quantitative autoradiography we measured [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding in the anterior cingulate cortex of 15 schizophrenia, 15 bipolar, 15 major depression and 15 control cases. Post-mortem tissue was obtained from the Stanley Foundation Brain Bank. [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding had a homogenous distribution amongst the layers of the anterior cingulate cortex, was higher in males than in females and declined with prolonged storage of tissue. An inverse correlation between [(3)H]AF-DX384 binding and age of onset of the disease was observed in the schizophrenia group suggesting that the earlier the age at onset the higher the binding was. In the depression group, there was a significant effect of gender on [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding with females having lower binding in comparison to males. In the bipolar group, there was a significant inverse correlation between antipsychotic medication and [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding, suggesting that the higher the dose of medication the lower the binding was. No differences in [(3)H]AF-DX 384 binding were seen between the four groups. The present results provide no evidence of M2/M4 receptor alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and affective disorders and extend the body of evidence implicating cortical M1 but not M2 involvement in the pathology and pharmacotherapy of schizophrenia.

  15. Dissociative contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to apathy and depression: Topological evidence from resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoda, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2015-10-01

    Apathy is defined as a mental state characterized by a lack of goal-directed behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms of apathy remain to be fully understood. Apathy shares certain symptoms with depression and both these affective disorders are known to be associated with dysfunctions of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits. It is expected that clarifying differences in neural mechanisms between the two conditions would lead to an improved understanding of apathy. The present study was designed to investigate whether apathy and depression depend on different network properties of the frontal cortex-basal ganglia circuits, by using resting state fMRI. Resting-state fMRI measurement and neuropsychological testing were conducted on middle-aged and older adults (N=392). Based on graph theory, we estimated nodal efficiency (functional integration), local efficiency (functional segregation), and betweenness centrality. We conducted multiple regression analyses for the network parameters using age, sex, apathy, and depression as predictors. Interestingly, results indicated that the anterior cingulate cortex showed lower nodal efficiency, local efficiency, and betweenness centrality in apathy, whereas in depression, it showed higher nodal efficiency and betweenness centrality. The anterior cingulate cortex constitutes the so-called "salience network", which detects salient experiences. Our results indicate that apathy is characterized by decreased salience-related processing in the anterior cingulate cortex, whereas depression is characterized by increased salience-related processing. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variation modulates anterior cingulate cortex Glx levels during CCK-4 induced panic.

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    Ruland, Tillmann; Domschke, Katharina; Schütte, Valerie; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Notzon, Swantje; Vennewald, Nadja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Zwanzger, Peter

    2015-10-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter dysbalance has been suggested in pathogenesis of panic disorder. The neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been implicated in modulating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission in animal models and to genetically drive altered fear circuit function and an increased risk of panic disorder in humans. Probing a multi-level imaging genetic risk model of panic, in the present magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during a pharmacological cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge were assessed depending on the functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) rs324981 A/T variant in a final sample of 35 healthy male subjects. The subjective panic response (Panic Symptom Scale; PSS) as well as cortisol and ACTH levels were ascertained throughout the experiment. CCK-4 injection was followed by a strong panic response. A significant time×genotype interaction was detected (p=.008), with significantly lower ACC Glx/Cr levels in T allele carriers as compared to AA homozygotes 5min after injection (p=.003). CCK-4 induced significant HPA axis stimulation, but no effect of genotype was discerned. The present pilot data suggests NPSR1 gene variation to modulate Glx levels in the ACC during acute states of stress and anxiety, with blunted, i.e. possibly maladaptive ACC glutamatergic reactivity in T risk allele carriers. Our results underline the notion of a genetically driven rapid and dynamic response mechanism in the neural regulation of human anxiety and further strengthen the emerging role of the NPS system in anxiety. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of the genome wide supported NRGN gene on anterior cingulate morphology in schizophrenia.

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    Kazutaka Ohi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The rs12807809 single-nucleotide polymorphism in NRGN is a genetic risk variant with genome-wide significance for schizophrenia. The frequency of the T allele of rs12807809 is higher in individuals with schizophrenia than in those without the disorder. Reduced immunoreactivity of NRGN, which is expressed exclusively in the brain, has been observed in Brodmann areas (BA 9 and 32 of the prefrontal cortex in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia compared with those in controls. METHODS: Genotype effects of rs12807809 were investigated on gray matter (GM and white matter (WM volumes using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI with a voxel-based morphometry (VBM technique in a sample of 99 Japanese patients with schizophrenia and 263 healthy controls. RESULTS: Although significant genotype-diagnosis interaction either on GM or WM volume was not observed, there was a trend of genotype-diagnosis interaction on GM volume in the left anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Thus, the effects of NRGN genotype on GM volume of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were separately investigated. In patients with schizophrenia, carriers of the risk T allele had a smaller GM volume in the left ACC (BA32 than did carriers of the non-risk C allele. Significant genotype effect on other regions of the GM or WM was not observed for either the patients or controls. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the genome-wide associated genetic risk variant in the NRGN gene may be related to a small GM volume in the ACC in the left hemisphere in patients with schizophrenia.

  18. 7T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in First-Episode Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Meredith A; Salibi, Nouha; White, David M; Gawne, Timothy J; Denney, Thomas S; Lahti, Adrienne C

    2018-01-29

    Recent magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies suggest that abnormalities of the glutamatergic system in schizophrenia may be dependent on illness stage, medication status, and symptomatology. Glutamatergic metabolites appear to be elevated in the prodromal and early stages of schizophrenia but unchanged or reduced below normal in chronic, medicated patients. However, few of these studies have measured metabolites with high-field 7T MR scanners, which offer higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spectral resolution than 3T scanners and facilitate separation of glutamate and glutamine into distinct signals. In this study, we examined glutamate and other metabolites in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of first-episode schizophrenia patients. Glutamate and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were significantly lower in schizophrenia patients vs controls. No differences were observed in levels of glutamine, GABA, or other metabolites. In schizophrenia patients but not controls, GABA was negatively correlated with the total score on the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) as well as the immediate memory and language subscales. Our findings suggest that glutamate and NAA reductions in the ACC may be present early in the illness, but additional large-scale studies are needed to confirm these results as well as longitudinal studies to determine the effect of illness progression and treatment. The correlation between GABA and cognitive function suggests that MRS may be an important technique for investigating the neurobiology underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Francisco; Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mattson, Whitney I; Martin, Donna M; Lord, Catherine; Monk, Christopher S

    2017-04-01

    Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD) completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD) individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of 5-HTTLPR transporter genotype on amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex connectivity in autism spectrum disorder

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    Francisco Velasquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Social deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD are linked to amygdala functioning and functional connection between the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC is involved in the modulation of amygdala activity. Impairments in behavioral symptoms and amygdala activation and connectivity with the sACC seem to vary by serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR variant genotype in diverse populations. The current preliminary investigation examines whether amygdala-sACC connectivity differs by 5-HTTLPR genotype and relates to social functioning in ASD. A sample of 108 children and adolescents (44 ASD completed an fMRI face-processing task. Youth with ASD and low expressing 5-HTTLPR genotypes showed significantly greater connectivity than youth with ASD and higher expressing genotypes as well as typically developing (TD individuals with both low and higher expressing genotypes, in the comparison of happy vs. baseline faces and happy vs. neutral faces. Moreover, individuals with ASD and higher expressing genotypes exhibit a negative relationship between amygdala-sACC connectivity and social dysfunction. Altered amygdala-sACC coupling based on 5-HTTLPR genotype may help explain some of the heterogeneity in neural and social function observed in ASD. This is the first ASD study to combine genetic polymorphism analyses and functional connectivity in the context of a social task.

  1. Severe depression is associated with increased microglial quinolinic acid in subregions of the anterior cingulate gyrus: Evidence for an immune-modulated glutamatergic neurotransmission?

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    Mawrin Christian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune dysfunction, including monocytosis and increased blood levels of interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor α has been observed during acute episodes of major depression. These peripheral immune processes may be accompanied by microglial activation in subregions of the anterior cingulate cortex where depression-associated alterations of glutamatergic neurotransmission have been described. Methods Microglial immunoreactivity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA glutamate receptor agonist quinolinic acid (QUIN in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC of 12 acutely depressed suicidal patients (major depressive disorder/MDD, n = 7; bipolar disorder/BD, n = 5 was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and compared with its expression in 10 healthy control subjects. Results Depressed patients had a significantly increased density of QUIN-positive cells in the sACC (P = 0.003 and the aMCC (P = 0.015 compared to controls. In contrast, counts of QUIN-positive cells in the pACC did not differ between the groups (P = 0.558. Post-hoc tests showed that significant findings were attributed to MDD and were absent in BD. Conclusions These results add a novel link to the immune hypothesis of depression by providing evidence for an upregulation of microglial QUIN in brain regions known to be responsive to infusion of NMDA antagonists such as ketamine. Further work in this area could lead to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and pave the way for novel NMDA receptor therapies or immune-modulating strategies.

  2. Cingulate Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkawadri, Rafeed; So, Norman K.; Van Ness, Paul C.; Alexopoulos, Andreas V.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The literature on cingulate gyrus epilepsy in the magnetic resonance imaging era is limited to case reports and small case series. To our knowledge, this is the largest study of surgically confirmed epilepsy arising from the anterior or posterior cingulate region. OBJECTIVE To characterize the clinical and electrophysiological findings of epilepsies arising from the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS We studied consecutive cingulate gyrus epilepsy cases identified retrospectively from the Cleveland Clinic and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center epilepsy databases from 1992 to 2009. Participants included 14 consecutive cases of cingulate gyrus epilepsies confirmed by restricted magnetic resonance image lesions and seizure freedom or marked improvement following lesionectomy. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The main outcome measure was improvement in seizure frequency following surgery. The clinical, video electroencephalography, neuroimaging, pathology, and surgical outcome data were reviewed. RESULTS All 14 patients had cingulate epilepsy confirmed by restricted magnetic resonance image lesions and seizure freedom or marked improvement following lesionectomy. They were divided into 3 groups based on anatomical location of the lesion and corresponding seizure semiology. In the posterior cingulate group, all 4 patients had electroclinical findings suggestive of temporal origin of the epilepsy. The anterior cingulate cases were divided into a typical (Bancaud) group (6 cases with hypermotor seizures and infrequent generalization with the presence of fear, laughter, or severe interictal personality changes) and an atypical group (4 cases presenting with simple motor seizures and a tendency for more frequent generalization and less-favorable long-term surgical outcome). All atypical cases were associated with an underlying infiltrative astrocytoma. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Posterior cingulate gyrus epilepsy may

  3. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  4. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

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    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  5. Clinical and electrophysiological outcomes of deep TMS over the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in OCD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmi, Lior; Alyagon, Uri; Barnea-Ygael, Noam; Zohar, Joseph; Dar, Reuven; Zangen, Abraham

    Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a chronic and disabling disorder with poor response to pharmacological treatments. Converging evidences suggest that OCD patients suffer from dysfunction of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuit, including in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). To examine whether modulation of mPFC-ACC activity by deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (DTMS) affects OCD symptoms. Treatment resistant OCD participants were treated with either high-frequency (HF; 20 Hz), low-frequency (LF; 1 Hz), or sham DTMS of the mPFC and ACC for five weeks, in a double-blinded manner. All treatments were administered following symptoms provocation, and EEG measurements during a Stroop task were acquired to examine changes in error-related activity. Clinical response to treatment was determined using the Yale-Brown-Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). Interim analysis revealed that YBOCS scores were significantly improved following HF (n = 7), but not LF stimulation (n = 8), compared to sham (n = 8), and thus recruitment for the LF group was terminated. Following completion of the study, the response rate in the HF group (n = 18) was significantly higher than that of the sham group (n = 15) for at least one month following the end of the treatment. Notably, the clinical response in the HF group correlated with increased Error Related Negativity (ERN) in the Stroop task, an electrophysiological component that is attributed to ACC activity. HF DTMS over the mPFC-ACC alleviates OCD symptoms and may be used as a novel therapeutic intervention. Notwithstanding alternative explanations, this may stem from DTMS ability to directly modify ACC activity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential alterations of kainate receptor subunits in inhibitory interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

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    Woo, Tsung-Ung W; Shrestha, Kevin; Amstrong, Christopher; Minns, Martin M; Walsh, John P; Benes, Francine M

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether glutamatergic inputs onto GABA interneurons via the kainate receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex may be altered in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Hence, in a cohort of 60 post-mortem human brains from schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and normal control subjects, we simultaneously labeled the mRNA for the GluR5 or GluR6 subunit of the kainate receptor with [(35)S] and the mRNA for the 67 kD isoform of the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD)(67) with digoxigenin using an immunoperoxidase method. The density of the GAD(67) mRNA-containing neurons that co-expressed GluR5 mRNA was decreased by 43% and 40% in layer 2 of the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. In contrast, the density of the GAD(67) mRNA-containing cells that expressed GluR6 mRNA was unaltered in either condition. Furthermore, the amount of GluR5 or GluR6 mRNA in the GAD(67) mRNA-expressing cells that contained a detectable level of these transcripts was also unchanged. Finally, the density of cells that did not contain GAD(67) mRNA, which presumably included all pyramidal neurons, but expressed the mRNA for the GluR5 or GluR6 subunit was not altered. Thus, glutamatergic modulation of inhibitory interneurons, but not pyramidal neurons, via kainate receptors containing the GluR5 subunit appears to be selectively altered in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

  7. Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Legind, Christian Stefan; Mandl, Rene C W

    the SIENAX tool provided with FSL. MRS data from the left thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (bilaterally) were processed using LCModel. Metabolite concentrations (Cramer-Rao Lower bound ... correlations (positive) were found in monozygotic twin pairs in both the ACC (n = 56, r = 0.484, p = 0.009)) and the left thalamus (n = 56, r = 0.444, p = 0.018), but not in dizygotic twin pairs (ACC: n = 40, r = -0.123, p = 0.606; left thalamus: n = 40, r = 0.030, p = 0.902). No significant differences were...

  8. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, B.A.; Gabriel, M.; Vogt, L.J.; Poremba, A.; Jensen, E.L.; Kubota, Y.; Kang, E.

    1991-01-01

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated

  9. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

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    Jun Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1 the giver and (2 the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning. In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1 the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting and (2 the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]. We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC, an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing.

  10. Chronic stress enhances synaptic plasticity due to disinhibition in the anterior cingulate cortex and induces hyper-locomotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Nagano, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Hidenori; Murakoshi, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in the pathophysiology of a variety of mental disorders, many of which are exacerbated by stress. There are few studies, however, of stress-induced modification of synaptic function in the ACC that is relevant to emotional behavior. We investigated the effects of chronic restraint stress (CRS) on behavior and synaptic function in layers II/III of the ACC in mice. The duration of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) was longer in CRS mice than in control mice. The frequency of miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs) recorded by whole-cell patch-clamping was reduced in CRS mice, while miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) remained unchanged. Paired-pulse ratios (PPRs) of the fEPSP and evoked EPSC were larger in CRS. There was no difference in NMDA component of evoked EPSCs between the groups. Both long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression of fEPSP were larger in CRS mice than in control mice. The differences between the groups in fEPSP duration, PPRs and LTP level were not observed when the GABA(A) receptor was blocked by bicuculline. Compared to control mice, CRS mice exhibited hyper-locomotive activity in an open field test, while no difference was observed between the groups in anxiety-like behavior in a light/dark choice test. CRS mice displayed decreased freezing behavior in fear conditioning tests compared to control mice. These findings suggest that CRS facilitates synaptic plasticity in the ACC via increased excitability due to disinhibition of GABA(A) receptor signalling, which may underlie induction of behavioral hyper-locomotive activity after CRS. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cognitive Control Functions of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Macaque Monkeys Performing a Wisconsin Card Sorting Test Analog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwabara, Masaru; Mansouri, Farshad A.; Buckley, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Monkeys were trained to select one of three targets by matching in color or matching in shape to a sample. Because the matching rule frequently changed and there were no cues for the currently relevant rule, monkeys had to maintain the relevant rule in working memory to select the correct target. We found that monkeys' error commission was not limited to the period after the rule change and occasionally occurred even after several consecutive correct trials, indicating that the task was cognitively demanding. In trials immediately after such error trials, monkeys' speed of selecting targets was slower. Additionally, in trials following consecutive correct trials, the monkeys' target selections for erroneous responses were slower than those for correct responses. We further found evidence for the involvement of the cortex in the anterior cingulate sulcus (ACCs) in these error-related behavioral modulations. First, ACCs cell activity differed between after-error and after-correct trials. In another group of ACCs cells, the activity differed depending on whether the monkeys were making a correct or erroneous decision in target selection. Second, bilateral ACCs lesions significantly abolished the response slowing both in after-error trials and in error trials. The error likelihood in after-error trials could be inferred by the error feedback in the previous trial, whereas the likelihood of erroneous responses after consecutive correct trials could be monitored only internally. These results suggest that ACCs represent both context-dependent and internally detected error likelihoods and promote modes of response selections in situations that involve these two types of error likelihood. PMID:24872558

  12. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Jun; Takahashi, Muneyoshi; Okada, Rieko; Matsushima, Eisuke; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1) the giver and (2) the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning). In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1) the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting) and (2) the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]). We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC), an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing.

  13. Effects of microinjection of histamine into the anterior cingulate cortex on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzeh-Gooshchi, Nasrin; Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Farshid, Amir Abbas

    2015-06-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of microinjection of histamine and its H1, H2 and H3 receptor antagonists, mepyramine, ranitidine and thioperamide, respectively, into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on pain-related behaviors induced by formalin in rats. Two stainless steel guide canulas were bilaterally implanted into the ACC of anaesthetized rats. For induction of pain, intraplantar (ipl) injection of a 2.5% formalin solution was performed. The duration of paw licking/biting and the number of paw flinching were recorded in 5 min blocks for 60 min. Locomotor activity was assessed using an open-field test. Formalin produced a marked biphasic pattern of pain. Histamine reduced the second phases of paw licking/biting and flinching. Mepyramine (2 μg/side) prevented the suppressive effect of histamine (1 μg/side) on second phase of pain, but at a dose of 8 μg/side it did not inhibit the suppressive effects of 4 μg/side of histamine. Ranitidine at doses of 2 and 8 μg/side prevented histamine (1 and 4 μg/side)-induced antinociception. Thioperamide not only suppressed the second phases of pain, but also increased the suppressive effect of histamine. Naloxone prevented suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide on pain. Mepyramine (8 μg/side) suppressed locomotor activity. The results of the present study showed pain suppressing effects for histamine. Histamine H2 and H3, and to a lesser extent, H1 receptors might be involved in histamine-induced antinociception. Opioid receptors might be involved in suppressive effects of histamine and thioperamide. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Assessment of Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC and Left Cerebellar Metabolism in Asperger's Syndrome with Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS.

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    Aya Goji

    Full Text Available Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS is a noninvasive neuroimaging method to quantify biochemical metabolites in vivo and it can serve as a powerful tool to monitor neurobiochemical profiles in the brain. Asperger's syndrome (AS is a type of autism spectrum disorder, which is characterized by impaired social skills and restrictive, repetitive patterns of interest and activities, while intellectual levels and language skills are relatively preserved. Despite clinical aspects have been well-characterized, neurometabolic profiling in the brain of AS remains to be clear. The present study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS to investigate whether pediatric AS is associated with measurable neurometabolic abnormalities that can contribute new information on the neurobiological underpinnings of the disorder.Study participants consisted of 34 children with AS (2-12 years old; mean age 5.2 (±2.0; 28 boys and 19 typically developed children (2-11 years old; mean age 5.6 (±2.6; 12 boys who served as the normal control group. The 1H MRS data were obtained from two regions of interest: the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and left cerebellum.In the ACC, levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, total creatine (tCr, total choline-containing compounds (tCho and myo-Inositol (mI were significantly decreased in children with AS compared to controls. On the other hand, no significant group differences in any of the metabolites were found in the left cerebellum. Neither age nor sex accounted for the metabolic findings in the regions.The finding of decreased levels of NAA, tCr, tCho, and mI in the ACC but not in left cerebellar voxels in the AS, suggests a lower ACC neuronal density in the present AS cohort compared to controls.

  15. Anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal dysconnectivity in unaffected relatives of schizophrenia patients: a stochastic dynamic causal modeling study

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    Yi-Bin Xi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ. Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients — according to the DSM-IV — were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ.

  16. Nonlinear response of the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia as a function of variable attentional control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasi, Giuseppe; Taurisano, Paolo; Papazacharias, Apostolos; Caforio, Grazia; Romano, Raffaella; Lobianco, Luciana; Fazio, Leonardo; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Latorre, Valeria; Sambataro, Fabio; Popolizio, Teresa; Nardini, Marcello; Mattay, Venkata S; Weinberger, Daniel R; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal prefrontal and cingulate activity during attentional control processing in schizophrenia. However, it is not clear how variation in attentional control load modulates activity within these brain regions in this brain disorder. The aim of this study in schizophrenia is to investigate the impact of increasing levels of attentional control processing on prefrontal and cingulate activity. Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses of 16 outpatients with schizophrenia were compared with those of 21 healthy subjects while performing a task eliciting increasing levels of attentional control during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Results showed reduced behavioral performance in patients at greater attentional control levels. Imaging data indicated greater prefrontal activity at intermediate attentional control levels in patients but greater prefrontal and cingulate responses at high attentional control demands in controls. The BOLD activity profile of these regions in controls increased linearly with increasing cognitive loads, whereas in patients, it was nonlinear. Correlation analysis consistently showed differential region and load-specific relationships between brain activity and behavior in the 2 groups. These results indicate that varying attentional control load is associated in schizophrenia with load- and region-specific modification of the relationship between behavior and brain activity, possibly suggesting earlier saturation of cognitive capacity.

  17. Effect of Acupuncture on Functional Connectivity of Anterior Cingulate Cortex for Bell's Palsy Patients with Different Clinical Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongli; Kan, Hongxing; Li, Chuanfu; Park, Kyungmo; Zhu, Yifang; Mohamed, Abdalla Z.; Xu, Chunsheng; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Acupuncture is widely used in the treatment of Bell's palsy (BP) in many countries, but its underlying physiological mechanism remained controversial. In order to explore the potential mechanism, changes of functional connectivity (FC) of anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC) were investigated. We collected 20 healthy (control group) participants and 28 BP patients with different clinical duration accepted resting state functional MRI (rfMRI) scans before and after acupuncture, respectively. The FC of ACC before and after acupuncture was compared with paired t-test and the detailed results are presented in the paper. Our results showed that effects of the acupuncture on FC were closely related to clinical duration in patients with BP, which suggested that brain response to acupuncture was closely connected with the status of brain functional connectivity and implied that acupuncture plays a homeostatic role in the BP treatment. PMID:26161125

  18. Decision Making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signals Loss-Aversion but not the Infrequency of Risky Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.; Bogg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision-making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss-aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss-aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward-seeking. However, in the cingulate and mainly bilateral IFG regions, BOLD activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings consistent with a reduced loss-aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision-making, as well as the importance of distinguishing decision and feedback signals. PMID:22707378

  19. Decision making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): anterior cingulate cortex signals loss aversion but not the infrequency of risky choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W; Bogg, Tim

    2012-09-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 8, 75-84, 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursue a gain as the probability of loss increased parametrically. Specifically, we set out to test whether the ACC and IFG/AI regions correspond to loss aversion at the time of decision making in a way that is not confounded with either reward-seeking or infrequency effects. When participants chose to discontinue inflating the balloon (win option), we observed greater ACC and mainly bilateral IFG/AI activity at the time of decision as the probability of explosion increased, consistent with increased loss aversion but inconsistent with an infrequency effect. In contrast, we found robust vmPFC activity when participants chose to continue inflating the balloon (risky option), consistent with reward seeking. However, in the cingulate and in mainly bilateral IFG regions, blood-oxygenation-level-dependent activation decreased when participants chose to inflate the balloon as the probability of explosion increased, findings that are consistent with a reduced loss aversion signal. Our results highlight the existence of distinct reward-seeking and loss-averse signals during decision making, as well as the importance of distinguishing between decision and feedback signals.

  20. Amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate connectivity during an emotional working memory task in borderline personality disorder patients with interpersonal trauma history

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    Annegret eKrause-Utz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Emotion dysregulation and stress-related cognitive disturbances including dissociation are key features of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD. Previous research suggests that amygdala hyperreactivity along with a failure to activate frontal brain areas implicated in inhibitory control (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex, ACC may underlie core symptoms of BPD. However, studies investigating interactions of fronto-limbic brain areas during cognitive inhibition of interfering emotional stimuli in BPD patients are still needed. Moreover, very little is known about how dissociation modulates fronto-limbic connectivity during emotional distraction in BPD. We used Psychophysiological Interaction (PPI to analyse amygdala and dorsal ACC (dACC connectivity in 22 un-medicated BPD patients with interpersonal trauma history and 22 healthy controls (HC, who performed a working memory task, while either no distractors or neutral vs. negative interpersonal pictures were presented. A measure of state dissociation was used to predict amygdala as well as dACC connectivity in the BPD group. During emotional distraction, both groups showed disrupted amygdala connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, which was more pronounced in the BPD group. Patients further showed stronger amygdala-hippocampus and dACC-insula connectivity during emotional interference and demonstrated a stronger coupling of the dACC with nodes of the default mode network (e.g. posterior cingulate. Dissociation positively predicted amygdala-dACC connectivity and negatively predicted dACC connectivity with insula and posterior cingulate. Our results suggest aberrant connectivity patterns involving brain regions associated with emotion processing, salience detection, and self-referential processes, which may be modulated by dissociation, in BPD. Findings might be related to difficulties in shifting attention away from external (distracting emotional stimuli as well as internal emotional states

  1. Reversible Akinetic Mutism after Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Haemorrhage in the Territory of the Anterior Cerebral Artery without Permanent Ischaemic Damage to Anterior Cingulate Gyri

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    François-Xavier Sibille

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on two cases of transient akinetic mutism after massive subarachnoid haemorrhage due to the rupture of an intracranial aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA. In the two cases, vasospasm could not be demonstrated by imaging studies throughout the clinical course. Both patients shared common radiological features: a hydrocephalus due to haemorrhagic contamination of the ventricular system and a mass effect of a subpial hematoma on the borders of the corpus callosum. Patients were also investigated using auditory event-related evoked potentials at acute stage. In contrast to previous observations of akinetic mutism, P300 wave could not be recorded. Both patients had good recovery and we hypothesized that this unexpectedly favourable outcome was due to the absence of permanent structural damage to the ACA territory, with only transient dysfunction due to a reversible mass effect on cingulate gyri.

  2. Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Yeung, N.; van den Wildenberg, W.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging and computational modeling studies have led to the suggestion that response conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in cognitive control. For example, response conflict is high when a response must be withheld (no-go) in contexts in which there is a

  3. Anterior cingulate hyperactivations during negative emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violent behavior

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    Tikàsz A

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Andràs Tikàsz,1,2 Stéphane Potvin,1,2 Ovidiu Lungu,2–4 Christian C Joyal,5,6 Sheilagh Hodgins,2,5 Adrianna Mendrek,1,7 Alexandre Dumais1,2,5 1Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, 2Department of Psychiatry, University of Montreal, 3Centre de recherche de l’Institut Universitaire de Gériatrie de Montréal, 4Centre for Research in Aging, Donald Berman Maimonides Geriatric Centre, 5Institut Philippe-Pinel de Montréal, 6Department of Psychology, Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Trois-Rivières, 7Department of Psychology, Bishop’s University, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada Background: Evidence suggests a 2.1–4.6 times increase in the risk of violent behavior in schizophrenia compared to the general population. Current theories propose that the processing of negative emotions is defective in violent individuals and that dysfunctions within the neural circuits involved in emotion processing are implicated in violence. Although schizophrenia patients show enhanced sensitivity to negative stimuli, there are only few functional neuroimaging studies that have examined emotion processing among men with schizophrenia and a history of violence. Objective: The present study aimed to identify the brain regions with greater neurofunctional alterations, as detected by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an emotion processing task, of men with schizophrenia who had engaged in violent behavior compared with those who had not. Methods: Sixty men were studied; 20 with schizophrenia and a history of violence, 19 with schizophrenia and no violence, and 21 healthy men were scanned while viewing positive, negative, and neutral images. Results: Negative images elicited hyperactivations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, left and right lingual gyrus, and the left precentral gyrus in violent men with schizophrenia, compared to nonviolent men with schizophrenia and healthy men. Neutral images elicited

  4. The von Economo neurons in the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M; Tetreault, Nicole A; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Manaye, Kebreten F; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R

    2011-04-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with numbers increasing during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. The von Economo neurons in fronto-insular and anterior cingulate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M.; Tetreault, Nicole A.; Hakeem, Atiya Y.; Manaye, Kebreten F.; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M.; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in fronto-insular cortex (FI) and anterior limbic area (LA) in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week post conception, with numbers increasing during the first eight months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of fronto-temporal dementia implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. PMID:21534993

  6. Comparison of anterior cingulate versus insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

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    Kirsten eEmmert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network i.e. the anterior insular cortex (AIC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the feedback signal in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis.At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback versus localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28 in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity towards the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  7. Pregenual Anterior Cingulate Dysfunction Associated with Depression in OCD: An Integrated Multimodal fMRI/1H MRS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayonnejad, Reza; Deshpande, Rangaprakash; Ajilore, Olusola; Moody, Teena; Morfini, Francesca; Ly, Ronald; O'Neill, Joseph; Feusner, Jamie D

    2018-04-01

    Depression is a commonly occurring symptom in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and is associated with worse functional impairment, poorer quality of life, and poorer treatment response. Understanding the underlying neurochemical and connectivity-based brain mechanisms of this important symptom domain in OCD is necessary for development of novel, more globally effective treatments. To investigate biopsychological mechanisms of comorbid depression in OCD, we examined effective connectivity and neurochemical signatures in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), a structure known to be involved in both OCD and depression. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data were obtained from participants with OCD (n=49) and healthy individuals of equivalent age and sex (n=25). Granger causality-based effective (directed) connectivity was used to define causal networks involving the right and left pACC. The interplay between fMRI connectivity, 1 H MRS and clinical data was explored by applying moderation and mediation analyses. We found that the causal influence of the right dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC) on the right pACC was significantly lower in the OCD group and showed significant correlation with depressive symptom severity in the OCD group. Lower and moderate levels of glutamate (Glu) in the right pACC significantly moderated the interaction between right daMCC-pACC connectivity and depression severity. Our results suggest a biochemical-connectivity-psychological model of pACC dysfunction contributing to depression in OCD, particularly involving intracingulate connectivity and glutamate levels in the pACC. These findings have implications for potential molecular and network targets for treatment of this multi-faceted psychiatric condition.

  8. Exploring individual differences in task switching: Persistence and other personality traits related to anterior cingulate cortex function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemoto, A; Holroyd, C B

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in cognitive control and decision-making but its precise function is still highly debated. Based on evidence from lesion, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging studies, we have recently proposed a critical role for ACC in motivating extended behaviors according to learned task values (Holroyd and Yeung, 2012). Computational simulations based on this theory suggest a hierarchical mechanism in which a caudal division of ACC selects and applies control over task execution, and a rostral division of ACC facilitates switches between tasks according to a higher task strategy (Holroyd and McClure, 2015). This theoretical framework suggests that ACC may contribute to personality traits related to persistence and reward sensitivity (Holroyd and Umemoto, 2016). To explore this possibility, we carried out a voluntary task switching experiment in which on each trial participants freely chose one of two tasks to perform, under the condition that they try to select the tasks "at random" and equally often. The participants also completed several questionnaires that assessed personality trait related to persistence, apathy, anhedonia, and rumination, in addition to the Big 5 personality inventory. Among other findings, we observed greater compliance with task instructions by persistent individuals, as manifested by a greater facility with switching between tasks, which is suggestive of increased engagement of rostral ACC. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Glutamate/glutamine concentrations in the dorsal anterior cingulate vary with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnett, Nathaniel G; Wood, Kimberly H; Ference, Edward W; Reid, Meredith A; Lahti, Adrienne C; Knight, Amy J; Knight, David C

    2017-08-01

    Trauma and stress-related disorders (e.g., Acute Stress Disorder; ASD and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder; PTSD) that develop following a traumatic event are characterized by cognitive-affective dysfunction. The cognitive and affective functions disrupted by stress disorder are mediated, in part, by glutamatergic neural systems. However, it remains unclear whether neural glutamate concentrations, measured acutely following trauma, vary with ASD symptoms and/or future PTSD symptom expression. Therefore, the current study utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H-MRS) to investigate glutamate/glutamine (Glx) concentrations within the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of recently (i.e., within one month) traumatized individuals and non-traumatized controls. Although Glx concentrations within dorsal ACC did not differ between recently traumatized and non-traumatized control groups, a positive linear relationship was observed between Glx concentrations and current stress disorder symptoms in traumatized individuals. Further, Glx concentrations showed a positive linear relationship with future stress disorder symptoms (i.e., assessed 3 months post-trauma). The present results suggest glutamate concentrations may play a role in both acute and future post-traumatic stress symptoms following a traumatic experience. The current results expand our understanding of the neurobiology of stress disorder and suggest glutamate within the dorsal ACC plays an important role in cognitive-affective dysfunction following a traumatic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of neuronal intrinsic properties and synaptic transmission in layer I of anterior cingulate cortex from adult mice

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    Li Xiang-Yao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The neurons in neocortex layer I (LI provide inhibition to the cortical networks. Despite increasing use of mice for the study of brain functions, few studies were reported about mouse LI neurons. In the present study, we characterized intrinsic properties of LI neurons of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a key cortical area for sensory and cognitive functions, by using whole-cell patch clamp recording approach. Seventy one neurons in LI and 12 pyramidal neurons in LII/III were recorded. Although all of the LI neurons expressed continuous adapting firing characteristics, the unsupervised clustering results revealed five groups in the ACC, including: Spontaneous firing neurons; Delay-sAHP neurons, Delay-fAHP neurons, and two groups of neurons with ADP, named ADP1 and ADP2, respectively. Using pharmacological approaches, we found that LI neurons received both excitatory (mediated by AMPA, kainate and NMDA receptors, and inhibitory inputs (which were mediated by GABAA receptors. Our studies provide the first report characterizing the electrophysiological properties of neurons in LI of the ACC from adult mice.

  11. Anatomic abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex before psychosis onset: an MRI study of ultra-high-risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Yung, Alison R; Wood, Stephen J; Phillips, Lisa J; Nelson, Barnaby; Cotton, Sue; Velakoulis, Dennis; McGorry, Patrick D; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2008-11-01

    Abnormalities of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of psychotic disorders, but whether such changes are apparent before psychosis onset remains unclear. In this study, we characterized prepsychotic ACC abnormalities in a sample of individuals at ultra-high-risk (UHR) for psychosis. Participants underwent baseline magnetic resonance imaging and were followed-up over 12-24 months to ascertain diagnostic outcomes. Baseline ACC morphometry was then compared between UHR individuals who developed psychosis (UHR-P; n = 35), those who did not (UHR-NP; n = 35), and healthy control subjects (n = 33). Relative to control subjects, UHR-P individuals displayed bilateral thinning of a rostral paralimbic ACC region that was negatively correlated with negative symptoms, whereas UHR-NP individuals displayed a relative thickening of dorsal and rostral limbic areas that was correlated with anxiety ratings. Baseline ACC differences between the two UHR groups predicted time to psychosis onset, independently of symptomatology. Subdiagnostic comparisons revealed that changes in the UHR-P group were driven by individuals subsequently diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. These findings indicate that anatomic abnormalities of the ACC precede psychosis onset and that baseline ACC differences distinguish between UHR individuals who do and do not subsequently develop frank psychosis. They also indicate that prepsychotic changes are relatively specific to individuals who develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder, suggesting they may represent a diagnostically specific risk marker.

  12. Metabolite Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Predict High Neuropathic Pain Impact After Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    1Present address: Department of Community Dentistry and Behavioral Science, College of Dentistry , University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA. None...most common reasons for reduced quality of life after spinal cord injury (SCI) [8,59]. The most rational approach for managing these refractory pain... diabetes [45] and after SCI [34]. Basic research suggests that glial activation is an important mechanism underlying neuropathic pain after SCI [22,23

  13. Open label smoking cessation with varenicline is associated with decreased glutamate levels and functional changes in anterior cingulate cortex: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriah Dawn Wheelock

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Varenicline, the most effective single agent for smoking cessation, is a partial agonist at α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Increasing evidence implicates glutamate in the pathophysiology of addiction and one of the benefits of treatment for smoking cessation is the ability to regain cognitive control. Objective: To evaluate the effects of 12 week varenicline administration on glutamate levels in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and functional changes within the cognitive control network.Methods: We used single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS in the dACC and functional MRI (fMRI during performance of a Stroop color-naming task before and after smoking cessation with varenicline in 11 healthy smokers (open label design. Using the dACC as a seed region, we evaluated functional connectivity changes using a psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis. Results: We observed a significant decrease in dACC glutamate + glutamine (Glx/Cr levels as well as significant blood oxygen level-dependent signal (BOLD decreases in the rostral ACC/medial orbitofrontal cortex and precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex. These BOLD changes are suggestive of alterations in default mode network (DMN function and are further supported by the results of the PPI analysis that revealed changes in connectivity between the dACC and regions of the DMN. Baseline measures of nicotine dependence and craving positively correlated with baseline Glx/Cr levels.Conclusions: These results suggest possible mechanisms of action for varenicline such as reduction in Glx levels in dACC and shifts in BOLD activities between large scale brain networks. They also suggest a role for ACC Glx in the modulation of behavior. Due to the preliminary nature of this study (lack of control group and small sample size, future studies are needed to replicate these findings.

  14. Choosing the lesser of two evils, the better of two goods: Specifying the roles of ventromedial prefrontal cortex and dorsal anterior cingulate in object choice

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, K. S.; Marsh, A. A.; Morton, J.; Vythilingam, M.; Jones, M. M.; K, P.; D C, D.; W C, B. R. J.

    2006-01-01

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortices (ACd) are considered important for reward-based decision making. However, work distinguishing their individual functional contributions has only begun. One aspect of decision making that has received little attention is that making the right choice often translates to making the better choice. Thus, response choice often occurs in situations where both options are desirable (e.g., choosing between mousse au choc...

  15. Glutamate Levels and Resting Cerebral Blood Flow in Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated at Rest and Immediately Following Infusion of S-Ketamine in Healthy Volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kirsten Borup Bojesen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Kasper Aagaard Andersen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Sophie Nordahl Rasmussen; Lone Baandrup; Line Malmer Madsen; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Birte Yding Glenthøj; Egill Rostrup; Brian Villumsen Broberg

    2018-01-01

    Progressive loss of brain tissue is seen in some patients with schizophrenia and might be caused by increased levels of glutamate and resting cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations. Animal studies suggest that the normalisation of glutamate levels decreases rCBF and prevents structural changes in hippocampus. However, the relationship between glutamate and rCBF in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of humans has not been studied in the absence of antipsychotics and illness chronicity. Ketamine i...

  16. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy assessment of metabolite status of the anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pain patients and healthy controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Ito,1 Sachiko Tanaka-Mizuno,2,3 Narihito Iwashita,4 Ikuo Tooyama,5 Akihiko Shiino,6 Katsuyuki Miura,1,7 Sei Fukui4 1Department of Public Health, Shiga University of Medical Science, 2Department of Medical Statistics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan; 3The Center for Data Science Education and Research, Shiga University, Hikone, Japan; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Interdisciplinary Pain Management Center, Shiga University of Medical Science Hospital, 5Molecular Neuroscience Research Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 6Biomedical MR Science Center, Shiga University of Medical Science, 7Center for Epidemiologic Research in Asia, Shiga University of Medical Science, Otsu, Japan Background: Chronic pain is a common cause of reduced quality of life. Recent studies suggest that chronic pain patients have a different brain neurometabolic status to healthy people. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS can determine the concentrations of metabolites in a specific region of the brain without being invasive. Patients and methods: We recruited 56 chronic pain patients and 60 healthy controls to compare brain metabolic characteristics. The concentrations of glutamic acid (Glu, myo-inositol (Ins, N-acetylaspartate (NAA, Glu + glutamine (Glx, and creatine + phosphocreatine (total creatine [tCr] in the anterior cingulate cortex of participants were measured using 1H-MRS. We used age- and gender-adjusted general linear models and receiver-operating characteristic analyses for this investigation. Patients were also assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to reveal the existence of any mental health issues. Results: Our analysis indicates that pain patients have statistically significantly higher levels of Glu/tCr (p=0.039 and Glx/tCr (p<0.001 and lower levels of NAA/tCr than controls, although this did not reach statistical significance (p=0.052. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis

  17. Resting-state synchrony between anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus relates to body shape concern in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seojung; Ran Kim, Kyung; Ku, Jeonghun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Namkoong, Kee; Jung, Young-Chul

    2014-01-30

    Cortical areas supporting cognitive control and salience demonstrate different neural responses to visual food cues in patients with eating disorders. This top-down cognitive control, which interacts with bottom-up appetitive responses, is tightly integrated not only in task conditions but also in the resting-state. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a key node of a large-scale network that is involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity of the dACC and hypothesized that altered connectivity would be demonstrated in cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processing and cognitive control. Seed-based resting-state functional connectivity was analyzed in women with anorexia nervosa (N=18), women with bulimia nervosa (N=20) and age matched healthy controls (N=20). Between group comparisons revealed that the anorexia nervosa group exhibited stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and retrosplenial cortex, whereas the bulimia nervosa group showed stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and medial orbitofrontal cortex. Both groups demonstrated stronger synchronous activity between the dACC and precuneus, which correlated with higher scores of the Body Shape Questionnaire. The dACC-precuneus resting-state synchrony might be associated with the disorder-specific rumination on eating, weight and body shape in patients with eating disorders. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Anterior cingulate volume predicts response to psychotherapy and functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambataro, Fabio; Doerig, Nadja; Hänggi, Jürgen; Wolf, Robert Christian; Brakowski, Janis; Holtforth, Martin Grosse; Seifritz, Erich; Spinelli, Simona

    2018-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been associated with clinical outcome as well as with antidepressant treatment response. Nonetheless, the association between individual differences in ACC structure and function and the response to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is still unexplored. For this aim, twenty-five unmedicated patients with MDD were scanned with structural and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging before the beginning of CBT treatment. ACC morphometry was correlated with clinical changes following psychotherapy. Furthermore, whole-brain resting state functional connectivity with the ACC was correlated with clinical measures. Greater volume in the left subgenual (subACC), the right pregenual (preACC), and the bilateral supragenual (supACC) predicted depressive symptoms improvement after CBT. Greater subACC volume was related to stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stronger subACC-inferior parietal cortex connectivity correlated with greater adaptive rumination. Greater preACC volume was associated with stronger functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. In contrast, greater right supACC volume was related to lower functional connectivity with the inferior parietal cortex. These results suggest that ACC volume and its functional connectivity with the fronto-parietal cortex are associated with CBT response in MDD, and this may be mediated by adaptive forms of rumination. Our findings support the role of the subACC as a potential predictor for CBT response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

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    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  20. Conflict-related anterior cingulate functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in recent-onset schizophrenia.

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    Minzenberg, Michael J; Lesh, Tyler; Niendam, Tara; Yoon, Jong H; Cheng, Yaoan; Rhoades, Remy; Carter, Cameron S

    2015-06-01

    Suicide is highly prevalent in schizophrenia (SZ), yet it remains unclear how suicide risk factors such as past suicidal ideation or behavior relate to brain function. Circuits modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are altered in SZ, including in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during conflict-monitoring (an important component of cognitive control), and dACC changes are observed in post-mortem studies of heterogeneous suicide victims. We tested whether conflict-related dACC functional connectivity is associated with past suicidal ideation and behavior in SZ. 32 patients with recent-onset of DSM-IV-TR-defined SZ were evaluated with the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale and functional MRI during cognitive control (AX-CPT) task performance. Group-level regression models relating past history of suicidal ideation or behavior to dACC-seeded functional connectivity during conflict-monitoring controlled for severity of depression, psychosis and impulsivity. Past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher functional connectivity of the dACC with the precuneus during conflict-monitoring. Intensity of worst-point past suicidal ideation was associated with relatively higher dACC functional connectivity in medial parietal lobe and striato-thalamic nuclei. In contrast, among those with past suicidal ideation (n = 17), past suicidal behavior was associated with lower conflict-related dACC connectivity with multiple lateral and medial PFC regions, parietal and temporal cortical regions. This study provides unique evidence that recent-onset schizophrenia patients with past suicidal ideation or behavior show altered dACC-based circuit function during conflict-monitoring. Suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior have divergent patterns of associated dACC functional connectivity, suggesting a differing pattern of conflict-related brain dysfunction with these two distinct features of suicide phenomenology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Sex-Dependent Association of Perigenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Volume and Migration Background, an Environmental Risk Factor for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Ceren; Schäfer, Axel; Streit, Fabian; Haller, Leila; Wüst, Stefan; Kirsch, Peter; Tost, Heike; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Migration status is one of the best-established risk factors for schizophrenia. An increase in risk is observed in both first- and second-generation immigrants, with a varying magnitude depending on the ethnic background of the individuals. The underlying mechanisms for the increased risk are only recently coming into focus. A causal role for social stress has been widely proposed, and recent work indicated altered neural stress processing in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) in migrants. Since previous work shows that social stress may lead to enduring changes in the gray matter volume of vulnerable brain regions, we investigated the impact of migration background on brain structure. We studied healthy young adults (N = 124), native Germans and second-generation migrants, using whole-brain structural magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were matched for a broad range of sociodemographic characteristics including age, gender, urban exposure, and education. We found a significant group by sex interaction effect in pACC gray matter volume, which was reduced in males with migration background only. This mirrors previous findings in urban upbringing, another risk factor for schizophrenia. Our results provide convergent evidence for an impact of environmental risk factors linked to schizophrenia on gray matter volume and extend prior data by highlighting the possibility that the pACC structure may be particularly sensitive to the convergent risk factors linked to schizophrenia. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Inhibition of the cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway Contributes to the Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a Rat Pain Memory Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Mei Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pain memory is considered as endopathic factor underlying stubborn chronic pain. Our previous study demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA can alleviate retrieval of pain memory. This study was designed to observe the different effects between EA and indomethacin (a kind of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs in a rat pain memory model. To explore the critical role of protein kinase A (PKA in pain memory, a PKA inhibitor was microinjected into anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in model rats. We further investigated the roles of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, PKA, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB, and cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in pain memory to explore the potential molecular mechanism. The results showed that EA alleviates the retrieval of pain memory while indomethacin failed. Intra-ACC microinjection of a PKA inhibitor blocked the occurrence of pain memory. EA reduced the activation of cAMP, PKA, and CREB and the coexpression levels of cAMP/PKA and PKA/CREB in the ACC of pain memory model rats, but indomethacin failed. The present findings identified a critical role of PKA in ACC in retrieval of pain memory. We propose that the proper mechanism of EA on pain memory is possibly due to the partial inhibition of cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway by EA.

  3. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

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    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  4. Brain network dysfunction in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder induced by simple uni-manual behavior: The role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Amy L; Burgess, Ashley; Ramaseshan, Karthik; Easter, Phil; Khatib, Dalal; Chowdury, Asadur; Arnold, Paul D; Hanna, Gregory L; Rosenberg, David R; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2017-02-28

    In an effort to elucidate differences in functioning brain networks between youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls, we used fMRI signals to analyze brain network interactions of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) during visually coordinated motor responses. Subjects made a uni-manual response to briefly presented probes, at periodic (allowing participants to maintain a "motor set") or random intervals (demanding reactive responses). Network interactions were assessed using psycho-physiological interaction (PPI), a basic model of functional connectivity evaluating modulatory effects of the dACC in the context of each task condition. Across conditions, OCD were characterized by hyper-modulation by the dACC, with loci alternatively observed as both condition-general and condition-specific. Thus, dynamically driven task demands during simple uni-manual motor control induce compensatory network interactions in cortical-thalamic regions in OCD. These findings support previous research in OCD showing compensatory network interactions during complex memory tasks, but establish that these network effects are observed during basic sensorimotor processing. Thus, these patterns of network dysfunction may in fact be independent of the complexity of tasks used to induce brain network activity. Hypothesis-driven approaches coupled with sophisticated network analyses are a highly valuable approach in using fMRI to uncover mechanisms in disorders like OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of family history of alcoholism on glutamine/glutamate ratio in anterior cingulate cortex in substance-naïve adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Gilbert, Julia E; Sneider, Jennifer T; Crowley, David J; Rosso, Isabelle M; Jensen, J Eric; Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies of individuals with family histories of alcoholism provide evidence suggesting neurobiological risk factors for alcoholism. Youth family history positive (FH+) for alcoholism exhibit increased impulsivity compared to family history negative (FH-) peers in conjunction with altered functional activation in prefrontal cortex, including anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This study examined glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln), amino acids vital to protein synthesis, cellular metabolism and neurotransmission, acquired from ACC and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 4T. Participants were 28 adolescents (13 male, 12-14 yrs) and 31 emerging adults (16 male, 18-25 yrs), stratified into FH- and FH+ groups. Significantly higher ACC Gln/Glu was observed in emerging adults versus adolescents in FH- but not FH+ groups. In FH- adolescents, higher impulsivity was significantly associated with higher ACC Gln/Glu. In FH+ emerging adults, higher impulsivity was negatively associated with ACC Gln/Glu. No differences or associations were observed for POC. These findings provide preliminary evidence that family history of alcoholism is associated with a neurochemical profile that may influence normative age differences in glutamatergic metabolites and their association with impulse control, which together could confer greater genetic risk of addiction later in life. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhibition of the cAMP/PKA/CREB Pathway Contributes to the Analgesic Effects of Electroacupuncture in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in a Rat Pain Memory Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiao-Mei; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Bo-Yi; Shen, Zui; Fang, Fang; Du, Jun-Ying; Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Jia-Ling; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Pain memory is considered as endopathic factor underlying stubborn chronic pain. Our previous study demonstrated that electroacupuncture (EA) can alleviate retrieval of pain memory. This study was designed to observe the different effects between EA and indomethacin (a kind of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs, NSAIDs) in a rat pain memory model. To explore the critical role of protein kinase A (PKA) in pain memory, a PKA inhibitor was microinjected into anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in model rats. We further investigated the roles of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), PKA, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway in pain memory to explore the potential molecular mechanism. The results showed that EA alleviates the retrieval of pain memory while indomethacin failed. Intra-ACC microinjection of a PKA inhibitor blocked the occurrence of pain memory. EA reduced the activation of cAMP, PKA, and CREB and the coexpression levels of cAMP/PKA and PKA/CREB in the ACC of pain memory model rats, but indomethacin failed. The present findings identified a critical role of PKA in ACC in retrieval of pain memory. We propose that the proper mechanism of EA on pain memory is possibly due to the partial inhibition of cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway by EA.

  7. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy

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    Robyn Whitney; Sameer AlMehmadi; Cristina Go; Ayako Ochi; Hiroshi Otsubo; Laura Bradbury; Kevin Jones; Eisha Christian; James Rutka; Bláthnaid McCoy

    2017-01-01

    Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant se...

  8. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Whitney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant sensory phenomenon/pain are rarely reported in cingulate epilepsy. Recognizing the role of the cingulate in producing pain/unusual sensory phenomenon is important, and may have localizing value when evaluating children for epilepsy surgery.

  9. Spiders, ladybugs and bees: A case of unusual sensations in a child with cingulate epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Robyn; AlMehmadi, Sameer; Go, Cristina; Ochi, Ayako; Otsubo, Hiroshi; Bradbury, Laura; Jones, Kevin; Christian, Eisha; Rutka, James; McCoy, Bláthnaid

    2017-01-01

    Cingulate epilepsy is a rare form of epilepsy. Seizures from the anterior cingulate may present with mood change, fear, hypermotor activity, and autonomic signs, while posterior cingulate seizures resemble temporal lobe seizures. We describe a child with cingulate epilepsy who experienced unpleasant/painful sensory phenomenon. The sensations were described as spiders crawling on his forehead/right leg, ladybugs causing right ear pain and bees stinging his head/right extremities. Unpleasant sensory phenomenon/pain are rarely reported in cingulate epilepsy. Recognizing the role of the cingulate in producing pain/unusual sensory phenomenon is important, and may have localizing value when evaluating children for epilepsy surgery.

  10. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holec, Victoria; Pirot, Heather L.; Euston, David R.

    2014-01-01

    The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”). As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm (HRA) but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the HRA. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain tasks. PMID:24478659

  11. Evidence for increased microglial priming and macrophage recruitment in the dorsal anterior cingulate white matter of depressed suicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Platas, Susana G; Cruceanu, Cristiana; Chen, Gary Gang; Turecki, Gustavo; Mechawar, Naguib

    2014-11-01

    Despite increasing evidence supporting the neuroinflammatory theory of depression, little is known about cerebral macrophages in individuals suffering from major depression. In the present study, we investigated the morphology and distribution of cells immunostained for the macrophage-specific marker ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1) in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) white matter of middle-aged depressed suicides and matched non-psychiatric controls. This region is known for its implication in mood disorders, and its white matter compartment was previously found to display hypertrophic astrocytes in depressed suicides. Distributions of IBA1-immunoreactive (IBA-IR) microglial phenotypes were assessed using stereology and cell morphometry, and blood vessels were characterized as being intimately associated with either a high or a low density of IBA1-IR amoeboid-like cells. Total densities of IBA1-IR microglia did not differ between depressed suicides and controls. However, a finer analysis examining relative proportions of microglial phenotypes revealed that the ratio of primed over ramified ("resting") microglia was significantly increased in depressed suicides. Strikingly, the proportion of blood vessels surrounded by a high density of macrophages was more than twice higher in depressed suicides than in controls, and this difference was strongly significant. Consistent with these observations, gene expression of IBA1 and MCP-1, a chemokine involved in the recruitment of circulating monocytes, was significantly upregulated in depressed suicides. Furthermore, mRNA for CD45, a marker enriched in perivascular macrophages, was also significantly increased in samples from depressed suicides. An increase compared to controls was also observed in the proportion of blood vessels surrounded by a high density of CD45-IR cells, but this difference did not reach significance. These histological and molecular data suggest the recruitment of monocytes

  12. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria eHolec

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., courage. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to certain

  13. Role for the Ventral Posterior Medial/Posterior Lateral Thalamus and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Affective/Motivation Pain Induced by Varicella Zoster Virus

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    Phillip R. Kramer

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Varicella zoster virus (VZV infects the face and can result in chronic, debilitating pain. The mechanism for this pain is unknown and current treatment is often not effective, thus investigations into the pain pathway become vital. Pain itself is multidimensional, consisting of sensory and affective experiences. One of the primary brain substrates for transmitting sensory signals in the face is the ventral posterior medial/posterior lateral thalamus (VPM/VPL. In addition, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been shown to be vital in the affective experience of pain, so investigating both of these areas in freely behaving animals was completed to address the role of the brain in VZV-induced pain. Our lab has developed a place escape avoidance paradigm (PEAP to measure VZV-induced affective pain in the orofacial region of the rat. Using this assay as a measure of the affective pain experience a significant response was observed after VZV injection into the whisker pad and after VZV infusion into the trigeminal ganglion. Local field potentials (LFPs are the summed electrical current from a group of neurons. LFP in both the VPM/VPL and ACC was attenuated in VZV injected rats after inhibition of neuronal activity. This inhibition of VPM/VPL neurons was accomplished using a designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug (DREADD. Immunostaining showed that cells within the VPM/VPL expressed thalamic glutamatergic vesicle transporter-2, NeuN and DREADD suggesting inhibition occurred primarily in excitable neurons. From these results we conclude: (1 that VZV associated pain does not involve a mechanism exclusive to the peripheral nerve terminals, and (2 can be controlled, in part, by excitatory neurons within the VPM/VPL that potentially modulate the affective experience by altering activity in the ACC.

  14. Chronic pelvic pain syndrome in men is associated with reduction of relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, Livio; Weisstanner, Christian; Rummel, Christian; Thalmann, George N; Verma, Rajeev K; Wiest, Roland; Kessler, Thomas M

    2012-12-01

    Although chronic pelvic pain syndrome impairs the life of millions of people worldwide, the exact pathomechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. As with other chronic pain syndromes, the central nervous system may have an important role in chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Thus, we assessed brain alterations associated with abnormal pain processing in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Using brain morphology assessment applying structural magnetic resonance imaging, we prospectively investigated a consecutive series of 20 men with refractory chronic pelvic pain syndrome, and compared these patients to 20 gender and age matched healthy controls. Between group differences in relative gray matter volume and the association with bother of chronic pelvic pain syndrome were assessed using whole brain covariate analysis. Patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome had a mean (± SD) age of 40 (± 14) years, a mean NIH-CPSI (National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index) total score of 28 (± 6) and a mean pain subscale of 14 (± 3). In patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome compared to healthy controls there was a significant reduction in relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex of the dominant hemisphere. This finding correlated with the NIH-CPSI total score (r = 0.57) and pain subscale (r = 0.51). Reduction in relative gray matter volume in the anterior cingulate cortex and correlation with bother of chronic pelvic pain syndrome suggest an essential role for the anterior cingulate cortex in chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Since this area is a core structure of emotional pain processing, central pathomechanisms of chronic pelvic pain syndrome may be considered a promising therapeutic target and may explain the often unsatisfactory results of treatments focusing on peripheral dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

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    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  16. Identification by [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

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    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario [National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome and Padua (Italy); Salvatore, Elena; Amboni, Marianna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [{sup 99m}Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  17. Lower In vivo Myo-Inositol in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Correlates with Delayed Melatonin Rhythms in Young Persons with Depression

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    Rébecca Robillard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myo-inositol, a second messenger glucose isomer and glial marker, is potentiated by melatonin. In addition to common abnormalities in melatonin regulation, depressive disorders have been associated with reduced myo-inositol in frontal structures. This study examined associations between myo-inositol in the anterior cingulate cortex and the timing of evening melatonin release. Forty young persons with unipolar depression were recruited from specialized mental health services (20.3 ± 3.8 years old. Healthy controls were recruited from the community (21.7 ± 2.6 years old. The timing of dim light melatonin onset (DLMO was estimated using salivary melatonin sampling. Myo-inositol concentrations (MI/CrPCr ratio in the anterior cingulate cortex were obtained using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. After controlling for age, sex, and CrPCr concentration the depression group had significantly lower MI/CrPCr ratios than healthy controls [F(4, 75 = 11.4, p = 0.001]. In the depression group, later DLMO correlated with lower MI/CrPCr ratio (r = −0.48, p = 0.014. These findings suggest that neurochemical changes in the frontal cortex are associated with circadian disruptions in young persons with depression.

  18. The role of the dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) in a cognitive and emotional counting Stroop task: Two cases.

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    To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk; Menovsky, Tomas; Hart, John; Vanneste, Sven

    2017-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in both cognitive and emotional processing, with cognitive information proposed to be processed through the dorsal/caudal ACC and emotional information through the rostral/ventral ACC. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in cognitive and emotional processing using a cognitive and emotional counting Stroop task in two patients in whom abnormalities in the dACC were identified and treated. Two patients performed the cognitive and emotional counting Stroop task before and after treatment to examine whether the dACC has a specific or more general processing function. We observed an overall improvement in the emotional, cognitive, and neutral trials of the counting Stroop task after the intervention, indicating that the dACC is not a subregion of the ACC that only contributes to a specific domain. This study reveals that the dACC is not just a subregion of the ACC that contributes to a specific cognitive function, but is rather part of a salience network that influences general brain functioning, influencing cognitive as well as emotional processing.

  19. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice.

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    Víctor Rovira

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14-20 days, the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7 than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05, which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s. We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere, and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges.

  20. Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain by altering the activity of cortical areas involved in pain sensation. However, current single-coil rTMS technology only allows for effects in surface cortical structures. The ability to affect activity in certain deep brain structures may however, allow for a better efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This study used PET imaging to determine whether a novel multi-coil rTMS would allow for preferential targeting of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), an area always activated with pain, and to provide preliminary evidence as to whether this targeted approach would allow for efficacious, safe, and tolerable analgesia both in a volunteer/acute pain model as well as in fibromyalgia chronic pain patients. Methods Part 1: Different coil configurations were tested in a placebo-controlled crossover design in volunteers (N = 16). Tonic pain was induced using a capsaicin/thermal pain model and functional brain imaging was performed by means of H215O positron emission tomography – computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Differences in NRS pain ratings between TMS and sham treatment (NRSTMS-NRSplacebo) which were recorded each minute during the 10 minute PET scans. Part 2: 16 fibromyalgia patients were subjected to 20 multi-coil rTMS treatments over 4 weeks and effects on standard pain scales (Brief Pain Inventory, item 5, i.e. average pain NRS over the last 24 hours) were recorded. Results A single 30 minute session using one of 3 tested rTMS coil configurations operated at 1 Hz consistently produced robust reduction (mean 70% on NRS scale) in evoked pain in volunteers. In fibromyalgia patients, the 20 rTMS sessions also produced a significant pain inhibition (43% reduction in NRS pain over last 24 hours), but only when operated at 10 Hz. This degree of pain control was maintained for at least 4 weeks after the final session

  1. Gene expression profile of sodium channel subunits in the anterior cingulate cortex during experimental paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain in mice

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    Willias Masocha

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapeutic agent, causes neuropathic pain whose supraspinal pathophysiology is not fully understood. Dysregulation of sodium channel expression, studied mainly in the periphery and spinal cord level, contributes to the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. We examined gene expression of sodium channel (Nav subunits by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC at day 7 post first administration of paclitaxel, when mice had developed paclitaxel-induced thermal hyperalgesia. The ACC was chosen because increased activity in the ACC has been observed during neuropathic pain. In the ACC of vehicle-treated animals the threshold cycle (Ct values for Nav1.4, Nav1.5, Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 were above 30 and/or not detectable in some samples. Thus, comparison in mRNA expression between untreated control, vehicle-treated and paclitaxel treated animals was done for Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax as well as Navβ1–Navβ4. There were no differences in the transcript levels of Nav1.1–Nav1.3, Nav1.6, Nax, Navβ1–Navβ3 between untreated and vehicle-treated mice, however, vehicle treatment increased Navβ4 expression. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the mRNA expression of Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and Nax, but not Nav1.3, sodium channel alpha subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. Treatment with paclitaxel significantly increased the expression of Navβ1 and Navβ3, but not Navβ2 and Navβ4, sodium channel beta subunits compared to vehicle-treated animals. These findings suggest that during paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain (PINP there is differential upregulation of sodium channels in the ACC, which might contribute to the increased neuronal activity observed in the area during neuropathic pain.

  2. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

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    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  3. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without past history of Major Depressive Disorder

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    Katarina eDedovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels. Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the

  4. Metabolite measurements in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus among patients with mitochondrial disorders: a case–control study using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebush, Patricia I.; Noseworthy, Michael D.; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Weber, Alexander M.; Soreni, Noam; Mazurek, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial disorders are clinical syndromes associated with mutations in the mitochondrial or nuclear genome that result in impaired oxidative phosphorylation and deficient energy production. Metabolic abnormalities in brain areas associated with cognitive functions could give rise to neuropsychiatric symptomatology. The aim of this study was to use single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify metabolic abnormalities in regions implicated in neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with mitochondrial disorders. Methods N-acetyl-aspartate and creatine levels were measured in the caudate nucleus, anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in 15 patients with mitochondrial disorders compared with 15 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Results N-acetyl-aspartate levels were significantly lower in the caudate nucleus among patients with mitochondrial disorders (mean 7.04 ± 1.19 standard deviation [SD] institutional units) compared with healthy controls (mean 8.19 ± 1.18 SD institutional units; p = 0.02). Creatine levels were lower in the caudate nucleus among patients compared with controls (patients: mean 6.84 ± 1.42 SD institutional units; controls: mean 7.52 ± 0.76 SD institutional units; p = 0.03), but the results were no longer significant after correction for multiple comparisons. There were no significant differences in metabolite measurements between patients and controls in the anterior cingulate cortex and the hippocampus. Interpretation Metabolic abnormalities were identified exclusively in the caudate nucleus, with significantly lower N-acetyl-aspartate levels among patients compared with controls. These results suggest that the corpus striatum may be highly susceptible to mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation defects and resultant cell loss. Given the role of the caudate nucleus in cognitive and executive functions, our findings raise the possibility that metabolic abnormalities in the caudate nucleus may contribute

  5. Anterior cingulate cortex-related connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia: a spectral dynamic causal modeling study with functional magnetic resonance imaging

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    Long-Biao eCui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the neural basis of schizophrenia (SZ is important for shedding light on the neurobiological mechanisms underlying this mental disorder. Structural and functional alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, hippocampus, and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC have been implicated in the neurobiology of SZ. However, the effective connectivity among them in SZ remains unclear. The current study investigated how neuronal pathways involving these regions were affected in first-episode SZ using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Forty-nine patients with a first-episode of psychosis and diagnosis of SZ—according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision—were studied. Fifty healthy controls (HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state fMRI. We used spectral dynamic causal modeling (DCM to estimate directed connections among the bilateral ACC, DLPFC, hippocampus, and MPFC. We characterized the differences using Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA in addition to classical inference (t-test. In addition to common effective connectivity in these two groups, HCs displayed widespread significant connections predominantly involved in ACC not detected in SZ patients, but SZ showed few connections. Based on BPA results, SZ patients exhibited anterior cingulate cortico-prefrontal-hippocampal hyperconnectivity, as well as ACC-related and hippocampal-dorsolateral prefrontal-medial prefrontal hypoconnectivity. In summary, sDCM revealed the pattern of effective connectivity involving ACC in patients with first-episode SZ. This study provides a potential link between SZ and dysfunction of ACC, creating an ideal situation to associate mechanisms behind SZ with aberrant connectivity among these cognition and emotion-related regions.

  6. Depressive symptoms related to low fractional anisotropy of white matter underlying the right ventral anterior cingulate in older adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease

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    Kelly Rowe Bijanki

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We sought to characterize the relationship between integrity of the white matter underlying the ventral anterior cingulate (vAC and depressive symptoms in older adults with atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD, a condition associated with preferential degeneration of the white matter. The ventral anterior cingulate was defined as including white matter underlying ventral Brodmann Area 24 and Brodmann Area 25, corresponding with the subcallosal and subgenual cingulate respectively. This region of interest was chosen based on the preponderance of evidence that the white matter in the region plays a critical role in the manifestation of depressive symptoms. Participants had current unequivocal diagnoses of AVD and were between 55 and 90 years old. Fractional anisotropy (FA was used as an index of white matter integrity and organization. Whole-brain mean diffusivity (MD was used as an index of global white matter lesion burden. Depressive symptoms were measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R Depression Scale. Depressive symptoms were significantly related to low FA in the right vAC (r=-.356, DF=30, p=.045 but not the left vAC (r=.024, DF=30, p=.896 after controlling for total brain MD (a statistical control for global white matter lesion burden. Further, depressive symptoms were significantly related to low FA in the right vAC (r=-0.361, DF=31, p=.039, but not the left vAC (r=.259, DF=31, p=.145 when controlled for the contralateral vAC FA. The correlation coefficients for this follow-up analysis were found to be significantly different between left and right vAC (Z=2.310, p=.021.Poor white matter health in the vAC may be a biological mechanism for depressive symptoms in older adults with vascular disease. Further studies may corroborate that the right vAC plays a unique role in depressive symptom manifestation in cases where the white matter is preferentially affected, as is the case in AVD. This could lead to future targeting of

  7. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, D.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  8. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  9. Disrupted functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy: a resting state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Long Jiang; Qi, Rongfeng; Zhong, Jianhui; Ni, Ling; Zheng, Gang; Xu, Jian; Lu, Guang Ming

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in patients with cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) using resting state functional MRI. Participants included 67 cirrhotic patients (27 minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and 40 cirrhotic patients without MHE (non-HE)), and 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. rsfMRI were performed on 3 Telsa scanners. The pregenual ACC resting-state networks (RSNs) were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the ACC RSNs and venous blood ammonia levels, neuropsychological tests (number connection test type A [NCT-A] and digit symbol test [DST]) scores in cirrhotic patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, with false discovery rate corrected. Compared with controls, non-HE and MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC, bilateral middle frontal cortex (MFC), bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC), bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG)/middle temporal gyri (MTG), bilateral thalami, bilateral putamen and bilateral insula, and increased functional connectivity of bilateral precuneus and left temporo-occipital lobe and bilateral lingual gyri. Compared with non-HE patients, MHE showed the decreased functional connectivity of right MCC, bilateral STG/MTG and right putamen. This indicates decreased ACC functional connectivity predominated with the increasing severity of HE. NCT-A scores negatively correlated with ACC functional connectivity in the bilateral MCC, right temporal lobe, and DST scores positively correlated with functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC and the right putamen. No correlation was found between venous blood ammonia levels and functional connectivity in ACC in cirrhotic patients. Disrupted functional connectivity in ACC was found in cirrhotic

  10. Disrupted functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex in cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy: a resting state fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Jiang Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To evaluate the changes of functional connectivity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in patients with cirrhosis without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE using resting state functional MRI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants included 67 cirrhotic patients (27 minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE and 40 cirrhotic patients without MHE (non-HE, and 40 age- and gender- matched healthy controls. rsfMRI were performed on 3 Telsa scanners. The pregenual ACC resting-state networks (RSNs were characterized by using a standard seed-based whole-brain correlation method and compared between cirrhotic patients and healthy controls. Pearson correlation analysis was performed between the ACC RSNs and venous blood ammonia levels, neuropsychological tests (number connection test type A [NCT-A] and digit symbol test [DST] scores in cirrhotic patients. All thresholds were set at P<0.05, with false discovery rate corrected. Compared with controls, non-HE and MHE patients showed significantly decreased functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC, bilateral middle frontal cortex (MFC, bilateral middle cingulate cortex (MCC, bilateral superior temporal gyri (STG/middle temporal gyri (MTG, bilateral thalami, bilateral putamen and bilateral insula, and increased functional connectivity of bilateral precuneus and left temporo-occipital lobe and bilateral lingual gyri. Compared with non-HE patients, MHE showed the decreased functional connectivity of right MCC, bilateral STG/MTG and right putamen. This indicates decreased ACC functional connectivity predominated with the increasing severity of HE. NCT-A scores negatively correlated with ACC functional connectivity in the bilateral MCC, right temporal lobe, and DST scores positively correlated with functional connectivity in the bilateral ACC and the right putamen. No correlation was found between venous blood ammonia levels and functional connectivity in ACC in cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSIONS

  11. Gray Matter and Functional Connectivity in Anterior Cingulate Cortex are Associated with the State of Mental Silence During Sahaja Yoga Meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Sergio Elías; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso; Xiao, Yaqiong; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya

    2018-02-10

    Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity (FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify the neural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated with the depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation condition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated with the subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was significantly increased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state specifically, while decreased connectivity with the right thalamus/parahippocampal gyrus was present during the meditation-state and the resting-state. The capacity of long-term meditators to establish a durable state of mental silence inside an MRI scanner was associated with larger gray matter volume in a medial frontal region that is crucial for top-down cognitive, emotion and attention control. This is furthermore corroborated by increased FC of this region during the meditation-state with bilateral anterior insula/putamen, which are important for interoception, emotion, and attention regulation. The findings hence suggest that the depth of mental silence is associated with medial fronto-insular-striatal networks that are crucial for top-down attention and emotional control. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in clinical pain in fibromyalgia patients correlate with changes in brain activation in the cingulate cortex in a response inhibition task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias; Kairys, Anson; Ichesco, Eric; Fernandez-Sanchez, Maria Luisa; Barjola, Paloma; Heitzeg, Mary; Harris, Richard E; Clauw, Daniel J; Glass, Jennifer; Williams, David A

    2014-08-01

    The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic, widespread pain; however, patients report additional symptoms including decreased concentration and memory. Performance-based deficits are seen mainly in tests of working memory and executive functioning. It has been hypothesized that pain interferes with cognitive performance; however, the neural correlates of this interference are still a matter of debate. In a previous, cross-sectional study, we reported that fibromyalgia patients (as compared with healthy controls) showed a decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) response related to response inhibition (in a simple Go/No-Go task) in the anterior/mid cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and right premotor cortex. Here in this longitudinal study, neural activation elicited by response inhibition was assessed again in the same cohort of fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls using the same Go/No-Go paradigm. A decrease in percentage of body pain distribution was associated with an increase in BOLD signal in the anterior/mid cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area, regions that have previously been shown to be "hyporeactive" in this cohort. Our results suggest that the clinical distribution of pain is associated with the BOLD response elicited by a cognitive task. The cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area are critically involved in both the pain system as well as the response inhibition network. We hypothesize that increases in the spatial distribution of pain might engage greater neural resources, thereby reducing their availability for other networks. Our data also point to the potential for, at least partial, reversibility of these changes. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Role of prefrontal and anterior cingulate regions in decision-making processes shared by memory and nonmemory tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleck, M.S.; Daselaar, S.M.; Dobbins, I.G.; Cabeza, R.

    2006-01-01

    In the episodic retrieval (ER) domain, activations in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are often attributed to postretrieval monitoring. Yet, right DLPFC activations are also frequently found during nonmemory tasks. To investigate the role of this region across different cognitive

  14. NK-3 receptor activation depolarizes and induces an after-depolarization in pyramidal neurons in gerbil cingulate cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rekling, Jens C

    2004-01-01

    The involvement of tachykinins in cortical function is poorly understood. To study the actions of neurokinin-3 (NK3) receptor activation in frontal cortex, whole cell patch clamp recordings were performed from pyramidal neurons in slices of cingulate cortex from juvenile gerbils. Senktide (500n...

  15. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  16. MicroRNA expression patterns in human anterior cingulate and motor cortex: A study of dementia with Lewy bodies cases and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter T; Wang, Wang-Xia; Janse, Sarah A; Thompson, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we evaluated the expression of miRNAs in anterior cingulate (AC; Brodmann area [BA] 24) and primary motor (MO; BA 4) cortical tissue from aged human brains in the University of Kentucky AD Center autopsy cohort, with a focus on dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). RNA was isolated from gray matter of brain samples with pathology-defined DLB, AD, AD + DLB, and low-pathology controls, with n = 52 cases initially included (n  = 23 with DLB), all with low (matter of MO, AC, primary somatosensory (BA 3), and dorsolateral prefrontal (BA 9) cortical regions. The miRNA expression patterns differed substantially according to anatomic location: of the relatively highly-expressed miRNAs, 150/481 (31%) showed expression that was different between AC versus MO (at p < .05 following correction for multiple comparisons), most (79%) with higher expression in MO. A subset of these results were confirmed in qPCR validation focusing on miR-7, miR-153, miR-133b, miR-137, and miR-34a. No significant variation in miRNA expression was detected in association with either neuropathology or sex after correction for multiple comparisons. A subset of miRNAs (some previously associated with α-synucleinopathy and/or directly targeting α-synuclein mRNA) were differentially expressed in AC and MO, which may help explain why these brain regions show differences in vulnerability to Lewy body pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of m1/m4 muscarinic receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depression disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavitsanou, Katerina; Katerina, Zavitsanou; Katsifis, Andrew; Andrew, Katsifis; Mattner, Filomena; Filomena, Mattner; Huang, Xu-Feng; Xu-Feng, Huang

    2004-03-01

    Abnormal cholinergic neurotransmission has been suggested to occur in psychiatric illness. Therefore, this study investigated cholinergic muscarinic receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression disorder (n=15 per group). We used quantitative autoradiography to measure [(3)H]pirenzepine binding to M1 and M4 receptors. Brain tissue was obtained from the Stanley Foundation Neuropathology Consortium. [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was higher in superficial laminae (I-II) than in deep laminae (III-VI) of the ACC. There was a significant 24% reduction in the density of [(3)H]pirenzepine in the deep laminae and a significant 19% reduction in the upper laminae of the ACC in the schizophrenia group compared to the control group. There were no differences in [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in any laminae of the ACC in the bipolar or major depression groups compared with the control group, except for a trend towards decreased [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in subjects with major depression relative to control subjects. We also detected a significant effect of suicide on [(3)H]pirenzepine binding in the ACC in subjects who died as a result of suicide relative to those who did not, which was more evident in patients with schizophrenia. A significant effect of the onset of the disease was also observed that was more evident in patients with bipolar disorder. The study provides evidence of decreased muscarinic receptor density in the ACC in schizophrenia but no evidence for significant changes in these receptors in the bipolar and major depression groups. The changes observed in schizophrenia may contribute to dysfunctional ACC neural circuits.

  18. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichiro Harada

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Patients with later-life depression (LLD show abnormal gray matter (GM volume, white matter (WM integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG, but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC–pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC–pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC–pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC–pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  19. The roles of the anterior cingulate cortex and its dopamine receptors in self-paced cost-benefit decision making in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Hu, Shan-Hu; Shi, Yi; Li, Bao-Ming

    2017-03-01

    It has been shown that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and its dopamine system are crucial for decision making that requires physical/emotional effort, but not for all forms of cost-benefit decision making. Previous studies had mostly employed behavioral tasks with two competing cost-reward options that were preset by the experimenters. However, few studies have been conducted using scenarios in which the subjects have full control over the energy/time expenditure required to obtain a proportional reward. Here, we assessed the roles of the ACC and its dopamine system in cost-benefit decision making by utilizing a "do more get more" (DMGM) task and a time-reward trade-off (TRTO) task, wherein the animals were able to self-determine how much effort or time to expend at a nosepoke operandum for a proportional reward. Our results showed that (1) ACC inactivation severely impaired DMGM task performance, with a reduction in the rate of correct responses and a decrease in the effort expended, but did not affect the TRTO task; and (2) blocking ACC D2 receptors had no impact on DMGM task performance in the baseline cost-benefit scenario, but it significantly reduced the attempts to invest increased effort for a large reward when the benefit-cost ratio was reduced by half. In contrast, blocking ACC D1 receptors had no effect on DMGM task performance. These findings suggest that the ACC is required for self-paced effort-based but not for time-reward trade-off decision making. Furthermore, ACC dopamine D2 but not D1 receptors are involved in DMGM decision making.

  20. Altered Connectivity of the Anterior Cingulate and the Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus in a Longitudinal Study of Later-life Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kenichiro; Ikuta, Toshikazu; Nakashima, Mami; Watanuki, Toshio; Hirotsu, Masako; Matsubara, Toshio; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Matsuo, Koji

    2018-01-01

    Patients with later-life depression (LLD) show abnormal gray matter (GM) volume, white matter (WM) integrity and functional connectivity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG), but it remains unclear whether these abnormalities persist over time. We examined whether structural and functional abnormalities in these two regions are present within the same subjects during depressed vs. remitted phases. Sixteen patients with LLD and 30 healthy subjects were studied over a period of 1.5 years. Brain images obtained with a 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system were analyzed by voxel-based morphometry of the GM volume, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and resting-state functional MRI were used to assess ACC-pSTG connectivity. Patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases showed significantly smaller GM volume in the left ACC and left pSTG than healthy subjects. Both patients with LLD in the depressed and remitted phases had significantly higher diffusivities in the WM tract of the left ACC-pSTG than healthy subjects. Remitted patients with LLD showed lower functional ACC-pSTG connectivity compared to healthy subjects. No difference was found in the two regions between depressed and remitted patients in GM volume, structural or functional connectivity. Functional ACC-pSTG connectivity was positively correlated with lower global function during remission. Our preliminary data show that structural and functional abnormalities of the ACC and pSTG occur during LLD remission. Our findings tentatively reveal the brain pathophysiology involved in LLD and may aid in developing neuroanatomical biomarkers for this condition.

  1. Anterior insular cortex is necessary for empathetic pain perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Gao, Zhixian; Wang, Xingchao; Liu, Xun; Knight, Robert T; Hof, Patrick R; Fan, Jin

    2012-09-01

    Empathy refers to the ability to perceive and share another person's affective state. Much neuroimaging evidence suggests that observing others' suffering and pain elicits activations of the anterior insular and the anterior cingulate cortices associated with subjective empathetic responses in the observer. However, these observations do not provide causal evidence for the respective roles of anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices in empathetic pain. Therefore, whether these regions are 'necessary' for empathetic pain remains unknown. Herein, we examined the perception of others' pain in patients with anterior insular cortex or anterior cingulate cortex lesions whose locations matched with the anterior insular cortex or anterior cingulate cortex clusters identified by a meta-analysis on neuroimaging studies of empathetic pain perception. Patients with focal anterior insular cortex lesions displayed decreased discrimination accuracy and prolonged reaction time when processing others' pain explicitly and lacked a typical interference effect of empathetic pain on the performance of a pain-irrelevant task. In contrast, these deficits were not observed in patients with anterior cingulate cortex lesions. These findings reveal that only discrete anterior insular cortex lesions, but not anterior cingulate cortex lesions, result in deficits in explicit and implicit pain perception, supporting a critical role of anterior insular cortex in empathetic pain processing. Our findings have implications for a wide range of neuropsychiatric illnesses characterized by prominent deficits in higher-level social functioning.

  2. Fish Oil Supplementation Increases Event-Related Posterior Cingulate Activation in Older Adults with Subjective Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boespflug, E L; McNamara, R K; Eliassen, J C; Schidler, M D; Krikorian, R

    2016-02-01

    To determine the effects of long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids found in fish oil, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), on cortical blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) activity during a working memory task in older adults with subjective memory impairment. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Academic medical center. Healthy older adults (62-80 years) with subjective memory impairment, but not meeting criteria for mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Fish oil (EPA+DHA: 2.4 g/d, n=11) or placebo (corn oil, n=10) for 24 weeks. Cortical BOLD response patterns during performance of a sequential letter n-back working memory task were determined at baseline and week 24 by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). At 24 weeks erythrocyte membrane EPA+DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in participants receiving fish oil (+31%, p ≤ 0.0001) but not placebo (-17%, p=0.06). Multivariate modeling of fMRI data identified a significant interaction among treatment, visit, and memory loading in the right cingulate (BA 23/24), and in the right sensorimotor area (BA 3/4). In the fish oil group, BOLD increases at 24 weeks were observed in the right posterior cingulate and left superior frontal regions during memory loading. A region-of-interest analysis indicated that the baseline to endpoint change in posterior cingulate cortex BOLD activity signal was significantly greater in the fish oil group compared with the placebo group during the 1-back (p=0.0003) and 2-back (p=0.0005) conditions. Among all participants, the change in erythrocyte EPA+DHA during the intervention was associated with performance in the 2-back working memory task (p = 0.01), and with cingulate BOLD signal during the 1-back (p = 0.005) with a trend during the 2-back (p = 0.09). Further, cingulate BOLD activity was related to performance in the 2-back condition. Dietary fish oil supplementation increases red blood cell omega-3 content

  3. Errors Recruit both Cognitive and Emotional Monitoring Systems: Simultaneous Intracranial Recordings in the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Gyrus and Amygdala Combined with fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourtois, Gilles; Vocat, Roland; N'Diaye, Karim; Spinelli, Laurent; Seeck, Margitta; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    We studied error monitoring in a human patient with unique implantation of depth electrodes in both the left dorsal cingulate gyrus and medial temporal lobe prior to surgery. The patient performed a speeded go/nogo task and made a substantial number of commission errors (false alarms). As predicted, intracranial Local Field Potentials (iLFPs) in…

  4. Attenuation of pCREB and Egr1 expression in the insular and anterior cingulate cortices associated with enhancement of CFA-evoked mechanical hypersensitivity after repeated forced swim stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbe, Hiroki; Kimura, Akihisa

    2017-09-01

    The perception and response to pain are severely impacted by exposure to stressors. In some animal models, stress increases pain sensitivity, which is termed stress-induced hyperalgesia (SIH). The insular cortex (IC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which are typically activated by noxious stimuli, affect pain perception through the descending pain modulatory system. In the present study, we examined the expression of phospho-cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and early growth response 1 (Egr1) in the IC and ACC at 3h (the acute phase of peripheral tissue inflammation) after complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection in naïve rats and rats preconditioned with forced swim stress (FS) to clarify the effect of FS, a stressor, on cortical cell activities in the rats showing SIH induced by FS. The CFA injection into the hindpaw induced mechanical hypersensitivity and increased the expression of the pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC at 3h after the injection. FS (day 1, 10min; days 2-3, 20min) prior to the CFA injection enhanced the CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity and attenuated the increase in the expression of pCREB and Egr1 in the IC and ACC. These findings suggested that FS modulates the CFA injection-induced neuroplasticity in the IC and ACC to enhance the mechanical hypersensitivity. These findings are thought to signify stressor-induced dysfunction of the descending pain modulatory system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Lower Activation in Frontal Cortex and Posterior Cingulate Cortex Observed during Sex Determination Test in Early-Stage Dementia of the Alzheimer Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Rajmohan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Face-labeling refers to the ability to classify faces into social categories. This plays a critical role in human interaction as it serves to define concepts of socially acceptable interpersonal behavior. The purpose of the current study was to characterize, what, if any, impairments in face-labeling are detectable in participants with early-stage clinically diagnosed dementia of the Alzheimer type (CDDAT through the use of the sex determination test (SDT. In the current study, four (1 female, 3 males CDDAT and nine (4 females, 5 males age-matched neurotypicals (NT completed the SDT using chimeric faces while undergoing BOLD fMRI. It was expected that CDDAT participants would have poor verbal fluency, which would correspond to poor performance on the SDT. This could be explained by decreased activation and connectivity patterns within the fusiform face area (FFA and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. DTI was also performed to test the association of pathological deterioration of connectivity in the uncinate fasciculus (UF and verbally-mediated performance. CDDAT showed lower verbal fluency test (VFT performance, but VFT was not significantly correlated to SDT and no significant difference was seen between CDDAT and NT for SDT performance as half of the CDDAT performed substantially worse than NT while the other half performed similarly. BOLD fMRI of SDT displayed differences in the left superior frontal gyrus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, but not the FFA or ACC. Furthermore, although DTI showed deterioration of the right inferior and superior longitudinal fasciculi, as well as the PCC, it did not demonstrate significant deterioration of UF tracts. Taken together, early-stage CDDAT may represent a common emerging point for the loss of face labeling ability.

  6. Sleepwalking episodes are preceded by arousal-related activation in the cingulate motor area: EEG current density imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszko, Piotr; Niemcewicz, Szymon; Gajda, Tomasz; Wołyńczyk-Gmaj, Dorota; Piotrowska, Anna Justyna; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2016-01-01

    To investigate local arousal fluctuations in adults who received ICSD-2 diagnosis of somnambulism. EEG neuroimaging (eLORETA) was utilized to compare current density distribution for 4s epochs immediately preceding sleepwalking episode (from -4.0 s to 0 s) to the distribution during earlier 4s epochs (from -8.0 s to -4.0 s) in 20 EEG segments from 15 patients. Comparisons between eLORETA images revealed significant (t>4.52; psleepwalking, with greater current density within beta 3 frequency range (24-30 Hz) in Brodmann areas 33 and 24. Sleepwalking motor events are associated with arousal-related activation of cingulate motor area. These results support the notion of blurred boundaries between wakefulness and NREM sleep in sleepwalking. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stress during puberty boosts metabolic activation associated with fear-extinction learning in hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Rodriguez, Maria; Pitiot, Alain; Paus, Tomáš; Sandi, Carmen

    2012-07-01

    Adolescence is characterized by major developmental changes that may render the individual vulnerable to stress and the development of psychopathologies in a sex-specific manner. Earlier we reported lower anxiety-like behavior and higher risk-taking and novelty seeking in rats previously exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Here we studied whether peri-pubertal stress affected the acquisition and extinction of fear memories and/or the associated functional engagement of various brain regions, as assessed with 2-deoxyglucose. We showed that while peri-pubertal stress reduced freezing during the acquisition of fear memories (training) in both sexes, it had a sex-specific effect on extinction of these memories. Moreover hippocampus, basal amygdala and cingulate and motor cortices showed higher metabolic rates during extinction in rats exposed to peri-pubertal stress. Interestingly, activation of the infralimbic cortex was negatively correlated with freezing during extinction only in control males, while only males stressed during puberty showed a significant correlation between behavior during extinction and metabolic activation of hippocampus, amygdala and paraventricular nucleus. No correlations between brain activation and behavior during extinction were observed in females (control or stress). These results indicate that exposure to peri-pubertal stress affects behavior and brain metabolism when the individual is exposed to an additional stressful challenge. Some of these effects are sex-specific. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  9. Modification of electrophysiological activity pattern after anterior thalamic deep brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Yu; Hur, Yun Jung; Kim, Heung-Dong; Park, Kang Min; Kim, Sung Eun; Hwang, Tae Gyu

    2017-06-01

    OBJECTIVE Thalamic stimulation can provoke electroencephalography (EEG) synchronization or desynchronization, which can help to reduce the occurrence of seizures in intractable epilepsy, though the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Therefore, the authors investigated changes in EEG electrical activity to better understand the seizure-reducing effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with intractable epilepsy. METHODS Electrical activation patterns in the epileptogenic brains of 3 patients were analyzed using classical low-resolution electromagnetic tomography analysis recursively applied (CLARA). Electrical activity recorded during thalamic stimulation was compared with that recorded during the preoperative and postoperative off-stimulation states in patients who underwent anterior thalamic nucleus DBS for intractable epilepsy. RESULTS Interictal EEG was fully synchronized to the β frequency in the postoperative on-stimulation period. The CLARA showed that electrical activity during preoperative and postoperative off-stimulation states was localized in cortical and subcortical areas, including the insular, middle frontal, mesial temporal, and precentral areas. No electrical activity was localized in deep nucleus structures. However, with CLARA, electrical activity in the postoperative on-stimulation period was localized in the anterior cingulate area, basal ganglia, and midbrain. CONCLUSIONS Anterior thalamic stimulation could spread electrical current to the underlying neuronal networks that connect with the thalamus, which functions as a cortical pacemaker. Consequently, the thalamus could modify electrical activity within these neuronal networks and influence cortical EEG activity by inducing neuronal synchronization between the thalamus and cortical structures.

  10. Mindfulness meditation regulates anterior insula activity during empathy for social pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laneri, Davide; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder M; Kanske, Philipp; Schuster, Verena; Sommer, Jens; Müller-Pinzler, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mindfulness has been shown to reduce stress, promote health, and well-being, as well as to increase compassionate behavior toward others. It reduces distress to one's own painful experiences, going along with altered neural responses, by enhancing self-regulatory processes and decreasing emotional reactivity. In order to investigate if mindfulness similarly reduces distress and neural activations associated with empathy for others' socially painful experiences, which might in the following more strongly motivate prosocial behavior, the present study compared trait, and state effects of long-term mindfulness meditation (LTM) practice. To do so we acquired behavioral data and neural activity measures using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an empathy for social pain task while manipulating the meditation state between two groups of LTM practitioners that were matched with a control group. The results show increased activations of the anterior insula (AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as well as the medial prefrontal cortex and temporal pole when sharing others' social suffering, both in LTM practitioners and controls. However, in LTM practitioners, who practiced mindfulness meditation just prior to observing others' social pain, left AI activation was lower and the strength of AI activation following the mindfulness meditation was negatively associated with trait compassion in LTM practitioners. The findings suggest that current mindfulness meditation could provide an adaptive mechanism in coping with distress due to the empathic sharing of others' suffering, thereby possibly enabling compassionate behavior. Hum Brain Mapp 38:4034-4046, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Chan Dietary Intervention Enhances Executive Functions and Anterior Cingulate Activity in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Agnes S.; Sze, Sophia L.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2012-01-01

    Executive dysfunctions have been found to be related to repetitive/disinhibited behaviors and social deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This study aims to investigate the potential effect of a Shaolin-medicine-based dietary modification on improving executive functions and behavioral symptoms of ASD and exploring the possible underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. Twenty-four children with ASD were randomly assigned into the experimental (receiving dietary modification for one m...

  12. Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for

  13. Cingulate Alpha-2A Adrenoceptors Mediate the Effects of Clonidine on Spontaneous Pain Induced by Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Jie Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is an important brain area for the regulation of neuropathic pain. The α2A adrenoceptor is a good target for pain management. However, the role of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain has been less studied. In this study, we investigated the involvement of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors in the regulation of neuropathic pain at different time points after peripheral nerve injury in mice. The application of clonidine, either systemically (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally or specifically to the ACC, increased paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs and induced conditioned place preference (CPP at day 7 after nerve injury, suggesting that cingulate α2 adrenoceptors are involved in the regulation of pain-like behaviors. Quantitative real-time PCR data showed that α2A adrenoceptors are the dominant α2 adrenoceptors in the ACC. Furthermore, the expression of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors was increased at day 3 and day 7 after nerve injury, but decreased at day 14, while no change was detected in the concentration of adrenaline or noradrenaline. BRL-44408 maleate, a selective antagonist of α2A adrenoceptors, was microinfused into the ACC. This blocking of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors activity abolished the CPP induced by clonidine (0.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally but not the effects on PWTs at day 7. However, clonidine applied systemically or specifically to the ACC at day 14 increased the PWTs but failed to induce CPP; this negative effect was reversed by the overexpression of cingulate α2A adrenoceptors. These results suggest that cingulate α2A adrenoceptors are necessary for the analgesic effects of clonidine on spontaneous pain.

  14. Altered spontaneous activity of posterior cingulate cortex and superior temporal gyrus are associated with a smoking cessation treatment outcome using varenicline revealed by regional homogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Shen, Zhujing; Huang, Peiyu; Qian, Wei; Yu, Xinfeng; Sun, Jianzhong; Yu, Hualiang; Yang, Yihong; Zhang, Minming

    2017-06-01

    Compared to nonsmokers, smokers exhibit a number of potentially important differences in regional brain function. However, little is known about the associations between the local spontaneous brain activity and smoking cessation treatment outcomes. In the present analysis, we aimed to evaluate whether the local features of spontaneous brain activity prior to the target quit date was associated with the smoking cessation outcomes. All the participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging scans and smoking-related behavioral assessments. After a 12-week treatment with varenicline, 23 smokers succeeded in quitting smoking and 32 failed. Smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning prior to an open label smoking cessation treatment trial. Regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to measure spontaneous brain activity, and whole-brain voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to detect brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between relapser and quitter groups. After controlling for potentially confounding factors including years of education, years smoked, cigarettes smoked per day and FTND score as covariates, compared to quitters, relapsers displayed significantly decreased ReHo in bilateral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), as well as increased ReHo in left superior temporal gyrus (STG). These preliminary results suggest that regional brain function variables may be promising predictors of smoking relapse. This study provided novel insights into the neurobiological mechanisms underlying smoking relapse. A deeper understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms associated with relapse may result in novel pharmacological and behavioral interventions.

  15. Unawareness of deficits in Alzheimer's disease: role of the cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanzio, Martina; Torta, Diana M E; Sacco, Katiuscia; Cauda, Franco; D'Agata, Federico; Duca, Sergio; Leotta, Daniela; Palermo, Sara; Geminiani, Giuliano C

    2011-04-01

    Unawareness of deficits is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease that can be observed even in the early stages of the disease. The frontal hypoperfusion associated with reduced awareness of deficits has led to suggestions of the existence of a hypofunctioning prefrontal pathway involving the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobe, anterior cingulate gyri and limbic structures. Since this network plays an important role in response inhibition competence and patients with Alzheimer's disease who are unaware of their deficits exhibit impaired performance in response inhibition tasks, we predicted a relationship between unawareness of deficits and cingulate hypofunctionality. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of 29 patients with Alzheimer's disease (15 aware and 14 unaware of their disturbances), rating unawareness according to the Awareness of Deficit Questionnaire-Dementia scale. The cognitive domain was investigated by means of a wide battery including tests on executive functioning, memory and language. Neuropsychiatric aspects were investigated using batteries on behavioural mood changes, such as apathy and disinhibition. Cingulate functionality was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging, while patients performed a go/no-go task. In accordance with our hypotheses, unaware patients showed reduced task-sensitive activity in the right anterior cingulate area (Brodmann area 24) and in the rostral prefrontal cortex (Brodmann area 10). Unaware patients also showed reduced activity in the right post-central gyrus (Brodmann area 2), in the associative cortical areas such as the right parietotemporal-occipital junction (Brodmann area 39) and the left temporal gyrus (Brodmann areas 21 and 38), in the striatum and in the cerebellum. These findings suggest that the unawareness of deficits in early Alzheimer's disease is associated with reduced functional recruitment of the cingulofrontal and parietotemporal regions. Furthermore, in line with

  16. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Sung-Kwang; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-03-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed during the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises compared with the general hip abductor strengthening exercises. The anterior gluteus medius fibers exhibited greater activity during pattern 2 exercises compared with any other type of exercise. [Conclusion] The results suggest that pattern 2 exercises can selectively activate anterior gluteus medius fibers.

  17. Abnormal brain activation in excoriation (skin-picking) disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odlaug, Brian L.; Hampshire, Adam; Chamberlain, Samuel R

    2016-01-01

    encompassing bilateral dorsal striatum (maximal in right caudate), bilateral anterior cingulate and right medial frontal regions. These abnormalities were, for the most part, outside the dorsal planning network typically activated by executive planning tasks. Conclusions: Abnormalities of neural regions...

  18. Comparison of anterior gluteus medius fiber activation during general exercises and PNF exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Ju, Sung-kwang; Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the activation of anterior gluteus medius fibers during general exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises. [Subjects and Methods] The study enrolled 15 healthy adults. The participants performed general hip abductor strengthening exercises and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises; during both types of exercise, electromyography activity was recorded. [Results] Greater anterior gluteus medius fiber activation was observed dur...

  19. Scapular kinematic and shoulder muscle activity alterations after serratus anterior muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Jun; Kusano, Ken; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Nishishita, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shimizu, Itsuroh; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2018-02-23

    Although the serratus anterior muscle has an important role in scapular movement, no study to date has investigated the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular movement and shoulder muscle activity. The study participants were 16 healthy men. Electrical muscle stimulation was used to fatigue the serratus anterior muscle. Shoulder muscle strength and endurance, scapular movement, and muscle activity were measured before and after the fatigue task. The muscle activity of the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius, anterior and middle deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles was recorded, and the median power frequency of these muscles was calculated to examine the degree of muscle fatigue. The muscle endurance and median power frequency of the serratus anterior muscle decreased after the fatigue tasks, whereas the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles increased. External rotation of the scapula at the shoulder elevated position increased after the fatigue task. Selective serratus anterior fatigue due to electric muscle stimulation decreased the serratus anterior endurance at the flexed shoulder position. Furthermore, the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus increased and the scapular external rotation was greater after serratus anterior fatigue. These results suggest that the rotator cuff and scapular muscle compensated to avoid the increase in internal rotation of the scapula caused by the dysfunction of the serratus anterior muscle. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered SPECT 123I-iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Rieko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Chiba, Hiromi; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements using 123I-iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26) and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil-binding activity in cortical regions of interest and psychometric profiles and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). “Depression–Dejection” and “Confusion” POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil-binding activity. Decreased binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered

  1. The hippocampus and cingulate cortex differentially mediate the effects of nicotine on learning versus on ethanol-induced learning deficits via different effects at nicotinic receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Gulick, Danielle; Gould, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The current study examined the effects of nicotine infusion into the dorsal hippocampus or anterior cingulate on fear conditioning and on ethanol-induced deficits in fear conditioning, and whether these effects involved receptor activation or inactivation. Methods Conditioning consisted of two white noise (30 seconds, 85 dB)?foot shock (2 seconds, 0.57 mA) pairings. Saline or ethanol was administered to C57BL/6 mice 15 minutes before training and saline or nicotine was administer...

  2. Temporalis and masseter muscle activity in patients with anterior open bite and craniomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L

    1991-01-01

    values, particularly in subjects with muscular affection, but maximal activity increased significantly when biting on the splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was positively correlated to molar contact and negatively to anterior face height, mandibular inclination, vertical jaw relation and gonial angle...

  3. Interplay of Amygdala and Cingulate Plasticity in Emotional Fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Toyoda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala is known to be a critical brain region for emotional fear. It is believed that synaptic plasticity within the amygdala is the cellular basis of fear memory. Recent studies demonstrate that cortical areas such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC may also contribute to the formation of fear memory, including trace fear memory and remote fear memory. At synaptic level, fear conditioning also triggers plastic changes within the cortical areas immediately after the condition. These results raise the possibility that certain forms of synaptic plasticity may occur within the cortex while synaptic potentiation takes place within synapses in the hippocampus and amygdala. This hypothesis is supported by electrophysiological evidence obtained from freely moving animals that neurons in the hippocampus/amygdala fire synchronous activities with cortical neurons during the learning. To study fear-related synaptic plasticity in the cortex and its functional connectivity with neurons in the amygdala and hippocampus will help us understand brain mechanisms of fear and improve clinical treatment of emotional disorders in patients.

  4. Ketamine modulates subgenual cingulate connectivity with the memory-related neural circuit—a mechanism of relevance to resistant depression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing J. Wong

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ketamine has been reported to have efficacy as an antidepressant in several studies of treatment-resistant depression. In this study, we investigate whether an acute administration of ketamine leads to reductions in the functional connectivity of subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC with other brain regions. Methods. Thirteen right-handed healthy male subjects underwent a 15 min resting state fMRI with an infusion of intravenous ketamine (target blood level = 150 ng/ml starting at 5 min. We used a seed region centred on the sgACC and assessed functional connectivity before and during ketamine administration. Results. Before ketamine administration, positive coupling with the sgACC seed region was observed in a large cluster encompassing the anterior cingulate and negative coupling was observed with the anterior cerebellum. Following ketamine administration, sgACC activity became negatively correlated with the brainstem, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, retrosplenial cortex, and thalamus. Discussion. Ketamine reduced functional connectivity of the sgACC with brain regions implicated in emotion, memory and mind wandering. It is possible the therapeutic effects of ketamine may be mediated via this mechanism, although further work is required to test this hypothesis.

  5. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex exhibits activation during task preparation but deactivation during task execution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideya Koshino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The anterior prefrontal cortex (PFC exhibits activation during some cognitive tasks, including episodic memory, reasoning, attention, multitasking, task sets, decision making, mentalizing, and processing of self-referenced information. However, the medial part of anterior PFC is part of the default mode network (DMN, which shows deactivation during various goal-directed cognitive tasks compared to a resting baseline. One possible factor for this pattern is that activity in the anterior medial PFC (MPFC is affected by dynamic allocation of attentional resources depending on task demands. We investigated this possibility using an event related fMRI with a face working memory task. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sixteen students participated in a single fMRI session. They were asked to form a task set to remember the faces (Face memory condition or to ignore them (No face memory condition, then they were given 6 seconds of preparation period before the onset of the face stimuli. During this 6-second period, four single digits were presented one at a time at the center of the display, and participants were asked to add them and to remember the final answer. When participants formed a task set to remember faces, the anterior MPFC exhibited activation during a task preparation period but deactivation during a task execution period within a single trial. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the anterior MPFC plays a role in task set formation but is not involved in execution of the face working memory task. Therefore, when attentional resources are allocated to other brain regions during task execution, the anterior MPFC shows deactivation. The results suggest that activation and deactivation in the anterior MPFC are affected by dynamic allocation of processing resources across different phases of processing.

  6. Investigating age-related changes in anterior and posterior neural activity throughout the information processing stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Brittany R; Tusch, Erich S; Mott, Katherine K; Holcomb, Phillip J; Daffner, Kirk R

    2015-10-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) and other functional imaging studies often demonstrate age-related increases in anterior neural activity and decreases in posterior activity while subjects carry out task demands. It remains unclear whether this "anterior shift" is limited to late cognitive operations like those indexed by the P3 component, or is evident during other stages of information processing. The temporal resolution of ERPs provided an opportunity to address this issue. Temporospatial principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify underlying components that may be obscured by overlapping ERP waveforms. ERPs were measured during a visual oddball task in 26 young, 26 middle-aged, and 29 old subjects who were well-matched for IQ, executive function, education, and task performance. PCA identified six anterior factors peaking between ∼140 ms and 810 ms, and four posterior factors peaking between ∼300 ms and 810 ms. There was an age-related increase in the amplitude of anterior factors between ∼200 and 500 ms, and an age-associated decrease in amplitude of posterior factors after ∼500 ms. The increase in anterior processing began as early as middle-age, was sustained throughout old age, and appeared to be linear in nature. These results suggest that age-associated increases in anterior activity occur after early sensory processing has taken place, and are most prominent during a period in which attention is being marshaled to evaluate a stimulus. In contrast, age-related decreases in posterior activity manifest during operations involved in stimulus categorization, post-decision monitoring, and preparation for an upcoming event. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions,

  8. Atypical hamstrings electromyographic activity as a compensatory mechanism in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerboom, AL; Hof, AL; Halbertsma, JPK; van Raaij, JJAM; Schenk, W; Diercks, RL; van Horn, [No Value; van Horn, J.R.

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may cause functional instability of the knee (noncopers), while other patients compensate and perform at the same level as before injury (copers). This pilot study investigated whether there is a compensatory electromyographic (EMG) activity of the

  9. Cognitive Control Signals in Posterior Cingulate Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eHayden

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficiently shifting between tasks is a central function of cognitive control. The role of the default network—a constellation of areas with high baseline activity that declines during task performance—in cognitive control remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that task switching demands cognitive control to shift the balance of processing towards the external world, and therefore predicted that switching between the two tasks would require suppression of activity of neurons within the CGp. To test this idea, we recorded the activity of single neurons in posterior cingulate cortex (CGp, a central node in the default network, in monkeys performing two interleaved tasks. As predicted, we found that basal levels of neuronal activity were reduced following a switch from one task to another and gradually returned to pre-switch baseline on subsequent trials. We failed to observe these effects in lateral intraparietal cortex (LIP, part of the dorsal fronto-parietal cortical attention network directly connected to CGp. These findings indicate that suppression of neuronal activity in CGp facilitates cognitive control, and suggest that activity in the default network reflects processes that directly compete with control processes elsewhere in the brain..

  10. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L

    2010-01-01

    Motor control and learning possibilities of scapular muscles are of clinical interest for restoring scapular muscle balance in patients with neck and shoulder disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate whether selective voluntary activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus...... the serratus anterior with visual EMG biofeedback, while the activity of four parts of the serratus anterior and four parts of the trapezius muscle was recorded. One subject was able to selectively activate both the upper and the lower serratus anterior respectively. Moreover, three subjects managed.......05). The learning of complete selective activation of both the lower and the upper serratus anterior of one subject, and selective activation of either the upper or lower serratus anterior by five subjects designates the promising clinical application of EMG biofeedback for restoring scapular muscle balance...

  11. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  12. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  13. Analysis of dynamics and propagation of parietal cingulate seizures with secondary mesial temporal involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koubeissi, Mohamad Z; Jouny, Christophe C; Blakeley, Jaishri O; Bergey, Gregory K

    2009-01-01

    Cingulate-onset seizures, particularly those originating from parietal cingulate regions, are inadequately described and confounded by patterns of propagation. We analyzed scalp and depth electrode recordings in a patient whose seizures originated from a lesion in the right posterior cingulate region and produced secondary seizure activity in ipsilateral mesial temporal structures. Analyses included the matching pursuit (MP) method of time-frequency decomposition and the Gabor atom density (GAD) measure of signal complexity. Although scalp recordings suggested a right temporal onset, seizures recorded with depth electrodes clearly began in the parietal cingulate region before producing a secondary discharge in ipsilateral mesial structures. GAD revealed a significant increase in complexity during ictal cingulate activity and a consistent pattern of subsequent complexity changes in the hippocampus 30 seconds later. MP and GAD measures were valuable supplements to confirm the stereotyped pattern of both time-frequency changes and complexity. This provides additional evidence for pathways between the parietal cingulate region and mesial temporal structures and raises questions as to whether parietal cingulate seizures can produce clinical symptoms independent of regional or remote propagation.

  14. Fiction feelings in Harry Potter: haemodynamic response in the mid-cingulate cortex correlates with immersive reading experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-12-03

    Immersion in reading, described as a feeling of 'getting lost in a book', is a ubiquitous phenomenon widely appreciated by readers. However, it has been largely ignored in cognitive neuroscience. According to the fiction feeling hypothesis, narratives with emotional contents invite readers more to be empathic with the protagonists and thus engage the affective empathy network of the brain, the anterior insula and mid-cingulate cortex, than do stories with neutral contents. To test the hypothesis, we presented participants with text passages from the Harry Potter series in a functional MRI experiment and collected post-hoc immersion ratings, comparing the neural correlates of passage mean immersion ratings when reading fear-inducing versus neutral contents. Results for the conjunction contrast of baseline brain activity of reading irrespective of emotional content against baseline were in line with previous studies on text comprehension. In line with the fiction feeling hypothesis, immersion ratings were significantly higher for fear-inducing than for neutral passages, and activity in the mid-cingulate cortex correlated more strongly with immersion ratings of fear-inducing than of neutral passages. Descriptions of protagonists' pain or personal distress featured in the fear-inducing passages apparently caused increasing involvement of the core structure of pain and affective empathy the more readers immersed in the text. The predominant locus of effects in the mid-cingulate cortex seems to reflect that the immersive experience was particularly facilitated by the motor component of affective empathy for our stimuli from the Harry Potter series featuring particularly vivid descriptions of the behavioural aspects of emotion.

  15. Immediate cerebral metabolic changes induced by discontinuation of deep brain stimulation of subcallosal cingulate gyrus in treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Blanco, Ana; Serra-Blasco, Maria; Pérez-Egea, Rosario; de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Carceller-Sindreu, Mar; Puigdemont, Dolors; Molet, Joan; Álvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor; Portella, Maria J

    2015-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown that the antidepressant effect of chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG) may be consequence of modifications of brain metabolism at key structures involved in depression. Like clinical benefits, these metabolic changes may reverse when the stimulation is discontinued, even preceding clinical worsening. However no data on immediate effects of DBS discontinuation are available. The aim of this study was to determine immediate cerebral metabolism changes during a short switch-off of electrical stimulation in implanted patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) who had achieved clinical improvement after a period of chronic DBS. Seven patients with TRD who had been previously implanted for DBS in SCG were included. After a period of clinical stabilization two consecutive FDG-PET were acquired, the first with active stimulation and the second after 48 h of inactive stimulation. A HAMD-17 to assess depressive symptoms was performed before both scans. Analyses were performed with SnPM8. Inactive stimulation was characterized by metabolism decreases in dorsal anterior cingulate (Broadmann Area, BA24), premotor region (BA6) and putamen with respect to active stimulation. No clinical changes according to HAMD-17 were detected. The main limitation of this study is the small sample size. Our results point to immediate effects of DBS discontinuation on metabolism of brain depressive network which precede clinical changes, helping to disentangle the rationale behind DBS efficacy in TRD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Activation of the Tibialis Anterior After Surgical Repair: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, Sharon; McClure, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Background Loss of voluntary activation of musculature can result in muscle weakness. External neuromuscular stimulation can be utilized to improve voluntary activation but is often poorly tolerated because of pain associated with required stimulus level. Intramuscular electrical stimulation requires much lower voltage and may be better tolerated, and therefore more effective at restoring voluntary muscle activation. Case Description A 71-year-old man sustained a rupture of the distal attachment of the tibialis anterior tendon. Thirty-two weeks after surgical repair, there was no palpable or visible tension development in the muscle belly or tendon. Dorsiflexion was dependent on toe extensors. Electrical stimulation applied via a dry needling placement in the muscle belly was utilized to induce an isometric contraction. Outcomes Five sessions of intramuscular electrical stimulation were delivered. By day 4 (second visit), the patient was able to dorsiflex without prominent use of the extensor hallucis longus. By day 6 (third visit), active-range-of-motion dorsiflexion with toes flexed increased 20° (-10° to 10°). Eighteen days after the initial treatment, the patient walked without his previous high-step gait pattern, and the tibialis anterior muscle test improved to withstanding moderate resistance (manual muscle test score, 4/5). Discussion The rapid change in muscle function observed suggests that intramuscular electrical stimulation may facilitate voluntary muscle activation. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):965-969. Epub 15 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7368.

  17. Anterior Horn Cell Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merve Firinciogullari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior horn cells control all voluntary movement. Motor activity, respiratory, speech, and swallowing functions are dependent upon signals from the anterior horn cells. Diseases that damage the anterior horn cells, therefore, have a profound impact. Symptoms of anterior horn cell loss (weakness, falling, choking lead patients to seek medical attention. In this article, anterior horn diseases were reviewed, diagnostic criteria and management were discussed in detail. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2016; 25(3.000: 269-303

  18. Temporalis and masseter muscle activity in patients with anterior open bite and craniomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L

    1991-01-01

    Activity in temporalis and masseter muscles, and traits of facial morphology and occlusal stability were studied in 22 patients (19 women, 3 men; 15-45 yr of age) with anterior open bite and symptoms and signs of craniomandibular disorders. Facial morphology was assessed by profile radiographs......, occlusal stability by tooth contacts, and craniomandibular function by clinical and radiological examination. Electromyographic activity was recorded by surface electrodes after primary treatment with a reflex-releasing, stabilizing splint. Maximal voluntary contraction was reduced compared to reference....... Relative loading of the muscles was markedly increased during resting posture. It was concluded that reduced occlusal stability and long-face morphology were associated with weak elevator muscle activity with disposition overload and tenderness. The results also indicated that increase of occlusal...

  19. Changes of cognition and regional cerebral activity during acute hypoglycemia in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bie-Olsen, Lise G; Kjaer, Troels W; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik

    2009-01-01

    counterregulatory response. During the low cognitive load, rCBF decreased in response to hypoglycemia in a large bilateral area in the posterior part of the temporal lobe, and rCBF increased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the right frontal gyrus, the fusiform gyrus, thalamus, and the left inferior...... part of the frontal gyrus. During the high cognitive load, rCBF decreased bilaterally in a large region in the posterior part of the temporal gyrus and increased in the left and right anterior cingulate gyrus, left and right frontal gyrus, right parahippocampal and lingual gyrus, and left superior...... temporal gyrus. Visual impairment during hypoglycemia was associated with deactivation in the ventral visual stream. The anterior cingulate gyrus was activated during hypoglycemia in a load-dependent manner. Areas on the frontal convexity were differentially activated in response to the cognitive load...

  20. A PET activation study of brush-evoked allodynia in patients with nerve injury pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Kupers, Ron; Svensson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    during allodynic brushing. No thalamic activation was observed during allodynic or control brushing. Although no anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activation could be demonstrated in the group analysis, single subject analysis revealed that four patients activated this region during brush-evoked allodynia...

  1. Anterior Insula Activity Predicts the Influence of Positively-Framed Messages on Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawitz, Adam; Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.

    2010-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the influence of persuasive messages on decision making are largely unknown. We address this using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate how informative messages alter risk appraisal during choice. Participants performed the Iowa Gambling Task while viewing a positively-framed, negatively-framed, or control message about the options. Right anterior insula correlated with improvement in choice behavior due to the positively-framed, but not the negatively-framed, message. With the positively-framed message there was increased activation proportional to message effectiveness when less-preferred options were chosen, consistent with a role in the prediction of adverse outcomes. In addition, dorsomedial and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex correlated with overall decision quality regardless of message type. The dorsomedial region mediated the relationship between right anterior insula and decision quality with the positively-framed messages. These findings suggest a network of frontal brain regions that integrate informative messages into the evaluation of options during decision-making. PMID:20805540

  2. Net joint moments and muscle activation in barbell squats without and with restricted anterior leg rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Loren Z F; vonGaza, Gabriella L; Jean, Liane M Y

    2017-01-01

    Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P  0.05), vastus medialis (P > 0.05) and rectus femoris (P > 0.05) EMG were not different between squat types. Unrestricted squats have higher ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM than previously reported from jumping and landing. However, ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM are lower in restricted squats than previous studies of jumping and landing. The high NJM in unrestricted squat exercise performed through a full range of motion suggests this squat type would be more effective to stimulate adaptations in the lower extremity musculature than restricted squats.

  3. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  4. Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Lowers BOLD Responses in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A Walter

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the neural underpinnings of the negative blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is still limited. We hypothesized that pharmacological GABAergic modulation attenuates BOLD responses, and that blood concentrations of a positive allosteric modulator of GABA correlate inversely with BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex. We investigated whether or not pure task-related negative BOLD responses were co-localized with pharmacologically modulated BOLD responses. Twenty healthy adults received either 5 mg diazepam or placebo in a double blind, randomized design. During fMRI the subjects performed a working memory task. Results showed that BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex were inversely correlated with diazepam blood concentrations; that is, the higher the blood diazepam concentration, the lower the BOLD response. This inverse correlation was most pronounced in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex. For subjects with diazepam plasma concentration > 0.1 mg/L we observed negative BOLD responses with respect to fixation baseline. There was minor overlap between cingulate regions with task-related negative BOLD responses and regions where the BOLD responses were inversely correlated with diazepam concentration. We interpret that the inverse correlation between the BOLD response and diazepam was caused by GABA-related neural inhibition. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that GABA attenuates BOLD responses in fMRI. The minimal overlap between task-related negative BOLD responses and responses attenuated by diazepam suggests that these responses might be caused by different mechanisms.

  5. Regional brain activity in women grieving a romantic relationship breakup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib, Arif; Lorberbaum, Jeffrey P; Kose, Samet; Bohning, Daryl E; George, Mark S

    2004-12-01

    Separation from loved ones commonly leads to grief reactions. In some individuals, grief can evolve into a major depressive episode. The brain regions involved in grief have not been specifically studied. The authors studied brain activity in women actively grieving a recent romantic relationship breakup. It was hypothesized that while remembering their ex-partner, subjects would have altered brain activity in regions identified in sadness imaging studies: the cerebellum, anterior temporal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal cortex. Nine right-handed women whose romantic relationship ended within the preceding 4 months were studied. Subjects were scanned using blood-oxygen-level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they alternated between recalling a sad, ruminative thought about their loved one (grief state) and a neutral thought about a different person they knew an equally long time. Acute grief (grief minus neutral state) was associated with increased group activity in posterior brain regions, including the cerebellum, posterior brainstem, and posterior temporoparietal and occipital brain regions. Decreased activity was more prominent anteriorly and on the left and included the anterior brainstem, thalamus, striatum, temporal cortex, insula, and dorsal and ventral anterior cingulate/prefrontal cortex. When a more lenient statistical threshold for regions of interest was used, additional increases were found in the lateral temporal cortex, supragenual anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal cortex, and right inferomedial dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, all of which were adjacent to spatially more prominent decreases. In nearly all brain regions showing brain activity decreases with acute grief, activity decreases were greater in women reporting higher grief levels over the past 2 weeks. During acute grief, subjects showed brain activity changes in the cerebellum, anterior temporal cortex, insula, anterior cingulate, and prefrontal

  6. Circadian-scale periodic bursts in theta and gamma-band coherence between hippocampus, cingulate and insular cortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G.K. Munn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that mean activity levels in the hippocampus oscillate on a circadian timescale, both at the single neuron and EEG level. This oscillation is also entrained by the availability of food, suggesting that the circadian modulation of hippocampal activity might comprise part of the recently discovered food-entrainable circadian oscillator (FEO. In order to determine whether the circadian oscillation in hippocampal activity is linked to activity in other brain regions, we recorded field-potential EEG from hippocampus and two cortical regions known to connect to hippocampus; the anterior cingulate cortex and the agranular insular cortex. These latter regions are involved in executive control (cingulate and gustatory feedback (insula and so are in a position where they could usefully contribute to, or benefit from, hippocampal memorial information in order to undertake task-related processing. We recorded EEG from these three regions for 20 m every hour for 58 consecutive hours in one continuous exposure to the recording environment. We found that there are regular and distinct increases in magnitude coherence between hippocampus and both cortical regions for EEG in both theta (6–12 Hz and gamma (30–48 Hz bands. These periods of increased coherence are spaced approximately one solar day apart, appear not to be specifically light-entrained, and are most apparent for gamma frequency activity. The gamma association between the two cortical regions shows the same temporal pattern of coherence peaks as the hippocampal-cortical coherences. We propose that these peaks in coherence represent the transient synchronization of temporally tagged memorial information between the hippocampus and other brain regions for which this information may be relevant. These findings suggest that the FEO involves coordinated activity across a number of brain regions and may underlie a mechanism via which an organism can store and recall

  7. Anterior/posterior competitive deactivation/activation dichotomy in the human hippocampus as revealed by a 3D navigation task.

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    Isabel Catarina Duarte

    Full Text Available Anterior/posterior long axis specialization is thought to underlie the organization of the hippocampus. However it remains unclear whether antagonistic mechanisms differentially modulate processing of spatial information within the hippocampus. We used fMRI and a virtual reality 3D paradigm to study encoding and retrieval of spatial memory during active visuospatial navigation, requiring positional encoding and retrieval of object landmarks during the path. Both encoding and retrieval elicited BOLD activation of the posterior most portion of hippocampus, while concurrent deactivations (recently shown to reflect decreases in neural responses were found in the most anterior regions. Encoding elicited stronger activity in the posterior right than the left hippocampus. The former structure also showed significantly stronger activity for allocentric vs. egocentric processing during retrieval. The anterior vs. posterior pattern mimics, from a functional point, although at much distinct temporal scales, the previous anatomical findings in London taxi drivers, whereby posterior enlargement was found at the cost of an anterior decrease, and the mirror symmetric findings observed in blind people, in whom the right anterior hippocampus was found to be larger, at the cost of a smaller posterior hippocampus, as compared with sighted people. In sum, we found a functional dichotomy whereby the anterior/posterior hippocampus shows antagonistic processing patterns for spatial encoding and retrieval of 3D spatial information. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting such a dynamical pattern in a functional study, which suggests that differential modulation of neural responses within the human hippocampus reflects distinct roles in spatial memory processing.

  8. Biomechanical comparison of rotational activities between anterior cruciate ligament- and posterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Bee Oh; Shin, Han Sol; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the early functional recovery using biomechanical properties between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)- and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-reconstructed patients and to determine the biomechanical deficit of PCL-reconstructed patients compared to ACL-reconstructed patients. A motion analysis system was used to measure and calculate kinematic and kinetic data for 10 patients who underwent PCL-reconstructed patients [experimental group (group 1)], 10 ACL-reconstructed patients (group 2), and 10 healthy subjects (group 3) during 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180° cutting and turn running tasks. Groups 1 and 2 were assessed at 3 (return to daily activity) and 6 months (return to light sports) postoperatively. At 3 months postoperatively, compared to groups 2 and 3, group 1 showed a decrease in knee flexion angle, extension moment, valgus moment, external rotational moment, ground reaction force, and increased hamstring-quadriceps ratio. At 6 months postoperatively, results from group 1 resembled those of groups 2 and 3 over time. Patients who underwent PCL reconstruction showed some biomechanical deficits in performance of activities requiring rotation, compared to those who underwent ACL reconstruction. Therefore, the modification of a rehabilitation programme for patients who underwent PCL reconstruction would be necessary for improvement of the biomechanical properties during performance of dynamic activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  9. Immediate restoration of NobelActive implants placed into fresh extraction sites in the anterior maxilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher; Bell, Robert E

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the success rates of immediately placed and loaded NobelActive implants with the success rate of immediately placed implants that were allowed to osseointigrate prior to loading. The charts of all patients in a private oral surgery office receiving single-unit dental implants in the maxillary anterior region in fresh extraction sites from 2008-2011 were evaluated. All patients receiving NobelActive implants and immediate restorations were included in the study group, while those receiving implants with delayed restorations were included in the control group. Patient records were evaluated for variables such as age, gender, torque values at time of implant placement, smoking habits, use of bisphosphonates, and other significant diseases such as diabetes. The success rate of the study group was 92.9%, whereas the success rate of the control group was 97.6%. This was not statistically significant. Torque values of the failed implants of the study group were similar to those of successful implants in the study group. All implants placed in patients scheduled for immediate loading achieved high torque values and were able to be restored immediately. NobelActive implants were able to obtain high torque values for predictable immediate restoration in fresh extraction sites. Acceptable success rates with excellent soft tissue healing were achieved.

  10. Anterior Thalamic High Frequency Band Activity Is Coupled with Theta Oscillations at Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M. Sweeney-Reed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-frequency coupling (CFC between slow and fast brain rhythms, in the form of phase–amplitude coupling (PAC, is proposed to enable the coordination of neural oscillatory activity required for cognitive processing. PAC has been identified in the neocortex and mesial temporal regions, varying according to the cognitive task being performed and also at rest. PAC has also been observed in the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN during memory processing. The thalamus is active during the resting state and has been proposed to be involved in switching between task-free cognitive states such as rest, in which attention is internally-focused, and externally-focused cognitive states, in which an individual engages with environmental stimuli. It is unknown whether PAC is an ongoing phenomenon during the resting state in the ATN, which is modulated during different cognitive states, or whether it only arises during the performance of specific tasks. We analyzed electrophysiological recordings of ATN activity during rest from seven patients who received thalamic electrodes implanted for treatment of pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy. PAC was identified between theta (4–6 Hz phase and high frequency band (80–150 Hz amplitude during rest in all seven patients, which diminished during engagement in tasks involving an external focus of attention. The findings are consistent with the proposal that theta–gamma coupling in the ATN is an ongoing phenomenon, which is modulated by task performance.

  11. Localization of area prostriata and its projection to the cingulate motor cortex in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Rockland, K S; Van Hoesen, G W

    2000-02-01

    Area prostriata is a poorly understood cortical area located in the anterior portion of the calcarine sulcus. It has attracted interest as a separate visual area and progenitor for the cortex of this modality. In this report we describe a direct projection from area prostriata to the rostral cingulate motor cortex (M3) that forms the fundus and lower bank of the anterior part of the cingulate sulcus. Injections of retrograde tracers in M3 resulted in labeled neurons in layers III, V and VI of prostriate cortex. However, injections of anterograde tracers in M3 did not demonstrate axon terminals in area prostriata. This connection was organized topographically such that the rostral part of M3 received input from the dorsal region of prostriate cortex, whereas middle and caudal levels of M3 received input from more ventral locations. Injections of retrograde and anterograde tracers in the caudal cingulate motor cortex (M4) did not produce labeling in prostriate cortex. Cytoarchitectural analysis confirmed the identity of area prostriata and further clarified its extent and borders with the parasubiculum of the hippocampal formation rostrally, and V1 of the visual cortex caudally. This linkage between cortex bordering V1 and cortex giving rise to a component of the corticofacial and corticospinal pathways demonstrates a more direct visuomotor route than visual association projections coursing laterally.

  12. Effects of bilateral anterior agranular insula lesions on food anticipatory activity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrila, Alex M; Hood, Suzanne; Robinson, Barry; Amir, Shimon

    2017-01-01

    Food anticipatory activity (FAA) refers to a daily rhythm of locomotor activity that emerges under conditions of food restriction, whereby animals develop an intense, predictable period of activity in the few hours leading up to a predictable, daily delivery of food. The neural mechanisms by which FAA is regulated are not yet fully understood. Although a number of brain regions appear to be involved in regulating the development and expression of FAA, there is little evidence to date concerning the role of the anterior agranular insular cortex (AICa). The AICa plays a critical role in integrating the perception of visceral states with motivational behaviour such as feeding. We assessed the effect of bilateral electrolytic or ibotenic acid lesions of the AICa on FAA in male Wistar rats receiving food for varying lengths of time (2 h, 3 h, or 5 h) during the middle of the light phase (starting at either ZT4 or ZT6). Contrary to our initial expectations, we found that both electrolytic and ibotenic acid lesions significantly increased, rather than decreased, the amount of FAA expressed in lesioned rats. Despite increased FAA, lesioned rats did not eat significantly more during restricted feeding (RF) periods than control rats. Similar to controls, AlCa-lesioned rats showed negligible anticipatory activity to a restricted treat suggesting that the increased anticipatory activity in lesioned rats is associated with food restriction, rather than the appetitive value of the meal. Monitoring behaviour in an open field indicated that increased FAA in AlCa-lesioned rats was not explained by a general increase in locomotor activity. Together, these findings suggest that the AICa contributes to the network of brain regions involved in FAA.

  13. Nicotine increases anterior insula activation to expected and unexpected outcomes among nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addicott, Merideth A; Oliver, Jason A; Joseph McClernon, F

    2017-04-01

    Tobacco has a higher rate of dependence than other drugs of abuse. However, the psychopharmacological effects of nicotine are incongruent with the tenacity of tobacco addiction since nicotine does not produce robust euphoria in humans or self-administration in rodents. A potential explanation is that nicotine amplifies the salience of other stimuli that have some incentive value, which could influence the initiation and persistence of smoking. However, the neural mechanisms of this process are unknown. One way that nicotine may amplify the salience of other stimuli is by enhancing reward prediction errors. We hypothesized that nicotine would enhance the neural response to unexpected (relative to expected) rewards compared to placebo. Twenty-three nonsmokers underwent two fMRI scans, following nicotine (1 mg) or placebo administration, while performing an outcome expectation task. In the task, a pair of cues was associated with either a subsequent reward (the image of a $100 bill) or a nonreward (the image of a blurry rectangle). On 20% of trials, the cue was followed by an unexpected outcome. Although nicotine did not affect the magnitude of prediction errors relative to placebo, nicotine did increase BOLD activation in the anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus and decrease activation in the caudate across all outcome types (including both rewards and nonrewards). The insula and caudate could play a role in the initial effects of nicotine in nonsmokers, and these changes in baseline may be the mechanism that underlies how nicotine amplifies the salience of nondrug stimuli.

  14. Disrupted directed connectivity along the cingulate cortex determines vigilance after sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantoni, Giovanni; Cheung, Bing Leung P.; Van Veen, Barry D.; Romeijn, Nico; Riedner, Brady A.; Tononi, Giulio; Van Der Werf, Ysbrand D.; Van Someren, Eus J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The cingulate cortex is regarded as the backbone of structural and functional connectivity of the brain. While its functional connectivity has been intensively studied, little is known about its effective connectivity, its modulation by behavioral states, and its involvement in cognitive performance. Given their previously reported effects on cingulate functional connectivity, we investigated how eye-closure and sleep deprivation changed cingulate effective connectivity, estimated from resting-state high-density electroencephalography (EEG) using a novel method to calculate Granger Causality directly in source space. Effective connectivity along the cingulate cortex was dominant in the forward direction. Eyes-open connectivity in the forward direction was greater compared to eyes-closed, in well-rested participants. The difference between eyes-open and eyes-closed connectivity was attenuated and no longer significant after sleep deprivation. Individual variability in the forward connectivity after sleep deprivation predicted subsequent task performance, such that those subjects who showed a greater increase in forward connectivity between the eyes-open and the eyes-closed periods also performed better on a sustained attention task. Effective connectivity in the opposite, backward, direction was not affected by whether the eyes were open or closed or by sleep deprivation. These findings indicate that the effective connectivity from posterior to anterior cingulate regions is enhanced when a well-rested subject has his eyes open compared to when they are closed. Sleep deprivation impairs this directed information flow, proportional to its deleterious effect on vigilance. Therefore, sleep may play a role in the maintenance of waking effective connectivity. PMID:23643925

  15. Convergence of limbic input to the cingulate motor cortex in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Van Hoesen, G W

    1998-01-01

    Limbic system influences on motor behavior seem widespread, and could range from the initiation of action to the motivational pace of motor output. Motor abnormalities are also a common feature of psychiatric illness. Several subcortical limbic-motor entry points have been defined in recent years, but cortical entry points are understood poorly, despite the fact that a part of the limbic lobe, the cingulate motor cortex (area 24c or M3, and area 23c or M4), contributes axons to the corticospinal pathway. Using retrograde and anterograde tracers in rhesus monkeys, we investigated the ipsilateral limbic input to area 24c and adjacent area 23c. Limbic cortical input to areas 24c and 23c arise from cingulate areas 24a, 24b, 23a, 23b, and 32, retrosplenial areas 30 and 29, and temporal areas 35, TF and TH. Areas 24c and 23c were also interconnected strongly. The dysgranular part of the orbitofrontal cortex and insula projects primarily to area 24c while the granular part of the orbitofrontal cortex and insula projects primarily to area 23c. Afferents from cingulate area 25, the retrocalcarine cortex, temporal pole, entorhinal cortex, parasubiculum, and the medial part of area TH target primarily or only area 24c. Our findings indicate that a variety of telencephalic limbic afferents converge on cortex lining the lower bank and fundus of the anterior part of the cingulate sulcus. Because it is known that this cortex gives rise to axons ending in the spinal cord, facial nucleus, pontine gray, red nucleus, putamen, and primary and supplementary motor cortices, we suggest that the cingulate motor cortex forms a strategic cortical entry point for limbic influence on the voluntary motor system.

  16. Knee functions and a return to sports activity in competitive athletes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Y; Shirai, Y; Narita, T; Mori, A; Kobayashi, K

    2000-06-01

    We investigated knee functions and a return to sports in 50 competitive athlete patients treated with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using double-looped STG augmented by woven polyester at a 1-year follow-up. There were 25 males and 25 females with a mean age of 24.3 years (range: 19-39 years). The majority of preinjury sports were basketball, volleyball and soccer. Athletic rehabilitation including agility training and sports-specific training was started at 12 weeks. Fourty patients (80%) was rated as normal or nearly normal on the assessment of International Knee Documentation Commitee postoperatively. Fourty-eight patients (96%) obtained full range of motion, and the mean quadriceps muscle strength of the injured side was 91.3%of that of the uninjured side. As for a return to sports, 46 patients (92%) were able to do fully competitive sports at a mean of 8.1 postoperative months. These results suggest that arthroscopic reconstruction using augmented double-looped STG allows early athletic rehabilitation, and lead satisfactory outcome as well as a reliable and early return to preinjury level of sport activity for the majority of the competitive athlete patients.

  17. A COMPARISON OF TWO TAPING TECHNIQUES (KINESIO AND MCCONNELL) AND THEIR EFFECT ON ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN DURING FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Jenie; Dmochowska, Katarzyna; Scariah, Shiju; Varughese, Jincy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Anterior knee pain is a clinical syndrome characterized by pain experienced perceived over the anterior aspect of the knee that can be aggravated by functional activities such as stair climbing and squatting. Two taping techniques commonly used for anterior knee pain in the clinic include the McConnell Taping Technique (MT) and the Kinesio Taping® Method (KT®). Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of KT® and the MT versus no tape in subjects with anterior knee pain during a squat lift and stair climbing. Design: Pretest‐ posttest design. Participants: A total of 20 subjects (15 female, 5 male) with unilateral anterior knee pain were recruited. The mean age of the subjects was 24 (+/–3) years, with a mean weight of 160 (+/–28) pounds. Methods: Each participant was tested during two functional activities; a squat lift with a weighted box (10% of his/her body weight, plus the weight [8.5 pounds] of the box) and stair climbing under three conditions: 1) no tape, 2) MT and 3) KT®. Pain levels were assessed (verbally) using the 0‐10 Numeric Pain Intensity Scale. Results: The median (interquartile range [IQR]) pain during squat lift was 2 (2.75) for no tape, 1 (1) for KT®, and 0.5 (2) for McConnell, with no significant differences between the groups. During the stair activity the median (IQR) pain was 1.5 (2.75) for no tape, 1 (1.75) for KT®, and 1 (1.75) for MT with a significant difference (p=0.024) between the groups. Further analysis determined that the only a significant difference was (p=0.034) between the no tape and the KT® conditions. Conclusion: The results of this study found that both the KT® and the MT may be effective in reducing pain during stair climbing activities. Level of Evidence: Level 2, Prospective Cohort study PMID:23593548

  18. A comparison of two taping techniques (kinesio and mcconnell) and their effect on anterior knee pain during functional activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campolo, Marc; Babu, Jenie; Dmochowska, Katarzyna; Scariah, Shiju; Varughese, Jincy

    2013-04-01

    Anterior knee pain is a clinical syndrome characterized by pain experienced perceived over the anterior aspect of the knee that can be aggravated by functional activities such as stair climbing and squatting. Two taping techniques commonly used for anterior knee pain in the clinic include the McConnell Taping Technique (MT) and the Kinesio Taping® Method (KT®). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of KT® and the MT versus no tape in subjects with anterior knee pain during a squat lift and stair climbing. Pretest- posttest design. A total of 20 subjects (15 female, 5 male) with unilateral anterior knee pain were recruited. The mean age of the subjects was 24 (+/-3) years, with a mean weight of 160 (+/-28) pounds. Each participant was tested during two functional activities; a squat lift with a weighted box (10% of his/her body weight, plus the weight [8.5 pounds] of the box) and stair climbing under three conditions: 1) no tape, 2) MT and 3) KT®. Pain levels were assessed (verbally) using the 0-10 Numeric Pain Intensity Scale. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) pain during squat lift was 2 (2.75) for no tape, 1 (1) for KT®, and 0.5 (2) for McConnell, with no significant differences between the groups. During the stair activity the median (IQR) pain was 1.5 (2.75) for no tape, 1 (1.75) for KT®, and 1 (1.75) for MT with a significant difference (p=0.024) between the groups. Further analysis determined that the only a significant difference was (p=0.034) between the no tape and the KT® conditions. The results of this study found that both the KT® and the MT may be effective in reducing pain during stair climbing activities. Level 2, Prospective Cohort study.

  19. Altered movement patterns and muscular activity during single and double leg squats in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Trulsson, Anna; Miller, Michael; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Gummesson, Christina; Garwicz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals with Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury often show altered movement patterns, suggested to be partly due to impaired sensorimotor control. Here, we therefore aimed to assess muscular activity during movements often used in ACL-rehabilitation and to characterize associations between deviations in muscular activity and specific altered movement patterns, using and further exploring the previously developed Test for substitution Patterns (TSP). Methods Sixteen partici...

  20. Spatial Representations in Local Field Potential Activity of Primate Anterior Intraparietal Cortex (AIP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian J Lehmann

    Full Text Available The execution of reach-to-grasp movements in order to interact with our environment is an important subset of the human movement repertoire. To coordinate such goal-directed movements, information about the relative spatial position of target and effector (in this case the hand has to be continuously integrated and processed. Recently, we reported the existence of spatial representations in spiking-activity of the cortical fronto-parietal grasp network (Lehmann & Scherberger 2013, and in particular in the anterior intraparietal cortex (AIP. To further investigate the nature of these spatial representations, we explored in two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta how different frequency bands of the local field potential (LFP in AIP are modulated by grip type, target position, and gaze position, during the planning and execution of reach-to-grasp movements. We systematically varied grasp type, spatial target, and gaze position and found that both spatial and grasp information were encoded in a variety of frequency bands (1-13Hz, 13-30Hz, 30-60Hz, and 60-100Hz, respectively. Whereas the representation of grasp type strongly increased towards and during movement execution, spatial information was represented throughout the task. Both spatial and grasp type representations could be readily decoded from all frequency bands. The fact that grasp type and spatial (reach information was found not only in spiking activity, but also in various LFP frequency bands of AIP, might significantly contribute to the development of LFP-based neural interfaces for the control of upper limb prostheses.

  1. Structural and functional changes of the cingulate gyrus following traumatic brain injury: relation to attention and executive skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkley, Tricia L; Larson, Michael J; Bigler, Erin D; Good, Daniel A; Perlstein, William M

    2013-09-01

    Impairments of attention and executive functions are common sequelae of traumatic brain injury (TBI). The anterior cingulate is implicated in conflict-related task performance, such as the Stroop, and is susceptible to TBI-related injury due to its frontal location and proximity to the rough surface of the falx cerebri. We investigated the relationship between cingulate cortex volume and performance on tasks of selective attention and cognitive flexibility (single-trial Stroop and Auditory Consonant Trigrams [ACT]). Participants consisted of 12 adults with severe TBI and 18 controls. T1-weighted volumetric MRI data were analyzed using automated cortical reconstruction, segmentation, parcellation, and volume measurement. Cortical volume reductions were prominent bilaterally in frontal, temporal, and inferior parietal regions.Specific regional reduction of the cingulate cortex was observed only for cortical volume of right caudal anterior cingulate(cACC). The TBI group performed significantly worse than control participants on the Stroop and ACT tasks. Findings suggest that atrophy of the right cACC may contribute to reduced performance on executive function tasks, such as the Stroop and ACT, although this is likely but one node of an extensive brain network involved in these cognitive processes.

  2. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  3. ANABOLIC STEROIDS ALTER THE PHYSIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF AGGRESSION CIRCUITS IN THE LATERAL ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Thomas R.; Sikes, Robert W.; Melloni, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. PMID:26691962

  4. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  6. High-frequency oscillations and seizure activity and in the human anterior nucleus of the thalamus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rektor, I.; Doležalová, I.; Chrastina, J.; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Brázdil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, S1 (2015), s. 29-30 ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /31./. 05.09.2015-09.09.2015, Istanbul] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : high-frequency oscillations * anterior nucleus of the thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  7. Changes in fMRI activation in anterior hippocampus and motor cortex during memory retrieval after an intense exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gerd; Herbsleb, Marco; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Schumann, Andy; Köhler, Stefanie; Puta, Christian; Gabriel, Holger W; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Bär, Karl-Jürgen

    2017-03-01

    Strong evidence indicates that regular aerobic training induces beneficial effects on cognitive functions. The present controlled fMRI study was designed to investigate the impact of a short-term intense aerobic exercise on the pattern of functional activation during the retrieval of learned pair-associates in 17 young and healthy male adults compared to 17 matched control subjects. We further aimed to relate putative changes in hippocampal activation to postulated changes in the exercised-induced brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The supervised exercise program was performed on a bicycle ergometer and lasted six weeks, with three aerobic sessions per week. We found profound improvement of physical fitness in most subjects indicated by the target parameter 'individual anaerobic threshold'. Significant improvements in the cognitive performance were detected in the exercise group, but also in the control group. We observed significant differences in the activation pattern of the left anterior hippocampus during the pair-associates task after the intervention. We could also show a significant positive correlation between changes in exercise-induced BDNF and left anterior hippocampal activation. Moreover, we observed the brain's motor network to be significantly stronger activated after the exercise intervention. Thus, our results suggest BDNF dependent activation changes of the hippocampus in addition to previously described structural changes after exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moll, Jorge; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  9. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  10. Default-mode-like network activation in awake rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymin Upadhyay

    Full Text Available During wakefulness and in absence of performing tasks or sensory processing, the default-mode network (DMN, an intrinsic central nervous system (CNS network, is in an active state. Non-human primate and human CNS imaging studies have identified the DMN in these two species. Clinical imaging studies have shown that the pattern of activity within the DMN is often modulated in various disease states (e.g., Alzheimer's, schizophrenia or chronic pain. However, whether the DMN exists in awake rodents has not been characterized. The current data provides evidence that awake rodents also possess 'DMN-like' functional connectivity, but only subsequent to habituation to what is initially a novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI environment as well as physical restraint. Specifically, the habituation process spanned across four separate scanning sessions (Day 2, 4, 6 and 8. At Day 8, significant (p<0.05 functional connectivity was observed amongst structures such as the anterior cingulate (seed region, retrosplenial, parietal, and hippocampal cortices. Prior to habituation (Day 2, functional connectivity was only detected (p<0.05 amongst CNS structures known to mediate anxiety (i.e., anterior cingulate (seed region, posterior hypothalamic area, amygdala and parabracial nucleus. In relating functional connectivity between cingulate-default-mode and cingulate-anxiety structures across Days 2-8, a significant inverse relationship (r = -0.65, p = 0.0004 was observed between these two functional interactions such that increased cingulate-DMN connectivity corresponded to decreased cingulate anxiety network connectivity. This investigation demonstrates that the cingulate is an important component of both the rodent DMN-like and anxiety networks.

  11. Specialized core stability exercise: a neglected component of anterior cruciate ligament rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dong-liang; Li, Jing-long; Zhai, Hua; Wang, Hui-fang; Meng, Han; Wang, Yu-bin

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury has continued to increase over the last two decades. This injury is associated with abnormal gait patterns and osteoarthritis of the knee. In order to accelerate recovery, the introduction of core stability exercises into the rehabilitation program is proposed. The theory underlying the use of core stability exercise relates to the neuroplasticity that follows anterior cruciate ligament injury. Neuroplasticity in lumbar, thoracic, cervical and brain regions diminish activation in the contralateral thalamus, postparietal cortex, SM1, basal ganglia-external globus pallidus, SII, cingulated motor area, premotor cortex, and in the ipsilateral cerebellum and SM1 and increase activation in pre-SMA, SIIp, and pITG, indicating modifications of the CNS. In addition, the neuroplasticity can regulate the movement of trunk muscles, for example, sternocleidomastoid and lower trapezius muscles. Core stability also demonstrates a negative correlation with the incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injury. Therefore, we propose that core stability exercises may improve the rehabilitation of anterior cruciate ligament injuries by increasing core motor control. Specialized core stability exercises aimed at rectifying biomechanical problems associated with gait and core stability may play a key role in the management of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  12. Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Vincent; Krug, Marie K; Schooler, Jonathan W; Carter, Cameron S

    2009-11-01

    When our actions conflict with our prior attitudes, we often change our attitudes to be more consistent with our actions. This phenomenon, known as cognitive dissonance, is considered to be one of the most influential theories in psychology. However, the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Using a Solomon four-group design, we scanned participants with functional MRI while they argued that the uncomfortable scanner environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. We found that cognitive dissonance engaged the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula; furthermore, we found that the activation of these regions tightly predicted participants' subsequent attitude change. These effects were not observed in a control group. Our findings elucidate the neural representation of cognitive dissonance, and support the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in detecting cognitive conflict and the neural prediction of attitude change.

  13. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingenen, Bart; Janssens, Luc; Claes, Steven; Bellemans, Johan; Staes, Filip F

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies mainly focused on muscles at the operated knee after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, less on muscles around other joints of the operated and non-operated leg. The aim of this study was to investigate muscle activation onset times during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects. Lower extremity muscle activation onset times of both legs of 20 fully returned to sport anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed subjects and 20 non-injured control subjects were measured during the transition from double-leg stance to single-leg stance in eyes open and eyes closed conditions. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups and differences between legs within both groups, while controlling for peak center of pressure velocity. Significantly delayed muscle activation onset times were found in the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group compared to the control group for gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, vastus medialis obliquus, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings and gastrocnemius in both eyes open and eyes closed conditions (Panterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group, no significant different muscle activation onset times were found between the operated and non-operated leg (P>.05). Despite completion of rehabilitation and full return to sport, the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed group showed neuromuscular control deficits that were not limited to the operated knee joint. Clinicians should focus on relearning multi-segmental anticipatory neuromuscular control strategies after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L

    2011-01-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle...... function during match play. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue induced by a simulated handball match on neuromuscular strategy during a functional sidecutting movement, associated with the incidence of ACL injury. Fourteen female team handball players were tested...... for neuromuscular activity [electromyography (EMG)] during a sidecutting maneuver on a force plate, pre and post a simulated handball match. MVC was obtained during maximal isometric quadriceps and hamstring contraction. The simulated handball match consisted of exercises mimicking handball match activity. Whereas...

  15. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  16. Isometric hip abduction using a Thera-Band alters gluteus maximus muscle activity and the anterior pelvic tilt angle during bridging exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sil-Ah; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hyun

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of bridging with isometric hip abduction (IHA) using the Thera-Band on gluteus maximus (GM), hamstring (HAM), and erector spinae (ES) muscle activity; GM/HAM and GM/ES ratios; and the anterior pelvic tilt angle in healthy subjects. Twenty-one subjects participated in this study. Surface EMG was used to collect EMG data of GM, HAM, and ES muscle activities, and Image J software was used to measure anterior pelvic tilt angle. A paired t-test was used to compare GM, HAM, and ES muscle activity; the GM/HAM and GM/ES ratios; and the anterior pelvic tilt angle with and without IHA during the bridging exercise. GM muscle activity increased significantly and the anterior pelvic tilt angle decreased significantly during bridging with IHA using the Thera-Band (p 0.05). The results of this study suggest that bridging with IHA using the Thera-Band can be implemented as an effective method to facilitate GM muscle activity and reduce the anterior pelvic tilt angle. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Zakiniaeiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC, mid (MCC and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC, voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome. Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  18. How to Deal With Anterior Knee Pain in the Active Young Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Dye, Scott F

    Anterior knee pain (AKP) represents the most common reason to consult with a clinician who specializes in the knee. Despite the high incidence of the disorder, however, its etiology is still controversial. Many unnecessary surgeries that may damage the patient are done for this clinical entity. A PubMed search from 1995 through June 2016. Clinical review. Level 4. The etiology of AKP is multifactorial, and patients with AKP may therefore be divided into several subpopulations. The whole picture must be addressed for each patient to identify all potentially modifiable factors and to achieve better outcomes. Both pelvifemoral dysfunction and psychological factors that may affect the development and symptoms of AKP must be considered to identify therapeutic targets within the context of treatment. Patients presenting with AKP frequently respond well to load restriction that protects their knee and reduces pain during rehabilitation. Surgery should only be considered in very select cases. In a patient who has undergone previous patellar realignment surgery and experienced increased pain, iatrogenic medial patellar instability should be considered. The etiology of AKP is multifactorial, and several subpopulations of AKP patients exist and their treatment must be personalized. Normally, the focus is on the knee of a patient with AKP, and only that joint is examined. However, that focus can lead to overlooking other important etiological factors that may be present.

  19. [Effects of low anterior resection on colonic motor activity and defecation. An experimental study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iikura, M

    1995-06-01

    The functional disorder of defecation after low anterior resection (LAR) was studied from the aspect of colonic motility in an experiment with dogs using a strain gage transducer, and the following results were obtained: 1) In early phase after LAR, the frequency of the colonic contractile waves increased at the proximal and distal sites of the anastomosis in both subgroups of dogs denervated and innervated of hypogastric and pelvic nerves. The increase was more remarkable at the distal site of the anastomosis. Also, the contractile waves were not propagated across the anastomosis. 2) After LAR, strong colonic contractions occurred during defecation only at the distal anastomosis. Various patterns of contraction time required for defecation were demonstrated as compared to a single pattern in control dogs. 3) The frequency of the occurrence of colonic contractile waves and the propagation of the contraction tended to be normalized with time after LAR both in denervated and innervated groups, though the recovery was faster in the latter subgroup. 4) The frequency of defecation increased after LAR both in denervated and innervated groups compared to be in the control dogs, though more remarkable in the denervated groups. Although tended to be gradually normalized with time after LAR, the colectomized dogs required a long time for normalization of the frequency of defecation. These results suggested the significant effect of reduction in reservoir space and disturbed continuity of intramural plexus caused by colectomy. Less severity, however, of functional disorder of defecation and earlier recovery from colonic motility disorder in the subgroup of the dogs innervated of autonomic nerves indicated usefulness of retaining autonomic nerves in colectomy.

  20. Correlation between Traits of Emotion-Based Impulsivity and Intrinsic Default-Mode Network Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jizheng Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative urgency (NU and positive urgency (PU are implicated in several high-risk behaviors, such as eating disorders, substance use disorders, and nonsuicidal self-injury behavior. The current study aimed to explore the possible link between trait of urgency and brain activity at rest. We assessed the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI signal in 85 healthy volunteers. Trait urgency measures were related to ALFF in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, ventral and dorsal medial frontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus. In addition, trait urgency measures showed significant correlations with the functional connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus seed with the thalamus and midbrain region. These findings suggest an association between intrinsic brain activity and impulsive behaviors in healthy humans.

  1. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior insula (AI maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural

  2. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  3. Anterior cingulate serotonin 1B receptor binding is associated with emotional response inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Cunha-Bang, Sofi; Hjordt, Liv Vadskjær; Dam, Vibeke Høyrup

    2017-01-01

    -offender controls, completed an emotional Go/NoGo task requiring inhibition of prepotent motor responses to emotional facial expressions. We also measured cerebral serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR) binding with [11C]AZ10419369 positron emission tomography within regions of the frontal cortex. We hypothesized that 5......Serotonin has a well-established role in emotional processing and is a key neurotransmitter in impulsive aggression, presumably by facilitating response inhibition and regulating subcortical reactivity to aversive stimuli. In this study 44 men, of whom 19 were violent offenders and 25 were non......-HT1BR would be positively associated with false alarms (failures to inhibit nogo responses) in the context of aversive (angry and fearful) facial expressions. Across groups, we found that frontal cortex 5-HT1BR binding was positively correlated with false alarms when angry faces were go stimuli...

  4. Empathic Responsiveness in Amygdala and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Youths with Psychopathic Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Abigail A.; Finger, Elizabeth C.; Fowler, Katherine A.; Adalio, Christopher J.; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Schechter, Julia C.; Pine, Daniel S.; Decety, Jean; Blair, R. J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Psychopathic traits are associated with increases in antisocial behaviors such as aggression and are characterized by reduced empathy for others' distress. This suggests that psychopathic traits may also impair empathic pain sensitivity. However, whether psychopathic traits affect responses to the pain of others versus the self…

  5. Increased anterior cingulate cortex response precedes behavioural adaptation in anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Geisler, Daniel; Ritschel, Franziska; King, Joseph A.; Bernardoni, Fabio; Seidel, Maria; Boehm, Ilka; Runge, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Roessner, Veit; Smolka, Michael N.; Ehrlich, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) are characterised by increased self-control, cognitive rigidity and impairments in set-shifting, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to elucidate the neural correlates of behavioural adaptation to changes in reward contingencies in young acutely ill AN patients. Thirty-six adolescent/young adult, non-chronic female AN patients and 36 age-matched healthy females completed a wel...

  6. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Acheson, D.J.; Takashima, A.

    2013-01-01

    ulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and

  7. Transient inactivation of the anterior cingulate cortex in rats disrupts avoidance of a dynamic object

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svoboda, Jan; Lobellová, Veronika; Popelíková, Anna; Ahuja, Nikhil; Kelemen, Eduard; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 139, Mar 2017 (2017), s. 144-148 ISSN 1074-7427 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03627S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH14053 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : enemy avoidance * moving goal * navigation * avoidance * rat * robot Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.543, year: 2016

  8. Effects of aging on hippocampal and anterior temporal activations during successful retrieval of memory for face-name associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiura, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Nakagawa, Seishu; Shigemune, Yayoi; Kambara, Toshimune; Akitsuki, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Memory for face-name associations is an important type of memory in our daily lives, and often deteriorates in older adults. Although difficulty retrieving face-name associations is often apparent in the elderly, there is little neuroscientific evidence of age-related decline in this memory. The current fMRI study investigated differences in brain activations between healthy young and older adults during the successful retrieval of people's names (N) and job titles (J) associated with faces. During encoding, participants viewed unfamiliar faces, each paired with a job title and name. During retrieval, each learned face was presented with two job titles or two names, and participants were required to choose the correct job title or name. Retrieval success activity (RSA) was identified by comparing retrieval-phase activity for hits versus misses in N and J, and the RSAs in each task were compared between young and older adults. The study yielded three main findings. First, the hippocampus showed significant RSA in both tasks of N and J, and the activity was greater for young compared to older subjects. Second, the left anterior temporal lobe (ATL) showed greater RSA in N than in J, but there was no age difference in the activity in this region. Third, functional connectivity between hippocampal and ATL activities in both retrieval tasks was higher for young than for older adults. Taken together, age-related differences in hippocampal activities and hippocampus-ATL connectivity could contribute to age-related decline in relational memory and to complaints of poor retrieval of people's names by older adults.

  9. Influence of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on tibialis anterior activity during walking in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambour, Mélanie; Caux-Dedeystère, Alexandre; Devanne, Hervé; Defebvre, Luc; Derambure, Philippe; Delval, Arnaud

    2016-03-11

    To determine whether or not modulation of the excitability of the M1 region controlling the lower limb (using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; TMS) would change the TA's activity during gait and the effect of aging on this change. In three separate sessions, participants underwent different repetitive TMS (rTMS) protocols (sham stimulation, intermittent theta-burst stimulation (TBS) and continuous TBS) delivered over the M1 region controlling the lower limb muscles, using a focal, figure-of-eight coil. Before and after rTMS, the TA's activity was recorded using surface electrodes while participants walked at a freely chosen speed and at an imposed speed on a treadmill. Cortical excitability was assessed by characterizing input-output (IO) curves, after fitting the relationship between motor evoked potential amplitude and stimulus intensity with a Boltzmann sigmoidal equation. We did not observe any effects of rTMS in terms of TA activation during locomotion, gait parameters or IO curves in either healthy young adults or elderly adults. Elderly patients presented lower excitability of cortical TA representation area. Modulation of TA activity by TBS was ineffective contrary to what is observed for upper limbs. Interindividual variability in the effects of rTMS on TA activation, activation of the TA before the rTMS and/or differences in the depth of the cortical representation of the TA could have influenced the results and should be taken into account for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Shoes and a Prefabricated Medial Arch Support on Medial Gastrocnemius and Tibialis Anterior Activity while doing Leg Press Exercise in Normal Feet Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Sheikhi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, different types of exercise machines are being used in the field of athletic training, recreation, post-injury and post-operation rehabilitation. Leg press is a commonly-used one that retrains muscles and simulates natural functional activities. In this activity, feet are in contact with a footrest to exert muscular forces. In addition, the footrest inserts reactive forces to feet and from the feet load would transfer to structures that are more proximal. Any misalignment in foot structure may interfere its function. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of shoes and using a prefabricated medial arch support on the activity of Tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles while doing leg press exercise in normal feet subjects. Method: 14 men with normal Medial Longitudinal Arch and normal Body Mass Index aged between 18-35 years old, with at least 6 months experience of doing leg press volunteered to participate in this study.  Medial gastrocnemius and Tibialis anterior activity were measured by surface electromyography while doing leg press with 70% of subjects 1 Repetition Maximum.  To increase accuracy, motion was divided into knee flexion and knee extension phases. Peak Amplitude, Time to Peak Amplitude and Root Mean Square variables were used for analysis. Wilcoxon nonparametric test was used to compare the results. Results: No statistically significant difference was found in the electromyographic parameters of Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in any phases of motion, except for an increase in Tibialis anterior time to peak amplitude in shod condition compared with barefoot in knee extension phase of motion (p-value=0.008 and Tibialis anterior RMS in knee flexion phase in orthotic condition compared to shod (p-value=0.03. Conclusion: It seems that in high loads shoes or medial arch supports cannot change electromyographic parameters in Medial gastrocnemius nor Tibialis anterior in

  11. Muscle Activity Onset Prior to Landing in Patients after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Rada, Isabel; Brau, Amélie; Gette, Paul; Seil, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Muscle activation during landing is paramount to stabilise lower limb joints and avoid abnormal movement patterns. Delayed muscle activity onset measured by electromyography (EMG) has been suggested to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to test the hypothesis if ACL-injured patients display different results for muscle onset timing during standard deceleration tasks compared to healthy control participants. PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were systematically searched over the period from January 1980 to February 2015, yielding a total of 1461 citations. Six studies meeting inclusion criteria underwent quality assessment, data extraction and re-computing procedures for the meta-analysis. The quality was rated “moderate” for 2 studies and “poor” for 4. Patients included and procedures used were highly heterogeneous. The tasks investigated were single leg hopping, decelerating from running or walking, tested on a total of 102 ACL-injured participants and 86 controls. EMG analyses of the muscles vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, lateral and medial hamstrings revealed trivial and non-significant standardised mean differences (SMD0.05) between patients and control participants. Furthermore, no differences were found between the contralateral leg of patients and controls for muscle activity onset of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (SMD0.05). Based on 3 studies, the involved legs of ACL-injured patients showed overall earlier muscle activity onset compared to control participants for the medial gastrocnemius (SMD = 0.5; p = 0.05). Similar results were found for the lateral gastrocnemius (SMD = 2.1; pACL-injured patients and healthy controls regarding the muscle activity onset during landing. However, current evidence is scarce and weak, which highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:27166929

  12. 17β-Estradiol Induced Effects on Anterior Cruciate Ligament Laxness and Neuromuscular Activation Patterns in Female Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowailed, Iman Akef; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha; Mohamed, Olfat

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the effects of 17β-Estradiol across phases of menstrual cycle on the laxness of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the neuromuscular control patterns around the knee joint in female runners. Twelve healthy female runners who reported normal menstrual cycles for the previous 6 months were tested twice across one complete menstrual cycle for serum levels of 17β-estradiol, and knee joint laxity (KJL). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was also recorded during running on a treadmill. The changes in the EMG activity, KJL, and hormonal concentrations were recorded for each subject during the follicular and the ovulatory phases across the menstrual cycle. An observed increase in KJL in response to peak estradiol during the ovulatory phase was associated with increased preactivity of the hamstring muscle before foot impact (pquadriceps muscle recruitment pattern throughout the follicular phase associated with decreased hamstring recruitment pattern during weight acceptance phase of running (p=0.02). Additionally, a low ratio of medial to lateral quadriceps recruitment was associated with a significant reduction of the quadriceps to hamstring co-contraction ratio during the follicular phase. Changes in KJL during the menstrual cycle in response to 17β-estradiol fluctuations changes the neuromuscular control around the knee during running. Female runners utilize different neuromuscular control strategies during different phases of the menstrual cycle, which may contribute to increased ACL injury risk.

  13. Epilepsy surgery of the cingulate gyrus and the frontomesial cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Lehe, Marec; Wagner, Jan; Wellmer, Joerg; Clusmann, Hans; Kral, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Epilepsy surgery involving the cingulate gyrus has been mostly presented as case reports, and larger series with long-term follow-up are not published yet. To report our experience with focal epilepsy arising from the cingulate gyrus and surrounding structures and its surgical treatment. Twenty-two patients (mean age, 36; range, 12-63) with a mean seizure history of 23 years (range, 2-52) were retrospectively analyzed. We report presurgical diagnostics, surgical strategy, and postoperative follow-up concerning functional morbidity and seizures (mean follow-up, 86 months; range, 25-174). Nineteen patients showed potential epileptogenic lesions on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All patients had noninvasive presurgical workup; 15 (68%) underwent invasive Video-electroencephalogram (EEG)-Monitoring. In 12 patients we performed extended lesionectomy according to MRI; an extension with regard to EEG results was done in 6 patients. In 4 patients, the resection was incomplete because of the involvement of eloquent areas according to functional mapping results. Eight pure cingulate resections (36%, 3 in the posterior cingulate gyrus) and 14 extended supracingular frontal resections were performed. Nine patients experienced temporary postoperative supplementary motor area syndrome after resection in the superior frontal gyrus. Two patients retained a persistent mild hand or leg paresis, respectively. Postoperatively, 62% of patients were seizure-free (International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] 1), and 76% had a satisfactory seizure outcome (ILAE 1-3). Epilepsy surgery for lesions involving the cingulate gyrus represents a small fraction of all epilepsy surgery cases, with good seizure outcome and low rates of postoperative permanent deficits. In case of extended supracingular resection, supplementary motor area syndrome should be considered.

  14. Patient-reported knee function, quality of life, and activity level after bilateral anterior cruciate ligament injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fältström, Anne; Hägglund, Martin; Kvist, Joanna

    2013-12-01

    About 12% of patients who have undergone primary anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction sustain a contralateral ACL injury within 5 years. To investigate patient-reported knee function, quality of life, and activity level in patients with bilateral ACL injuries. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A search of hospital records identified 147 patients, aged 18 to 45 years, with bilateral ACL injuries. Of these, 83 met the inclusion criteria, having had their first ACL injury up to 12 years ago with no other major injuries to the knee joint. Sixty-six of these patients (80% of total; 47% female; mean age, 29.1 ± 7.2 years) answered a questionnaire packet. Patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction (n = 182) were used for comparison. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had a median Lysholm knee score of 82 (range, 34-100). The mean EuroQol index (EQ-5D) score of the overall health status was 0.77 ± 0.22, and the mean EQ-5D visual analog scale score was 75.5 ± 17.6. The median Tegner activity level was 9 (range, 1-9) before any injuries, 7 (range, 1-9) before the second ACL injury, and 4 (range, 1-9) at the time of follow-up. The activity level before the second injury was higher compared with the follow-up for patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. At follow-up, 23% of the patients with bilateral ACL injuries returned to their previous activity, and 12% of patients returned to the same level as before their injuries compared with 43% (P = .004) and 28% (P = .01) in patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction, respectively. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries had significantly lower values in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscales for pain, function in sports and recreation, and knee-related quality of life as well as the ACL Deficiency Quality of Life (ACL-QOL) score compared with patients who had undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction. Patients with bilateral ACL injuries reported

  15. Segregated parallel inputs to the brachial spinal cord from the cingulate motor cortex in the monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, R J; Louie, J L; Schroeder, C M; Avramov, K

    1997-12-22

    The corticospinal projection from the cingulate motor cortex to the lower cervical enlargement (C5-T1) was investigated in four rhesus monkeys. Each received an injection of biotinylated dextran amine involving the arm representation of M3 (area 24c) or M4 (area 23c). In M3 cases, contralateral terminal label occurred in the lateral part of laminae V and VI of the intermediate zone including the reticulated marginal border. Lighter labeling was found in laminae IV, VII and the dorsolateral part of the anterior horn (lamina IX). In marked contrast, M4 cases demonstrated contralateral terminal labeling in the medial part of the dorsal and intermediate zones (laminae III, IV, V and VI). Lighter labeling involved the medial part of laminae VII, X and the dorsolateral anterior horn (lamina IX). Our experiments demonstrate that the corticospinal projection from the arm representations of M3 and M4 innervate distinct and separate parts of the spinal gray. Along with the noted differences in the cortical inputs to M3 and M4, these data suggest that the two cingulospinal systems may mediate independent and specialized forms of information effecting upper limb movement.

  16. Effects of nicorandil on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity after reperfusion therapy in patients with first anterior acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Suzuki, Tadashi; Kurabayashi, Masahiko [Gunma University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Kumakura, Hisao; Takayama, Yoshiaki; Ichikawa, Shuichi [Cardiovascular Hospital of Central Japan, Gunma (Japan)

    2005-03-01

    Ischaemic preconditioning (PC) is a cardioprotective phenomenon in which short periods of myocardial ischaemia result in resistance to decreased contractile dysfunction during a subsequent period of sustained ischaemia. Nicorandil, an ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener, can induce PC effects on sympathetic nerves during myocardial ischaemia. However, its effects on cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) and left ventricular remodelling have not been determined. In this study, we sought to determine whether nicorandil administration improves CSNA in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We studied 58 patients with first anterior AMI, who were randomly assigned to receive nicorandil (group A) or isosorbide dinitrate (group B) after primary coronary angioplasty. The nicorandil or isosorbide dinitrate was continuously infused for >48 h. The extent score (ES) was determined from {sup 99m}Tc-pyrophosphate scintigraphy, and the total defect score (TDS) was determined from {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy 3-5 days after primary angioplasty. The left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were determined by left ventriculography 2 weeks later. The delayed heart/mediastinum count (H/M) ratio, delayed TDS and washout rate (WR) were determined from {sup 123}I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) images 3 weeks later. The left ventriculography results were re-examined 6 months after treatment. Fifty patients originally enrolled in the trial completed the entire protocol. After treatment, no significant differences were observed in ES or left ventricular parameters between the two groups. However, in group A (n=25), the TDSs determined from {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-MIBG were significantly lower (26{+-}6 vs 30{+-}5, P<0.01, and 32{+-}8 vs 40{+-}6, P<0.0001, respectively), the H/M ratio significantly higher (1.99{+-}0.16 vs 1.77{+-}0.30, P<0.005) and the WR significantly lower (36%{+-}8% vs 44%{+-}12%, P<0.005) than in group B

  17. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, J. B.

    2011-01-01

    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance. PMID:21248058

  18. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  19. In vivo posterior cruciate ligament elongation in running activity after anatomic and non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Thorhauer, Eric; Bowman, Karl; Fu, Freddie H; Tashman, Scott

    2017-04-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) investigate the in vivo elongation behaviour of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) during running in the uninjured knee and (2) evaluate changes in PCL elongation during running after anatomic or non-anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Seventeen unilateral ACL-injured subjects were recruited after undergoing anatomic (n = 9) or non-anatomic (n = 8) ACL reconstruction. Bilateral high-resolution CT scans were obtained to produce 3D models. Anterolateral (AL) and posteromedial (PM) bundles insertion sites of the PCL were identified on the 3D CT scan reconstructions. Dynamic knee function was assessed during running using a dynamic stereo X-ray (DSX) system. The lengths of the AL and PM bundles were estimated from late swing through mid-stance. The contralateral knees served as normal controls. Control knees demonstrated a slight decrease in AL bundle and a significant decrease in PM bundle length following foot strike. Length and elongation patterns of the both bundles of the PCL in the anatomic ACL reconstruction group were similar to the controls. However, the change in dynamic PCL length was significantly greater in the non-anatomic group than in the anatomic reconstruction group after foot strike (p < 0.05). The AL bundle length decreased slightly, and the PM bundle length significantly decreased after foot strike during running in uninjured knees. Anatomic ACL reconstruction maintained normal PCL elongation patterns more effectively than non-anatomic ACL reconstruction during high-demand, functional loading. These results support the use of anatomic ACL reconstruction to achieve normal knee function in high-demand activities. Case-control study, Level III.

  20. Structural and functional differences in the cingulate cortex relate to disease severity in anorexia nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Karl-Jürgen; de la Cruz, Feliberto; Berger, Sandy; Schultz, Carl Christoph; Wagner, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background The dysfunction of specific brain areas might account for the distortion of body image in patients with anorexia nervosa. The present study was designed to reveal brain regions that are abnormal in structure and function in patients with this disorder. We hypothesized, based on brain areas of altered activity in patients with anorexia nervosa and regions involved in pain processing, an interrelation of structural aberrations in the frontoparietal–cingulate network and aberrant functional activation during thermal pain processing in patients with the disorder. Methods We determined pain thresholds outside the MRI scanner in patients with anorexia nervosa and matched healthy controls. Thereafter, thermal pain stimuli were applied during fMRI imaging. Structural analyses with high-resolution structural T1-weighted volumes were performed using voxel-based morphometry and a surface-based approach. Results Twenty-six patients and 26 controls participated in our study, and owing to technical difficulties, 15 participants in each group were included in our fMRI analysis. Structural analyses revealed significantly decreased grey matter volume and cortical thickness in the frontoparietal–cingulate network in patients with anorexia nervosa. We detected an increased blood oxygen level–dependent signal in patients during the painful 45°C condition in the midcingulate and posterior cingulate cortex, which positively correlated with increased pain thresholds. Decreased grey matter and cortical thickness correlated negatively with pain thresholds, symptom severity and illness duration, but not with body mass index. Limitations The lack of a specific quantification of body image distortion is a limitation of our study. Conclusion This study provides further evidence for confined structural and functional brain abnormalities in patients with anorexia nervosa in brain regions that are involved in perception and integration of bodily stimuli. The association of

  1. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Anterior Knee Pain (Chondromalacia Patellae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, James G.

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a pragmatic approach to the definition, diagnosis, and management of anterior knee pain. Symptoms and treatment are described. Emphasis is on active involvement of the patient in the rehabilitation exercise program. (IAH)

  3. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it is...

  4. Direct Recordings from Human Anterior Insula Reveal its Leading Role within the Error-Monitoring Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Julien; Deman, Pierre; David, Olivier; Gueguen, Maëlle; Benis, Damien; Minotti, Lorella; Hoffman, Dominique; Combrisson, Etienne; Kujala, Jan; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-02-01

    The ability to monitor our own errors is mediated by a network that includes dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and anterior insula (AI). However, the dynamics of the underlying neurophysiological processes remain unclear. In particular, whether AI is on the receiving or driving end of the error-monitoring network is unresolved. Here, we recorded intracerebral electroencephalography signals simultaneously from AI and dmPFC in epileptic patients while they performed a stop-signal task. We found that errors selectively modulated broadband neural activity in human AI. Granger causality estimates revealed that errors were immediately followed by a feedforward influence from AI onto anterior cingulate cortex and, subsequently, onto presupplementary motor area. The reverse pattern of information flow was observed on correct responses. Our findings provide the first direct electrophysiological evidence indicating that the anterior insula rapidly detects and conveys error signals to dmPFC, while the latter might use this input to adapt behavior following inappropriate actions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Changes in cue-induced, prefrontal cortex activity with video-game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Yang Soo; Lee, Yong Sik; Min, Kyung Joon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2010-12-01

    Brain responses, particularly within the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices, to Internet video-game cues in college students are similar to those observed in patients with substance dependence in response to the substance-related cues. In this study, we report changes in brain activity between baseline and following 6 weeks of Internet video-game play. We hypothesized that subjects with high levels of self-reported craving for Internet video-game play would be associated with increased activity in the prefrontal cortex, particularly the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one healthy university students were recruited. At baseline and after a 6-week period of Internet video-game play, brain activity during presentation of video-game cues was assessed using 3T blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Craving for Internet video-game play was assessed by self-report on a 7-point visual analogue scale following cue presentation. During a standardized 6-week video-game play period, brain activity in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex of the excessive Internet game-playing group (EIGP) increased in response to Internet video-game cues. In contrast, activity observed in the general player group (GP) was not changed or decreased. In addition, the change of craving for Internet video games was positively correlated with the change in activity of the anterior cingulate in all subjects. These changes in frontal-lobe activity with extended video-game play may be similar to those observed during the early stages of addiction.

  6. Single- vs. double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a new aspect of knee assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamara, Andrzej; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Szuba, Łukasz; Widuchowski, Wojciech; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have compared single-bundle (SB) and double-bundle (DB) anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the knee joint during activities involving change-of-direction maneuvers and knee rotation. This study examined whether the type of ACLR contributes to postphysiotherapy outcomes, with an emphasis on knee function assessment during activities involving dynamic knee rotation. Fifteen male patients after SB ACLR and 15 male patients after DB ACLR took part in the same physiotherapy program. Twenty-four weeks after ACLR, both groups underwent anterior laxity measurement, pivot shift tests, range of movement and joint circumference measurements, subjective assessment of pain and stability levels in the knee joint, peak torque measurement of the muscles rotating the tibia toward the femur, and a run test with maximal speed and change-of-direction maneuvers. Comparative analysis did not show any differences between the results of anterior tibial translation, pivot shift test, range of movement and joint circumference, and subjective assessment of pain and knee joint stability levels. No differences were noted between the groups in peak torque values obtained from the muscles responsible for internal and external tibial rotation or results of the run test. The data obtained from this study can be used by research teams to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various study protocols involving surgical and physiotherapy treatment. The data are especially useful when combined with the clinical assessment of patients who would like to return to sport.

  7. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Grosskreutz, Julian; Prell, Tino; Kaufmann, Jörn; Bodammer, Nils; Peschel, Thomas

    2014-01-07

    Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS "only" (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded.

  8. Tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite strong evidence that the pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome (TS) involves structural and functional disturbances of the basal ganglia and cortical frontal areas, findings from in vivo imaging studies have provided conflicting results. In this study we used whole brain diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways and brain tissue in 19 unmedicated, adult, male patients with TS “only” (without comorbid psychiatric disorders) and 20 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Results Compared to normal controls, TS patients showed a decrease in the fractional anisotropy index (FA) bilaterally in the medial frontal gyrus, the pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, the middle occipital gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus, and the medial premotor cortex. Increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were detected in the left cingulate gyrus, prefrontal areas, left precentral gyrus, and left putamen. There was a negative correlation between tic severity and FA values in the left superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, cingulate gyrus bilaterally, and ventral posterior lateral nucleus of the right thalamus, and a positive correlation in the body of the corpus callosum, left thalamus, right superior temporal gyrus, and left parahippocampal gyrus. There was also a positive correlation between regional ADC values and tic severity in the left cingulate gyrus, putamen bilaterally, medial frontal gyrus bilaterally, left precentral gyrus, and ventral anterior nucleus of the left thalamus. Conclusions Our results confirm prior studies suggesting that tics are caused by alterations in prefrontal areas, thalamus and putamen, while changes in the cingulate gyrus seem to reflect secondary compensatory mechanisms. Due to the study design, influences from comorbidities, gender, medication and age can be excluded. PMID:24397347

  9. Anterior insula signals inequalities in a modified Ultimatum Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xuemei; Zheng, Li; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yijie; Guo, Xiuyan; Yang, Guang

    2017-04-21

    Studies employing the Ultimatum Game (UG) which involves two parties (i.e., proposers and responders) splitting some money have suggested the role that anterior insula (AI) plays in detecting fairness norm violation, i.e., violation of the responder's expectation of receiving equal splits from the proposer. In this study, we explored how AI would respond when there existed simultaneously another expectation of being treated equivalently as others. Participants acted as responders and would be informed about both the offers they received and the average amount of money the same proposer offered to others. Hence we introduced different conditions where participants were treated equivalently or not equivalently as other responders in UG. Participants could decide to accept or reject the offer with acceptance leading to the suggested split and rejection leaving both parties nothing. Behavioral results showed that participants rejected more unfair offers and reacted more slowly during acceptance (vs. rejection) of offers when they were offered less than others. At the neural level, stronger AI activation was observed when participants received unfair relative to fair offers, as well as when they received unequal relative to equal offers. Moreover, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmPFC/dACC) exhibited greater activity during receiving unequal (vs. equal) offers and during acceptance (vs. rejection) of offers which were less than others'. Taken together, the present study demonstrated that the treatment of others modulated both behavioral responses to unfairness and neural correlates of the fairness-related decision-making process, and that AI played a general role in detecting norm violations. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A role for primate subgenual cingulate cortex in sustaining autonomic arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudebeck, Peter H; Putnam, Philip T; Daniels, Teresa E; Yang, Tianming; Mitz, Andrew R; Rhodes, Sarah E V; Murray, Elisabeth A

    2014-04-08

    The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (subgenual ACC) plays an important role in regulating emotion, and degeneration in this area correlates with depressed mood and anhedonia. Despite this understanding, it remains unknown how this part of the prefrontal cortex causally contributes to emotion, especially positive emotions. Using Pavlovian conditioning procedures in macaque monkeys, we examined the contribution of the subgenual ACC to autonomic arousal associated with positive emotional events. After such conditioning, autonomic arousal increases in response to cues that predict rewards, and monkeys maintain this heightened state of arousal during an interval before reward delivery. Here we show that although monkeys with lesions of the subgenual ACC show the initial, cue-evoked arousal, they fail to sustain a high level of arousal until the anticipated reward is delivered. Control procedures showed that this impairment did not result from differences in autonomic responses to reward delivery alone, an inability to learn the association between cues and rewards, or to alterations in the light reflex. Our data indicate that the subgenual ACC may contribute to positive affect by sustaining arousal in anticipation of positive emotional events. A failure to maintain positive affect for expected pleasurable events could provide insight into the pathophysiology of psychological disorders in which negative emotions dominate a patient's affective experience.

  11. Thalamocortical projection from the parafascicular nucleus to layer V pyramidal cells in frontal and cingulate areas of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, G; Pianca, L; Tredici, G

    1996-01-19

    Thalamocortical projections originating from the parafascicular nucleus were reinvestigated using biocytin or biotylinated dextran amine as anterograde tracers in the rat. After stereotaxic injection of the marker in the lateral part of the parafascicular nucleus, labelled ascending fibres were observed running ipsilaterally to the frontal motor and anterior cingulate areas. Labelled fibres gave rise in layer VI to a plexus of thin ramifications ending in layer V, where sparse boutons en passant and terminaux were seen in close apposition to pyramidal cells. Few retrogradely labelled pyramidal somata, contacted by labelled varicosities, were also observed. Electron microscopy demonstrated the synaptic nature of the labelled contacts, displaying asymmetrical junctions and a round vesicular content. The direct loop parafascicular-motor cortex-parafascicular may be of great functional significance in motor control.

  12. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and 18F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Bailly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, using FreeSurfer. Methods. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC were included. MRI and PET images using 18F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr was measured. Results. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p<0.05; mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion. We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of 18F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker.

  13. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and (18)F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Matthieu; Destrieux, Christophe; Hommet, Caroline; Mondon, Karl; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Beaufils, Emilie; Vierron, Emilie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Ibazizene, Méziane; Voisin, Thierry; Payoux, Pierre; Barré, Louisa; Camus, Vincent; Guilloteau, Denis; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using FreeSurfer. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC)) were included. MRI and PET images using (18)F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq) were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr) was measured. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p < 0.05); mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p < 0.05). We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI) and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of (18)F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker.

  14. Precuneus and Cingulate Cortex Atrophy and Hypometabolism in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: MRI and 18F-FDG PET Quantitative Analysis Using FreeSurfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, Matthieu; Destrieux, Christophe; Hommet, Caroline; Mondon, Karl; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Beaufils, Emilie; Vierron, Emilie; Vercouillie, Johnny; Ibazizene, Méziane; Voisin, Thierry; Payoux, Pierre; Barré, Louisa; Camus, Vincent; Guilloteau, Denis; Ribeiro, Maria-Joao

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to compare glucose metabolism and atrophy, in the precuneus and cingulate cortex, in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), using FreeSurfer. Methods. 47 individuals (17 patients with AD, 17 patients with amnestic MCI, and 13 healthy controls (HC)) were included. MRI and PET images using 18F-FDG (mean injected dose of 185 MBq) were acquired and analyzed using FreeSurfer to define regions of interest in the hippocampus, amygdala, precuneus, and anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Regional volumes were generated. PET images were registered to the T1-weighted MRI images and regional uptake normalized by cerebellum uptake (SUVr) was measured. Results. Mean posterior cingulate volume was reduced in MCI and AD. SUVr were different between the three groups: mean precuneus SUVr was 1.02 for AD, 1.09 for MCI, and 1.26 for controls (p < 0.05); mean posterior cingulate SUVr was 0.96, 1.06, and 1.22 for AD, MCI, and controls, respectively (p < 0.05). Conclusion. We found graduated hypometabolism in the posterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus in prodromal AD (MCI) and AD, whereas atrophy was not significant. This suggests that the use of 18F-FDG in these two regions could be a neurodegenerative biomarker. PMID:26346648

  15. Neural Activity During Mental Rotation in Deaf Signers: The Influence of Long-Term Sign Language Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Hong-Bo; Zhang, Hui-Hong; Wu, Qiu-Lin; Zhang, Jiong; Yin, Jing-Jing; Ma, Shu-Hua

    2018-01-02

    Mental rotation is the brain's visuospatial understanding of what objects are and where they belong. Previous research indicated that deaf signers showed behavioral enhancement for nonlinguistic visual tasks, including mental rotation. In this study, we investigated the neural difference of mental rotation processing between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The participants performed a block-designed experiment, consisting of alternating blocks of comparison and rotation periods, separated by a baseline or fixation period. Mental rotation tasks were performed using three-dimensional figures. fMRI images were acquired during the entire experiment, and the fMRI data were analyzed with Analysis of Functional NeuroImages. A factorial design analysis of variance was designed for fMRI analyses. The differences of activation were analyzed for the main effects of group and task, as well as for the interaction of group by task. The study showed differences in activated areas between deaf signers and hearing nonsigners on the mental rotation of three-dimensional figures. Subtracting activations of fixation from activations of rotation, both groups showed consistent activation in bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, and bilateral posterior temporal lobe. There were different main effects of task (rotation versus comparison) with significant activation clusters in the bilateral precuneus, the right middle frontal gyrus, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus, the right interior frontal gyrus, the right superior frontal gyrus, the right anterior cingulate, and the bilateral posterior cingulate. There were significant interaction effects of group by task in the bilateral anterior cingulate, the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left superior frontal gyrus, the left posterior cingulate, the left middle temporal gyrus, and the right inferior parietal lobe. In simple effects of deaf

  16. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  17. CYP2A6 Genetic Variation Alters Striatal-Cingulate Circuits, Network Hubs, and Executive Processing in Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sufang; Yang, Yihong; Hoffmann, Ewa; Tyndale, Rachel F; Stein, Elliot A

    2017-04-01

    Variation in the CYP2A6 gene alters the rate of nicotine metabolic inactivation and is associated with smoking behaviors and cessation success rates. The underlying neurobiological mechanisms of this genetic influence are unknown. Intrinsic functional connectivity strength, a whole-brain, data-driven, graph theory-based method, was applied to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 66 smokers and 92 nonsmokers. A subset of subjects (n = 23/20; smokers/nonsmokers) performed the monetary incentive delay task, probing reward anticipation, and a go/no-go task, probing response inhibition, on two occasions, in the presence and absence of a nicotine patch. A significant CYP2A6 genotype × smoking effect was found in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum, such that the normal (vs. slow) genotype individuals showed greater functional connectivity strength among smokers but not nonsmokers. Functional connectivity strength was negatively associated with severity of nicotine dependence in slow metabolizers. Both hubs were biased by inputs from the insula identified from seed-based connectivity. Similar gene × environment interactions were seen in ventral striatum during smoking abstinence when subjects performed the monetary incentive delay task and in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex when they performed the go/no-go task; both reductions were "normalized" in smokers (and increased in nonsmokers) after acute nicotine administration. Because the CYP2A6 effect was seen only in smokers, these data suggest that the rate of nicotine metabolism-and thus the concentration of nicotine presented to the brain over the course of nicotine addiction-shapes brain circuits that, among other functions, compute reward and impulsivity processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Disrupting posterior cingulate connectivity disconnects consciousness from the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies including both patients with disorders of consciousness and healthy subjects with modified states of consciousness suggest a crucial role of the medial posteroparietal cortex in conscious information processing. However no direct neuropsychological evidence supports this hypothesis and studies including patients with restricted lesions of this brain region are almost non-existent. Using direct intraoperative electrostimulations, we showed in a rare patient that disrupting the subcortical connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) reliably induced a breakdown in conscious experience. This acute phenomenon was mainly characterized by a transient behavioral unresponsiveness with loss of external connectedness. In all cases, when he regained consciousness, the patient described himself as in dream, outside the operating room. This finding suggests that functional integrity of the PPC connectivity is necessary for maintaining consciousness of external environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Music in minor activates limbic structures: a relationship with dissonance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Anders C; Baerentsen, Klaus B; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Wallentin, Mikkel; Roepstorff, Andreas; Vuust, Peter

    2008-05-07

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we contrasted major and minor mode melodies controlled for liking to study the neural basis of musical mode perception. To examine the influence of the larger dissonance in minor melodies on neural activation differences, we further introduced a strongly dissonant stimulus, in the form of a chromatic scale. Minor mode melodies were evaluated as sadder than major melodies, and in comparison they caused increased activity in limbic structures, namely left parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral ventral anterior cingulate, and in left medial prefrontal cortex. Dissonance explained some, but not all, of the heightened activity in the limbic structures when listening to minor mode music.

  20. Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Deficits Reduce Glucose Metabolism and Function of Cholinergic and GABAergic Systems in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da Un; Oh, Jin Hwan; Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jihyeon; Cho, Zang Hee; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok

    2016-01-01

    Reduced brain glucose metabolism and basal forebrain cholinergic neuron degeneration are common features of Alzheimer's disease and have been correlated with memory function. Although regions representing glucose hypometabolism in patients with Alzheimer's disease are targets of cholinergic basal forebrain neurons, the interaction between cholinergic denervation and glucose hypometabolism is still unclear. The aim of the present study was to evaluate glucose metabolism changes caused by cholinergic deficits. We lesioned basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in rats using 192 immunoglobulin G-saporin. After 3 weeks, lesioned animals underwent water maze testing or were analyzed by ¹⁸F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography. During water maze probe testing, performance of the lesioned group decreased with respect to time spent in the target quadrant and platform zone. Cingulate cortex glucose metabolism in the lesioned group decreased, compared with the normal group. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity and glutamate decarboxylase 65/67 expression declined in the cingulate cortex. Our results reveal that spatial memory impairment in animals with selective basal forebrain cholinergic neuron damage is associated with a functional decline in the GABAergic and cholinergic system associated with cingulate cortex glucose hypometabolism.

  1. A 3D active-passive numerical skeletal muscle model incorporating initial tissue strains. Validation with experimental results on rat tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J; Ramírez, A; Osta, R; Muñoz, M J; Soteras, F; Calvo, B

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of skeletal muscle and its validation incorporating inital tissue strains. A constitutive relation was determined by using a convex free strain energy function (SEF) where active and passive response contributions were obtained fitting experimental data from the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The passive and active finite strains response was modelled within the framework of continuum mechanics by a quasi-incompressible transversely isotropic material formulation. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to reconstruct the external geometry of the TA. This geometry includes initial strains also taken into account in the numerical model. The numerical results show excellent agreement with the experimental results when comparing reaction force-extension curves both in passive and active tests. The proposed constitutive model for the muscle is implemented in a subroutine in the commercial finite element software package ABAQUS.

  2. Measuring individual hierarchy of anxiety invoking sports related activities: development and validation of the Photographic Series of Sports Activities for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (PHOSA-ACLR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankveld, W. van; Melick, N. van; Habets, B.; Roelofsen, E.; Staal, J.B.; Cingel, R.E. van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fear of harm (FoH) after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACLR) should be addressed in physical therapy as it hampers return to sports. However, there are no instruments assessing FoH specific for ACLR. The objective of this study is to describe the development and measurement

  3. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Joensson, Morten; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity...... causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self......-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented...

  4. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  5. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun; Kim, Kyung Yo

    2004-01-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  6. Anterior knee pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLopis, Eva [Hospital de la Ribera, Alzira, Valencia (Spain) and Carretera de Corbera km 1, 46600 Alzira Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: ellopis@hospital-ribera.com; Padron, Mario [Clinica Cemtro, Ventisquero de la Condesa no. 42, 28035 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: mario.padron@clinicacemtro.com

    2007-04-15

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries.

  7. Are articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears predictive of IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity level outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A 6-year multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Charles L; Huston, Laura J; Dunn, Warren R; Reinke, Emily K; Nwosu, Samuel K; Parker, Richard D; Wright, Rick W; Kaeding, Christopher C; Marx, Robert G; Amendola, Annunziata; McCarty, Eric C; Spindler, Kurt P

    2014-05-01

    Identifying risk factors for inferior outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is important for prognosis and future treatment. Articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears/treatment would predict International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) (all 5 subscales), and Marx activity level at 6 years after ACLR. Cohort study (prognosis); Level of evidence, 1. Between 2002 and 2004, a total of 1512 ACLR patients were prospectively enrolled and followed longitudinally, with the IKDC, KOOS, and Marx activity score completed at entry, 2 years, and 6 years. A logistic regression model was built incorporating variables from patient demographics, surgical technique, articular cartilage injuries, and meniscus tears/treatment to determine the predictors (risk factors) of IKDC and KOOS scores and Marx activity level at 6 years. A minimum follow-up on 86% (1307/1512) of the cohort was completed at 6 years. The cohort was 56% male and had a median age of 23 years at the time of enrollment, with 76% reporting a noncontact injury mechanism. Incidence of concomitant injury at the time of surgery consisted of the following: articular cartilage (medial femoral condyle [MFC], 25%; lateral femoral condyle [LFC] 20%; medial tibial plateau [MTP], 6%; lateral tibial plateau [LTP], 12%; patella, 20%; trochlear, 9%) and meniscus (medial, 38%; lateral, 46%). Both articular cartilage lesions and meniscus tears were significant predictors of 6-year outcomes on the IKDC and KOOS. Grade 3 or 4 articular cartilage lesions (excluding patella) significantly reduced IKDC and KOOS scores at 6 years. The IKDC demonstrated worse outcomes with the presence of a grade 3 or 4 chondral lesion on the MFC, MTP, and LFC. Likewise, the KOOS score was negatively affected by cartilage injury. The sole significant predictor of reduced Marx activity level was the presence of a grade 4 lesion on the MFC. Lateral meniscus repairs

  8. Correlation between the result from arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and the return to sports activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the return to pre-injury sports activity in a group of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, in relation to age, sex, body mass index (BMI and associations with upper-limb fractures.METHODS:A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using an ipsilateral graft from the thigh flexor tendons, between July 2000 and November 2007, was analyzed.RESULTS:A total of 176 patients was evaluated after a mean period of 34.95 ± 18.8 months (median: 31 months (interquartile range: 20-48 months. The minimum evaluation period was 12 months and the maximum was 87 months. The number of patients who returned to their sports activity prior to tearing the ACL was 121/176 (68.8%. Patients under 30 years of age more frequently returned to sports activity and this was considered significant: p = 0.016; odds ratio, OR = 0.44 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.22-0.86. Returning to previous sports activity more frequently was not considered significant for male sex (p = 0.273, individuals with BMI < 25 (p = 0.280 or patients with an ACL injury unrelated to an initial traumatic episode with upper-limb fracturing (p = 0.353.CONCLUSIONS:The rate of return to the sports activity prior to ACL injury was 68.8%. It was found that patients under the age of 30 years had a significantly greater rate of return to sports activity after the surgery. In relation to sex, BMI and association with an initial traumatic episode of upper-limb fracturing, there was no statistical difference in the return to sports activity.

  9. Effects of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain on Muscle Activation During Landing and Jumping Performed at Various Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihong; Denning, W Matt; Pitt, Jordan D; Francom, Devin; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2017-01-01

    Although knee pain is common, some facets of this pain are unclear. The independent effects (ie, independent from other knee injury or pathology) of knee pain on neural activation of lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping have not been observed. To investigate the independent effects of knee pain on lower-extremity muscle (gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus) activation amplitude during landing and jumping, performed at 2 different intensities. Laboratory-based, pretest, posttest, repeated-measures design, where all subjects performed both data-collection sessions. Thirteen able-bodied subjects performed 2 different land and jump tasks (forward and lateral) under 2 different conditions (control and pain), at 2 different intensities (high and low). For the pain condition, experimental knee pain was induced via a hypertonic saline injection into the right infrapatellar fat pad. Functional linear models were used to evaluate the influence of experimental knee pain on muscle-activation amplitude throughout the 2 land and jump tasks. Experimental knee pain independently altered activation for all of the observed muscles during various parts of the 2 different land and jump tasks. These activation alterations were not consistently influenced by task intensity. Experimental knee pain alters activation amplitude of various lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping. The nature of the alteration varies between muscles, intensities, and phases of the movement (ie, landing and jumping). Generally, experimental knee pain inhibits the gastrocnemius, medial hamstring, and gluteus medius during landing while independently increasing activation of the same muscles during jumping.

  10. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D S

    2017-05-01

    The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies- maintaining emotional images, words, or feelings- might account for these discrepant results. We also examined whether differences in EWM performance were related to general intelligence (IQ), emotional intelligence (EI), and emotional awareness (EA). We found that maintaining emotional feelings, even when accounting for neural activation attributable to maintaining emotional images/words, still activated a left lateral frontal-parietal network (including the anterior insula and posterior dorsomedial frontal cortex). We also found that individual differences in the ability to maintain feelings were positively associated with IQ and EA, but not with EI. These results suggest that maintaining the feelings of others (at least when perceived exteroceptively) involves similar frontal-parietal control networks to exteroceptive WM, and that it is similarly linked to IQ, but that it also may be an important component of EA. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Improving anterior deltoid activity in a musculoskeletal shoulder model - an analysis of the torque-feasible space at the sternoclavicular joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, David; Engelhardt, Christoph; Farron, Alain; Terrier, Alexandre; Müllhaupt, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Modelling the shoulder's musculature is challenging given its mechanical and geometric complexity. The use of the ideal fibre model to represent a muscle's line of action cannot always faithfully represent the mechanical effect of each muscle, leading to considerable differences between model-estimated and in vivo measured muscle activity. While the musculo-tendon force coordination problem has been extensively analysed in terms of the cost function, only few works have investigated the existence and sensitivity of solutions to fibre topology. The goal of this paper is to present an analysis of the solution set using the concepts of torque-feasible space (TFS) and wrench-feasible space (WFS) from cable-driven robotics. A shoulder model is presented and a simple musculo-tendon force coordination problem is defined. The ideal fibre model for representing muscles is reviewed and the TFS and WFS are defined, leading to the necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a solution. The shoulder model's TFS is analysed to explain the lack of anterior deltoid (DLTa) activity. Based on the analysis, a modification of the model's muscle fibre geometry is proposed. The performance with and without the modification is assessed by solving the musculo-tendon force coordination problem for quasi-static abduction in the scapular plane. After the proposed modification, the DLTa reaches 20% of activation.

  12. Structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to white matter lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M. Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Reduced structural integrity of ACC tracts appears to be important in UCP, in particular the connection to the superior frontal gyrus. Although damage to this area is heterogeneous it may be important in early identification of children with impaired executive function.

  13. GABA Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Fear Network Function and Fear Recovery in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M. C.; Puts, Nicolaas A. J.; Denys, Damiaan; van Wingen, Guido A.

    2017-01-01

    Relapse of fear after successful treatment is a common phenomenon in patients with anxiety disorders. Animal research suggests that the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the maintenance of extinguished fear. Here, we combined magnetic resonance

  14. Foraging Value, Risk Avoidance, and Multiple Control Signals: How the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Controls Value-based Decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua W; Alexander, William H

    2017-10-01

    Recent work on the role of the ACC in cognition has focused on choice difficulty, action value, risk avoidance, conflict resolution, and the value of exerting control among other factors. A main underlying question is what are the output signals of ACC, and relatedly, what is their effect on downstream cognitive processes? Here we propose a model of how ACC influences cognitive processing in other brain regions that choose actions. The model builds on the earlier Predicted Response Outcome model and suggests that ACC learns to represent specifically the states in which the potential costs or risks of an action are high, on both short and long timescales. It then uses those cost signals as a basis to bias decisions to minimize losses while maximizing gains. The model simulates both proactive and reactive control signals and accounts for a variety of empirical findings regarding value-based decision-making.

  15. GABA Concentrations in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Fear Network Function and Fear Recovery in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levar, Nina; van Leeuwen, Judith M C; Puts, Nicolaas A J; Denys, Damiaan; Van Wingen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Relapse of fear after successful treatment is a common phenomenon in patients with anxiety disorders. Animal research suggests that the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a key role in the maintenance of extinguished fear. Here, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy

  16. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  17. The neural mechanisms of affect infusion in social economic decision-making: a mediating role of the anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlé, Katia M; Chang, Luke J; van 't Wout, Mascha; Sanfey, Alan G

    2012-05-15

    Though emotions have been shown to have sometimes dramatic effects on decision-making, the neural mechanisms mediating these biases are relatively unexplored. Here, we investigated how incidental affect (i.e. emotional states unrelated to the decision at hand) may influence decisions, and how these biases are implemented in the brain. Nineteen adult participants made decisions which involved accepting or rejecting monetary offers from others in an Ultimatum Game while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Prior to each set of decisions, participants watched a short video clip aimed at inducing either a sad or neutral emotional state. Results demonstrated that, as expected, sad participants rejected more unfair offers than those in the neutral condition. Neuroimaging analyses revealed that receiving unfair offers while in a sad mood elicited activity in brain areas related to aversive emotional states and somatosensory integration (anterior insula) and to cognitive conflict (anterior cingulate cortex). Sad participants also showed a diminished sensitivity in neural regions associated with reward processing (ventral striatum). Importantly, insular activation uniquely mediated the relationship between sadness and decision bias. This study is the first to reveal how subtle mood states can be integrated at the neural level to influence decision-making. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J A M; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobágyi, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often without appropriate control groups. We measured a broad array of neuromuscular functions between legs of ACL patients and compared outcomes to age, sex, and physical activity matched controls. Thirty-two ACL-deficient patients (208 ± 145 days post-injury) and active and less-active controls (N = 20 each) participated in the study. We measured single- and multi-joint neuromuscular function in both legs in each group and expressed the overall neuromuscular function in each leg by calculating a mean z-score across all neuromuscular measures. A group by leg MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to examine group and leg differences for the selected outcomes. After an ACL injury, duration (-4.3 h/week) and level (Tegner activity score of -3.9) of sports activity decreased and was comparable to less-active controls. ACL patients showed bilateral impairments in the star excursion balance test compared to both control groups (P ≤ 0.004) and for central activation ratio compared to active controls (P ≤ 0.002). There were between-leg differences within each group for maximal quadriceps and hamstring strength, voluntary quadriceps activation, star excursion balance test performance, and single-leg hop distance (all P quadriceps force accuracy and variability, knee joint proprioception, and static balance. Overall neuromuscular function (mean z-score) did not differ between groups, but ACL patients' non-injured leg displayed better neuromuscular function than the injured leg (P quadriceps activation, ACL patients had no bilateral neuromuscular deficits despite reductions in physical activity after injury. Therapists can use the non-injured leg as a reference to assess the

  19. Atrophy is associated with posterior cingulate white matter disruption in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firbank, Michael J; Blamire, Andrew M; Krishnan, Mani S; Teodorczuk, Andrew; English, Philip; Gholkar, Anil; Harrison, Roger; O'Brien, John T

    2007-05-15

    Hippocampal atrophy and posterior cingulate hypometabolism are common features of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). These regions show correlated activity at rest as part of the 'default network', and they are connected by the cingulum, a white matter (WM) tract. We hypothesised that hippocampal atrophy would be associated with disruption of the cingulum, as determined by diffusion tensor imaging. We recruited 15 people with AD, 16 with DLB, and 15 healthy control subjects of similar age. They were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI system with a T1 weighted 3D sequence and diffusion tensor FLAIR imaging. The T1 images were segmented into grey and white matter and spatially normalised using SPM. Hippocampal atrophy was estimated by calculating the mean grey matter (GM) volume from a region of interest in standard space and global atrophy from the total CSF segmentation. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were calculated and also spatially normalised. Using SPM, a multivariate correlation of FA against hippocampal GM, global atrophy and disease group was performed. We found a bilateral region adjacent to the posterior cingulate and encompassing a branch of the cingulum where global atrophy correlated with fractional anisotropy, after controlling for diagnosis and hippocampal GM. The results suggest that dementia disease progression as measured by global atrophy is associated with disruption of the white matter which connects posterior cingulate and lateral parietal regions. Hence, in addition to the hypometabolism in these regions in AD and DLB, there is also disruption to the white matter connecting them. Future studies are needed to determine whether the disruption precedes or is consequent on atrophy or hypometabolism.

  20. Activation of a chondrocyte volume-sensitive Cl(-) conductance prior to macroscopic cartilage lesion formation in the rabbit knee anterior cruciate ligament transection osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, K; Toyoda, F; Staunton, C A; Maeda, T; Okumura, N; Matsuura, H; Matsusue, Y; Imai, S; Barrett-Jolley, R

    2016-10-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) rabbit osteoarthritis (OA) model confers permanent knee instability and induces joint degeneration. The degeneration process is complex, but includes chondrocyte apoptosis and OA-like loss of cartilage integrity. Previously, we reported that activation of a volume-sensitive Cl(-) current (ICl,vol) can mediate cell shrinkage and apoptosis in rabbit articular chondrocytes. Our objective was therefore to investigate whether ICl,vol was activated in the early stages of the rabbit ACLT OA model. Adult Rabbits underwent unilateral ACLT and contralateral arthrotomy (sham) surgery. Rabbits were euthanized at 2 or 4 weeks. Samples were analyzed histologically and with assays of cell volume, apoptosis and electrophysiological characterization of ICl,vol. At 2 and 4 weeks post ACLT cartilage appeared histologically normal, nevertheless cell swelling and caspase 3/7 activity were both significantly increased compared to sham controls. In cell-volume experiments, exposure of chondrocytes to hypotonic solution led to a greater increase in cell size in ACLT compared to controls. Caspase-3/7 activity, an indicator of apoptosis, was elevated in both ACLT 2wk and 4wk. Whole-cell currents were recorded with patch clamp of chondrocytes in iso-osmotic and hypo-osmotic external solutions under conditions where Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) currents were minimized. ACLT treatment resulted in a large increase in hypotonic-activated chloride conductance. Changes in chondrocyte ion channels take place prior to the onset of apparent cartilage loss in the ACLT rabbit model of OA. Further studies are needed to investigate if pharmacological inhibition of ICl,vol decreases progression of OA in animal models. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Empathy for pain-related dorsolateral prefrontal activity is modulated by angry face perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Amirie, Scharbanu; Brüne, Martin

    2016-11-01

    Empathy, i.e., the ability to perceive and share another person's affective state, is associated with activity in a complex neural network, including the anterior insula, the anterior and mid-cingulate cortex, and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here, we were interested in the question how facial emotions influence the activation of the 'pain network'. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neuronal correlates of empathy for pain and its interaction with emotional face recognition in 20 healthy subjects. We identified various brain regions commonly associated with empathy for pain, including the right mid-cingulate cortex, the left anterior insula (AI), and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC), with an increased neuronal response in the left dlPFC after the presentation of angry faces. Furthermore, a negative correlation between psychological measures of alexithymia and empathy for pain-related brain activity was observed in the left AI. The dlPFC is an important brain region involved in cognitive reappraisal or in 'top-down' control of the limbic system. Our findings could therefore reflect a regulatory response associated with distancing from negatively valenced stimuli. Moreover, our results underline the involvement of the AI in empathy for pain responses and their relationship to alexithymia.

  2. Anterior ankle impingement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, Johannes L.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2006-01-01

    The anterior ankle impingement syndrome is a clinical pain syndrome that is characterized by anterior ankle pain on (hyper) dorsiflexion. The plain radiographs often are negative in patients who have anteromedial impingement. An oblique view is recommended in these patients. Arthroscopic excision of

  3. Atraumatic Anterior Dislocation of the Hip Joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiko Ohtsuru

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dislocation of the hip joint in adults is usually caused by high-energy trauma such as road traffic accidents or falls from heights. Posterior dislocation is observed in most cases. However, atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint is extremely rare. We present a case of atraumatic anterior dislocation of the hip joint that was induced by an activity of daily living. The possible causes of this dislocation were anterior capsule insufficiency due to developmental dysplasia of the hip, posterior pelvic tilt following thoracolumbar kyphosis due to vertebral fracture, and acetabular anterior coverage changes by postural factor. Acetabular anterior coverage changes in the sagittal plane were measured using a tomosynthesis imaging system. This system was useful for elucidation of the dislocation mechanism in the present case.

  4. Deactivation of medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex in anxiety disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaohu; Wang Peijun; Dong Ningxin; Li Chunbo; Wu Wenyuan; Hu Zhenghui; Tang Xiaowei

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We used blood oxygenation level dependent-functional MR imaging (BOLD- fMRI) to explore the characteristics of deactivation patterns in patients with anxiety disorders and the underlying neural mechanism of this disease. Methods: Ten patients and ten healthy controls participated the experiments. All subjects performed the trait portion of the State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) prior to the fMRI scans. The subjects underwent noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging while listening actively to emotionally neutral words alternating with no words (experiment 1) and threat related-words alternating with emotionally neutral words (experiment2). During fMRI scanning, subjects were instructed to closely listen to each stimuli word and to silently make a judgment of the word's valence. Data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99). Individual and group analysis were conducted. Results: Mean STAI-T score was significantly higher for patients group than that of controls (58 ± 8 for patients group and 33 ± 5 for controls, t=8.3, P<0.01). Our fMRI data revealed sets of deactivation brain regions in Experiment for patients and healthy controls, however, the deactivation can be found in experiment 2 only for patients. Interestingly, all the observed deactivation patterns were similar. The related areas compromise medial prefrontal cortex(BA 10, BA 24/32), posterior cingulate (BA 31/30) and Bilateral inferior parietal cortex (MPFC) (BA 39/40), which nearly overlapping with the organized default model network. Further more, the mean t values in the MPFC area (BA 24/32) was significantly higher for control group than that of patient (5.1 controls and 4.2 for patients, t=4.8, P=0.006), conversely, the mean t values in the posterior cingulate cortex(PCC) area was significantly higher for patients l than that of controls (4.9 controls and 5.8 for patients, t=2.4, P=0.026). Conclusion: Our observations suggest that the default model network

  5. Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention.

  6. Ketamine-dependent neuronal activation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höflich, Anna; Hahn, Andreas; Küblböck, Martin; Kranz, Georg S; Vanicek, Thomas; Ganger, Sebastian; Spies, Marie; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Winkler, Dietmar; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2017-04-01

    Over the last years, a number of studies have been conducted to clarify the neurobiological correlates of ketamine application. However, comprehensive information regarding the influence of ketamine on cortical activity is still lacking. Using resting-state functional MRI and integrating pharmacokinetic information, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study was performed to determine the effects of ketamine on neuronal activation. During a 55 min resting-state fMRI scan, esketamine (Ketanest S ® ) was administered intravenously to 35 healthy volunteers. Neural activation as indicated by the BOLD signal using the pharmacokinetic curve of ketamine plasma levels as a regressor was computed. Compared with placebo, ketamine-dependent increases of neural activation were observed in the midcingulate cortex, the dorsal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, the insula bilaterally, and the thalamus (t values ranging between 5.95-9.78, p ketamine condition compared to placebo was found in a cluster within the subgenual/subcallosal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the gyrus rectus (t = 7.81, p ketamine could be revealed.

  7. [Anterior chest wall examination reviewed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Monaco, A; Santilli, D; Trotta, F

    2002-01-01

    Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondyloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the "activity" of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  8. High lateral plantar pressure is related to an increased tibialis anterior/fibularis longus activity ratio in patients with recurrent lateral ankle sprain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mineta S

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Shinshiro Mineta,1 Takayuki Inami,2 Raldy Mariano,3 Norikazu Hirose4 1Graduate School of Sport Sciences, 2Institute of Physical Education, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama, 3Graduate School of Asia-Pacific Studies, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 4Faculty of Sport Sciences, Waseda University, Higashifushimi, Nishitokyo, Japan Introduction: Center of pressure (COP is a sudden displacement at the time of a lateral ankle sprain (LAS. It has been suggested that the distribution of plantar pressure and the quantity of COP displacement are important for assessing the risk of LAS. Therefore, we evaluated the plantar pressure during a single-leg balance test with eyes closed (SLB-C to identify the factors and characteristics of plantar pressure in people with repeated cases of LAS.Methods: We recruited 22 collegiate athletes and divided them into an instability group (IG; n=11 and a control group (CG; n=11. We measured the distribution of plantar pressure and lower extremity muscle activity during a SLB-C along with static alignment and isometric ankle strength.Results: The fibularis longus (FL activity was significantly lower in the IG than in the CG. The lateral plantar pressure (LPP/medial plantar pressure (MPP ratio was also higher in the IG than in the CG. In addition, the LPP/MPP ratio was correlated with the tibialis anterior (TA/FL ratio.Conclusion: These results suggest that increased lateral plantar pressure is related to decreased FL activity and increased TA/FL ratio. Keywords: chronic ankle instability, ankle sprain, postural stability, soccer, prevention

  9. GATA4 is a direct transcriptional activator of cyclin D2 and Cdk4 and is required for cardiomyocyte proliferation in anterior heart field-derived myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anabel; Kong, Sek Won; Agarwal, Pooja; Gilliss, Brian; Pu, William T; Black, Brian L

    2008-09-01

    The anterior heart field (AHF) comprises a population of mesodermal progenitor cells that are added to the nascent linear heart to give rise to the majority of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and outflow tract in mammals and birds. The zinc finger transcription factor GATA4 functions as an integral member of the cardiac transcription factor network in the derivatives of the AHF. In addition to its role in cardiac differentiation, GATA4 is also required for cardiomyocyte replication, although the transcriptional targets of GATA4 required for proliferation have not been previously identified. In the present study, we disrupted Gata4 function exclusively in the AHF and its derivatives. Gata4 AHF knockout mice die by embryonic day 13.5 and exhibit hypoplasia of the right ventricular myocardium and interventricular septum and display profound ventricular septal defects. Loss of Gata4 function in the AHF results in decreased myocyte proliferation in the right ventricle, and we identified numerous cell cycle genes that are dependent on Gata4 by microarray analysis. We show that GATA4 is required for cyclin D2, cyclin A2, and Cdk4 expression in the right ventricle and that the Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 promoters are bound and activated by GATA4 via multiple consensus GATA binding sites in each gene's proximal promoter. These findings establish Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 as direct transcriptional targets of GATA4 and support a model in which GATA4 controls cardiomyocyte proliferation by coordinately regulating numerous cell cycle genes.

  10. Mechanism of Activating the Proprioceptive NT-3/TrkC Signalling Pathway by Reverse Intervention for the Anterior Cruciate Ligament–Hamstring Reflex Arc with Electroacupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL is an important structure maintaining stability of the knee joints. Deficits in physical stability and the proprioceptive capabilities of the knee joints are observed, when the ACL is damaged. Additionally, a unilateral ACL injury can affect bilateral knee proprioception; therefore, proprioception of the ACL may play a key role in stability. Electroacupuncture therapy has a definite effect nerve regeneration. In this study, cynomolgus monkeys were randomly divided into 4 groups: the model control group, intervention of the injured knee with electroacupuncture (IIKE group, intervention of the bilateral knees with electroacupuncture (IBKE group, and the blank control group. The unilateral ACL injury model was developed in IIKE and IBKE groups; acupuncture points around the knees underwent intervention similarly in the IIKE and IBKE groups. Then, mRNA and protein expressions of NT-3 and TrkC in the dorsal root ganglion and of growth-associated protein-43 in the ACL increased according to reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting results. Decreased incubations and increased amplitudes were found for somatosensory-evoked potentials and motor nerve conduction velocity. The finding indicates that electroacupuncture may play an important role in the recovery of proprioception in the ACL by activating the NT-3/TrkC signalling pathway.

  11. Involvement of posterior cingulate cortex in ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingyi; Leung, L Stan

    2018-02-15

    The involvement of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) on ketamine-induced psychosis relevant behaviors was investigated in rats. Bilateral infusion of muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist, into the PCC significantly antagonized ketamine-induced deficit in prepulse inhibition of a startle reflex (PPI), deficit in gating of hippocampal auditory evoked potentials, and behavioral hyperlocomotion in a dose dependent manner. Local infusion of ketamine directly into the PCC also induced a PPI deficit. Systemic injection of ketamine (3mg/kg,s.c.) induced an increase in power of electrographic activity in the gamma band (30-100Hz) in both the PCC and the hippocampus; peak theta (4-10Hz) power was not significantly altered, but peak theta frequency was increased by ketamine. In order to exclude volume conduction from the hippocampus to PCC, inactivation of the hippocampus was made by local infusion of muscimol into the hippocampus prior to ketamine administration. Muscimol in the hippocampus effectively blocked ketamine-induced increase of gamma power in the hippocampus but not in the PCC, suggesting independent generation of gamma waves in PCC and hippocampus. It is suggested that the PCC is part of the brain network mediating ketamine-induced psychosis related behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    OpenAIRE

    F. Trotta; D. Santilli; A. Lo Monaco

    2011-01-01

    Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as er...

  13. Meditation leads to reduced default mode network activity beyond an active task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kathleen A; Zeffiro, Thomas A; Scheinost, Dustin; Constable, R Todd; Brewer, Judson A

    2015-09-01

    Meditation has been associated with relatively reduced activity in the default mode network, a brain network implicated in self-related thinking and mind wandering. However, previous imaging studies have typically compared meditation to rest, despite other studies having reported differences in brain activation patterns between meditators and controls at rest. Moreover, rest is associated with a range of brain activation patterns across individuals that has only recently begun to be better characterized. Therefore, in this study we compared meditation to another active cognitive task, both to replicate the findings that meditation is associated with relatively reduced default mode network activity and to extend these findings by testing whether default mode activity was reduced during meditation, beyond the typical reductions observed during effortful tasks. In addition, prior studies had used small groups, whereas in the present study we tested these hypotheses in a larger group. The results indicated that meditation is associated with reduced activations in the default mode network, relative to an active task, for meditators as compared to controls. Regions of the default mode network showing a Group × Task interaction included the posterior cingulate/precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex. These findings replicate and extend prior work indicating that the suppression of default mode processing may represent a central neural process in long-term meditation, and they suggest that meditation leads to relatively reduced default mode processing beyond that observed during another active cognitive task.

  14. [Comparison of early clinical effects between Activ C cervical disc replacement and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for single-level cervical spondylosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong-ke; Zhang, Chang-jiang; Wang, Ming-jun; Yang, Xian-yu; Li, Lai-hao

    2015-11-01

    To compare the early clinical effects of Activ C cervical disc replacement (ACDR) and anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in treating single-level cervical spondylosis. The clinical data of 76 patients with single-level cervical spondylosis underwent surgery from July 2009 to September 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Among them, 28 patients were treated with ACDR (ACDR group), including 18 males and 10 females, aged from 32 to 62 years old with an average of (45.2±6.2) years; and 48 patients were treated with ACDF (ACDF group), including 28 males and 20 females, aged from 33 to 60 years old with an average of (45.8±6.4) years. Visual analogue scale (VAS), Japanese Orthopedics Association (JOA) score, Short Form-36 (SF-36), imaging data were used to assess the clinical effects after operation. A total of 76 patients were followed up from 6 to 24 months with an average of 13.2 months. VAS of neck pain and brachialgia were improved in all patients after operation (P0.05). Somato-score and psycho-score of SF-36 of two groups were obviously increased (P0.05); heterotopic ossification around the edge of vertebral body occurred in 1 case on the 6th month after operation, no fusion was found on the 1st year after operation. In ACDF group, the adjacent vertebral disease occurred in 1 case and the patient underwent the reoperation. Activ C cervical disc replacement can reduce the degeneration of adjacent segments and its early outcomes for the treatment of single-level cervical spondylosis are satisfactory, but the long-term effects still need study.

  15. Brain activation during compassion meditation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Maria; Söderfeldt, Birgitta

    2010-05-01

    B.L. is a Tibetan Buddhist with many years of compassion meditation practice. During meditation B.L. uses a technique to generate a feeling of love and compassion while reciting a mantra. The aim of the present study was to investigate the neural correlates of compassion meditation in 1 experienced meditator. B.L. was examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging during compassion meditation, applying a paradigm with meditation and word repetition blocks. The most significant finding was the activation in the left medial prefrontal cortex extending to the anterior cingulate gyrus. Other significant loci of activation were observed in the right caudate body extending to the right insula and in the left midbrain close to the hypothalamus. The results in this study are in concordance with the hypothesis that compassion meditation is accompanied by activation in brain areas involved with empathy as well as with happy and pleasant feelings (i.e., the left medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate gyrus).

  16. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Hyun Sub; Chung, Young Sun; Suh, Chee Jang; Won, Jong Jin

    1985-01-01

    Two cases of congenital anterior urethral diverticular which have occurred in a 4 year old and one month old boy are presented. Etiology, diagnostic procedures, and its clinical results are briefly reviewed

  17. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thighbone where the kneecap normally rests is too shallow. You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is ... the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should ...

  18. Identifying anterior segment crystals.

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, I W; Brooks, A M; Reinehr, D P; Grant, G B; Gillies, W E

    1991-01-01

    A series of 22 patients with crystals in the anterior segment of the eye was examined by specular microscopy. Of 10 patients with hypermature cataract and hyperrefringent bodies in the anterior chamber cholesterol crystals were identified in four patients and in six of the 10 in whom aspirate was obtained cholesterol crystals were demonstrated in three, two of these having shown crystals on specular microscopy. In 10 patients with intracorneal crystalline deposits, cholesterol crystals were f...

  19. Hypnosis and pain perception: An Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Casale, Antonio; Ferracuti, Stefano; Rapinesi, Chiara; De Rossi, Pietro; Angeletti, Gloria; Sani, Gabriele; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Girardi, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    Several studies reported that hypnosis can modulate pain perception and tolerance by affecting cortical and subcortical activity in brain regions involved in these processes. We conducted an Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on functional neuroimaging studies of pain perception under hypnosis to identify brain activation-deactivation patterns occurring during hypnotic suggestions aiming at pain reduction, including hypnotic analgesic, pleasant, or depersonalization suggestions (HASs). We searched the PubMed, Embase and PsycInfo databases; we included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional neuroimaging and hypnosis-modulated pain perception. The ALE meta-analysis encompassed data from 75 healthy volunteers reported in 8 functional neuroimaging studies. HASs during experimentally-induced pain compared to control conditions correlated with significant activations of the right anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's Area [BA] 32), left superior frontal gyrus (BA 6), and right insula, and deactivation of right midline nuclei of the thalamus. HASs during experimental pain impact both cortical and subcortical brain activity. The anterior cingulate, left superior frontal, and right insular cortices activation increases could induce a thalamic deactivation (top-down inhibition), which may correlate with reductions in pain intensity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Alterations of brain activity in fibromyalgia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaddiruk, Passakorn; Paiboonworachat, Sahattaya; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-04-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic pain syndrome, characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain with diffuse tenderness at multiple tender points. Despite intense investigations, the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia remains elusive. Evidence shows that it could be due to changes in either the peripheral or central nervous system (CNS). For the CNS changes, alterations in the high brain area of fibromyalgia patients have been investigated but the definite mechanisms are still unclear. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Functional Magnetic Resonance (fMRI) have been used to gather evidence regarding the changes of brain morphologies and activities in fibromyalgia patients. Nevertheless, due to few studies, limited knowledge for alterations in brain activities in fibromyalgia is currently available. In this review, the changes in brain activity in various brain areas obtained from reports in fibromyalgia patients are comprehensively summarized. Changes of the grey matter in multiple regions such as the superior temporal gyrus, posterior thalamus, amygdala, basal ganglia, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, SII, caudate and putamen from the MRI as well as the increase of brain activities in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, thalamus, somatosensory cortex, insula in fMRI studies are presented and discussed. Moreover, evidence from pharmacological interventions offering benefits for fibromyalgia patients by reducing brain activity is presented. Because of limited knowledge regarding the roles of brain activity alterations in fibromyalgia, this summarized review will encourage more future studies to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in the brains of these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  2. GATA4 Is a Direct Transcriptional Activator of Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 and Is Required for Cardiomyocyte Proliferation in Anterior Heart Field-Derived Myocardium▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Anabel; Kong, Sek Won; Agarwal, Pooja; Gilliss, Brian; Pu, William T.; Black, Brian L.

    2008-01-01

    The anterior heart field (AHF) comprises a population of mesodermal progenitor cells that are added to the nascent linear heart to give rise to the majority of the right ventricle, interventricular septum, and outflow tract in mammals and birds. The zinc finger transcription factor GATA4 functions as an integral member of the cardiac transcription factor network in the derivatives of the AHF. In addition to its role in cardiac differentiation, GATA4 is also required for cardiomyocyte replication, although the transcriptional targets of GATA4 required for proliferation have not been previously identified. In the present study, we disrupted Gata4 function exclusively in the AHF and its derivatives. Gata4 AHF knockout mice die by embryonic day 13.5 and exhibit hypoplasia of the right ventricular myocardium and interventricular septum and display profound ventricular septal defects. Loss of Gata4 function in the AHF results in decreased myocyte proliferation in the right ventricle, and we identified numerous cell cycle genes that are dependent on Gata4 by microarray analysis. We show that GATA4 is required for cyclin D2, cyclin A2, and Cdk4 expression in the right ventricle and that the Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 promoters are bound and activated by GATA4 via multiple consensus GATA binding sites in each gene's proximal promoter. These findings establish Cyclin D2 and Cdk4 as direct transcriptional targets of GATA4 and support a model in which GATA4 controls cardiomyocyte proliferation by coordinately regulating numerous cell cycle genes. PMID:18591257

  3. The diagnostic performance of anterior knee pain and activity-related pain in identifying knees with structural damage in the patellofemoral joint: the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanik, Joshua J; Neogi, Tuhina; Niu, Jingbo; Roemer, Frank W; Segal, Neil A; Lewis, Cora E; Nevitt, Michael; Guermazi, Ali; Felson, David T

    2014-08-01

    To determine the diagnostic test performance of location of pain and activity-related pain in identifying knees with patellofemoral joint (PFJ) structural damage. The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study is a US National Institutes of Health-funded cohort study of older adults with or at risk of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects identified painful areas around the knee on a knee pain map and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index was used to assess pain with stairs and walking on level ground. Cartilage damage and bone marrow lesions were assessed from knee magnetic resonance imaging. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for presence of anterior knee pain (AKP), pain with stairs, absence of pain while walking on level ground, and combinations of tests in discriminating knees with isolated PFJ structural damage from those with isolated tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) or no structural damage. Knees with mixed PFJ/TFJ damage were removed from our analyses because of the inability to determine which compartment was causing pain. There were 407 knees that met our inclusion criteria. "Any" AKP had a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 53%; and if AKP was the only area of pain, the sensitivity dropped to 27% but specificity rose to 81%. Absence of moderate pain with walking on level ground had the greatest sensitivity (93%) but poor specificity (13%). The combination of "isolated" AKP and moderate pain with stairs had poor sensitivity (9%) but the greatest specificity (97%) of strategies tested. Commonly used questions purported to identify knees with PFJ structural damage do not identify this condition with great accuracy.

  4. Anterior shoulder dislocations in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronen, J G

    1986-01-01

    Anterior shoulder dislocations, primary and recurrent, are among the most disabling injuries to the shoulder that can plague the athlete. The diagnosis is easily made by the following: the physical appearance of the shoulder; loss of capability by the athlete to internally and externally rotate the shoulder with the elbow at his side; by evaluating the mechanism of injury; and x-rays. Anterior shoulder dislocations should be reduced as soon as possible after diagnosis, to minimise the stretching effect on the neurovascular structures while the humeral head is dislocated. The reduction is not done to allow the athlete to return immediately to sport. Use of a simple traction method in the first 10 to 15 minutes following the injury will result in a successful reduction in the vast majority of dislocations. Reduction of the humeral head can be confirmed by the athlete regaining the capability to internally and externally rotate his shoulder with his elbow at his side. Following reduction, the athlete should begin a treatment regimen which includes a restrengthening programme emphasising the muscles of internal rotation and adduction plus rigid restrictions of activities until the goals of the rehabilitation programme are satisfied. The author's experience with this treatment regimen with athletes at the United States Naval Academy, has shown a decrease of the recurrence rate of primary anterior shoulder dislocations to 25% versus the 80% recurrence rate we have become familiar with from studies done which did not stress specific rehabilitation programmes. The athlete should also be instructed in a self-performed traction method for reduction should a redislocation occur, to minimise the stretching effect on the neurovascular structures and allow relief from discomfort. Surgery for primary and recurrent anterior dislocations should only be considered when the athlete fails to achieve the desired goals after participating in a specific, progressive, adequate

  5. Return to sport activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in skeletally immature athletes with manual drilling original all inside reconstruction at 8 years follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placella, Giacomo; Bartoli, Matteo; Peruzzi, Marco; Speziali, Andrea; Pace, Valerio; Cerulli, Giuliano

    2016-12-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are common injuries in adolescent athletes, especially in those who bear high stress on their knees due to shearing forces. The goal of the surgical procedures in skeletally immature patients is to restore joint stability avoiding the adverse effects on the growth process. The aim of this study was to verify the return of the skeletally immature professional athletes to sports in the long-term, following ACL reconstruction with the original all-inside technique and with manual drilling. This study included 24 athletes (14 boys, 10 girls; mean age: 13.15 years, range: 9-14 years) who had radiographic evidence of open physes, were less than 14 years of age at the time of surgery and those with a minimum follow-up of eight years. All patients completed a questionnaire, the IKDC subjective knee evaluation form, and Tegner Activity Scale. Biomechanical outcomes of the KT-1000 arthrometer, gait analysis, and stabilometric and isokinetic results were also evaluated. A plain radiograph of both lower limbs was taken to obtain a precise measurement of the limb length and mechanical axis angles. The patients returned to sport activities in a mean time of 6.43 months. No rerupture or resurgery due to growth abnormalities was observed. The mean difference in length between the operated and contralateral legs was 0.4 (range: -0.2 to 0.7) cm. The mean side-to-side difference measured with the KT-1000 arthrometer was 5.2 (range: 3.5 to 7) mm in the preoperative and 0.8 (range: 0 to 2.5) mm in the postoperative measurements. In conclusion, the original all-inside technique with manual drilling with a half tunnel and short graft seems to be a very effective technique for the surgical management of ACL injuries in pediatric/adolescent athletes. A good rate of return to sports at pre-injury levels or higher, high patient satisfaction and a decent motor and proprioceptive function is possible as shown by our analysis. Level IV, Therapeutic study

  6. An anterior cruciate ligament injury does not affect the neuromuscular function of the non-injured leg except for dynamic balance and voluntary quadriceps activation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zult, Tjerk; Gokeler, Alli; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Brouwer, Reinoud W.; Zijdewind, Inge; Hortobagyi, Tibor

    The function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patients' non-injured leg is relevant in light of the high incidence of secondary ACL injuries on the contralateral side. However, the non-injured leg's function has only been examined for a selected number of neuromuscular outcomes and often

  7. Disrupted directed connectivity along the cingulate cortex determines vigilance after sleep deprivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piantoni, G.; Cheung, B.L.P.; van Veen, B.D.; Romeijn, N.; Riedner, B.A.; Tononi, G.; van der Werf, Y.D.; van Someren, E.J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The cingulate cortex is regarded as the backbone of structural and functional connectivity of the brain. While its functional connectivity has been intensively studied, little is known about its effective connectivity, its modulation by behavioral states, and its involvement in cognitive

  8. Deep brain stimulation of the subcallosal cingulate gyrus: further evidence in treatment-resistant major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puigdemont, Dolors; Pérez-Egea, Rosario; Portella, Maria J; Molet, Joan; de Diego-Adeliño, Javier; Gironell, Alexandre; Radua, Joaquim; Gómez-Anson, Beatriz; Rodríguez, Rodrigo; Serra, Maria; de Quintana, Cristian; Artigas, Francesc; Álvarez, Enric; Pérez, Víctor

    2012-02-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is currently tested as an experimental therapy for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Here we report on the short- and long-term (1 yr) clinical outcomes and tolerance of DBS in eight TRD patients. Electrodes were implanted bilaterally in the subgenual cingulate gyrus (SCG; Broadman areas 24-25), and stimulated at 135 Hz (90-μs pulsewidth). Voltage and active electrode contacts were adjusted to maximize short-term responses. Clinical assessments included the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17; primary measure), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Clinical Global Impression (CGI) Scale. In the first week after surgery, response and remission (HAMD ⩽7) rates were, respectively 87.5% and 50%. These early responses were followed by an overall worsening, with a response and remission rates of 37.5% (3/8) at 1 month. From then onwards, patients showed a progressive improvement, with response and remission rates of 87.5% and 37.5%, respectively, at 6 months. The corresponding figures at 1 yr were 62.5% and 50%, respectively. Clinical effects were seen in all HAMD subscales without a significant incidence of side-effects. Surgical procedure and post-operative period were well-tolerated for all patients. This is the second independent study on the use of DBS of the SCG to treat chronic depression resistant to current therapeutic strategies. DBS fully remitted 50% of the patients at 1 yr, supporting its validity as a new therapeutic strategy for TRD.

  9. Demonstration of decreased posterior cingulate perfusion in mild Alzheimer's disease by means of H215O positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Kazunari; Sasaki, Masahiro; Yamaji, Shigeru; Sakamoto, Setsu; Kitagaki, Hajime; Mori, Etsuro

    1997-01-01

    Although decreased posterior cingulate metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been previously reported, there have been no reports on posterior cingulate perfusion. In this study we evaluated posterior cingulate perfusion as a relative value using statistical parametric maps (SPMs) and as an absolute value using conventional region of interest (ROI) settings. Twenty-eight subjects, including 14 patients with mild AD (mean age: 66.4±12.1 years) and 14 normal controls (65.9±7.3 years) were studied. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H 2 15 O and positron emission tomography (PET). In the SPM analysis, the left posterior cingulate and left parietotemporal CBFs were significantly decreased in the patients with mild AD (P<0.001). At a lower statistical threshold (P<0.05), the right posterior cingulate and right parietotemporal CBFs were also significantly decreased in the AD patients. In the ROI studies, the left parietal and posterior cingulate CBFs in the patients with mild AD were significantly lower than those of the normal controls by analysis of variance and post-hoc Scheffe's test (P<0.001). We conclude that posterior cingulate perfusion is decreased in mild AD, reflecting the pathological changes and metabolic reduction in the posterior cingulate gyrus that have previously been reported to occur in mild AD. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  10. Amygdala interconnections with the cingulate motor cortex in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecraft, Robert J; McNeal, David W; Stilwell-Morecraft, Kimberly S; Gedney, Matthew; Ge, Jizhi; Schroeder, Clinton M; van Hoesen, Gary W

    2007-01-01

    Amygdala interconnections with the cingulate motor cortices were investigated in the rhesus monkey. Using multiple tracing approaches, we found a robust projection from the lateral basal nucleus of the amygdala to Layers II, IIIa, and V of the rostral cingulate motor cortex (M3). A smaller source of amygdala input arose from the accessory basal, cortical, and lateral nuclei, which targeted only the rostral region of M3. We also found a light projection from the lateral basal nucleus to the same layers of the caudal cingulate motor cortex (M4). Experiments examining this projection to cingulate somatotopy using combined neural tracing strategies and stereology to estimate the total number of terminal-like immunoreactive particles demonstrated that the amygdala projection terminates heavily in the face representation of M3 and moderately in its arm representation. Fewer terminal profiles were found in the leg representation of M3 and the face, arm, and leg representations of M4. Anterograde tracers placed directly into M3 and M4 revealed the amygdala connection to be reciprocal and documented corticofugal projections to the facial nucleus, surrounding pontine reticular formation, and spinal cord. Clinically, such pathways would be in a position to contribute to mediating movements in the face, neck, and upper extremity accompanying medial temporal lobe seizures that have historically characterized this syndrome. Alterations within or disruption of the amygdalo-cingulate projection to the rostral part of M3 may also have an adverse effect on facial expression in patients presenting with neurological or neuropsychiatric abnormalities of medial temporal lobe involvement. Finally, the prominent amygdala projection to the face region of M3 may significantly influence the outcome of higher-order facial expressions associated with social communication and emotional constructs such as fear, anger, happiness, and sadness.

  11. Mining the posterior cingulate: Segregation between memory and pain components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    to a bag-of-words matrix representation. The combined data is analyzed with hierarchical non-negative matrix factorization. We find that the prominent themes in the PCC corpus are episodic memory retrieval and pain. We further characterize the distribution in PCC of the Talairach coordinates available...... in some of the articles. This shows a tendency to functional segregation between memory and pain components where memory activations are predominantly in the caudal part and pain in the rostral part of PCC....

  12. Atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do joelho em indivíduos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior sob diferentes estímulos sensório-motores: relato de casos Electromyographic activity of knee muscles in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under different perturbations: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste foi descrever a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos estabilizadores do joelho de indivíduos que receberam diferentes enxertos na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA. Foram avaliados dois casos de enxerto patelar, dois de enxerto posterior e dois controle, durante seis estímulos proprioceptivos ao indivíduo em apoio unipodal (em solo, prancha inclinada, prancha redonda, balancinho e rollerboard em sentido ântero-posterior, AP, e médio-lateral, ML. O sinal eletromiográfico normalizado foi captado durante contração isométrica voluntária máxima (CIVM de cada músculo (vasto medial oblíquo, vasto lateral, semitendinoso, bíceps femoral e gastrocnêmio. Ao comparar os músculos vasto medial oblíquo e vasto lateral entre os casos, foi encontrada porcentagem da CIVM maior na amostra com enxerto patelar durante os estímulos solo, prancha inclinada e rollerboard AP, enquanto nos casos de enxerto posterior isso ocorreu sob os estímulos de balancinho e prancha redonda. Ao analisar somente os músculos flexores, os sujeitos com enxerto posterior apresentaram maior atividade sob os estímulos de balancinho e rollerboard ML. Conclui-se que os casos com enxerto patelar ativam mais sua musculatura que aqueles com enxerto posterior; e a quantidade de ativação muscular parece variar para cada estímulo sensório-motor, conforme o tipo de enxerto usado. Estes achados podem orientar a reabilitação de indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA.The aim of this case study was to describe electromyographic (EMG activity of the knee stabilizing muscles in subjects having received different autografts in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL surgical reconstruction: two subjects with anterior bone-tendon-bone graft, two with hamstring graft and two controls. Normalised EMG signal was collected during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC of each muscle (vastus medialis obliques, vastus

  13. Gnathostomiasis of the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular involvement with Gnathostoma spinigerum occurs years after the initial infection that is acquired by ingestion of poorly cooked, pickled seafood or water contaminated with third stage larvae. Here we report a case of gnathostomiasis of the left eye of a 32-year-old lady hailing from Meghalaya, India. Her vision had deteriorated to hand movement. Slit lamp examination revealed a live, actively motile worm in the anterior chamber, which was extracted by supra temporal limbal incision and visual acuity was restored.

  14. Specific Changes in Brain Activity During Urgency in Women with Overactive Bladder after Successful Sacral Neuromodulation: An fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissbart, Steven J; Bhavsar, Rupal; Rao, Hengyi; Wein, Alan J; Detre, John A; Arya, Lily A; Smith, Ariana L

    2018-04-06

    The mechanism of sacral neuromodulation is poorly understood. We compared brain activity during urgency before and after sacral neuromodulation in women with overactive bladder and according to response to treatment. Women with refractory overactive bladder who elected for sacral neuromodulation were invited to undergo a functional magnetic resonance imaging exam before and after treatment. During the imaging exams, the bladder was filled until urgency was experienced. Regions of interest were identified a priori, and brain activity in these regions of interest was compared before and after treatment as well as according to treatment response. A whole brain exploratory analysis with an uncorrected voxel level threshold of pbrain regions that changed after sacral neuromodulation. Among 12 women who underwent a pretreatment functional magnetic resonance imaging exam, seven were successfully treated with sacral neuromodulation and underwent a posttreatment exam. After sacral neuromodulation, brain activity decreased in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and bilateral orbitofrontal cortex (all pbrain regions with increased activity after sacral neuromodulation. Pretreatment brain activity levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right insula, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right orbitofrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, and right sensorimotor cortex were higher in women who underwent successful treatment (all pBrain activity during urgency changes after successful sacral neuromodulation. Sacral neuromodulation may be more effective in women with higher levels of pretreatment brain activity during urgency. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. anterior hyaloidal fibrovascular proliferation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Okonkwo

    It most commonly occurs after phakic vitrectomy and scleral buckling for diabetic traction retinal detachment. It usually manifests with haemorrhage into the vitreous cavity or anterior hyaloid 3 to 12 weeks after vitrectomy and is the result of fibrovascular proliferation from the peripheral retina extending toward the equator of ...

  16. Lumbar manipulation and exercise in the management of anterior knee pain and diminished quadriceps activation following acl reconstruction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Dhinu J; Courtney, Carol A; Kecman, Michael; Alcorn, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Quadriceps weakness is a common finding following knee injuries or surgery, and can be associated with significant functional limitations. This weakness or muscle inhibition may be due to central inhibitory mechanisms, rather than local peripheral dysfunction. Lumbopelvic manipulation has been shown to effect efferent muscle output by altering nociceptive processing. The purpose of this report is to describe the physical therapy management of anterior knee pain and chronic quadriceps weakness utilizing side-lying rotational lumbar thrust manipulation and therapeutic exercise for an individual eight months status-post ACL reconstruction. A 20 year-old male presented to physical therapy eight months following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction of the left knee with primary complaints of residual anterior knee pain and quadriceps weakness. The subject was treated with a multimodal approach using side-lying rotational lumbar thrust manipulation in addition to therapeutic exercise. The subject was seen in physical therapy for eight sessions over eight weeks. Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) scores improved from 58/80 to 72/80, quadriceps force, measured by hand-held dynamometry (HHD), was improved from 70.6 lbs to 93.5 lbs and the subject was able to return to pain free participation in recreational sports. Therapeutic exercises can facilitate improved quadriceps strength, however, in cases where quadriceps weakness persists and there is concurrent pain, other interventions should be considered. In this case, lower quarter stabilization exercise and lumbar thrust manipulation was associated with improved functional outcomes in a subject with anterior knee pain and quadriceps weakness. Side-lying rotational lumbar thrust manipulation may be a beneficial adjunctive intervention to exercise in subjects with quadriceps weakness. 5, Single case report.

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100230.htm Anterior cruciate ligament repair - Series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a ligament in the center of ...

  18. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...

  19. Anterior Urethral Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyadhar P. Mali

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available We studied the clinical presentation and management of four patients with anterior urethral valves; a rare cause of urethral obstruction in male children. One patient presented antenatally with oligohydramnios, bilateral hydronephrosis and bladder thickening suggestive of an infravesical obstruction. Two other patients presented postnatally at 1 and 2 years of age, respectively, with poor stream of urine since birth. The fourth patient presented at 9 years with frequency and dysuria. Diagnosis was established on either micturating cystourethrogram (MCU (in 2 or on cystoscopy (in 2. All patients had cystoscopic ablation of the valves. One patient developed a postablation stricture that was resected with an end-to-end urethroplasty. He had an associated bilateral vesicoureteric junction (VUJ obstruction for which a bilateral ureteric reimplantation was done at the same time. On long-term follow-up, all patients demonstrated a good stream of urine. The renal function is normal. Patients are continent and free of urinary infections. Anterior urethral valves are rare obstructive lesions in male children. The degree of obstruction is variable, and so they may present with mild micturition difficulty or severe obstruction with hydroureteronephrosis and renal impairment. Hence, it is important to evaluate the anterior urethra in any male child with suspected infravesical obstruction. The diagnosis is established by MCU or cystoscopy and the treatment is always surgical, either a transurethral ablation or an open resection. The long-term prognosis is good.

  20. Mini-Mental State Examination and proton spectroscopy of the posterior cingulate in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae Won Lee

    Full Text Available Abstract To compare metabolite ratios in the posterior cingulate with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test scores in patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer disease and in controls. Methods: We evaluated 29 patients with mild or moderate Alzheimer disease and 15 controls by proton spectroscopy with the voxel located in the posterior cingulate. The MMSE was applied to all patients and controls. The metabolic ratios: N-acetyl-aspartate/creatine (Naa/Cr, mio-inositol/creatine (mI/Cr and mio-inositol/N-acetyl-aspartate (mI/Naa were obtained and then post-processed using the MRUI software (magnetic resonance user interface. Results: Correlation between Naa/Cr and mI/Naa ratios in the posterior cingulate with the MMSE was observed, and a positive correlation with Naa/Cr and negative correlation with mI/Naa were seen. The mI/r ratio presented no correlation with MMSE scores. Conclusion: The positive correlation with Naa/Cr, and negative correlation with mI/Naa may corroborate that neuronal density/viability is associated to a higher MMSE score.

  1. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Ryan Fox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1 disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2 liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the somatosensory cortex, reward processing (the striatum, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person’s pain.

  2. A biased activation theory of the cognitive and attentional modulation of emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eRolls

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognition can influence emotion by biasing neural activity in the first cortical region in which the reward value and subjective pleasantness of stimuli is made explicit in the representation, the orbitofrontal cortex. The same effect occurs in a second cortical tier for emotion, the anterior cingulate cortex. Similar effects are found for selective attention, to for example the pleasantness vs the intensity of stimuli, which modulates representations of reward value and affect in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The mechanisms for the effects of cognition and attention on emotion are top-down biased competition and top-down biased activation. Affective and mood states can in turn influence memory and perception, by backprojected biasing influences. Emotion-related decision systems operate to choose between gene-specified rewards such as taste, touch, and beauty. Reasoning processes capable of planning ahead with multiple steps held in working memory in the explicit system can allow the gene-specified rewards not to be selected, or to be deferred. The stochastic, noisy, dynamics of decision-making systems in the brain may influence whether decisions are made by the selfish-gene-specified reward emotion system, or by the cognitive reasoning system that explicitly calculates reward values that are in the interests of the individual, the phenotype.

  3. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

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    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  4. Brain Activity and Functional Connectivity Associated with Hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Heidi; White, Matthew P; Greicius, Michael D; Waelde, Lynn C; Spiegel, David

    2017-08-01

    Hypnosis has proven clinical utility, yet changes in brain activity underlying the hypnotic state have not yet been fully identified. Previous research suggests that hypnosis is associated with decreased default mode network (DMN) activity and that high hypnotizability is associated with greater functional connectivity between the executive control network (ECN) and the salience network (SN). We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate activity and functional connectivity among these three networks in hypnosis. We selected 57 of 545 healthy subjects with very high or low hypnotizability using two hypnotizability scales. All subjects underwent four conditions in the scanner: rest, memory retrieval, and two different hypnosis experiences guided by standard pre-recorded instructions in counterbalanced order. Seeds for the ECN, SN, and DMN were left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), respectively. During hypnosis there was reduced activity in the dACC, increased functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC;ECN) and the insula in the SN, and reduced connectivity between the ECN (DLPFC) and the DMN (PCC). These changes in neural activity underlie the focused attention, enhanced somatic and emotional control, and lack of self-consciousness that characterizes hypnosis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

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    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  6. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  7. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigitan Terbuka Anterior

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    Yuniar Zen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior telah lama dianggap sebagai tantangan bagi ortodontis. Prevalensi gigitan terbuka anterior antara 3,5% hingga 11% terdapat pada berbagai usia dan kelompok etnis, serta ada sekitar 17% pasien ortodonti memiliki gigitan terbuka. Stabilitas hasil perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior sangat sulit, karena adanya kombinasi diskrepansi anteroposterior dengan gigitan terbuka skeletal sehingga dibutuhkan tingkat keterampilan diagnosis dan klinis yang tinggi. Etiologi gigitan terbuka anterior sangat kompleks karena dapat melibatkan skeletal, dental, dan faktor-faktor habitual. Eliminasi faktor etiologi merupakan hal yang penting dalam perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Berbagai cara perawatan untuk koreksi gigitan terbuka anterior diantaranya bedah ortognatik dan perawatan ortodontik kamuflase, seperti high-pull headgear, chincup, bite blocks, alatfungsional, pencabutan gigi, multi-loop edgewise archwires dan mini implan. Stabilitas hasil perawatan adalah kriteria yang paling penting dalam menentukan cara perawatan gigitan terbuka anterior. Orthodontic Treatment of Anterior Open Bite. An anterior open bite therapy has long been considered a challenge to orthodontist. The prevalence of anterior openbite range from 3,5 % to 11% among various age and ethnic groups and it has been shown that approximately 17% of orthodontic patients have open bite. Stability of treatment result of anterior open bite with well-maintained results is difficult, because the combination of anteroposteriorly discrepancy with skeletal open bite requires the highest degree of diagnostic and clinical skill. The etiology is complex, potentially involving skeletal, dental and habitual factors. The importance of an anterior open bite therapy is to eliminate the cause of the open bite. Various treatment modalities for the correction of an anterior open bite have been proposed, orthognatic surgery and orthodontic camouflage treatment such as high

  8. [Facilitation of the retention and acceleration of operant conditioning extinction after cingulate cortex lesions in BALB/c mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrade, C; Gauthier, M

    1981-12-21

    One week after receiving bilateral electrolytic lesions of the cingulate cortex, BALB/c Mice underwent acquisition, retention and extinction of an appetitive operant-conditioning task in a Skinner box. There was no significant difference between lesioned and control animals in acquisition; however, lesioned mice exhibited improved retention and faster extinction. These results suggest a possible involvement of the cingulate cortex in memory processes.

  9. Evaluating anterior knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Engene; Kraft, Michael C

    2014-07-01

    Musculoskeletal complaints account for about 20% to 30% of all primary care office visits; of these visits, discomfort in the knee, shoulder, and back are the most prevalent musculoskeletal symptoms. Having pain or dysfunction in the front part of the knee is a common presentation and reason for a patient to see a health care provider. There are a number of pathophysiological etiologies to anterior knee pain. This article describes some of the common and less common causes, and includes sections on diagnosis and treatment for each condition as well as key points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mecanismos de ativação agonista e antagonista no joelho de indivíduos com reconstrução de ligamento cruzado anterior: estudo cinético e eletromiográfico Mechanisms of agonist and antagonist activation in the knee of individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: kinetic and eletromyographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice de Campos Pássaro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar e comparar o torque e a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos vasto lateral e bíceps femoral durante a extensão e a flexão do joelho em cadeia cinética aberta. MÉTODO: 15 sujeitos do sexo masculino, distribuídos em: cinco no Grupo Teste (GT (32,2 ± 7,1 anos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior via artroscópica (tendão patelar, e dez no Grupo Controle (GC sem lesão (30,1 ± 10,7 anos. Foi utilizado o Cybex 6000 a 100°.s-1 e eletrodos bipolares diferenciais ativos (Delsys-Bagnoli 8, com a freqüência de amostragem de 1000 Hz e tempo de aquisição de 10 segundos. Foram considerados os valores do Root Mean Square (RMS e o padrão temporal de ativação dos músculos em função da fase do movimento (envoltório linear. RESULTADOS: O lado lesado apresentou maior pico de torque flexor e menor pico de torque extensor. Maior ativação agonista e menor ativação antagonista para o bíceps femoral e menor ativação agonista para o vasto lateral. Pelo envoltório linear a ativação do vasto lateral no grupo teste foi diminuindo. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar de reabilitados, o membro lesado permaneceu com déficits no torque extensor, apresentando menor, mais precoce e decrescente ativação do músculo vasto lateral e menor ativação antagonista do músculo bíceps femoral, apesar do maior torque flexor e da maior ativação de unidades motoras durante a flexão do joelho. Estes déficits podem explicar algumas queixas clínicas que permaneceram nestes indivíduos.PURPOSE: To assess and compare torque and electromyographic activity of the vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles upon knee extension and flexion in open kinetic chain. METHODS: Fifteen male subjects were distributed in two groups: Test Group (TG (32.2 ± 7.1 years composed by five subjects who had previously been submitted to anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction (patellar tendon; and Control Group (CG (30.1 ± 10.7 years composed

  11. [Anterior guidance in complete dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubreuil, J; Trevelo, A

    1990-01-01

    Although the anterior guidance in complete dentures is not really a guide, the arrangement of the anterior maxillary and mandibular prosthetic teeth, defines a propulsive line called the virtual anterior guidance, a part from the cinematic criterias. The influence of this guide on cuspal movement is superior, in all mandibular points, to the influence of the condylar pathway. If this line is not respected, the practitioner may have to do excessive grindings during occlusal adjustments.

  12. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance...... the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  13. Acquired alexithymia following damage to the anterior insula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeveen, J; Bird, G; Chau, A; Krueger, F; Grafman, J

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia is a subclinical condition characterized by impaired awareness of one's emotional states, which has profound effects on mental health and social interaction. Despite the clinical significance of this condition, the neurocognitive impairment(s) that lead to alexithymia remain unclear. Recent theoretical models suggest that impaired anterior insula (AI) functioning might be involved in alexithymia, but conclusive evidence for this hypothesis is lacking. We measured alexithymia levels in a large sample of brain-injured patients (N=129) and non-brain-injured control participants (N=33), to determine whether alexithymia can be acquired after pronounced damage to the AI. Alexithymia levels were first analysed as a function of group, with patients separated into four groups based on AI damage: patients with >15% damage to AI, patients with damage to AI, patients with no damage to AI, and healthy controls. An ANOVA revealed that alexithymia levels varied across groups (p=0.009), with >15% AI damage causing higher alexithymia relative to all other groups (all pdamage to AI, the degree of damage to a related region (the anterior cingulate cortex, ACC), and the degree of damage to the whole brain as predictor variables, and alexithymia as the dependent variable. Critically, increased AI damage predicted increased alexithymia after controlling for the other two regressors (ACC damage; total lesion volume). Collectively, our results suggest that pronounced AI damage causes increased levels of alexithymia, providing critical evidence that this region supports emotional awareness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor); Martin, Ivan (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  15. Direct composite restoration of permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Evans Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An uncomplicated crown fracture is a fracture that involves only the tooth enamel or the dentin and tooth enamel without any damage or exposure to the pulp. Crown fracture of the anterior teeth usually caused by traumatic forces such as falls, accidents, violence, or sports activities. Traumatic injuries of the oral region frequently involve the anterior teeth, especially maxillary incisors due to the anatomic factors which may affect the functional and aesthetical values of the teeth. The objective of this literature study was to know more about uncomplicated crown fracture of the anterior teeth and its restoration. This research was a literature study performed by researching, highlighting various interesting facts and compiling the relevant published journals. The most common and ideal direct restoration of the anterior teeth was the composite resin restoration. The anterior teeth restoration was considered to be a complex and challenging case to solves due to the fact that besides reconstructing the tooth and regaining the function, the aesthetical aspect was also becoming the main objectives. The permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fracture was the most common case of tooth fractures which was mainly caused by traumatic injuries such as falls, accidents, excessive forces, violence, and also sports activities. Dental injuries of the anterior teeth also affected the aesthetical properties and the function of the tooth. Composite resin restoration was able to performed directly on the permanent anterior teeth uncomplicated crown fracture.

  16. A ‘complex’ of brain metabolites distinguish altered chemistry in the cingulate cortex of episodic migraine patients

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    L. Becerra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the prevalence of migraine, the pathophysiology of the disease remains unclear. Current understanding of migraine has alluded to the possibility of a hyperexcitable brain. The aim of the current study is to investigate human brain metabolite differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC during the interictal phase in migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory neurotransmitters and/or their derivatives in the migraine cohort in support of the theory of hyperexcitability in migraine. 2D J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS data were acquired on a 3 Tesla (3 T MRI from a voxel placed over the ACC of 32 migraine patients (MP; 23 females, 9 males, age 33 ± 9.6 years and 33 healthy controls (HC; 25 females, 8 males, age 32 ± 9.6 years. Amplitude correlation matrices were constructed for each subject to evaluate metabolite discriminability. ProFit-estimated metabolite peak areas were normalized to a water reference signal to assess subject differences. The initial analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to test for group differences for all metabolites/creatine (Cre ratios between healthy controls and migraineurs but showed no statistically significant differences. In addition, we used a multivariate approach to distinguish migraineurs from healthy subjects based on the metabolite/Cre ratio. A quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA model was used to identify 3 metabolite ratios sufficient to minimize minimum classification error (MCE. The 3 selected metabolite ratios were aspartate (Asp/Cre, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA/Cre, and glutamine (Gln/Cre. These findings are in support of a ‘complex’ of metabolite alterations, which may underlie changes in neuronal chemistry in the migraine brain. Furthermore, the parallel changes in the three-metabolite ‘complex’ may confer more subtle but biological processes that are ongoing. The data also support the current theory

  17. Dynamic connectivity modulates local activity in the core regions of the default-mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Liu, Hesheng; Douw, Linda; Kramer, Mark A; Eden, Uri T; Hämäläinen, Matti S; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2017-09-05

    Segregation and integration are distinctive features of large-scale brain activity. Although neuroimaging studies have been unraveling their neural correlates, how integration takes place over segregated modules remains elusive. Central to this problem is the mechanism by which a brain region adjusts its activity according to the influence it receives from other regions. In this study, we explore how dynamic connectivity between two regions affects the neural activity within a participating region. Combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) in the same group of subjects, we analyzed resting-state data from the core of the default-mode network. We observed directed influence from the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the 10-Hz range. This time-varying influence was associated with the power alteration in the ACC: strong influence corresponded with a decrease of power around 13-16 Hz and an increase of power in the lower (1-7 Hz) and higher (30-55 Hz) ends of the spectrum. We also found that the amplitude of the 30- to 55-Hz activity was coupled to the phase of the 3- to 4-Hz activity in the ACC. These results characterized the local spectral changes associated with network interactions. The specific spectral information both highlights the functional roles of PCC-ACC connectivity in the resting state and provides insights into the dynamic relationship between local activity and coupling dynamics of a network.

  18. Brain activity in advantageous and disadvantageous situations: implications for reward/punishment sensitivity in different situations.

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    Guangheng Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study modeled win and lose trials in a simple gambling task to examine the effect of entire win-lose situations (WIN, LOSS, or TIE on single win/lose trials and related neural underpinnings. METHODS: The behavior responses and brain activities of 17 participants were recorded by an MRI scanner while they performed a gambling task. Different conditions were compared to determine the effect of the task on the behavior and brain activity of the participants. Correlations between brain activity and behavior were calculated to support the imaging results. RESULTS: In win trials, LOSS caused less intense posterior cingulate activity than TIE. In lose trials, LOSS caused more intense activity in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insula cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex than WIN and TIE. CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the participants in win trials showed great similarity among different win-lose situations. However, the brain activity and behavior responses of the participants in lose trials indicated that they experienced stronger negative emotion in LOSS. The participants also showed an increased desire to win in LOSS than in WIN or TIE conditions.

  19. Pons to Posterior Cingulate Functional Projections Predict Affective Processing Changes in the Elderly Following Eight Weeks of Meditation Training

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    Robin Shao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates meditation facilitates affective regulation and reduces negative affect. It also influences resting-state functional connectivity between affective networks and the posterior cingulate (PCC/precuneus, regions critically implicated in self-referential processing. However, no longitudinal study employing active control group has examined the effect of meditation training on affective processing, PCC/precuneus connectivity, and their association. Here, we report that eight-week meditation, but not relaxation, training ‘neutralized’ affective processing of positive and negative stimuli in healthy elderly participants. Additionally, meditation versus relaxation training increased the positive connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and the pons, the direction of which was largely directed from the pons to the PCC/precuneus, as revealed by dynamic causal modeling. Further, changes in connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and pons predicted changes in affective processing after meditation training. These findings indicate meditation promotes self-referential affective regulation based on increased regulatory influence of the pons on PCC/precuneus, which new affective-processing strategy is employed across both resting state and when evaluating affective stimuli. Such insights have clinical implications on interventions on elderly individuals with affective disorders.

  20. Pons to Posterior Cingulate Functional Projections Predict Affective Processing Changes in the Elderly Following Eight Weeks of Meditation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Robin; Keuper, Kati; Geng, Xiujuan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2016-08-01

    Evidence indicates meditation facilitates affective regulation and reduces negative affect. It also influences resting-state functional connectivity between affective networks and the posterior cingulate (PCC)/precuneus, regions critically implicated in self-referential processing. However, no longitudinal study employing active control group has examined the effect of meditation training on affective processing, PCC/precuneus connectivity, and their association. Here, we report that eight-week meditation, but not relaxation, training 'neutralized' affective processing of positive and negative stimuli in healthy elderly participants. Additionally, meditation versus relaxation training increased the positive connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and the pons, the direction of which was largely directed from the pons to the PCC/precuneus, as revealed by dynamic causal modeling. Further, changes in connectivity between the PCC/precuneus and pons predicted changes in affective processing after meditation training. These findings indicate meditation promotes self-referential affective regulation based on increased regulatory influence of the pons on PCC/precuneus, which new affective-processing strategy is employed across both resting state and when evaluating affective stimuli. Such insights have clinical implications on interventions on elderly individuals with affective disorders. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cingulate and cerebellar beta oscillations are engaged in the acquisition of auditory-motor sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrojo Ruiz, María; Maess, Burkhard; Altenmüller, Eckart; Curio, Gabriel; Nikulin, Vadim V

    2017-10-01

    Singing, music performance, and speech rely on the retrieval of complex sounds, which are generated by the corresponding actions and are organized into sequences. It is crucial in these forms of behavior that the serial organization (i.e., order) of both the actions and associated sounds be monitored and learned. To investigate the neural processes involved in the monitoring of serial order during the initial learning of sensorimotor sequences, we performed magnetoencephalographic recordings while participants explicitly learned short piano sequences under the effect of occasional alterations of auditory feedback (AAF). The main result was a prominent and selective modulation of beta (13-30 Hz) oscillations in cingulate and cerebellar regions during the processing of AAF that simulated serial order errors. Furthermore, the AAF-induced modulation of beta oscillations was associated with higher error rates, reflecting compensatory changes in sequence planning. This suggests that cingulate and cerebellar beta oscillations play a role in tracking serial order during initial sensorimotor learning and in updating the mapping of the sensorimotor representations. The findings support the notion that the modulation of beta oscillations is a candidate mechanism for the integration of sequential motor and auditory information during an early stage of skill acquisition in music performance. This has potential implications for singing and speech. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5161-5179, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rostro-Caudal Organization of Connectivity between Cingulate Motor Areas and Lateral Frontal Regions

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    Kep Kee Loh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available According to contemporary views, the lateral frontal cortex is organized along a rostro-caudal functional axis with increasingly complex cognitive/behavioral control implemented rostrally, and increasingly detailed motor control implemented caudally. Whether the medial frontal cortex follows the same organization remains to be elucidated. To address this issue, the functional connectivity of the 3 cingulate motor areas (CMAs in the human brain with the lateral frontal cortex was investigated. First, the CMAs and their representations of hand, tongue, and eye movements were mapped via task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Second, using resting-state fMRI, their functional connectivity with lateral prefrontal and lateral motor cortical regions of interest (ROIs were examined. Importantly, the above analyses were conducted at the single-subject level to account for variability in individual cingulate morphology. The results demonstrated a rostro-caudal functional organization of the CMAs in the human brain that parallels that in the lateral frontal cortex: the rostral CMA has stronger functional connectivity with prefrontal regions and weaker connectivity with motor regions; conversely, the more caudal CMAs have weaker prefrontal and stronger motor connectivity. Connectivity patterns of the hand, tongue and eye representations within the CMAs are consistent with that of their parent CMAs. The parallel rostral-to-caudal functional organization observed in the medial and lateral frontal cortex could likely contribute to different hierarchies of cognitive-motor control.

  3. Recovery from Transient Global Amnesia Following Restoration of Hippocampal and Fronto–Cingulate Perfusion

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    Paolo Caffarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient who suffered a transient global amnesia (TGA attack underwent regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF SPECT imaging and neuropsychological testing in the acute phase, after one month and after one year. Neuropsychological testing in the acute phase showed a pattern of anterograde and retrograde amnesia, whereas memory was within age normal limits at follow up. SPECT data were analysed with a within subject comparison and also compared with those of a group of healthy controls. Within subject comparison between the one month follow up and the acute phase detected increases in rCBF in the hippocampus bilaterally; further rCBF increases in the right hippocampus were detected after one year. Compared to controls, significant hypoperfusion was found in the right precentral, cingulate and medial frontal gyri in the acute phase; after one month significant hypoperfusion was detected in the right precentral and cingulate gyri and the left postcentral gyrus; after one year no significant hypoperfusion appeared. The restoration of memory was paralleled by rCBF increases in the hippocampus and fronto-limbic-parietal cortex; after one year neither significant rCBF differences nor cognitive deficits were detectable. In conclusion, these data indicate that TGA had no long lasting cognitive and neural alterations in this patient.

  4. Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5/MT and MST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Elvira; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Logothetis, Nikos K; Bartels, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Motion processing regions apart from V5+/MT+ are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to perform a detailed functional analysis of the recently described cingulate sulcus visual area (CSv) in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex. We used distinct types of visual motion stimuli to compare CSv with V5/MT and MST, including a visual pursuit paradigm. Both V5/MT and MST preferred 3D flow over 2D planar motion, responded less yet substantially to random motion, had a strong preference for contralateral versus ipsilateral stimulation, and responded nearly equally to contralateral and to full-field stimuli. In contrast, CSv had a pronounced preference to 2D planar motion over 3D flow, did not respond to random motion, had a weak and nonsignificant lateralization that was significantly smaller than that of MST, and strongly preferred full-field over contralateral stimuli. In addition, CSv had a better capability to integrate eye movements with retinal motion compared with V5/MT and MST. CSv thus differs from V5+/MT+ by its unique preference to full-field, coherent, and planar motion cues. These results place CSv in a good position to process visual cues related to self-induced motion, in particular those associated to eye or lateral head movements.

  5. Aberrant brain activation of error processing among adults with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

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    Chiao-Yun Chen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD have a deficit in their cognitive control. The aim of this study was to reveal the brain correlates of the deficits in response inhibition or error processing in adult ADHD. A total of 29 adults with ADHD and 25 control individuals were recruited. They completed an event-related-design Go/No-go task under functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Both the ADHD group and the control group exhibited activation of the frontostriatal network when processing response inhibition. They also exhibited activation of the frontoinsula cortex and anterior cingulate in error processing. Adults with ADHD have a lower brain activation of error processing over the right inferior frontal lobe adjacent to the insula than control individuals. The altered frontoinsula cortex activation may represent the mechanism of error processing deficit among adults with ADHD.

  6. Neural circuits in the brain that are activated when mitigating criminal sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Makiko; Camerer, Colin F; Fujie, Saori; Kato, Motoichiro; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Takano, Harumasa; Ito, Hiroshi; Suhara, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2012-03-27

    In sentencing guilty defendants, jurors and judges weigh 'mitigating circumstances', which create sympathy for a defendant. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure neural activity in ordinary citizens who are potential jurors, as they decide on mitigation of punishment for murder. We found that sympathy activated regions associated with mentalising and moral conflict (dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, precuneus and temporo-parietal junction). Sentencing also activated precuneus and anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that mitigation is based on negative affective responses to murder, sympathy for mitigating circumstances and cognitive control to choose numerical punishments. Individual differences on the inclination to mitigate, the sentence reduction per unit of judged sympathy, correlated with activity in the right middle insula, an area known to represent interoception of visceral states. These results could help the legal system understand how potential jurors actually decide, and contribute to growing knowledge about whether emotion and cognition are integrated sensibly in difficult judgments.

  7. Reward sensitivity modulates brain activity in the prefrontal cortex, ACC and striatum during task switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Fuentes-Claramonte

    Full Text Available Current perspectives on cognitive control acknowledge that individual differences in motivational dispositions may modulate cognitive processes in the absence of reward contingencies. This work aimed to study the relationship between individual differences in Behavioral Activation System (BAS sensitivity and the neural underpinnings involved in processing a switching cue in a task-switching paradigm. BAS sensitivity was hypothesized to modulate brain activity in frontal regions, ACC and the striatum. Twenty-eight healthy participants underwent fMRI while performing a switching task, which elicited activity in fronto-striatal regions during the processing of the switch cue. BAS sensitivity was negatively associated with activity in the lateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and the ventral striatum. Combined with previous results, our data indicate that BAS sensitivity modulates the neurocognitive processes involved in task switching in a complex manner depending on task demands. Therefore, individual differences in motivational dispositions may influence cognitive processing in the absence of reward contingencies.

  8. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development.

  9. Inestabilidad Anterior de Hombro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo David Flint Kuran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ción La luxación recidivante de hombro es una patología frecuente en pacientes jóvenes, laboralmente activos. Existen numerosas técnicas quirúrgicas para la inestabilidad glenohumeral. La técnica de Bristow, discutida por no ser anatómica y por sus complicaciones, continúa vigente debido al bajo índice de reluxaciones. Los objetivos fueron determinar el índice de recidiva, alteraciones funcionales e índice de consolidación del injerto. Materiales­ y­ Métodos Se evaluaron 24 pacientes del sexo masculino, de entre 19 y 40 años, operados por luxación anterior recidivante de hombro según la técnica de Bristow, entre enero de 2003 y agosto de 2011. Se evaluó la tasa de reluxación, la función articular según el puntaje de Constant y el posicionamiento del injerto con respecto a la superficie articular con tomografía y radiografías para evaluar la consolidación del injerto. Se registraron las complicaciones quirúrgicas. Resultados ­Todos los pacientes eran hombres, con rango de edad de 19 a 40 años. La causa fue traumática en 24 pacientes. Dieciséis pacientes presentaron más de 3 episodios de luxación prequirúrgicos. Según la escala de Constant, 21 obtuvieron entre 96 y 100 puntos, y los restantes, entre 90 y 95 puntos. No hubo nuevos episodios de luxaciones. La tomografía mostró la consolidación en todos los casos. Un paciente tuvo una imagen osteolítica alrededor del tornillo, sin compromiso funcional del hombro. Conclusión La técnica de Bristow para tratar la luxación anterior recidivante de hombro provocó un bajo índice de complicaciones, con resultados funcionales entre excelentes y buenos. No hubo episodios de reluxación y se logró la consolidación del injerto óseo en todos los casos.

  10. Increased activation in cingulate cortex in conversion disorder : What does it mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Vogt, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is one of the terms used to describe various psychosomatic neurological symptoms that are thought to originate from a psychological conflict Psychological stressors can usually be identified but appear to be almost similar to the severity of psychological stress in

  11. Anterior ankle arthrodesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gordon L; Sayres, Stephanie C; O’Malley, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Ankle arthrodesis is a common procedure that resolves many conditions of the foot and ankle; however, complications following this procedure are often reported and vary depending on the fixation technique. Various techniques have been described in the attempt to achieve ankle arthrodesis and there is much debate as to the efficiency of each one. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of anterior plating in ankle arthrodesis using customised and Synthes TomoFix plates. We present the outcomes of 28 ankle arthrodeses between 2005 and 2012, specifically examining rate of union, patient-reported outcomes scores, and complications. All 28 patients achieved radiographic union at an average of 36 wk; the majority of patients (92.86%) at or before 16 wk, the exceptions being two patients with Charcot joints who were noted to have bony union at a three year review. Patient-reported outcomes scores significantly increased (P plate offers added compression and provides a rigid fixation for arthrodesis stabilization. PMID:24649408

  12. Functional Activation and Effective Connectivity Differences in Adolescent Marijuana Users Performing a Simulated Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Acheson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Adolescent marijuana use is associated with structural and functional differences in forebrain regions while performing memory and attention tasks. In the present study, we investigated neural processing in adolescent marijuana users experiencing rewards and losses. Fourteen adolescents with frequent marijuana use (>5 uses per week and 14 nonuser controls performed a computer task where they were required to guess the outcome of a simulated coin flip while undergoing magnetic resonance imaging. Results. Across all participants, “Wins” and “Losses” were associated with activations including cingulate, middle frontal, superior frontal, and inferior frontal gyri and declive activations. Relative to controls, users had greater activity in the middle and inferior frontal gyri, caudate, and claustrum during “Wins” and greater activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, insula, claustrum, and declive during “Losses.” Effective connectivity analyses revealed similar overall network interactions among these regions for users and controls during both “Wins” and “Losses.” However, users and controls had significantly different causal interactions for 10 out of 28 individual paths during the “Losses” condition. Conclusions. Collectively, these results indicate adolescent marijuana users have enhanced neural responses to simulated monetary rewards and losses and relatively subtle differences in effective connectivity.

  13. Human brain activity associated with painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Lynn; Ono, Mayu; Koyama, Tetsuo; Oshiro, Yoshitetsu; Sumitani, Masahiko; Mashimo, Takashi; Shibata, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the central processing of painful mechanical stimulation to muscle and bone by measuring blood oxygen level-dependent signal changes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled. Mechanical pressure on muscle and bone were applied at the right lower leg by an algometer. Intensities were adjusted to cause weak and strong pain sensation at either target site in preliminary testing. Brain activation in response to mechanical nociceptive stimulation targeting muscle and bone were measured by fMRI and analyzed. Painful mechanical stimulation targeting muscle and bone activated the common areas including bilateral insula, anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), inferior parietal lobe, and basal ganglia. The contralateral S2 was more activated by strong stimulation than by weak stimulation. Some areas in the basal ganglia (bilateral putamen and caudate nucleus) were more activated by muscle stimulation than by bone stimulation. The putamen and caudate nucleus may have a more significant role in brain processing of muscle pain compared with bone pain.

  14. Anterior segment indocyanine green angiography in anterior scleritis and episcleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex-Crosier, Yan; Durig, Jacques

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the pattern of anterior segment indocyanine green (ICG) angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Prospective comparative (paired-eye) observational case series. Twenty subjects presenting clinical diseases compatible with episcleritis or scleritis. Anterior segment ICG angiography was performed according to a standard protocol in subjects presenting either episcleritis or scleritis. Photographs of the anterior segment were taken in the early phase (up to 3 minutes after dye injection), intermediate phase (10-12 minutes) and late phase (30-45 minutes). The inflamed zones were compared with the same regions of the controlateral eye. The amount of protein ICG exudation was scored by a masked observer as follows: zero for no exudation, one for slight exudation, two for moderate exudation, and three for severe exudation. Evaluation of dye leakage, which reflects protein exudation, with anterior segment ICG angiography in episcleritis and scleritis. Twenty subjects with a mean age of 43 +/- 15 years (7 male, 13 female) were enrolled in the study. Thirteen subjects had anterior scleritis (7 nodular, 5 diffuse, and 1 scleromalacia perforans), and 7 subjects had episcleritis. Only 1 out of 7 subjects with episcleritis showed a slight ICG leakage (a score of one), whereas all subjects with scleritis had ICG leakage scores of one or more (P = 0.0005, Fisher exact test). ICG angiography of the anterior segment of the eye is a good clinical test to differentiate episcleritis from scleritis.

  15. Sleep is associated with task-negative brain activity in fibromyalgia participants with comorbid chronic insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatthauer KE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karlyn E Vatthauer,1 Jason G Craggs,1 Michael E Robinson,1 Roland Staud,2 Richard B Berry,2 William M Perlstein,1 Christina S McCrae11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN.Keywords: insomnia, fibromyalgia, neuroimaging, task-negative, brain activity, comorbidity

  16. Human brain activation in response to visual stimulation with rural and urban scenery pictures: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hoon; Jeong, Gwang-Woo; Baek, Han-Su; Kim, Gwang-Won; Sundaram, Thirunavukkarasu; Kang, Heoung-Keun; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, Hyung-Joong; Song, Jin-Kyu

    2010-05-15

    Human brain activation was assessed in terms of eco-friendliness while viewing still photographs depicting rural and urban surrounding environments with the use of a functional magnetic resonance imaging technique. A total of 30 subjects who had both rural and urban life experiences participated in this study. In order to explore the common and differential activation maps yielded by viewing two extreme types of scenery, random effect group analysis was performed with the use of one-sample and two-sample t-tests. Activation of the anterior cingulate gyrus, globus pallidus, putamen and head of the caudate nucleus was dominant during rural scenery viewing, whereas activation of the hippocampus, parahippocamus and amygdala was dominant during urban scenery viewing (penvironmental psychology-related areas. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurlo, J.V.; Towers, J.D.; Golla, S.

    2001-01-01

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Rick W.; Haas, Amanda K.; Anderson, Joy; Calabrese, Gary; Cavanaugh, John; Hewett, Timothy E.; Lorring, Dawn; McKenzie, Christopher; Preston, Emily; Williams, Glenn; Amendola, Annunziato

    2015-01-01

    Context: Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction rehabilitation has evolved over the past 20 years. This evolution has been driven by a variety of level 1 and level 2 studies. Evidence Acquisition: The MOON Group is a collection of orthopaedic surgeons who have developed a prospective longitudinal cohort of the ACL reconstruction patients. To standardize the management of these patients, we developed, in conjunction with our physical therapy committee, an evidence-based rehabilitation guideline. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Results: This review was based on 2 systematic reviews of level 1 and level 2 studies. Recently, the guideline was updated by a new review. Continuous passive motion did not improve ultimate motion. Early weightbearing decreases patellofemoral pain. Postoperative rehabilitative bracing did not improve swelling, pain range of motion, or safety. Open chain quadriceps activity can begin at 6 weeks. Conclusion: High-level evidence exists to determine appropriate ACL rehabilitation guidelines. Utilizing this protocol follows the best available evidence. PMID:26131301

  19. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suyi; Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W; Seymour, Ben

    2018-02-27

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty ('associability') signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. © 2018, Zhang et al.

  20. The control of tonic pain by active relief learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Hiroaki; Lee, Michael; Yoshida, Wako; Kawato, Mitsuo; Robbins, Trevor W

    2018-01-01

    Tonic pain after injury characterises a behavioural state that prioritises recovery. Although generally suppressing cognition and attention, tonic pain needs to allow effective relief learning to reduce the cause of the pain. Here, we describe a central learning circuit that supports learning of relief and concurrently suppresses the level of ongoing pain. We used computational modelling of behavioural, physiological and neuroimaging data in two experiments in which subjects learned to terminate tonic pain in static and dynamic escape-learning paradigms. In both studies, we show that active relief-seeking involves a reinforcement learning process manifest by error signals observed in the dorsal putamen. Critically, this system uses an uncertainty (‘associability’) signal detected in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex that both controls the relief learning rate, and endogenously and parametrically modulates the level of tonic pain. The results define a self-organising learning circuit that reduces ongoing pain when learning about potential relief. PMID:29482716

  1. Cortical spectral activity and connectivity during active and viewed arm and leg movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eKline

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Active and viewed limb movement activate many similar neural pathways, however, to date most comparison studies have focused on subjects making small, discrete movements of the hands and feet. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-density electroencephalography (EEG could detect differences in cortical activity and connectivity during active and viewed rhythmic arm and leg movements in humans. Our primary hypothesis was that we would detect similar but weaker electrocortical spectral fluctuations and effective connectivity fluctuations during viewed limb exercise compared to active limb exercise due to the similarities in neural recruitment. A secondary hypothesis was that we would record stronger cortical spectral fluctuations for arm exercise compared to leg exercise, because rhythmic arm exercise would be more dependent on supraspinal control than rhythmic leg exercise. We recorded EEG data while ten young healthy subjects exercised on a recumbent stepper with: 1 both arms and legs, 2 just legs, and 3 just arms. Subjects also viewed video playback of themselves or another individual performing the same exercises. We performed independent component analysis, dipole fitting, spectral analysis, and effective connectivity analysis on the data. Cortical areas comprising the premotor and supplementary motor cortex, the anterior cingulate, the posterior cingulate, and the parietal cortex exhibited significant spectral fluctuations during rhythmic limb exercise. These fluctuations tended to be greater for the arms exercise conditions than for the legs only exercise condition, which suggests that human rhythmic arm movements are under stronger cortical control than rhythmic leg movements. We did not find consistent spectral fluctuations in these areas during the viewed conditions, but effective connectivity fluctuated at harmonics of the exercise frequency during both active and viewed rhythmic limb exercise. The right premotor and

  2. Spontaneous Slow Fluctuation of EEG Alpha Rhythm Reflects Activity in Deep-Brain Structures: A Simultaneous EEG-fMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Omata

    Full Text Available The emergence of the occipital alpha rhythm on brain electroencephalogram (EEG is associated with brain activity in the cerebral neocortex and deep brain structures. To further understand the mechanisms of alpha rhythm power fluctuation, we performed simultaneous EEGs and functional magnetic resonance imaging recordings in human subjects during a resting state and explored the dynamic relationship between alpha power fluctuation and blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD signals of the brain. Based on the frequency characteristics of the alpha power time series (APTS during 20-minute EEG recordings, we divided the APTS into two components: fast fluctuation (0.04-0.167 Hz and slow fluctuation (0-0.04 Hz. Analysis of the correlation between the MRI signal and each component revealed that the slow fluctuation component of alpha power was positively correlated with BOLD signal changes in the brain stem and the medial part of the thalamus and anterior cingulate cortex, while the fast fluctuation component was correlated with the lateral part of the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex, but not the brain stem. In summary, these data suggest that different subcortical structures contribute to slow and fast modulations of alpha spectra on brain EEG.

  3. Self-identification and empathy modulate error-related brain activity during the observation of penalty shots between friend and foe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesh, Shanti; van Schie, Hein T.; De Bruijn, Ellen R. A.; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The ability to detect and process errors made by others plays an important role is many social contexts. The capacity to process errors is typically found to rely on sites in the medial frontal cortex. However, it remains to be determined whether responses at these sites are driven primarily by action errors themselves or by the affective consequences normally associated with their commission. Using an experimental paradigm that disentangles action errors and the valence of their affective consequences, we demonstrate that sites in the medial frontal cortex (MFC), including the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), respond to action errors independent of the valence of their consequences. The strength of this response was negatively correlated with the empathic concern subscale of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. We also demonstrate a main effect of self-identification by showing that errors committed by friends and foes elicited significantly different BOLD responses in a separate region of the middle anterior cingulate cortex (mACC). These results suggest that the way we look at others plays a critical role in determining patterns of brain activation during error observation. These findings may have important implications for general theories of error processing. PMID:19015079

  4. An anterior signaling center patterns and sizes the anterior neuroectoderm of the sea urchin embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Ryan C; Wei, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Anterior signaling centers help specify and pattern the early anterior neuroectoderm (ANE) in many deuterostomes. In sea urchin the ANE is restricted to the anterior of the late blastula stage embryo, where it forms a simple neural territory comprising several types of neurons as well as the apical tuft. Here, we show that during early development, the sea urchin ANE territory separates into inner and outer regulatory domains that express the cardinal ANE transcriptional regulators FoxQ2 and Six3, respectively. FoxQ2 drives this patterning process, which is required to eliminate six3 expression from the inner domain and activate the expression of Dkk3 and sFRP1/5, two secreted Wnt modulators. Dkk3 and low expression levels of sFRP1/5 act additively to potentiate the Wnt/JNK signaling pathway governing the positioning of the ANE territory around the anterior pole, whereas high expression levels of sFRP1/5 antagonize Wnt/JNK signaling. sFRP1/5 and Dkk3 levels are rigidly maintained via autorepressive and cross-repressive interactions with Wnt signaling components and additional ANE transcription factors. Together, these data support a model in which FoxQ2 initiates an anterior patterning center that implements correct size and positions of ANE structures. Comparisons of functional and expression studies in sea urchin, hemichordate and chordate embryos reveal striking similarities among deuterostome ANE regulatory networks and the molecular mechanism that positions and defines ANE borders. These data strongly support the idea that the sea urchin embryo uses an ancient anterior patterning system that was present in the common ambulacrarian/chordate ancestor. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Neural activations are related to body-shape, anxiety, and outcomes in adolescent anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Harper, Jessica A; Van Enkevort, Erin A; Latimer, Kelsey; Kelley, Urszula; McAdams, Carrie J

    2017-04-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an illness that frequently begins during adolescence and involves weight loss. Two groups of adolescent girls (AN-A, weight-recovered following AN) and (HC-A, healthy comparison) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task involving social evaluations, allowing comparison of neural activations during self-evaluations, friend-evaluations, and perspective-taking self-evaluations. Although the two groups were not different in their whole-brain activations, anxiety and body shape concerns were correlated with neural activity in a priori regions of interest. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate correlated with the body shape questionnaire; subjects with more body shape concerns used this area less during self than friend evaluations. A cluster in medial prefrontal cortex and the cingulate also correlated with anxiety such that more anxiety was associated with engagement when disagreeing rather than agreeing with social terms during self-evaluations. This data suggests that differences in the utilization of frontal brain regions during social evaluations may contribute to both anxiety and body shape concerns in adolescents with AN. Clinical follow-up was obtained, allowing exploration of whether brain function early in course of disease relates to illness trajectory. The adolescents successful in recovery used the posterior cingulate and precuneus more for friend than self evaluations than the adolescents that remained ill, suggesting that neural differences related to social evaluations may provide clinical predictive value. Utilization of both MPFC and the precuneus during social and self evaluations may be a key biological component for achieving sustained weight-recovery in adolescents with AN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fatigue on lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activity during single-leg landing after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2017-08-01

    Because there are no studies that have evaluated the effects of fatigue on the kinematics of the trunk and pelvis or on muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fatigue on the lower limb, pelvis and trunk kinematics and lower limb muscle activation in subjects with ACL reconstruction during a single-leg landing compared to a healthy control group. The participants included 20 subjects with ACL reconstruction (ACL reconstruction group-ACLRG) and 20 healthy subjects (control group-CG) who were aged between 18 and 35 years. Kinematic and electromyographic analyses were performed during a single-leg landing before and after fatigue. The fatigue protocol included a series of 10 squats, two vertical jumps, and 20 steps. The effects of fatigue were increased peak trunk flexion and increased activation of the vastus lateralis, biceps femoris (BF) and gluteus maximus (GMax) during the landing phase. After the fatigue protocol, an increase in peak trunk flexion and activation of the GMax and BF were observed, most likely as a strategy to reduce the load on the ACL. ACL injury prevention programs should include strength and endurance exercises for the hip and trunk extensor muscles so that they can efficiently control trunk flexion during landing. Prospective comparative study, Level II.

  7. Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have…

  8. Metabolic changes in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortices of the normal aging brain: proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 3 T

    OpenAIRE

    Chiu, Pui-Wai; Mak, Henry Ka-Fung; Yau, Kelvin Kai-Wing; Chan, Queenie; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; Chu, Leung-Wing

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can explore aging at a molecular level. In this study, we investigated the relationships between regional concentrations of metabolites (such as choline, creatine, myo-inositol, and N-acetyl-aspartate) and normal aging in 30 cognitively normal subjects (15 women and 15 men, age range 22–82, mean = 49.9 ± 18.3 years) using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. All MR scans were performed using a 3 T scanner. Point resolved spectroscopy was u...

  9. Toxic anterior segment syndrome following deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Sevimli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We present the case of a 31-year-old patient with toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS that developed after undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK. She had keratoconus, and despite wearing hard contact lenses for many years in the left eye, her vision had deteriorated; therefore, DALK was performed on this eye. The preoperative visual acuity (VA was finger counting at 3 m. Routine DALK was performed using the "big-bubble" technique. The corneal entry incision was hydrated at the end of the surgery, which was terminated by air injection into the anterior chamber. On postoperative day 1, VA was at the level of hand movements, and the cornea was edematous. Topical high-dose dexamethasone and oral steroids were initiated considering the diagnosis of TASS. Subsequently, the patient's VA increased, and the corneal edema decreased. We believe that the use of re-sterilized cannulas may have been the likely cause of TASS. Although DALK can be performed without interfering with the anterior chamber, one should keep in mind that TASS may occur in response to the solution used to hydrate the incision site and the air injected into the anterior chamber.

  10. Consistent pivotal role of posterior cingulate cortex in the default mode network revealed by partial correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Li, Juan; Miao, Xiaoyan; Yao, Li; Wu, Xia

    2010-03-01

    Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) studies have suggested the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) plays a pivotal role in the default mode network (DMN), a set of co-activated brain regions characterizing the resting-state brain. Concerning this finding we propose the following questions in this study: Does PCC consistently play the equally crucial role in the DMN across different subjects, such as healthy young and healthy old subjects? Whether the fMRI scan environments or parameters would affect the results? To address these questions, we collected resting-state fMRI data on four groups of subjects: two healthy young groups scanned under 3-T and 1.5-T MRI systems respectively, and two healthy elderly groups both scanned under 3-T MRI system but with different scan parameters. Then group independent component analysis was used to isolate the DMN, and partial correlation analysis was employed to reveal the direct interactions between brain regions from the DMN. Finally, we measured the connectivity between brain regions based on the number of significantly interacted links to every region within this network. We found that PCC was the brain region consistently having the largest number of directly interacted regions in the four groups, suggesting the pivotal role of PCC in the DMN was stable and consistent across healthy subjects. The results also suggested the function of PCC would be more critical in healthy elderly subjects compared with healthy young subjects. And the factors of scan environments and parameters did not show any obvious impact on the above conclusions in this investigation.

  11. Neuroplasticity Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooms, Dustin R; Page, Stephen J; Nichols-Larsen, Deborah S; Chaudhari, Ajit M W; White, Susan E; Onate, James A

    2017-03-01

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Background Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury may result in neuroplastic changes due to lost mechanoreceptors of the ACL and compensations in neuromuscular control. These alterations are not completely understood. Assessing brain function after ACL injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with functional magnetic resonance imaging provides a means to address this gap in knowledge. Objective To compare differences in brain activation during knee flexion/extension in persons who have undergone ACLR and in matched controls. Methods Fifteen participants who had undergone left ACLR (38.13 ± 27.16 months postsurgery) and 15 healthy controls matched on age, sex, height, mass, extremity dominance, education level, sport participation, and physical activity level participated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained during a unilateral knee motor task consisting of repeated cycles of knee flexion and extension. Results Participants who had undergone ACLR had increased activation in the contralateral motor cortex, lingual gyrus, and ipsilateral secondary somatosensory area and diminished activation in the ipsilateral motor cortex and cerebellum when compared to healthy matched controls. Conclusion Brain activation for knee flexion/extension motion may be altered following ACLR. The ACLR brain activation profile may indicate a shift toward a visual-motor strategy as opposed to a sensory-motor strategy to engage in knee movement. Level of Evidence Cohort, level 3. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):180-189. Epub 5 Nov 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7003.

  12. Maintaining the feelings of others in working memory is associated with activation of the left anterior insula and left frontal-parietal control network

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ryan; Lane, Richard D.; Alkozei, Anna; Bao, Jennifer; Smith, Courtney; Sanova, Anna; Nettles, Matthew; Killgore, William D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The maintenance of social/emotional information in working memory (SWM/EWM) has recently been the topic of multiple neuroimaging studies. However, some studies find that SWM/EWM involves a medial frontal-parietal network while others instead find lateral frontal-parietal activations similar to studies of verbal and visuospatial WM. In this study, we asked 26 healthy volunteers to complete an EWM task designed to examine whether different cognitive strategies? maintaining emotional im...

  13. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, P.A.J.; Golanó, P.; Clavero, J.A.; van Dijk, C.N.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly

  14. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-02

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence.

  15. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

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    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  16. Anterior open bite: aetiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Paul Jonathan; Madahar, Arun K; Murray, Alison

    2011-10-01

    Anterior open bite has a multi-factorial aetiology comprising: genetically inherited skeletal pattern, soft tissue effect and digit-sucking habits. To formulate an appropriate treatment plan, accurate diagnosis is essential. Simple open bites may sometimes resolve completely during the transition from mixed to permanent dentition, if the digit-sucking habit is broken. More significant open bites, however, sometimes extending right back to the terminal molars, rarely resolve spontaneously and will often require complex orthodontic treatment, involving active molar intrusion or even major orthognathic surgery. Unfortunately, surgery has associated risks attached, including pain, swelling, bruising, altered nerve sensation and, occasionally, permanent anaesthesia, as well as involving significant costs, as with any major surgical procedure under general anaesthesia. The introduction of Temporary Anchorage Devices (TADs) has expanded the possibilities of orthodontic treatment, beyond traditional limitations of tooth movement. Molar intrusion can be successfully carried out without the need for major surgical intervention, thus avoiding all the attendant risks and disadvantages. This paper provides an overview of anterior open bite and uses an illustrative case where open bite was successfully treated with a combination of fixed appliance therapy and TADs. Anterior open bite is commonly seen in general practice. A knowledge of the possible aetiological factors and their potential management should be understood by general dental practitioners. The increased popularity of TADS allows a new and less invasive approach to management of these cases.

  17. The Netrin-related domain of Sfrp1 interacts with Wnt ligands and antagonizes their activity in the anterior neural plate

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    Esteve Pilar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs are multifunctional modulators of Wnt and BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signalling necessary for the development of most organs and the homeostasis of different adult tissues. SFRPs fold in two independent domains: the cysteine rich domain (SfrpCRD related to the extracellular portion of Frizzled (Fz, Wnt receptors and the Netrin module (SfrpNTR defined by homologies with molecules such as Netrin-1, inhibitors of metalloproteinases and complement proteins. Due to its structural relationship with Fz, it is believed that SfrpCRD interferes with Wnt signalling by binding and sequestering the ligand. In contrast, the functional relevance of the SfrpNTR has been barely addressed. Results Here, we combine biochemical studies, mutational analysis and functional assays in cell culture and medaka-fish embryos to show that the Sfrp1NTR mimics the function of the entire molecule, binds to Wnt8 and antagonizes Wnt canonical signalling. This activity requires intact tertiary structure and is shared by the distantly related Netrin-1NTR. In contrast, the Sfrp1CRD cannot mirror the function of the entire molecule in vivo but interacts with Fz receptors and antagonizes Wnt8-mediated β-catenin transcriptional activity. Conclusion On the basis of these results, we propose that SFRP modulation of Wnt signalling may involve multiple and differential interactions among Wnt, Fz and SFRPs.

  18. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

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    Hadi Makhmalbaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspected to ACL rapture were entered the study. Statistical analysis was performed by the usage of SPSS 19.0. Multiple comparison procedure was performed for comparing data between clinical examination and arthroscopic findings and their relation with age and sex. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.3±7.58 years (range from 16 to 68 years. From 428 patients, 41.2% (175 patients were between 26 and 35, 38.8% (165 ones between 15 and 25 and 20% (85 patients over 36 years. 414 patients were male (97.2% and 12 were female (2.8%. Sensitivity of anterior drawer test was 94.4% and sensitivity of Lachman test was 93.5%. Conclusion: The diagnosis and decision to reconstruct ACL injury can be reliably made regard to the anterior drawer and Lachman tests result. The tests did not have privilege to each other. These test accuracy increased considerably under anesthesia especially in women.

  19. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Makhmalbaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspected to ACL rapture were entered the study. Statistical analysis was performed by the usage of SPSS 19.0. Multiple comparison procedure was performed for comparing data between clinical examination and arthroscopic findings and their relation with age and sex. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.3±7.58 years (range from 16 to 68 years. From 428 patients, 41.2% (175 patients were between 26 and 35, 38.8% (165 ones between 15 and 25 and 20% (85 patients over 36 years. 414 patients were male (97.2% and 12 were female (2.8%. Sensitivity of anterior drawer test was 94.4% and sensitivity of Lachman test was 93.5%. Conclusion: The diagnosis and decision to reconstruct ACL injury can be reliably made regard to the anterior drawer and Lachman tests result. The tests did not have privilege to each other. These test accuracy increased considerably under anesthesia especially in women.

  20. A cis-regulatory signature for chordate anterior neuroectodermal genes.

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    Maximilian Haeussler

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the striking findings of comparative developmental genetics was that expression patterns of core transcription factors are extraordinarily conserved in bilaterians. However, it remains unclear whether cis-regulatory elements of their target genes also exhibit common signatures associated with conserved embryonic fields. To address this question, we focused on genes that are active in the anterior neuroectoderm and non-neural ectoderm of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Following the dissection of a prototypic anterior placodal enhancer, we searched all genomic conserved non-coding elements for duplicated motifs around genes showing anterior neuroectodermal expression. Strikingly, we identified an over-represented pentamer motif corresponding to the binding site of the homeodomain protein OTX, which plays a pivotal role in the anterior development of all bilaterian species. Using an in vivo reporter gene assay, we observed that 10 of 23 candidate cis-regulatory elements containing duplicated OTX motifs are active in the anterior neuroectoderm, thus showing that this cis-regulatory signature is predictive of neuroectodermal enhancers. These results show that a common cis-regulatory signature corresponding to K50-Paired homeodomain transcription factors is found in non-coding sequences flanking anterior neuroectodermal genes in chordate embryos. Thus, field-specific selector genes impose architectural constraints in the form of combinations of short tags on their target enhancers. This could account for the strong evolutionary conservation of the regulatory elements controlling field-specific selector genes responsible for body plan formation.

  1. Combined three-part humeral anterior fracture-dislocation and humeral shaft fracture treated with one-stage long stem shoulder hemiarthroplasty in an active elderly patient

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    Herzberg Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Injuries combining a humeral head fracture-dislocation and a shaft fracture of the ipsilateral humerus are very rare. They should be separated from extended fractures of the humeral head to the shaft [1]. Case report: We present the case of an active 84-year-old man who sustained a three-part fracture-dislocation of the proximal humerus combined with a long spiral humeral middle third diaphyseal fracture, after a ski fall. We were unable to find a similar case in the literature. He was treated with a long stem hemiarthroplasty, associated with screw osteosynthesis of the long spiral shaft fracture. The result after 30 months of follow-up was excellent, with good shoulder range of motion, good bone integration of the prosthesis and uneventful healing of the fracture. Conclusion: This treatment allowed this intrepid elderly patient to recover a normal quality of life, including driving his car and to return to skiing.

  2. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  3. Differential brain activation during facial emotion discrimination in first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reske, Martina; Habel, Ute; Kellermann, Thilo; Backes, Volker; Jon Shah, N; von Wilmsdorff, Martina; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Zilles, Karl; Schneider, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Aberrant brain activation during facial emotion discrimination has been described in chronic schizophrenia, while little is known about early stages of the illness. The aim of the current study was to investigate valence-specific brain activation of emotion discrimination in first-episode schizophrenia. These patients provide the advantage of lacking the effects of long-term medication and chronic illness course and can hence further enhance the understanding of underlying psychopathological mechanisms. Using event-related fMRI, we investigated 18 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 18 matched healthy subjects during an explicit emotion discrimination task presenting happy, sad and neutral monochromatic facial expressions. A repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the factors Group (patients, healthy subjects), Gender and Emotion (happy, sad, neutral) was performed on behavioural and functional data. Behavioural performance did not differ between groups. Valence-independent hypoactivations in patients were observed for the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex while hyperactivations emerged in the posterior cingulate and the precuneus. Emotion-specific group differences were revealed in inferior parietal and orbitofrontal brain areas and the hippocampus. First-episode schizophrenia already affects areas involved in processing of both, emotions and primary facial information. Our study underlines the role of dysfunctional neural networks as the basis of disturbed social interactions in early schizophrenia.

  4. It's in the eye of the beholder: selective attention to drink properties during tasting influences brain activation in gustatory and reward regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2018-04-01

    Statements regarding pleasantness, taste intensity or caloric content on a food label may influence the attention consumers pay to such characteristics during consumption. There is little research on the effects of selective attention on taste perception and associated brain activation in regular drinks. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of selective attention on hedonics, intensity and caloric content on brain responses during tasting drinks. Using functional MRI brain responses of 27 women were measured while they paid attention to the intensity, pleasantness or caloric content of fruit juice, tomato juice and water. Brain activation during tasting largely overlapped between the three selective attention conditions and was found in the rolandic operculum, insula and overlying frontal operculum, striatum, amygdala, thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex and middle orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Brain activation was higher during selective attention to taste intensity compared to calories in the right middle OFC and during selective attention to pleasantness compared to intensity in the right putamen, right ACC and bilateral middle insula. Intensity ratings correlated with brain activation during selective attention to taste intensity in the anterior insula and lateral OFC. Our data suggest that not only the anterior insula but also the middle and lateral OFC are involved in evaluating taste intensity. Furthermore, selective attention to pleasantness engaged regions associated with food reward. Overall, our results indicate that selective attention to food properties can alter the activation of gustatory and reward regions. This may underlie effects of food labels on the consumption experience of consumers.

  5. Functional Connectivity of the Subcallosal Cingulate Cortex And Differential Outcomes to Treatment With Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy or Antidepressant Medication for Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Boadie W; Rajendra, Justin K; Craighead, W Edward; Kelley, Mary E; McGrath, Callie L; Choi, Ki Sueng; Kinkead, Becky; Nemeroff, Charles B; Mayberg, Helen S

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this article was to inform the first-line treatment choice between cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) or an antidepressant medication for treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder by defining a neuroimaging biomarker that differentially identifies the outcomes of remission and treatment failure to these interventions. Functional MRI resting-state functional connectivity analyses using a bilateral subcallosal cingulate cortex (SCC) seed was applied to 122 patients from the Prediction of Remission to Individual and Combined Treatments (PReDICT) study who completed 12 weeks of randomized treatment with CBT or antidepressant medication. Of the 122 participants, 58 achieved remission (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HAM-D] score ≤7 at weeks 10 and 12), and 24 had treatment failure (CBT and antidepressant medication and survived application of the subsample permutation tests: the left anterior ventrolateral prefrontal cortex/insula, the dorsal midbrain, and the left ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Using the summed SCC functional connectivity scores for these three regions, overall classification rates of 72%-78% for remission and 75%-89% for treatment failure was demonstrated. Positive summed functional connectivity was associated with remission with CBT and treatment failure with medication, whereas negative summed functional connectivity scores were associated with remission to medication and treatment failure with CBT. Imaging-based depression subtypes defined using resting-state functional connectivity differentially identified an individual's probability of remission or treatment failure with first-line treatment options for major depression. This biomarker should be explored in future research through prospective testing and as a component of multivariate treatment prediction models.

  6. Anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: reducing anterior tibial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, Bart; Duerr, Eric R. H.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Fu, Freddie H.

    2016-01-01

    To measure and compare the amount of anterior tibial subluxation (ATS) after anatomic ACL reconstruction for both acute and chronic ACL-deficient patients. Fifty-two patients were clinically and radiographically evaluated after primary, unilateral, anatomic ACL reconstruction. Post-operative true

  7. Alterations of muscarinic and GABA receptor binding in the posterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Kelly A; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Jew, Stephen Kum; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2007-01-30

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a key component of the limbic system, has been implicated in the pathology of schizophrenia because of its sensitivity to NMDA receptor antagonists. Recent studies have shown that the PCC is dysfunctional in schizophrenia, and it is now suspected to be critically involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Studies also suggest that there are abnormalities in muscarinic and GABAergic neurotransmission in schizophrenia. Therefore, in the present study we used quantitative autoradiography to investigate the binding of [(3)H]pirenzepine, [(3)H]AF-DX 384 and [(3)H]muscimol, which respectively label M1/4 and M2/4 muscarinic and GABA(A) receptors, in the PCC of schizophrenia and control subjects matched for age and post-mortem interval. The present study found that [(3)H]pirenzepine binding was significantly decreased in the superficial (-24%, p=0.002) and deep (-35%, pM4, M2/M4 and GABA(A) receptors in the PCC in schizophrenia. Whilst the exact mechanism causing these alterations is not yet known, a possible increased acetylcholine and down regulated GABA stimulation in the PCC of schizophrenia is suggested.

  8. Anterior deltopectoral approach for axillary nerve neurotisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, J Terrence Jose

    2012-04-01

    To report outcome of axillary nerve neurotisation for brachial plexus injury through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Nine men aged 20 to 52 (mean, 27.8) years with brachial plexus injury underwent axillary nerve neurotisation through the anterior deltopectoral approach. Three of the patients had complete avulsion of C5-T1 nerve roots. The remaining 6 patients had brachial plexus injury of C5-C6 nerve roots, with associated subluxation of the glenohumeral joint, atrophy of the supraspinatus, deltoid and elbow flexors. They had no active shoulder abduction, external rotation, and elbow flexion. The pectoralis major and minor were cut and/or retracted to expose the underlying infraclavicular plexus. The axillary nerve was identified with respect to the available donor nerves (long head of triceps branch, thoracodorsal nerve, and medial pectoral nerve). In addition to the axillary nerve neurotisation, each patient had a spinal accessory nerve transferred to the suprascapular nerve for better shoulder animation. Patients were followed up for 24 to 30 (mean, 26) months. In the 3 patients with C5-T1 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 63 and 20 degrees, respectively, whereas the mean abduction strength was M3 (motion against gravity). In the 6 patients with C5-C6 nerve root injuries, the mean active abduction and external rotation were 133 and 65 degrees, respectively, whereas the strength of the deltoids and triceps was M5 (normal) in all. In 4 patients with the pectoralis major cut and repaired, the muscle regained normal strength. The anterior deltopectoral approach enabled easy access to all available donor nerves for axillary nerve neurotisation and achieved good outcomes.

  9. Differences and similarities on neuronal activities of people being happily and unhappily in love: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoessel, Christina; Stiller, Juliane; Bleich, Stefan; Bönsch, Dominikus; Boensch, Dominikus; Doerfler, Arnd; Garcia, Meritxell; Richter-Schmidinger, Tanja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Forster, Clemens

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity was studied in grief following frustrated love compared to romantic love, and it was hypothesized that unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers would have decreased brain activity in regions specific to emotional and reward circuits, such as frontal brain areas, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral insula or posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Twelve volunteers intensely in love and 12 volunteers recently separated from their romantic partners were scanned performing 3 runs of functional magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. Subjects viewed partner pictures versus erotic pictures during the first run of the scanning process, autobiographical pictures versus neutral pictures during the second and autobiographical texts versus neutral texts during the third run. The Passionate Love Scale (PLS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were additionally recorded. Decreased brain activity in unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers occurred in frontal areas, ACC and PCC and bilateral insula. Unhappy lovers also revealed clinical depressive symptoms in the BDI. Unhappy lovers compared to happy lovers exhibited clinical depressive symptoms and reduced blood oxygen level dependency changes in a brain network which has been described as being involved in major depression. This might be a cue for the close relationship between grief and depression. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

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    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  11. Superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sum, Jonathan C; Omid, Reza

    2012-12-01

    The patient was a 25-year-old male college student with a chief complaint of right shoulder pain. The patient was initially diagnosed with bicipital tendinitis by his physician and had been treated for 4 weeks by a physical therapist. However, his symptoms did not improve and he was unable to return to his preinjury activity levels, so he sought the services of another physical therapist for a second opinion. Due to concern for a labrum tear, the physical therapist referred the patient to an orthopaedic surgeon. Magnetic resonance arthrography revealed findings consistent with a superior labrum anterior-to-posterior tear.

  12. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

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    Lin Li

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81 were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  13. Fracture of the anterior colliculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skie, M C; Ebraheim, N A; Woldenberg, L; Randall, K

    1995-04-01

    The authors retrospectively reviewed 33 cases of fracture involving the anterior colliculus of the medial malleolus to examine clinical results of operative treatment for these fractures. Although this injury appears innocuous, it can be difficult to obtain stable fixation of the fragment intraoperatively, and painful nonunion can result. A simple reduction maneuver and method of tension band fixation are described.

  14. Cue-Induced Brain Activation in Chronic Ketamine-Dependent Subjects, Cigarette Smokers, and Healthy Controls: A Task Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Liao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundObservations of drug-related cues may induce craving in drug-dependent patients, prompting compulsive drug-seeking behavior. Sexual dysfunction is common in drug users. The aim of the study was to examine regional brain activation to drug (ketamine, cigarette smoking associated cues and natural (sexual rewards.MethodsA sample of 129 [40 ketamine use smokers (KUS, 45 non-ketamine use smokers (NKUS and 44 non-ketamine use non-smoking healthy controls (HC] participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI while viewing ketamine use related, smoking and sexual films.ResultsWe found that KUS showed significant increased activation in anterior cingulate cortex and precuneus in response to ketamine cues. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in cerebellum and middle temporal cortex compared with non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC in response to sexual cues. Smokers (KUS and NKUS showed higher activation in the right precentral frontal cortex in response to smoking cues. Non-ketamine users (NKUS and HC showed significantly increased activation of cerebellum and middle temporal cortex while viewing sexual cues.ConclusionThese findings clearly show the engagement of distinct neural circuitry for drug-related stimuli in chronic ketamine users. While smokers (both KUS and NKUS showed overlapping differences in activation for smoking cues, the former group showed a specific neural response to relevant (i.e., ketamine-related cues. In particular, the heightened response in anterior cingulate cortex may have important implications for how attentionally salient such cues are in this group. Ketamine users (KUS showed lower activation in response to sexual cues may partly reflect the neural basis of sexual dysfunction.

  15. Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikemoto, Tatsunori; Ushida, Takahiro; Taniguchi, Shinichirou; Tania, Toshikazu; Zinchuk, V.; Morio, Kazuo; Sasaki, Toshikazu

    2004-01-01

    It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

  16. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  17. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

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    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Neurology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Mattace Raso, Francesco U. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Geriatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Niessen, Wiro J. [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Medical Informatics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft (Netherlands); Veen, Frederik M. van der [Erasmus University Rotterdam, Institute of Psychology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Prins, Niels D. [VU University Medical Center, Alzheimer Center, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-09-15

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  18. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papma, Janne M.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Swieten, John C. van; Smits, Marion; Lugt, Aad van der; Groot, Marius de; Vrooman, Henri A.; Mattace Raso, Francesco U.; Niessen, Wiro J.; Veen, Frederik M. van der; Prins, Niels D.

    2017-01-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. (orig.)

  19. The effect of hippocampal function, volume and connectivity on posterior cingulate cortex functioning during episodic memory fMRI in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papma, Janne M; Smits, Marion; de Groot, Marius; Mattace Raso, Francesco U; van der Lugt, Aad; Vrooman, Henri A; Niessen, Wiro J; Koudstaal, Peter J; van Swieten, John C; van der Veen, Frederik M; Prins, Niels D

    2017-09-01

    Diminished function of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a typical finding in early Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is hypothesized that in early stage AD, PCC functioning relates to or reflects hippocampal dysfunction or atrophy. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hippocampus function, volume and structural connectivity, and PCC activation during an episodic memory task-related fMRI study in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). MCI patients (n = 27) underwent episodic memory task-related fMRI, 3D-T1w MRI, 2D T2-FLAIR MRI and diffusion tensor imaging. Stepwise linear regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between PCC activation and hippocampal activation, hippocampal volume and diffusion measures within the cingulum along the hippocampus. We found a significant relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during successful episodic memory encoding and correct recognition in MCI patients. We found no relationship between the PCC and structural hippocampal predictors. Our results indicate a relationship between PCC and hippocampus activation during episodic memory engagement in MCI. This may suggest that during episodic memory, functional network deterioration is the most important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory relates to hippocampal functioning in MCI. • PCC functioning during episodic memory does not relate to hippocampal structure in MCI. • Functional network changes are an important predictor of PCC functioning in MCI.

  20. Impaired consciousness is linked to changes in effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Schurz, Matthias; Höller, Yvonne; Bergmann, Jürgen; Monti, Martin; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-04-15

    The intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network has been associated with the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. Especially medial parietal regions are considered to be highly involved in impaired consciousness. To better understand what aspect of this intrinsic architecture is linked to consciousness, we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess effective connectivity within the default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. We included 12 controls, 12 patients in minimally conscious state and 13 in vegetative state in this study. For each subject, we first defined the four key regions of the default mode network employing a subject-specific independent component analysis approach. The resulting regions were then included as nodes in a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis in order to assess how the causal interactions across these regions as well as the characteristics of neuronal fluctuations change with the level of consciousness. The resulting pattern of interaction in controls identified the posterior cingulate cortex as the main driven hub with positive afferent but negative efferent connections. In patients, this pattern appears to be disrupted. Moreover, the vegetative state patients exhibit significantly reduced self-inhibition and increased oscillations in the posterior cingulate cortex compared to minimally conscious state and controls. Finally, the degree of self-inhibition and strength of oscillation in this region is correlated with the level of consciousness. These findings indicate that the equilibrium between excitatory connectivity towards posterior cingulate cortex and its feedback projections is a key aspect of the relationship between alterations in consciousness after severe brain injury and the intrinsic functional architecture of the default mode network. This impairment might be principally due to the disruption of the mechanisms underlying self-inhibition and neuronal

  1. Impaired consciousness is linked to changes in effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate cortex within the default mode network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Julia Sophia; Schurz, Matthias; Höller, Yvonne; Bergmann, Jürgen; Monti, Martin; Schmid, Elisabeth; Trinka, Eugen; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic connectivity of the default mode network has been associated with the level of consciousness in patients with severe brain injury. Especially medial parietal regions are considered to be highly involved in impaired consciousness. To better understand what aspect of this intrinsic architecture is linked to consciousness, we applied spectral dynamic causal modeling to assess effective connectivity within the default mode network in patients with disorders of consciousness. We included 12 controls, 12 patients in minimally conscious state and 13 in vegetative state in this study. For each subject, we first defined the four key regions of the default mode network employing a subject-specific independent component analysis approach. The resulting regions were then included as nodes in a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis in order to assess how the causal interactions across these regions as well as the characteristics of neuronal fluctuations change with the level of consciousness. The resulting pattern of interaction in controls identified the posterior cingulate cortex as the main driven hub with positive afferent but negative efferent connections. In patients, this pattern appears to be disrupted. Moreover, the vegetative state patients exhibit significantly reduced self-inhibition and increased oscillations in the posterior cingulate cortex compared to minimally conscious state and controls. Finally, the degree of self-inhibition and strength of oscillation in this region is correlated with the level of consciousness. These findings indicate that the equilibrium between excitatory connectivity towards posterior cingulate cortex and its feedback projections is a key aspect of the relationship between alterations in consciousness after severe brain injury and the intrinsic functional architecture of the default mode network. This impairment might be principally due to the disruption of the mechanisms underlying self-inhibition and neuronal

  2. The effects of increased serotonergic activity on human sensory gating and its neural generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Kristian Steen; Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene

    2008-01-01

    either placebo or a dose of 10 mg of escitalopram (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor), after which they were tested in a P50 suppression paradigm. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify the neural generators of the P50 evoked potential. RESULTS: Escitalopram did not affect P50 suppression...... but was found to increase P50 amplitude to the first (or conditioning) stimulus. Two bilateral sources located in the temporal cortex, two bilaterally located near the eyes, and one in a fronto-central location were identified, the latter correlating positively with the P50 amplitude. CONCLUSIONS......: In the current study, escitalopram did not affect P50 suppression in healthy male volunteers, which indicates that sensory gating is not affected by a nonspecific increase in serotonergic activity. Furthermore, a generator with a fronto-central location in the brain (possibly the anterior cingulate) was found...

  3. Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakase, Junsuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Kitaoka, Katsuhiko

    2012-12-10

    The purpose of this present study was to examine contralateral ACL injury cases after ACL reconstruction, to determine the characteristics of such injuries. We performed a retrospective analysis of 24 patients with contralateral ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The control group consisted of 200 cases with unilateral ACL injury. The following were examined in the contralateral group: timing of the contralateral ACL injury, and the situations of the initial and contralateral ACL injuries. The following items were compared between the contralateral and control groups: age at the time of initial injury, level of competitive sports using Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity (KT-1000), and the ratio (%) of affected to unaffected legs in the strengths of the knee extensor and flexor muscles 6 months after surgery. Examination of injury situations showed that approximately 70% of the contralateral group was injured in situations similar to those at their initial injuries. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age at the time of initial injury , Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity, and the strengths of the knee extensor, flexor muscles and H/Q ratio 6 months after reconstruction. But, the age at the time of initial injury trended to be low in contralateral group. Knee anterior laxity and muscle weakness of the reconstructed legs six months following surgery were not individually related to contralateral ACL injury occurring approximately two years after surgery.

  4. Contralateral anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakase Junsuke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of this present study was to examine contralateral ACL injury cases after ACL reconstruction, to determine the characteristics of such injuries. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of 24 patients with contralateral ACL injury after ACL reconstruction. The control group consisted of 200 cases with unilateral ACL injury. The following were examined in the contralateral group: timing of the contralateral ACL injury, and the situations of the initial and contralateral ACL injuries. The following items were compared between the contralateral and control groups: age at the time of initial injury, level of competitive sports using Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity (KT-1000, and the ratio (% of affected to unaffected legs in the strengths of the knee extensor and flexor muscles 6 months after surgery. Results Examination of injury situations showed that approximately 70% of the contralateral group was injured in situations similar to those at their initial injuries. There were no significant differences between the two groups in age at the time of initial injury , Tegner activity scores, knee anterior laxity, and the strengths of the knee extensor, flexor muscles and H/Q ratio 6 months after reconstruction. But, the age at the time of initial injury trended to be low in contralateral group. Conclusions Knee anterior laxity and muscle weakness of the reconstructed legs six months following surgery were not individually related to contralateral ACL injury occurring approximately two years after surgery.

  5. Prefrontal and agranular cingulate projections to the dorsal premotor areas F2 and F7 in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luppino, Giuseppe; Rozzi, Stefano; Calzavara, Roberta; Matelli, Massimo

    2003-02-01

    The superior sector of Brodmann area 6 (dorsal premotor cortex, PMd) of the macaque monkey consists of a rostral and a caudal architectonic area referred to as F7 and F2, respectively. The aim of this study was to define the origin of prefrontal and agranular cingulate afferents to F7 and F2, in the light of functional and hodological evidence showing that these areas do not appear to be functionally homogeneous. Different sectors of F7 and F2 were injected with neural tracers in seven monkeys and the retrograde labelling was qualitatively and quantitatively analysed. The dorsorostral part of F7 (supplementary eye field, F7-SEF) was found to be a target of strong afferents from the frontal eye field (FEF), from the dorsolateral prefrontal regions located dorsally (DLPFd) and ventrally (DLPFv) to the principal sulcus and from cingulate areas 24a, 24b and 24c. In contrast, the remaining part of F7 (F7-non SEF) is only a target of the strong afferents from DLPFd. Finally, the ventrorostral part of F2 (F2vr), but not the F2 sector located around the superior precentral dimple (F2d), receives a minor, but significant, input from DLPFd and a relatively strong input from the cingulate gyrus (areas 24a and 24b) and area 24d. Present data provide strong hodological support in favour of the idea that areas F7 and F2 are formed by two functionally distinct sectors.

  6. A case of anterior cerebral artery dissection caused by scuba diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Takuya; Kato, Yuji; Ohe, Yasuko; Deguchi, Ichiro; Maruyama, Hajime; Hayashi, Takeshi; Tanahashi, Norio

    2014-08-01

    A 51-year-old man was admitted with right hemiparesis during scuba diving, without headache. Brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging depicted high-intensity areas in the left superior frontal and cingulate gyri on diffusion-weighted imaging. Dissection of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was detected using axial MR angiography and 3-dimensional MR cisternography. Dissection of the ACA during and after scuba diving has not been reported before. Dissection of the arteries should be included in the differential diagnosis when neurologic symptoms occur both during and after scuba diving, even if the patient does not experience headache. Furthermore, the combination of MR cisternography and MR angiography is useful to detect ACA dissection. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders show dysfunctional brain activation and connectivity in the emotional regulation networks during negative emotion maintenance and reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albein-Urios, Natalia; Verdejo-Román, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Asensio, Samuel; Martínez-González, José Miguel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2013-12-01

    Cocaine dependence often co-occurs with Cluster B personality disorders. Since both disorders are characterized by emotion regulation deficits, we predicted that cocaine comorbid patients would exhibit dysfunctional patterns of brain activation and connectivity during reappraisal of negative emotions. We recruited 18 cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders, 17 cocaine users without comorbidities and 21 controls to be scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during performance on a reappraisal task in which they had to maintain or suppress the emotions induced by negative affective stimuli. We followed region of interest (ROI) and whole-brain approaches to investigate brain activations and connectivity associated with negative emotion experience and reappraisal. Results showed that cocaine users with comorbid personality disorders had reduced activation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex during negative emotion maintenance and increased activation of the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala during reappraisal. Amygdala activation correlated with impulsivity and antisocial beliefs in the comorbid group. Connectivity analyses showed that in the cocaine comorbid group the subgenual cingulate was less efficiently connected with the amygdala and the fusiform gyri and more efficiently connected with the anterior insula during maintenance, whereas during reappraisal the left orbitofrontal cortex was more efficiently connected with the amygdala and the right orbitofrontal cortex was less efficiently connected with the dorsal striatum. We conclude that cocaine users with comorbid Cluster B personality disorders have distinctive patterns of brain activation and connectivity during maintenance and reappraisal of negative emotions, which correlate with impulsivity and dysfunctional beliefs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  8. Pain Modulation in Waking and Hypnosis in Women: Event-Related Potentials and Sources of Cortical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  9. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compa