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Sample records for anterior cingulate activation

  1. The anterior cingulate cortex

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    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  2. Left anterior cingulate activity predicts intra-individual reaction time variability in healthy adults.

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    Johnson, Beth P; Pinar, Ari; Fornito, Alex; Nandam, L Sanjay; Hester, Robert; Bellgrove, Mark A

    2015-06-01

    Within-subject, or intra-individual, variability in reaction time (RT) is increasingly recognised as an important indicator of the efficiency of attentional control, yet there have been few investigations of the neural correlates of trial-to-trial RT variability in healthy adults. We sought to determine the neural correlates of intra-individual RT variability during a go/no-go response inhibition task in 27 healthy, male participants. We found that reduced trial-to-trial RT variability (i.e. greater response stability) was significantly associated with greater activation in the left pregenual anterior cingulate. These results support the role of the left anterior cingulate in the dynamic control of attention and efficient response selection. Greater understanding of intra-individual RT variability and top-down attentional control in healthy adults may help to inform disorders that impact executive/attentional control, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:25791710

  3. Modulation of Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity With Real-Time Neurofeedback

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    Hamilton, J. Paul; Glover, Gary H.; Hsu, Jung-Jiin; Johnson, Rebecca F.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of real-time neurofeedback techniques has allowed us to begin to map the controllability of sensory and cognitive and, more recently, affective centers in the brain. The subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sACC) is thought to be involved in generation of affective states and has been implicated in psychopathology. In this study, we examined whether individuals could use realtime fMRI neurofeedback to modulate sACC activity. Following a localizer task used to identify an sACC regio...

  4. No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals

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    Glenn, Andrea L.; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of psychopathy have demonstrated reduced activity in the anterior cingulate, yet it is unclear whether this region is structurally impaired. In this study, we used structural MRI to examine whether volumetric differences exist in the anterior cingulate between psychopathic (n=24) and control (n=24) male participants. We found no group differences in the volume of the anterior cingulate or its dorsal and ventral subregions. Our findings call into question whether the...

  5. Fast oscillatory activity in the anterior cingulate cortex: dopaminergic modulation and efect of perineuronal net loss

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    Pascal eSteullet

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine release in the prefrontal cortex plays a critical role in cognitive function such as working memory, attention and planning. Dopamine exerts complex modulation on excitability of pyramidal neurons and interneurons, and regulates excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission. Because of the complexity of this modulation, it is difficult to fully comprehend the effect of dopamine on neuronal network activity. In this study, we investigated the effect of dopamine on local high-frequency oscillatory neuronal activity (in  band in slices of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We found that dopamine enhanced the power of these oscillations induced by kainate and carbachol, but did not affect their peak frequency. Activation of D2R and in a lesser degree D1R increased the oscillation power, while activation of D4R had no effect. These high-frequency oscillations in the ACC relied on both phasic inhibitory and excitatory transmission and functional gap junctions. Thus, dopamine released in the ACC promotes high-frequency synchronized local cortical activity which is known to favor information transfer, fast selection and binding of distributed neuronal responses. Finally, the power of these oscillations was significantly enhanced after degradation of the perineuronal nets enwrapping most parvalbumin interneurons. This study provides new insights for a better understanding of the abnormal prefrontal gamma activity in schizophrenia patients who display prefrontal anomalies of both the dopaminergic system and the perineuronal nets.

  6. In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion

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    Austen Krill

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with.

  7. Decreased ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity is associated with reduced social pain during emotional support.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2009-01-01

    People feel psychological pain when they are excluded, and this pain is often attenuated when emotional support is received. It is therefore likely that a specific neural mechanism underlies the detection of social exclusion. Similarly, specific neural mechanisms may underlie the beneficial effects of emotional support. Although neuroimaging researchers have recently examined the neural basis of social pain, there is presently no agreement as to which part of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is involved in the perception and modulation of social pain. We hypothesized that activity in those brain regions that are associated with social pain would be correlated with decrements in social pain induced by emotional support. To examine the effects of emotional support on social pain caused by exclusion, we conducted an fMRI study in which participants played a virtual ball-tossing game. Participants were initially included and later excluded from the game. In the latter half of the session from which participants were excluded, participants received emotionally supportive text messages. We found that emotional support led to increased activity in the left lateral/medial prefrontal cortices and some temporal regions. Those individuals who experienced greater attenuation of social pain exhibited lower ventral ACC and higher left lateral prefrontal cortex activation. These results suggest that the ventral ACC underlies social pain, and that emotional support enhances prefrontal cortex activity, which in turn may lead to a weakened affective response. PMID:19562631

  8. Mild blast events alter anxiety, memory, and neural activity patterns in the anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Xie, Kun; Kuang, Hui; Tsien, Joe Z

    2013-01-01

    There is a general interest in understanding of whether and how exposure to emotionally traumatizing events can alter memory function and anxiety behaviors. Here we have developed a novel laboratory-version of mild blast exposure comprised of high decibel bomb explosion sound coupled with strong air blast to mice. This model allows us to isolate the effects of emotionally fearful components from those of traumatic brain injury or bodily injury typical associated with bomb blasts. We demonstrate that this mild blast exposure is capable of impairing object recognition memory, increasing anxiety in elevated O-maze test, and resulting contextual generalization. Our in vivo neural ensemble recording reveal that such mild blast exposures produced diverse firing changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region processing emotional memory and inhibitory control. Moreover, we show that these real-time neural ensemble patterns underwent post-event reverberations, indicating rapid consolidation of those fearful experiences. Identification of blast-induced neural activity changes in the frontal brain may allow us to better understand how mild blast experiences result in abnormal changes in memory functions and excessive fear generalization related to post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:23741416

  9. Attenuation of cue-induced cigarette craving and anterior cingulate cortex activation in bupropion-treated smokers: a preliminary study

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    Brody, Arthur L.; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Lee, Grace; Smith, Erlyn; Sadeghi, Mary; Saxena, Sanjaya; Jarvik, Murray E.; London, Edythe D.

    2004-01-01

    In untreated smokers, exposure to cigarette-related cues increases both the intensity of cigarette craving and relative glucose metabolism of the perigenual/ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Given that treatment with bupropion HCl reduces overall cigarette craving levels in nicotine dependent subjects, we performed a preliminary study of smokers to determine if bupropion HCl treatment attenuates cue-induced cigarette craving and associated brain metabolic activation. Thirty-seven, othe...

  10. Medial profrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex in the generation of alpha activity induced by transcendental meditation: a magnetoencephalographic study.

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    Yamamoto,Shin

    2006-02-01

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    Previous EEG studies have shown that transcendental meditation (TM increases frontal and central alpha activity. The present study was aimed at identifying the source of this alpha activity using magnetoencephalography (MEG and electroencephalography (EEG simultaneously on eight TM practitioners before, during, and after TM. The magnetic field potentials corresponding to TM-induced alpha activities on EEG recordings were extracted, and we attempted to localize the dipole sources using the multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm, equivalent current dipole source analysis, and the multiple spatio-temporal dipole model. Since the dipoles were mapped to both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, it is suggested that the mPFC and ACC play an important role in brain activity induced by TM.

  11. Modulation of Beta-Band Activity in the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex during Emotional Empathy in Treatment-Resistant Depression.

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    Merkl, Angela; Neumann, Wolf-Julian; Huebl, Julius; Aust, Sabine; Horn, Andreas; Krauss, Joachim K; Dziobek, Isabel; Kuhn, Jens; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Bajbouj, Malek; Kühn, Andrea A

    2016-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach in treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TRD is associated with problems in interpersonal relationships, which might be linked to impaired empathy. Here, we investigate the influence of DBS in the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) on empathy in patients with TRD and explore the pattern of oscillatory sgACC activity during performance of the multifaceted empathy test. We recorded local field potential activity directly from sgACC via DBS electrodes in patients. Based on previous behavioral findings, we expected disrupted empathy networks. Patients showed increased empathic involvement ratings toward negative stimuli as compared with healthy subjects that were significantly reduced after 6 months of DBS. Stimulus-related oscillatory activity pattern revealed a broad desynchronization in the beta (14-35 Hz) band that was significantly larger during patients' reported emotional empathy for negative stimuli than when patients reported to have no empathy. Beta desynchronization for empathic involvement correlated with self-reported severity of depression. Our results indicate a "negativity bias" in patients that can be reduced by DBS. Moreover, direct recordings show activation of the sgACC area during emotional processing and propose that changes in beta-band oscillatory activity in the sgACC might index empathic involvement of negative emotion in TRD. PMID:25994959

  12. Abrupt changes in the patterns and complexity of anterior cingulate cortex activity when food is introduced into an environment

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    BarakFranciscoCaracheo

    2013-05-01

    Foraging typically involves two distinct phases, an exploration phase where an organism explores its local environment in search of needed resources and an exploitation phase where a discovered resource is consumed. The behavior and cognitive requirements of exploration and exploitation are quite different and yet organisms can quickly and efficiently switch between them many times during a foraging bout. The present study investigated neural activity state dynamics in the anterior cingulate sub-region of the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC when a reliable food source was introduced into an environment. Distinct and largely independent states were detected using a Hidden Markov Model (HMM when food was present or absent in the environment. Measures of neural entropy or complexity decreased when rats went from exploring the environment to exploiting a reliable food source. Exploration in the absence of food was associated with many weak activity states, while bouts of food consumption were characterized by fewer stronger states. Widespread activity state changes in the mPFC may help to inform foraging decisions and focus behavior on what is currently most prominent or valuable in the environment.

  13. Is dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to social exclusion due to expectancy violation?: An fMRI study

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    Taishi Kawamoto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available People are typically quite sensitive about being accepted or excluded by others. Previous studies have suggested that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is a key brain region involved in the detection of social exclusion. However, this region has also been shown to be sensitive to non-social expectancy violations. We often expect other people to follow an unwritten rule in which they include us as they would expect to be included, such that social exclusion likely involves some degree of expectancy violation. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to separate the effects of expectancy violation from those of social exclusion, such that we employed an “overinclusion” condition in which a player was unexpectedly overincluded in the game by the other players. With this modification, we found that the dACC and right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC were activated by exclusion, relative to overinclusion. In addition, we identified a negative correlation between exclusion-evoked brain activity and self-rated social pain in the rVLPFC, but not in the dACC. These findings suggest that the rVLPFC is critical for regulating social pain, whereas the dACC plays an important role in the detection of exclusion. The neurobiological basis of social exclusion is different from that of mere expectancy violation.

  14. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin activation in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex attenuates pain-related aversion in rats.

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    Lu, Bo; Jiang, Jingyan; Sun, Jianliang; Xiao, Chun; Meng, Bo; Zheng, Jinwei; Li, Xiaoyu; Wang, Ruichun; Wu, Guorong; Chen, Junping

    2016-09-01

    Pain is a complex experience that comprises both sensory and affective dimensions. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays an important role in the modulation of neuronal plasticity associated with the pathogenesis of pain sensation. However, the role of mTOR in pain affect is unclear. Using a formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA) test, the current study investigated the effects of the mTOR specific inhibitor rapamycin on noxious stimulation induced aversion in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Intraplantar injection of 5% formalin was associated with significant activation of mTOR, as well as p70 ribosomal S6 protein (p70S6K), its downstream effector, in the rACC. The inhibition of mTOR activation with rapamycin disrupted pain-related aversion; however, this inhibition did not affect formalin-induced spontaneous nociceptive behaviors in rats. These findings demonstrated for the first time that mTOR and its downstream pathway in the rACC contribute to the induction of pain-related negative emotion. PMID:27163752

  15. Activation of cannabinoid system in anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex modulates cost-benefit decision making.

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    Khani, Abbas; Kermani, Mojtaba; Hesam, Soghra; Haghparast, Abbas; Argandoña, Enrike G; Rainer, Gregor

    2015-06-01

    Despite the evidence for altered decision making in cannabis abusers, the role of the cannabinoid system in decision-making circuits has not been studied. Here, we examined the effects of cannabinoid modulation during cost-benefit decision making in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), key brain areas involved in decision making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision-making task. During test days, the rats received local injections of either vehicle or ACEA, a cannabinoid type-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist in the ACC or OFC. We measured spontaneous locomotor activity following the same treatments and characterized CB1Rs localization on different neuronal populations within these regions using immunohistochemistry. We showed that CB1R activation in the ACC impaired decision making such that rats were less willing to invest physical effort to gain high reward. Similarly, CB1R activation in the OFC induced impulsive pattern of choice such that rats preferred small immediate rewards to large delayed rewards. Control tasks ensured that the effects were specific for differential cost-benefit tasks. Furthermore, we characterized widespread colocalizations of CB1Rs on GABAergic axonal ends but few colocalizations on glutamatergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic neuronal ends. These results provide first direct evidence that the cannabinoid system plays a critical role in regulating cost-benefit decision making in the ACC and OFC and implicate cannabinoid modulation of synaptic ends of predominantly interneurons and to a lesser degree other neuronal populations in these two frontal regions. PMID:25529106

  16. Activation of cannabinoid system in anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex modulates cost-benefit decision making

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    Khani, Abbas; Kermani, Mojtaba; Hesam, 6Soghra; Haghparast, Abbas; Enrike G Argandoña; Rainer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    Despite the evidence for altered decision making in cannabis abusers, the role of the cannabinoid system in decision-making circuits has not been studied. Here, we examined the effects of cannabinoid modulation during cost-benefit decision making in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), key brain areas involved in decision making. We trained different groups of rats in a delay-based and an effort-based form of cost-benefit T-maze decision-making task. During test...

  17. Neuronal activity in primate dorsal anterior cingulate cortex signals task conflict and predicts adjustments in pupil-linked arousal

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    Ebitz, R. Becket; Platt, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Whether driving a car, shopping for food, or paying attention in a classroom of boisterous teenagers, it’s often hard to maintain focus on goals in the face of distraction. Brain imaging studies in humans implicate the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) in regulating the conflict between goals and distractors. Here we show for the first time that single dACC neurons signal conflict between task goals and distractors in the rhesus macaque, particularly for biologically-relevant social stimuli. For some neurons, task conflict signals predicted subsequent changes in pupil size—a peripheral index of arousal linked to noradrenergic tone—associated with reduced distractor interference. dACC neurons also responded to errors and these signals predicted adjustments in pupil size. These findings provide the first neurophysiological endorsement of the hypothesis that dACC regulates conflict, in part, via modulation of pupil-linked processes such as arousal. PMID:25654259

  18. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism.

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    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken'ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-12-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then rated the degree of social pain experienced during both inclusion in and exclusion from the game. Individuals with lower trait self-esteem reported increased social pain relative to individuals with higher trait self-esteem, and such individuals also demonstrated a greater degree of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation. A psychophysiological interaction analysis revealed a positive connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices for the lower trait self-esteem group, and a corresponding negative connectivity for the higher trait self-esteem group. Heightened dorsal anterior cortex activity and a corresponding connection with the prefrontal cortex might be one possible explanation for the greater levels of social pain observed experienced by individuals with low trait self-esteem. PMID:20144945

  19. Attentional effects of lesions to the anterior cingulate cortex: how prior reinforcement influences distractibility

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    Newman, Lori A.; McGaughy, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Morphological changes in the anterior cingulate cortex are found in subjects with schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder. These changes are hypothesized to underlie the impairments these individuals show on tasks that require cognitive control. The anterior cingulate cortex has previously been shown to be active in situations involving high conflict, presentation of salient, distracting stimuli, and error processing, i.e. situations that occ...

  20. Sexual attraction enhances glutamate transmission in mammalian anterior cingulate cortex

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    Wu Long-Jun

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis of how the ACC neurons are activated and engaged in sexual attraction remains unknown. Using transgenic mice in which the expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP is controlled by the promoter of the activity-dependent gene c-fos, we found that ACC pyramidal neurons are activated by sexual attraction. The presynaptic glutamate release to the activated neurons is increased and pharmacological inhibition of neuronal activities in the ACC reduced the interest of male mice to female mice. Our results present direct evidence of the critical role of the ACC in sexual attraction, and long-term increases in glutamate mediated excitatory transmission may contribute to sexual attraction between male and female mice.

  1. Spindle neurons of the human anterior cingulate cortex

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    Nimchinsky, E. A.; Vogt, B. A.; Morrison, J. H.; Hof, P. R.; Bloom, F. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The human anterior cingulate cortex is distinguished by the presence of an unusual cell type, a large spindle neuron in layer Vb. This cell has been noted numerous times in the historical literature but has not been studied with modern neuroanatomic techniques. For instance, details regarding the neuronal class to which these cells belong and regarding their precise distribution along both ventrodorsal and anteroposterior axes of the cingulate gyrus are still lacking. In the present study, morphological features and the anatomic distribution of this cell type were studied using computer-assisted mapping and immunocytochemical techniques. Spindle neurons are restricted to the subfields of the anterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 24), exhibiting a greater density in anterior portions of this area than in posterior portions, and tapering off in the transition zone between anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Furthermore, a majority of the spindle cells at any level is located in subarea 24b on the gyral surface. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that the neurofilament protein triple was present in a large percentage of these neurons and that they did not contain calcium-binding proteins. Injections of the carbocyanine dye DiI into the cingulum bundle revealed that these cells are projection neurons. Finally, spindle cells were consistently affected in Alzheimer's disease cases, with an overall loss of about 60%. Taken together, these observations indicate that the spindle cells of the human cingulate cortex represent a morphological subpopulation of pyramidal neurons whose restricted distribution may be associated with functionally distinct areas.

  2. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

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    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  3. The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation

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    Musso Francesco

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional μ-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography. The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD response to painful laser stimulation. Results 57 subjects were studied. We found that subjects homozygous for the met158 allele exhibit a higher BOLD response in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, foremost in the mid-cingulate cortex, than carriers of the val158 allele. Conclusion This result is in line with previous studies that reported higher pain sensitivity in homozygous met carriers. It adds to the current literature in suggesting that this behavioral phenotype may be mediated by, or is at least associated with, increased ACC activity. More generally, apart from one report that focused on pain-induced opioid release, this is the first functional neuroimaging study showing an effect of the COMT val158met polymorphism on cerebral pain processing.

  4. Hippocampal and Left Subcallosal Anterior Cingulate Atrophy in Psychotic Depression

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    Bijanki, Kelly Rowe; Hodis, Brendan; Brumm, Michael C.; Harlynn, Emily L.; McCormick, Laurie M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychotic depression is arguably the most diagnostically stable subtype of major depressive disorder, and an attractive target of study in a famously heterogeneous mental illness. Previous imaging studies have identified abnormal volumes of the hippocampus, amygdala, and subcallosal region of the anterior cingulate cortex (scACC) in psychotic depression, though studies have not yet examined the role of family history of depression in these relationships. Methods 20 participants wit...

  5. Pleasant human touch is represented in pregenual anterior cingulate cortex.

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    Lindgren, Lenita; Westling, Göran; Brulin, Christine; Lehtipalo, Stefan; Andersson, Micael; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-02-15

    Touch massage (TM) is a form of pleasant touch stimulation used as treatment in clinical settings and found to improve well-being and decrease anxiety, stress, and pain. Emotional responses reported during and after TM have been studied, but the underlying mechanisms are still largely unexplored. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that the combination of human touch (i.e. skin-to-skin contact) with movement is eliciting a specific response in brain areas coding for pleasant sensations. The design included four different touch conditions; human touch with or without movement and rubber glove with or without movement. Force (2.5 N) and velocity (1.5 cm/s) were held constant across conditions. The pleasantness of the four different touch stimulations was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS-scale) and human touch was rated as most pleasant, particularly in combination with movement. The fMRI results revealed that TM stimulation most strongly activated the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). These results are consistent with findings showing pgACC activation during various rewarding pleasant stimulations. This area is also known to be activated by both opioid analgesia and placebo. Together with these prior results, our finding furthers the understanding of the basis for positive TM treatment effects. PMID:22100768

  6. Outcome Uncertainty and Brain Activity Aberrance in the Insula and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Dysfunctional Impulsivity in Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    Mortensen, Jørgen Assar; Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe; Klensmeden, Gunilla; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as an important component in distress, which may elicit impulsive behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). These patients are known to be both impulsive and distress intolerant. The present study explored the connection between outcome uncertainty and impulsivity in BPD. The prediction was that cue primes, which provide incomplete information of subsequent target stimuli, led BPD patients to overrate the predictive value of these cues in order to reduce distress related to outcome uncertainty. This would yield dysfunctional impulsive behavior detected as commission errors to incorrectly primed targets. We hypothesized that dysfunctional impulsivity would be accompanied by aberrant brain activity in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously described to be involved in uncertainty processing, attention-/cognitive control and BPD pathology. 14 female BPD patients and 14 healthy matched controls (HCs) for comparison completed a Posner task during fMRI at 3T. The task was modified to limit the effect of spatial orientation and enhance the effect of conscious expectations. Brain activity was monitored in the priming phase where the effects of cue primes and neutral primes were compared. As predicted, the BPD group made significantly more commission errors to incorrectly primed targets than HCs. Also, the patients had faster reaction times to correctly primed targets relative to targets preceded by neutral primes. The BPD group had decreased activity in the right mid insula and increased activity in bilateral dorsal ACC during cue primes. The results indicate that strong expectations induced by cue primes led to reduced uncertainty, increased response readiness, and ultimately, dysfunctional impulsivity in BPD patients. We suggest that outcome uncertainty may be an important component in distress related impulsivity in BPD. PMID:27199724

  7. Outcome Uncertainty and Brain Activity Aberrance in the Insula and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Are Associated with Dysfunctional Impulsivity in Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Jørgen Assar; Evensmoen, Hallvard Røe; Klensmeden, Gunilla; Håberg, Asta Kristine

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is recognized as an important component in distress, which may elicit impulsive behavior in patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). These patients are known to be both impulsive and distress intolerant. The present study explored the connection between outcome uncertainty and impulsivity in BPD. The prediction was that cue primes, which provide incomplete information of subsequent target stimuli, led BPD patients to overrate the predictive value of these cues in order to reduce distress related to outcome uncertainty. This would yield dysfunctional impulsive behavior detected as commission errors to incorrectly primed targets. We hypothesized that dysfunctional impulsivity would be accompanied by aberrant brain activity in the right insula and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), previously described to be involved in uncertainty processing, attention-/cognitive control and BPD pathology. 14 female BPD patients and 14 healthy matched controls (HCs) for comparison completed a Posner task during fMRI at 3T. The task was modified to limit the effect of spatial orientation and enhance the effect of conscious expectations. Brain activity was monitored in the priming phase where the effects of cue primes and neutral primes were compared. As predicted, the BPD group made significantly more commission errors to incorrectly primed targets than HCs. Also, the patients had faster reaction times to correctly primed targets relative to targets preceded by neutral primes. The BPD group had decreased activity in the right mid insula and increased activity in bilateral dorsal ACC during cue primes. The results indicate that strong expectations induced by cue primes led to reduced uncertainty, increased response readiness, and ultimately, dysfunctional impulsivity in BPD patients. We suggest that outcome uncertainty may be an important component in distress related impulsivity in BPD. PMID:27199724

  8. Activation of mGluR1 contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability in the rat anterior cingulate cortex via inhibition of HCN channels.

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    Gao, Shi-Hao; Wen, Hui-Zhong; Shen, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Yan-Dong; Ruan, Huai-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    Neuronal hyperexcitability in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is considered as one of the most important pathological changes responsible for the chronification of neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In the present study, we investigated the possible mechanisms using a rat model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. We found a substantial decrease in hyperpolarization-activated/cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) currents in layer 5 pyramidal neurons (L5 PNs) in ACC slices, which dramatically increased the excitability of these neurons. This effect could be mimicked in sham slices by activating group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, and be blocked in CCI slices by inhibiting metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 (mGluR1). Next, the inhibition of HCN currents was reversed by a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, followed by a reduced neuronal hyperexcitability. Furthermore, HCN channel subtype 1 (HCN1) level was significantly reduced after CCI, whereas mGluR1 level increased. These changes were mainly observed in L5 of the ACC, where HCN1 and mGluR1 were highly colocalized. For behavioral tests, intra-ACC microinjection of mGluR1-shRNA suppressed the CCI-induced behavioral hypersensitivity, particularly thermal hyperalgesia, but not aversive behavior, and this effect was attenuated by the pre-blockade of HCN channels. Taken together, the neuronal hyperexcitability of ACC L5 PNs likely results from an upregulation of mGluR1 and a downstream pathway involving PKC activation and a downregulation of HCN1 in the early phase of neuropathic pain. These alterations may at least in part contribute to the development of behavioral hypersensitivity in CCI rats. PMID:26829470

  9. Activation of dopamine D4 receptors within the anterior cingulate cortex enhances the erroneous expectation of reward on a rat slot machine task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocker, P J; Hosking, J G; Murch, W S; Clark, L; Winstanley, C A

    2016-06-01

    Using a rodent slot machine task (rSMT), we have previously shown that rats, like humans, are susceptible to the reinforcing effects of winning signals presented within a compound stimulus array, even when the pattern generated predicts a negative rather than a positive outcome such as during a "near-miss". The dopamine D4 receptor critically mediates the erroneous reward expectancy generated on such trials. D4 receptors are particularly enriched within frontal and limbic areas activated during slot machine play, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We therefore selectively inactivated the ACC to confirm involvement of this region in rSMT performance, and subsequently examined the specific contribution of local D4 receptors. ACC inactivations generally impaired animals' ability to optimally differentiate winning from losing outcomes. Local administration of the D4 agonist PD168077 had a qualitatively similar effect, but increased reward expectancy was only evident on archetypal "near-miss" trials i.e. when the first two of three stimuli in the array were concordant with a rewarding outcome, and only the last stimulus critically signalled a non-win. These data indicate that the ACC is critically involved in parsing the appropriate response when competing stimulus-outcome associations are activated, and that signalling via D4 receptors may play a particularly important role in gating the temporal and spatial summation of salient events. Such findings provide novel insights into the mechanism underlying the erroneous expectations of reward generated when playing slot machines, and suggest a mechanism by which D4 receptor antagonists may be effective in treating gambling disorder. PMID:26775821

  10. Increased anterior cingulate and temporal lobe activity during visuospatial working memory in children and adolescents with schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.J.H. White (Tonya); D. Hongwanishkul (Donaya); M. Schmidt (Manfred)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Similar to adults, children and adolescents with schizophrenia present with significant working memory (WkM) deficits. However, unlike adults, findings of abnormal activity in the prefrontal cortex in early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) are not consistently reported. Since WkM con

  11. Pivotal role of anterior cingulate cortex in working memory after traumatic brain injury in youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabienne eCazalis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.

  12. The anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortices in emotional processing for self-face recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Morita, Tomoyo; Tanabe, Hiroki C.; Akihiro T Sasaki; Shimada, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke; Sadato, Norihiro

    2013-01-01

    Individuals can experience embarrassment when exposed to self-feedback images, depending on the extent of the divergence from the internal representation of the standard self. Our previous work implicated the anterior insular cortex (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the processing of embarrassment; however, their exact functional contributions have remained uncertain. Here, we explored the effects of being observed by others while viewing self-face images on the extent of embarr...

  13. Neurofeedback of the difference in activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and posterior insular cortex: two functionally connected areas in the processing of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela eRance

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the analysis of the effect of a learned increase in the dissociation between the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC and the left posterior insula (pInsL on pain intensity and unpleasantness and the contribution of each region to the effect, exploring the possibility to influence the perception of pain with neurofeedback methods. We trained ten healthy subjects to increase the difference in the blood oxygenation level-dependent response between the rACC and pInsL to painful electric stimuli. Subjects learned to increase the dissociation with either the rACC (state 1 or the pInsL (state 2 being higher. For feedback we subtracted the signal of one region from the other and provided feedback in four conditions with six trials each yielding two different states: (rACC – pInsL increase (state 1, rACC – pInsL decrease (state 2, pInsL – rACC increase (state 2, pInsL – rACC decrease (state 1. Significant changes in the dissociation from trial one to six were seen in all conditions. There were significant changes from trial one to six in the pInsL in three of the four conditions, the rACC showed no significant change. Pain intensity or unpleasantness ratings were unrelated to the dissociation between the regions and the activation in each region. Learning success in the conditions did not significantly correlate and there was no significant correlation between the two respective conditions of one state, i.e. learning to achieve a specific state is not a stable ability. The pInsL seems to be the driving force behind changes in the learned dissociation between the regions. Despite successful differential modulation of activation in areas responsive to the painful stimulus, no corresponding changes in the perception of pain intensity or unpleasantness emerged. Learning to induce different states of dissociation between the areas is not a stable ability since success did not correlate overall or between two conditions of

  14. Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: A marker of adolescents’ risk for depression

    OpenAIRE

    Masten, Carrie L.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.; Borofsky, Larissa A.; McNealy, Kristin; Pfeifer, Jennifer H.; DAPRETTO, MIRELLA

    2011-01-01

    Extensive developmental research has linked peer rejection during adolescence with a host of psychopathological outcomes, including depression. Moreover, recent neuroimaging research has suggested that increased activity in the subgenual region of the anterior cingulate cortex (subACC), which has been consistently linked with depression, is related to heightened sensitivity to peer rejection among adolescents. The goal of the current study was to directly test the hypothesis that adolescents’...

  15. Short-term meditation induces white matter changes in the anterior cingulate

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Lu, Qilin; Geng, Xiujuan; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong; Posner, Michael I.

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is part of a network implicated in the development of self-regulation and whose connectivity changes dramatically in development. In previous studies we showed that 3 h of mental training, based on traditional Chinese medicine (integrative body–mind training, IBMT), increases ACC activity and improves self-regulation. However, it is not known whether changes in white matter connectivity can result from small amounts of mental training. We here report that 1...

  16. EMX1 regulates NRP1-mediated wiring of the mouse anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jonathan W C; Donahoo, Amber-Lee S; Bunt, Jens; Edwards, Timothy J; Fenlon, Laura R; Liu, Ying; Zhou, Jing; Moldrich, Randal X; Piper, Michael; Gobius, Ilan; Bailey, Timothy L; Wray, Naomi R; Kessaris, Nicoletta; Poo, Mu-Ming; Rubenstein, John L R; Richards, Linda J

    2015-11-01

    Transcription factors act during cortical development as master regulatory genes that specify cortical arealization and cellular identities. Although numerous transcription factors have been identified as being crucial for cortical development, little is known about their downstream targets and how they mediate the emergence of specific neuronal connections via selective axon guidance. The EMX transcription factors are essential for early patterning of the cerebral cortex, but whether EMX1 mediates interhemispheric connectivity by controlling corpus callosum formation remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that in mice on the C57Bl/6 background EMX1 plays an essential role in the midline crossing of an axonal subpopulation of the corpus callosum derived from the anterior cingulate cortex. In the absence of EMX1, cingulate axons display reduced expression of the axon guidance receptor NRP1 and form aberrant axonal bundles within the rostral corpus callosum. EMX1 also functions as a transcriptional activator of Nrp1 expression in vitro, and overexpression of this protein in Emx1 knockout mice rescues the midline-crossing phenotype. These findings reveal a novel role for the EMX1 transcription factor in establishing cortical connectivity by regulating the interhemispheric wiring of a subpopulation of neurons within the mouse anterior cingulate cortex. PMID:26534986

  17. Anatomical and functional overlap within the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during interoception and phobic symptom provocation

    OpenAIRE

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Mataix-Cols, David; López-Sola, Marina; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Ortiz Valencia, Héctor; Pujol, Jesus; Torrubia, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    The anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are regarded as key brain structures associated with the integration of perceived phobic characteristics of external stimuli and the perception of ones own body responses that leads to emotional feelings. To test to what extent the activity in these two brain structures anatomically and functionally overlap during phobic reactions and interoception, we submitted the same group of phobic participants (n = 29; either spider or b...

  18. Reduced Activation in Lateral Prefrontal Cortex and Anterior Cingulate during Attention and Cognitive Control Functions in Medication-Naive Adolescents with Depression Compared to Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halari, Rozmin; Simic, Mima; Pariante, Carmine M.; Papadopoulos, Andrew; Cleare, Anthony; Brammer, Michael; Fombonne, Eric; Rubia, Katya

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adolescence. In adult MDD, abnormalities of fronto-striatal and fronto-cingulate circuitries mediating cognitive control functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis and been related to problems with controlling negative thoughts. No neuroimaging studies of…

  19. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitoria ePiai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and monitoring processes have remained relatively underspecified. We report the results of an fMRI study examining the neural substrates related to performance in three attention-demanding tasks varying in the amount of linguistic processing: vocal picture naming while ignoring distractors (picture-word interference, PWI; vocal colour naming while ignoring distractors (Stroop; and manual object discrimination while ignoring spatial position (Simon task. All three tasks had congruent and incongruent stimuli, while PWI and Stroop also had neutral stimuli. Analyses focusing on common activation across tasks identified a portion of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex that was active in incongruent trials for all three tasks, suggesting that this region subserves a domain-general attentional control function. In the language tasks, this area showed increased activity for incongruent relative to congruent stimuli, consistent with the involvement of domain-general mechanisms of attentional control in word production. The two language tasks also showed activity in anterior-superior temporal gyrus. Activity increased for neutral PWI stimuli (picture and word did not share the same semantic category relative to incongruent (categorically related and congruent stimuli. This finding is consistent with the involvement of language-specific areas in word production, possibly related to retrieval of lexical-semantic information from memory. The current results thus suggest that in addition to engaging language-specific areas for core linguistic processes, speaking also engages the anterior cingulate cortex, a region that is likely implementing domain

  20. Early adversity and combat exposure interact to influence anterior cingulate cortex volume in combat veterans ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Steven H.; Kuo, Janice R.; Schaer, Marie; Kaloupek, Danny G.; Eliez, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Childhood and combat trauma have been observed to interact to influence amygdala volume in a sample of U.S. military veterans with and without PTSD. This interaction was assessed in a second, functionally-related fear system component, the pregenual and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, using the same sample and modeling approach. Method Anterior cingulate cortical tissues (gray + white matter) were manually-delineated in 1.5 T MR images in 87 U.S. military veterans of the Vietnam a...

  1. Short-term meditation increases blood flow in anterior cingulate cortex and insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Yuan eTang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry in frontal electrical activity has been reported to be associated with positive mood. One form of mindfulness meditation, integrative body-mind training (IBMT improves positive mood and neuroplasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether short-term IBMT improves mood and induces frontal asymmetry. This study showed that five-day (30-min per day IBMT significantly enhanced cerebral blood flow (CBF in subgenual/adjacent ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, medial prefrontal cortex and insula. The results showed that both IBMT and relaxation training increased left laterality of CBF, but only IBMT improved CBF in left ACC and insula, critical brain areas in self-regulation.

  2. Short-term synaptic plasticity in the nociceptive thalamic-anterior cingulate pathway

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    Vogt Brent A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the mechanisms of short- and long-term potentiation of nociceptive-evoked responses are well known in the spinal cord, including central sensitization, there has been a growing body of information on such events in the cerebral cortex. In view of the importance of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in chronic pain conditions, this review considers neuronal plasticities in the thalamocingulate pathway that may be the earliest changes associated with such syndromes. Results A single nociceptive electrical stimulus to the sciatic nerve induced a prominent sink current in the layer II/III of the ACC in vivo, while high frequency stimulation potentiated the response of this current. Paired-pulse facilitation by electrical stimulation of midline, mediodorsal and intralaminar thalamic nuclei (MITN suggesting that the MITN projection to ACC mediates the nociceptive short-term plasticity. The short-term synaptic plasticities were evaluated for different inputs in vitro where the medial thalamic and contralateral corpus callosum afferents were compared. Stimulation of the mediodorsal afferent evoked a stronger short-term synaptic plasticity and effectively transferred the bursting thalamic activity to cingulate cortex that was not true for contralateral stimulation. This short-term enhancement of synaptic transmission was mediated by polysynaptic pathways and NMDA receptors. Layer II/III neurons of the ACC express a short-term plasticity that involves glutamate and presynaptic calcium influx and is an important mechanism of the short-term plasticity. Conclusion The potentiation of ACC neuronal activity induced by thalamic bursting suggest that short-term synaptic plasticities enable the processing of nociceptive information from the medial thalamus and this temporal response variability is particularly important in pain because temporal maintenance of the response supports cortical integration and memory formation related to

  3. The Role of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate in Evaluating Behavior for Achieving Gains and Avoiding Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magno, Elena; Simoes-Franklin, Cristina; Robertson, Ian H.; Garavan, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    Effective goal-directed behavior relies on a network of regions including anterior cingulate cortex and ventral striatum to learn from negative outcomes in order to improve performance. We employed fMRI to determine if this frontal-striatal system is also involved in instances of behavior that do not presume negative circumstances. Participants…

  4. Frontal and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC) theta EEG in depression: implications for treatment outcome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arns, M.W.; Etkin, A.; Hegerl, U.; Williams, L.M.; DeBattista, C.; Palmer, D.M.; Fitzgerald, P.B.; Harris, A.; deBeuss, R.; Gordon, E.

    2015-01-01

    In major depressive disorder (MDD), elevated theta current density in the rostral anterior cingulate (rACC), as estimated by source localization of scalp-recorded electroencenphalogram (EEG), has been associated with response to antidepressant treatments, whereas elevated frontal theta has been link

  5. Anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivations to an emotionally salient task in cocaine addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Carrillo, Jean Honorio; Maloney, Thomas; Woicik, Patricia A.; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive processing characterize drug addicted individuals as compared with healthy controls. However, impaired behavioral performance or task disengagement may be crucial factors. We hypothesized that ACC hypoactivations would be documented in groups matched for performance on an emotionally salient task. Seventeen individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent functional m...

  6. The effects of stimulation of the anterior cingulate gyrus in cats with freedom of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapres, G.; Cadilhac, J.; Passouant, P.

    1980-01-01

    Stimuli of varying strength, frequency and duration were applied to the anterior cingulate gyrus in unanesthetized cats with freedom of movement. The motor, vegetative and electrical effects of these stimuli, although inconstant, lead to a consideration of the role of this structure in the extrapyramidal control of motricity.

  7. Frontal and anterior cingulate activation during overt verbal fluency in patients with first episode psychosis Ativação frontal e do cíngulo anterior durante tarefa de fluência verbal em pacientes em primeiro episódio psicótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Schaufelberger

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Functional neuroimaging studies using phonological verbal fluency tasks allow the assessment of neural circuits relevant to the neuropsychology of psychosis. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus present different activation patterns in subjects with chronic schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. We assessed the functioning in these brain regions during phonological verbal fluency in subjects with recent-onset functional psychoses, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI. METHODS: Seven patients with functional psychoses (3 schizophreniform, 4 affective and 9 healthy controls were studied. We compared functional magnetic resonance images acquired during articulation of words beginning with letters classified as easy for word production in Portuguese. Statistical comparisons were performed using non-parametric tests. RESULTS: There were no differences between patients and controls in task performance. Controls showed greater activation than patients in the left rostral anterior cingulate gyrus and right inferior prefrontal cortex, whereas patients showed stronger activation than controls in a more dorsal part of the anterior cingulate gyrus bilaterally and in a more superior portion of the right prefrontal cortex. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings of attenuated engagement of inferior prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate gyrus in patients with recent onset psychosis during phonological verbal fluency are consistent with those of previous studies. The greater activation found in other parts of the anterior cingulate gyrus and prefrontal cortex in patients may be related to a compensatory response that is required to maintain normal task performance, and suggests a pattern of disorganized activity of different functional anterior cingulate gyrus units in association with psychotic conditions.OBJETIVO: Estudos de neuroimagem funcional empregando tarefa de fluência verbal fonol

  8. Dopamine and serotonin imbalances in the left anterior cingulate and pyriform cortices following the repeated intermittent administration of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbreder, C A; Oertle, T; Feldon, J

    1999-03-01

    Studies on the neurobiology of cocaine abuse suggest that cocaine directly modifies the activity of dopamine neurons projecting from the dopamine-synthesizing cells of the ventral tegmental area to the nucleus accumbens. The repeated use of cocaine produces persistent adaptations within the mesocorticolimbic system and the resulting changes in monoamine neurotransmission may lead to behavioral sensitization. The present series of experiments sought to determine the effects of the repeated, intermittent challenge that took place two days after discontinuation of the pretreatment regimen; (ii) the ex vivo levels of biogenic monoamines, choline and acetylcholine in the nucleus accumbens, the dorsolateral caudate nucleus, as well as the anterior cingulate, frontal motor, frontal somatosensory and pyriform cortices; and (iii) the degree of neurochemical relationship between the left and right hemispheres. The repeated administration of cocaine produced sensitized behavioral responses to a subsequent challenge. Neurochemical correlates of repeated cocaine administration were observed at the cortical level and included a significant decrease in serotonin levels in the left anterior cingulate and pyriform cortices and an increase in dopamine metabolism in the left pyriform cortex. Furthermore, a shift in the interhemispheric coupling coefficient matrix for dopamine neurotransmission was observed in both the pyriform cortex and nucleus accumbens of cocaine-sensitized animals suggesting that, in these structures, the two hemispheres are operating independently. These results demonstrate that cocaine produces alterations in specific dopaminergic and serotonergic pathways that arise from the mesencephalon and project towards both the anterior cingulate and pyriform cortices. PMID:10199606

  9. Subliminal versus supraliminal stimuli activate neural responses in anterior cingulate cortex, fusiform gyrus and insula: a meta-analysis of fMRI studies

    OpenAIRE

    Meneguzzo, Paolo; Tsakiris, Manos; Schioth, Helgi B.; Dan J Stein; Brooks, Samantha J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-conscious neural activation may underlie various psychological functions in health and disorder. However, the neural substrates of non-conscious processing have not been entirely elucidated. Examining the differential effects of arousing stimuli that are consciously, versus unconsciously perceived will improve our knowledge of neural circuitry involved in non-conscious perception. Here we conduct preliminary analyses of neural activation in studies that have used both sublimina...

  10. Electrophysiological Correlates of a Versatile Executive Control System in the Monkey Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelet, Thomas; Bioulac, Bernard; Langbour, Nicolas; Goillandeau, Michel; Guehl, Dominique; Burbaud, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    When a subject faces conflicting situations, decision-making becomes uncertain. The human dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) has been repeatedly implicated in the monitoring of such situations, and its neural activity is thought to be involved in behavioral adjustment. However, this hypothesis is mainly based on neuroimaging results and is challenged by animal studies that failed to report any neuronal correlates of conflict monitoring. This discrepancy is thought be due either to methodological or more fundamental cross-species differences. In this study, we eliminated methodological biases and recorded single-neuron activity in monkeys performing a Stroop-like task. We found specific changes in dACC activity during incongruent trials but only in a small subpopulation of cells. Critically, these changes were not related to reaction time and were absent before any incorrect action was taken. A larger fraction of neurons exhibited sustained activity during the whole decision period, whereas another subpopulation of neurons was modulated by reaction time, with a gradual increase in their firing rate that peaked at movement onset. Most of the neurons found in these subpopulations exhibited activity after the delivery of an external negative feedback stimulus that indicated an error had been made. These findings, which are consistent with an executive control role, reconcile various theories of prefrontal cortex function and support the homology between human and monkey cognitive architectures. PMID:25631057

  11. The beneficial effects of meditation: contribution of the anterior cingulate and locus coeruleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Alker Craigmyle

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.

  12. Abnormalities in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Associated with Attentional and Inhibitory Control Deficits: A Neurophysiological Study on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Agnes S.; Han, Yvonne M. Y.; Leung, Winnie Wing-man; Leung, Connie; Wong, Virginia C. N.; Cheung, Mei-chun

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is activated when individuals engage in attention and inhibitory control tasks. The present study examined whether ACC activity is associated with behavioral performance of the two tasks. Twenty normal and 20 children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) were subjected to…

  13. Chemogenetic Inactivation of Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Neurons Disrupts Attentional Behavior in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Hiroyuki; Demars, Michael P; Short, Jennifer A; Nabel, Elisa M; Akbarian, Schahram; Baxter, Mark G; Morishita, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Attention is disrupted commonly in psychiatric disorders, yet mechanistic insight remains limited. Deficits in this function are associated with dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) excitotoxic lesions and pharmacological disinhibition; however, a causal relationship has not been established at the cellular level. Moreover, this association has not yet been examined in a genetically tractable species such as mice. Here, we reveal that dACC neurons causally contribute to attention processing by combining a chemogenetic approach that reversibly suppresses neural activity with a translational, touchscreen-based attention task in mice. We virally expressed inhibitory hM4Di DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug) in dACC neurons, and examined the effects of this inhibitory action with the attention-based five-choice serial reaction time task. DREADD inactivation of the dACC neurons during the task significantly increased omission and correct response latencies, indicating that the neuronal activities of dACC contribute to attention and processing speed. Selective inactivation of excitatory neurons in the dACC not only increased omission, but also decreased accuracy. The effect of inactivating dACC neurons was selective to attention as response control, motivation, and locomotion remain normal. This finding suggests that dACC excitatory neurons play a principal role in modulating attention to task-relevant stimuli. This study establishes a foundation to chemogenetically dissect specific cell-type and circuit mechanisms underlying attentional behaviors in a genetically tractable species. PMID:26224620

  14. An Examination of Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex Function and Neurochemistry in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Brian P; Tkachenko, Olga; Schwab, Zachary J; Juelich, Richard J; Ryan, Erin M; Athey, Alison J; Pope, Harrison G; Jenike, Michael A; Baker, Justin T; Killgore, William D S; Hudson, James I; Jensen, J Eric; Rauch, Scott L

    2015-07-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex is implicated in the neurobiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, few studies have examined functional and neurochemical abnormalities specifically in the rostral subdivision of the ACC (rACC) in OCD patients. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during an emotional counting Stroop task and single-voxel J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) in the rACC to examine the function and neurochemistry of the rACC in individuals with OCD and comparison individuals without OCD. Between-group differences in rACC activation and glutamine/glutamate ratio (Gln/Glu), Glu, and Gln levels, as well as associations between rACC activation, Gln/Glu, Glu, Gln, behavioral, and clinical measures were examined using linear regression. In a sample of 30 participants with OCD and 29 age- and sex-matched participants without OCD, participants with OCD displayed significantly reduced rACC deactivation compared with those without OCD in response to OCD-specific words versus neutral words on the emotional counting Stroop task. However, Gln/Glu, Glu, and Gln in the rACC did not differ between groups nor was there an association between reduced rACC deactivation and Gln/Glu, Glu, or Gln in the OCD group. Taken together, these findings strengthen the evidence for rACC dysfunction in OCD, but weigh against an underlying association with abnormal rACC glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:25662837

  15. Structural and functional associations of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex with subjective happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Masahiro; Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Koike, Takahiko; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Yoshida, Yumiko; Takahashi, Haruka K; Nakagawa, Eri; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-07-01

    Happiness is one of the most fundamental human goals, which has led researchers to examine the source of individual happiness. Happiness has usually been discussed regarding two aspects (a temporary positive emotion and a trait-like long-term sense of being happy) that are interrelated; for example, individuals with a high level of trait-like subjective happiness tend to rate events as more pleasant. In this study, we hypothesized that the interaction between the two aspects of happiness could be explained by the interaction between structure and function in certain brain regions. Thus, we first assessed the association between gray matter density (GMD) of healthy participants and trait-like subjective happiness using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Further, to assess the association between the GMD and brain function, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using the task of positive emotion induction (imagination of several emotional life events). VBM indicated that the subjective happiness was positively correlated with the GMD of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC). Functional MRI demonstrated that experimentally induced temporal happy feelings were positively correlated with subjective happiness level and rACC activity. The rACC response to positive events was also positively correlated with its GMD. These results provide convergent structural and functional evidence that the rACC is related to happiness and suggest that the interaction between structure and function in the rACC may explain the trait-state interaction in happiness. PMID:27085503

  16. Loss of dopamine D2 receptors increases parvalbumin-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Devon L; Durai, Heather H; Garden, Jamie D; Cohen, Evan L; Echevarria, Franklin D; Stanwood, Gregg D

    2015-02-18

    Disruption to dopamine homeostasis during brain development has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Inappropriate expression or activity of GABAergic interneurons are common features of many of these disorders. We discovered a persistent upregulation of GAD67+ and parvalbumin+ neurons within the anterior cingulate cortex of dopamine D2 receptor knockout mice, while other GABAergic interneuron markers were unaffected. Interneuron distribution and number were not altered in the striatum or in the dopamine-poor somatosensory cortex. The changes were already present by postnatal day 14, indicating a developmental etiology. D2eGFP BAC transgenic mice demonstrated the presence of D2 receptor expression within a subset of parvalbumin-expressing cortical interneurons, suggesting the possibility of a direct cellular mechanism through which D2 receptor stimulation regulates interneuron differentiation or survival. D2 receptor knockout mice also exhibited decreased depressive-like behavior compared with wild-type controls in the tail suspension test. These data indicate that dopamine signaling modulates interneuron number and emotional behavior and that developmental D2 receptor loss or blockade could reveal a potential mechanism for the prodromal basis of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25393953

  17. The political (and physiological) divide: Political orientation, performance monitoring, and the anterior cingulate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissflog, Meghan; Choma, Becky L; Dywan, Jane; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to test a model of sociopolitical attitudes that posits a relationship between individual differences in liberal versus conservative political orientation and differential levels of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsivity. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants who varied along a unidimensional liberal-conservative continuum engaged in a standard Go/NoGo task. We also measured component attitudes of political orientation in the form of traditionalism (degree of openness to social change) and egalitarianism (a preference for social equality). Generally, participants who reported a more liberal political orientation made fewer errors and produced larger ACC-generated ERPs (the error-related negativity, or ERN and the NoGo N2). This ACC activation, especially as indicated by a larger NoGo N2, was most strongly associated with greater preference for social equality. Performance accuracy, however, was most strongly associated with greater openness to social change. These data are consistent with a social neuroscience view that sociopolitical attitudes are related to aspects of neurophysiological responsivity. They also indicate that a bidimensional model of political orientation can enhance our interpretation of the nature of these associations. PMID:24028311

  18. The Role of the Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Amygdala in Environmental Sensitivity to Infant Crying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, Isabella; Ball, Tonio; Kirmse, Ursula; Wieckhorst, Birgit; Pluess, Michael; Klarhöfer, Markus; Meyer, Andrea H; Wilhelm, Frank H; Seifritz, Erich

    2016-01-01

    Newborns and infants communicate their needs and physiological states through crying and emotional facial expressions. Little is known about individual differences in responding to infant crying. Several theories suggest that people vary in their environmental sensitivity with some responding generally more and some generally less to environmental stimuli. Such differences in environmental sensitivity have been associated with personality traits, including neuroticism. This study investigated whether neuroticism impacts neuronal, physiological, and emotional responses to infant crying by investigating blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) responses using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a large sample of healthy women (N = 102) with simultaneous skin conductance recordings. Participants were repeatedly exposed to a video clip that showed crying infants and emotional responses (valence, arousal, and irritation) were assessed after every video clip presentation. Increased BOLD signal during the perception of crying infants was found in brain regions that are associated with emotional responding, the amygdala and anterior insula. Significant BOLD signal decrements (i.e., habituation) were found in the fusiform gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, Broca's homologue on the right hemisphere, (laterobasal) amygdala, and hippocampus. Individuals with high neuroticism showed stronger activation in the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) when exposed to infant crying compared to individuals with low neuroticism. In contrast to our prediction we found no evidence that neuroticism impacts fMRI-based measures of habituation. Individuals with high neuroticism showed elevated skin conductance responses, experienced more irritation, and perceived infant crying as more unpleasant. The results support the hypothesis that individuals high in neuroticism are more emotionally responsive, experience more negative emotions, and may

  19. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Touryan, Sharon R; Greene, Erich J; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a 'self' and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus. PMID:18574518

  20. Neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis in the anterior cingulate cortex in acute ciguatera poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Cao, Bing; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Tung, Vivian Oi Vian; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Chan, Leo Lai; Li, Ying

    2013-06-01

    Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific ciguatoxin 1 (P-CTX-1), we performed in vivo electrophysiological recordings in the rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and identified the increase in spontaneous firings and enhanced responses to visceral noxious stimulation. Local field recordings characterized the P-CTX-1-induced synaptic potentiation and blockage of the induction of electrical stimulation-induced long-term potentiation in the medial thalamus (MT)-ACC pathway. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular administration of P-CTX-1 at doses of 1.0, 5.0, and 10 nM produced a dose-dependent increase in ACC neuronal firings and MT-ACC synaptic transmission. Further studies showed upregulated Na(+) channel expression in astrocytes under pathological conditions. We hypothesized that the astrocytes might have been activated in the ciguatera poisoning in vivo. Increases in glial fibrillary acid protein expression were detected in reactive astrocytes in the rat ACC. The activation of astroglia was further indicated by activation of the gap junction protein connexin 43 and upregulation of excitatory amino acid transporter 2 expression suggesting that glutamate was normally rapidly cleared from the synaptic cleft during acute ciguatera poisoning. However, neurotoxicity and reactive astrogliosis were not detected in the ACC after 7 days of P-CTX-1 exposure. The present results are the first characterization of P-CTX-1-invoked brain cortex neuronal excitotoxicity in vivo and supported the theme that neuron and astroglia signals might play roles in acute ciguatera poisoning. PMID:23494292

  1. Involvement of the rat anterior cingulate cortex in control of instrumental responses guided by reward expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Schweimer, Judith; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a critical role in stimulus-reinforcement learning and reward-guided selection of actions. Here we conducted a series of experiments to further elucidate the role of the ACC in instrumental behavior involving effort-based decision-making and instrumental learning guided by reward-predictive stimuli. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a cost-benefit T-maze task in which they could either choose to climb a barrier to obtain a high reward (four pellet...

  2. ROLE OF THE ANTERIOR CINGULATE AND MEDIAL ORBITOFRONTAL CORTEX IN PROCESSING DRUG CUES IN COCAINE ADDICTION

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Tomasi, Dardo; Rajaram, Suparna; Cottone, Lisa A.; Zhang, Lei; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.

    2006-01-01

    Our goal in the current report was to design a new fMRI task to probe the role of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in processing of salient symptom-related cues during the simultaneous performance of an unrelated task in drug addicted individuals. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging color-word drug Stroop task in 14 individuals with cocaine use disorders; subjects had to press for color of drug vs. matched neutral words. Although there were ...

  3. The role of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in the regulation of craving by reappraisal in smokers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Yan Zhao

    Full Text Available RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVE: Drug cues can induce craving for drugs of abuse. Dysfunctional regulation of emotion and motivation regarding rewarding objects appears to be an integral part of addiction. It has been found that cognitive strategies decreased the intensity of craving in addicts. Reappraisal strategy is a type of cognitive strategy that requires participants to reinterpret the meaning of an emotional situation. In addition, studies have found that activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is associated with the selection and application of cognitive reappraisal. In present study, we sought to determine whether such cognitive regulation engages the dACC and improves inhibition of craving in smokers. METHODS: Sixteen smokers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during performance of a cigarette reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive reappraisal. We focused our analyses on the dACC as a key structure of cognitive control of craving. Cue induced craving under different conditions was obtained. Correlational analysis between the functional response in the dACC and the subjective craving was performed. RESULTS: We found that using a cognitive reappraisal was successful in decreasing the conditioned craving. Right dACC (BA 24/32 engaged in the cognitive reappraisal. In addition, the individual's subjective craving was negatively correlated with the right dACC activation. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the dACC are important substrates of Inhibition of cue induced craving in smokers. Cognitive regulation by cognitive reappraisal may help addicted individuals avoid the anticipated situations where they are exposed to conditioned cues.

  4. Increased NMDA and AMPA receptor densities in the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a brain area of potential importance to our understanding of the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Since a disturbed balance between excitatory and inhibitory activity is suggested to occur in the ACC in schizophrenia, the present study has focused on the analysis of binding of [3H]MK801, [3H]AMPA and [3H]kainate, radioligands which respectively label the NMDA, AMPA and kainate receptors of the ionotropic glutamate receptor family in the ACC of 10 schizophrenia patients and 10 matched controls, using quantitative autoradiography. AMPA receptor densities were higher in cortical layer II whereas NMDA receptor densities were higher in cortical layers II-III in the ACC of both control and schizophrenia group. In contrast, kainate receptors displayed the highest density in cortical layer V. [3H]AMPA binding was significantly increased by 25% in layer II in the schizophrenia group as compared to the control group. Similarly, a significant 17% increase of [3H]MK801 binding was observed in layers II-III in the schizophrenia group. No statistically significant differences were observed for [3H] kainate binding between the two groups. These results suggest that ionotropic glutamate receptors are differentially altered in the ACC of schizophrenia. The increase in [3H]AMPA and [3H]MK801 binding points to a postsynaptic compensation for impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission in the ACC in schizophrenia. Such abnormality could lead to an imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in this brain area that may contribute to the emergence of some schizophrenia symptoms. Copyright (2002) Australian Neuroscience Society

  5. Anatomical and functional overlap within the insula and anterior cingulate cortex during interoception and phobic symptom provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caseras, Xavier; Murphy, Kevin; Mataix-Cols, David; López-Solà, Marina; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Ortriz, Hector; Pujol, Jesus; Torrubia, Rafael

    2013-05-01

    The anterior insula and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are regarded as key brain structures associated with the integration of perceived phobic characteristics of external stimuli and the perception of ones own body responses that leads to emotional feelings. To test to what extent the activity in these two brain structures anatomically and functionally overlap during phobic reactions and interoception, we submitted the same group of phobic participants (n = 29; either spider or blood-injection-injury (BII) phobics) and controls (n = 17) to both type of experimental paradigms. Results showed that there was a clear anatomical overlap in the Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent (BOLD) responses within the anterior insula and ACC elicited during phobic symptom provocation and during interoceptive awareness. The activity within these two brain structures also showed to be correlated in the spider phobia group, but not in the BII phobic participants. Our results seem to support the idea that the activity within these two brain areas would be associated with the integration of perceived stimuli characteristics and bodily responses that lead to what we label as "fear." However, that seems not to be the case in BII phobia, where more research is needed in order to clarify to what extent that could be associated with the idiosyncratic physiological response that these patients present in front of phobic stimuli (i.e., drop in heart rate and blood pressure). PMID:22162203

  6. Changes in functional connectivity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex in heroin abusers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; WANG Ya-rong; QIN Wei; YUAN Kai; TIAN Jie; LI Qiang; YANG Lan-ying; LU Lin; GUO You-min

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies with animal experiments, autopsy, structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and task-related functional MRI (fMRI) have confirmed that brain functional connectivity in addicts has become impaired. The goal of this study was to investigate the alteration of resting-state functional connectivity of the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) in the heroin abusers' brain.Methods Fifteen heroin abusers and fifteen matched healthy volunteers were studied using vACC as the region-of interest (ROI) seed. A 3.0 T scanner with a standard head coil was the imagining apparatus. T2*-weighted gradient-echo planar imaging (GRE-EPI) was the scanning protocol. A ROI seed based correlation analysis used a SPM5 software package as the tool for all images processing.Results This study showed a functional connection to the insula vACC in heroin abusers. Compared with controls,heroin users showed decreased functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and vACC, between the parahippocampala gyrus/amgdala (PHC/amygdala) and vACC, between the thalamus and vACC, and between the posterior cingulated cortex/precuneus (PCC/pC) and vACC.Conclusion The altered resting-state functional connectivity to the vACC suggests the neural circuitry on which the addictive drug has an affect and reflects the dysfunction of the addictive brain.

  7. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. PMID:27003116

  8. Memory consolidation of fear conditioning: bi-stable amygdala connectivity with dorsal anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pan; Feng, Tingyong; Chen, Zhencai; Lei, Xu

    2014-11-01

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of memory consolidation of fear conditioning is not well understood. To address this question, we measured brain activity and the changes in functional connectivity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. The amygdala-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and hippocampus-insula functional connectivity were enhanced, whereas the amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) functional coupling was decreased during fear memory consolidation. Furthermore, the amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity was negatively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest the amygdala functional connectivity with dACC and mPFC may play an important role in memory consolidation of fear conditioning. The change of amygdala-mPFC functional connectivity could predict the subjective fear. Accordingly, this study provides a new perspective for understanding fear memory consolidation. PMID:24194579

  9. Comparison of anterior cingulate vs. insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kirsten Emmert; Markus Breimhorst; Thomas Bauermann

    2014-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network, notably the anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to...

  10. Post-Learning Infusion of Anisomycin into the Anterior Cingulate Cortex Impairs Instrumental Acquisition through an Effect on Reinforcer Valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, Sietse; Everitt, Barry J.

    2009-01-01

    The integrity of the rodent anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is essential for various aspects of instrumental behavior, but it is not clear if the ACC is important for the acquisition of a simple instrumental response. Here, it was demonstrated that post-session infusions of anisomycin into the rat ACC completely prevented the acquisition of…

  11. Subthalamic nucleus involvement in executive functions with increased cognitive load: a subthalamic nucleus and anterior cingulate cortex depth recording study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rusnáková-Aulická, Š.; Jurák, Pavel; Chládek, Jan; Daniel, P.; Halámek, Josef; Baláž, M.; Bočková, M.; Chrastina, J.; Rektor, I.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 10 (2014), s. 1287-1296. ISSN 0300-9564 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP103/11/0933 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ERD/S * Anterior cingulate cortex * Subthalamic nucleus * Flanker test * Executive functions Subject RIV: BD - Theory of Information Impact factor: 2.402, year: 2014

  12. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  13. Visual and noxious electrical stimulus-evoked membrane-potential responses in anterior cingulate cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Qing; Ning, Li; Wang, Zhiru; Wang, Ying-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is known to participate in numerous brain functions, such as memory storage, emotion, attention, as well as perception of acute and chronic pain. ACC-dependent brain functions often rely on ACC processing of various forms of environmental information. To understand the neural basis of ACC functions, previous studies have investigated ACC responses to environmental stimulation, particularly complex sensory stimuli as well as award and aversive stimuli, but this issue remains to be further clarified. Here, by performing whole-cell recording in vivo in anaesthetized adult rats, we examined membrane-potential (MP) responses of layer II/III ACC neurons that were evoked by a brief flash of visual stimulation and pain-related electrical stimulation delivered to hind paws. We found that ~54 and ~81 % ACC neurons exhibited excitatory MP responses, subthreshold or suprathreshold, to the visual stimulus and the electrical stimulus, respectively, with no cell showing inhibitory MP responses. We further found that the visually evoked ACC response could be greatly diminished by local lidocaine infusion in the visual thalamus, and only their temporal patterns but not amplitudes could be changed by large-scale visual cortical lesions. Our in vivo whole-cell recording data characterized in ACC neurons a visually evoked response, which was largely dependent on the visual thalamus but not visual cortex, as well as a noxious electrical stimulus-evoked response. These findings may provide potential mechanisms that are used for ACC functions on the basis of sensory information processing. PMID:27585569

  14. Potentiation of synaptic transmission in Rat anterior cingulate cortex by chronic itch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting-Ting; Shen, Feng-Yan; Ma, Li-Qing; Wen, Wen; Wang, Bin; Peng, Yuan-Zhi; Wang, Zhi-Ru; Zhao, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Itch and pain share similar mechanisms. It has been well documented that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for pain-related perception. ACC has also been approved to be a potential pruritus-associated brain region. However, the mechanism of sensitization in pruriceptive neurons in the ACC is not clear. In current study, a chronic itch model was established by diphenylcyclopropenone (DCP) application. We found that both the frequency and amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents in the ACC were enhanced after the formation of chronic itch. The paired-pulse ratio in ACC neurons recorded from the DCP group were smaller than those recorded in control group at the 50-ms interval. We also observe a significant increase in the AMPA/NMDA ratio in the DCP group. Moreover, an increased inward rectification of AMPARs in ACC pyramidal neurons was observed in the DCP group. Interestingly, the calculated ratio of silent synapses was significantly reduced in the DCP group compared with controls. Taken together, we conclude that a potentiation of synaptic transmission in the ACC can be induced by chronic itch, and unsilencing silent synapses, which probably involved recruitment of AMPARS, contributed to the potentiation of postsynaptic transmission. PMID:27472923

  15. Role of the Perigenual Anterior Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Contingency Learning in the Marmoset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Stacey A W; Horst, Nicole K; Pears, Andrew; Robbins, Trevor W; Roberts, Angela C

    2016-07-01

    Two learning mechanisms contribute to decision-making: goal-directed actions and the "habit" system, by which action-outcome and stimulus-response associations are formed, respectively. Rodent lesion studies and human neuroimaging have implicated both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the neural basis of contingency learning, a critical component of goal-directed actions, though some published findings are conflicting. We sought to reconcile the existing literature by comparing the effects of excitotoxic lesions of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), a region of the mPFC, and OFC on contingency learning in the marmoset monkey using a touchscreen-based paradigm, in which the contingent relationship between one of a pair of actions and its outcome was degraded selectively. Both the pgACC and OFC lesion groups were insensitive to the contingency degradation, whereas the control group demonstrated selectively higher performance of the nondegraded action when compared with the degraded action. These findings suggest the pgACC and OFC are both necessary for normal contingency learning and therefore goal-directed behavior. PMID:27130662

  16. Anterior cingulate cortex inactivation impairs rodent visual selective attention and prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jangjin; Wasserman, Edward A; Castro, Leyre; Freeman, John H

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies showed that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a role in selective visual attention. The current study further examined the role of the ACC in attention using a visual cuing task with task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimuli. On every trial, 2 stimuli were presented on the touchscreen; 1 was task-relevant and the other was task-irrelevant. Rats were trained to attend to the task-relevant stimulus over the task-irrelevant stimulus to determine which side of the touchscreen should be selected for reward. After the rats were well-trained, cannulas targeting the ACC were implanted bilaterally for infusions of PBS or muscimol. When the ACC was functionally intact, high task performance was correlated with the anticipatory touches toward the reward; rats touched the stimulus proximal to the correct side more often, regardless of its task-relevancy. Analysis of the presurgery training data showed that rats developed anticipatory touches during training. Linear discriminant analyses of the touches also showed that the touches predict rats' choices in trials. With muscimol infusions, choice accuracy was impaired and the anticipatory touches toward the correct response location were less frequent. A control experiment, in which there were no irrelevant stimuli, showed no effects of ACC inactivation on choice accuracy or anticipatory touches. These results indicate that the rat ACC plays a critical role in reducing distraction from irrelevant stimuli as well as in guiding attention toward the goal locations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26692448

  17. Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachia, A; Borst, G; Tissier, C; Fisher, C; Plaze, M; Gay, O; Rivière, D; Gogtay, N; Giedd, J; Mangin, J-F; Houdé, O; Raznahan, A

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events - under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show - without exception-that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life. PMID:26974743

  18. Folding of the anterior cingulate cortex partially explains inhibitory control during childhood: A longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Borst

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in cognitive control including inhibitory control (IC are related to the pathophysiology of several psychiatric conditions. In healthy subjects, IC efficiency in childhood is a strong predictor of academic and professional successes later in life. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is one of the core structures responsible for IC. Although quantitative structural characteristics of the ACC contribute to IC efficiency, the qualitative structural brain characteristics contributing to IC development are less-understood. Using anatomical magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated whether the ACC sulcal pattern at age 5, a stable qualitative characteristic of the brain determined in utero, explains IC at age 9. 18 children performed Stroop tasks at age 5 and age 9. Children with asymmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 7 had better IC efficiency at age 5 and age 9 than children with symmetrical ACC sulcal patterns (n = 11. The ACC sulcal patterns appear to affect specifically IC efficiency given that the ACC sulcal patterns had no effect on verbal working memory. Our study provides the first evidence that the ACC sulcal pattern – a qualitative structural characteristic of the brain not affected by maturation and learning after birth – partially explains IC efficiency during childhood.

  19. Anatomical Abnormalities of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schizophrenia: Bridging the Gap Between Neuroimaging and Neuropathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornito, Alex; Yücel, Murat; Dean, Brian; Wood, Stephen J.; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a functionally heterogeneous region involved in diverse cognitive and emotional processes that support goal-directed behaviour. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropathological findings over the past two decades have converged to suggest abnormalities in the region may represent a neurobiological basis for many of the clinical manifestations of schizophrenia. However, while each approach offers complimentary information that can provide clues regarding underlying patholophysiological processes, the findings from these 2 fields are seldom integrated. In this article, we review structural neuroimaging and neuropathological studies of the ACC, focusing on the unique information they provide. The available imaging data suggest grey matter reductions in the ACC precede psychosis onset in some categories of high-risk individuals, show sub-regional specificity, and may progress with illness duration. The available post-mortem findings indicate these imaging-related changes are accompanied by reductions in neuronal, synaptic, and dendritic density, as well as increased afferent input, suggesting the grey matter differences observed with MRI arise from alterations in both neuronal and non-neuronal tissue compartments. We discuss the potential mechanisms that might facilitate integration of these findings and consider strategies for future research. PMID:18436528

  20. Enhanced quantal release of excitatory transmitter in anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice with chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Ming-Gao

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is a forebrain structure that plays important roles in emotion, learning, memory and persistent pain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission was induced by peripheral inflammation and nerve injury in ACC synapses. However, little information is available on their presynaptic mechanisms, since the source of the enhanced synaptic transmission could include the enhanced probability of neurotransmitter release at existing release sites and/or increases in the number of available vesicles. The present study aims to perform quantal analysis of excitatory synapses in the ACC with chronic pain to examine the source of these increases. The quantal analysis revealed that both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles were increased in a mouse model of peripheral inflammation, whereas only probability of transmitter release but not number of available vesicles was enhanced in a mouse model of neuropathic pain. In addition, we compared the miniature excitatory postsynaptic potentials (mEPSCs in ACC synapses with those in other pain-related brain areas such as the amygdala and spinal cord. Interestingly, the rate and amplitude of mEPSCs in ACC synapses were significantly lower than those in the amygdala and spinal cord. Our studies provide strong evidences that chronic inflammatory pain increases both probability of transmitter release and number of available vesicles, whereas neuropathic pain increases only probability of transmitter release in the ACC synapses.

  1. Postnatal development of the electrophysiological properties of somatostatin interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Geng; Yang, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xing-Yue; Li, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Somatostatin (SST)-positive interneurons in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) play important roles in neuronal diseases, memory and cognitive functions. However, their development in the ACC remains unclear. Using postnatal day 3 (P3) to P45 GIN mice, we found that most of the intrinsic membrane properties of SST interneurons in the ACC were developmentally mature after the second postnatal week and that the development of these neurons differed from that of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons in the prefrontal cortex. In addition, electrical coupling between SST interneurons appeared primarily between P12-14. The coupling probability plateaued at approximately P21-30, with a non-age-dependent development of coupling strength. The development of excitatory chemical afferents to SST interneurons occurred earlier than the development of inhibitory chemical afferents. Furthermore, eye closure attenuated the development of electrical coupling probability at P21-30 but had no effect on coupling strength. Eye closure also delayed the development of inhibitory chemical afferent frequency but had no effect on the excitatory chemical afferent amplitude, frequency or rise time. Our data suggest that SST interneurons in the ACC exhibit inherent developmental characteristics distinct from other interneuron subtypes, such as PV interneurons, and that some of these characteristics are subject to environmental regulation. PMID:27319800

  2. Dopaminergic Modulation of Excitatory Transmission in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex of Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvish-Ghane, Soroush; Yamanaka, Manabu; Zhuo, Min

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) possesses potent neuromodulatory properties in the central nervous system. In the anterior cingulate cortex, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors (AMPAR) are key ion channels in mediating nerve injury induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and chronic pain phenotype. In the present study, we reported the effects of DA on glutamate mediated excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) in pyramidal neurons of layer II/III of the ACC in adult mice. Bath application of DA (50 μM) caused a significant, rapid and reversible inhibition of evoked EPSCs (eEPSC). This inhibitory effect is dose-related and was absent in lower concentration of DA (5 μM). Furthermore, selective postsynaptic application of GDP-β-S (1.6 mM) in the internal solution completely abolished the inhibitory effects of DA (50 μM). We also investigated modulation of spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) and TTX sensitive, miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) by DA. Our results indicated mixed effects of potentiation and inhibition of frequency and amplitude for sEPSCs and mEPSCs. Furthermore, high doses of SCH23390 (100 μM) and sulpiride (100 μM) revealed that, inhibition of eEPSCs is mediated by postsynaptic D2-receptors (D2R). Our finding posits a pre- and postsynaptic mode of pyramidal neuron EPSC modulation in mice ACC by DA. PMID:27317578

  3. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the anterior cingulate gyrus and caudate nucleus in schizophrenia patients versus healthy controls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lutfi Incesu; Meral Baydin; Kerim Aslan; Baris Diren; Huseyin Sahin; Omer Boke; Senol Dane

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) permits the assessment of cerebral neurometabolites, such as N-acetylaspartate, choline, and creatine, in vivo and has been used to study schizophrenia. The present study used 1H-MRS to compare the spectroscopy change of N-acetylaspartate, creatine, and choline metabolite levels in the anterior cingulate and caudate nucleus of both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, as well as between the left and right cerebral hemispheres in the schizophrenia patients. Results showed that N-acetylaspartate and creatine metabolite levels in the left anterior cingulate gyrus were significantly lower in the schizophrenia patients than in the healthy controls, indicating hypometabolism. In addition, choline concentration in the left caudate nucleus of schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than in the right caudate nucleus, indicating that it is necessary to study the cerebral lateralization of 1H-MRS in schizophrenia patients.

  4. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Migliorini, R; Moore, EM; Glass, L.; Infante, MA; Tapert, SF; Jones, KL; Mattson, SN; Riley, EP

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n=. 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n=. 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging ...

  5. Morphine decreases extracellular levels of glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex: an in vivo microdialysis study in freely moving rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YueHAO; Jing-yuYANG; MingGUO; Chun-fuWU; Ming-fanWU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important region of prefrontal cortex for cognitive functions, has been implicated in drug abuse and addiction. In the present study, we intended to investigate the effect of morphine on the extracellular levels of glutamate in the ACC in freely moving rats. METHODS: In vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection had been used for the

  6. Involvement of the Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Consolidation of Inhibitory Avoidance Memory: Interaction with the Basolateral Amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Malin, Emily L.; Ibrahim, Deena Y.; Tu, Jessica W.; McGaugh, James L.

    2006-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is involved in memory for emotionally arousing training. There is also extensive evidence that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) modulates the consolidation of emotional arousing training experiences via interactions with other brain regions. The present experiments examined the effects of posttraining intra-rACC infusions of the cholinergic agonist oxotremorine (OXO) on inhibitory avoidance (IA) retention and investigat...

  7. Resting Metabolic Activity in the Cingulate Cortex and Vulnerability to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Lisa M.; Lasko, Natasha B.; Macklin, Michael L.; Karpf, Rachel D.; Milad, Mohammed R.; Orr, Scott P.; Goetz, Jared M.; Fischman, Alan J.; Rauch, Scott L.; Pitman, Roger K.

    2013-01-01

    Context Recent neuroimaging research has revealed functional abnormalities in the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala and hippocampus in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective To determine whether resting functional abnormalities found in PTSD are acquired characteristics or familial risk factors. Design Cross-sectional design including identical twins discordant for trauma exposure. Setting Academic medical center. Participants Combat-exposed veterans with PTSD (n=14) and their identical, combat-unexposed co-twins (n=14), as well as combat-exposed veterans without PTSD (n=19) and their identical, combat-unexposed co-twins (n=19). Main Outcome Measures We used positron emission tomography and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose to examine resting regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglu). Results Veterans with PTSD and their co-twins had significantly higher resting rCMRglu in dorsal anterior cingulate/mid cingulate cortex (dACC/MCC) compared to non-PTSD veterans and their co-twins. Resting rCMRglu in dACC/MCC in the combat-unexposed co-twins was positively correlated with combat exposure severity, PTSD symptom severity, and alcohol use in their exposed twins. Conclusions Enhanced resting metabolic activity in dACC/MCC appears to represent a familial risk factor for developing PTSD after exposure to psychological trauma. PMID:19805700

  8. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variation modulates anterior cingulate cortex Glx levels during CCK-4 induced panic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruland, Tillmann; Domschke, Katharina; Schütte, Valerie; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Kugel, Harald; Notzon, Swantje; Vennewald, Nadja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Arolt, Volker; Pfleiderer, Bettina; Zwanzger, Peter

    2015-10-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory neurotransmitter dysbalance has been suggested in pathogenesis of panic disorder. The neuropeptide S (NPS) system has been implicated in modulating GABA and glutamate neurotransmission in animal models and to genetically drive altered fear circuit function and an increased risk of panic disorder in humans. Probing a multi-level imaging genetic risk model of panic, in the present magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) study brain glutamate+glutamine (Glx) levels in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during a pharmacological cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge were assessed depending on the functional neuropeptide S receptor gene (NPSR1) rs324981 A/T variant in a final sample of 35 healthy male subjects. The subjective panic response (Panic Symptom Scale; PSS) as well as cortisol and ACTH levels were ascertained throughout the experiment. CCK-4 injection was followed by a strong panic response. A significant time×genotype interaction was detected (p=.008), with significantly lower ACC Glx/Cr levels in T allele carriers as compared to AA homozygotes 5min after injection (p=.003). CCK-4 induced significant HPA axis stimulation, but no effect of genotype was discerned. The present pilot data suggests NPSR1 gene variation to modulate Glx levels in the ACC during acute states of stress and anxiety, with blunted, i.e. possibly maladaptive ACC glutamatergic reactivity in T risk allele carriers. Our results underline the notion of a genetically driven rapid and dynamic response mechanism in the neural regulation of human anxiety and further strengthen the emerging role of the NPS system in anxiety. PMID:26235955

  9. Anterior cingulate cortex hypoactivations to an emotionally salient task in cocaine addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Tomasi, Dardo; Carrillo, Jean Honorio; Maloney, Thomas; Woicik, Patricia A.; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Volkow, Nora D.

    2009-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive processing characterize drug addicted individuals as compared with healthy controls. However, impaired behavioral performance or task disengagement may be crucial factors. We hypothesized that ACC hypoactivations would be documented in groups matched for performance on an emotionally salient task. Seventeen individuals with current cocaine use disorders (CUD) and 17 demographically matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during performance of a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to engage the ACC. Despite lack of group differences in objective or subjective task-related performance, CUD showed more ACC hypoactivations throughout this emotionally salient task. Nevertheless, intensity of emotional salience contributed to results: (i) CUD with the largest rostroventral ACC [Brodmann Area (BA) 10, 11, implicated in default brain function] hypoactivations to the most salient task condition (drug words during the highest available monetary reward), had the least task-induced cocaine craving; (ii) CUD with the largest caudal-dorsal ACC (BA 32) hypoactivations especially to the least salient task condition (neutral words with no reward) had the most frequent current cocaine use; and (iii) responses to the most salient task condition in both these ACC major subdivisions were positively intercorrelated in the controls only. In conclusion, ACC hypoactivations in drug users cannot be attributed to task difficulty or disengagement. Nevertheless, emotional salience modulates ACC responses in proportion to drug use severity. Interventions to strengthen ACC reactivity or interconnectivity may be beneficial in enhancing top-down monitoring and emotion regulation as a strategy to reduce impulsive and compulsive behavior in addiction. PMID:19478067

  10. Medial prefrontal cortex-dorsal anterior cingulate cortex connectivity during behavior selection without an objective correct answer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Takashi; Osumi, Takahiro; Ohira, Hideki; Kasuya, Yukinori; Shinoda, Jun; Yamada, Jitsuhiro; Northoff, Georg

    2010-10-01

    Life choices (e.g., occupational choice) often include situations with two or more possible correct answers, thereby putting us in a situation of conflict. Recent reports have described that the evaluation of conflict might be crucially mediated by neural activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), although the reduction of conflict might rather be associated with neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). What remains unclear is whether these regions mutually interact, thereby raising the question of their functional connectivity during conflict situations. Using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data, this study shows that the dACC co-varied significantly higher with the MPFC during an occupational choice task with two possible correct answers when compared to the control task: a word-length task with one possible correct answer. These results suggest that the MPFC has a functional relation with dACC, especially in conflict situations where there is no objective correct answer. Taken together, this lends support to the assumption that the MPFC might be crucial in biasing the decision, thereby reducing conflict. PMID:20655361

  11. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Julia S.; Mathiak, Krystyna A.; Dyck, Miriam; Alawi, Eliza M.; Gaber, Tilman J.; Zepf, Florian D.; Klasen, Martin; Zvyagintsev, Mikhail; Gur, Ruben C.; Mathiak, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF) seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the brain regions known to be dysfunctional in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over 3 days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI). Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. In a stepwise regression analysis, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, patients with schizophrenia can learn to regulate localized brain activity. However, cognitive strategies and neural network location differ from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in patients with schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social NF based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets. PMID:26161073

  12. Cognitive and neural strategies during control of the anterior cingulate cortex by fMRI neurofeedback in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia S Cordes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive functioning is impaired in patients with schizophrenia, leading to significant disabilities in everyday functioning. Its improvement is an important treatment target. Neurofeedback (NF seems a promising method to address the neural dysfunctions underlying those cognitive impairments. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, a central hub for cognitive processing, is one of the dysfunctional brain regions in schizophrenia. Here we conducted NF training based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in patients with schizophrenia to enable them to control their ACC activity. Training was performed over three days in a group of 11 patients with schizophrenia and 11 healthy controls. Social feedback was provided in accordance with the evoked activity in the selected region of interest (ROI. Neural and cognitive strategies were examined off-line. Both groups learned to control the activity of their ACC but used different neural strategies: Patients activated the dorsal and healthy controls the rostral subdivision. Patients mainly used imagination of music to elicit activity and the control group imagination of sports. However, the difference in neural control did not result from the differences in cognitive strategies but from diagnosis alone. Based on social reinforcers, schizophrenia patients can learn to regulate localized brain activity. Cognitive strategies and neural network location differ, however, from healthy controls. These data emphasize that for therapeutic interventions in schizophrenia compensatory strategies may emerge. Specific cognitive skills or specific dysfunctional networks should be addressed to train impaired skills. Social neurofeedback based on fMRI may be one method to accomplish precise learning targets.

  13. Anterior cingulate cortex mediates the relationship between O3PUFAs and executive functions in APOE e4 carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Karolina Zamroziewicz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although diet has a substantial influence on the aging brain, the relationship between biomarkers of diet and aspects of brain health remains unclear. This study examines the neural mechanisms that mediate the relationship between omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs and executive functions in at-risk (APOE e4 carriers, cognitively intact older adults. We hypothesized that higher levels of O3PUFAs are associated with better performance in a particular component of the executive functions, namely cognitive flexibility, and that this relationship is mediated by gray matter volume of a specific region thought to be important for cognitive flexibility, the anterior cingulate cortex. Methods: We examined 40 cognitively intact adults between the ages of 65 and 75 with the APOE e4 polymorphism to investigate the relationship between biomarkers of O3PUFAs, tests of cognitive flexibility (measured by the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Trail Making Test, and gray matter volume within regions of the prefrontal cortex. Results: A mediation analysis revealed that gray matter volume within the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex partially mediates the relationship between O3PUFA biomarkers and cognitive flexibility. Conclusion: These results suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex acts as a mediator of the relationship between O3PUFAs and cognitive flexibility in cognitively intact adults thought to be at risk for cognitive decline. Through their link to executive functions and neuronal measures of prefrontal cortex volume, O3PUFAs show potential as a nutritional therapy to prevent dysfunction in the aging brain.

  14. Women's Preference for a Male Acquaintance Enhances Social Reward Processing of Material Goods in the Anterior Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakagawa

    Full Text Available Men, like the male of many animal species, use gifts to build satisfactory relationships with a desired woman. From the woman's perspective, all gifts are not always equally rewarding; the reward value of a gift depends on two factors: (1 the giver and (2 the type of the gift (the gift's social meaning. In this study, we investigated how these two factors interactively determine the reward value of a gift. Specifically, we examined how the neural processing for understanding a gift's social meaning is modulated by preferences for the giver. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study in which a female participant was asked to judge a gift from a male she was acquainted with in real life. We examined the interactive effects between (1 the female participant's attitude toward the male acquaintance (liked vs. uninteresting and (2 the type of the gift (romantic [e.g., bouquet, earrings, and perfumes] vs. non-romantic [e.g., pencils, memo pad, and moneybox]. We found that preference for an acquaintance selectively modulated activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC in response to romantic gifts, compared to non-romantic gifts. In contrast, if the woman was indifferent toward an acquaintance, no activity modulation was observed in this area for the same gifts. In addition, the ACC showed functional connectivity with the supplementary motor area/dorsal ACC (SMA/dACC, an area within the dorsal mediofrontal cortex, suggesting that it integrates action monitoring and emotional and cognitive processing in decision-making. These results suggest that attitude toward an opposite sex member has a modulatory role in recognizing the social meaning of material goods--preference for the member is a powerful modulator of social reward processing.

  15. Muscarinic receptor binding increases in anterior thalamus and cingulate cortex during discriminative avoidance learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training-induced neuronal activity develops in the mammalian limbic system during discriminative avoidance conditioning. This study explores behaviorally relevant changes in muscarinic ACh receptor binding in 52 rabbits that were trained to one of five stages of conditioned response acquisition. Sixteen naive and 10 animals yoked to criterion performance served as control cases. Upon reaching a particular stage of training, the brains were removed and autoradiographically assayed for 3H-oxotremorine-M binding with 50 nM pirenzepine (OxO-M/PZ) or for 3H-pirenzepine binding in nine limbic thalamic nuclei and cingulate cortex. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding increased in the parvocellular division of the anterodorsal nucleus early in training when the animals were first exposed to pairing of the conditional and unconditional stimuli. Elevated binding in this nucleus was maintained throughout subsequent training. In the parvocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVp), OxO-M/PZ binding progressively increased throughout training, reached a peak at the criterion stage of performance, and returned to control values during extinction sessions. Peak OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp was significantly elevated over that for cases yoked to criterion performance. In the magnocellular division of the anteroventral nucleus (AVm), OxO-M/PZ binding was elevated only during criterion performance of the task, and it was unaltered in any other limbic thalamic nuclei. Specific OxO-M/PZ binding was also elevated in most layers in rostral area 29c when subjects first performed a significant behavioral discrimination. Training-induced alterations in OxO-M/PZ binding in AVp and layer Ia of area 29c were similar and highly correlated

  16. Anterior Cingulate Cortico-Hippocampal Dysconnectivity in Unaffected Relatives of Schizophrenia Patients: A Stochastic Dynamic Causal Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yi-Bin; Li, Chen; Cui, Long-Biao; Liu, Jian; Guo, Fan; Li, Liang; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Kang; Chen, Gang; Xi, Min; Wang, Hua-Ning; Yin, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Familial risk plays a significant role in the etiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Many studies using neuroimaging have demonstrated structural and functional alterations in relatives of SZ patients, with significant results found in diverse brain regions involving the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), caudate, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), and hippocampus. This study investigated whether unaffected relatives of first episode SZ differ from healthy controls (HCs) in effective connectivity measures among these regions. Forty-six unaffected first-degree relatives of first episode SZ patients-according to the DSM-IV-were studied. Fifty HCs were included for comparison. All subjects underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used stochastic dynamic causal modeling (sDCM) to estimate the directed connections between the left ACC, right ACC, left caudate, right caudate, left DLPFC, left hippocampus, and right hippocampus. We used Bayesian parameter averaging (BPA) to characterize the differences. The BPA results showed hyperconnectivity from the left ACC to right hippocampus and hypoconnectivity from the right ACC to right hippocampus in SZ relatives compared to HCs. The pattern of anterior cingulate cortico-hippocampal connectivity in SZ relatives may be a familial feature of SZ risk, appearing to reflect familial susceptibility for SZ. PMID:27512370

  17. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex Responses to Repeated Social Evaluative Feedback in Young Women with and without a History of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedovic, Katarina; Slavich, George M.; Muscatell, Keely A.; Irwin, Michael R.; Eisenberger, Naomi I.

    2016-01-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed) and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive) feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels). Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the role of the d

  18. Abulia following penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery with disruption of the anterior cingulate circuit: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Login Ivan S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is common knowledge that the frontal lobes mediate complex human behavior and that damage to these regions can cause executive dysfunction, apathy, disinhibition and personality changes. However, it is less well known that subcortical structures such as the caudate and thalamus are part of functionally segregated fronto-subcortical circuits, that can also alter behavior after injury. Case presentation We present a 57 year old woman who suffered penetrating brain injury during endoscopic sinus surgery causing right basal ganglia injury which resulted in an abulic syndrome. Conclusion Abulia does not result solely from cortical injury but can occur after disruption anywhere in the anterior cingulate circuit – in the case of our patient, most prominently at the right caudate.

  19. Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Brian Villumsen; Legind, Christian Stefan; Mandl, Rene C W;

    Heritability of brain structure and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate and left thalamus assessed with MR: A twin study Brian V. Broberg1,2; Christian S. Legind1,2, Rene C. Mandl1,3, Maria H. Jensen1, Simon J. Anhøj1,2, Rikke Hilker1, Egill Rostrup1,2, Birte Y. Glenthøj1 Author affiliations......, Copenhagen, Denmark 3. Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, Dept. of Psychiatry, UMC Utrecht, the Netherlands Background Changes in global and regional brain volumes in schizophrenia are known to be heritable and to cosegregate with illness (McDonald et al., 2002; Peper et al., 2007). Changes in neurochemistry — and...... particularly changes in glutamate — are most likely linked to changes in brain volume (Kraguljac et al., 2013) but investigations on heritability of glutamate levels are sparse. Several genes associated with glutamate transmission were suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (Ripke et...

  20. Glutamine and Glutamate Levels in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder: A 4.0-T Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Constance M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Glod, Carol A.; Breeze, Janis L.; Dieterich, Megan; Finn, Chelsea T.; deB. Frederick, Blaise; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, at 4.0 T, to explore the glutamine and glutamate levels in the anterior cingulate cortex of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder (BPD; medicated and unmedicated) and healthy comparison subjects (HCSs). We hypothesized that unmedicated children with…

  1. Electrophysiological correlates of anterior cingulate function in a go/no-go task: Effects of response conflict and trial type frequency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Nieuwenhuis; N. Yeung; W. van den Wildenberg; K.R. Ridderinkhof

    2003-01-01

    Neuroimaging and computational modeling studies have led to the suggestion that response conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate cortex plays a key role in cognitive control. For example, response conflict is high when a response must be withheld (no-go) in contexts in which there is a prepote

  2. Disrupted causal connectivity anchored on the anterior cingulate cortex in first-episode medication-naive major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhan; Xu, Shunliang; Huang, Manli; Shi, Yushu; Xiong, Bing; Yang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, major depressive disorder (MDD) has been demonstrated to be associated with abnormalities in neural networks, particularly the prefrontal-limbic network (PLN). However, there are few current studies that have examined information flow in the PLN. In this study, Granger causality analysis (GCA), based on signed regression coefficient, was used to explore changes in causal connectivity in resting-state PLNs of MDD patients. A total of 23 first-episode medication-naïve MDD patients and 20 normal control participants were subjected to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) scans. Increased causal effects of the right insular cortex, right putamen and right caudate on the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) and reduced causal effects of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) on the rACC were found in MDD patients compared to normal controls. The extensive reduction in the causal effect of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) demonstrates impaired top-down cognitive control in MDD patients. Changes in the causal relationship between the right insula and rACC suggest problems in coordination of the default mode network by the right anterior insular cortex (rAI). These findings provide valuable insight into MDD-related neural network disorders reported in previous RS-fMRI studies and may potentially guide clinical treatment of MDD in the future. PMID:26234517

  3. Resting-state functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and thalamus is associated with risky decision-making in nicotine addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zhengde; Yang, Nannan; Liu, Ying; Yang, Lizhuang; Wang, Ying; Han, Long; Zha, Rujing; Huang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Yifeng; Zhang, Xiaochu

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is associated with risky behaviors and abnormalities in local brain areas related to risky decision-making such as the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), anterior insula (AI), and thalamus. Although these brain abnormalities are anatomically separated, they may in fact belong to one neural network. However, it is unclear whether circuit-level abnormalities lead to risky decision-making in smokers. In the current study, we used task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) to study how connectivity between the dACC, insula, and thalamus influence risky decision-making in nicotine addicts. We found that an increase in risky decision-making was associated with stronger nicotine dependence and stronger RSFC of the dACC-rAI (right AI), the dACC-thalamus, the dACC-lAI (left AI), and the rAI-lAI, but that risky decision-making was not associated with risk level-related activation. Furthermore, the severity of nicotine dependence positively correlated with RSFC of the dACC-thalamus but was not associated with risk level-related activation. Importantly, the dACC-thalamus coupling fully mediated the effect of nicotine-dependent severity on risky decision-making. These results suggest that circuit-level connectivity may be a critical neural link between risky decision-making and severity of nicotine dependence in smokers. PMID:26879047

  4. Spatial memory and -fos expression in supramammillary nucleus, anterior cingulated gyrus and entorhinal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Santín Núñez, Luis Javier; Aguirre, José A.; Rubio Fernández, Sandra; Begega Losa, María Azucena; Miranda Cuevas, Rubén; Arias Pérez, Jorge Luis

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo se aproxima al estudio de los substratos cerebrales de la memoria espacial en ratas, empleando la expresión celular de la proteína c-Fos. Para ello, se analizó la expresión de la proteína c-Fos después de la ejecución de una tarea de memoria de referencia y otra de trabajo espacial. De este modo, se cuantificó el número de núcleos neuronales c-Fos positivos en varias regiones cerebrales: corteza entorrinal, giro cingulado anterior y núcleo supramamilar. Los resultados mostraron q...

  5. Cortical thinning of the right anterior cingulate cortex in spider phobia: a magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, I M P; Jackowski, A P; Trzesniak, C M F; Arrais, K C; Chagas, M H N; Sato, J R; Santos, A C; Hallak, J E C; Zuardi, A W; Nardi, A E; Coimbra, N C; Crippa, J A S

    2014-08-12

    There a lack of consistent neuroimaging data on specific phobia (SP) and a need to assess volumetric and metabolic differences in structures implicated in this condition. The aim of this study is investigate possible metabolic (via (1)H MRS) and cortical thickness abnormalities in spider-phobic patients compared to healthy volunteers. Participants were recruited via public advertisement and underwent clinical evaluations and MRI scans. The study started in 2010 and the investigators involved were not blind in respect to patient groupings. The study was conducted at the Ribeirão Preto Medical School University Hospital of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. Patients with spider phobia (n=19) were matched to 17 healthy volunteers with respect to age, education and socio-economic status. The spider SP group fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for spider phobia according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. None of the participants had a history of neurological, psychiatric or other relevant organic diseases, use of prescribed psychotropic medication or substance abuse. All imaging and spectroscopy data were collected with a 3 T MRI scanner equipped with 25 mT gradient coils in 30-minute scans. The Freesurfer image analysis package and LC Model software were used to analyze data. The hypothesis being tested was formulated before the data collection (neural correlates of SP would include the amygdala, insula, anterior cingulate gyrus and others). The results indicated the absence of metabolic alterations, but thinning of the right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the SP group when compared to the healthy control group (mean cortical thickness±SD: SP=2.11±0.45 mm; HC=2.16±0.42 mm; t (34)=3.19, p=0.001 [-35.45, 71.00, -23.82]). In spectroscopy, the ratios between N-acetylaspartate and creatine and choline levels were measured. No significant effect or correlation was found between MRS metabolites and scores in the Spider Phobia Questionnaire and Beck

  6. Comparison of anterior cingulate versus insular cortex as targets for real-time fMRI regulation during pain stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten eEmmert

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI neurofeedback allows learning voluntary control over specific brain areas by means of operant conditioning and has been shown to decrease pain perception. To further increase the effect of rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain, we directly compared two different target regions of the pain network i.e. the anterior insular cortex (AIC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.Participants for this prospective study were randomly assigned to two age-matched groups of 14 participants each (7 females per group for AIC and ACC feedback. First, a functional localizer using block-design heat pain stimulation was performed to define the pain-sensitive target region within the AIC or ACC. Second, subjects were asked to down-regulate the feedback signal in four neurofeedback runs during identical pain stimulation. Data analysis included task-related and functional connectivity analysis.At the behavioral level, pain ratings significantly decreased during feedback versus localizer runs, but there was no difference between AIC and ACC groups. Concerning neuroimaging, ACC and AIC showed consistent involvement of the caudate nucleus for subjects that learned down-regulation (17/28 in both task-related and functional connectivity analysis. The functional connectivity towards the caudate nucleus is stronger for the ACC while the AIC is more heavily connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex.Consequently, the ACC and AIC are suitable targets for real-time fMRI neurofeedback during pain perception as they both affect the caudate nucleus, although functional connectivity indicates that the direct connection seems to be stronger with the ACC. Additionally, the caudate, an important area involved in pain perception and suppression, could be a rt-fMRI target itself. Future studies are needed to identify parameters characterizing successful regulators and to assess the effect of repeated rt-fMRI neurofeedback on pain

  7. The von Economo neurons in the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, John M; Tetreault, Nicole A; Hakeem, Atiya Y; Manaye, Kebreten F; Semendeferi, Katerina; Erwin, Joseph M; Park, Soyoung; Goubert, Virginie; Hof, Patrick R

    2011-04-01

    The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with numbers increasing during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging. PMID:21534993

  8. Decreases in blood perfusion of the anterior cingulate gyri in Anorexia Nervosa Restricters assessed by SPECT image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutsui Junko

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is possible that psychopathological differences exist between the restricting and bulimic forms of anorexia nervosa. We investigated localized differences of brain blood flow of anorexia nervosa patients using SPECT image analysis with statistic parametric mapping (SPM in an attempt to link brain blood flow patterns to neurophysiologic characteristics. Methods The subjects enrolled in this study included the following three groups: pure restrictor anorexics (AN-R, anorexic bulimics (AN-BP, and healthy volunteers (HV. All images were transformed into the standard anatomical space of the stereotactic brain atlas, then smoothed. After statistical analysis of each brain image, the relationships among images were evaluated. Results SPM analysis of the SPECT images revealed that the blood flow of frontal area mainly containing bilateral anterior cingulate gyri (ACC was significantly decreased in the AN-R group compared to the AN-BP and HV groups. Conclusions These findings suggest that some localized functions ofthe ACCare possibly relevant to the psychopathological aspects of AN-R.

  9. Network Profiles of the Dorsal Anterior Cingulate and Dorsal Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia During Hippocampal-Based Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Eric A; Wadehra, Sunali; Diwadkar, Vaibhav A

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a disorder characterized by brain network dysfunction, particularly during behavioral tasks that depend on frontal and hippocampal mechanisms. Here, we investigated network profiles of the regions of the frontal cortex during memory encoding and retrieval, phases of processing essential to associative memory. Schizophrenia patients (n = 12) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 10) participated in an established object-location associative memory paradigm that drives frontal-hippocampal interactions. Network profiles were modeled of both the dorsal prefrontal (dPFC) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) as seeds using psychophysiological interaction analyses, a robust framework for investigating seed-based connectivity in specific task contexts. The choice of seeds was motivated by previous evidence of involvement of these regions during associative memory. Differences between patients and controls were evaluated using second-level analyses of variance (ANOVA) with seed (dPFC vs. dACC), group (patients vs. controls), and memory process (encoding and retrieval) as factors. Patients showed a pattern of exaggerated modulation by each of the dACC and the dPFC during memory encoding and retrieval. Furthermore, group by memory process interactions were observed within regions of the hippocampus. In schizophrenia patients, relatively diminished modulation during encoding was associated with increased modulation during retrieval. These results suggest a pattern of complex dysfunctional network signatures of critical forebrain regions in schizophrenia. Evidence of dysfunctional frontal-medial temporal lobe network signatures in schizophrenia is consistent with the illness' characterization as a disconnection syndrome. PMID:27092063

  10. The facilitatory influence of anterior cingulate cortex on ON-OFF response of tactile neuron in thalamic ventrobasal nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓华; 卢湘岳; 周绍慈

    2000-01-01

    The structures of limbic system have been found to modulate the auditory, visual and pain afferent signals in the related nuclei of thalamus. One of those structures is anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that influences nocuous response of the pain-sensitive neurons in the ventropos-tero-lateral nucleus of thalamus. Thus, we inferred that ACC would also modulate tactile information at the thalamic level. To test this assumption, single units were recorded extracellularly from thalamic ventrobasal nucleus (VB). Tactile ON-OFF response and the relationship between different patterns of the responses and the parameters of tactile stimulation were examined. Furthermore, the influence of ACC on the tactile ON-OFF response was studied. ACC stimulation was found to produce a facilitatory effect on the OFF-response of ON-OFF neurons. It lowered the threshold of the off-response of that neuron, and therefore changed the response pattern or enhanced the firing rate of the OFF-response of the neuron. The study on rec

  11. The facilitatory influence of anterior cingulate cortex on ON-OFF response of tactile neuron in thalamic ventrobasal nucleus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The structures of limbic system have been found to modulate the auditory, visual and pain afferent signals in the related nuclei of thalamus. One of those structures is anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that influences nocuous response of the pain-sensitive neurons in the ventropostero-lateral nucleus of thalamus. Thus, we inferred that ACC would also modulate tactile information at the thalamic level. To test this assumption, single units were recorded extracellularly from thalamic ventrobasal nucleus (VB). Tactile ON-OFF response and the relationship between different patterns of the responses and the parameters of tactile stimulation were examined. Furthermore, the influence of ACC on the tactile ON-OFF response was studied. ACC stimulation was found to produce a facilitatory effect on the OFF-response of ON-OFF neurons. It lowered the threshold of the off-response of that neuron, and therefore changed the response pattern or enhanced the firing rate of the OFF-response of the neuron. The study on receptive fields of ON-OFF neurons showed that the excitation of the ACC could change an ON-response on the verge of a receptive field into an ON-OFF response. The above results suggest that the ACC modulation sharpens the response of a VB neuron to a moving stimulus within its receptive field, indicating that the limbic system can modulate tactile ascending sensory information.

  12. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG XinLing; LIU Fang; WU XingWen; LI BaoMing

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolaterel nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at '0' or 6 h post-treining. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h poet-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD '0' h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  13. Infusion of methylphenidate into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala or anterior cingulate cortex enhances fear memory consolidation in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPD; also called Ritalin) is a blocker of dopamine and norepi-nephrine transporter. It has been clinically used for treatment of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). There have been inconsistent reports regarding the effects of systemically adminis-tered MPD on learning and memory, either in animals or humans. In the present study, we investigated the effect of direct infusion of MPD into the basolateral nucleus of amygdala (BLA) or the anterior cin-gulate cortex (ACC) on conditioned fear memory. Rats were trained on a one-trial step-through inhibi-tory avoidance task. MPD was infused bilaterally into the BLA or the ACC, either at ‘0’ or 6 h post-training. Saline was administered as control. Memory retention was tested 48 h post-training. In-tra-BLA or intra-ACC infusion of MPD ‘0’ h but not 6 h post-training significantly improved 48-h memory retention: the MPD-treated rats had significant longer step-through latency than controls. The present results indicate that action of MPD in the BLA or the ACC produces a beneficial effect on the consoli-dation of inhibitory avoidance memory.

  14. Glutamatergic excitatory responses of anterior cingulate neurons to stimulation of the mediodorsal thalamus and their regulation by GABA: an in vivo iontophoretic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigg, J; Tan, A M; Finch, D M

    1992-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies in the rat have shown projections from the medial dorsal thalamus to the anterior cingulate cortex. We used multibarrel iontophoresis to identify the neurotransmitter used in this thalamic projection. Extracellular responses were recorded from 165 cingulate neurons in anesthetized rats after electrical stimulation of the medial dorsal thalamus and vicinity. Forty-four of these cells (27%) showed an excitatory response to thalamic stimulation. In a further 40 cells that showed no baseline excitation, iontophoresis of the GABAA antagonist bicuculline methiodide revealed excitatory responses. The GABAB antagonist CGP-35348 attenuated longer-latency inhibition in 5 of 10 cells. In 23 of 49 (47%) of the above cells, AMPA antagonist iontophoresis (either CNQX or DNQX) selectively decreased the excitatory response to thalamic stimulation. The NMDA antagonist 3[(R)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid had no such effect. These data suggest that the thalamic projection to anterior cingulate cortex is glutamatergic, acting principally via AMPA receptors, and that the response of cingulate neurons to thalamic stimulation is regulated by GABA acting at both GABAA and GABAB receptors. PMID:1282403

  15. Generation of theta activity (RSA) in the cingulate cortex of the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Holsheimer, J.

    1982-01-01

    Unit activity recorded from the cingulate cortex during theta rhythm shows periodic trains of spikes which are phase-locked to the local theta field potential waves. These cortical theta units were also shown to be correlated with hippocampal theta units. These findings, along with the fact that theta field potentials show a phase reversal within the cingulate cortex, lead to the conclusion that this cortical area is a source of theta activity.

  16. Right anterior cingulate gyrus in encephalic region associated with integrating and processing Chinese words information in working memory: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daxing Wu; Shuqiao Yao; Lirong Yan; Changlian Tan; Dewen Hu; Wai Cheong Carl Tam; Yadong Liu; Zongtan Zhou; Xiang Wang; Ding Liu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many experimental results have been found in previous studies on whether laterality of brain cingulate gyrus exists in processing Chinese words information. OBJECTIVE: To observe the function of right anterior cingulate gyrus and activation showed by MRI in processing Chinese words in a visual working memory judgment tasks, and evaluate the laterality of activated brain regions.DESIGN : Observation experiment.SETTING : The Medical Psychological Research Center, Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen healthy volunteers (7 males and 6 females), aged (29±7)years ranging from 23 to 36 years old, participated in this fMRI study during August 2003 to Febuary 2004. They gave informed consent in accordance with guidelines set by Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University. All subjects were native Chinese speakers and strongly right handed.METHODS: In this study, Chinese numeral words were used as test materials and test mode of Sternberg was used in cognitive task, it was aimed to investigate the encephalic region involved in the storage and processing of Chinese numerical information. ①The head of subject was fixed with dense foam pad. Visual working task was performed according to the requests. Verbal working task was that the subject saw target items for four numerals written in Chinese, presenting for 1.5 s and then, after a short time by blank for 3.0 s. The subject saw one numeral presenting for 1.5 s and had to press one button if it was one of the shown numbers and another button if it did not belong to the presented numbers. There were two visual working memory stimuli in each stimulation block. The experiment was conducted in a single run, which consisted of seven blocks of visual working memory tasks. Different Chinese numerals were displayed in each block to avoid any practice effect (The response rate of the whole working memory task was 50%). ②The activation of brain was scanned with a 1.5T MRI

  17. The dorsal medial prefrontal (anterior cingulate) cortex–amygdala aversive amplification circuit in unmedicated generalised and social anxiety disorders: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, O.J.; Krimsky, M; Lieberman, L.; Allen, P.; Vytal, K.; Grillon, C.

    2014-01-01

    We have delineated, across four prior studies, the role of positive dorsal medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex (dmPFC/ACC)-amygdala circuit coupling during aversive processing in healthy individuals under stress. This translational circuit, termed the 'aversive amplification circuit', is thought to drive adaptive, harm-avoidant behavior in threatening environments. Here, in a natural progression of this prior work, we confirm that this circuit also plays a role in the pathological man...

  18. Reward value enhances post-decision error-related activity in the cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jessica E; Ogawa, Akitoshi; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2016-06-01

    By saying "Anyone who has never made a mistake has never tried anything new", Albert Einstein himself allegedly implied that the making and processing of errors are essential for behavioral adaption to a new or changing environment. These essential error-related cognitive and neural processes are likely influenced by reward value. However, previous studies have not dissociated accuracy and value and so the distinct effect of reward on error processing in the brain remained unknown. Therefore, we set out to investigate this at various points in decision-making. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they completed a random dot motion discrimination task where reward and non-reward were associated with stimuli via classical conditioning. Pre-error activity was found in the medial frontal cortex prior to response but this was not related to reward value. At response time, error-related activity was found to be significantly greater in reward than non-reward trials in the midcingulate cortex. Finally at outcome time, error-related activity was found in the anterior cingulate cortex in non-reward trials. These results show that reward value enhances post-decision but not pre-decision error-related activities and these results therefore have implications for theories of error correction and confidence. PMID:26739226

  19. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Shan, Juntian; Honorio, Jean; Samaras, Dimitris; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in in...

  20. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisseler, Olivia; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Bezzola, Ladina; Reuter, Katja; Weller, David; Schuknecht, Bernhard; Brugger, Peter; Linnebank, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS), and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology. PMID:26759784

  1. Cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate cortex predicts multiple sclerosis patients' fluency performance in a lateralised manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Geisseler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is as an important feature of Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and might be even more relevant to patients than mobility restrictions. Compared to the multitude of studies investigating memory deficits or basic cognitive slowing, executive dysfunction is a rarely studied cognitive domain in MS, and its neural correlates remain largely unexplored. Even rarer are topological studies on specific cognitive functions in MS. Here we used several structural MRI parameters – including cortical thinning and T2 lesion load – to investigate neural correlates of executive dysfunction, both on a global and a regional level by means of voxel- and vertex-wise analyses. Forty-eight patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 48 healthy controls participated in the study. Five executive functions were assessed, i.e. verbal and figural fluency, working memory, interference control and set shifting. Patients scored lower than controls in verbal and figural fluency only, and displayed widespread cortical thinning. On a global level, cortical thickness independently predicted verbal fluency performance, when controlling for lesion volume and central brain atrophy estimates. On a regional level, cortical thinning in the anterior cingulate region correlated with deficits in verbal and figural fluency and did so in a lateralised manner: Left-sided thinning was related to reduced verbal – but not figural – fluency, whereas the opposite pattern was observed for right-sided thinning. We conclude that executive dysfunction in MS patients can specifically affect verbal and figural fluency. The observed lateralised clinico-anatomical correlation has previously been described in brain-damaged patients with large focal lesions only, for example after stroke. Based on focal grey matter atrophy, we here show for the first time comparable lateralised findings in a white matter disease with widespread pathology.

  2. Neurotransmitter changes during interference task in anterior cingulate cortex: evidence from fMRI-guided functional MRS at 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Schubert, Florian; Mekle, Ralf; Wenger, Elisabeth; Ittermann, Bernd; Lindenberger, Ulman; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    Neural activity as indirectly observed in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response is thought to reflect changes in neurotransmitter flux. In this study, we used fMRI-guided functional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure metabolite/BOLD associations during a cognitive task at 3 T. GABA and glutamate concentration in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were determined by means of MRS using the SPECIAL pulse sequence before, during and after the performance of a manual Stroop task. MRS voxel positions were centred around individuals' BOLD activity during Stroop performance. Levels of GABA and glutamate showed inverted U-shape patterns across measurement time points (before, during, and after task), glutamine increased linearly and total creatine did not change. The GABA increase during task performance was associated with ACC BOLD signal changes in both congruent and incongruent Stroop conditions. Using an fMRI-guided MRS approach, an association between induced inhibitory neurotransmitter increase and BOLD changes was observed. The proposed procedure might allow the in vivo investigation of normal and dysfunctional associations between neurotransmitters and BOLD signal crucial for cerebral functioning. PMID:25976598

  3. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV contributes to translation-dependent early synaptic potentiation in the anterior cingulate cortex of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyoda Hiroki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the major transcription factor, cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB, which plays key roles in synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation. Our previous study showed that long-term potentiation (LTP in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC was significantly enhanced in transgenic mice overexpressing CaMKIV. Considering that the CaMKIV-CREB pathway plays a central role in the protein synthesis-dependent LTP, it is possible that upregulation of CaMKIV contributes to enhancement of LTP by promoting protein synthesis. To test this possibility, we examined the effects of transcription and translation inhibitors on synaptic potentiation induced by pairing of synaptic activity with postsynaptic depolarization (paired training in ACC pyramidal neurons of wild-type and CaMKIV transgenic mice. We found that synaptic potentiation induced by paired training was partially inhibited by transcription or translation inhibitors both in wild-type and CaMKIV transgenic mice; the extent of inhibition was markedly larger in the CaMKIV transgenic mice than in the wild-type mice. Biochemical and immunohistochemical studies revealed that CaMKIV was distributed in the membrane, cytosol and nucleus of ACC neurons. Our results reveal in the first time a transcription- and translation-dependent component of early synaptic LTP in adult ACC synapses, and demonstrate that CaMKIV enhances early synaptic potentiation by activating new protein synthesis.

  4. Pharmacological isolation of postsynaptic currents mediated by NR2A- and NR2B-containing NMDA receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Xiaoyan

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract NMDA receptors (NMDARs are involved in excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity associated with a variety of brain functions, from memory formation to chronic pain. Subunit-selective antagonists for NMDARs provide powerful tools to dissect NMDAR functions in neuronal activities. Recently developed antagonist for NR2A-containing receptors, NVP-AAM007, triggered debates on its selectivity and involvement of the NMDAR subunits in bi-directional synaptic plasticity. Here, we re-examined the pharmacological properties of NMDARs in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC using NVP-AAM007 as well as ifenprodil, a selective antagonist for NR2B-containing NMDARs. By alternating sequence of drug application and examining different concentrations of NVP-AAM007, we found that the presence of NVP-AAM007 did not significantly affect the effect of ifenprodil on NMDAR-mediated EPSCs. These results suggest that NVP-AAM007 shows great preference for NR2A subunit and could be used as a selective antagonist for NR2A-containing NMDARs in the ACC.

  5. Not all effort is equal: the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in different forms of effort-reward decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Euston

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rat anterior cingulate cortex (ACC mediates effort-based decision making when the task requires the physical effort of climbing a ramp. Normal rats will readily climb a barrier leading to high reward whereas rats with ACC lesions will opt instead for an easily obtained small reward. The present study explored whether the role of ACC in cost-benefit decisions extends beyond climbing by testing its role in ramp climbing as well as two novel cost-benefit decision tasks, one involving the physical effort of lifting weights and the other the emotional cost of overcoming fear (i.e., “courage”. As expected, rats with extensive ACC lesions tested on a ramp-climbing task were less likely to choose a high-reward/high-effort arm than sham controls. However, during the first few trials, lesioned rats were as likely as controls to initially turn into the high-reward arm but far less likely to actually climb the barrier, suggesting that the role of the ACC is not in deciding which course of action to pursue, but rather in maintaining a course of action in the face of countervailing forces. In the effort-reward decision task involving weight lifting, some lesion animals behaved like controls while others avoided the high reward arm. However, the results were not statistically significant and a follow-up study using incremental increasing effort failed to show any difference between lesion and control groups. The results suggest that the ACC is not needed for effort-reward decisions involving weight lifting but may affect motor abilities. Finally, a courage task explored the willingness of rats to overcome the fear of crossing an open, exposed arm to obtain a high reward. Both sham and ACC-lesioned animals exhibited equal tendencies to enter the open arm. However, whereas sham animals gradually improved on the task, ACC-lesioned rats did not. Taken together, the results suggest that the role of the ACC in effort-reward decisions may be limited to

  6. A dual but asymmetric role of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in response inhibition and switching from a non-salient to salient action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hu, Sien; Chao, Herta H; Zhang, Sheng; Leung, Hoi-Chung; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2016-07-01

    Response inhibition and salience detection are among the most studied psychological constructs of cognitive control. Despite a growing body of work, how inhibition and salience processing interact and engage regional brain activations remains unclear. Here, we examined this issue in a stop signal task (SST), where a prepotent response needs to be inhibited to allow an alternative, less dominant response. Sixteen adult individuals performed two versions of the SST each with 25% (SST25) and 75% (SST75) of stop trials. We posited that greater regional activations to the infrequent trial type in each condition (i.e., to stop as compared to go trials in SST25 and to go as compared to stop trials in SST75) support salience detection. Further, successful inhibition in stop trials requires attention to the stop signal to trigger motor inhibition, and the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) has been used to index the efficiency of motor response inhibition. Therefore, greater regional activations to stop as compared to go success trials in association with the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) serve to expedite response inhibition. In support of an interactive role, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) increases activation to salience detection in both SST25 and SST75, but only mediates response inhibition in SST75. Thus, infrequency response in the dACC supports motor inhibition only when stopping has become a routine. In contrast, although the evidence is less robust, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) increases activity to the infrequent stimulus and supports inhibition in both SST25 and SST75. These findings clarify a unique role of the dACC and add to the literature that distinguishes dACC and pre-SMA functions in cognitive control. PMID:27126003

  7. A network-level analysis of cognitive flexibility reveals a differential influence of the anterior cingulate cortex in bilinguals versus monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Theresa M; Prat, Chantel S; Stocco, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that bilingual development may change the brain in a way that gives rise to differences in non-linguistic cognitive functioning; however, only a limited number of studies have investigated the mechanism by which bilingualism shapes the brain. The current study used a network-level analysis to investigate differences in the mechanisms by which bilinguals and monolinguals flexibly adapt their neural networks in the face of novel task demands. Three competing hypotheses concerning differences in network-level adaptation were examined using Dynamic Causal Modeling of data from 15 bilinguals and 14 monolinguals who performed a Rapid Instructed Task Learning paradigm. The results demonstrated that the best-fitting model for the data from both groups specified that novel task execution is accomplished through a modulation of the influence of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) on the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and on the striatum. Further examination of the best-fitting model revealed that ACC activity increased DLPFC and striatal activity in bilinguals but decreased activity in these regions in monolinguals. Interestingly, an increased positive connection between the ACC and striatum was associated with decreased accuracy across groups. Taken together, the results suggest that regardless of language experience, the ACC plays a critical role in cognitive flexibility, but the exact influence of the ACC on other primary control regions seems to be dependent on language experience. When paired with the behavioral results, these results suggest that bilinguals and monolinguals may employ different neurocognitive mechanisms for conflict monitoring to flexibly adapt to novel situations. PMID:26796713

  8. Induction and requirement of gene expression in the anterior cingulate cortex and medial prefrontal cortex for the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance memory

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    Zhang Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Memory consolidation is a process to stabilize short-term memory, generating long-term memory. A critical biochemical feature of memory consolidation is a requirement for gene expression. Previous studies have shown that fear memories are consolidated through the activation of gene expression in the amygdala and hippocampus, indicating essential roles of these brain regions in memory formation. However, it is still poorly understood whether gene expression in brain regions other than the amygdala/hippocampus is required for the consolidation of fear memory; however, several brain regions are known to play modulatory roles in fear memory formation. Results To further understand the mechanisms underlying the formation of fear memory, we first identified brain regions where gene expression is activated after learning inhibitory avoidance (IA by analyzing the expression of the immediately early genes c-fos and Arc as markers. Similarly with previous findings, the induction of c-fos and Arc expression was observed in the amygdala and hippocampus. Interestingly, we also observed the induction of c-fos and Arc expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL regions and Arc expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. We next examined the roles of these brain regions in the consolidation of IA memory. Consistent with previous findings, inhibiting protein synthesis in the hippocampus blocked the consolidation of IA memory. More importantly, inhibition in the mPFC or ACC also blocked the formation of IA memory. Conclusion Our observations indicated that the formation of IA memory requires gene expression in the ACC and mPFC as well as in the amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting essential roles of the ACC and mPFC in IA memory formation.

  9. Women with multiple chemical sensitivity have increased harm avoidance and reduced 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential in the anterior cingulate and amygdala.

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    Lena Hillert

    Full Text Available Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS is a common condition, characterized by somatic distress upon exposure to odors. As in other idiopathic environmental intolerances, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Contrary to the expectations it was recently found that persons with MCS activate the odor-processing brain regions less than controls, while their activation of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC is increased. The present follow-up study was designed to test the hypotheses that MCS subjects have increased harm avoidance and deviations in the serotonin system, which could render them intolerant to environmental odors. Twelve MCS and 11 control subjects, age 22-44, all working or studying females, were included in a PET study where 5-HT(1A receptor binding potential (BP was assessed after bolus injection of [(11C]WAY100635. Psychological profiles were assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory and the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. All MCS and 12 control subjects were also tested for emotional startle modulation in an acoustic startle test. MCS subjects exhibited significantly increased harm avoidance, and anxiety compared to controls. They also had a reduced 5-HT(1A receptor BP in amygdala (p = 0.029, ACC (p = 0.005 (planned comparisons, significance level 0.05, and insular cortex (p = 0.003; significance level p<0.005 with Bonferroni correction, and showed an inverse correlation between degree of anxiety and the BP in the amygdala (planned comparison. No group by emotional category difference was found in the startle test. Increased harm avoidance and the observed changes in the 5-HT(1A receptor BP in the regions processing harm avoidance provides a plausible pathophysiological ground for the symptoms described in MCS, and yields valuable information for our general understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerances.

  10. Identification by [99mTc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [99mTc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [99mTc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [99mTc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  11. Identification by [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT of anterior cingulate hypoperfusion in progressive supranuclear palsy, in comparison with Parkinson's disease

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    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Hospital, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Psychiatry Section, Stockholm (Sweden); Pagani, Marco; Salmaso, Dario [National Research Council, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies, Rome and Padua (Italy); Salvatore, Elena; Amboni, Marianna; De Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Nobili, Flavio [University of Genoa, Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Endocrinological and Metabolic Sciences, Genoa (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is an akinetic-rigid syndrome that can be difficult to differentiate from Parkinson's disease (PD), particularly at an early stage. [{sup 99m}Tc]ethyl cysteinate dimer (ECD) SPECT could represent a widely available tool to assist in the differential diagnosis. In this study we used voxel-based analysis and Computerised Brain Atlas (CBA)-based principal component analysis (PCA) of [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT data to test whether: (1) specific patterns of rCBF abnormalities can differentiate PSP from controls and PD; (2) networks of dysfunctional brain regions can be found in PSP vs controls and PD. Nine PD patients, 16 PSP patients and ten controls were studied with [{sup 99m}Tc]ECD SPECT using a brain-dedicated device (Ceraspect). Voxel-based analysis was performed with statistical parametric mapping. PCA was applied to volume of interest data after spatial normalisation to CBA. The voxel-based analysis showed hypoperfusion of the anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortex in PSP compared with controls and PD. In PSP patients the rCBF impairment extended to the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex, areas involved in executive function and motor networks. Compared with PSP patients, PD patients showed a mild rCBF decrease in associative visual areas which could be related to the known impairment of visuospatial function. The PCA identified three principal components differentiating PSP patients from controls and/or PD patients that included groups of cortical and subcortical brain regions with relatively decreased (cingulate cortex, prefrontal cortex and caudate) or increased (parietal cortex) rCBF, representing distinct functional networks in PSP. Anterior cingulate hypoperfusion seems to be an early, distinct brain abnormality in PSP as compared with PD. (orig.)

  12. Activation of anterior insula during self-reflection.

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    Gemma Modinos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested activation of midline frontoparietal brain regions to be at the core of self-related processes. However, although some studies reported involvement of the insula, little attention has been paid to this region as forming part of the "self"-network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we aimed at replicating and extending previous studies by scanning subjects whilst reflecting upon their own personal qualities as compared to those of an acquaintance. A third condition with statements about general knowledge was used to control for attention, semantic processing and decision making processes. The results showed a significant effect of task in brain activity, consistent with previous findings, by which both person conditions recruited a common set of medial prefrontal and posterior regions, yet significant differences between self and other were found in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Notably, significant neural activation in the left anterior insula was observed as uniquely associated with self-reflection. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results provide further evidence for the specific recruitment of anterior MPFC and ACC regions for self-related processing, and highlight a role for the insula in self-reflection. As the insula is closely connected with ascending internal body signals, this may indicate that the accumulation of changes in affective states that might be implied in self-processing may contribute to our sense of self.

  13. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice.

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    Víctor Rovira

    Full Text Available Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14-20 days, the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7 than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05, which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s. We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere, and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges.

  14. Intra- and Interhemispheric Propagation of Electrophysiological Synchronous Activity and Its Modulation by Serotonin in the Cingulate Cortex of Juvenile Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovira, Víctor; Geijo-Barrientos, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Disinhibition of the cortex (e.g., by GABA -receptor blockade) generates synchronous and oscillatory electrophysiological activity that propagates along the cortex. We have studied, in brain slices of the cingulate cortex of mice (postnatal age 14–20 days), the propagation along layer 2/3 as well as the interhemispheric propagation through the corpus callosum of synchronous discharges recorded extracellularly and evoked in the presence of 10 μM bicuculline by electrical stimulation of layer 1. The latency of the responses obtained at the same distance from the stimulus electrode was longer in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC: 39.53 ± 2.83 ms, n = 7) than in retrosplenial cortex slices (RSC: 21.99 ± 2.75 ms, n = 5; p<0.05), which is equivalent to a lower propagation velocity in the dorso-ventral direction in ACC than in RSC slices (43.0 mm/s vs 72.9 mm/s). We studied the modulation of this propagation by serotonin. Serotonin significantly increased the latency of the intracortical synchronous discharges (18.9% in the ipsilateral hemisphere and 40.2% in the contralateral hemisphere), and also increased the interhemispheric propagation time by 86.4%. These actions of serotonin were mimicked by the activation of either 5-HT1B or 5-HT2A receptors, but not by the activation of the 5-HT1A subtype. These findings provide further knowledge about the propagation of synchronic electrical activity in the cerebral cortex, including its modulation by serotonin, and suggest the presence of deep differences between the ACC and RSC in the structure of the local cortical microcircuits underlying the propagation of synchronous discharges. PMID:26930051

  15. Memory-enhancing intra-basolateral amygdala infusions of clenbuterol increase Arc and CaMKII-alpha protein expression in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex

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    Crystal M Holloway-Erickson

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Activation of β-adrenoceptors in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA modulates memory through interactions with multiple memory systems. The cellular mechanisms for this interaction remain unresolved. Memory-modulating BLA manipulations influence expression of the protein product of the immediate early gene activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated protein (Arc in the dorsal hippocampus, and hippocampal expression of Arc protein is critically involved in memory consolidation and long-term potentiation. The present studies examined whether this influence of the BLA is specific to the hippocampus and to Arc protein. Like the hippocampus, the rostral portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (rACC is involved in the consolidation of inhibitory avoidance (IA memory, and IA training increases Arc protein in the rACC. Because the BLA interacts with the rACC in the consolidation of IA memory, the rACC is a potential candidate for further studies of BLA modulation of synaptic plasticity. The alpha isoform of the Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKIIα and the immediate early gene c-Fos are involved in long-term potentiation and memory. Both Arc and CaMKIIα proteins can be translated in isolated synapses, where the mRNA is localized, but c-Fos protein remains in the soma. To examine the influence of memory-modulating manipulations of the BLA on expression of these memory and plasticity-associated proteins in the rACC, male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained on an IA task and given intra-BLA infusions of either clenbuterol or lidocaine immediately after training. Findings suggest that noradrenergic stimulation of the BLA may modulate memory consolidation through effects on both synaptic proteins Arc and CaMKIIα, but not the somatic protein c-Fos. Furthermore, protein changes observed in the rACC following BLA manipulations suggest that the influence of the BLA on synaptic proteins is not limited to those in the dorsal

  16. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex responses to repeated social evaluative feedback in young women with and without past history of Major Depressive Disorder

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    Katarina eDedovic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC is recruited when a person is socially rejected or negatively evaluated. However, it remains to be fully understood how this region responds to repeated exposure to personally-relevant social evaluation, in both healthy populations and those vulnerable to Major Depressive Disorder (MDD, as well as how responding in these regions is associated with subsequent clinical functioning. To address this gap in the literature, we recruited 17 young women with past history of MDD (previously depressed and 31 healthy controls and exposed them to a social evaluative session in a neuroimaging environment. In two bouts, participants received an equal amount of positive, negative, and neutral feedback from a confederate. All participants reported increases in feelings of social evaluation in response to the evaluative task. However, compared to healthy controls, previously depressed participants tended to show greater increases in depressed mood following the task. At the neural level, in response to negative (vs. positive feedback, no main effect of group or evaluation periods was observed. However, a significant interaction between group and evaluation periods was found. Specifically, over the two bouts of evaluation, activity in the dACC decreased among healthy participants while it increased among previously depressed individuals. Interestingly and unexpectedly, in the previously depressed group specifically, this increased activity in dACC over time was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms at baseline and at 6-months following the evaluation session (controlling for baseline levels. Thus, the subset of previously depressed participants who showed increases in the recruitment of the dACC over time in response to the negative evaluation seemed to fair better emotionally. These findings suggest that examining how the dACC responds to repeated bouts of negative evaluation reveals a new dimension to the

  17. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa

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    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p < 0.05 corrected). Our results in AN adolescents may represent an early trait-related biomarker of the disease. Considering that the above mentioned network and its area are mainly involved in cognitive control and emotional processing, our findings could explain the impaired cognitive flexibility in relation to body image and appetite in AN patients. PMID:26043139

  18. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant resting state networks (RSNs) were identified using independent component analysis (ICA) from functional magnetic resonance imaging data; a dual regression technique was used to detect between-group differences in the RSNs. Between-group differences of the functional connectivity maps were found in the executive control network (ECN). Particularly, decreased temporal correlation was observed in AN-r patients relative to healthy controls between the ECN functional connectivity maps and the anterior cingulate cortex (p emotional processing, our findings could explain the impaired cognitive flexibility in relation to body image and appetite in AN patients. PMID:26043139

  19. Methadone maintenance dose modulates anterior cingulate glutamate levels in heroin-dependent individuals: A preliminary in vivo (1)H MRS study.

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    Greenwald, Mark K; Woodcock, Eric A; Khatib, Dalal; Stanley, Jeffrey A

    2015-08-30

    Mu-opioid receptor agonists alter brain glutamate (GLU) levels in laboratory animals. This clinical study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to examine regional brain GLU levels during experimental manipulation of methadone (MTD) maintenance dose under double-blind, within-subject conditions in seven heroin-dependent volunteers. Subjects were scanned first at a high MTD dose (100 mg/day), underwent a 3-week outpatient MTD dose taper, and then were scanned again at a low MTD dose (10-25 mg/day; modified for participant comfort). Five age- and cigarette smoking-matched controls were scanned once. In vivo short echo time (TE = 22 ms), single voxel (1)H MRS data from midline pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and thalamus (4.5 cm(3) each) were collected using PRESS on a 4-Tesla MRI system. Absolute metabolite levels were quantified. GLU levels in the ACC, but not the thalamus, were higher at the low relative to the high MTD dose in heroin-dependent subjects. No other metabolites differed by MTD dose, or between control vs. heroin-dependent subjects (at either MTD dose). GLU levels in the ACC were inversely related to the duration of cigarette smoking (controls) and heroin use (experimental group). Future studies are warranted to investigate the relationship between GLU levels during treatment (and detoxification), and withdrawal symptoms or relapse. PMID:26188663

  20. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Tomasi, Dardo; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Shan, Juntian; Honorio, Jean; Samaras, Dimitris; Wang, Ruiliang; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested. PMID:20823246

  1. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Woicik, P.A.; Maloney, T.; Tomasi, D.; Alia-Klein, N.; Shan, J.; Honorario, J.; Samaras, d.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-09-21

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  2. Oral methylphenidate normalizes cingulate activity in cocaine addiction during a salient cognitive task

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) hypoactivations during cognitive demand are a hallmark deficit in drug addiction. Methylphenidate (MPH) normalizes cortical function, enhancing task salience and improving associated cognitive abilities, in other frontal lobe pathologies; however, in clinical trials, MPH did not improve treatment outcome in cocaine addiction. We hypothesized that oral MPH will attenuate ACC hypoactivations and improve associated performance during a salient cognitive task in individuals with cocaine-use disorders (CUD). In the current functional MRI study, we used a rewarded drug cue-reactivity task previously shown to be associated with hypoactivations in both major ACC subdivisions (implicated in default brain function) in CUD compared with healthy controls. The task was performed by 13 CUD and 14 matched healthy controls on 2 d: after ingesting a single dose of oral MPH (20 mg) or placebo (lactose) in a counterbalanced fashion. Results show that oral MPH increased responses to this salient cognitive task in both major ACC subdivisions (including the caudal-dorsal ACC and rostroventromedial ACC extending to the medial orbitofrontal cortex) in the CUD. These functional MRI results were associated with reduced errors of commission (a common impulsivity measure) and improved task accuracy, especially during the drug (vs. neutral) cue-reactivity condition in all subjects. The clinical application of such MPH-induced brain-behavior enhancements remains to be tested.

  3. The formation of recent and remote memory is associated with time-dependent formation of dendritic spines in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restivo, Leonardo; Vetere, Gisella; Bontempi, Bruno; Ammassari-Teule, Martine

    2009-06-24

    Although hippocampal-cortical interactions are crucial for the formation of enduring declarative memories, synaptic events that govern long-term memory storage remain mostly unclear. We present evidence that neuronal structural changes, i.e., dendritic spine growth, develop sequentially in the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex (aCC) during the formation of recent and remote contextual fear memory. We found that mice placed in a conditioning chamber for one 7 min conditioning session and exposed to five footshocks (duration, 2 s; intensity, 0.7 mA; interstimulus interval, 60 s) delivered through the grid floor exhibited robust fear response when returned to the experimental context 24 h or 36 d after the conditioning. We then observed that their fear response at the recent, but not the remote, time point was associated with an increase in spine density on hippocampal neurons, whereas an inverse temporal pattern of spine density changes occurred on aCC neurons. At each time point, hippocampal or aCC structural alterations were achieved even in the absence of recent or remote memory tests, thus suggesting that they were not driven by retrieval processes. Furthermore, ibotenic lesions of the hippocampus impaired remote memory and prevented dendritic spine growth on aCC neurons when they were performed immediately after the conditioning, whereas they were ineffective when performed 24 d later. These findings reveal that gradual structural changes modifying connectivity in hippocampal-cortical networks underlie the formation and expression of remote memory, and that the hippocampus plays a crucial but time-limited role in driving structural plasticity in the cortex. PMID:19553460

  4. Expression of the dopaminergic D1 and D2 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex in a model of neuropathic pain

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    Ortega-Legaspi J Manuel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has been related to the affective component of pain. Dopaminergic mesocortical circuits, including the ACC, are able to inhibit neuropathic nociception measured as autotomy behaviour. We determined the changes in dopamine D1 and D2 (D1R and D2R receptor expression in the ACC (cg1 and cg2 in an animal model of neuropathic pain. The neuropathic group had noxious heat applied in the right hind paw followed 30 min. later by right sciatic denervation. Autotomy score (AS was recorded for eight days and subsequently classified in low, medium and high AS groups. The control consisted of naïve animals. A semiquantitative RT-PCR procedure was done to determine mRNA levels for D1R and D2R in cg1 and cg2, and protein levels were measured by Western Blot. Results The results of D1R mRNA in cg1 showed a decrease in all groups. D2R mRNA levels in cg1 decreased in low AS and increased in medium and high AS. Regarding D1R in cg2, there was an increase in all groups. D2R expression levels in cg2 decreased in all groups. In cg1, the D2R mRNA correlated positively with autotomy behaviour. Protein levels of D2R in cg1 increased in all groups but to a higher degree in low AS. In cg2 D2R protein only decreased discretely. D1R protein was not found in either ACC region. Conclusions This is the first evidence of an increase of inhibitory dopaminergic receptor (D2R mRNA and protein in cg1 in correlation with nociceptive behaviour in a neuropathic model of pain in the rat.

  5. Effortless awareness: using real time neurofeedback to investigate correlates of posterior cingulate cortex activity in meditators’ self-report.

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    Juan Santoyo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurophenomenological studies seek to utilize first-person self-report to elucidate cognitive processes related to physiological data. Grounded theory offers an approach to the qualitative analysis of self-report, whereby theoretical constructs are derived from empirical data. Here we used grounded theory methodology to assess how the first-person experience of meditation relates to neural activity in a core region of the default mode network –the posterior cingulate cortex. We analyzed first-person data consisting of meditators’ accounts of their subjective experience during runs of a real-time fMRI neurofeedback study of meditation, and third-person data consisting of corresponding feedback graphs of posterior cingulate cortex activity during the same runs. We found that for meditators, the subjective experiences of ‘undistracted awareness’ such as ‘concentration’ and ‘observing sensory experience’, and ‘effortless doing’ such as ‘observing sensory experience’, ‘not efforting’, and ‘contentment’, correspond with posterior cingulate cortex deactivation. Further, the subjective experiences of ‘distracted awareness’ such as ‘distraction’ and ‘interpreting’, and ‘controlling’ such as ‘efforting’ and ‘discontentment’, correspond with posterior cingulate cortex activation. Moreover, we derived several novel hypotheses about how specific qualities of cognitive processes during meditation relate to posterior cingulate cortex activity, such as the difference between meditation and ‘trying to meditate’. These findings offer novel insights into the relationship between meditation and self-related thinking and neural activity in the default mode network, driven by the first-person experience.

  6. Context-specific behavioral surprise is differentially correlated with activity in anterior and posterior brain systems.

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    Tobia, Michael J; Gläscher, Jan; Sommer, Tobias

    2016-06-15

    This experiment investigated whether behavioral surprise, an information-theoretic measure of the amount of memory and information integration associated with a response, is correlated with neural activity during decision making. A total of 30 participants (age 18-30) were scanned with functional MRI while completing 240 trials of a sequential decision-making task in which they selected an amount to wager from four possible values on each trial. Behavioral surprise was computed trial by trial using both context-free and context-specific formulations, and was used as a parametric modulator in functional MRI analyses. Whereas context-free surprise was not significantly correlated, two sets of clusters (P156 voxels) were differentially modulated by context-specific behavioral surprise. An anterior system comprised of the inferior frontal gyrus and anterior cingulate (each bilaterally), and left caudate, was positively modulated. A posterior system comprised of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus and posterior hippocampus (each bilaterally), and left angular gyrus, was negatively modulated. These anticorrelated systems indicate that more surprising (resource demanding) actions recruit greater activity from the anterior system and less activity from the posterior system and less surprising actions (memory-guided) recruit greater activity from the posterior system and less activity from the anterior system. These results show that context-specific behavioral surprise is a unique neural signal and may be related to mechanisms for both cognitive control and memory-guided behavior, and support contemporary theories that the brain is a statistical observer of external and internal events. PMID:27110868

  7. Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activation Is Related to Learning Potential on the WCST in Schizophrenia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Anya; Wilmsmeier, Andreas; Wiedl, Karl H.; Bauer, Jochen; Kueppers, Kerstin; Koelkebeck, Katja; Kohl, Waldemar; Kugel, Harald; Arolt, Volker; Ohrmann, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of executive function in patients with schizophrenia is important in rehabilitation because these skills affect the patient's capacity to function in the community. There is evidence that instructional techniques can improve deficits in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in some schizophrenia patients. We used a standard…

  8. Individual differences in anterior cingulate activation associated with attentional bias predict cocaine use after treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Marhe (Reshmi); M. Luijten (Maartje); B.J.M. van de Wetering (Ben); M. Smits (Marion); I.H.A. Franken (Ingmar)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDrug-dependent patients often relapse into drug use after treatment. Behavioral studies show that enhanced attentional bias to drug cues is a precursor of relapse. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether brain regions involved in attentional bias a

  9. Individual Differences in Anterior Cingulate Activation Associated with Attentional Bias Predict Cocaine Use After Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marhe, R.; Luijten, M.; Wetering, B.J.M. van de; Smits, M.; Franken, I.H.A.

    2013-01-01

    Drug-dependent patients often relapse into drug use after treatment. Behavioral studies show that enhanced attentional bias to drug cues is a precursor of relapse. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study examined whether brain regions involved in attentional bias are predictiv

  10. Stimulus-Outcome Learnability Differentially Activates Anterior Cingulate and Hippocampus at Feedback Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Memory systems are known to be influenced by feedback and error processing, but it is not well known what aspects of outcome contingencies are related to different memory systems. Here we use the Rescorla-Wagner model to estimate prediction errors in an fMRI study of stimulus-outcome association learning. The conditional probabilities of outcomes…

  11. Early adverse events, HPA activity and rostral anterior cingulate volume in MDD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Treadway

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prior studies have independently reported associations between major depressive disorder (MDD, elevated cortisol concentrations, early adverse events and region-specific decreases in grey matter volume, but the relationships among these variables are unclear. In the present study, we sought to evaluate the relationships between grey matter volume, early adverse events and cortisol levels in MDD. METHODS/RESULTS: Grey matter volume was compared between 19 controls and 19 individuals with MDD using voxel-based morphometry. A history of early adverse events was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Subjects also provided salivary cortisol samples. Depressed patients showed decreased grey matter volume in the rostral ACC as compared to controls. Rostral ACC volume was inversely correlated with both cortisol and early adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest a key relationship between ACC morphology, a history of early adverse events and circulating cortisol in the pathophysiology of MDD.

  12. Social phobia modulates risk sensitivity through activity in the anterior insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GraceShi MinTang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision neuroscience offers the potential for decomposing differences in behavior across individuals into components of valuation intimately tied to brain function. One application of this approach lies in novel conceptualizations of behavioral attributes that are aberrant in psychiatric disorders. We investigated the relationship between social phobia and behavior in a novel socially-determined risk task. Behaviorally, higher scores on a social phobia inventory (SPIN among healthy participants were associated with an increase in risky responses. Furthermore, activity in a region of the dorsal anterior insula (dAI scaled in proportion to SPIN score in risky versus non-risky choices. This region of the insula was functionally connected to areas in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC that were related to decision-making across all participants. Overall, social phobia was associated with decreased risk aversion in our task, consistent with previous results investigating risk taking in many everyday behaviors. Moreover, this difference was linked to the anterior insula, a region commonly implicated in risk attitudes and socio-emotional processes.

  13. Treatment with direct-current stimulation against cingulate seizure-like activity induced by 4-aminopyridine and bicuculline in an in vitro mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Pang; Lu, Hsiang-Chin; Shyu, Bai-Chuang

    2015-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown that cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) application can produce long-term suppressive effects on drug-resistant seizures. Whether this long-term effect produced by cathodal tDCS can counterbalance the enhancement of synaptic transmission during seizures requires further investigation. Our hypothesis was that the long-term effects of DCS on seizure suppression by the application of cathodal DCS occur through a long-term depression (LTD)-like mechanism. We used a thalamocingulate brain slice preparation combined with a multielectrode array and patch recording to investigate the underlying mechanism of the suppressive effect of DCS on anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) seizures. Patch-clamp recordings showed that cathodal DCS significantly decreased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and epileptic EPSCs caused by the 4-aminopyridine. Fifteen minutes of DCS application reliably induced LTD, and the synaptic activation frequency was an important factor in LTD formation. The application of DCS alone without continuous synaptic activation did not induce LTD. Direct-current stimulation-induced LTD appeared to be N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)-dependent, in which the application of the NMDA receptor antagonist D-1-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (APV) abolished DCS-induced LTD, and the immediate effect remained. Direct-current stimulation-induced LTD and the long-term effects of DCS on seizure-like activities were also abolished by okadaic acid, a protein phosphatase 1 inhibitor. The long-term effects of DCS on seizures were not influenced by the depotentiation blocker FK-506. Therefore, we conclude that the long-term effects of DCS on seizure-like activities in brain slice occur through an LTD-like mechanism. PMID:25682917

  14. Approach-avoidance activation without anterior asymmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnderoUusberg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Occasionally, the expected effects of approach-avoidance motivation on anterior EEG alpha asymmetry fail to emerge, particularly in studies using affective picture stimuli. These null findings have been explained by insufficient motivational intensity of, and/or overshadowing interindividual variability within the responses to emotional pictures. These explanations were systematically tested using data from 70 students watching 5 types of affective pictures ranging from very pleasant to unpleasant. The stimulus categories reliably modulated self-reports as well as the amplitude of late positive potential, an ERP component reflecting orienting towards motivationally significant stimuli. The stimuli did not, however, induce expected asymmetry effects either for the sample or individual participants. Even while systematic stimulus-dependent individual differences emerged in self-reports as well as LPP amplitudes, the asymmetry variability was dominated by stimulus-independent interindividual variability. Taken together with previous findings, these results suggest that under some circumstances anterior asymmetry may not be an inevitable consequence of core affect. Instead, state asymmetry shifts may be overpowered by stable trait asymmetry differences and/or stimulus-independent yet situation-dependent interindividual variability, possibly caused by processes such as emotion regulation or anxious apprehension.

  15. Negative BOLD response and serotonin concentration within rostral subgenual portion of the anterior cingulate cortex for long-allele carriers during perceptual processing of emotional tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Shamil M.; Siadat, Mohamad R.; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the effect of synaptic serotonin concentration on hemodynamic responses. The stimuli paradigm involved the presentation of fearful and threatening facial expressions to a set of 24 subjects who were either5HTTLPR long- or short-allele carriers (12 of each type in each group). The BOLD signals of the rACC from subjects of each group were averaged to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. We used a Bayesian approach to estimate the parameters of the underlying hemodynamic model. Our results, during this perceptual processing of emotional task, showed a negative BOLD signal in the rACC in the subjects with long-alleles. In contrast, the subjects with short-alleles showed positive BOLD signals in the rACC. These results suggest that high synaptic serotonin concentration in the rACC inhibits neuronal activity in a fashion similar to GABA, and a consequent negative BOLD signal ensues.

  16. MRI study of the structure and functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicts%海洛因成瘾者扣带前回结构与功能连接的MRI研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伊涛; 傅先明; 钱若兵; 季学兵; 魏祥品; 林彬; 胡文富; 牛朝诗; 汪业汉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore changes of the structure and functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and analyze the role of ACC in heroin addiction by voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Methods Fifteen heroin addicts and 15 normal people were set as addiction group and normal control group respectively, who underwent 3-dimensional structural imaging and resting-state fMRI. The VBM was used to compare the structural differences between the two groups. The ACC was selected as the regions of interest (ROI) to analyze the resting-state fMRI data of two groups in order to investigate the differences in functional connectivity between the ACC and related brain regions. Results VBM results showed that there were significant differences in gray matter density of right and left ACCs, right and left parahippocampal gyri, right and left caudate nuclei between two groups. When the ACC was selected as ROI, functional connectivity in some brain regions including the right and left ACCs, right and left posterior cingulate cortexes (PCCs) and the right and left parahippocampal gyri were weaker in addiction group than in normal control group. Conclusions The unusual changes of structure and functional connectivity appear in long-term heroin addicts, suggesting that ACC may play an important role in generation and maintain of addiction, and also in relapse after drug withdraw.%目的 利用基于体素的形态学分析(voxel-based morphometry,VBM)和静息态fMRI探讨扣带前回结构和功能连接的改变,分析扣带前回在海洛因成瘾中的作用.方法 15例海洛因成瘾者和15例正常人分别作为成瘾组和正常对照组,均接受3D结构像和静息态fMRI检查,使用VBM比较2组受试者大脑的结构差异;以扣带前回为感兴趣区,对2组进行静息态fRI数据分析,比较扣带前回与相关脑区之间功能连接的差异.结果 VBM分析显示2组在左右扣带前回、左右海马旁回、

  17. Cingulate and thalamic metabolites in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Joseph; Lai, Tsz M; Sheen, Courtney; Salgari, Giulia C; Ly, Ronald; Armstrong, Casey; Chang, Susanna; Levitt, Jennifer G; Salamon, Noriko; Alger, Jeffry R; Feusner, Jamie D

    2016-08-30

    Focal brain metabolic effects detected by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) represent prospective indices of clinical status and guides to treatment design. Sampling bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC), anterior middle cingulate cortex (aMCC), and thalamus in 40 adult patients and 16 healthy controls, we examined relationships of the neurometabolites glutamate+glutamine (Glx), creatine+phosphocreatine (Cr), and choline-compounds (Cho) with OCD diagnosis and multiple symptom types. The latter included OC core symptoms (Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale - YBOCS), depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale - MADRS), and general functioning (Global Assessment Scale - GAS). pACC Glx was 9.7% higher in patients than controls. Within patients, Cr and Cho correlated negatively with YBOCS and MADRS, while Cr correlated positively with the GAS. In aMCC, Cr and Cho correlated negatively with MADRS, while Cr in thalamus correlated positively with GAS. These findings present moderate support for glutamatergic and cingulocentric perspectives on OCD. Based on our prior metabolic model of OCD, we offer one possible interpretation of these group and correlational effects as consequences of a corticothalamic state of elevated glutamatergic receptor activity alongside below-normal glutamatergic transporter activity. PMID:27317876

  18. Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Loh, Kep Kee; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-01-01

    Media multitasking, or the concurrent consumption of multiple media forms, is increasingly prevalent in today’s society and has been associated with negative psychosocial and cognitive impacts. Individuals who engage in heavier media-multitasking are found to perform worse on cognitive control tasks and exhibit more socio-emotional difficulties. However, the neural processes associated with media multi-tasking remain unexplored. The present study investigated relationships between media multi...

  19. Meditation reduces pain-related neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex, insula, secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus.

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki eNakata; Kiwako eSakamoto; Ryusuke eKakigi

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that meditation inhibits or relieves pain perception. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this phenomenon, neuroimaging methods, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and neurophysiological methods, such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG), have been used. However, it has been difficult to interpret the results, because there is some paradoxical evidence. For example, some studies reported increased neural response...

  20. Anterior Cingulate Taste Activation Predicts Ad Libitum Intake of Sweet and Savory Drinks in Healthy, Normal-Weight Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spetter, M.S.; Graaf, de C.; Viergever, M.A.; Smeets, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    After food consumption, the motivation to eat (wanting) decreases and associated brain reward responses change. Wanting-related brain responses and how these are affected by consumption of specific foods are ill documented. Moreover, the predictive value of food-induced brain responses for subsequen

  1. Epileptiform synchronization in the cingulate cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuccio, Gabriella; Curia, Giulia; Colosimo, Alfredo; Cruccu, Giorgio; Avoli, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)— which plays a role in pain, emotions and behavior— can generate epileptic seizures. To date, little is known on the neuronal mechanisms leading to epileptiform synchronization in this structure. Therefore, we investigated the role of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in epileptiform activity in this cortical area. In addition, since the ACC presents with a high density of opioid receptors, we studied the effect of opioid agonism on epileptiform synchronization in this brain region. Methods We used field and intracellular recordings in conjunction with pharmacological manipulations to characterize the epileptiform activity generated by the rat ACC in a brain slice preparation. Results Bath-application of the convulsant 4- aminopyridine (4AP, 50 μM) induced both brief and prolonged periods of epileptiform synchronization resembling interictal- and ictal-like discharges, respectively. Interictal events could occur more frequently before the onset of ictal activity that was contributed by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Mu-opioid receptor activation abolished 4AP-induced ictal events and markedly reduced the occurrence of the pharmacologically isolated GABAergic synchronous potentials. Ictal discharges were replaced by interictal events during GABAergic antagonism; this GABA-independent activity was influenced by subsequent mu-opioid agonist application. Conclusions Our results indicate that both glutamatergic and GABAergic signaling contribute to epileptiform synchronization leading to the generation of electrographic ictal events in the ACC. In addition, mu-opioid receptors appear to modulate both excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms, thus influencing epileptiform synchronization in the ACC. PMID:19178556

  2. Systematic Regional Variations of GABA, Glutamine, and Glutamate Concentrations Follow Receptor Fingerprints of Human Cingulate Cortex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dou, Weiqiang; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Kaufmann, Joern; Zhong, Kai; Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Speck, Oliver; Walter, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of glutamatergic or GABAergic measures in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was found altered in psychiatric disorders and predictive of interindividual variations of functional responses in healthy populations. Several ACC subregions have been parcellated into re

  3. An Anterior-to-Posterior Shift in Midline Cortical Activity in Schizophrenia During Self-Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Daphne J.; Cassidy, Brittany S.; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R.; Lee, Su Mei; Coombs, Garth; Goff, Donald C.; Gabrieli, John D.; Moran, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Deficits in social cognition, including impairments in self-awareness, contribute to the overall functional disability associated with schizophrenia. Studies in healthy subjects have shown that social cognitive functions, including self-reflection, rely on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate gyrus, and these regions exhibit highly correlated activity during “resting” states. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia show dys...

  4. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: Compensation during Gait using Hamstring Muscle Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Catalfamo, Paola Formento; Aguiar, Gerardo; Curi, Jorge; Braidot, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has shown that an increase in hamstring activation may compensate for anterior tibial transalation (ATT) in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee (ACLd); however, the effects of this compensation still remain unclear. The goals of this study were to quantify the activation of the hamstring muscles needed to compensate the ATT in ACLd knee during the complete gait cycle and to evaluate the effect of this compensation on quadriceps activation and joint contac...

  5. Altered SPECT (123)I-iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Rieko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Chiba, Hiromi; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuki; Croarkin, Paul E; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements using (123)I-iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26) and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil-binding activity in cortical regions of interest and psychometric profiles and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). "Depression-Dejection" and "Confusion" POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil-binding activity. Decreased binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in

  6. Altered SPECT 123I-iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamitsu, Shinichiro; Sakurai, Rieko; Matsuoka, Michiko; Chiba, Hiromi; Ozono, Shuichi; Tanigawa, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Yushiro; Kaida, Hayato; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Kakuma, Tatsuki; Croarkin, Paul E.; Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN) in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements using 123I-iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26) and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil-binding activity in cortical regions of interest and psychometric profiles and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil-binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). “Depression–Dejection” and “Confusion” POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil-binding activity. Decreased binding in the anterior cingulate cortex and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered

  7. Posterior cingulate cortex-related co-activation patterns: a resting state FMRI study in propofol-induced loss of consciousness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Amico

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have been shown that functional connectivity of cerebral areas is not a static phenomenon, but exhibits spontaneous fluctuations over time. There is evidence that fluctuating connectivity is an intrinsic phenomenon of brain dynamics that persists during anesthesia. Lately, point process analysis applied on functional data has revealed that much of the information regarding brain connectivity is contained in a fraction of critical time points of a resting state dataset. In the present study we want to extend this methodology for the investigation of resting state fMRI spatial pattern changes during propofol-induced modulation of consciousness, with the aim of extracting new insights on brain networks consciousness-dependent fluctuations. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI volumes on 18 healthy subjects were acquired in four clinical states during propofol injection: wakefulness, sedation, unconsciousness, and recovery. The dataset was reduced to a spatio-temporal point process by selecting time points in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC at which the signal is higher than a given threshold (i.e., BOLD intensity above 1 standard deviation. Spatial clustering on the PCC time frames extracted was then performed (number of clusters = 8, to obtain 8 different PCC co-activation patterns (CAPs for each level of consciousness. RESULTS: The current analysis shows that the core of the PCC-CAPs throughout consciousness modulation seems to be preserved. Nonetheless, this methodology enables to differentiate region-specific propofol-induced reductions in PCC-CAPs, some of them already present in the functional connectivity literature (e.g., disconnections of the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, auditory cortex, some others new (e.g., reduced co-activation in motor cortex and visual area. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results indicate that the employed methodology can help in improving and refining the characterization of local

  8. Posterior Cingulate Cortex-Related Co-Activation Patterns: A Resting State fMRI Study in Propofol-Induced Loss of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enrico; Gomez, Francisco; Di Perri, Carol; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Lesenfants, Damien; Boveroux, Pierre; Bonhomme, Vincent; Brichant, Jean-François; Marinazzo, Daniele; Laureys, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies have been shown that functional connectivity of cerebral areas is not a static phenomenon, but exhibits spontaneous fluctuations over time. There is evidence that fluctuating connectivity is an intrinsic phenomenon of brain dynamics that persists during anesthesia. Lately, point process analysis applied on functional data has revealed that much of the information regarding brain connectivity is contained in a fraction of critical time points of a resting state dataset. In the present study we want to extend this methodology for the investigation of resting state fMRI spatial pattern changes during propofol-induced modulation of consciousness, with the aim of extracting new insights on brain networks consciousness-dependent fluctuations. Methods Resting-state fMRI volumes on 18 healthy subjects were acquired in four clinical states during propofol injection: wakefulness, sedation, unconsciousness, and recovery. The dataset was reduced to a spatio-temporal point process by selecting time points in the Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) at which the signal is higher than a given threshold (i.e., BOLD intensity above 1 standard deviation). Spatial clustering on the PCC time frames extracted was then performed (number of clusters = 8), to obtain 8 different PCC co-activation patterns (CAPs) for each level of consciousness. Results The current analysis shows that the core of the PCC-CAPs throughout consciousness modulation seems to be preserved. Nonetheless, this methodology enables to differentiate region-specific propofol-induced reductions in PCC-CAPs, some of them already present in the functional connectivity literature (e.g., disconnections of the prefrontal cortex, thalamus, auditory cortex), some others new (e.g., reduced co-activation in motor cortex and visual area). Conclusion In conclusion, our results indicate that the employed methodology can help in improving and refining the characterization of local functional changes in the

  9. Temporalis and masseter muscle activity in patients with anterior open bite and craniomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakke, Merete; Michler, L

    1991-01-01

    Activity in temporalis and masseter muscles, and traits of facial morphology and occlusal stability were studied in 22 patients (19 women, 3 men; 15-45 yr of age) with anterior open bite and symptoms and signs of craniomandibular disorders. Facial morphology was assessed by profile radiographs, o...

  10. Inferior Frontal Gyrus Activity Triggers Anterior Insula Response to Emotional Facial Expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jabbi, Mbemba; Keysers, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The observation of movies of facial expressions of others has been shown to recruit similar areas involved in experiencing one's own emotions: the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). the anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (IFO). The Causal link bet between activity in these 2 regions, associat

  11. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN) hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. I hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, I hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE) was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts. PMID:23419982

  12. Extraversion and anterior vs. posterior DMN activity during self-referential thoughts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennady G. Knyazev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies show that fronto-posterior electroencephalogram (EEG spectral power distribution is associated with personality. Specifically, extraversion is associated with an increase of spectral power in posterior cortical regions that overlap with the posterior default mode network (DMN hub and a decrease of spectral power in anterior regions that overlap with the anterior DMN hub. Although there is evidence that dopaminergic neurotransmission may be involved, psychological processes that underlie these associations remain unclear. We hypothesize that these processes may have something to do with spontaneous self-referential thoughts. Specifically, we hypothesize that in extraverts self-referential thoughts may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they may be associated with an increase of spectral power in the anterior DMN hub. After spontaneous EEG registration, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire describing their thoughts during the registration. An item describing self-referential positive expectations (SRPE was used to measure individual differences in the intensity of these processes. Source localization and independent component analyses were applied to EEG data to reveal oscillatory activity associated with the anterior and the posterior DMN hubs. Hierarchical regression analysis showed a significant interaction between extraversion scores and anterior vs. posterior DMN alpha activity in predicting individual differences in SRPE scores. In extraverts, high SRPE scores were associated with an increase of alpha power in the posterior DMN hub, whereas in introverts they were associated with an increase of alpha power in the anterior DMN hub. Results are discussed in terms of differential involvement of the two DMN hubs in self-related reward processes in extraverts and introverts.

  13. Parcellation of the cingulate cortex at rest and during tasks: a meta-analytic clustering and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Torta, Diana M.E.; Tommaso Costa; Fox, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomical, morphological, and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The exper...

  14. Activation of Anterior Insula during Self-Reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Gemma Modinos; Johan Ormel; André Aleman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional neuroimaging studies have suggested activation of midline frontoparietal brain regions to be at the core of self-related processes. However, although some studies reported involvement of the insula, little attention has been paid to this region as forming part of the "self"-network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we aimed at replicating and extending previous studies by scanning subjects whilst reflecting upon their o...

  15. Impaired functional connectivity of anterior cingulated cortex in vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia explored by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging%静息态功能磁共振观察非痴呆型血管性认知障碍前扣带回功能连接的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓丽霞; 阮杏林; 黄华品; 林海龙; 邓艳青; 林婉挥

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the functional connectivity (FC) pattern of anterior cingulated cortex in patients with vascular cognitive impairment with no dementia (VCIND) after subcortical ischemic vascular disease,and to analyze the relationship between FC and cognitive function.Methods Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data were acquired from 14 patients with VCIND and 16 healthy volunteers with normal cognition.The altered functional connectivity pattern in VCIND was valuated by comparing to normal control.Then a correlation analysis was performed between the strength of FC and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores in patients with VCICD.Results (1) The visual space or executive function (3.14 ± 0.29),attention or computing power (3.79 ± 0.37),language (1.14 ± 0.21),directional power (4.14 ± 0.53) items,and the total points of MoCA (17.29 ± 1.53) in VCIND were significantly lower than that in the normal control group (4.93 ± 0.07,5.93 ± 0.07,2.93 ± 0.26,5.93 ± 0.07,27.57 ± 0.33 ; t =31.62,32.50,28.51,12.00,39.71,all P < 0.05).While the abstract ability or memory (4.36 ± 0.74),the naming (2.79 ± 0.11) items in VCIND were not significantly different with that in the control group (4.79 ± 0.80,2.93 ± 0.07 ; t =1.76,1.00,both P > 0.05).(2) Compared with the control group,the patients showed FC decrease between the anterior cingulated cortex and several brain regions,including the left middle temporal gyrus/left superior temporal gyrus,the left superior frontal gyrus/left middle frontal gyrus/left inferior frontal gyrus,the left posterior cingulated cortex/left precuneus,the left inferior parietal lobule/left angular gyrus,the right middle temporal gyrus/right superior temporal gyrus,the right orbit frontal cortex/right inferior frontal gyrus,the right inferior parietal lobule/right angular gyrums,and the right superior frontal gyrus/right middle frontal gyrus.There were also some regions that showed increased FC

  16. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Keiichi; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Nakashima, Ken’ichiro; Nittono, Hiroshi; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Yamawaki, Sigeto; Yamaguchi, Shuhei; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2010-01-01

    According to sociometer theory, self-esteem serves as a barometer of the extent to which individuals are socially included or excluded by others. We hypothesized that trait self-esteem would be related to social pain responsiveness, and we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to experimentally investigate this potential relationship. Participants (n = 26) performed a cyberball task, a computerized game of catch during which the participants were excluded from the game. Participants then...

  17. The Response of Tibialis Anterior Muscle Fibers in Mice to Increased Muscle Activity

    OpenAIRE

    HIROFUJI, Chiyoko; Ishihara, Akihiko; Nakatani, Toshiaki; ITOH, Kazuoa; ITOH, Minoru; Katsuta, Shigeru

    2001-01-01

    Cross-sectional areas and oxidative enzyme (succinate dehydrogenase) activities of fibers in the deep, middle, and superficial regions of the mouse tibialis anterior muscle were examined and compared after 30 days of increased muscle activity with voluntary running exercise. Eight 19-week-old male mice were assigned randomly to either a sedentary control (control, n=4) or voluntary running exercise (exercise, n=4) group. There were no differences in the cross-sectional area of fibers between ...

  18. Impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making in young adults with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjong; Lee, Junghan; Yoon, Kang Joon; Kee, Namkoong; Jung, Young-Chul

    2016-05-25

    Internet gaming disorder is defined as excessive and compulsive use of the internet to engage in games that leads to clinically significant psychosocial impairment. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with internet gaming disorder would be less sensitive to high-risk situations and show aberrant brain activation related to risk prediction processing. Young adults with internet gaming disorder underwent functional MRI while performing a risky decision-making task. The healthy control group showed stronger activations within the dorsal attention network and the anterior insular cortex, which were not found in the internet gaming disorder group. Our findings imply that young adults with internet gaming disorder show impaired anterior insular activation during risky decision making, which might make them vulnerable when they need to adapt new behavioral strategies in high-risk situations. PMID:27092470

  19. The alterations in regional homogeneity of parieto-cingulate and temporo-cerebellum regions of first-episode medication-naïve depression patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te

    2016-03-01

    This study surveyed the characteristics of the indicator for the synchrony of brain activities, regional homogeneity (ReHo), in patients who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD) without co-morbidities. Forty-four patients with MDD and twenty-seven normal controls were enrolled in our study. The ReHo outputs of patients and controls were compared by a nonparametric permutation-based method with global brain volume, age, and gender as covariates. In addition, the correlations between the clinical variables (such as depression severity, anxiety severity, illness duration) and ReHo values were also estimated in each group and across both groups. The patients with MDD had lower ReHo values than the controls for the cognitive division of right anterior cingulate cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, the patients had higher values of ReHo than controls for the right inferior temporal lobe and the right cerebellum. Additionally, the ReHo values were negatively correlated with the depression severity and with illness duration in the right anterior cingulate cortex. MDD patients had significant alterations in the ReHo of the parieto-cingulate and temporo-cerebellum regions with opposite trends. PMID:25904155

  20. The Effects of Haloperidol on Neuronal Firing in Rats Anterior Cingulate Cortex During Cost-Benefit Decision-Making Tasks%氟哌啶醇干扰决策过程中前扣带回神经元的放电活动

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁水霞; 徐晖; 李霞; 顾凯; 左洋凡; 卢钦钦; 代淑芬; 于萍

    2012-01-01

    运用在体多通道神经元放电同步记录技术,观察和记录大鼠在完成T-迷宫成本效益决策任务时前扣带回神经元放电和局部场电位的变化及氟哌啶醇对此的改变,在细胞水平上探讨前扣带回在决策中的作用以及多巴胺递质系统对决策的作用机制.结果显示,经过一段时间的训练,10只大鼠中有8只偏好高付出-高奖赏端,且在选择高付出-高奖赏端时的神经元放电频率要显著高于选择低付出-低奖赏端时的频率,同时局部场电位也呈现出事件相关性;腹腔注射多巴胺受体拮抗剂氟哌啶醇后,大鼠不再偏好高付出-高奖赏端,对该端的选择显著减少,而对低付出-低奖赏端的选择显著增加,且神经元的放电频率和局部场电位显著降低,神经元放电和局部场电位的特征性也消失.研究提示,前扣带回和多巴胺在努力相关决策任务中有着至关重要的作用.%There many studies have demonstrated that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the level of dopamine (DA) in this brain area play a critical role in effort-based decision-making, a kind of cost-benefit decision-making. It has been found that haloperidol, a DA D2 receptor-antagonist, could disrupt the performance of rats in effort-based decision-making tasks. The present experimental study used on-line multi-channel neuronal recording technique to record both the neuronal firing frequency and local field potentials (LFPs) in ACC whenrats were performing effort-based decision-making tasks. We further investigate the effects of haloperidol on performance of rats.All rats (10 Wistar rats) were surgically implanted with a 2x8 microelectrode array in ACC before they learned behavioral task. After 1 week of recovery, rats were introduced to T-maze for training periods. There were two choices in this task, rats could choose to get two food pellets at the end of one arm without any barrier (low cost-low reward, LCLR) or by climbing a

  1. Posterior Cingulate, Precuneal & Retrosplenial Cortices: Cytology & Components of the Neural Network Correlates of Consciousness*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Brent A.; Laureys, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal aggregates involved in conscious awareness are not evenly distributed throughout the CNS but are comprised of key components referred to as the neural network correlates of consciousness (NNCC). A critical node in this network is the retrosplenial, posterior cingulate, and precuneal cortices (RSC/PCC/PrCC). The cytological and neurochemical composition of this region is reviewed in relation to the Brodmann map. This region has the highest level of brain glucose metabolism and cytochrome c oxidase activity. Monkey studies suggest that the anterior thalamic projection likely drives RSC and PCC metabolism and that the midbrain projection to the anteroventral thalamic nucleus is a key coupling site between the brainstem system for arousal and cortical systems for cognitive processing and awareness. The pivotal role of RSC/PCC/PrCC in consciousness is demonstrated with posterior cingulate epilepsy cases, midcingulate lesions that de-afferent this region and are associated with unilateral sensory neglect, observations from stroke and vegetative state patients, alterations in blood flow during sleep, and the actions of anesthetics. Since this region is critically involved in self reflection, it is not surprising that it is similarly a site for the NNCC. Interestingly, information processing during complex cognitive tasks and during aversive sensations such as pain induces efforts to terminate self reflection and result in decreased processing in PCC/PrCC. Finally, anatomical relations between the neural correlates of mind and NNCC in the cingulate gyrus do not appear to overlap and suggests that mental function and conscious awareness may be mediated by two neural networks. PMID:16186025

  2. Effects of functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on executive control of attention in healthy individuals%前扣带回与背外侧额前皮质的功能连接影响执行控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩燕; 徐君海; 尹训涛; 张栋; 徐文坚; 逄增昌; 葛海涛; 刘树伟

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨执行控制过程中健康人大脑前扣带回(ACC)与背外侧额前皮质(DLPFC)之间的功能连接及其与行为学表现之间的关系.方法 2011年1至5月25名17~20岁的健康志愿者在青岛大学医学院附属医院放射科进行3.0T功能磁共振扫描,采用注意网络测试(ANT)作为试验范式,计算ACC和DLPFC之间的功能连接,并与ANT的行为学得分做相关分析.结果 在执行控制过程中,背侧ACC(dACC)与两侧的DLPFC之间存在显著的功能连接,其中左侧的dACC和DLPFC之间的功能连接系数与执行控制的行为学得分存在显著负相关(r=-0.63;P <0.01).结论 ACC与DLPFC之间存在功能连接,并对注意的执行控制功能存在有利的影响,这有助于我们理解注意功能中相关脑区的功能整合作用.%Objective To explore the presence of functional connectivity between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the manipulation of attentional network test (ANT) and its relationship with behavioral performance.Methods Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 25 healthy subjects aged 17-20 years.And ANT was used as a paradigm.Functional connectivity between ACC-DLPFC was tested and correlation analysis conducted between functional connectivity coefficients and behavioral scores of ANT.Results Significant functional connectivity between the dorsal ACC (dACC) with bilateral DLPFC was found.Furthermore,event-related functional connectivity coefficients between left dACC and lefi DLPFC were negatively associated with the behavioral scores of executive control (r =-0.63 ; P < 0.01).Conclusion Our findings provide new evidence that ACC and DLPFC are functionally connected and such functional connectivity has advantageous influence on executive control function of attention so as to contribute to our understanding of the integrated role of these brain regions in attentional network.

  3. The study of 1H-Magnetic resonance spectroscope (1H-MRS) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in depressive patients with childhood neglect%伴儿童期忽略的抑郁症患者前扣带回氢质子波谱对照研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭红军; 李凌江; 贺忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨伴儿童期忽略抑郁症患者前扣带回氢质子波谱物质代谢的特点.方法 采用儿童期创伤问卷(childhood trauma questionnaire,CTQ)对40例抑郁症患者进行儿童期忽略评估和分组,伴儿童期忽略抑郁症组19例患者和不伴儿童期忽略抑郁症组21例患者,以及20名正常对照行磁共振氢质子波谱(hydrogen magnetic resonance spectroscopy,1H-MRS)扫描,兴趣区选取双侧前扣带回(anterior cingulate cortex,ACC),检测N-乙酰天门冬氨酸(N-acetyl aspartate,NAA)、谷氨酸复合物(glutamate/glutamine,Glx)、胆碱(choline,Cho)、肌醇(myo-inositol,mI)及肌酸(creatine,Cr)水平,比较3组NAA/Cr、Glx/Cr、Cho/Cr和mI/Cr比值的差异.结果 伴与不伴儿童期忽略抑郁症组分别与对照组比较,左右两侧ACC均表现NAA/Cr降低(均P<0.010);2组右侧Glx/Cr均低于对照组(均P<0.001);伴儿童期忽略抑郁症组较不伴儿童期忽略抑郁症组左右两侧NAA/Cr差异均有统计学意义(左P<0.005,右P<0.01).结论 抑郁症患者前扣带回物质代谢不同于正常人;伴儿童期忽略抑郁症患者ACC的物质代谢存在特异性改变.

  4. Functional magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of visual cortex activation in patients with anterior visual pathway lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiufeng Song; Guohua Wang; Tong Zhang; Lei Feng; Peng An; Yueli Zhu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the secondary visual cortex functional disorder in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma by functional magnetic resonance imaging, and to determine the correlation between visual field defect and primary visual cortex activation. Results showed that single eye stimulation resulted in bilateral visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma or large pituitary adenoma. Compared with the normal control group, the extent and intensity of visual cortex activation was decreased after left and right eye stimulation, and functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed a correlation between visual field defects and visual cortex activation in patients with glaucoma and large pituitary adenoma. These functional magnetic resonance imaging data suggest that anterior optic pathway lesions can cause secondary functional disorder of the visual cortex, and that visual defects are correlated with visual cortex activation.

  5. Altered SPECT 123I iomazenil Binding in the Cingulate Cortex of Children with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro eNagamitsu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that anxiety plays a key role in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN in children. The purpose of this study was to examine cortical GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptor binding before and after treatment in children beginning intensive AN treatment. Brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT measurements using 123I iomazenil, which binds to GABA(A-benzodiazepine receptors, was performed in 26 participants with AN who were enrolled in a multimodal treatment program. Sixteen of the 26 participants underwent a repeat SPECT scan immediately before discharge at conclusion of the intensive treatment program. Eating behavior and mood disturbances were assessed using Eating Attitudes Test with 26 items (EAT-26 and the short form of the Profile of Mood States (POMS. Clinical outcome scores were evaluated after a 1-year period. We examined association between relative iomazenil binding activity in cortical regions of interest (ROIs and psychometric profiles, and determined which psychometric profiles show interaction effects with brain regions. Further, we determined if binding activity could predict clinical outcome and treatment changes. Higher EAT-26 scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the anterior posterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Higher POMS subscale scores were significantly associated with lower iomazenil binding activity in the left frontal, parietal cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC. Depression-Dejection, and Confusion POMS subscale scores, and total POMS score, showed interaction effects with brain regions in iomazenil binding activity. Decreased binding in the ACC and left parietal cortex was associated with poor clinical outcomes. Relative binding increases throughout the PCC and occipital gyrus were observed after weight gain in children with AN. These findings suggest that cortical GABAergic receptor binding is altered in children

  6. Changes in Activation of Serratus Anterior, Trapezius and Latissimus Dorsi With Slouched Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seok Tae; Moon, Jinkyoo; Lee, Seung Hoon; Cho, Kye Hee; Im, Sang Hee; Kim, MinYoung

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare quantitative muscle activation between erect and slouched sitting postures in the muscles around the scapula, and to investigate the correlation between the angle of thoracic kyphosis and the alteration of muscle activity depending on two different sitting postures. Methods Ten healthy males participated in the study. Unilateral surface electromyography (SEMG) was performed for serratus anterior, middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT), which are scapular stabilizer muscles, as well as latissimus dorsi. Participants elevated their shoulders for 3 seconds up to 90° abduction in the scapular plane, tilting 30° anterior in the coronal plane. They were told to hold the position for 10 seconds and voluntary isometric contractions were recorded by SEMG. These movement procedures were conducted for three times each for erect and slouched sitting postures and data were averaged. Results Activities of MT and LT increased significantly more in the slouched sitting posture than in the erect one. There was no significant correlation between kyphotic angle and the area under curve of each muscle. Conclusion Because MT and LT are known as prime movers of scapular rotation, the findings of this study support the notion that slouched sitting posture affects scapular movement. Such scapular dyskinesis during arm elevation leads to scapular stabilizers becoming overactive, and is relevant to muscle fatigue. Thus, slouched sitting posture could be one of the risk factors involved in musculoskeletal pain around scapulae. PMID:27152283

  7. Effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle activity during dynamic hug exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The primary aim of this study was to determine the effect of shoulder flexion angle and exercise resistance on the serratus anterior muscle during dynamic hug exercise. [Subjects] Ten men aged 22–32 years were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed dynamic hug exercise at different shoulder flexion angles and under resistance weight conditions. Serratus anterior muscle activities were measured by using the surface electromyographic system during the dynamic hug exercises. After...

  8. Choice-related Activity in the Anterior Intraparietal Area during 3-D Structure Categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Michelet, Pascal; Vogels, Rufin; Janssen, Peter

    2015-06-01

    The anterior intraparietal area (AIP) of macaques contains neurons that signal the depth structure of disparity-defined 3-D shapes. Previous studies have suggested that AIP's depth information is used for sensorimotor transformations related to the efficient grasping of 3-D objects. We trained monkeys to categorize disparity-defined 3-D shapes and examined whether neuronal activity in AIP may also underlie pure perceptual categorization behavior. We first show that neurons with a similar 3-D shape preference cluster in AIP. We then demonstrate that the monkeys' 3-D shape discrimination performance depends on the position in depth of the stimulus and that this performance difference is reflected in the activity of AIP neurons. We further reveal correlations between the neuronal activity in AIP and the subject's subsequent choices and RTs during 3-D shape categorization. Our findings propose AIP as an important processing stage for 3-D shape perception. PMID:25514653

  9. The activity in the anterior insulae is modulated by perceptual decision-making difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Bidhan; Adhikari, Bhim M; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2016-07-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies provide evidence for the involvement of the anterior insulae (INSs) in perceptual decision-making processes. However, how the insular cortex is involved in integration of degraded sensory information to create a conscious percept of environment and to drive our behaviors still remains a mystery. In this study, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and four different perceptual categorization tasks in visual and audio-visual domains, we measured blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals and examined the roles of INSs in easy and difficult perceptual decision-making. We created a varying degree of degraded stimuli by manipulating the task-specific stimuli in these four experiments to examine the effects of task difficulty on insular cortex response. We hypothesized that significantly higher BOLD response would be associated with the ambiguity of the sensory information and decision-making difficulty. In all of our experimental tasks, we found the INS activity consistently increased with task difficulty and participants' behavioral performance changed with the ambiguity of the presented sensory information. These findings support the hypothesis that the anterior insulae are involved in sensory-guided, goal-directed behaviors and their activities can predict perceptual load and task difficulty. PMID:27095712

  10. Cytology and Functionally Correlated Circuits of Human Posterior Cingulate Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Brent A.; Vogt, Leslie; Laureys, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Human posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) form the posterior cingulate gyrus, however, monkey connection and human imaging studies suggest that PCC area 23 is not uniform and atlases mislocate RSC. We histologically assessed these regions in 6 postmortem cases, plotted a flat map, and characterized differences in dorsal (d) and ventral (v) area 23. Subsequently, functional connectivity of histologically guided regions of interest (ROI) were assessed in 163 [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose human cases with PET. Compared to area d23, area v23 had a higher density and larger pyramids in layers II, IIIc, and Vb and more intermediate neurofilament-expressing neurons in layer Va. Coregisrtration of each case to standard coordinates showed that the ventral branch of the splenial sulci coincided with the border between d/v PCC at −5.4±0.17 cm from the vertical plane and +1.97±0.08 cm from the bi-commissural line. Correlation analysis of glucose metabolism using histologically guided ROIs suggested important circuit differences including dorsal and ventral visual stream inputs, interactions between the vPCC and subgenual cingulate cortex, and preferential relations between dPCC and the cingulate motor region. The RSC, in contrast, had restricted correlated activity with pericallosal cortex and thalamus. Visual information may be processed with an orbitofrontal link for synthesis of signals to drive premotor activity through dPCC. Review of the literature in terms of a PCC duality suggests that interactions of dPCC, including area 23d, orients the body in space via the cingulate motor areas, while vPCC interacts with subgenual cortex to process self-relevant emotional and non-emotional information and objects and self reflection. PMID:16140550

  11. Fiction feelings in Harry Potter: haemodynamic response in the mid-cingulate cortex correlates with immersive reading experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Conrad, Markus; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2014-12-01

    Immersion in reading, described as a feeling of 'getting lost in a book', is a ubiquitous phenomenon widely appreciated by readers. However, it has been largely ignored in cognitive neuroscience. According to the fiction feeling hypothesis, narratives with emotional contents invite readers more to be empathic with the protagonists and thus engage the affective empathy network of the brain, the anterior insula and mid-cingulate cortex, than do stories with neutral contents. To test the hypothesis, we presented participants with text passages from the Harry Potter series in a functional MRI experiment and collected post-hoc immersion ratings, comparing the neural correlates of passage mean immersion ratings when reading fear-inducing versus neutral contents. Results for the conjunction contrast of baseline brain activity of reading irrespective of emotional content against baseline were in line with previous studies on text comprehension. In line with the fiction feeling hypothesis, immersion ratings were significantly higher for fear-inducing than for neutral passages, and activity in the mid-cingulate cortex correlated more strongly with immersion ratings of fear-inducing than of neutral passages. Descriptions of protagonists' pain or personal distress featured in the fear-inducing passages apparently caused increasing involvement of the core structure of pain and affective empathy the more readers immersed in the text. The predominant locus of effects in the mid-cingulate cortex seems to reflect that the immersive experience was particularly facilitated by the motor component of affective empathy for our stimuli from the Harry Potter series featuring particularly vivid descriptions of the behavioural aspects of emotion. PMID:25304498

  12. Expression and activity of acid-sensing ion channels in the mouse anterior pituitary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyang Du

    Full Text Available Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs are proton-gated cation channels that are expressed in the nervous system and play an important role in fear learning and memory. The function of ASICs in the pituitary, an endocrine gland that contributes to emotions, is unknown. We sought to investigate which ASIC subunits were present in the pituitary and found mRNA expression for all ASIC isoforms, including ASIC1a, ASIC1b, ASIC2a, ASIC2b, ASIC3 and ASIC4. We also observed acid-evoked ASIC-like currents in isolated anterior pituitary cells that were absent in mice lacking ASIC1a. The biophysical properties and the responses to PcTx1, amiloride, Ca2+ and Zn2+ suggested that ASIC currents were mediated predominantly by heteromultimeric channels that contained ASIC1a and ASIC2a or ASIC2b. ASIC currents were also sensitive to FMRFamide (Phe-Met-Arg-Phe amide, suggesting that FMRFamide-like compounds might endogenously regulate pituitary ASICs. To determine whether ASICs might regulate pituitary cell function, we applied low pH and found that it increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. These data suggest that ASIC channels are present and functionally active in anterior pituitary cells and may therefore influence their function.

  13. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Marcia K.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J.; Levin, Yael

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and o...

  14. Mining the posterior cingulate: Segregation between memory and pain components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Årup; Balslev, Daniela; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2005-01-01

    We present a general method for automatic meta-analyses in neuroscience and apply it on text data from published functional imaging studies to extract main functions associated with a brain area --- the posterior cingulate cortex. Abstracts from PubMed are downloaded, words extracted and converte...... in some of the articles. This shows a tendency to functional segregation between memory and pain components where memory activations are predominantly in the caudal part and pain in the rostral part of PCC....

  15. The Effects of The COMT val108/158met Polymorphism on BOLD Activation During Working Memory, Planning, and Response Inhibition: A Role for The Posterior Cingulate Cortex?

    OpenAIRE

    Stokes, Paul Robert Alexander; Rhodes, Rebecca Anne; Grasby, Paul M.; Mehta, Mitul A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) val108/158met polymorphism impacts upon cortical dopamine levels and may influence functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) measures of task-related neuronal activity. Here, we investigate whether COMT genotype influences cortical activations, particularly prefrontal activations, by interrogating its effect across three tasks that have been associated with the dopaminergic system in a large cohort of healthy volunteers. 58 participants (13 ...

  16. Prolactin kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary sub-cellular fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, J R; Brooks, C L

    1999-01-25

    Bovine anterior pituitary cells phosphorylate prolactin (PRL). We describe the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous bPRL in highly enriched subcellular fractions of bovine anterior pituitary using [gamma-32P]-ATP. 32P-labeling of endogenous and exogenous bPRL occurred in all subcellular membrane fractions, but most significantly in the fraction enriched for secretory granules. Zn2+ (0.8 mM), Cu2+ (0.8 mM), and Mn2+ (9.8 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation by 268, 214, and 154%, respectively, relative to basal phosphorylation with no added cations. Neither Mg2+ (10 mM) nor Ca2+ (0.9 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation above basal levels. Phosphorylation was dependent on the concentration of Zn2+ with an apparent Km of 570 microM. bPRL phosphorylation occurred over a wide pH range of 5.9-8.3, with the greatest activity at pH of 6.7 or greater. Phosphorylation of bPRL was time-dependent. The apparent Kms of the bPRL kinase for exogenous bPRL and ATP were 15.3 and 267 microM, respectively. bPRL incorporation of 32P was unaffected by the presence of calcium and calmodulin, cAMP, phosphotidylserine and diolein, or spermine. From these results we conclude that in vitro phosphorylation of bPRL occurs under physiological conditions that would be found in pituitary cells. PMID:10195699

  17. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  18. Effect of verbal instructions on muscle activity and risk of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament during landing

    OpenAIRE

    E. Cowling; Steele, J.; McNair, P; Otago, L

    2003-01-01

    Background: Minimising the likelihood of injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) during abrupt deceleration requires proper synchrony of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles. However, it is not known whether simple verbal instructions can alter landing muscle activity to protect the knee.

  19. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang; Xiao-Fei eYang; Hanna eDamasio

    2014-01-01

    The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence th...

  20. Positive Allosteric Modulator of GABA Lowers BOLD Responses in the Cingulate Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna A Walter

    Full Text Available Knowledge about the neural underpinnings of the negative blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD responses in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is still limited. We hypothesized that pharmacological GABAergic modulation attenuates BOLD responses, and that blood concentrations of a positive allosteric modulator of GABA correlate inversely with BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex. We investigated whether or not pure task-related negative BOLD responses were co-localized with pharmacologically modulated BOLD responses. Twenty healthy adults received either 5 mg diazepam or placebo in a double blind, randomized design. During fMRI the subjects performed a working memory task. Results showed that BOLD responses in the cingulate cortex were inversely correlated with diazepam blood concentrations; that is, the higher the blood diazepam concentration, the lower the BOLD response. This inverse correlation was most pronounced in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior mid-cingulate cortex. For subjects with diazepam plasma concentration > 0.1 mg/L we observed negative BOLD responses with respect to fixation baseline. There was minor overlap between cingulate regions with task-related negative BOLD responses and regions where the BOLD responses were inversely correlated with diazepam concentration. We interpret that the inverse correlation between the BOLD response and diazepam was caused by GABA-related neural inhibition. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that GABA attenuates BOLD responses in fMRI. The minimal overlap between task-related negative BOLD responses and responses attenuated by diazepam suggests that these responses might be caused by different mechanisms.

  1. Glucocorticoids Inhibit CRH/AVP-Evoked Bursting Activity of Male Murine Anterior Pituitary Corticotrophs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Peter J; Tabak, Joël; Ruth, Peter; Bertram, Richard; Shipston, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Corticotroph cells from the anterior pituitary are an integral component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which governs the neuroendocrine response to stress. Corticotrophs are electrically excitable and fire spontaneous single-spike action potentials and also display secretagogue-induced bursting behavior. The HPA axis function is dependent on effective negative feedback in which elevated plasma glucocorticoids result in inhibition at the level of both the pituitary and the hypothalamus. In this study, we have used an electrophysiological approach coupled with mathematical modeling to investigate the regulation of spontaneous and CRH/arginine vasopressin-induced activity of corticotrophs by glucocorticoids. We reveal that pretreatment of corticotrophs with 100 nM corticosterone (CORT; 90 and 150 min) reduces spontaneous activity and prevents a transition from spiking to bursting after CRH/arginine vasopressin stimulation. In addition, previous studies have identified a role for large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channels in the generation of secretagogue-induced bursting in corticotrophs. Using the dynamic clamp technique, we demonstrated that CRH-induced bursting can be switched to spiking by subtracting a fast BK current, whereas the addition of a fast BK current can induce bursting in CORT-treated cells. In addition, recordings from BK knockout mice (BK(-/-)) revealed that CORT can also inhibit excitability through BK-independent mechanisms to control spike frequency. Thus, we have established that glucocorticoids can modulate multiple properties of corticotroph electrical excitability through both BK-dependent and BK-independent mechanisms. PMID:27254001

  2. Excitatory and inhibitory effects of prolactin release activated by nerve stimulation in rat anterior pituitary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Li-Zhi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A series of studies showed the presence of substantial amount of nerve fibers and their close relationship with the anterior pituitary gland cells. Our previous studies have suggested that aside from the classical theory of humoral regulation, the rat anterior pituitary has direct neural regulation on adrenocorticotropic hormone release. In rat anterior pituitary, typical synapses are found on every type of the hormone-secreting cells, many on lactotrophs. The present study was aimed at investigating the physiological significance of this synaptic relationship on prolactin release. Methods The anterior pituitary of rat was sliced and stimulated with electrical field in a self-designed perfusion chamber. The perfusate was continuously collected in aliquots and measured by radioimmunoassay for prolactin levels. After statistic analysis, differences of prolactin concentrations within and between groups were outlined. Results The results showed that stimulation at frequency of 2 Hz caused a quick enhancement of prolactin release, when stimulated at 10 Hz, prolactin release was found to be inhibited which came slower and lasted longer. The effect of nerve stimulation on prolactin release is diphasic and frequency dependent. Conclusions The present in vitro study offers the first physiological evidence that stimulation of nerve fibers can affect prolactin release in rat anterior pituitary. Low frequency stimulation enhances prolactin release and high frequency mainly inhibits it.

  3. Response to the Dorsal Anterior Gradient of EGFR Signaling in Drosophila Oogenesis Is Prepatterned by Earlier Posterior EGFR Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Fregoso Lomas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Spatially restricted epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR activity plays a central role in patterning the follicular epithelium of the Drosophila ovary. In midoogenesis, localized EGFR activation is achieved by the graded dorsal anterior localization of its ligand, Gurken. Graded EGFR activity determines multiple dorsal anterior fates along the dorsal-ventral axis but cannot explain the sharp posterior limit of this domain. Here, we show that posterior follicle cells express the T-box transcription factors Midline and H15, which render cells unable to adopt a dorsal anterior fate in response to EGFR activation. The posterior expression of Midline and H15 is itself induced in early oogenesis by posteriorly localized EGFR signaling, defining a feedback loop in which early induction of Mid and H15 confers a molecular memory that fundamentally alters the outcome of later EGFR signaling. Spatial regulation of the EGFR pathway thus occurs both through localization of the ligand and through localized regulation of the cellular response.

  4. Anabolic steroids alter the physiological activity of aggression circuits in the lateral anterior hypothalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, T R; Sikes, R W; Melloni, R H

    2016-02-19

    Syrian hamsters exposed to anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) during adolescence consistently show increased aggressive behavior across studies. Although the behavioral and anatomical profiles of AAS-induced alterations have been well characterized, there is a lack of data describing physiological changes that accompany these alterations. For instance, behavioral pharmacology and neuroanatomical studies show that AAS-induced changes in the vasopressin (AVP) neural system within the latero-anterior hypothalamus (LAH) interact with the serotonin (5HT) and dopamine (DA) systems to modulate aggression. To characterize the electrophysiological profile of the AAS aggression circuit, we recorded LAH neurons in adolescent male hamsters in vivo and microiontophoretically applied agonists and antagonists of aggressive behavior. The interspike interval (ISI) of neurons from AAS-treated animals correlated positively with aggressive behaviors, and adolescent AAS exposure altered parameters of activity in regular firing neurons while also changing the proportion of neuron types (i.e., bursting, regular, irregular). AAS-treated animals had more responsive neurons that were excited by AVP application, while cells from control animals showed the opposite effect and were predominantly inhibited by AVP. Both DA D2 antagonists and 5HT increased the firing frequency of AVP-responsive cells from AAS animals and dual application of AVP and D2 antagonists doubled the excitatory effect of AVP or D2 antagonist administration alone. These data suggest that multiple DA circuits in the LAH modulate AAS-induced aggressive responding. More broadly, these data show that multiple neurochemical interactions at the neurophysiological level are altered by adolescent AAS exposure. PMID:26691962

  5. The anterior and posterior pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus are involved in behavior and neuronal activity of the cuneiform and entopeduncular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X; Schwabe, K; Krauss, J K; Alam, M

    2016-05-13

    Loss of cholinergic neurons in the mesencephalic locomotor region, comprising the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) and the cuneiform nucleus (CnF), is related to gait disturbances in late stage Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigate the effect of anterior or posterior cholinergic lesions of the PPN on gait-related motor behavior, and on neuronal network activity of the PPN area and basal ganglia (BG) motor loop in rats. Anterior PPN lesions, posterior PPN lesions or sham lesions were induced by stereotaxic microinjection of the cholinergic toxin AF64-A or vehicle in male Sprague-Dawley rats. First, locomotor activity (open field), postural disturbances (Rotarod) and gait asymmetry (treadmill test) were assessed. Thereafter, single-unit and oscillatory activities were measured in the non-lesioned area of the PPN, the CnF and the entopeduncular nucleus (EPN), the BG output region, with microelectrodes under urethane anesthesia. Additionally, ECoG was recorded in the motor cortex. Injection of AF64-A into the anterior and posterior PPN decreased cholinergic cell counts as compared to naive controls (Ppathophysiology of gait disturbance in PD. PMID:26880033

  6. PARCELLATION OF THE CINGULATE CORTEX AT REST AND DURING TASKS: A META-ANALYTIC CLUSTERING AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana M.E. Torta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical, morphological and histological data have consistently shown that the cingulate cortex can be divided into four main regions. However, less is known about parcellations of the cingulate cortex when involved in active tasks. Here, we aimed at comparing how the pattern of clusterization of the cingulate cortex changes across different levels of task complexity. We parcellated the cingulate cortex using the results of a meta-analytic study and of three experimental studies. The experimental studies, which included two active tasks and a resting state protocol, were used to control the results obtained with the meta-analytic parcellation. We explored the meta-analytic parcellation by applying a meta-analytic clustering (MaC to papers retrieved from the BrainMap database. The MaC is a meta-analytic connectivity driven parcellation technique recently developed by our group which allowed us to parcellate the cingulate cortex on the basis of its pattern of co-activations during active tasks. The MaC results indicated that the cingulate cortex can be parcellated into three clusters. These clusters covered different percentages of the cingulate parenchyma and had a different density of foci, with the first cluster being more densely connected. The control experiments showed different clusterization results, suggesting that the co-activations of the cingulate cortex are highly dependent on the task that is tested. Our results highlight the importance of the cingulate cortex as a hub, which modifies its pattern of co-activations depending on the task requests and on the level of task complexity. The neurobiological meaning of these results is discussed.

  7. High-frequency oscillations and seizure activity and in the human anterior nucleus of the thalamus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rektor, I.; Doležalová, I.; Chrastina, J.; Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Brázdil, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 56, S1 (2015), s. 29-30. ISSN 0013-9580. [International Epilepsy Congress /31./. 05.09.2015-09.09.2015, Istanbul] Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : high-frequency oscillations * anterior nucleus of the thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  8. Influence of different levels of sports activities on the quality of life after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninković Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The goal of this study was to examine the nature and presence of influence of different levels of sports activity on the life quality of the patients a year after the reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament. Material and Methods. The study included 185 patients operated at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology of the Clinical Centre of Vojvodina, who were followed for twelve months. Data were collected using the modified Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score questionnaire which included the Lysholm scale. Results. This study included 146 male and 39 female subjects. The reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament was equally successful in both gender groups. In relation to different types of sports activity, there were no differences in the overall life quality measured by the questionnaire and its subscales, regardless of the level (professional or recreational. However, regarding the level of sports activities, there were differences among the subjects engaged in sports activities at the national level as compared with those going in for sports activities at the recreational level, and particularly in comparison with physically inactive population. A significant correlation was not found by examining the aforementioned relationship between sports activities. Conclusions. This study has shown that the overall life quality a year after the reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament does not differ in relation to either the gender of the subjects or the type of sports activity, while the level of sports activity does have some influence on the quality of life. Professional athletes have proved to train significantly more intensively after this reconstruction than those going in for sports recreationally.

  9. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  10. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task. Preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moll, Jorge [LABS and Rede D' Or Hospitais, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Neuroimagem e Neurologia do Comportamento; Eslinger, Paul J. [Pensylvania State Univ. (United States). College of Medicine. Div. of Neurology and Behavioral Science; The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PN (United States); Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo de [Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (UNI-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Gaffree e Guinle]. E-mail: neuropsychiatry@hotmail.com

    2001-09-01

    The objective was to study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either 'right' or 'wrong'. Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ('We break the law when necessary'), the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ('Stones are made of water'). After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemo dynamically modeled for event-related f MRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC), medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (B A 10/46 and 9) were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct. (author)

  11. Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based treatment modality on human neurophysiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Pike, C.; Vernon, D.; Hald, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Neurophysiologic studies of mindfulness link the health benefits of meditation to activation of the left-anterior cerebral cortex. The similarity and functional importance of intention and attentional stance in meditative and biofield therapeutic practices suggest that modulation of recipient anterior asymmetric activation may mediate the energetic effects of intention-based biofield treatments as well. The aim of the current study was to test this hypothesis by using a treatment ...

  12. Posterior cingulate metabolic changes in frontotemporal lobar degeneration detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differences in prognosis and symptomatic treatment have highlighted the importance of the differential diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and other dementias, but the variable clinical features make diagnosis difficult. We studied metabolic changes using multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in regions of FTLD, including the posterior cingulate gyrus, which is also the area most affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the early stages. We examined six patients with FTLD, six with presumed AD, and five healthy volunteers using repetition and echo times of 2000 and 135 ms. We analysed peak ratios of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) from frontal and temporoparietal regions, basal ganglia, and posterior cingulate gyrus in both hemispheres. A decreased NAA/Cr ratio was observed in the posterior cingulate gyri in presumed AD (right: 1.56±0.44, P =0.011; left: 1.46±0.25, P =0.008) and FTD (right: 1.47±0.40, P =0.005; left: 1.36±0.32, P =0.002). No statistically significant changes in Cho/Cr were identified in the posterior cingulate gyri in presumed AD or FTLD, and no differences were observed in peak ratios in other regions. Decreased NAA may reflect neuronal activity in the posterior cingulate gyrus, and this study may contirbute to insights into the pathophysiology of FTLD. (orig.)

  13. Posterior cingulate metabolic changes in frontotemporal lobar degeneration detected by magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, O.; Yamada, K.; Ito, H.; Nishimura, T. [Department of Radiology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, 456 Kajiicho, Kamigyoku, 602-8566, Kyoto (Japan)

    2004-04-01

    Differences in prognosis and symptomatic treatment have highlighted the importance of the differential diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and other dementias, but the variable clinical features make diagnosis difficult. We studied metabolic changes using multivoxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in regions of FTLD, including the posterior cingulate gyrus, which is also the area most affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the early stages. We examined six patients with FTLD, six with presumed AD, and five healthy volunteers using repetition and echo times of 2000 and 135 ms. We analysed peak ratios of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and N-acetylaspartate (NAA) from frontal and temporoparietal regions, basal ganglia, and posterior cingulate gyrus in both hemispheres. A decreased NAA/Cr ratio was observed in the posterior cingulate gyri in presumed AD (right: 1.56{+-}0.44, P =0.011; left: 1.46{+-}0.25, P =0.008) and FTD (right: 1.47{+-}0.40, P =0.005; left: 1.36{+-}0.32, P =0.002). No statistically significant changes in Cho/Cr were identified in the posterior cingulate gyri in presumed AD or FTLD, and no differences were observed in peak ratios in other regions. Decreased NAA may reflect neuronal activity in the posterior cingulate gyrus, and this study may contirbute to insights into the pathophysiology of FTLD. (orig.)

  14. Die Rolle des anterioren cingulären Cortex bei Entscheidungsprozessen und instrumentellen Lernvorgängen

    OpenAIRE

    Schweimer, Judith

    2006-01-01

    Der Anteriore Cinguläre Cortex (ACC) spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei Stimulus-Belohnungs-Lernen und bei der Auswahl von belohnungsgesteuerten Handlungsweisen. Im Rahmen dieser Doktorarbeit wurde eine Reihe von Experimenten durchgeführt, um die Rolle des ACC bei instrumentellen Verhalten, welches aufwandsabhängige Entscheidungen beruht, und bei instrumentellem Lernen, welches durch belohnungsprädiktive Stimuli gesteuert wird, näher zu untersuchen. In Experiment 1 wurden das Erlernen und das ...

  15. μ- and m-calpain expression and activity changes following diethylstilbestrol injection in the rat anterior pituitary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijiang Zhao; Zhongfang Shi; Fang Yuan; Guilin Li; Yazhuo Zhang; Zhongcheng Wang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about changes in calpain activity in the pituitary gland.In the present study,μ- and m-calpain activity changes were detected in the rat anterior pituitary following intraperitoneal injection of diethylstilbestrol.Double-immunofluorescence labeling confirmed colocalization of μ - and m-calpain in prolactin-secreting cells (lactotrophs).Western blot analysis revealed significantly increased expression of both calpains,which accompanied upregulated cytosol and membrane zymographic activities at 12 weeks following diethylstilbestrol injection,compared with rats injected with sunflower oil.Moreover,following estrogen injection,pituitary gland pathological damage gradually worsened with increasing time.Results demonstrated that estrogen regulated calpain expression and activity,and both calpains participated in the pathophysiological processes of the pituitary gland.Ubiquitous calpain expression could serve as an effective target for anti-estrogen drugs.

  16. Diffusional kurtosis imaging of cingulate fibers in Parkinson disease. Comparison with conventional diffusion tensor imaging. President award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Parkinson disease (PD), the primary neuropathological changes begin in the brain stem and extend to the limbic system and finally into the cerebral cortex. We used diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) to evaluate the alteration of cingulate fibers that constitute a part of the limbic system. Seventeen patients with PD (mean age, 65.0 years±9.3 [standard deviation]) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (mean age, 64.0 years±12.7 [standard deviation]) underwent diffusion kurtosis imaging with a 3-tesla magnetic resonance (MR) imager. From generated diffusion tensor tractography of the anterior and posterior cingulate fiber tracts (CFTs), we measured the mean kurtosis (MK) and conventional diffusion tensor parameters along those tracts and compared them between patients and controls. We also performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to compare the ability of the MK and conventional diffusion tensor parameters for diagnosing PD. MK and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the anterior CFTs were significantly lower in patients with PD than in healthy controls. The areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were 0.912 for the MK and 0.747 for the FA in the anterior CFTs. The mean kurtosis in the anterior CFTs had the best diagnostic ability for PD (mean cutoff, 0.967; sensitivity, 0.87; specificity, 0.94) DKI can more sensitively detect changes in the anterior cingulate fibers in patients with PD than conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and is expected to improve the ability to diagnose PD. (author)

  17. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L; Alkjaer, T; Suetta, C; Mortensen, P; Kjaer, M; Aagaard, P

    2011-01-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle...... function during match play. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue induced by a simulated handball match on neuromuscular strategy during a functional sidecutting movement, associated with the incidence of ACL injury. Fourteen female team handball players were tested for...... the simulated handball match induced a decrease in MVC strength for both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (P<0.05), a selective decrease in hamstring neuromuscular activity was seen during sidecutting (P<0.05). This study shows impaired ACL-agonist muscle (i.e. hamstring) activity during...

  18. Amygdala and cingulate structure is associated with stereotype on sex-role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Sex-role egalitarianism (SRE) is the belief that the sex of an individual should not influence the perception of his or her rights, abilities, obligations, and opportunities. Thus, low SRE reflects a more conservative stereotypical view on sex-role. Here we investigated anatomical correlates of individual differences in SRE in the present study. We used voxel-based morphometry, a questionnaire to determine an individual's SRE and associated psychological measures, and determined the association of SRE with gray matter structures and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (375 men and 306 women; age, 20.6 ± 1.8 years). We demonstrated that higher SRE was associated with smaller regional gray matter density (rGMD) in the anterior part of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and higher rGMD in the right amygdala. Post-hoc analyses revealed psychological measures characterized by contentious interpersonal orientations, such as contentious achievement motivation, were associated with lower SRE and higher rGMD in the anterior part of PCC. Depressive tendencies were associated with lower SRE and higher rGMD in the right amygdala. These findings suggest that variations in stereotype on sex role have roots in the limbic brain structures linked to contentious interpersonal orientation (cingulate) and negative mood (amygdala). PMID:26420574

  19. Differential activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus in persons with a family history of alcoholism during a gambling simulation: Studies from the Oklahoma Family Health Patterns Project

    OpenAIRE

    Acheson, Ashley; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Glahn, David C.; Lovallo, William R.; Fox, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    Individuals with a family history of alcoholism (FH+) are at enhanced risk of developing an alcohol or other substance use disorder relative to those without this history (FH-). Recent studies comparing FH+ and FH- individuals have revealed differences in cognition, emotion processing, sociability, and decision-making. These differences suggest possible altered brain functioning in FH+ individuals that may play a crucial role in vulnerability to substance use disorders. In the present study, ...

  20. Anterior nucleus of the thalamus: functional organization and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Nicholas D; Benarroch, Eduardo E

    2013-11-19

    The anterior nucleus of thalamus (ANT) is a key component of the hippocampal system for episodic memory. The ANT consist of 3 subnuclei with distinct connectivity with the subicular cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and mammillary bodies. Via its connections with the anterior cingulate and orbitomedial prefrontal cortex, the ANT may also contribute to reciprocal hippocampal-prefrontal interactions involved in emotional and executive functions. As in other thalamic nuclei, neurons of the ANT have 2 different state-dependent patterns of discharge, tonic and burst-firing; some ANT neurons also contribute to propagation of the theta rhythm, which is important for mechanisms of synaptic plasticity of the hippocampal circuit. Clinical and experimental evidence indicate that damage of the ANT or its inputs from the mammillary bodies are primarily responsible for the episodic memory deficit observed in Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and thalamic stroke. Experimental models also indicate that the ANT may have a role in the propagation of seizure activity both in absence and in focal seizures. Because of its central connectivity and possible role in propagation of seizure activity, the ANT has become an attractive target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) for treatment of medically refractory epilepsy. The ANT is one of the nuclei preferentially affected in prion disorders, such as fatal familial insomnia, but the relationship between ANT involvement and the clinical manifestations of these disorders remains unclear. The connectivity patterns and electrophysiology of the ANT have been the subject of several reviews.(1-4.) PMID:24142476

  1. Anterior tarsaltunnelsyndrom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miliam, Palle B; Basse, Peter N

    2009-01-01

    Anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome is a rare entrapment neuropathy of the deep peroneal nerve beneath the extensor retinaculum of the ankle. It may be rare because it is underrecognized clinically.We present a case regarding a 29-year-old man, drummer, who for one and a half year experienced clinical...

  2. Depressed Mood and Lateralized Prefrontal Activity During a Stroop Task in Adolescent Children

    OpenAIRE

    Killgore, William D.S.; Gruber, Staci A.; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    Negative affective style and depressive disorders share a common pattern of brain activation asymmetry in adults, characterized by reduced left relative to right prefrontal activation. It is not clear whether a similar pattern of asymmetry is related to depressive mood state during the period of adolescence, an important stage of emotional and brain development. We correlated Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores from 16 adolescents with prefrontal, anterior cingulate, and amygdala activity ...

  3. Pulse sound generation, anterior swim bladder buckling and associated muscle activity in the pyramid butterflyfish, Hemitaurichthys polylepis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Kelly S; Tricas, Timothy C

    2010-11-15

    Acoustic behaviors are widespread among diverse fish taxa but mechanisms of sound production are known from relatively few species, vary widely and convergent mechanisms are poorly known. We examined the sound production mechanism in the pyramid butterflyfish, Hemitaurichthys polylepis, a member of the socially and ecologically diverse reef fish family Chaetodontidae. In the field, fish produce pulse trains at dusk during social interactions that are probably related to mate attraction and courtship. In laboratory experiments, sound production was synchronized to high-speed video to determine body movement associated with sound generation. In addition, electromyography (EMG) recordings tested the activity of six candidate muscles. Fish produced individual pulses with a mean peak frequency of 97 Hz in rapid succession. EMG experiments show that anterior hypaxial muscles contract at high bilaterally synchronous rates (up to 120 Hz) in near perfect association with rapid inward buckling visible outside the body over the anterior swim bladder. Muscle activity often showed EMG doublets that occurred within the time of a single sound pulse but was not sustained. Buckling and sound pulse rates correlated strongly (R(2)≈1.00) and sound pulse rate measured over two successive pulses (maximum of 38 pulses s(-1)) was lower than muscle firing rate. These results show that the extrinsic swim bladder muscles of pyramid butterflyfish involve single contractions that produce pulses in a manner similar to distantly related teleosts, but involve a novel doublet motor-neuron firing pattern. Thus, the sound production mechanism in pyramid butterflyfish is likely convergent with several percomorph taxa and divergent from the related chaetodontid genus Forcipiger. PMID:21037068

  4. Effects of estradiol benzoate on 5'-iodothyronine deiodinase activities in female rat anterior pituitary gland, liver and thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbôa P.C.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little information on the possible effects of estrogen on the activity of 5'-deiodinase (5'-ID, an enzyme responsible for the generation of T3, the biologically active thyroid hormone. In the present study, anterior pituitary sonicates or hepatic and thyroid microsomes from ovariectomized (OVX rats treated or not with estradiol benzoate (EB, 0.7 or 14 µg/100 g body weight, sc, for 10 days were assayed for type I 5'-ID (5'-ID-I and type II 5'-ID (5'-ID-II, only in pituitary activities. The 5'-ID activity was evaluated by the release of 125I from deiodinated 125I rT3, using specific assay conditions for type I or type II. Serum TSH and free T3 and free T4 were measured by radioimmunoassay. OVX alone induced a reduction in pituitary 5'-ID-I (control = 723.7 ± 67.9 vs OVX = 413.9 ± 26.9; P<0.05, while the EB-treated OVX group showed activity similar to that of the normal group. Thyroid 5'-ID-I showed the same pattern of changes, but these changes were not statistically significant. Pituitary and hepatic 5'-ID-II did not show major alterations. The treatment with the higher EB dose (14 µg, contrary to the results obtained with the lower dose, had no effect on the reduced pituitary 5'-ID-I of OVX rats. However, it induced an important increment of 5'-ID-I in the thyroid gland (0.8 times higher than that of the normal group: control = 131.9 ± 23.7 vs ovx + EB 14 µg = 248.0 ± 31.2; P<0.05, which is associated with increased serum TSH (0.6-fold vs OVX, P<0.05 but normal serum free T3 and free T4. The data suggest that estrogen is a physiological stimulator of anterior pituitary 5'-ID-I and a potent stimulator of the thyroid enzyme when employed at high doses

  5. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Helen eImmordino-Yang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The anterior insula (AI maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain’s ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural

  6. Correlations between social-emotional feelings and anterior insula activity are independent from visceral states but influenced by culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Damasio, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The anterior insula (AI) maps visceral states and is active during emotional experiences, a functional confluence that is central to neurobiological accounts of feelings. Yet, it is unclear how AI activity correlates with feelings during social emotions, and whether this correlation may be influenced by culture, as studies correlating real-time AI activity with visceral states and feelings have focused on Western subjects feeling physical pain or basic disgust. Given psychological evidence that social-emotional feelings are cognitively constructed within cultural frames, we asked Chinese and American participants to report their feeling strength to admiration and compassion-inducing narratives during fMRI with simultaneous electrocardiogram recording. Trial-by-trial, cardiac arousal and feeling strength correlated with ventral and dorsal AI activity bilaterally but predicted different variance, suggesting that interoception and social-emotional feeling construction are concurrent but dissociable AI functions. Further, although the variance that correlated with cardiac arousal did not show cultural effects, the variance that correlated with feelings did. Feeling strength was especially associated with ventral AI activity (the autonomic modulatory sector) in the Chinese group but with dorsal AI activity (the visceral-somatosensory/cognitive sector) in an American group not of Asian descent. This cultural group difference held after controlling for posterior insula (PI) activity and was replicated. A bi-cultural East-Asian American group showed intermediate results. The findings help elucidate how the AI supports feelings and suggest that previous reports that dorsal AI activation reflects feeling strength are culture related. More broadly, the results suggest that the brain's ability to construct conscious experiences of social emotion is less closely tied to visceral processes than neurobiological models predict and at least partly open to cultural influence and

  7. Activity of spindle afferents from cat anterior thigh muscles. III. Effects of external stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, G E; Hoffer, J A; Marks, W B

    1985-09-01

    Chronically implanted electrodes were used to record the activity of identified single muscle spindle afferents in awake cats during responses to various types of manual and electrical stimulation. During vigorous cyclical responses such as shaking and scratching, spindle afferents generally maintained at least some activity during both lengthening and shortening of the parent muscle, indicating that the programs for these movements include both extra- and intrafusal recruitment. During noncyclical responses such as ipsilateral limb withdrawal and crossed-extension, spindle activity was modest and poorly correlated with extrafusal activity. Weak cutaneous nerve shocks during walking elicited complex excitatory and inhibitory phase-dependent reflexes in the various muscles studied but caused relatively little change in spindle afferent activity, indicating a lack of correlation between alpha and gamma motoneuron activity. A primary and a secondary afferent from sartorius muscle were recorded simultaneously during walking cycles that were perturbed by electrically induced twitches of the antagonist hamstring muscles; both demonstrated highly sensitive, short latency responses to the resulting skeletal motion, consistent with their previously suggested roles in detecting small brief mechanical perturbations. The degree to which fusimotor responses were correlated with extrafusal responses to somatosensory perturbations was highly dependent on the specific nature of the stimulus and the response. Fusimotor reprogramming of the spindle sensitivity appears to be a feature of cyclical movements that are presumably under proprioceptive control, whereas brief perturbations within the context of a particular motor program may be ignored by the fusimotor system. PMID:2931503

  8. Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: Preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based biofield treatment modality on human neurophysiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pike, C.; Vernon, D.; Hald, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurophysiologic studies of mindfulness link the health benefits of meditation to activation of the left-anterior cerebral cortex. The similarity and functional importance of intention and attentional stance in meditative and biofield therapeutic practices suggest that modulation of recipient anteri

  9. Brain areas activated by uncertain reward-based decision-making in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zongjun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Shien; Li, Yuhuan; Sun, Bo; Gao, Zhenbo

    2013-01-01

    Reward-based decision-making has been found to activate several brain areas, including the ventrolateral prefrontal lobe, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and mesolimbic dopaminergic system. In this study, we observed brain areas activated under three degrees of uncertainty in a reward-based decision-making task (certain, risky, and ambiguous). The tasks were presented using a brain function audiovisual stimulation system. We conducted brain scans of 15 healt...

  10. Abnormal function of the posterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicted users during resting-state and drug-cue stimulation task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; YANG Wei-chuan; WANG Ya-rong; HUANG Yu-fang; LI Wei; ZHU Jia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that brain function in heroin addicted users is impaired.However,the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has not received much attention.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic heroin use is associated with craving-related changes in the functional connectivity of the PCC of heroin addicted users.Methods Fourteen male adult chronic heroin users and fifteen age and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the present study.The participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and a cue-induced craving task fMRI scan.The activated PCC was identified in the cue-induced craving task by means of a group contrast test.Functional connectivity was analyzed based on resting-state fMRI data in order to determine the correlation between brain regions.The relationship between the connectivity of specific regions and heroin dependence was investigated.Results The activation of PCC,bilateral anterior cingulate cortex,caudate,putamen,precuneus,and thalamus was significant in the heroin group compared to the healthy group in the cue-induced craving task.The detectable functional connectivity of the heroin users was stronger between the PCC and bilateral insula,bilateral dorsal striatum,right inferior parietal Iobule (IPL) and right supramarginal gyrus (P<0.001) compared to that of the healthy subjects in the resting-state data analysis.The strength of the functional connectivity,both for the PCC-insula (r=0.60,P <0.05) and for PCC-striatum (r=0.58,P<0.05),was positively correlated with the duration of heroin use.Conclusion The altered functional connectivity patterns in the PCC-insula and PCC-striatum areas may be regarded as biomarkers of brain damage severity in chronic heroin users.

  11. Muscle Activity Onset Prior to Landing in Patients after Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Daniel; Rada, Isabel; Brau, Amélie; Gette, Paul; Seil, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Muscle activation during landing is paramount to stabilise lower limb joints and avoid abnormal movement patterns. Delayed muscle activity onset measured by electromyography (EMG) has been suggested to be associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to test the hypothesis if ACL-injured patients display different results for muscle onset timing during standard deceleration tasks compared to healthy control participants. PubMed, Embase, Scopus and ScienceDirect databases were systematically searched over the period from January 1980 to February 2015, yielding a total of 1461 citations. Six studies meeting inclusion criteria underwent quality assessment, data extraction and re-computing procedures for the meta-analysis. The quality was rated “moderate” for 2 studies and “poor” for 4. Patients included and procedures used were highly heterogeneous. The tasks investigated were single leg hopping, decelerating from running or walking, tested on a total of 102 ACL-injured participants and 86 controls. EMG analyses of the muscles vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, lateral and medial hamstrings revealed trivial and non-significant standardised mean differences (SMD0.05) between patients and control participants. Furthermore, no differences were found between the contralateral leg of patients and controls for muscle activity onset of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius (SMD0.05). Based on 3 studies, the involved legs of ACL-injured patients showed overall earlier muscle activity onset compared to control participants for the medial gastrocnemius (SMD = 0.5; p = 0.05). Similar results were found for the lateral gastrocnemius (SMD = 2.1; pACL-injured patients and healthy controls regarding the muscle activity onset during landing. However, current evidence is scarce and weak, which highlights the need for further research in this area. PMID:27166929

  12. Cytology and Functionally Correlated Circuits of Human Posterior Cingulate Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Brent A.; Vogt, Leslie; Laureys, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Human posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) form the posterior cingulate gyrus, however, monkey connection and human imaging studies suggest that PCC area 23 is not uniform and atlases mislocate RSC. We histologically assessed these regions in 6 postmortem cases, plotted a flat map, and characterized differences in dorsal (d) and ventral (v) area 23. Subsequently, functional connectivity of histologically guided regions of interest (ROI) were assessed in 163 [18F]flu...

  13. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe [CHNO des Quinze-Vingts, UPMC Paris 6, Service de NeuroImagerie, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  14. Functional connectivity of the human rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas in the brain resting state at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three cingulate motor areas have been described in monkeys, the rostral, dorsal, and ventral cingulate motor areas, and would control limbic-related motor activity. However, little anatomical data are available in human about the functional networks these cingulate areas underlie. Therefore, networks anchored in the rostral and caudal cingulate motor areas (rCMA and cCMA, respectively) were studied in human using functional connectivity during the brain resting state. Since the rCMA and cCMA are located just under the pre-supplementary and supplementary motor areas (pre-SMA and SMA), the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks were also studied to ensure that these four circuits were correctly dissociated. Data from 14 right-handed healthy volunteers were acquired at rest and analyzed by region of interest (ROI)-based functional connectivity. The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations of separate ROIs located in rCMA, cCMA, pre-SMA, and SMA were successively used to identify significant temporal correlations with BOLD signal fluctuations of other brain regions. Low-frequency BOLD signal of the CMA was correlated with signal fluctuations in the prefrontal, cingulate, insular, premotor, motor, medial and inferior parietal cortices, putamen and thalamus, and anticorrelated with the default-mode network. rCMA was more in relation with prefrontal, orbitofrontal, and language-associated cortices than cCMA more related to sensory cortex. These cingulate networks were very similar to the pre-SMA- and SMA-centered networks, although pre-SMA and SMA showed stronger correlation with the prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices and with the cerebellum and the superior parietal cortex, respectively. The human cingulate motor areas constitute an interface between sensorimotor, limbic and executive systems, sharing common cortical, striatal, and thalamic relays with the overlying premotor medial areas. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Vibration Frequency on Serratus Anterior Muscle Activity during Performance of the Push-up Plus with a Redcord Sling

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Eui-ryong; Oh, Jae-Seop; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of vibration at various frequencies on serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. [Subjects] Ten male subjects were recruited. [Methods] The subjects performed the push-up plus exercise supported by straps above the surface and vertical ropes in the Redcord sling. During the push-up plus, vibrations of 0, 30, 50, or 90 Hz were applied to the Redcord sling using a mechanical vibration apparatus attached to the rope. SA muscle activity was recorded using electr...

  16. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  17. Role of the Perigenual Anterior Cingulate and Orbitofrontal Cortex in Contingency Learning in the Marmoset

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Stacey A. W.; Pears, Andrew; Horst, Nicole K.; Robbins, Trevor W.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2016-01-01

    Two learning mechanisms contribute to decision-making: goal-directed actions and the “habit” system, by which action-outcome and stimulus-response associations are formed, respectively. Rodent lesion studies and human neuroimaging have implicated both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in the neural basis of contingency learning, a critical component of goal-directed actions, though some published findings are conflicting. We sought to reconcile the existin...

  18. Blocking Central Opiate Function Modulates Hedonic Impact and Anterior Cingulate Response to Rewards and Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovic, P.; Pleger, B.; Seymour, B; Kloppel, S.; Martino, B.; Critchley, H; Dolan, R J

    2008-01-01

    Reward processing is linked to specific neuromodulatory systems with a dopaminergic contribution to reward learning and motivational drive being well established. Neuromodulatory influences on hedonic responses to actual receipt of reward, or punishment, referred to as experienced utility are less well characterized, although a link to the endogenous opioid system is suggested. Here, in a combined functional magnetic resonance imaging-psychopharmacological investigation, we used naloxone to b...

  19. Attention for speaking: domain-general control from the anterior cingulate cortex in spoken word production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Acheson, D.J.; Takashima, A.

    2013-01-01

    ulating evidence suggests that some degree of attentional control is required to regulate and monitor processes underlying speaking. Although progress has been made in delineating the neural substrates of the core language processes involved in speaking, substrates associated with regulatory and mon

  20. A biased activation theory of the cognitive and attentional modulation of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Edmund eRolls

    2013-01-01

    Cognition can influence emotion by biasing neural activity in the first cortical region in which the reward value and subjective pleasantness of stimuli is made explicit in the representation, the orbitofrontal cortex. The same effect occurs in a second cortical tier for emotion, the anterior cingulate cortex. Similar effects are found for selective attention, to for example the pleasantness vs the intensity of stimuli, which modulates representations of reward value and affect in the orbitof...

  1. A biased activation theory of the cognitive and attentional modulation of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rolls, Edmund T.

    2013-01-01

    Cognition can influence emotion by biasing neural activity in the first cortical region in which the reward value and subjective pleasantness of stimuli is made explicit in the representation, the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The same effect occurs in a second cortical tier for emotion, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Similar effects are found for selective attention, to for example the pleasantness vs. the intensity of stimuli, which modulates representations of reward value and affect i...

  2. Elongation of the active anterior wall of the uro-genital pelvic diaphragm, a late unusual complication of paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurascheck, F; Dollfus, P; Jacob-Chia, D

    1980-08-01

    The situation of the usual bladder, prostate, membranous urethra channel, can vary, according to the morphology of the perineum which can be overstretched. A case of a young man with a T10 complete upper motor neurone lesion is presented. The normal anterior angulation at the prostate and membranous urethra junction was reduced anteriorly and pushed backwards, thus causing an added indirect factor of dysuria. The mechanism is discussed in comparison with other such late, but often overlooked consequences of alterations of the pelvic floor during micturition. PMID:7422341

  3. 15-Year Follow-up of Neuromuscular Function in Patients With Unilateral Nonreconstructed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Initially Treated With Rehabilitation and Activity Modification: A Longitudinal Prospective Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Ageberg, Eva; Pettersson, Annika; Fridén, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background: It has been suggested that neuromuscular function is of importance in the overall outcome after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Hypothesis: Good neuromuscular function can be achieved and maintained over time in subjects with ACL injury treated with rehabilitation and activity modification but without reconstructive surgery. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: One hundred consecutive patients (42 women and 58 men) with acute ACL injury at a nonprofes...

  4. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so. PMID:19620180

  5. Tasting calories differentially affects brain activation during hunger and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Inge; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    2015-02-15

    An important function of eating is ingesting energy. Our objectives were to assess whether oral exposure to caloric and non-caloric stimuli elicits discriminable responses in the brain and to determine in how far these responses are modulated by hunger state and sweetness. Thirty women tasted three stimuli in two motivational states (hunger and satiety) while their brain responses were measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging in a randomized crossover design. Stimuli were solutions of sucralose (sweet, no energy), maltodextrin (non-sweet, energy) and sucralose+maltodextrin (sweet, energy). We found no main effect of energy content and no interaction between energy content and sweetness. However, there was an interaction between hunger state and energy content in the median cingulate (bilaterally), ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus. This indicates that the anterior insula and thalamus, areas in which hunger state and taste of a stimulus are integrated, also integrate hunger state with caloric content of a taste stimulus. Furthermore, in the median cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, tasting energy resulted in more activation during satiety compared to hunger. This finding indicates that these areas, which are known to be involved in processes that require approach and avoidance, are also involved in guiding ingestive behavior. In conclusion, our results suggest that energy sensing is a hunger state dependent process, in which the median cingulate, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior insula and thalamus play a central role by integrating hunger state with stimulus relevance. PMID:25449847

  6. Reduced muscarinic receptors in the cingulate cortex in mild Alzheimer's disease demonstrated with 123I iodo-dexetamide SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Parietal hypoperfusion/hypometabolism is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In early AD this may be preceded by changes in the posterior cingulate cortex, part of the cortico-limbic circuit with connections to the medial temporal lobes. Because cholinergic function is affected in early AD, we aimed to investigate the binding of the muscarinic receptor label, I-123 iodo-dexetamide (IDEX). We recruited 11 mild (MiniMental State Examination 27-24) and 11 moderate (MMSE 23-16) Alzheimer's patients and 10 age and sex-matched normal subjects. SPECT was performed six hours after injection of 185 MBq IDEX. Sections were reconstructed with attenuation correction using an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 99) was used to analyse the data. Because there is very little IDEX uptake in the cerebellum and thalamus it was necessary to edit them from the SPM PET template. Facial and scalp activity was also edited. Global scaling relative to the basal ganglia was used. Significant areas of decreased IDEX binding were found in the mild Alzheimer's group in the cingulate cortex with pvoxel = .08 and pcluster < 0.001, (particularly the posterior cingulate), left parietotemporal junction (pcluster = 0.01) and posteromedial left temporal lobe (pcluster = 0.03). In moderate AD extensive areas of decreased binding were found in the posterior cingulate, parietal and temporal lobes. The difference between the group-means at the posterior cingulate was 14% (mild AD) and 22% (moderate AD). Hypoperfusion, hypometabolism and now reduced cholinergic receptors have been demonstrated in the posterior cingulate in mild AD. Greater attention to this area may enhance the diagnostic value of functional imaging in early AD. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  7. COMT Val158Met genotypes differentially influence subgenual cingulate functional connectivity in healthy females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baeken

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain imaging studies have consistently shown subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortical (sgACC involvement in emotion processing. COMT Val158 and Met158 polymorphisms may influence such emotional brain processes in specific ways. Given that resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI may increase our understanding on brain functioning, we integrated genetic and rsfMRI data and focused on sgACC functional connections. No studies have yet investigated the influence of the COMT Val158Met polymorphism (rs4680 on sgACC resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC in healthy individuals. A homogeneous group of sixty-one Caucasian right-handed healthy female university students, all within the same age range, underwent rsfMRI. Compared to Met158 homozygotes, Val158 allele carriers displayed significantly stronger rsFC between the sgACC and the left parahippocampal gyrus, ventromedial parts of the inferior frontal gyrus, and the nucleus accumbens (NAc. On the other hand, compared to Val158 homozygotes, we found in Met158 allele carriers stronger sgACC rsFC with the medial frontal gyrus, more in particular the anterior parts of the medial orbitofrontal cortex. Although we did not use emotional or cognitive tasks, our sgACC rsFC results point to possible distinct differences in emotional and cognitive processes between Val158 and Met158 allele carriers. However, the exact nature of these directions remains to be determined.

  8. Atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos temporal anterior e masseter em crianças respiradoras bucais e em respiradoras nasais Electrical Activity of the Anterior Temporal and Masseter Muscles in Mouth and Nasal Breathing Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Ferla

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A respiração bucal tem sido estudada por causar sérios efeitos no desenvolvimento do sistema estomatognático. OBJETIVO: Estudar, através da análise eletromiográfica, o padrão de atividade elétrica dos músculos temporal anterior e masseter em crianças com respiração bucal, comparando-os com o de crianças com respiração nasal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados dois grupos de crianças: 17 respiradoras bucais (RB e 12 respiradoras nasais (RN. As crianças foram submetidas à avaliação eletromiográfica bilateral dos músculos supracitados nas situações de máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual. Utilizou-se o eletromiógrafo Myosystem Br-1, com 12 canais de aquisição, amplificação com ganho total de 5938, taxa de aquisição de 4000Hz e filtro passa-faixa de 20-1000Hz. O sinal foi processado em RMS, mensurado em µV e analisado e expresso em %, normalizado. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente através do Teste t (Student. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o nível de atividade elétrica do grupo RB foi inferior para todos os músculos e estatisticamente significante somente para o temporal esquerdo; os respiradores bucais apresentaram predomínio de atividade elétrica no lado direito e no músculo temporal durante a mastigação habitual. CONCLUSÃO: A respiração bucal interferiu na atividade elétrica dos músculos estudados nas situações funcionais de máxima intercuspidação e mastigação habitual.Mouth breathing has been associated with severe impact on the development of the stomatognathic system. AIM: This paper aims to analyze the electromyographical findings and patterns of electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles in mouth and nasal breathing children. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The patients were divided into two groups: mouth breathers (n=17 and nasal breathers (n=12. The children underwent bilateral electromyographic examination of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles at

  9. Phacoemulsification in anterior megalophthalmos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Graham A; Hann, Joshua V; Braga-Mele, Rosa

    2006-07-01

    This case outlines the phacoemulsification technique used to overcome the challenge of the hyperdeep anterior chamber, weak zonules, abnormal anterior capsule, and large capsular bag. Key steps included trypan blue staining of the anterior capsule, a large capsulorhexis, prolapse of the nucleus into the anterior chamber with phacoemulsification anterior to the capsulorhexis, and a posterior chamber-placed iris-clip intraocular lens. Successful visual rehabilitation is achievable in these anatomically challenging eyes. PMID:16857490

  10. Functional connectivity of the amygdala and subgenual cingulate during cognitive reappraisal of emotions in children with MDD history is associated with rumination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Eric R; Barch, Deanna M; Pagliaccio, David; Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C

    2016-04-01

    Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is characterized by poor emotion regulation. Rumination, a maladaptive strategy for dealing with negative emotions, is common in MDD, and is associated with impaired inhibition and cognitive inflexibility that may contribute to impaired emotion regulation abilities. However, it is unclear whether rumination is differently associated with emotion regulation in individuals with MDD history (MDD-ever) and healthy individuals. In this study, children (8-15 years old) performed a cognitive reappraisal task in which they attempted to decrease their emotional response to sad images during fMRI scanning. Functional connectivity (FC) between both the amygdala and subgenual anterior cingulate (sACC) increased with cortical control regions during reappraisal as rumination increased in MDD-ever, while connectivity between those regions decreased during reappraisal as rumination increased in healthy controls. As the role of cortical control regions is to down-regulate activity of emotion processing regions during reappraisal, this suggests that rumination in MDD-ever, but not controls, is associated with inefficient regulation. This finding suggests that rumination may be particularly associated with poor emotion regulation in MDD-ever, and may also indicate qualitative group differences in whether rumination is maladaptive. These differences in rumination may provide important insight into depressive risk and potential avenues for treatment. PMID:26746624

  11. Task-related deactivation and functional connectivity of the subgenual cingulate cortex in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher G Davey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Major depressive disorder is associated with functional alterations in activity and resting-state connectivity of the extended medial frontal network. In this study we aimed to examine how task-related medial network activity and connectivity were affected by depression.Methods: Eighteen patients with major depressive disorder, aged 15- to 24-years-old, were matched with 19 healthy control participants. We characterised task-related activations and deactivations while participants engaged with an executive-control task (the multi-source interference task; MSIT. We used a psycho-physiological interactions (PPI approach to examine functional connectivity changes with subgenual ACC. Voxelwise statistical maps for each analysis were compared between the patient and control groups.Results: There were no differences between groups in their behavioral performances on the MSIT task, and nor in patterns of activation and deactivation. Assessment of functional connectivity with the subgenual cingulate showed that depressed patients did not demonstrate the same reduction in functional connectivity with the ventral striatum during task performance, but that they showed greater reduction in functional connectivity with adjacent ventromedial frontal cortex. The magnitude of this latter connectivity change predicted the relative activation of task-relevant executive control regions in depressed patients.Conclusions: The study reinforces the importance of the subgenual cingulate cortex for depression, and demonstrates how dysfunctional connectivity with ventral brain regions might influence executive–attentional processes.

  12. Cingulate cortex hypoperfusion predicts Alzheimer's disease in mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svensson Leif

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mild cognitive impairment (MCI was recently described as a heterogeneous group with a variety of clinical outcomes and high risk to develop Alzheimer's disease (AD. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF as measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT was used to study the heterogeneity of MCI and to look for predictors of future development of AD. Methods rCBF was investigated in 54 MCI subjects using Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO. An automated analysis software (BRASS was applied to analyze the relative blood flow (cerebellar ratios of 24 cortical regions. After the baseline examination, the subjects were followed clinically for an average of two years. 17 subjects progressed to Alzheimer's disease (PMCI and 37 subjects remained stable (SMCI. The baseline SPECT ratio values were compared between PMCI and SMCI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was applied for the discrimination of the two subgroups at baseline. Results The conversion rate of MCI to AD was 13.7% per year. PMCI had a significantly decreased rCBF in the left posterior cingulate cortex, as compared to SMCI. Left posterior cingulate rCBF ratios were entered into a logistic regression model for ROC curve calculation. The area under the ROC curve was 74%–76%, which indicates an acceptable discrimination between PMCI and SMCI at baseline. Conclusion A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.

  13. Connectivity-based parcellation increases network detection sensitivity in resting state fMRI: An investigation into the cingulate cortex in autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H.; Mantini, Dante; Apps, Matthew A.J.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Although resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) is increasingly used to generate biomarkers of psychiatric illnesses, analytical choices such as seed size and placement can lead to variable findings. Seed placement especially impacts on RS-fMRI studies of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), because individuals with ASD are known to possess more variable network topographies. Here, we present a novel pipeline for analysing RS-fMRI in ASD using the cingulate cortex as an exemplar anatomical region of interest. Rather than using seeds based on previous literature, or gross morphology, we used a combination of structural information, task-independent (RS-fMRI) and task-dependent functional connectivity (Meta-Analytic Connectivity Modeling) to partition the cingulate cortex into six subregions with unique connectivity fingerprints and diverse behavioural profiles. This parcellation was consistent between groups and highly replicable across individuals (up to 93% detection) suggesting that the organisation of cortico-cingulo connections is highly similar between groups. However, our results showed an age-related increase in connectivity between the anterior middle cingulate cortex and right lateral prefrontal cortex in ASD, whilst this connectivity decreased in controls. There was also a Group × Grey Matter (GM) interaction, showing increased connectivity between the anterior cingulate cortex and the rectal gyrus in concert with increasing rectal gyrus GM in controls. By comparing our approach to previously established methods we revealed that our approach improves network detection in both groups, and that the ability to detect group differences using 4 mm radius spheres varies greatly with seed placement. Using our multi-modal approach we find disrupted cortico-cingulo circuits that, based on task-dependent information, may contribute to ASD deficits in attention and social interaction. Moreover, we highlight how more sensitive approaches to RS-fMRI are crucial for establishing

  14. Effect of low dose acetylsalicylic acid on the frequency and hematologic activity of left ventricular thrombus in anterior wall acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuepper, A.J.V.; Verheugt, F.W.; Peels, C.H.; Galema, T.W.; den Hollander, W.; Roos, J.P.

    1989-04-15

    In this prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled trial the effect of 100 mg acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) once daily on the incidence, hematologic activity and embolic potential of left ventricular (LV) thrombosis was studied in 100 consecutive patients with a first anterior wall acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Patients were randomized to ASA or placebo less than 12 hours after onset of symptoms. Heparin, 5,000 IU subcutaneously twice daily, was given to all patients during immobilization. Echocardiography was performed less than 24 hours, 48 to 72 hours and 1, 2, and 12 weeks after AMI. LV thrombosis was detected by echocardiography in 30 (33%) of the 92 evaluable patients (15 patients given ASA and 15 given placebo). Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy was done in 17 of the 22 patients with an LV thrombus at the second week echocardiogram. Among 7 ASA-treated patients, 4 had positive images; among 10 placebo patients, 5 had positive images. LV thrombus resolution was noted in 3 of 9 patients with a positive scan and in 5 of 8 patients with a negative platelet scan. In 7 of 10 ASA-treated patients and 5 of 12 placebo-treated patients thrombus resolution was observed (difference not significant). Systemic embolism occurred in 2 patients, both given ASA, during the first week after AMI. Thus, low dose ASA has no effect on the incidence, hematologic activity and embolic potential of LV thrombosis in anterior wall AMI.

  15. Anterior knee pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anterior knee pain is a common complain in all ages athletes. It may be caused by a large variety of injuries. There is a continuum of diagnoses and most of the disorders are closely related. Repeated minor trauma and overuse play an important role for the development of lesions in Hoffa's pad, extensor mechanism, lateral and medial restrain structures or cartilage surface, however usually an increase or change of activity is referred. Although the direct relation of cartilage lesions, especially chondral, and pain is a subject of debate these lesions may be responsible of early osteoarthrosis and can determine athlete's prognosis. The anatomy and biomechanics of patellofemoral joint is complex and symptoms are often unspecific. Transient patellar dislocation has MR distinct features that provide evidence of prior dislocation and rules our complication. However, anterior knee pain more often is related to overuse and repeated minor trauma. Patella and quadriceps tendon have been also implicated in anterior knee pain, as well as lateral or medial restraint structures and Hoffa's pad. US and MR are excellent tools for the diagnosis of superficial tendons, the advantage of MR is that permits to rule out other sources of intraarticular derangements. Due to the complex anatomy and biomechanic of patellofemoral joint maltracking is not fully understood; plain films and CT allow the study of malalignment, new CT and MR kinematic studies have promising results but further studies are needed. Our purpose here is to describe how imaging techniques can be helpful in precisely defining the origin of the patient's complaint and thus improve understanding and management of these injuries

  16. Functional lateralization in cingulate cortex predicts motor recovery after basal ganglia stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Chen, Zengai; Su, Xin; Zhang, Xiaoliu; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Yajing; Xu, Qun; Xu, Jianrong; Tong, Shanbao

    2016-02-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) is involved in higher order motor control such as movement planning and execution of complex motor synergies. Neuroimaging study on stroke patients specifically with BG lesions would help to clarify the consequence of BG damage on motor control. In this paper, we performed a longitudinal study in the stroke patients with lesions in BG regions across three motor recovery stages, i.e., less than 2week (Session 1), 1-3m (Session 2) and more than 3m (Session 3). The patients showed an activation shift from bilateral hemispheres during early sessions (3m), suggesting a compensation effect from the contralesional hemisphere during motor recovery. We found that the lateralization of cerebellum(CB) for affected hand task correlated with patients' concurrent Fugl-Meyer index (FMI) in Session 2. Moreover, the cingulate cortex lateralization index in Session 2 was shown to significantly correlate with subsequent FMI change between Session 3 and Session 2, which serves as a prognostic marker for motor recovery. Our findings consolidated the close interactions between BG and CB during the motor recovery after stroke. The dominance of activation in contralateral cingulate cortex was associated with a better motor recovery, suggesting the important role of ipsilesional attention modulation in the early stage after BG stroke. PMID:26742641

  17. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eun, Sung Jong; Kong, Gwang Woo; Kim, Hyung Joong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Cho, Ki Hyun; Yoon, Ka Hyun [School of Medicine, Chonnam National Univ., Kwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Yo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-01

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal.

  18. Cerebral activation associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the limbic system: functional MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To identify the brain centers associated with visually evoked sexual arousal in the human brain, and to investigate the neural mechanism for sexual arousal using functional MRI (fMRI). A total of 20 sexually potent volunteers consisting of 10 males (mean age: 24) and 10 females (mean age: 23) underwent fMRI on a 1.5T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 slices (10 mm slice thickness) parallel to the AC-PC (anterior commissure and posterior commissure) line, giving a total of 511 MR images. The sexual stimulation consisted of a 1-minute rest with black screen, followed by a 4-minute stimulation by an erotic video film, and concluded with a 2-minute rest. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by the statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99) program. The brain activation regions associated with visual sexual arousal in the limbic system are the posterior cingulate gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, hypothalamus, medial cingulate gyrus, thalamus, amygdala, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus and putamen. Especially, the parahippocampal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, thalamus and hypothalamus were highly activated in comparison with other areas. The overall activities of the limbic lobe, diencephalon, and basal ganglia were 11.8%, 10.5%, and 3.4%, respectively. In the correlation test between brain activity and sexual arousal, the hypothalamus and thalamus showed positive correlation, but the other brain areas showed no correlation. The fMRI is useful to quantitatively evaluate the cerebral activation associated with visually evoked, sexual arousal in the human brain. This result may be helpful by providing clinically valuable information on sexual disorder in humans as well as by increasing the understanding of the neuroanatomical correlates of sexual arousal

  19. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  20. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  1. Reduced cingulate gyrus volume associated with enhanced cortisol awakening response in young healthy adults reporting childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojia Lu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preclinical studies have demonstrated the relationship between stress-induced increased cortisol levels and atrophy of specific brain regions, however, this association has been less revealed in clinical samples. The aim of the present study was to investigate the changes and associations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis activity and gray matter volumes in young healthy adults with self-reported childhood trauma exposures. METHODS: Twenty four healthy adults with childhood trauma and 24 age- and gender-matched individuals without childhood trauma were recruited. Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of cortisol awakening response (CAR. The 3D T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data were obtained on a Philips 3.0 Tesla scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analyses were conducted to compare the gray matter volume between two groups. Correlations of gray matter volume changes with severity of childhood trauma and CAR data were further analyzed. RESULTS: Adults with self-reported childhood trauma showed an enhanced CAR and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus. Moreover, a significant association was observed between salivary cortisol secretions after awaking and the right middle cingulate gyrus volume reduction in subjects with childhood trauma. CONCLUSIONS: The present research outcomes suggest that childhood trauma is associated with hyperactivity of the HPA axis and decreased gray matter volume in the right middle cingulate gyrus, which may represent the vulnerability for developing psychosis after childhood trauma experiences. In addition, this study demonstrates that gray matter loss in the cingulate gyrus is related to increased cortisol levels.

  2. Correlation between the result from arthroscopic reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament of the knee and the return to sports activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the return to pre-injury sports activity in a group of patients who underwent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction, in relation to age, sex, body mass index (BMI and associations with upper-limb fractures.METHODS:A group of 265 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using an ipsilateral graft from the thigh flexor tendons, between July 2000 and November 2007, was analyzed.RESULTS:A total of 176 patients was evaluated after a mean period of 34.95 ± 18.8 months (median: 31 months (interquartile range: 20-48 months. The minimum evaluation period was 12 months and the maximum was 87 months. The number of patients who returned to their sports activity prior to tearing the ACL was 121/176 (68.8%. Patients under 30 years of age more frequently returned to sports activity and this was considered significant: p = 0.016; odds ratio, OR = 0.44 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.22-0.86. Returning to previous sports activity more frequently was not considered significant for male sex (p = 0.273, individuals with BMI < 25 (p = 0.280 or patients with an ACL injury unrelated to an initial traumatic episode with upper-limb fracturing (p = 0.353.CONCLUSIONS:The rate of return to the sports activity prior to ACL injury was 68.8%. It was found that patients under the age of 30 years had a significantly greater rate of return to sports activity after the surgery. In relation to sex, BMI and association with an initial traumatic episode of upper-limb fracturing, there was no statistical difference in the return to sports activity.

  3. The influence of various resistance loads on the ratio of activity of the external rotator muscles of the shoulder and the anterior gliding of the humeral head during external rotation exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Marg-Eun; Lee, Seung-Min; Jang, Jun-Hyeok; Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] To quantify the ratio of activation of the infraspinatus and posterior deltoid muscles and the anterior gliding motion of the humeral head during external rotation (ER) motions of the shoulder performed in prone position against different external resistance loads. [Subjects] Twenty healthy women between the ages of 20 and 30 years. [Methods] Activity ratio was quantified as the difference in the root mean square of the smoothed electromyography signal (EMG) of the posterior deltoid to the infraspinatus muscle, and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head using a pressure biofeedback unit (PBU), for three resistance loads: 0, 1 and 2 kg. [Results] There was a significant correlation among all three variables (load, ratio, and pressure). Anterior gliding pressure correlated with the activity ratio, with activity of the posterior deltoid increasing with the magnitude of the resistance load. [Conclusion] There was a positive association between the magnitude of resistance load, activity of the posterior deltoid and anterior gliding pressure of the humeral head. The PBU could be used to facilitate the recruitment of the infraspinatus muscle at higher loads to improve glenohumeral joint stability during ER exercise against higher resistance. PMID:26644683

  4. Dynamic subcortical blood flow during male sexual activity with ecological validity: a perfusion fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Janniko R; Farrell, Michael J; Boessen, Ruud; Denton, Derek A; Gavrilescu, Maria; Kortekaas, Rudie; Renken, Remco J; Hoogduin, Johannes M; Egan, Gary F

    2010-03-01

    This study used arterial spin labeling (ASL) fMRI to measure brain perfusion in a group of healthy men under conditions that closely resembled customary sexual behavior. Serial perfusion measures for 30 min during two self-limited periods of partnered penis stimulation, and during post-stimulatory periods, revealed novel sexual activity-related cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes, mainly in subcortical parts of the brain. Ventral pallidum rCBF was highest during the onset of penile erection, and lowest after the termination of penis stimulation. The perceived level of sexual arousal showed the strongest positive association with rCBF in the right basal forebrain. In addition, our results demonstrate that distinct subregions of the hypothalamus and cingulate cortex subserve opposite functions during human male sexual behavior. The lateral hypothalamus and anterior part of the middle cingulate cortex showed increased rCBF correlated with penile erection. By contrast, the anteroventral hypothalamus and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex exhibited rCBF changes correlated with penile detumescence after penile stimulation. Continuous rapid and high-resolution brain perfusion imaging during normal sexual activity has provided novel insights into the central mechanisms that control male sexual arousal. PMID:20006720

  5. Alcohol Attenuates Activation in the Bilateral Anterior Insula during an Emotional Processing Task: A Pilot Study †

    OpenAIRE

    Padula, Claudia B.; Simmons, Alan N.; Matthews, Scott C; Robinson, Shannon K.; Tapert, Susan F.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Paulus, Martin P.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol acutely reduces agitation and is widely used in social situations, but the neural substrates of emotion processing during its intoxication are not well understood. We examine whether alcohol's social stress dampening effect may be via reduced activity in the cortical systems that subserve awareness of bodily sensations, and are associated with affective distress. Methods: Blood oxygen level-dependent activation was measured through 24 functional magnetic resonance imaging sessio...

  6. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help a Friend Who Cuts? Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) ... and Recovery Coping With an ACL Injury About ACL Injuries A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is ...

  7. The use of EMG biofeedback for learning of selective activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus anterior muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, A; Mork, P J; Andersen, L L; Olsen, Henrik Baare; Søgaard, K

    2010-01-01

    Motor control and learning possibilities of scapular muscles are of clinical interest for restoring scapular muscle balance in patients with neck and shoulder disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate whether selective voluntary activation of intra-muscular parts within the serratus ante...

  8. Pediatric anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    McConkey, Mark O.; Bonasia, Davide Edoardo; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are seen in children now than in the past due to increased sports participation. The natural history of ACL deficient knees in active individuals, particularly in children is poor. Surgical management of ACL deficiency in children is complex due to the potential risk of injury to the physis and growth disturbance. Delaying ACL reconstruction until maturity is possible but risks instability episodes and intra-articular damage. S...

  9. Mirror Observation of Finger Action Enhances Activity in Anterior Intraparietal Sulcus: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    OpenAIRE

    Numata, Kenji; Murayama, Takashi; Takasugi, Jun; Monma, Masahiko; Oga, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Mirror therapy can be used to promote recovery from paralysis in patients with post-stroke hemiplegia, There are a lot of reports that mirror-image observation of the unilateral moving hand enhanced the excitability of the primary motor area (M1) ipsilateral to the moving hand in healthy subjects. but the neural mechanisms underlying its therapeutic effects are currently unclear. To investigate this issue, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure activity in brain regions rela...

  10. Subgenual Cingulate-Amygdala Functional Disconnection and Vulnerability to Melancholic Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Clifford I; Lythe, Karen E; McKie, Shane; Moll, Jorge; Gethin, Jennifer A; Deakin, John Fw; Elliott, Rebecca; Zahn, Roland

    2016-07-01

    The syndromic heterogeneity of major depressive disorder (MDD) hinders understanding of the etiology of predisposing vulnerability traits and underscores the importance of identifying neurobiologically valid phenotypes. Distinctive fMRI biomarkers of vulnerability to MDD subtypes are currently lacking. This study investigated whether remitted melancholic MDD patients, who are at an elevated lifetime risk for depressive episodes, demonstrate distinctive patterns of resting-state connectivity with the subgenual cingulate cortex (SCC), known to be of core pathophysiological importance for severe and familial forms of MDD. We hypothesized that patterns of disrupted SCC connectivity would be a distinguishing feature of melancholia. A total of 63 medication-free remitted MDD (rMDD) patients (33 melancholic and 30 nonmelancholic) and 39 never-depressed healthy controls (HC) underwent resting-state fMRI scanning. SCC connectivity was investigated with closely connected bilateral a priori regions of interest (ROIs) relevant to MDD (anterior temporal, ventromedial prefrontal, dorsomedial prefrontal cortices, amygdala, hippocampus, septal region, and hypothalamus). Decreased (less positive) SCC connectivity with the right parahippocampal gyrus and left amygdala distinguished melancholic rMDD patients from the nonmelancholic rMDD and HC groups (cluster-based familywise error-corrected p⩽0.007 over individual a priori ROIs corresponding to approximate Bonferroni-corrected p⩽0.05 across all seven a priori ROIs). No areas demonstrating increased (more positive) connectivity were observed. Abnormally decreased connectivity of the SCC with the amygdala and parahippocampal gyrus distinguished melancholic from nonmelancholic rMDD. These results provide the first resting-state neural signature distinctive of melancholic rMDD and may reflect a subtype-specific primary vulnerability factor given a lack of association with the number of previous episodes. PMID:26781519

  11. Changes in the default mode network in the prefrontal lobe, posterior cingulated cortex and hippocampus of heroin users

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfu Hu; Xiangming Fu; Ruobing Qian; Xiangpin Wei; Xuebing Ji; Chaoshi Niu

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network is associated with senior cognitive functions in humans. In this study, we performed independent component analysis of blood oxygenation signals from 14 heroin users and 13 matched normal controls in the resting state through functional MRI scans. Results showed that the default mode network was significantly activated in the prefrontal lobe, posterior cingulated cortex and hippocampus of heroin users, and an enhanced activation signal was observed in the right inferior parietal lobule (P < 0.05, corrected for false discovery rate). Experimental findings indicate that the default mode network is altered in heroin users.

  12. The effects of physical activity on functional MRI activation associated with cognitive control in children: a randomized controlled intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eChaddock-Heyman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the influence of a 9-month physical activity program on task-evoked brain activation during childhood. The results demonstrated that 8- to 9-year-old children who participated in 60+ minutes of physical activity, 5 days per week, for 9 months, showed decreases in fMRI brain activation in the right anterior prefrontal cortex coupled with within-group improvements in performance on a task of attentional and interference control. Children assigned to a wait list control group did not show changes in brain function. Furthermore, at post-test, children in the physical activity group showed similar anterior frontal brain patterns and incongruent accuracy rates to a group of college-aged young adults. Children in the wait list control group still differed from the young adults in terms of anterior prefrontal activation and performance at post-test. There were no significant changes in fMRI activation in the anterior cingulate cortex for either group. These results suggest that physical activity during childhood may enhance specific elements of prefrontal cortex function involved in cognitive control.

  13. Anterior cervical plating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonugunta V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Although anterior cervical instrumentation was initially used in cervical trauma, because of obvious benefits, indications for its use have been expanded over time to degenerative cases as well as tumor and infection of the cervical spine. Along with a threefold increase in incidence of cervical fusion surgery, implant designs have evolved over the last three decades. Observation of graft subsidence and phenomenon of stress shielding led to the development of the new generation dynamic anterior cervical plating systems. Anterior cervical plating does not conclusively improve clinical outcome of the patients, but certainly enhances the efficacy of autograft and allograft fusion and lessens the rate of pseudoarthrosis and kyphosis after multilevel discectomy and fusions. A review of biomechanics, surgical technique, indications, complications and results of various anterior cervical plating systems is presented here to enable clinicians to select the appropriate construct design.

  14. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patellofemoral syndrome; Chondromalacia patella; Runner's knee; Patellar tendinitis; Jumper's knee ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more ... skiers, bicyclists, and soccer players who exercise often ...

  15. Anterior knee pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or playing soccer). You have flat feet. Anterior knee pain is more common in: People who are overweight People who have had a dislocation, fracture, or other injury to the kneecap Runners, jumpers, ...

  16. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongxia; Jiang, Yanfang; Yang, Jie; Feng, Tao; Gong, Xi; Wang, Jianquan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Aims To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19–20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR) group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, 3–12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C) twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) was used to assess the reliability and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for construct validity. Results The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87) (All with pACL injury. PMID:27186880

  17. Structural connectivity of the anterior cingulate in children with unilateral cerebral palsy due to white matter lesions

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    Simon M. Scheck

    2015-01-01

    Reduced structural integrity of ACC tracts appears to be important in UCP, in particular the connection to the superior frontal gyrus. Although damage to this area is heterogeneous it may be important in early identification of children with impaired executive function.

  18. Decreased prefrontal, anterior cingulate, insula, and ventral striatal metabolism in medication-free depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, John O.; Wang, Po W.; Bonner, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Hoblyn, Jennifer C.; Hill, Shelley J.; Ketter, Terence A.

    2008-01-01

    This study explored whether cerebral metabolic changes seen in treatment resistant and rapid cycling bipolar depression inpatients are also found in an outpatient sample not specifically selected for treatment resistance or rapid cycling. We assessed 15 depressed outpatients with bipolar disorder (six type I and nine type II) who were medication-free for at least 2 weeks and were not predominantly rapid cycling. The average 28-item Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) total score was 33.9. The h...

  19. BDNF Val66Met genotype modulates the effect of childhood adversity on subgenual anterior cingulate cortex volume in healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsen, Lotte; Tendolkar, Indira; Franke, Barbara; Arias Vasquez, Alejandro; Kooijman, Sabine; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén; Rijpkema, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Abstract According to the neurotrophic hypothesis of depression, stress can lead to brain atrophy by modifying brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Given that BDNF secretion is affected by a common polymorphism (rs6265, Val66Met), which also is associated with depression, we investigated whether this polymorphism modifies the effect of childhood adversity (CA) on local gray matter volume in depression-relevant brain regions using data from two large cohorts of healthy s...

  20. Abnormal Spontaneous Neural Activity in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

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    Li Ping

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder have found abnormalities in orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, including the orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and thalamus, but few studies have explored abnormal intrinsic or spontaneous brain activity in the resting state. We investigated both intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in twenty patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 20 healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Regional homogeneity (ReHo and functional connectivity methods were used to analyze the intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity, respectively. Compared with healthy controls, patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder showed significantly increased ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex, cerebellum, and insula, and decreased ReHo in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and inferior occipital cortex. Based on ReHo results, we determined functional connectivity differences between the orbitofrontal cortex and other brain regions in both patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and controls. We found abnormal functional connectivity between the orbitofrontal cortex and ventral anterior cingulate cortex in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder compared with healthy controls. Moreover, ReHo in the orbitofrontal cortex was correlated with the duration of obsessive-compulsive disorder. These findings suggest that increased intra- and inter-regional synchronized activity in the orbitofrontal cortex may have a key role in the pathology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. In addition to orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuitry, brain regions such as the insula and cerebellum may also be involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder.

  1. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshi Huang

    Full Text Available To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C and evaluate its psychometric properties.Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19-20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR group, 2-3 months after ACLR group, 3-12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1 was used to assess the reliability and Spearman's rank correlation was used for construct validity.The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87 (All with p<0.001. The absolute reliability as evaluated by the smallest detectable change was 0.43, 2.12, 0.89, and 0.44 for the healthy control group, pre-ACLR group, 2-3 months after ACLR group, and 3-12 months after ACLR group, respectively. Neither a ceiling effect nor a floor effect was observed for any group. Significant difference was observed for both Tegner-C and IKDC-SKF-C scores between the control and the other three groups (all with p<0.001, and between pre-ACLR and the 2-3 months after ACLR group (p<0.001.Tegner-C demonstrated comparable psychometric properties to the original English version and thus is reliable and valid for Chinese-speaking patients with ACL injury.

  2. A numerical simulation approach to studying anterior cruciate ligament strains and internal forces among young recreational women performing valgus inducing stop-jump activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Julia; Quesada, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are commonly incurred by recreational and professional women athletes during non-contact jumping maneuvers in sports like basketball and volleyball, where incidences of ACL injury is more frequent to females compared to males. What remains a numerical challenge is in vivo calculation of ACL strain and internal force. This study investigated effects of increasing stop-jump height on neuromuscular and bio-mechanical properties of knee and ACL, when performed by young female recreational athletes. The underlying hypothesis is increasing stop-jump (platform) height increases knee valgus angles and external moments which also increases ACL strain and internal force. Using numerical analysis tools comprised of Inverse Kinematics, Computed Muscle Control and Forward Dynamics, a novel approach is presented for computing ACL strain and internal force based on (1) knee joint kinematics and (2) optimization of muscle activation, with ACL insertion into musculoskeletal model. Results showed increases in knee valgus external moments and angles with increasing stop-jump height. Increase in stop-jump height from 30 to 50 cm lead to increase in average peak valgus external moment from 40.5 ± 3.2 to 43.2 ± 3.7 Nm which was co-incidental with increase in average peak ACL strain, from 9.3 ± 3.1 to 13.7 ± 1.1%, and average peak ACL internal force, from 1056.1 ± 71.4 to 1165.4 ± 123.8 N for the right side with comparable increases in the left. In effect this study demonstrates a technique for estimating dynamic changes to knee and ACL variables by conducting musculoskeletal simulation on motion analysis data, collected from actual stop-jump tasks performed by young recreational women athletes. PMID:22527014

  3. Simulated activity but real trauma: a systematic review on Nintendo Wii injuries based on a case report of an acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sebastian A; Vavken, Patrick; Pagenstert, Geert

    2015-03-01

    Video gaming injuries are classically regarded as eccentric accidents and novelty diagnoses. A case of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear sustained during Wii boxing spurned us to review the literature for other Wii-related injuries and Wii-based posttraumatic rehabilitation. The English literature listed in PubMed was systematically reviewed by searching for "Wii (trauma or injury or fracture)." Full-text articles were included after duplicate, blinded review. The type and treatment of injury as well as the Wii-based rehabilitation programs found were analyzed. Additionally, a new case of an acute ACL tear-sustained playing, Wii boxing, is additionally presented. After exclusion of irrelevant articles, 13 articles describing Wii-related injuries were included reporting on 3 fractures, 6 nonosseous, 2 overuse injuries, and 2 rehabilitation programs using Wii for posttraumatic rehabilitation. Among the presented Wii-related injuries, only 12.5% were treated conservatively, whereas 87.5% underwent either surgical or interventional treatment. Because of the reported case, the literature search was limited to Wii-related injuries excluding other video games. Another limitation of this article lies in the fact that mainly case reports but no controlled trials exist on the topic. Assumingly, primarily the more severe injuries are reported in the literature with an unknown number of possibly minor injuries. Motion-controlled video games, such as Wii, are becoming increasingly popular as a recreational entertainment. Because of their wide acceptance and entertaining nature, they are also increasingly recognized as a tool in rehabilitation. However, although the activity is simulated, injuries are real. Our systematic review shows that Wii gaming can lead to severe injuries, sometimes with lasting limitations. PMID:25816033

  4. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  5. Hypofunction in the posterior cingulate gyrus correlates with disorientation for time and place in Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hirono, N.; Mori, E.; Ishii, K.; Ikejiri, Y; Imamura, T; Shimomura, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Yamashita, H.; Sasaki, M.

    1998-01-01

    The relation between orientation for time and place and regional cerebral glucose metabolism was examined in 86 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease of minimal to moderate severity. Regional glucose metabolic rates in the posterior cingulate gyri and in the right middle temporal gyrus were significantly correlated with temporal orientation, and the glucose metabolic rate in the right posterior cingulate gyrus was significantly correlated with locational orientation irr...

  6. Anterior vaginal wall repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms will go away. This improvement will often last for years. Alternative Names A/P repair; Vaginal wall repair; Anterior and/ ... writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact ... Institutes of Health Page last updated: 23 August 2016

  7. [Toxic anterior segment syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornut, P-L; Chiquet, C

    2011-01-01

    Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a general term used to describe acute, sterile postoperative inflammation due to a non-infectious substance that accidentally enters the anterior segment at the time of surgery and mimics infectious endophthalmitis. TASS most commonly occurs acutely following anterior segment surgery, typically 12-72h after cataract extraction. Anterior segment inflammation is usually quite severe with hypopyon. Endothelial cell damage is common, resulting in diffuse corneal edema. No bacterium is isolated from ocular samples. The causes of TASS are numerous and difficult to isolate. Any device or substance used during the surgery or in the immediate postoperative period may be implicated. The major known causes include: preservatives in ophthalmic solutions, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices, bacterial endotoxin, and intraocular lens-induced inflammation. Clinical features of infectious and non-infectious inflammation are initially indistinguishable and TASS is usually diagnosed and treated as acute endophthalmitis. It usually improves with local steroid treatment but may result in chronic elevation of intraocular pressure or irreversible corneal edema due to permanent damage of trabecular meshwork or endothelial cells. PMID:21176994

  8. Atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos do joelho em indivíduos com reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior sob diferentes estímulos sensório-motores: relato de casos Electromyographic activity of knee muscles in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction under different perturbations: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Rosa Cardoso

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste foi descrever a atividade eletromiográfica dos músculos estabilizadores do joelho de indivíduos que receberam diferentes enxertos na cirurgia de reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA. Foram avaliados dois casos de enxerto patelar, dois de enxerto posterior e dois controle, durante seis estímulos proprioceptivos ao indivíduo em apoio unipodal (em solo, prancha inclinada, prancha redonda, balancinho e rollerboard em sentido ântero-posterior, AP, e médio-lateral, ML. O sinal eletromiográfico normalizado foi captado durante contração isométrica voluntária máxima (CIVM de cada músculo (vasto medial oblíquo, vasto lateral, semitendinoso, bíceps femoral e gastrocnêmio. Ao comparar os músculos vasto medial oblíquo e vasto lateral entre os casos, foi encontrada porcentagem da CIVM maior na amostra com enxerto patelar durante os estímulos solo, prancha inclinada e rollerboard AP, enquanto nos casos de enxerto posterior isso ocorreu sob os estímulos de balancinho e prancha redonda. Ao analisar somente os músculos flexores, os sujeitos com enxerto posterior apresentaram maior atividade sob os estímulos de balancinho e rollerboard ML. Conclui-se que os casos com enxerto patelar ativam mais sua musculatura que aqueles com enxerto posterior; e a quantidade de ativação muscular parece variar para cada estímulo sensório-motor, conforme o tipo de enxerto usado. Estes achados podem orientar a reabilitação de indivíduos submetidos à cirurgia de reconstrução do LCA.The aim of this case study was to describe electromyographic (EMG activity of the knee stabilizing muscles in subjects having received different autografts in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL surgical reconstruction: two subjects with anterior bone-tendon-bone graft, two with hamstring graft and two controls. Normalised EMG signal was collected during maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC of each muscle (vastus medialis obliques, vastus

  9. Evidence of a posterior cingulate involvement (Brodmann area 31) in dyslexia: a study based on source localization algorithm of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoitsis, John; Giannakakis, Giorgos A; Papageorgiou, Charalabos; Nikita, Konstantina S; Rabavilas, Andreas; Anagnostopoulos, Dimitris

    2008-04-01

    The study investigates the differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of P50 component of ERPs in 38 dyslexic children aged 11.47+/-2.12 years compared with their 19 healthy siblings aged 12.21+/-2.25. The dipoles were extracted by solving the inverse electromagnetic problem according to the recursively applied and projected multiple signal classification (RAP-MUSIC) algorithm approach. For improved localization of the main dipole the solutions were optimized using genetic algorithms. The statistical analysis revealed differences regarding the position of intracranial generators of low frequency of P50. Particularly, dyslexics showed main activity being located at posterior cingulate cortex (Brodmann's area 31) while controls exhibited main activity being located at retrosplenial cortex (Brodmann's area 30). These results may indicate a role for the posterior cingulate cortex in the pre-attentive processing operation of dyslexia beyond of its traditional function in terms of spatial attention and motor intention. PMID:18180091

  10. Hippocampal CA1/subiculum-prefrontal cortical pathways induce plastic changes of nociceptive responses in cingulate and prelimbic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hiroyuki

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Projections from hippocampal CA1-subiculum (CA1/SB areas to the prefrontal cortex (PFC, which are involved in memory and learning processes, produce long term synaptic plasticity in PFC neurons. We examined modifying effects of these projections on nociceptive responses recorded in the prelimbic and cingulate areas of the PFC. Results Extracellular unit discharges evoked by mechanical noxious stimulation delivered to the rat-tail and field potentials evoked by a single stimulus pulse delivered to CA1/SB were recorded in the PFC. High frequency stimulation (HFS, 100 Hz delivered to CA1/SB, which produced long-term potentiation (LTP of field potentials, induced long-term enhancement (LTE of nociceptive responses in 78% of cases, while, conversely, in 22% responses decreased (long-term depression, LTD. These neurons were scattered throughout the cingulate and prelimbic areas. The results obtained for field potentials and nociceptive discharges suggest that CA1/SB-PFC pathways can produce heterosynaptic potentiation in PFC neurons. HFS had no effects on Fos expression in the cingulated cortex. Low frequency stimulation (LFS, 1 Hz, 600 bursts delivered to the CA1/SB induced LTD of nociceptive discharges in all cases. After recovery from LTD, HFS delivered to CA1/SB had the opposite effect, inducing LTE of nociceptive responses in the same neuron. The bidirectional type of plasticity was evident in these nociceptive responses, as in the homosynaptic plasticity reported previously. Neurons inducing LTD are found mainly in the prelimbic area, in which Fos expression was also shown to be inhibited by LFS. The electrophysiological results closely paralleled those of immunostaining. Our results indicate that CA1/SB-PFC pathways inhibit excitatory pyramidal cell activities in prelimbic areas. Conclusion Pressure stimulation (300 g applied to the rat-tail induced nociceptive responses in the cingulate and prelimbic areas of the PFC, which

  11. GABA concentration in posterior cingulate cortex predicts putamen response during resting state fMRI.

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    Jorge Arrubla

    Full Text Available The role of neurotransmitters in the activity of resting state networks has been gaining attention and has become a field of research with magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS being one of the key techniques. MRS permits the measurement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and glutamate levels, the central biochemical constituents of the excitation-inhibition balance in vivo. The inhibitory effects of GABA in the brain have been largely investigated in relation to the activity of resting state networks in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. In this study GABA concentration in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC was measured using single voxel spectra acquired with standard point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS from 20 healthy male volunteers at 3 T. Resting state fMRI was consecutively measured and the values of GABA/Creatine+Phosphocreatine ratio (GABA ratio were included in a general linear model matrix as a step of dual regression analysis in order to identify voxels whose neuroimaging metrics during rest were related to individual levels of the GABA ratio. Our data show that the connection strength of putamen to the default-mode network during resting state has a negative linear relationship with the GABA ratio measured in the PCC. These findings highlight the role of PCC and GABA in segregation of the motor input, which is an inherent condition that characterises resting state.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... confirm the diagnosis. It may also show other knee injuries. First aid for an ACL injury may include: ...

  13. A 'complex' of brain metabolites distinguish altered chemistry in the cingulate cortex of episodic migraine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, L; Veggeberg, R; Prescot, A; Jensen, J E; Renshaw, P; Scrivani, S; Spierings, E L H; Burstein, R; Borsook, D

    2016-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of migraine, the pathophysiology of the disease remains unclear. Current understanding of migraine has alluded to the possibility of a hyperexcitable brain. The aim of the current study is to investigate human brain metabolite differences in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during the interictal phase in migraine patients. We hypothesized that there may be differences in levels of excitatory neurotransmitters and/or their derivatives in the migraine cohort in support of the theory of hyperexcitability in migraine. 2D J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) data were acquired on a 3 Tesla (3 T) MRI from a voxel placed over the ACC of 32 migraine patients (MP; 23 females, 9 males, age 33 ± 9.6 years) and 33 healthy controls (HC; 25 females, 8 males, age 32 ± 9.6 years). Amplitude correlation matrices were constructed for each subject to evaluate metabolite discriminability. ProFit-estimated metabolite peak areas were normalized to a water reference signal to assess subject differences. The initial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to test for group differences for all metabolites/creatine (Cre) ratios between healthy controls and migraineurs but showed no statistically significant differences. In addition, we used a multivariate approach to distinguish migraineurs from healthy subjects based on the metabolite/Cre ratio. A quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) model was used to identify 3 metabolite ratios sufficient to minimize minimum classification error (MCE). The 3 selected metabolite ratios were aspartate (Asp)/Cre, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/Cre, and glutamine (Gln)/Cre. These findings are in support of a 'complex' of metabolite alterations, which may underlie changes in neuronal chemistry in the migraine brain. Furthermore, the parallel changes in the three-metabolite 'complex' may confer more subtle but biological processes that are ongoing. The data also support the current theory that the

  14. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi Makhmalbaf; Ali Moradi; Saeid Ganji; Farzad Omidi-Kashani

    2013-01-01

      Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspecte...

  15. Deactivation of medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortex in anxiety disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: We used blood oxygenation level dependent-functional MR imaging (BOLD- fMRI) to explore the characteristics of deactivation patterns in patients with anxiety disorders and the underlying neural mechanism of this disease. Methods: Ten patients and ten healthy controls participated the experiments. All subjects performed the trait portion of the State-Trait anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) prior to the fMRI scans. The subjects underwent noninvasive functional magnetic resonance imaging while listening actively to emotionally neutral words alternating with no words (experiment 1) and threat related-words alternating with emotionally neutral words (experiment2). During fMRI scanning, subjects were instructed to closely listen to each stimuli word and to silently make a judgment of the word's valence. Data were analyzed with statistical parametric mapping (SPM 99). Individual and group analysis were conducted. Results: Mean STAI-T score was significantly higher for patients group than that of controls (58 ± 8 for patients group and 33 ± 5 for controls, t=8.3, P<0.01). Our fMRI data revealed sets of deactivation brain regions in Experiment for patients and healthy controls, however, the deactivation can be found in experiment 2 only for patients. Interestingly, all the observed deactivation patterns were similar. The related areas compromise medial prefrontal cortex(BA 10, BA 24/32), posterior cingulate (BA 31/30) and Bilateral inferior parietal cortex (MPFC) (BA 39/40), which nearly overlapping with the organized default model network. Further more, the mean t values in the MPFC area (BA 24/32) was significantly higher for control group than that of patient (5.1 controls and 4.2 for patients, t=4.8, P=0.006), conversely, the mean t values in the posterior cingulate cortex(PCC) area was significantly higher for patients l than that of controls (4.9 controls and 5.8 for patients, t=2.4, P=0.026). Conclusion: Our observations suggest that the default model network

  16. Analysis of the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual and subcallosal cingulate cortices using voxel-based morphometry on MRI is useful to select prescriptions for patients with depressive symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niida A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Akira Niida,1 Richi Niida,2 Hiroshi Matsuda,3 Makoto Motomura,4 Akihiko Uechi5 1Department of Radiology, Nanbu Hospital, Itoman City, Okinawa, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Nanto Clinic, Urasoe City, Okinawa, Japan; 3Integrative Brain Imaging Center, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, Kodaira City, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Human Sciences, University of the Ryukyus, Nakagami County, Okinawa, Japan; 5Cognitive Neuroscience Research Project, Kansai Gaidai University, Hirakata City, Osaka, Japan Objective: We objectively evaluated the presence or absence of atrophy of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC and the subcallosal anterior cingulate cortex (scACC, using new voxel-based morphometry (VBM software employing Statistical Parametric Mapping software v8 and diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra. We prepared a database covering young-mature adulthood and investigated the clinical usefulness of the evaluation. Subjects and methods: One hundred seven patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, 74 patients with bipolar disorder (BD, and 240 healthy control subjects underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging scanning. Using new VBM software and databases covering young-mature adults and the elderly, target volumes of interest were set in the sgACC and scACC, four indicators (severity, extent, ratio, and whole-brain extent were determined, and the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC was evaluated on the basis of the indicators. In addition, the relationships between the presence or absence of atrophy of the sgACC and scACC and performance of diagnosing MDD and BD and therapeutic drugs were investigated. Results: It was clarified that the disease is likely to be MDD when atrophy is detected in the sgACC, and likely to be BD when no atrophy is detected in the sgACC but is detected in the scACC. Regarding the relationship with therapeutic drugs, it was clarified that, when

  17. Digital morphometric study of the extrasulcal surface of the cingulate gyrus in man

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    Spasojević Goran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The frequency of different morphological types and extrasulcal (visible surface area of the cingulate gyms, were measured and analyzed in order to obtain more precise data about morphology, right/left and sex differences in the human brain. Material and methods. The study included 42 brains (84 hemispheres from persons of both sexes and of different age (26 males, 16 females, 20-65 years old, without neuropathological changes. After fixation in 10% formaline (3-4 weeks and removal of meninges the brains were photographed under standard conditions by digital camera. Following determination of morphological type, regions of interest of cingulate gyrus were determined in stereotactic system system of coordinates and the extrasulcal surface was measured by digital AutoCAD planimetry. Results and discussion. Three basic morphological types of cingulate gyrus were found: the continuous type (34.5%, segmented type (35.7% and double paralel type (29.8%. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of morphological types related to the side (right/left or sex (p>0.05. The area of extrasulcal cortex of cingulate gyrus was statistically significantly (p<0.O5 larger on the left hemispheres (for 1.13 cm than on the right (left: 14.58 cm; right: 13.45 cm. The extrasulcal surface of the left cingulate gyrus was significantly larger (p0.05 in males (males 15.9 cm: females - 13.6 cm, while for the right cingulate gyrus this difference was not significant. Conclusion. Morphometry indicated sex and right/left differences of extrasulcal surface area of the human cingulate gyrus. However, the morphological analysis itself did not indicate corresponding differences, suggesting complexity of the problem of sex dimorphism and of right/left asymmetries in the domain of limbic cortex.

  18. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Vilaseca, Tomas; Chahla, Jorge; Rodriguez, Gustavo Gomez; Arroquy, Damián; Herrera, Gonzalo Perez; Orlowski, Belen; Carboni, Martín

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to analyze whether it is more frequent the presence of a decreased range of motion in the hips of recreational athletes with primary injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) than in a control group of volunteers without knee pathology. Methods: We included prospectively recreational athletes between 18 and 40 years with an acute ACL injury between January 2011 and January 2013. They were compared with a control group of volunteers recreational...

  19. Mechanisms of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Sports Activities: A Twenty-Year Clinical Research of 1,700 Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Kobayashi; Tomonao Kanamura; Sentaro Koshida; Koji Miyashita; Tsuruo Okado; Takuya Shimizu; Kiyoshi Yokoe

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are still inconclusive from an epidemiological standpoint. An epidemiological approach in a large sample group over an appropriate period of years will be necessary to enhance the current knowledge of the ACL injury mechanism. The objective of the study was to investigate the ACL injury occurrence in a large sample over twenty years and demonstrate the relationships between the ACL injury occurrence and the dynamic knee alignment at ...

  20. Causes of anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries it is necessary to define risk factors and to analyze the most frequent causes of injuries - that being the aim of this study. The study sample consisted of 451 surgically treated patients, including 400 sportsmen (65% of them being active and 35% recreational sportsmen, 29% female and 71% male; of whom 90% were younger than 35. Sports injuries, as the most frequent cause of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, were recorded in 88% of patients (non-contact ones in 78% and contact ones in 22%, injuries occurring in everyday activities in 11% and in traffic in 1%. Among sportsmen, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was most frequently performed in football players (48%, then in handball players (22%, basketball players (13%, volleyball players (8%, martial arts fighters (4%. However, the injury incidence was the highest among the active basketball players (1 injured among 91 active players. Type of footwear, warming up before the activity, genetic predisposition and everyday therapy did not have a significant influence on getting injured. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened three times more often during matches, in the middle and at the end of a match and training session (79%, at landing after the jump or when changing direction of movement (75% without a contact with other competitors, on dry surfaces (79%, among not so well prepared sportsmen.

  1. Altered oscillation and synchronization of default-mode network activity in mild Alzheimer's disease compared to mild cognitive impairment: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Jung Hsiao

    Full Text Available Some researchers have suggested that the default mode network (DMN plays an important role in the pathological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD. To examine whether the cortical activities in DMN regions show significant difference between mild AD from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, electrophysiological responses were analyzed from 21 mild Alzheimer's disease (AD and 21 mild cognitive impairment (MCI patients during an eyes closed, resting-state condition. The spectral power and functional connectivity of the DMN were estimated using a minimum norm estimate (MNE combined with fast Fourier transform and imaginary coherence analysis. Our results indicated that source-based EEG maps of resting-state activity showed alterations of cortical spectral power in mild AD when compared to MCI. These alterations are characteristic of attenuated alpha or beta activities in the DMN, as are enhanced delta or theta activities in the medial temporal, inferior parietal, posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. With regard to altered synchronization in AD, altered functional interconnections were observed as specific connectivity patterns of connection hubs in the precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex and medial temporal regions. Moreover, posterior theta and alpha power and altered connectivity in the medial temporal lobe correlated significantly with scores obtained on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE. In conclusion, EEG is a useful tool for investigating the DMN in the brain and differentiating early stage AD and MCI patients. This is a promising finding; however, further large-scale studies are needed.

  2. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  3. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M; Roemer, Frank W; Ranstam, Jonas; Lohmander, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  4. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  5. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  6. Frontopolar and anterior temporal cortex activation in a moral judgment task: preliminary functional MRI results in normal subjects Ativação do córtex frontopolar e temporal anterior em uma tarefa de julgamento moral: resultados preliminares de ressonância magnética funcional em indivíduos normais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Moll

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the brain areas which are activated when normal subjects make moral judgments. METHOD: Ten normal adults underwent BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during the auditory presentation of sentences that they were instructed to silently judge as either "right" or "wrong". Half of the sentences had an explicit moral content ("We break the law when necessary", the other half comprised factual statements devoid of moral connotation ("Stones are made of water". After scanning, each subject rated the moral content, emotional valence, and judgment difficulty of each sentence on Likert-like scales. To exclude the effect of emotion on the activation results, individual responses were hemodynamically modeled for event-related fMRI analysis. The general linear model was used to evaluate the brain areas activated by moral judgment. RESULTS: Regions activated during moral judgment included the frontopolar cortex (FPC, medial frontal gyrus, right anterior temporal cortex, lenticular nucleus, and cerebellum. Activation of FPC and medial frontal gyrus (BA 10/46 and 9 were largely independent of emotional experience and represented the largest areas of activation. CONCLUSIONS: These results concur with clinical observations assigning a critical role for the frontal poles and right anterior temporal cortex in the mediation of complex judgment processes according to moral constraints. The FPC may work in concert with the orbitofrontal and dorsolateral cortex in the regulation of human social conduct.OBJETIVO: Estudar, com ressonância magnética funcional (RMf, as áreas cerebrais normalmente ativadas por julgamentos morais em tarefa de verificação de sentenças. MÉTODO: Dez adultos normais foram estudados com RMf-BOLD durante a apresentação auditiva de sentenças cujo conteúdo foram instruídos a julgar como "certo" ou "errado". Metade das sentenças possuía um conteúdo moral explícito ("Transgredimos a lei se necess

  7. Differential effect of age on posterior and anterior hippocampal functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, Jessica S; Viviano, Raymond P; Yuan, Peng; Raz, Naftali

    2016-06-01

    Aging is associated with declines in cognitive performance and multiple changes in the brain, including reduced default mode functional connectivity (FC). However, conflicting results have been reported regarding age differences in FC between hippocampal and default mode regions. This discrepancy may stem from the variation in selection of hippocampal regions. We therefore examined the effect of age on resting state FC of anterior and posterior hippocampal regions in an adult life-span sample. Advanced age was associated with lower FC between the posterior hippocampus and three regions: the posterior cingulate cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. In addition, age-related reductions of FC between the left and right posterior hippocampus, and bilaterally along the posterior to anterior hippocampal axis were noted. Age differences in medial prefrontal and inter-hemispheric FC significantly differed between anterior and posterior hippocampus. Older age was associated with lower performance in all cognitive domains, but we observed no associations between FC and cognitive performance after controlling for age. We observed a significant effect of gender and a linear effect of COMT val158met polymorphism on hippocampal FC. Females showed higher FC of anterior and posterior hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex than males, and the dose of val allele was associated with lower posterior hippocampus - posterior cingulate FC, independent of age. Vascular and metabolic factors showed no significant effects on FC. These results suggest differential age-related reduction in the posterior hippocampal FC compared to the anterior hippocampus, and an age-independent effect of gender and COMT on hippocampal FC. PMID:27034025

  8. Transient global amnesia associated with an acute infarction at the cingulate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo-Tur, Alejandro; Romero-Godoy, Jorge; de la Cruz Cosme, Carlos; Arboix, Adriá

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small size (15 mm of maximal diameter) at the right cerebral cingulate gyrus diagnosed on brain magnetic resonance imaging. No lesions involving other limbic system structures such as thalamus, fornix, corpus callosum, or hippocampal structures were seen. The remainder of the examination was normal. Conclusion. Unilateral ischemic lesions of limbic system structures may result in TGA. We must bear in mind that TGA can be an associated clinical disorder of cingulate gyrus infarct. PMID:25126430

  9. Neural activation during imitation with or without performance feedback: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaihua; Wang, Hui; Dong, Guangheng; Wang, Mengxing; Zhang, Jilei; Zhang, Hui; Meng, Weixia; Du, Xiaoxia

    2016-08-26

    In our daily lives, we often receive performance feedback (PF) during imitative learning, and we adjust our behaviors accordingly to improve performance. However, little is known regarding the neural mechanisms underlying this learning process. We hypothesized that appropriate PF would enhance neural activation or recruit additional brain areas during subsequent action imitation. Pictures of 20 different finger gestures without any social meaning were shown to participants from the first-person perspective. Imitation with or without PF was investigated by functional magnetic resonance imaging in 30 healthy subjects. The PF was given by a real person or by a computer. PF from a real person induced hyperactivation of the parietal lobe (precuneus and cuneus), cingulate cortex (posterior and anterior), temporal lobe (superior and transverse temporal gyri), and cerebellum (posterior and anterior lobes) during subsequent imitation. The positive PF and negative PF from a real person, induced the activation of more brain areas during the following imitation. The hyperactivation of the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus, and cuneus suggests that the subjects exhibited enhanced motor control and visual attention during imitation after PF. Additionally, random PF from a computer had a small effect on the next imitation. We suggest that positive and accurate PF may be helpful for imitation learning. PMID:27422729

  10. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GlennRyanFox

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1 disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2 liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the somatosensory cortex, reward processing (the striatum, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left anterior cingulate cortex and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person’s pain.

  11. A biased activation theory of the cognitive and attentional modulation of emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eRolls

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognition can influence emotion by biasing neural activity in the first cortical region in which the reward value and subjective pleasantness of stimuli is made explicit in the representation, the orbitofrontal cortex. The same effect occurs in a second cortical tier for emotion, the anterior cingulate cortex. Similar effects are found for selective attention, to for example the pleasantness vs the intensity of stimuli, which modulates representations of reward value and affect in the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. The mechanisms for the effects of cognition and attention on emotion are top-down biased competition and top-down biased activation. Affective and mood states can in turn influence memory and perception, by backprojected biasing influences. Emotion-related decision systems operate to choose between gene-specified rewards such as taste, touch, and beauty. Reasoning processes capable of planning ahead with multiple steps held in working memory in the explicit system can allow the gene-specified rewards not to be selected, or to be deferred. The stochastic, noisy, dynamics of decision-making systems in the brain may influence whether decisions are made by the selfish-gene-specified reward emotion system, or by the cognitive reasoning system that explicitly calculates reward values that are in the interests of the individual, the phenotype.

  12. Pregnancy and maternal behavior induce changes in glia, glutamate and its metabolism within the cingulate cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalina Salmaso

    Full Text Available An upregulation of the astrocytic proteins GFAP and bFGF within area 2 of the cingulate cortex (Cg2 occurs within 3 hours of parturition in rats. These changes are the result of an interaction between hormonal state and maternal experience and are associated with increased dendritic spine density in this area. Here, we examined whether this upregulation of astrocytic proteins generalized to other glial markers and, in particular those associated with glutamate metabolism. We chose glial markers commonly used to reflect different aspects of glial function: vimentin, like GFAP, is a marker of intermediate filaments; glutamine synthetase (GS, and S-100beta, are used as markers for mature astrocytes and GS has also been used as a specific marker for glutamatergic enzymatic activity. In addition, we examined levels of proteins associated with glutamine synthetase, glutamate, glutamine and two excitatory amino acid transporters found in astrocytes, glt-1 and glast. S100beta immunoreactivity did not vary with reproductive state in either Cg2 or MPOA suggesting no change in the number of mature astrocytes across these conditions. Vimentin-ir did not differ across groups in Cg2, but expression of this protein decreased from Day 1 postpartum onwards in the MPOA. By contrast, GS-ir was increased within 24 h postpartum in Cg2 but not MPOA and similarly to GFAP and bFGF this upregulation of GS resulted from an interaction between hormonal state and maternal experience. Within Cg2, upregulation of GS was not accompanied by changes in the astrocytic glutamatergic transporters, glt-1 and glast, however, an increase in both glutamate and glutamine proteins were observed within the Cg2 of postpartum animals. Together, these changes suggest postpartum upregulation of glutamatergic activity and metabolism within Cg2 that is stimulated by pregnancy hormones and maternal experience.

  13. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;

    2007-01-01

    Anterior diastemata may compromise the harmony of a patient's smile. Consideration of etiologic factors, previous gingival conditioning, and individual treatment planning are essential in the proper management of anterior diastemata. An integrated orthodontic-restorative approach may enhance the...... aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology and...

  14. Demonstration of decreased posterior cingulate perfusion in mild Alzheimer's disease by means of H215O positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although decreased posterior cingulate metabolism in Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been previously reported, there have been no reports on posterior cingulate perfusion. In this study we evaluated posterior cingulate perfusion as a relative value using statistical parametric maps (SPMs) and as an absolute value using conventional region of interest (ROI) settings. Twenty-eight subjects, including 14 patients with mild AD (mean age: 66.4±12.1 years) and 14 normal controls (65.9±7.3 years) were studied. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H215O and positron emission tomography (PET). In the SPM analysis, the left posterior cingulate and left parietotemporal CBFs were significantly decreased in the patients with mild AD (P<0.001). At a lower statistical threshold (P<0.05), the right posterior cingulate and right parietotemporal CBFs were also significantly decreased in the AD patients. In the ROI studies, the left parietal and posterior cingulate CBFs in the patients with mild AD were significantly lower than those of the normal controls by analysis of variance and post-hoc Scheffe's test (P<0.001). We conclude that posterior cingulate perfusion is decreased in mild AD, reflecting the pathological changes and metabolic reduction in the posterior cingulate gyrus that have previously been reported to occur in mild AD. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper determines the efficacy of MR imaging in evaluation of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) following reconstructive surgery. Forty-three MR examinations were performed in 33 patients who had undergone previous arthroscopic ACL reconstruction with patellar bone-tendon- bone autografts (postoperative period, 1-24 months; mean, 5.2 months). Of the 40 studies performed in clinically stable knees (30 patients), MR demonstrated a well-defined, signal void ACL graft in 36. Of the three studies performed in three patients with clinical ACL laxity or suspected tear, the neoligament was of intermediate definition in one and nondiscernible in the other two. As in the native knee, buckling of the PCL was suggestive of ACL insufficiency. Bone tunnel placement, patellar tendon changes, and joint effusions were also evaluated

  16. Posterior cingulated cortex functional connectivity in deficit schizophrenia: a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐小伟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the discrepancies of the network of resting brain functional connectivity related to posterior cingulated cortex(PCC)between deficit schizophrenia patients and normal control.Methods Thirty male patients of deficit schizophrenia,nondeficit schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls were enrolled,and the age,education level and sex were matched between three

  17. Supplementary Motor Complex and Disturbed Motor Control – a Retrospective Clinical and Lesion Analysis of Patients after Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Brugger, Florian; Galovic, Marian; Weder, Bruno J.; Kägi, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Background Both the supplementary motor complex (SMC), consisting of the supplementary motor area (SMA) proper, the pre-SMA, and the supplementary eye field, and the rostral cingulate cortex are supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and are involved in higher motor control. The Bereitschaftspotential (BP) originates from the SMC and reflects cognitive preparation processes before volitional movements. ACA strokes may lead to impaired motor control in the absence of limb weakness a...

  18. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

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    Full Text Available ... and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR- ... Dr. Keith Berend perform an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR ...

  19. Baseline brain activity fluctuations predict somatosensory perception in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, M.; Balteau, E.; Schnakers, C.; Degueldre, C.; Moonen, G.; Luxen, A.; Phillips, C.; Peigneux, P.; Maquet, P.; Laureys, S.

    2007-01-01

    In perceptual experiments, within-individual fluctuations in perception are observed across multiple presentations of the same stimuli, a phenomenon that remains only partially understood. Here, by means of thulium–yttrium/aluminum–garnet laser and event-related functional MRI, we tested whether variability in perception of identical stimuli relates to differences in prestimulus, baseline brain activity. Results indicate a positive relationship between conscious perception of low-intensity somatosensory stimuli and immediately preceding levels of baseline activity in medial thalamus and the lateral frontoparietal network, respectively, which are thought to relate to vigilance and “external monitoring.” Conversely, there was a negative correlation between subsequent reporting of conscious perception and baseline activity in a set of regions encompassing posterior cingulate/precuneus and temporoparietal cortices, possibly relating to introspection and self-oriented processes. At nociceptive levels of stimulation, pain-intensity ratings positively correlated with baseline fluctuations in anterior cingulate cortex in an area known to be involved in the affective dimension of pain. These results suggest that baseline brain-activity fluctuations may profoundly modify our conscious perception of the external world. PMID:17616583

  20. Increased CD40 ligand in patients with acute anterior uveitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Carsten; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Krogh, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis.......The inflammatory response in acute anterior uveitis (AU) is believed to be primarily mediated by autoreactive T-cells. We wanted to evaluate whether the T-cell activation marker CD40 ligand is involved in the AU immunopathogenesis....

  1. Increased premotor cortex activation in high functioning autism during action observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Tom J; Bittar, Richard G; McGillivray, Jane A; Cox, Ivanna I; Stokes, Mark A

    2015-04-01

    The mirror neuron (MN) hypothesis of autism has received considerable attention, but to date has produced inconsistent findings. Using functional MRI, participants with high functioning autism or Asperger's syndrome were compared to typically developing individuals (n=12 in each group). Participants passively observed hand gestures that included waving, pointing, and grasping. Concerning the MN network, both groups activated similar regions including prefrontal, inferior parietal and superior temporal regions, with the autism group demonstrating significantly greater activation in the dorsal premotor cortex. Concerning other regions, participants with autism demonstrated increased activity in the anterior cingulate and medial frontal gyrus, and reduced activation in calcarine, cuneus, and middle temporal gyrus. These results suggest that during observation of hand gestures, frontal cortex activation is affected in autism, which we suggest may be linked to abnormal functioning of the MN system. PMID:25726458

  2. 抑郁症患者识别悲伤表情时额叶-扣带回功能连接的初步研究%Preliminary exploration of the frontal-cingulate functional connection during identifying sad facial expression in depressed patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘刚; 卢青; 张婧; 刘海燕; 姚志剑

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析抑郁症患者及健康对照在识别悲伤面部表情过程中额叶-扣带回功能连接差异,以初步探讨抑郁症患者情绪偏向性的神经基础.方法 检测12例女性重型抑郁症患者和12例匹配健康对照在识别悲伤及中性面部表情时的激活脑区,基于动态因果模型比较2组额叶-扣带回功能连接强度.结果 对刺激调节连接模型进行贝叶斯模型比较得出:模型二与观测数据更为匹配,模型二与模型一的比较上,平均贝叶斯因子大于7.38;模型二与模型三的比较上,平均贝叶斯因子大于2.71.以固有连接模型和刺激调节连接模型二分别进行固有连接参数和刺激调节连接参数计算后,结果表现在抑郁症患者前扣带回与右额下回之间两种连接参数高于正常对照.结论 抑郁症患者存在额叶-扣带回功能连接异常增强,这可能是负性情绪偏向性的神经基础.%Objective To analyze the difference of frontal-cingulate functional connection between patients with major depression and healthy controls in recognization of sad facial expression, and discuss the neutral basis of emotional bias in preliminary. Methods 12 female patients with major depression and 12 matched healthy controls were scanned. The intensities of brain activation in the process of sad and neutral facial expression recognition were analyzed, and the strengths of frontal-cingulate functional connection were compared between the two groups based on dynamic causal modeling. Results Comparing the stimulus adjusting connection models with Bayesian model indicated that model Ⅱ matched with the observation data better. In the comparison between model Ⅱ and model I ,the average Bayes factor was more than 7.38. In the comparison between model Ⅱ and model Ⅲ,the average Bayes factor was more than 2.71. Calculating the intrinsic connection parameters and stimulus adjusting connection parameters based on intrinsic connection model and

  3. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Growing Skeleton

    OpenAIRE

    AlHarby, Saleh W.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in the adult patients are thoroughly studied and published in orthopedic literature. Until recently, little was known about similar injuries in skeletally growing patients. The more frequent involvement of this age group in various athletic activities and the improved diagnostic modalities have increased the awareness and interest of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients. ACL reconstruction in growing skeleton is controversial and carries some ...

  4. The effect of altering the activation sequence with right ventricular apical pacing. Evaluation of myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior fascicular block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Intraventricular conduction disturbances are associated with asynchrony of ventricular function and uncoordinated ventricular wall motion. Specifically, patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB), who have been studied the most, have revealed left ventricular dyssynergy, asymmetry of left ventricular thickness, abnormalities in glucose uptake and in myocardial perfusion even in the absence of coronary disease. The aim of the study was to investigate myocardial perfusion and adrenergic innervation in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances and to detect any changes caused by alteration of the ventricular activation sequence as a result of right ventricular apical pacing. Materials-methods: We studied 20 patients (11 men, 9 women, age 65.16 ± 5.79 years) with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB), while 15 healthy individuals served as controls. All patients underwent planar and myocardial tomography (SPECT) imaging after intravenous infusion of 5mCi 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (123I-MIBG) and a SPECT Thallium201 myocardial perfusion study before and 3 months after pacemaker implantation. Results: The heart to mediastinum ratio was calculated during the 123I-MIBG study in order to assess the global cardiac sympathetic activity and was significantly lower in patients than in controls (p 123I-MIBG study was performed in order to investigate the regional distribution of Adrenergic innervation. Patients with RBBB and LAFB revealed regional adrenergic innervation defects, mostly in the inferior and posterior walls. After a medium-term pacing period, a redistribution of 123I-MIBG uptake was detected, with aggravation of adrenergic innervation defects in the apical and posterior walls and amelioration in septal and anterior walls. Five patients showed perfusion defects that remained unchanged after pacing. Two others displayed mild myocardial perfusion defects that did not exist before pacing. Conclusions

  5. Brain activity in advantageous and disadvantageous situations: implications for reward/punishment sensitivity in different situations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangheng Dong

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study modeled win and lose trials in a simple gambling task to examine the effect of entire win-lose situations (WIN, LOSS, or TIE on single win/lose trials and related neural underpinnings. METHODS: The behavior responses and brain activities of 17 participants were recorded by an MRI scanner while they performed a gambling task. Different conditions were compared to determine the effect of the task on the behavior and brain activity of the participants. Correlations between brain activity and behavior were calculated to support the imaging results. RESULTS: In win trials, LOSS caused less intense posterior cingulate activity than TIE. In lose trials, LOSS caused more intense activity in the right superior temporal gyrus, bilateral superior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior cingulate, bilateral insula cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex than WIN and TIE. CONCLUSIONS: The experiences of the participants in win trials showed great similarity among different win-lose situations. However, the brain activity and behavior responses of the participants in lose trials indicated that they experienced stronger negative emotion in LOSS. The participants also showed an increased desire to win in LOSS than in WIN or TIE conditions.

  6. Unlike adults, children and adolescents show predominantly increased neural activation to social exclusion by members of the opposite gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolling, Danielle Z; Pelphrey, Kevin A; Vander Wyk, Brent C

    2016-10-01

    The effects of group membership on brain responses to social exclusion have been investigated in adults, revealing greater anterior cingulate responses to exclusion by members of one's in-group (e.g., same-gender). However, social exclusion is a critical aspect of peer relations in youth and reaches heightened salience during adolescence, a time when social anxiety disorders are also emergent. While the behavioral and neural correlates of social exclusion in adolescence have been extensively explored, the effects of group membership on peer rejection are less clear. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the differential neural correlates of being excluded by peers of one's same- versus opposite-gender during an online ball-toss game. Participants were a group of typically developing children and adolescents (7-17 years). As predicted, anterior cingulate cortex showed a main effect of social exclusion versus fair play. However, unlike a previous adult study, this region did not show increased activation to same-gender exclusion. Instead, several regions differentiating same- versus opposite-gender exclusion were exclusively more sensitive to exclusion by one's opposite gender. These results are discussed in the context of adolescent socio-emotional development. PMID:26592311

  7. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  8. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an anterior approach total hip replacement with the patient on a regular OR table supine. My name ... less invasive without being small incision surgery. Obese patients can be easier due to less distribution of ...

  9. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it to have any real negative or deleterious effect by removing the anterior capsule. Now I would ... is what happens with one of the competitive designs. Like I told you, I just take a ...

  10. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  11. Travoprost Induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Chiam

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of granulomatous anterior uveitis caused by travoprost. Methods. Single observational case report. Results. A 71-year-old who was fit and healthy presented with bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis 2 months after he was started on travoprost in both eyes. There was no past history of uveitis. Blood test and radiological investigation were unremarkable. Travoprost was stopped. The uveitis resolved on topical steroid treatment. A rechallenge with travoprost was att...

  12. Update on anterior ankle impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato

    2012-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...

  13. Cingulate gyrus morphology in children and adolescents with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Fryer, Susanna L.; Reiss, Allan L; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to a variety of cognitive and other birth defects, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), which includes the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). This study examined the impact of gestational alcohol exposure on the morphology of the cingulate gyrus, given this region’s role in cognitive control, attention, and emotional regulation, all of which are affected in children with FASD. Thirty-one youth (ages 8–16) with histories of heavy...

  14. Posterior Cingulate, Precuneal & Retrosplenial Cortices: Cytology & Components of the Neural Network Correlates of Consciousness*

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, Brent A.; Laureys, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Neuronal aggregates involved in conscious awareness are not evenly distributed throughout the CNS but are comprised of key components referred to as the neural network correlates of consciousness (NNCC). A critical node in this network is the retrosplenial, posterior cingulate, and precuneal cortices (RSC/PCC/PrCC). The cytological and neurochemical composition of this region is reviewed in relation to the Brodmann map. This region has the highest level of brain glucose metabolism and cytochr...

  15. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  16. Chemical shift magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cingulate grey matter in patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is frequently diagnosed in patients with liver cirrhosis who do not show overt clinical cirrhosis-associated neurological deficits. This condition manifests primarily with visuo-motor and attention deficits. We studied the association between visuo-motor deficits and magnetic resonance spectroscopic parameters in cingulate grey matter and white matter of centrum semiovale in patients with liver cirrhosis. The data revealed an increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio and a decrease in choline/creatine and inositol/creatine ratios in patients with liver cirrhosis. The analysis of the data showed that cirrhosis-associated deterioration of the visuo-motor function significantly correlates with a decrease in the choline/creatine ratio and an increase in N-acetylaspartate/choline in cingulate grey matter but not in the neighbouring white matter. Furthermore, the increase in the glutamate-glutamine/creatine ratio correlated significantly with the increase in the N-acetylaspartate/creatine ratio. These data suggest an association between altered choline, glutamate-glutamine and NAA metabolism in cingulate grey matter and symptoms of MHE, and underline the importance of differentiation between grey and white matter in magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies on patients with cirrhosis-associated brain dysfunction. (orig.)

  17. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Makhmalbaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspected to ACL rapture were entered the study. Statistical analysis was performed by the usage of SPSS 19.0. Multiple comparison procedure was performed for comparing data between clinical examination and arthroscopic findings and their relation with age and sex. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.3±7.58 years (range from 16 to 68 years. From 428 patients, 41.2% (175 patients were between 26 and 35, 38.8% (165 ones between 15 and 25 and 20% (85 patients over 36 years. 414 patients were male (97.2% and 12 were female (2.8%. Sensitivity of anterior drawer test was 94.4% and sensitivity of Lachman test was 93.5%. Conclusion: The diagnosis and decision to reconstruct ACL injury can be reliably made regard to the anterior drawer and Lachman tests result. The tests did not have privilege to each other. These test accuracy increased considerably under anesthesia especially in women.

  18. Sleep is associated with task-negative brain activity in fibromyalgia participants with comorbid chronic insomnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatthauer KE

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Karlyn E Vatthauer,1 Jason G Craggs,1 Michael E Robinson,1 Roland Staud,2 Richard B Berry,2 William M Perlstein,1 Christina S McCrae11Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Patients with chronic pain exhibit altered default mode network (DMN activity. This preliminary project questioned whether comorbid disease states are associated with further brain alterations. Thirteen women with fibromyalgia (FM only and 26 women with fibromyalgia with comorbid chronic insomnia (FMI underwent a single night of ambulatory polysomnography and completed a sleep diary each morning for 14 days prior to performing a neuroimaging protocol. Novel imaging analyses were utilized to identify regions associated with significantly disordered sleep that were more active in task-negative periods than task-oriented periods in participants with FMI, when compared to participants with FM. It was hypothesized that core DMN areas (ie, cingulate cortex, inferior parietal lobule, medial prefrontal cortex, medial temporal cortex, precuneus would exhibit increased activity during task-negative periods. Analyses revealed that significantly disordered sleep significantly contributed to group differences in the right cingulate gyrus, left lentiform nucleus, left anterior cingulate, left superior gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, right caudate, and the left inferior parietal lobules. Results suggest that FMI may alter some brain areas of the DMN, above and beyond FM. However, future work will need to investigate these results further by controlling for chronic insomnia only before conclusions can be made regarding the effect of FMI comorbidity on the DMN.Keywords: insomnia, fibromyalgia, neuroimaging, task-negative, brain activity, comorbidity

  19. Travoprost Induced Granulomatous Anterior Uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiam, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To report a case of granulomatous anterior uveitis caused by travoprost. Methods. Single observational case report. Results. A 71-year-old who was fit and healthy presented with bilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis 2 months after he was started on travoprost in both eyes. There was no past history of uveitis. Blood test and radiological investigation were unremarkable. Travoprost was stopped. The uveitis resolved on topical steroid treatment. A rechallenge with travoprost was attempted in one eye. The inflammation recurred in this eye only. This subsided with the cessation of travoprost alone without topical steroid. Conclusion. This is the first case report of travoprost causing granulomatous anterior uveitis. The uveitis recurred with a rechallenge. Changing the prostaglandin analogue to another topical treatment may be adequate to cease the inflammation. PMID:22606464

  20. Measuring the volume of cingulate cortex in Chinese normal adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the normal range of cingulate cortex volumes of Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, which provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range = 18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. Cingulate cortex volume (including bulk volume and the left/right volume) was measured semi-manually using 3D volume analysis software. Cingulate cortex volumes among age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. Right and left cingulate cortex volumes between sexualities were analyzed by paired samples t test. The relationship between cingulate cortex volume and age was analyzed by Pearson correlations and regression analysis. Results: Cingulate cortex volumes of male and female were (20 347 ± 2504) and (19 432 ± 2184) mm3 respectively, and the male's was significantly larger than that of female's (two sample t'-test for independent samples, t'=6.156, P3 respectively, and those of female's were (10 064 ± 1407) and (9368 ± 1441) mm3 respectively. The volumes of cingulate cortex were significantly different between right and left in male or female (t=-12.960, -8.511, P3; right: (11212±1442), (11 096±1602), (11 040±1403), (10633±1638), (9604±1522) mm3] had statistical differences (F=16.738, 18.707, P3; right: (10 558± 1325), (10 266 ±1463), (10 100 ± 1497), (9779 ± 1304), (9617 ± 1254) mm3] also had significant differences (F=16.859,7.528,P<0.01). Bilateral cingulate cortex volume in both male and female were negatively correlated with

  1. Recurrent activity in higher order, modality non-specific brain regions: a Granger causality analysis of autobiographic memory retrieval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans C Lou

    Full Text Available It has been proposed that the workings of the brain are mainly intrinsically generated recurrent neuronal activity, with sensory inputs as modifiers of such activity in both sensory and higher order modality non-specific regions. This is supported by the demonstration of recurrent neuronal activity in the visual system as a response to visual stimulation. In contrast recurrent activity has never been demonstrated before in higher order modality non-specific regions. Using magneto-encephalography and Granger causality analysis, we tested in a paralimbic network the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal recurrent interaction between higher-order, modality non-specific regions. The network includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices together with pulvinar thalami, a network known to be effective in autobiographic memory retrieval and self-awareness. Autobiographic memory retrieval of previous personal judgments of visually presented words was used as stimuli. It is demonstrated that the prestimulus condition is characterized by causal, recurrent oscillations which are maximal in the lower gamma range. When retrieving previous judgments of visually presented adjectives, this activity is dramatically increased during the stimulus task as ascertained by Granger causality analysis. Our results confirm the hypothesis that stimulation may enhance causal interaction between higher order, modality non-specific brain regions, exemplified in a network of autobiographical memory retrieval.

  2. Activation timing of soleus and tibialis anterior muscles during sit-to-stand and stand to sit in post-stroke vs healthy subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Augusta Silva; Andreia S. P. Sousa; Rita Pinheiro; Joana Ferraz; João Manuel R. S. Tavares; Rubim Santos; Filipa Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Sit-to-stand (SitTS) and stand-to-sit (StandTS) are very important functional tasks that become compromised in stroke patients. As in other voluntary movements, they require an adequate postural control (PC) involving the generation of anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs). In order to give clues for more efficient and directed rehabilitation programs, a deeper knowledge about APAs during challenging and daily life movements is essential. Purpose: To analyze the activation ti...

  3. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  4. Transient Global Amnesia Associated with an Acute Infarction at the Cingulate Gyrus

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Gallardo-Tur; Jorge Romero-Godoy; Carlos de la Cruz Cosme; Adriá Arboix

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a syndrome of sudden, unexplained isolated short-term memory loss. In the majority of TGA cases, no causes can be identified and neuroimaging, CSF studies and EEG are usually normal. We present a patient with TGA associated with a small acute infarct at the cingulate gyrus. Case Report. The patient, a 62 year-old man, developed two episodes of TGA. He had hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. He was found to have an acute ischemic stroke of small...

  5. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... during a hip replacement through the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. ... the approach are operating through an internervous and intramuscular anatomic interval. It’s not necessary to detach any ...

  6. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... got coming out in “JBJS,” the early six-week recovery is dramatically different between a direct lateral abductor splitting approach and this anterior supine approach. Let me get this head on. My experience, these patients have full leg control in about 24 hours. Yeah. They can get out of bed and ...

  7. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the anterior supine intramuscular approach. “OR-Live,” the vision of improving health. Good evening and welcome to ... should know that this is done under direct vision. Yeah. You are seeing everything you’re doing. ...

  8. Disturbed Mental Imagery of Affected Body-Parts in Patients with Hysterical Conversion Paraplegia Correlates with Pathological Limbic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Saj

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patients with conversion disorder generally suffer from a severe neurological deficit which cannot be attributed to a structural neurological damage. In two patients with acute conversion paraplegia, investigation with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI showed that the insular cortex, a limbic-related cortex involved in body-representation and subjective emotional experience, was activated not only during attempt to move the paralytic body-parts, but also during mental imagery of their movements. In addition, mental rotation of affected body-parts was found to be disturbed, as compared to unaffected body parts or external objects. fMRI during mental rotation of the paralytic body-part showed an activation of another limbic related region, the anterior cingulate cortex. These data suggest that conversion paraplegia is associated with pathological activity in limbic structures involved in body representation and a deficit in mental processing of the affected body-parts.

  9. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  10. Visual presentation of phobic stimuli: amygdala activation via an extrageniculostriate pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Liesbet; Schruers, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; Griez, Eric; Sunaert, Stefan

    2007-07-15

    In the present study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural correlates of phobic fear by exposing spider phobic subjects to a visual presentation of spiders. In contrast to control subjects, spider phobics showed significantly increased activation in the amygdala and the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus on the basis of region of interest (ROI) analysis. Furthermore, voxelwise analysis revealed increased activation related to phobia-specific pictures bilaterally in the anterior cingulate cortex, the left insular cortex and bilaterally in the supplementary motor area. These findings confirm the involvement of the amygdala in the processing of phobia-relevant stimuli as found earlier in a recent study. Moreover, the thalamus findings support the involvement of an extrageniculostriate pathway in the process of phobic fear. PMID:17499485

  11. Spontaneous brain activity as a biomarker for schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anhøj, Simon Jesper; Glenthøj, Birte Yding; Rostrup, Egill

    and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Results: Using ICA we were able to detect several significant group differences at baseline in areas mapping out the DEN and RN e.g. frontal pole (corr. P = 0,0046) and anterior cingulate gyrus (corr. P = 0,011). In these areas patients showed a higher...

  12. The Netrin-related domain of Sfrp1 interacts with Wnt ligands and antagonizes their activity in the anterior neural plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Pilar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secreted frizzled related proteins (SFRPs are multifunctional modulators of Wnt and BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Protein signalling necessary for the development of most organs and the homeostasis of different adult tissues. SFRPs fold in two independent domains: the cysteine rich domain (SfrpCRD related to the extracellular portion of Frizzled (Fz, Wnt receptors and the Netrin module (SfrpNTR defined by homologies with molecules such as Netrin-1, inhibitors of metalloproteinases and complement proteins. Due to its structural relationship with Fz, it is believed that SfrpCRD interferes with Wnt signalling by binding and sequestering the ligand. In contrast, the functional relevance of the SfrpNTR has been barely addressed. Results Here, we combine biochemical studies, mutational analysis and functional assays in cell culture and medaka-fish embryos to show that the Sfrp1NTR mimics the function of the entire molecule, binds to Wnt8 and antagonizes Wnt canonical signalling. This activity requires intact tertiary structure and is shared by the distantly related Netrin-1NTR. In contrast, the Sfrp1CRD cannot mirror the function of the entire molecule in vivo but interacts with Fz receptors and antagonizes Wnt8-mediated β-catenin transcriptional activity. Conclusion On the basis of these results, we propose that SFRP modulation of Wnt signalling may involve multiple and differential interactions among Wnt, Fz and SFRPs.

  13. Atrophy of amygdala and abnormal memory-related alpha oscillations over posterior cingulate predict conversion to Alzheimer’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto del Val, Laura; Cantero, Jose L.; Atienza, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Synaptic dysfunction, a key pathophysiological hallmark of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), may account for abnormal memory-related EEG patterns in prodromal AD. Here, we investigate to what extent oscillatory EEG changes during memory encoding and/or retrieval enhance the accuracy of medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in predicting conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) to AD. As expected, aMCI individuals that, within a 2-year follow-up period, developed dementia (N = 16) compared to healthy older (HO) (N = 26) and stable aMCI (N = 18) showed poorer associative memory, greater MTL atrophy, and lower capacity to recruit alpha oscillatory cortical networks. Interestingly, encoding-induced abnormal alpha desynchronized activity over the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) at baseline showed significantly higher accuracy in predicting AD than the magnitude of amygdala atrophy. Nevertheless, the best accuracy was obtained when the two markers were fitted into the model (sensitivity = 78%, specificity = 82%). These results support the idea that synaptic integrity/function in the PCC is affected during prodromal AD and has the potential of improving early detection when combined with MRI biomarkers. PMID:27546195

  14. Acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint activates cerebral neurons in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shangjie Chen; Xuemin Shi; Lihua Zhao; Maosheng Xu; Hong Li; Jiuping Liang; Liang Yin; Xia Liu; Xinyan Jia; Fen Zhu; Dan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Our previous ifndings have demonstrated that acupuncture at the Taixi (KI3) acupoint in healthy youths can activate neurons in cognitive-related cerebral cortex. Here, we investigated whether acupuncture at this acupoint in elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment can also activate neurons in these regions. Resting state and task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the pinprick senstation of acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint differed signiifcantly between elderly patients with mild cognitive impairment and healthy elderly controls. Results showed that 20 brain regions were activated in both groups of participants, including the bi-lateral anterior cingulate gyrus (Brodmann areas [BA] 32, 24), left medial frontal cortex (BA 9, 10, 11), left cuneus (BA 19), left middle frontal gyrus (BA 11), left lingual gyrus (BA 18), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 11), bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47), left superior frontal gyrus (BA11), right cuneus (BA 19, 18), right superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), left subcallosal gyrus (BA 47), bilateral precuneus (BA 19), right medial frontal gyrus (BA 10), right superior frontal (BA 11), left cingulate gyrus (BA 32), left precentral gyrus (BA 6), and right fusiform gyrus (BA 19). These results suggest that acupuncture at the Taixi acupoint in elderly patients with mild cogni-tive impairment can also activate some brain regions.

  15. Dihydropyridine-sensitive calcium channel activity related to prolactin, growth hormone, and luteinizing hormone release from anterior pituitary cells in culture: interactions with somatostatin, dopamine, and estrogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present work, we determined the activity of voltage-dependent dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive Ca2+ channels related to PRL, GH, and LH secretion in primary cultures of pituitary cells from male or female rats. We investigated their modulation by 17 beta-estradiol (E2) and their involvement in dopamine (DA) and somatostatin (SRIF) inhibition of PRL and GH release. BAY-K-8644 (BAYK), a DHP agonist which increases the opening time of already activated channels, stimulated PRL and GH secretion in a dose-dependent manner. The effect was more pronounced on PRL than on GH release. BAYK-evoked hormone secretion was further amplified by simultaneous application of K+ (30 or 56 mM) to the cell cultures; in parallel, BAYK-induced 45Ca uptake by the cells was potentiated in the presence of depolarizing stimuli. In contrast, BAYK was unable to stimulate LH secretion from male pituitary cells, but it potentiated LHRH- as well as K+-induced LH release; it had only a weak effect on LH secretion from female cell cultures. Basal and BAYK-induced pituitary hormone release were blocked by the Ca2+ channel antagonist nitrendipine. Under no condition did BAYK affect the hydrolysis of phosphoinositides or cAMP formation. Pretreatment of female pituitary cell cultures with E2 (10(-9) M) for 72 h enhanced LH and PRL responses to BAYK, but was ineffective on GH secretion. DA (10(-7) M) inhibited basal and BAYK-induced PRL release from male or female pituitary cells treated or not treated with E2 (10(-9) M). SRIF (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) reversed BAYK-evoked GH release to the same extent in cell cultures derived from male or female animals. It was ineffective on BAYK-induced PRL secretion in the absence of E2, but antagonized it after E2 pretreatment. The effect was dependent upon the time of steroid treatment and was specific, since 17 alpha-estradiol was inactive

  16. Relationship between static anterior laxity using the KT-1000 and dynamic tibial rotation during motion in patients with anatomical anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koji; Maeda, Akira; Takano, Yoshio; Matsuse, Hiroo; Ida, Hirofumi; Shiba, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) plays an important role in controlling knee joint stability, not only by limiting tibial anterior translation but also by controlling knee axial rotation. The aim of ACL reconstruction is to reduce excessive anterior joint laxity, hoping to restore normal tibiofemoral kinematics including knee axial rotation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between static anterior instability and tibial rotation during several activities in an anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee. Seven patients with unilateral ACL injury performed plain walking, running, landing and side step cutting tasks after ACL reconstruction with a mean follow-up of 14 months. The kinematic data for the 4 motions was measured using a motion analysis system and the point cluster technique. The evaluation period was defined to be from the first contact to removal of the tested leg from the ground. Maximum tibial internal rotation during tasks was calculated using the point cluster technique (PCT). Passive anterior tibial translation was measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. Regression analysis was used to determine the correlation of the maximum internal rotation with the side-to-side difference of static anterior tibial translation measured using a KT-1000 arthrometer. During side step cutting maneuvers, maximum tibial internal rotation significantly showed negative correlation with static anterior tibial translation (pknee rotation kinematics. The normal anterior tibial translation obtained by ACL reconstruction is thought to be the key factor in successful restoration of normal knee kinematics. PMID:23925154

  17. Altered Spontaneous Brain Activity in Betel Quid Dependence: A Resting-state Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Zhong-Yan; Yang, Guo-Shuai; Pan, Meng-Jie; Li, Chang-Qing; Pan, Su-Yue; Chen, Feng

    2016-02-01

    It has been suggested by the first voxel-based morphometry investigation that betel quid dependence (BQD) individuals are presented with brain structural changes in previous reports, and there may be a neurobiological basis for BQD individuals related to an increased risk of executive dysfunction and disinhibition, subjected to the reward system, cognitive system, and emotion system. However, the effects of BQD on neural activity remain largely unknown. Individuals with impaired cognitive control of behavior often reveal altered spontaneous cerebral activity in resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and those changes are usually earlier than structural alteration.Here, we examined BQD individuals (n = 33) and age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy control participants (n = 32) in an resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging study to observe brain function alterations associated with the severity of BQD. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) values were both evaluated to stand for spontaneous cerebral activity. Gray matter volumes of these participants were also calculated for covariate.In comparison with healthy controls, BQD individuals demonstrated dramatically decreased ALFF and ReHo values in the prefrontal gurus along with left fusiform, and increased ALFF and ReHo values in the primary motor cortex area, temporal lobe as well as some regions of occipital lobe. The betel quid dependence scores (BQDS) were negatively related to decreased activity in the right anterior cingulate.The abnormal spontaneous cerebral activity revealed by ALFF and ReHo calculation excluding the structural differences in patients with BQD may help us probe into the neurological pathophysiology underlying BQD-related executive dysfunction and disinhibition. Diminished spontaneous brain activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex may, therefore, represent a biomarker of BQD individuals. PMID:26844480

  18. Cerebral activation during unilateral clenching in patients with temporomandibular joint synovitis and biting pain: an functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yan-ping; MA Xu-chen; JIN Zhen; LI Ke; LIU Gang; ZENG Ya-wei

    2011-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance is a non-invasive method that can examine brain activity and has been widely used in various fields including jaw movement and pain processing. Temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is one of the most frequent facial pain problems. The objective of this study was to investigate the brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during unilateral maximal voluntary clenching tasks in the TMD synovitis patients with biting pain.Methods Fourteen TMD synovitis patients with unilateral biting pain and 14 controls were included in the study.Contralateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain. Ipsilateral biting pain was defined as right molar clenching causing right TMJ pain. Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) was administered to the patients and controls. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the SCL-90 subscales between the two groups. Unilateral clenching tasks were performed by the patients and controls. Imaging data were analyzed using SPM99.Results Patients were divided into contralateral TMD biting pain group (n=8) and ipsilateral TMD biting pain group (n=6). The SCL-90 subscales were significantly different between the two groups for somatization, depression, anxiety,phobic anxiety, and paranoid ideation. Group analysis of the controls demonstrated brain activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and insular. The areas of activation were different between right and left clenching task. In TMJ synovitis patients with contralateral or ipsilateral biting pain, the group analysis showed activations in the inferior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, medium frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus,and anterior cingulate cortex.Conclusions The inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus play essential roles during the unilateral clenching task.Activation of anterior cingulate cortex in the

  19. Anterior impingement syndrome in dancers

    OpenAIRE

    O’Kane, John William; Kadel, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Anterior impingement is a common problem in dancers occurring primarily secondary to the repetitive forced ankle dorsiflexion inherent in ballet. Symptoms generally occur progressively and may respond to conservative treatment including addressing biomechanical faults that contribute to the problem. As impingement progresses, movements essential to ballet may become impossible and arthroscopic ankle surgery is often effective for both diagnosis and treatment, allowing athletes to return to da...

  20. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that acute aerobic exercise is associated with improved cognitive function. However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance. A within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order was employed. Fifteen young female participants (M = 19.56, SD = 0.81 were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a working memory task, the N-back task, both following an acute exercise session with 20 minutes of moderate intensity and a control rest session. Although an acute session of exercise did not improve behavioral performance, we observed that it had a significant impact on brain activity during the 2-back condition of the N-back task. Specifically, acute exercise induced increased brain activation in the right middle prefrontal gyrus, the right lingual gyrus, and the left fusiform gyrus as well as deactivations in the anterior cingulate cortexes, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right paracentral lobule. Despite the lack of an effect on behavioral measures, significant changes after acute exercise with activation of the prefrontal and occipital cortexes and deactivation of the anterior cingulate cortexes and left frontal hemisphere reflect the improvement of executive control processes, indicating that acute exercise could benefit working memory at a macro-neural level. In addition to its effects on reversing recent obesity and disease trends, our results provide substantial evidence highlighting the importance of promoting physical activity across the lifespan to prevent or reverse cognitive and neural decline.

  1. Virtual visual reminiscing pain stimulation of allodynia patients activates cortical representation of pain and emotions. fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely known that sensation of the pain is derived from sensory-discriminative factor and emotional factor. Especially in chronic pain, emotional factors and psychosocial backgrounds are more likely to contribute for the patients' discomfort. The aim of this study is to investigate how emotional factor of pain participates in intractable pain. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to compare the brain activations occurring in the orthopaedic neuropathic pain patients with allodynia and normal individuals in response to the visual virtual painful experience. During fMRI scanning, a video demonstrating an actual tactile stimulation of the palm and its imitation were shown to participants. In contrast to normal individuals, allodynia patients also displayed activation of the areas reflecting emotions: frontal lobe and anterior cingulate. These findings suggest that brain have important role in the development and maintaining of peripheral originated chronic painful condition. (author)

  2. Impaired Bottom-Up Effective Connectivity Between Amygdala and Subgenual Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Unmedicated Adolescents with Major Depression: Results from a Dynamic Causal Modeling Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, Donald R; Eberly, Lynn E; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie; Basgoze, Zeynep; Thomas, Kathleen M; Mueller, Bryon A; Houri, Alaa; Lim, Kelvin O; Cullen, Kathryn R

    2015-12-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a significant contributor to lifetime disability and frequently emerges in adolescence, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms of MDD in adolescents. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) analysis is an innovative tool that can shed light on neural network abnormalities. A DCM analysis was conducted to test several frontolimbic effective connectivity models in 27 adolescents with MDD and 21 healthy adolescents. The best neural model for each person was identified using Bayesian model selection. The findings revealed that the two adolescent groups fit similar optimal neural models. The best across-groups model was then used to infer upon both within-group and between-group tests of intrinsic and modulation parameters of the network connections. First, for model validation, within-group tests revealed robust evidence for bottom-up connectivity, but less evidence for strong top-down connectivity in both groups. Second, we tested for differences between groups on the validated parameters of the best model. This revealed that adolescents with MDD had significantly weaker bottom-up connectivity in one pathway, from amygdala to sgACC (p=0.008), than healthy controls. This study provides the first examination of effective connectivity using DCM within neural circuitry implicated in emotion processing in adolescents with MDD. These findings aid in advancing understanding the neurobiology of early-onset MDD during adolescence and have implications for future research investigating how effective connectivity changes across contexts, with development, over the course of the disease, and after intervention. PMID:26050933

  3. Neurometabolic characteristics in the anterior cingulate gyrus of Alzheimer’s disease patients with depression: a 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy study

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Zhongwei; Zhang, Jiangtao; Liu, Xiaozheng; Hou, Hongtao; Cao, Yulin; Wei, Fuquan; Li, Japeng; Chen, Xingli; Shen, Yuedi; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background Depression is a common comorbid psychiatric symptom in patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), and the prevalence of depression is higher among people with AD compared with healthy older adults. Comorbid depression in AD may increase the risk of cognitive decline, impair patients’ function, and reduce their quality of life. However, the mechanisms of depression in AD remain unclear. Here, our aim was to identify neurometabolic characteristics in the brain that are associated with d...

  4. Altered resting state functional connectivity of anterior cingulate cortex in drug naïve adolescents at the earliest stages of anorexia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Gaudio, Santino; Piervincenzi, Claudia; Beomonte Zobel, Bruno; Romana Montecchi, Francesca; Riva, Giuseppe; Carducci, Filippo; Cosimo Quattrocchi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Previous Resting-State Functional Connectivity (RSFC) studies have shown several functional alterations in adults with or recovered from long Anorexia Nervosa (AN). The aim of this paper was to investigate whole brain RSFC in adolescents with AN in the earliest stages, less than 6 months, of the disorder. Sixteen drug-naïve outpatient female adolescents with AN-restrictive type (AN-r) (mean age: 15,8; SD 1,7) were compared to 16 age-matched healthy female (mean age: 16,3; SD 1,4). Relevant re...

  5. The role of the nucleus accumbens and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in anhedonia: Integration of resting EEG, fMRI, and volumetric techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Jan; Pizzagalli, Diego A.; Dillon, Daniel G.

    2009-01-01

    Anhedonia, the reduced propensity to experience pleasure, is a promising endo-- phenotype and vulnerability factor for several psychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. In the present study, we used resting electroencephalography, functional magnetic resonance imaging, and volumetric analyses to probe putative associations between anhedonia and individual differences in key nodes of the brain's reward system in a non-clinical sample. We found that anhedonia, but not other...

  6. Working Memory Performance Is Correlated with Local Brain Morphology in the Medial Frontal and Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Fibromyalgia Patients: Structural Correlates of Pain-Cognition Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luerding, R.; Weigand, T.; Bogdahn, U.; Schmidt-Wilcke, T.

    2008-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder of unknown aetiology, characterized by chronic widespread pain, stiffness and sleep disturbances. In addition, patients frequently complain of memory and attention deficits. Accumulating evidence suggests that FM is associated with CNS dysfunction and with an altered brain morphology. However, few studies have…

  7. Attracting states in anterior cingulate cortex populations associated with decision making: Altered dynamics when targeting dopamine system with d-Amphetamine

    OpenAIRE

    Emili Balaguer-Ballester; Lapish, Christopher C; Seamans, Jeremy K.

    2011-01-01

    A frequent hypothesis in theoretical neuroscience is that cognitive entities are represented and processed by attracting states of the underlying neural system (Balaguer et al., 2011; Durstewitz et al., 2000). For instance, different attractor-like states may represent different spatial locations or cognitive entities, and transitions between these attracting sets could be associated with the recall of a memory sequence or the execution of a motor plan. Attractor states underlying cognition w...

  8. Amygdala and dorsal anterior cingulate connectivity during an emotional working memory task in borderline personality disorder patients with interpersonal trauma history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A Krause-Utz; B.M. Elzinga; N.Y.L. Oei; C. Paret; I. Niedtfeld; Ph. Spinhoven; M. Bohus; C. Schmahl

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is critically involved in ignoring emotional distraction while maintaining goal-directed behavior. Antagonistic interactions between brain regions implicated in emotion processing, e.g., amygdala, and brain regions involved in cognitive control, e.g., dorsolateral and dorsomedial pref

  9. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Marcia K.; Raye, Carol L.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Touryan, Sharon R.; Greene, Erich J.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a ‘self’ and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participant...

  10. Increased activation in cingulate cortex in conversion disorder : What does it mean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, M.; Vogt, B. A.; Leenders, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    Conversion disorder is one of the terms used to describe various psychosomatic neurological symptoms that are thought to originate from a psychological conflict Psychological stressors can usually be identified but appear to be almost similar to the severity of psychological stress in non-psychosoma

  11. HLA-B27 Anterior Uveitis: Immunology and Immunopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Denis; Yates, William; Amjadi, Shahriar; McCluskey, Peter

    2016-08-01

    Acute anterior uveitis (AAU) is the commonest type of uveitis and HLA-B27 AAU is the most frequently recognized type of acute anterior uveitis and anterior uveitis overall. Recent evidence indicates that acute anterior uveitis is a heterogenous disease, is polygenic and is frequently associated with the spondyloarthropathies (SpA). Studies of patients with AAU and animal models of disease indicate a role for innate immunity, the IL-23 cytokine pathway and exogenous factors, in the pathogenesis of both SpA and acute anterior uveitis. Recently described genetic associations cluster around immunologic pathways, including the IL-17 and IL-23 pathways, antigen processing and presentation, and lymphocyte development and activation. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and AAU share other genetic markers, such as ERAP-1, which show strong evidence of gene-gene interaction and point to new mechanisms of disease pathogenesis. These observations have major implications for understanding the pathogenesis of HLA-B27 diseases, such as AAU, and may lead to the development of more specific therapy for AAU. Received 6 January 2016; revised 6 February 2016; accepted 18 February 2016; published online 31 May 2016. PMID:27245590

  12. Absence of sensory function in the reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsgaard, Michael R; Fischer-Rasmussen, Torsten; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul

    2011-01-01

    Cruciate ligaments provide sensory information that cause excitatory as well as inhibitory effects to the activity of the muscles around the knee. The aim of the study was to determine whether these muscular reflexes are reestablished after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) re-construction. Wire e...

  13. Biochemistry of the cingulate cortex in autism: An MR spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Reid, Meredith A; White, David M; Salibi, Nouha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Kana, Rajesh K

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging studies have uncovered structural and functional alterations in the cingulate cortex in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Such abnormalities may underlie neurochemical imbalance. In order to characterize the neurochemical profile, the current study examined the concentration of brain metabolites in dorsal ACC (dACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in high-functioning adults with ASD. Twenty high-functioning adults with ASD and 20 age-and-IQ-matched typically developing (TD) peers participated in this Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) study. LCModel was used in analyzing the spectra to measure the levels of N-Acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho), creatine (Cr), and glutamate/glutamine (Glx) in dACC and PCC. Groups were compared using means for the ratio of each metabolite to their respective Cr levels as well as on absolute internal-water-referenced measures of each metabolite. There was a significant increase in Cho in PCC for ASD adults, with a marginal increase in dACC. A reduction in NAA/Cr in dACC was found in ASD participants, compared to their TD peers. No significant differences in Glx/Cr or Cho/Cr were found in dACC. There were no statistically significant group differences in the absolute concentration of NAA, Cr, Glx, or NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and Glx/Cr in the PCC. Differences in the metabolic properties of dACC compared to PCC were also found. Results of this study provide evidence for possible cellular and metabolic differences in the dACC and PCC in adults with ASD. This may suggest neuronal dysfunction in these regions and may contribute to the neuropathology of ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 643-657. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26526126

  14. Demonstration of decreased posterior cingulate perfusion in mild Alzheimer`s disease by means of H{sub 2}{sup 15}O positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Kazunari [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan); Sasaki, Masahiro [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan); Yamaji, Shigeru [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan); Sakamoto, Setsu [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan)]|[Department of Radiology, Kobe University School of Medicine, Kobe (Japan); Kitagaki, Hajime [Division of Neuroimaging Research, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders (HI-ABCD), Himeji (Japan)

    1997-06-10

    Although decreased posterior cingulate metabolism in Alzheimer`s disease (AD) has been previously reported, there have been no reports on posterior cingulate perfusion. In this study we evaluated posterior cingulate perfusion as a relative value using statistical parametric maps (SPMs) and as an absolute value using conventional region of interest (ROI) settings. Twenty-eight subjects, including 14 patients with mild AD (mean age: 66.4{+-}12.1 years) and 14 normal controls (65.9{+-}7.3 years) were studied. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was measured with H{sub 2}{sup 15}O and positron emission tomography (PET). In the SPM analysis, the left posterior cingulate and left parietotemporal CBFs were significantly decreased in the patients with mild AD (P<0.001). At a lower statistical threshold (P<0.05), the right posterior cingulate and right parietotemporal CBFs were also significantly decreased in the AD patients. In the ROI studies, the left parietal and posterior cingulate CBFs in the patients with mild AD were significantly lower than those of the normal controls by analysis of variance and post-hoc Scheffe`s test (P<0.001). We conclude that posterior cingulate perfusion is decreased in mild AD, reflecting the pathological changes and metabolic reduction in the posterior cingulate gyrus that have previously been reported to occur in mild AD. (orig.). With 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Cacace, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs) whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs) during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA) method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3), middle frontal gyrus (BA6) and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24). Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32), while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22), middle (BA37), inferior temporal (BA19) gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7). Hypnotic hypoalgesia in HHs, for N

  16. Pain modulation in waking and hypnosis in women: event-related potentials and sources of cortical activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilfredo De Pascalis

    Full Text Available Using a strict subject selection procedure, we tested in High and Low Hypnotizable subjects (HHs and LHs whether treatments of hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia, as compared to a relaxation-control, differentially affected subjective pain ratings and somatosensory event-related potentials (SERPs during painful electric stimulation. Treatments were administered in waking and hypnosis conditions. LHs showed little differentiation in pain and distress ratings between hypoalgesia and hyperalgesia treatments, whereas HHs showed a greater spread in the instructed direction. HHs had larger prefrontal N140 and P200 waves of the SERPs during hypnotic hyperalgesia as compared to relaxation-control treatment. Importantly, HHs showed significant smaller frontocentral N140 and frontotemporal P200 waves during hypnotic hypoalgesia. LHs did not show significant differences for these SERP waves among treatments in both waking and hypnosis conditions. Source localization (sLORETA method revealed significant activations of the bilateral primary somatosensory (BA3, middle frontal gyrus (BA6 and anterior cingulate cortices (BA24. Activity of these contralateral regions significantly correlated with subjective numerical pain scores for control treatment in waking condition. Moreover, multivariate regression analyses distinguished the contralateral BA3 as the only region reflecting a stable pattern of pain coding changes across all treatments in waking and hypnosis conditions. More direct testing showed that hypnosis reduced the strength of the association of pain modulation and brain activity changes at BA3. sLORETA in HHs revealed, for the N140 wave, that during hypnotic hyperalgesia, there was an increased activity within medial, supramarginal and superior frontal gyri, and cingulated gyrus (BA32, while for the P200 wave, activity was increased in the superior (BA22, middle (BA37, inferior temporal (BA19 gyri and superior parietal lobule (BA7. Hypnotic hypoalgesia in

  17. Top-down regulation of default mode activity in spatial visual attention

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Xiaotong; Liu, Yijun; Yao, Li; Ding, Mingzhou

    2013-01-01

    Dorsal anterior cingulate and bilateral anterior insula form a task control network (TCN) whose primary function includes initiating and maintaining task-level cognitive set and exerting top-down regulation of sensorimotor processing. The default mode network (DMN), comprising an anatomically distinct set of cortical areas, mediates introspection and self-referential processes. Resting-state data show that TCN and DMN interact. The functional ramifications of their interaction remain elusive....

  18. Androstenol--a steroid derived odor activates the hypothalamus in women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanka Savic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether pheromone signaling exists in humans is still a matter of intense discussion. In the present study we tested if smelling of Androstenol, a steroid produced by the human body and reported to affect human behavior, may elicit cerebral activation. A further issue was to evaluate whether the pattern of activation resembles the pattern of common odors. METHODOLOGY: PET measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF were conducted in 16 healthy heterosexual women during passive smelling of Androstenol, four ordinary odors (OO, and odorless air (the base line condition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Smelling Androstenol caused activation of a portion of the hypothalamus, which according to animal data mediates the pheromone triggered mating behavior. Smelling of OO, on the other hand, engaged only the classical olfactory regions (the piriform cortex, lateral amygdala, anterior insular and anterior cingulate cortex. CONCLUSIONS: The observed pattern of activation is very similar to the pattern previously detected with 4,16-androstadien-3-one in heterosexual females. It suggests that several compounds released by human body may activate cerebral networks involved in human reproduction.

  19. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    OpenAIRE

    Murakami S; Horiuchi K; Yamamoto C; Ohtsuka A; Murakami T.

    2003-01-01

    A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the...

  20. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Álvarez López; Yenima García Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pu...

  1. A comparative study of the width of the anterior interhemispheric fissure in schizophrenia and senile dementia by cranial computed tomography (CCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CCT pictures were used to obtain comparative measurements of morphologic changes in the prefrontal lobes in schizophrenics and senile dementia patients as well as in an age-matched control group. A Statistically significant widening of the distance between the inner surfaces of both superior frontal gyri and between anterior surfaces of both cingulate gyri were noted in the diseased group. As to the schizophrenic group, a greater distance between the inner surfaces of both frontal gyri was noted, while a generalized atrophic change of frontal lobes was rather common in the senile dementia group. (author)

  2. Peripheral physiological reactivity and brain activity in specific phobias - Reactividad fisiológica periférica y actividad cerebral en las fobias específicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Martínez Selva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Specific phobias are exaggerated and irrational fears caused by specific stimuli. These anxiety disorders can appear together with physiological reactions and fight or flight responses. At a peripheral level the phobic response is featured by an increase in somatic and autonomic reactivity as shown by different physiological indices (heart rate, electrodermal activity and a potentiation of defensive reflexes, such as the cardiac defense response and the blink reflex. At a central level it has been described a network of brain structures that are involved both in the processing of the phobic stimulus and in the reaction that it provokes. This brain network is composed by the amygdala, the orbitofrontal and cingulate cortices and the anterior insula. An increase in the activity of these brain regions occurs during the phobic reaction that can be associated with the somatic and autonomic changes, the subjective experience of intense fear and the avoidance behavior elicited by the phobic stimulus.

  3. Dolor anterior de la rodilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción:el dolor anterior de la rodilla constituye una importante causa de consulta en la especialidad de Ortopedia y Traumatología. La incidencia de otras enfermedades relacionadas con este síntoma es cada vez mayor, ejemplo de ello es la condromalacia de rótula, tendinitis patelar, osteoartritis patelofemoral entre otras, el diagnóstico de estas enfermedades se debe al cúmulo de experiencia y a la introducción de técnicas y equipos imagenológicos de avanzada. Desarrollo: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre el dolor anterior de la rodilla, con especial énfasis en las teorías involucradas en su fisiopatología, entre las que se encuentran la mala-alineación patelo-femoral, equilibrio de la homeostasis tisular y aumento de la presión intra-ósea, además de brindar brevemente el cuadro clínico de la enfermedad. Para finalizar se expone el enfoque terapéutico que se basa fundamentalmente en el tratamiento conservador, se mencionan además las modalidades de tratamiento quirúrgico.

  4. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  5. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closu...

  6. Relation of obesity to neural activation in response to food commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gearhardt, Ashley N; Yokum, Sonja; Stice, Eric; Harris, Jennifer L; Brownell, Kelly D

    2014-07-01

    Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but the neural response to food advertising and its association with obesity is largely unknown. This study is the first to examine how neural response to food commercials differs from other stimuli (e.g. non-food commercials and television show) and to explore how this response may differ by weight status. The blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging activation was measured in 30 adolescents ranging from lean to obese in response to food and non-food commercials imbedded in a television show. Adolescents exhibited greater activation in regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. occipital gyrus), attention (e.g. parietal lobes), cognition (e.g. temporal gyrus and posterior cerebellar lobe), movement (e.g. anterior cerebellar cortex), somatosensory response (e.g. postcentral gyrus) and reward [e.g. orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] during food commercials. Obese participants exhibited less activation during food relative to non-food commercials in neural regions implicated in visual processing (e.g. cuneus), attention (e.g. posterior cerebellar lobe), reward (e.g. ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ACC) and salience detection (e.g. precuneus). Obese participants did exhibit greater activation in a region implicated in semantic control (e.g. medial temporal gyrus). These findings may inform current policy debates regarding the impact of food advertising to minors. PMID:23576811

  7. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  8. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  9. Perawatan Gigitan Terbalik Anterior Dengan Menggunakan Inclined Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Wilda A.

    2008-01-01

    Gigitan terbalik anterior adalah suatu anomali posisi gigi anterior atas yang lebih ke lingual dibandingkan gigi anterior bawah. Anomali gigitan terbalik anterior dapat ditemui pada periode gigi sulung, gigi bercampur, dan gigi permanen. Faktor etiologi gigitan terbalik anterior dibedakan atas dental, fungsional atau skeletal. Untuk menentukan etiologi dari anomali gigitan terbalik anterior perlu dilakukan diagnosa yang tepat. Perawatan gigitan terbalik anterior ini dapat dilakukan de...

  10. Cortical activities evoked by the signals ascending through unmyelinated C fibers in humans. A fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute pain is classified as first and second pain associated with rapidly conducting Aδ fibers and slowly conducting unmyelinated C fibers, respectively. First pain aims at achieving relative safety from the source of injury, whereas second pain, with its strong affective component, attracts longer-lasting attention and initiates behavioral responses in order to limit further injury and optimize recovery. Accordingly, the distinct brain representations for first and second pain should reflect distinct biological functions of both sensations. In this study, therefore, an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to investigate brain processing of the signals ascending from peripheral C and Aδ fibers evoked by phasic laser stimuli on the right hand in humans. The stimulation of both C and Aδ nociceptors activated the bilateral thalamus, bilateral secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), right (ipsilateral) middle insula, and bilateral Brodmann's area (BA) 24/32, with the majority of activity found in the posterior portion of the anterior cingulate cortex (pACC). However, magnitude of activity in the right (ipsilateral) BA32/8/6, including dorsal parts in the anterior portion of the ACC (aACC) and pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA), and the bilateral anterior insula was significantly stronger following the stimulation of C nociceptors than Aδ nociceptors. It was concluded that the activation of C nociceptors, related to second pain, evokes different brain processing from that of Aδ nociceptors, related to first pain, probably due to the differences in the emotional and motivational aspects of either pain, which are mainly related to the aACC, pre-SMA and anterior insula. (author)

  11. Absence of scalenus anterior muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murakami S

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A rare anomaly of the scalenus muscles is described. In this case, the right scalenus anterior muscle was absent. As a substitute for this muscle, some aberrant muscle slips arose from the lower vertebrae and descended in front of the ventral rami of the lower cervical nerves. These aberrant slips then ran between the ventral rami of the the eighth cervical and first thoracic nerves, and were fused with the right scalenus medius muscle. Thus, the subclavian artery and vein ran in front of the aberrant slips, together with the ventral ramus of the first thoracic nerve. The aberrant muscle slips issued 2 accessory bundles. One bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fourth and fifth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle; the other bundle ran between the ventral rami of the fifth and sixth cervical nerves and was fused with the scalenus medius muscle.

  12. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  13. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  14. Changes of oscillatory activity in pitch processing network and related tinnitus relief induced by acoustic CR neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya Adamchic

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic subjective tinnitus is characterized by abnormal neuronal synchronization in the central auditory system. As shown in a controlled clinical trial, acoustic coordinated reset (CR neuromodulation causes a significant relief of tinnitus symptoms along with a significant decrease of pathological oscillatory activity in a network comprising auditory and non-auditory brain areas, which is often accompanied with a significant tinnitus pitch change. Here, we studied if the tinnitus pitch change correlates with a reduction of tinnitus loudness and/or annoyance as assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS scores. Furthermore, we studied if the changes of the pattern of brain synchrony in tinnitus patients induced by 12 weeks of CR-therapy depend on whether or not the patients undergo a pronounced tinnitus pitch change. For this, we applied standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA to EEG recordings from two groups of patients with a sustained CR-induced relief of tinnitus symptoms with and without tinnitus pitch change. We found that absolute changes of VAS loudness and VAS annoyance scores significantly correlate with the modulus of the tinnitus pitch change. Moreover, as opposed to patients with weak or no pitch change we found a significantly stronger decrease in gamma power in patients with pronounced tinnitus pitch change in right parietal cortex (BA 1, 40, right frontal cortex (BA 8, 9, 46, and left frontal cortex (BA 4, 6, combined with a significantly stronger increase of alpha (10-12 Hz activity in the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32, 24. In addition, we revealed a significantly lower functional connectivity in the gamma band between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 9 and the right anterior cingulate cortex (BA 32 after 12 weeks of CR-therapy in patients with pronounced pitch change. Our results indicate a substantial, CR-induced reduction of tinnitus-related auditory binding in a pitch

  15. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Daniel A; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2010-04-01

    Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi) leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi) animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation) to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is required for

  16. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Deborah J; Owlarn, Suthira; Tejada Romero, Belen; Chen, Chen; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2011-01-01

    The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP) axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi) or Smed-ptc(RNAi) lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi) grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new, and then

  17. The TALE class homeobox gene Smed-prep defines the anterior compartment for head regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Felix

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Planaria continue to blossom as a model system for understanding all aspects of regeneration. They provide an opportunity to understand how the replacement of missing tissues from preexisting adult tissue is orchestrated at the molecular level. When amputated along any plane, planaria are capable of regenerating all missing tissue and rescaling all structures to the new size of the animal. Recently, rapid progress has been made in understanding the developmental pathways that control planarian regeneration. In particular Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is central in promoting posterior fates and inhibiting anterior identity. Currently the mechanisms that actively promote anterior identity remain unknown. Here, Smed-prep, encoding a TALE class homeodomain, is described as the first gene necessary for correct anterior fate and patterning during planarian regeneration. Smed-prep is expressed at high levels in the anterior portion of whole animals, and Smed-prep(RNAi leads to loss of the whole brain during anterior regeneration, but not during lateral regeneration or homeostasis in intact worms. Expression of markers of different anterior fated cells are greatly reduced or lost in Smed-prep(RNAi animals. We find that the ectopic anterior structures induced by abrogation of Wnt signaling also require Smed-prep to form. We use double knockdown experiments with the S. mediterranea ortholog of nou-darake (that when knocked down induces ectopic brain formation to show that Smed-prep defines an anterior fated compartment within which stem cells are permitted to assume brain fate, but is not required directly for this differentiation process. Smed-prep is the first gene clearly implicated as being necessary for promoting anterior fate and the first homeobox gene implicated in establishing positional identity during regeneration. Together our results suggest that Smed-prep is required in stem cell progeny as they form the anterior regenerative blastema and is

  18. Combining classical and molecular approaches elaborates on the complexity of mechanisms underpinning anterior regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Evans

    Full Text Available The current model of planarian anterior regeneration evokes the establishment of low levels of Wnt signalling at anterior wounds, promoting anterior polarity and subsequent elaboration of anterior fate through the action of the TALE class homeodomain PREP. The classical observation that decapitations positioned anteriorly will regenerate heads more rapidly than posteriorly positioned decapitations was among the first to lead to the proposal of gradients along an anteroposterior (AP axis in a developmental context. An explicit understanding of this phenomenon is not included in the current model of anterior regeneration. This raises the question what the underlying molecular and cellular basis of this temporal gradient is, whether it can be explained by current models and whether understanding the gradient will shed light on regenerative events. Differences in anterior regeneration rate are established very early after amputation and this gradient is dependent on the activity of Hedgehog (Hh signalling. Animals induced to produce two tails by either Smed-APC-1(RNAi or Smed-ptc(RNAi lose anterior fate but form previously described ectopic anterior brain structures. Later these animals form peri-pharyngeal brain structures, which in Smed-ptc(RNAi grow out of the body establishing a new A/P axis. Combining double amputation and hydroxyurea treatment with RNAi experiments indicates that early ectopic brain structures are formed by uncommitted stem cells that have progressed through S-phase of the cell cycle at the time of amputation. Our results elaborate on the current simplistic model of both AP axis and brain regeneration. We find evidence of a gradient of hedgehog signalling that promotes posterior fate and temporarily inhibits anterior regeneration. Our data supports a model for anterior brain regeneration with distinct early and later phases of regeneration. Together these insights start to delineate the interplay between discrete existing, new

  19. A social neuroscience perspective on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Peter A; Elias, Lorin J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Harrison, Amabilis H; Borowsky, Ron; Sarty, Gordon E

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to examine the cognitive characteristics of individuals who demonstrate successful and unsuccessful self-regulation of physical activity behavior. In Study 1, participants articulated 1-week intentions for physical activity and wore a triaxial accelerometer over the subsequent 7 days. Among those who were motivated to increase their physical activity, those who were most and least successful were administered an IQ test. In Study 2, a second sample of participants completed the same protocol and a smaller subset of matched participants attended a functional imaging (fMRI) session. In Study 1, successful self-regulators (SSRs) scored significantly higher than unsuccessful self-regulators (USRs) on a test of general cognitive ability, and this difference could not be accounted for by favorability of attitudes toward physical activity or conscientiousness. In Study 2, the IQ effect was replicated, with SSRs showing a full standard deviation advantage over USRs. In the imaging protocol, USRs showed heavier recruitment of cognitive resources relative to SSRs in the anterior cingulate and orbitofrontal cortex during performance of a Stroop task; SSRs showed heavier recruitment in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:18723901

  20. Posterior Cingulate Lactate as a Metabolic Biomarker in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt E. Weaver

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction represents a central factor within the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease (AD spectrum. We hypothesized that in vivo measurements of lactate (lac, a by-product of glycolysis, would correlate with functional impairment and measures of brain health in a cohort of 15 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI individuals. Lac was quantified from the precuneus/posterior cingulate (PPC using 2-dimensional J-resolved magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS. Additionally, standard behavioral and imaging markers of aMCI disease progression were acquired. PPC lac was negatively correlated with performance on the Wechsler logical memory tests and on the minimental state examination even after accounting for gray matter, cerebral spinal fluid volume, and age. No such relationships were observed between lac and performance on nonmemory tests. Significant negative relationships were also noted between PPC lac and hippocampal volume and PPC functional connectivity. Together, these results reveal that aMCI individuals with a greater disease progression have increased concentrations of PPC lac. Because lac is upregulated as a compensatory response to mitochondrial impairment, we propose that J-resolved MRS of lac is a noninvasive, surrogate biomarker of impaired metabolic function and would provide a useful means of tracking mitochondrial function during therapeutic trials targeting brain metabolism.

  1. Behavioral consequences of selective damage to frontal pole and posterior cingulate cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Farshad A; Buckley, Mark J; Mahboubi, Majid; Tanaka, Keiji

    2015-07-21

    Frontal pole cortex (FPC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) have close neuroanatomical connections, and imaging studies have shown coactivation or codeactivation of these brain regions during performance of certain tasks. However, they are among the least well-understood regions of the primate brain. One reason for this is that the consequences of selective bilateral lesions to either structure have not previously been studied in any primate species. We studied the effects of circumscribed bilateral lesions to FPC or PCC on monkeys' ability to perform an analog of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and related tasks. In contrast to lesions in other prefrontal regions, neither posttraining FPC nor PCC lesions impaired animals' abilities to follow the rule switches that frequently occurred within the WCST task. However, FPC lesions were not without effect, because they augmented the ability of animals to adjust cognitive control after experiencing high levels of conflict (whereas PCC lesions did not have any effect). In addition, FPC-lesioned monkeys were more successful than controls or PCC-lesioned animals at remembering the relevant rule across experimentally imposed distractions involving either an intervening secondary task or a surprising delivery of free reward. Although prefrontal cortex posterior to FPC is specialized for mediating efficient goal-directed behavior to maximally exploit reward opportunities from ongoing tasks, our data led us to suggest that FPC is, instead, specialized for disengaging executive control from the current task and redistributing it to novel sources of reward to explore new opportunities/goals. PMID:26150522

  2. Static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex nodal topology of default mode network predicts attention task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pan; Yang, Yong; Jovicich, Jorge; De Pisapia, Nicola; Wang, Xiang; Zuo, Chun S; Levitt, James Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Characterization of the default mode network (DMN) as a complex network of functionally interacting dynamic systems has received great interest for the study of DMN neural mechanisms. In particular, understanding the relationship of intrinsic resting-state DMN brain network with cognitive behaviors is an important issue in healthy cognition and mental disorders. However, it is still unclear how DMN functional connectivity links to cognitive behaviors during resting-state. In this study, we hypothesize that static and dynamic DMN nodal topology is associated with upcoming cognitive task performance. We used graph theory analysis in order to understand better the relationship between the DMN functional connectivity and cognitive behavior during resting-state and task performance. Nodal degree of the DMN was calculated as a metric of network topology. We found that the static and dynamic posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) nodal degree within the DMN was associated with task performance (Reaction Time). Our results show that the core node PCC nodal degree within the DMN was significantly correlated with reaction time, which suggests that the PCC plays a key role in supporting cognitive function. PMID:25904156

  3. Aberrant functional connectivity differentiates retrosplenial cortex from posterior cingulate cortex in prodromal Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillen, Kim N H; Jacobs, Heidi I L; Kukolja, Juraj; von Reutern, Boris; Richter, Nils; Onur, Özgür A; Dronse, Julian; Langen, Karl-Josef; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-08-01

    The posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key hub of the default mode network, a resting-state network involved in episodic memory, showing functional connectivity (FC) changes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, PCC is a cytoarchitectonically heterogeneous region. Specifically, the retrosplenial cortex (RSC), often subsumed under the PCC, is an area functionally and microanatomically distinct from PCC. To investigate FC patterns of RSC and PCC separately, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy aging participants, patients with subjective cognitive impairment, and prodromal AD. Compared to the other 2 groups, we found higher FC from RSC to frontal cortex in subjective cognitive impairment but higher FC to occipital cortex in prodromal AD. Conversely, FC from PCC to the lingual gyrus was higher in prodromal AD. Furthermore, data indicate that RSC and PCC are characterized by differential FC patterns represented by hub-specific interactions with memory and attentions scores in prodromal AD compared to cognitively normal individuals, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms for RSC and neurodegenerative processes for PCC. Data thus confirm and extend previous studies suggesting that the RSC is functionally distinct from PCC. PMID:27318139

  4. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  5. Anterior capsular rupture following blunt ocular injury

    OpenAIRE

    Gremida, Anas; Kassem, Iris; Traish, Aisha

    2011-01-01

    A 10-year-old boy suffered a large, oblique anterior capsular tear following blunt injury to his right eye. The boy was followed daily for hyphema resolution and progressive traumatic cataract formation. After the hyphema had resolved, the lens was removed using an anterior approach and an intraocular lens was placed with excellent visual outcome.

  6. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    OpenAIRE

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  7. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis: a sporadic case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostan, Sezen; Yaşar, Şirin; Serdar, Zehra Aşiran; Gizlenti, Sevda

    2016-03-01

    Anterior cervical hypertrichosis is a very rare form of primary localized hypertrichosis. It consists of a tuft of terminal hair on the anterior neck just above the laryngeal prominence. The etiology is still unknown. In this article, we reported a 15-year-old female patient who presented to our clinic with a complaint of hypertrichosis on the anterior aspect of the neck for the last five years. Her past medical history revealed no pathology except for vesicoureteral reflux. On the basis of clinical presentation, our patient was diagnosed with anterior cervical hypertrichosis and she was considered to be a sporadic case due to lack of other similar cases in familial history. To date, 33 patients with anterior cervical hypertrichosis have been reported. Anterior cervical hypertrichosis can be associated with other abnormalities, but it frequently presents as an isolated defect (70%). The association of vesicoureteral reflux and anterior cervical hypertrichosis which was observed in our patient might be coincidental. So far, no case of anterior cervical hypertrichosis associated with vesicoureteral reflux has been reported in the literature. PMID:27103865

  8. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ARTHROSCOPIC RECONSTRUCTION OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL tear is the most common serious ligamentous injury to the knee joint. Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL injury is quite common among young active population, athletes and contact sports. The exact incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears is not known as the cases are being under reported. The ACL is the primary stabilizer against anterior translation of the tibia on the femur and is important in counteracting rotation and valgus stress. MATERIALS AND METHODS Between November 2012 to October 2014, 34 consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopic assisted ACL reconstructions in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam were the material in our study. Age groups between 18 to 45 years considered. We utilised both BPTB and Quadrupled hamstring graft depending on the patient’s age, outcome testing in all cases was performed at the latest follow-up (at least 6 months. Post-operative physiotherapy rehabilitation protocol followed for 06 months. RESULTS Standard protocol of Lysholm and IKDC knee scoring system were used for evaluation of the results of the surgery during followup. Patients were evaluated periodically at preop, 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months. CONCLUSION Patients with isolated ACL injury had better outcome compared to patients who underwent associated meniscectomy. Most common mechanism of injury was activity of sports in 20 patients. Postoperatively at 3 months, anterior drawer’s was 1+ in 6, 29 (85.2% patients had normal range of motion; 29 (85.29% patients had 5/5 quadriceps power (MRC grading 94% of them had 5/5 power at latest followup. No significant difference between outcomes of BPTB and Hamstrings graft. Functional outcome of our study were similar to the previously published studies.

  9. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  10. Comparison of brain activation patterns during executive function tasks in hoarding disorder and non-hoarding OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, Christina M; Luks, Tracy L; Lai, Karen; Vigil, Ofilio; Guillory, Sylvia; Nongpiur, Arvind; Fekri, Shiva M; Kupferman, Eve; Mathalon, Daniel H; Mathews, Carol A

    2016-09-30

    We examined differences in regional brain activation during tests of executive function in individuals with Hoarding Disorder (HD), Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD), and healthy controls (HC) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop and Go/No-Go task. We found that during the conflict monitoring and response inhibition condition in the Go/No-Go task, individuals with HD had significantly greater activity than controls in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). HD also exhibited significantly greater right DLPFC activity than OCD. We also observed significant differences in activity between HD and HC and between HD and OCD in regions (ACC, anterior insula, orbitofrontal cortex, and striatum) involved in evaluating stimulus-response-reward associations, or the personal and task-relevant value of stimuli and behavioral responses to stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that individuals with HD have difficulty deciding on the value or task relevance of stimuli, and may perceive an abnormally high risk of negative feedback for difficult or erroneous cognitive behavior. PMID:27522332

  11. Neural and sympathetic activity associated with exploration in decision-making: Further evidence for involvement of insula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki eOhira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that sympathetic activity was associated with exploration in decision-making indexed by entropy, which is a concept in information theory and indexes randomness of choices or the degree of deviation from sticking to recent experiences of gains and losses, and that activation of the anterior insula mediated this association. The current study aims to replicate and to expand these findings in a situation where contingency between options and outcomes is manipulated. Sixteen participants performed a stochastic decision-making task in which we manipulated a condition with low uncertainty of gain/loss (contingent-reward condition and a condition with high uncertainty of gain/loss (random-reward condition. Regional cerebral blood flow was measured by 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET, and cardiovascular parameters and catecholamine in the peripheral blood were measured, during the task. In the contingent-reward condition, norepinephrine as an index of sympathetic activity was positively correlated with entropy indicating exploration in decision-making. Norepinephrine was negatively correlated with neural activity in the right posterior insula, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and dorsal pons, suggesting neural bases for detecting changes of bodily states. Furthermore, right anterior insular activity was negatively correlated with entropy, suggesting influences on exploration in decision-making. By contrast, in the random-reward condition, entropy correlated with activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal and parietal cortices but not with sympathetic activity. These findings suggest that influences of sympathetic activity on exploration in decision-making and its underlying neural mechanisms might be dependent on the degree of uncertainty of situations.

  12. Basic science of anterior cruciate ligament injury and repair

    OpenAIRE

    Kiapour, A. M.; Murray, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most devastating and frequent injuries of the knee. Surgical reconstruction is the current standard of care for treatment of ACL injuries in active patients. The widespread adoption of ACL reconstruction over primary repair was based on early perception of the limited healing capacity of the ACL. Although the majority of ACL reconstruction surgeries successfully restore gross joint stability, post-traumatic osteoarthritis is commonp...

  13. Controversies in Knee Rehabilitation: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Failla, Mathew J.; Arundale, Amelia J.H.; Logerstedt, David S.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Controversy in management of athletes exists after anterior cruciate ligament injury and reconstruction. Consensus criteria for evaluating successful outcomes following ACL injury include no re-injury or recurrent giving way, no joint effusion, quadriceps strength symmetry, restored activity level and function, and returning to pre-injury sports. Using these criterions, we will review the success rates of current management strategies after ACL injury and provide recommendations for the couns...

  14. Tibiofemoral Alignment: Contributing Factors to Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Boden, Barry P.; Breit, Ilan; Sheehan, Frances T

    2009-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury remain undefined. The purpose of this study was to identify the tibiofemoral alignment in the lateral compartment of the knee for three variations of a one-limb landing in noncontact sports activities: the safe, provocative, and exaggerated provocative positions. These positions were chosen on the basis of a previous study that measured the average joint angles of the limb at the point of ground contact for athletes wh...

  15. FUNCTIONAL OUTCOME OF ARTHROSCOPY ASSISTED ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION USING BONE PATELLAR TENDON BONE AUTOGRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar

    2015-04-01

    cruciate ligament reconstruction with Bone Patellar tendon Bone autograft is excellent too good. The functional outcome of arthroscopy assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with Bone Patellar tendon Bone autograft is excellent to good and allows the patients to return to pre injury level of activity.

  16. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Behari S; Banerji D; Trivedi P; Jain V; Chhabra D

    2001-01-01

    The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA) accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing ...

  17. Mini-open anterior lumbar interbody fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhoke, Gurpreet S; Ricks, Christian; Tempel, Zachary; Zuckerbraun, Brian; Hamilton, D Kojo; Okonkwo, David O; Kanter, Adam S

    2016-07-01

    In deformity surgery, anterior lumbar interbody fusion provides excellent biomechanical support, creates a broad surface area for arthrodesis, and induces lordosis in the lower lumbar spine. Preoperative MRI, plain radiographs, and, when available, CT scan should be carefully assessed for sacral slope as it relates to pubic symphysis, position of the great vessels (especially at L4/5), disc space height, or contraindication to an anterior approach. This video demonstrates the steps in an anterior surgical procedure with minimal open exposure. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/r3bC4_vu1hQ . PMID:27364424

  18. Secondary anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R C; Bron, A J

    1975-01-01

    The clincopathological features and pathogenesis of secondary mosaic degeneration of the cornea (anterior crocodile shagreen of Vogt) are described. The structural basis for the normal anterior corneal mosaic pattern seems to lie in the particular arrangement of many prominent collagen lamellae of the anterior stroma that thake an oblique course to gain insertion into Bowman's layer. Since, at normal intraocular pressure, Bowman's layer is under tension, when viewed from the anterior surface the cornea appears smooth. By releasing the tension, however, a reproducible polygonal ridge pattern becomes manifest. It is suggested that a prolonged phthisical state of the eye is one condition wherein the mosaic pattern may become permanent and that, as a secondary event, this is followed by irregular calcification of Bowman's layer which particularly involves the ridges projecting into the epithelium. Biomicroscopically these ridges corresponded to the branching reticular arrangement of the mosaic opacities. Images PMID:1079137

  19. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  20. Tcf7l1 protects the anterior neural fold from adopting the neural crest fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mašek, Jan; Machoň, Ondřej; Kořínek, Vladimír; Taketo, M Mark; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2016-06-15

    The neural crest (NC) is crucial for the evolutionary diversification of vertebrates. NC cells are induced at the neural plate border by the coordinated action of several signaling pathways, including Wnt/β-catenin. NC cells are normally generated in the posterior neural plate border, whereas the anterior neural fold is devoid of NC cells. Using the mouse model, we show here that active repression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for maintenance of neuroepithelial identity in the anterior neural fold and for inhibition of NC induction. Conditional inactivation of Tcf7l1, a transcriptional repressor of Wnt target genes, leads to aberrant activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in the anterior neuroectoderm and its conversion into NC. This reduces the developing prosencephalon without affecting the anterior-posterior neural character. Thus, Tcf7l1 defines the border between the NC and the prospective forebrain via restriction of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling gradient. PMID:27302397

  1. Differences in cortical activity between methamphetamine-dependent and healthy individuals performing a facial affect matching task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Doris E; Lieberman, Matthew D; Monterosso, John R; Xu, Jiansong; Fong, Timothy W; London, Edythe D

    2008-01-11

    As individuals who abuse methamphetamine (MA) often exhibit socially maladaptive behaviors such as violence and aggression, it is possible that they respond abnormally to social cues. To investigate this issue, we exposed 12 MA-dependent participants (abstinent 5-16 days) and 12 healthy comparison participants to fearful and angry faces while they performed an affect matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Although the groups did not differ in task performance, the healthy participants showed more task-related activity than the MA-dependent participants in a set of cortical regions consisting of the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), temporoparietal junction (TPJ), anterior and posterior temporal cortex, and fusiform gyrus in the right hemisphere, and the cuneus in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the MA-dependent participants showed more task-related activity than the healthy participants in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC). As expected, the task elicited activation of the amygdala in both groups; however, contrary to expectation, we found no difference between groups in this activation. Dorsal ACC hyperactivity, along with high self-ratings of hostility and interpersonal sensitivity in the MA-dependent group, suggest a hyper-sensitivity to socially threatening cues in the MA-dependent participants, while lower VLPFC activation could point to a deficit in integrating socio-emotional information and/or regulating this limbic hyperactivity. Additional activation differences in neural circuitry related to social cognition (TPJ, anterior, and posterior temporal cortex) suggest further socio-emotional deficits. Together, the results point to cortical abnormalities that could underlie the socially inappropriate behaviors often shown by individuals who abuse MA. PMID:17964741

  2. Trypan blue dye for anterior segment surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Jhanji, V; Chan, E.; Das, S.; Zhang, H; Vajpayee, R B

    2011-01-01

    Use of vital dyes in ophthalmic surgery has gained increased importance in the past few years. Trypan blue (TB) has been a popular choice among anterior segment surgeons mainly due to its safety, ease of availability, and remarkable ability to enable an easy surgery in difficult situations mostly related to visibility of the targeted tissue. It is being used in cataract surgery since nearly a decade and its utilization has been extended to other anterior segment surgeries like trabeculectomy ...

  3. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  4. Functional Outcomes of Primary Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibialis Anterior Allograft

    OpenAIRE

    Başar, Selda; Büyükafşar, Enes; Hazar, Zeynep; Ataoğlu, Baybars; Kanatlı, Ulunay

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Allografts have potential advantages in primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), including the absence of donor site morbidity, shorter operative times, improved cosmesis, and easier rehabilitation. There is limited and conflicting outcome data for ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of ACLR with tibialis anterior allograft. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated patients underwent ACLR using with...

  5. Effects of Parecoxib and Fentanyl on nociception-induced cortical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analgesics, including opioids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs reduce postoperative pain. However, little is known about the quantitative effects of these drugs on cortical activity induced by nociceptive stimulation. The aim of the present study was to determine the neural activity in response to a nociceptive stimulus and to investigate the effects of fentanyl (an opioid agonist and parecoxib (a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on this nociception-induced cortical activity evoked by tail pinch. Extracellular recordings (electroencephalogram and multi-unit signals were performed in the area of the anterior cingulate cortex while intracellular recordings were made in the primary somatosensory cortex. The effects of parecoxib and fentanyl on induced cortical activity were compared. Results Peripheral nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats produced an immediate electroencephalogram (EEG desynchronization resembling the cortical arousal (low-amplitude, fast-wave activity, while the membrane potential switched into a persistent depolarization state. The induced cortical activity was abolished by fentanyl, and the fentanyl's effect was reversed by the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone. Parecoxib, on the other hand, did not significantly affect the neural activity. Conclusion Cortical activity was modulated by nociceptive stimulation in anesthetized rats. Fentanyl showed a strong inhibitory effect on the nociceptive-stimulus induced cortical activity while parecoxib had no significant effect.

  6. Verum and sham acupuncture exert distinct cerebral activation in pain processing areas: a crossover fMRI investigation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usichenko, Taras I; Wesolowski, Toni; Lotze, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Although acupuncture is effective for treating pain, its site-specificity is questioned. The aim was to compare the cerebral responses of needling applied to an acupuncture point to the needling of a sham point, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers were enrolled. Manual stimulation of the acupuncture (ST44) and sham points on the dorsum of the left foot was applied during fMRI in a crossover manner. fMRI data analysis was performed contrasting the ST44 and the sham conditions. Stimulation intensity, subjective discrimination of the needling site and the incidence of "Qi" sensation were additionally recorded. Stimulation of ST44 acupoint, in comparison to the sham procedure, was associated with an increased fMRI-activation in the primary somatosensory, the inferior parietal and the prefrontal cortex and the posterior insula. Sham needling was associated with increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula. Verum acupuncture increased the activity of discriminative somatosensory and cognitive pain processing areas of the brain, whereas sham needling activated the areas responsible for affective processing of pain. This may explain favorable effects of verum acupuncture in clinical studies about treatment of chronic pain patients. PMID:24728839

  7. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Caria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findings of anterior insula cortex hypoactivation and dysconnectivity during tasks related to emotional and social processing indicates its dysfunctional role in ASD. In parallel, increasing evidence showed that successful control of anterior insula activity can be attained using real-time fMRI paradigms. More importantly, successful regulation of this region was associated with changes in behavior and brain connectivity in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Building on these results we here propose and discuss the use of real-time fMRI neurofeedback in ASD aiming at improving emotional and social behavior.

  8. Anterior insular cortex regulation in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caria, Andrea; de Falco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous set of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by dramatic impairments of interpersonal behavior, communication, and empathy. Recent neuroimaging studies suggested that ASD are disorders characterized by widespread abnormalities involving distributed brain network, though clear evidence of differences in large-scale brain network interactions underlying the cognitive and behavioral symptoms of ASD are still lacking. Consistent findings of anterior insula cortex hypoactivation and dysconnectivity during tasks related to emotional and social processing indicates its dysfunctional role in ASD. In parallel, increasing evidence showed that successful control of anterior insula activity can be attained using real-time fMRI paradigms. More importantly, successful regulation of this region was associated with changes in behavior and brain connectivity in both healthy individuals and psychiatric patients. Building on these results we here propose and discuss the use of real-time fMRI neurofeedback in ASD aiming at improving emotional and social behavior. PMID:25798096

  9. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  10. Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Insular Connectivity in Early Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder: A Resting Functional MRI Evaluation of Large-Scale Brain Network Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Jacob; Ford, Kristen A; Taylor, Reggie; Schaefer, Betsy; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard W J; Osuch, Elizabeth A; Menon, Ravi S; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Allman, John M; Williamson, Peter C

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insulae, and large-scale brain networks associated with them have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortices and anterior insulae in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with schizophrenia, and 24 patients with MDD early in illness with seed-based resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis using Statistical Probability Mapping. As hypothesized, reduced connectivity was found between the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other nodes associated with directed effort in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls while patients with MDD had reduced connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral prefrontal emotional encoding regions compared to controls. Reduced connectivity was found between the anterior insulae and the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia compared to controls, but contrary to some models emotion processing regions failed to demonstrate increased connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex in MDD compared to controls. Although, not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons, patients with schizophrenia tended to demonstrate decreased connectivity between basal ganglia-thalamocortical regions and the medial prefrontal cortex compared to patients with MDD, which might be expected as these regions effect action. Results were interpreted to support anomalies in nodes associated with directed effort in schizophrenia and nodes associated with emotional encoding network in MDD compared to healthy controls. PMID:27064387

  11. Medial Prefrontal and Anterior Insular Connectivity in Early Schizophrenia and Major Depressive Disorder: A Resting Functional MRI Evaluation of Large-Scale Brain Network Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Jacob; Ford, Kristen A.; Taylor, Reggie; Schaefer, Betsy; Théberge, Jean; Neufeld, Richard W. J.; Osuch, Elizabeth A.; Menon, Ravi S.; Rajakumar, Nagalingam; Allman, John M.; Williamson, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies in the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior insulae, and large-scale brain networks associated with them have been proposed to underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder (MDD). In this study, we examined the connectivity of the medial prefrontal cortices and anterior insulae in 24 healthy controls, 24 patients with schizophrenia, and 24 patients with MDD early in illness with seed-based resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis using Statistical Probability Mapping. As hypothesized, reduced connectivity was found between the medial prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and other nodes associated with directed effort in patients with schizophrenia compared to controls while patients with MDD had reduced connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and ventral prefrontal emotional encoding regions compared to controls. Reduced connectivity was found between the anterior insulae and the medial prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia compared to controls, but contrary to some models emotion processing regions failed to demonstrate increased connectivity with the medial prefrontal cortex in MDD compared to controls. Although, not statistically significant after correction for multiple comparisons, patients with schizophrenia tended to demonstrate decreased connectivity between basal ganglia-thalamocortical regions and the medial prefrontal cortex compared to patients with MDD, which might be expected as these regions effect action. Results were interpreted to support anomalies in nodes associated with directed effort in schizophrenia and nodes associated with emotional encoding network in MDD compared to healthy controls. PMID:27064387

  12. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  13. Fractures for extraction of the anterior tibial tuberosity in immature skeleton - Report of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is about of the fractures for extraction of the anterior tibial tuberosity, those which relatively frequent and they are generally presented in patients that carry out sport activities and in most of the cases they have association with the Syndrome of Osgood Schlatter; three cases are presented of patient with fractures with extraction of the anterior tibial tuberosity in immature skeleton, their treatment and their definitive result

  14. Heterotopic ossification following surgical treatment of avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior iliac spine

    OpenAIRE

    Gojković Zoran; Harhaji Vladimir; Milankov Miroslav Ž.; Drapšin Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior inferior iliac spine are rare injuries of the pelvic ring and occur during sports activities. Hereby is presented a case of a 22-year-old professional football player who was diagnosed to have an avulsion fracture of the anterior inferior iliac spine on the right side four months after the initial injury and he was treated surgically with the excision of the avulsed fragment. The football player recovered completely and returned to his usual sports act...

  15. Lesiones del ligamento cruzado anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Álvarez López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: el ligamento cruzado anterior desempeña un papel muy importante en la estabili-dad de la rodilla. La incidencia de esta afección es alta en pacientes que practican deportes de contacto y de no ser tratados de forma adecuada, los resultados son desfavorables. Objetivo: profundizar en los factores necesarios para el tratamiento adecuado de enfermos con esta lesión y evitar las complicaciones. Método: se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de un total de 300 artículos publicados en Pubmed, Hinari y Medline mediante el localizador de información Endnote, de ellos se utilizaron 52 citas selecciona-das para realizar la revisión, 48 de ellas de los últimos cinco años donde se incluyeron seis libros. Desarrollo: se discuten los aspectos relacionados con el diagnóstico clínico e imaginológico. Se aborda la clasificación de esta lesión en cuanto a varios aspectos como: tiempo, lesión de ligamentos u ósea, aislada o combinada y parcial o total. Se mencionan los parámetros para obtener resultados satisfac-torios al considerar factores como la edad del enfermo, lesiones asociadas y tiempo de la lesión. Se relacio-nan los requisitos para la selección del implante y se mostró las ventajas y desventajas de cada tipo de in-jerto. Las complicaciones de esta cirugía están relacionadas con la técnica quirúrgica y médicas. Conclusiones: las lesiones del ligamento son entidades traumáticas que afectan por lo general a pacientes jóvenes. Para lograr un resultado satisfactorio en el tratamiento es necesario el conocimiento de su anatomía, clasificación, tipo de injerto a emplear según sus ventajas y desventajas.

  16. Comparison of diffusion tensor imaging and proton MR spectroscopy in the posterior cingulate of patients with Alzheimer disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective To compare 1HMRS and DTI findings of Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and normal elderly controls. Methods: Fifteen mild AD patients, 20 moderate to severe AD patients and 20 aging controlled normal subjects (CN) were recruited. MRS imaging and DTI were performed on a 1.5 T MRI scanner. A ROI was positioned in the posterior part of the cingulate. MRS data were processed and the metabolite ratios were estimated, including the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr. Comparing with the axial MRS location, we chose the same level to posit the ROIs on both sides of the posterior cingulated fibers on fractional anisotropy map (FA) and mean diffusivity map (MD). Mean spectroscopy data and DTI values for each groups were analysed with Mann-Whitney U non parametric test. Correlations between MRS and DTI values for AD groups were estimated using partial correlations test controlling for the age related bias. Results Compared to normal aging groups, mild AD group showed a significantly lower FA value in the left side of posterior cingulum bundle (0.549±0.056 vs 0.517±0.058, Z=2.014, P-3 mm2/s vs (0.761±0.057) x 10-3 mm2/s, Z=1.970, P<0.05). Obvious increasing mI/Cr ratio was found in mild AD group(0.61±0.07 vs 0.68±0.12,Z=2.911, P<0.01). NAA/Cr ratio showed gradually decrease in AD groups. Partial correlations analysis revealed a positive correlation between mI/Cr ratio and left posterior cingulated FA value in mild AD group (r=0.586, P< 0.05) and negative correlation between NAA/Cr and MD value in the right side of posterior cingulated region (r=-0.505, P<0.05). Conclusions: These findings suggested that there were different regional and temporal pattern in different course of AD disease, resulting from axonal loss or gliosis. Combining MRS with DTI alternations could be a better potential indicator and could better explain the pathological changes in AD progression. (authors)

  17. The time course of altered brain activity during 7-day simulated microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Microgravity causes multiple changes in physical and mental levels in humans, which can induce performance deficiency among astronauts. Studying the variations in brain activity that occur during microgravity would help astronauts to deal with these changes. In the current study, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI was used to observe the variations in brain activity during a 7-day head down tilt (HDT bed rest, which is a common and reliable model for simulated microgravity. The amplitudes of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of twenty subjects were recorded pre-head down tilt (pre-HDT, during a bed rest period (HDT0, and then each day in the HDT period (HDT1–HDT7. One-way analysis of variance of the ALFF values over these 8 days was used to test the variation across time period (P<0.05, corrected. Compared to HDT0, subjects presented lower ALFF values in the posterior cingulate cortex and higher ALFF values in the anterior cingulate cortex during the HDT period, which may partially account for the lack of cognitive flexibility and alterations in autonomic nervous system seen among astronauts in microgravity. Additionally, the observed improvement in function in CPL during the HDT period may play a compensatory role to the functional decline in the paracentral lobule to sustain normal levels of fine motor control for astronauts in a microgravity environment. Above all, those floating brain activities during 7 days of simulated microgravity may indicate that the brain self-adapts to help astronauts adjust to the multiple negative stressors encountered in a microgravity environment.

  18. Eye contact reveals a relationship between Neuroticism and anterior EEG asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusberg, Helen; Allik, Jüri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2015-07-01

    Although anterior functional brain asymmetry has been linked to individual differences in affect and motivation, its relations with the Five Factor Model personality traits remain unclear. We investigated anterior EEG alpha-activity asymmetry in response to variable degrees of social contact induced by different gaze directions of a "live" model. Neuroticism was negatively related to the anterior EEG asymmetry scores in response to direct gaze, indicating that higher levels of Neuroticism were associated with avoidance-related, relative right-sided functional brain asymmetry. Neuroticism was also related to behavioral direct gaze avoidance and subjective averted gaze preference. These relationships arose primarily from the Withdrawal aspect factor, suggesting that two subdomains of Neuroticism may be differentially related to approach-avoidance tendencies. These findings demonstrate that experimental manipulations of social contact can reveal personality related differences in anterior EEG asymmetry responsiveness, offering a motivationally salient alternative to resting state measures. PMID:25980386

  19. Floating anterior lens capsule: an unusual case of true exfoliation

    OpenAIRE

    Riffle, John

    2010-01-01

    A rare case of delamination and replication of the anterior lens capsule into prominent floating folds in the anterior chamber approximately 55 years after a penetrating injury to the eye and anterior lens capsule is reported. Classically, true exfoliation of the anterior lens capsule has been reported in individuals who have been exposed to intense heat over a prolonged period. However, more recently cases of true exfoliation of the anterior lens capsule have been reported in patients who ha...

  20. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... if, dislocations aside, what about just choice of bearing based on a patient activity? Are you comfortable ... Do you concerns about you post-op weight bearing restrictions with a collarless stem?” No. Okay. I ...

  1. Aphasia following anterior cerebral artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have report two cases of aphasia that had infarcts in the distribution of the left or right anterior cerebral artery, as confirmed by computed tomography. Case 1 is a right-handed, 65-year-old man in whom computerized tomographic scanning revealed an infarction of the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery after the clipping of the anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The standard language test of aphasia (SLTA) revealed non-fluent aphasia with dysarthria, good comprehension, almost normal repetition with good articulation, and a defectiveness in writing. This syndrome was considered an instance of transcortical motor aphasia. Although three years had passed from the onset, his aphasia did not show any improvement. Case 2 is a 37-year-old man who is right-handed but who can use his left hand as well. He was admitted because of subarachnoid hemorrhage from an anterior communicating aneurysm. Because of postoperative spasm, an infarction in the distribution of the right anterior cerebral artery developed. He was totally unable to express himself vocally, but he could use written language quite well to express his ideas and had a good comprehension of spoken language. This clinical picture was considered that of an aphemia. After several weeks, his vocalization returned, but the initial output was still hypophonic. (J.P.N.)

  2. Irradiação contralateral de força para a ativação do músculo tibial anterior em portadores da doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth: efeitos de um programa de intervenção por FNP Contralateral force irradiation for the activation of tibialis anterior muscle in carriers of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: effect of PNF intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula C. Meningroni

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a resposta do músculo tibial anterior (TA após um protocolo de cinco semanas com irradiação contralateral de força através de diagonais de facilitação neuromuscular proprioceptiva (FNP em pacientes com polineuropatia desmielinizante associada à doença de Charcot-Marie-Tooth do tipo 1A (CMT-1A. MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 12 pacientes, de ambos os sexos. Eles foram tratados em uma frequência de duas vezes por semana, durante cinco semanas. Em cada sessão, foram utilizadas as diagonais de Chopping, extensão-adução com rotação interna (EARI e flexão-abdução com rotação interna (FARI. As diagonais foram repetidas quatro vezes, em ambos os membros superiores e inferiores; cada diagonal tinha duração média de 6 segundos. Durante as execuções, a resposta muscular do TA foi registrada por um eletromiógrafo de superfície, desprezando-se os 2 segundos iniciais e finais de cada diagonal. A média dos valores de Root Mean Square (RMS das quatro repetições foi normalizada em porcentagem. Os dados iniciais e finais foram submetidos ao teste em t para amostras pareadas com valores de p significativos OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of the tibialis anterior (TA muscle following a five-week protocol with contralateral irradiation force through Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF diagonals in patients with demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT-1A. METHODS: The study included 12 patients of both sexes. They were treated twice-weekly for 5 weeks. At each session, they performed the following diagonal patterns: chopping, extension-adduction with internal rotation (EAIR and flexion-abduction with internal rotation (FAIR. The diagonals were repeated four times, in both upper and lower limbs, with each repetition lasting six seconds on average. During execution, the response of the TA muscle was recorded by a surface electromyograph disregarding the

  3. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-01-01

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing. PMID:20140088

  4. Oxytocin receptor gene and racial ingroup bias in empathy-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Siyang; Li, Bingfeng; Ma, Yina; Zhang, Wenxia; Rao, Yi; Han, Shihui

    2015-04-15

    The human brain responds more strongly to racial ingroup than outgroup individuals' pain. This racial ingroup bias varies across individuals and has been attributed to social experiences. What remains unknown is whether the racial ingroup bias in brain activity is associated with a genetic polymorphism. We investigated genetic associations of racial ingroup bias in the brain activity to racial ingroup and outgroup faces that received painful or non-painful stimulations by scanning A/A and G/G homozygous of the oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism (OXTR rs53576) using functional MRI. We found that G/G compared to A/A individuals showed stronger activity in the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor area (ACC/SMA) in response to racial ingroup members' pain, whereas A/A relative to G/G individuals exhibited greater activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in response to racial outgroup members' pain. Moreover, the racial ingroup bias in ACC/SMA activity positively predicted participants' racial ingroup bias in implicit attitudes and NAcc activity to racial outgroup individuals' pain negatively predicted participants' motivations to reduce racial outgroup members' pain. Our results suggest that the two variants of OXTR rs53576 are associated with racial ingroup bias in brain activities that are linked to implicit attitude and altruistic motivation, respectively. PMID:25637390

  5. Brain activations during pain: a neuroimaging meta-analysis of patients with pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Karin B; Regenbogen, Christina; Ohse, Margarete C; Frasnelli, Johannes; Freiherr, Jessica; Lundström, Johan N

    2016-06-01

    In response to recent publications from pain neuroimaging experiments, there has been a debate about the existence of a primary pain region in the brain. Yet, there are few meta-analyses providing assessments of the minimum cerebral denominators of pain. Here, we used a statistical meta-analysis method, called activation likelihood estimation, to define (1) core brain regions activated by pain per se, irrelevant of pain modality, paradigm, or participants and (2) activation likelihood estimation commonalities and differences between patients with chronic pain and healthy individuals. A subtraction analysis of 138 independent data sets revealed that the minimum denominator for activation across pain modalities and paradigms included the right insula, secondary sensory cortex, and right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Common activations for healthy subjects and patients with pain alike included the thalamus, ACC, insula, and cerebellum. A comparative analysis revealed that healthy individuals were more likely to activate the cingulum, thalamus, and insula. Our results point toward the central role of the insular cortex and ACC in pain processing, irrelevant of modality, body part, or clinical experience; thus, furthering the importance of ACC and insular activation as key regions for the human experience of pain. PMID:26871535

  6. THYMOLIPOMA: A RARE, LARGE ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymolipoma is a rare benign tumor of anterior mediastinum, described by Lange in 1916. 1 Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. 2 It accounts for 2% to 9% of thymic tumours. 3 We report a case of thymolipoma in a 37 year s old male patient, who pre sented with cough, dys p nea, chest pain for 2 months. CT THORAX revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass extending in to right hemithorax arising from thymus gland, with multiple areas of fat density, no significant mediastinal adenopathy, complete collap se of right middle and lower lobe suggestive of thymolipoma. CT guided biopsy suggestive of thymic neoplasm. The tumour was removed enbloc through surgery. Histopathological examination of large mass lesion confirmed thymolipoma. We report this case to emp hasize the importance of considering thymolipoma as a differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal mass, although rare.

  7. Local activity determines functional connectivity in the resting human brain: a simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Bienkowska, Katarzyna; Strobel, Carola; Tahmasian, Masoud; Grimmer, Timo; Förster, Stefan; Friston, Karl J; Sorg, Christian; Drzezga, Alexander

    2014-04-30

    Over the last decade, synchronized resting-state fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals between remote brain areas [so-called BOLD resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC)] have gained enormous relevance in systems and clinical neuroscience. However, the neural underpinnings of rs-FC are still incompletely understood. Using simultaneous positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging we here directly investigated the relationship between rs-FC and local neuronal activity in humans. Computational models suggest a mechanistic link between the dynamics of local neuronal activity and the functional coupling among distributed brain regions. Therefore, we hypothesized that the local activity (LA) of a region at rest determines its rs-FC. To test this hypothesis, we simultaneously measured both LA (glucose metabolism) and rs-FC (via synchronized BOLD fluctuations) during conditions of eyes closed or eyes open. During eyes open, LA increased in the visual system, and the salience network (i.e., cingulate and insular cortices) and the pattern of elevated LA coincided almost exactly with the spatial pattern of increased rs-FC. Specifically, the voxelwise regional profile of LA in these areas strongly correlated with the regional pattern of rs-FC among the same regions (e.g., LA in primary visual cortex accounts for ∼ 50%, and LA in anterior cingulate accounts for ∼ 20% of rs-FC with the visual system). These data provide the first direct evidence in humans that local neuronal activity determines BOLD FC at rest. Beyond its relevance for the neuronal basis of coherent BOLD signal fluctuations, our procedure may translate into clinical research particularly to investigate potentially aberrant links between local dynamics and remote functional coupling in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24790196

  8. Noradrenergic stimulation modulates activation of extinction-related brain regions and enhances contextual extinction learning without affecting renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lissek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Renewal in extinction learning describes the recovery of an extinguished response if the extinction context differs from the context present during acquisition and recall. Attention may have a role in contextual modulation of behavior and contribute to the renewal effect, while noradrenaline is involved in attentional processing. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study we investigated the role of the noradrenergic system for behavioral and brain activation correlates of contextual extinction and renewal, with a particular focus upon hippocampus and ventromedial PFC, which have crucial roles in processing of renewal. Healthy human volunteers received a single dose of the NA reuptake inhibitor atomoxetine prior to extinction learning. During extinction of previously acquired cue-outcome associations, cues were presented in a novel context (ABA or in the acquisition context (AAA. In recall, all cues were again presented in the acquisition context. Atomoxetine participants (ATO showed significantly faster extinction compared to placebo (PLAC. However, atomoxetine did not affect renewal. Hippocampal activation was higher in ATO during extinction and recall, as was ventromedial PFC activation, except for ABA recall. Moreover, ATO showed stronger recruitment of insula, anterior cingulate, and dorsolateral/orbitofrontal PFC. Across groups, cingulate, hippocampus and vmPFC activity during ABA extinction correlated with recall performance, suggesting high relevance of these regions for processing the renewal effect. In summary, the noradrenergic system appears to be involved in the modification of established associations during extinction learning and thus has a role in behavioral flexibility. The assignment of an association to a context and the subsequent decision on an adequate response, however, presumably operate largely independently of noradrenergic mechanisms.

  9. Reduced posterior cingulate binding of I-123 iodo-dexetimide to muscarinic receptors in mild Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy, K L; Barnden, L R; Katsifis, A G; Rowe, C C

    2005-05-01

    Early detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) allows timely pharmacological and social interventions. Alteration in muscarinic receptor binding was evaluated with I-123 iodo-dexetimide (IDEX) in early clinical stage AD. We studied 11 mild AD patients (Folstein Minimental State Examination Score 24-27, Clinical Dementia Rating 0.5-1.0) and 10 age- and sex-matched normal subjects with SPECT brain imaging after injection of 185 MBq of IDEX and 750 MBq of 99mTc-HMPAO. Using a voxel based approach (Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM99) software), a deficit in IDEX binding was found in the posterior cingulate cortex in the mild AD group with p (corrected)=0.06 for the most significant voxel and p=0.0003 for the voxel cluster. Region of interest (ROI) analysis confirmed the SPM99 results. SPM99 found no deficit in the HMPAO scans, suggesting that neither atrophy nor hypoperfusion were major factors in the reduced IDEX binding. This study provides further evidence of the involvement of the posterior cingulate region and of muscarinic receptors in early Alzheimer's disease and suggests that this change may precede an alteration in blood flow. PMID:15925773

  10. Corticolimbic metabolic dysregulation in euthymic older adults with bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, John O.; Hoblyn, Jennifer C.; Woodard, Stephanie A.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Ketter, Terence A.

    2008-01-01

    The corticolimbic dysregulation hypothesis of bipolar disorder suggests that depressive symptoms are related to dysregulation of components of an anterior paralimbic network (anterior cingulate, anterior temporal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, and amygdala) with excessive anterior limbic activity accompanied by diminished prefrontal activity. In younger patients, such abnormalities tend to resolve with remission of depression, but it remains to be established w...

  11. Anterior tooth relations in Kenyan Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, J; Pokhariyal, G P

    1993-04-01

    Dental plaster casts of 235 Maasai, 116 Kikuyu and 61 Kalenjin children aged 3-16 yr were studied to determine the incidence and magnitude of diastemas, overbite, overjet and anterior open bite. The highest prevalence of diastema was amongst the Maasai (61.3%), of overbite (84%) and overjet (99%) amongst the Kikuyu, and of anterior open bite amongst Kalenjin (24%), with values greater than 0.4 mm up to 11.5 mm. Comparison of the mean values showed that diastema (1.77 mm) and overjet (4.4 mm) were greatest in Maasai, overbite (3.53 mm) in Kalenjin, and anterior open bite (3.50 mm) in Kikuyu. In the total sample, the prevalence and mean of diastema were 49%, 1.68 mm; of overbite 77.4%, 2.96 mm; of overjet 88.6%, 3.83 mm; and of anterior open bite 16.5%, 2.69 mm (with values between 0.4-11.5 mm), while 5.5% had an edge-to-edge bite (-0.5-0.5 mm). The prevalence of diastema decreased whilst its magnitude increased with age. The mean values of overbite and overjet increased, while those for anterior open bite decreased with age. The mean values of diastema, overbite and overjet were greater amongst the females, but the difference was significant only for overjet. The high prevalence and greater values of measurements of anterior tooth relations may be related to variable growth of the bimaxillary dentoalveolar complex and soft tissue influences. This may be important in orthodontic treatment planning, dental prostheses and other clinical dental treatments in Kenyan populations. PMID:8517805

  12. Increased fronto-temporal activation during pain observation in sexual sadism: Preliminary findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harenski, Carla L.; Thornton, David M.; Harenski, Keith A.; Decety, Jean; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Context Sexual sadism is a psychiatric disorder in which sexual pleasure is derived from inflicting pain, suffering, and/or humiliation on others. While the psychological and forensic aspects of sexual sadism have been well-characterized, little is known about the neurocognitive circuitry associated with the disorder. Sexual sadists show increased peripheral sexual arousal when observing other individuals in pain. The neural mechanisms underlying this unusual response are not well understood. We predicted that sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, would show increased responses in brain regions associated with sexual arousal (amygdala, hypothalamus, ventral striatum) and affective pain processing (anterior cingulate, anterior insula) during pain observation. Objective To study the neural correlates of pain observation in sexual sadists and non-sadists. Design Case-control, cross-sectional study. Sexual sadists and non-sadists viewed 50 social scenes, 25 which depicted a person in pain (e.g., one person stabbing another person’s hand with scissors) and 25 thematically matched no-pain pictures (e.g., one person stabbing a table with scissors with another person’s hand nearby). Pain severity ratings (0 = none, 4 = severe) were acquired following each picture presentation. Setting Sand Ridge Secure Treatment Center, Mauston, Wisconsin. Participants 15 violent sexual offenders; eight sexual sadists and seven age, IQ, and education-matched non-sadists (defined by the Severe Sexual Sadism Scale). Main Outcome Measures Hemodynamic response revealed by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and pain severity ratings. Results Sexual sadists, relative to non-sadists, showed greater amygdala activation when viewing pain pictures. They also rated pain pictures higher on pain severity than non-sadists. Sexual sadists, but not non-sadists, showed a positive correlation between pain severity ratings and activity in the anterior insula. Conclusions These results

  13. O-15-butanol PET activation study on declarative memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: In this study, neuroanatomical correlates of encoding and retrieval in paired associate learning were evaluated with positron emission tomography using auditorily presented highly imaginable words. Methods: Six right-handed normal male volunteers took part in the study. Each subject underwent six O-15-butanol PET scans. On each of the six trials the memory task began with the injection of a bolus of O-15-butanol. The subjects had to learn and retrieve twelve word pairs (highly imaginable words, not semantically related). The presentation of nonsense words served as reference condition. Results: Recall accuracy after 2-4 presentations was high during the PET measurement. In both encoding and retrieval we found anterior cingulate activation. We show bilateral dorsalateral prefrontal activation during the encoding of auditorily presented word pair associates, whereas retrieval led to left frontal activation. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of the precuneus in the retrieval of highly imaginable world-pair associates. Conclusion: Our results support the hypothesis of the presence of distributed widespread brain structures subserving episodic declarative memory. (orig.)

  14. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  15. Roentgenographic findings following anterior cervical fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed the pre- and postoperative lateral cervical roentgenograms in 90 patients who had anterior fusions and compared their findings with age and sex-matched people without neck problems. The average interval from surgery to review was 5 years. Preoperatively, all patients had a higher incidence of degenerative spondylosis at the levels to be fused than their asymptomatic counterparts. Postoperatively, there was no difference in the incidence of degenerative change between the operated and the control group at the levels above and below the fusion with the exception of anterior osteophyte formation which was more frequent in those with fusions. (orig.)

  16. Neuronal activity and the expression of hypothalamic oxytocin and vasopressin in social versus cocaine conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaobao; Wang, Jianli; Zhan, Bo; Cheng, Guangchao

    2016-09-01

    Although drug rewards and natural rewards share neural substrates, the neuronal activation patterns and mechanisms behind the interaction between cocaine and social reward are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the conditioned place preference (CPP) in social (conspecific) vs cocaine conditioning, and the expression of central c-Fos, hypothalamic oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) in ICR mice. We found that the mice produced CPP when conditioned with unfamiliar conspecific or cocaine alone. However, the mice failed to produce CPP when the two stimuli were concurrently conditioned. Compared to conditioning with conspecific alone, the mice decreased preference for conspecific when conditioning with social vs cocaine. We observed differential expression of c-Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, accumbens (shell and core), medial nucleus of the amygdale and the ventral pallidum when comparing the control (CK), social (SC) or cocaine conditioning (CC) group, and social vs cocaine conditioning (SCC) group. Compared to the CK group, the SC or CC group had higher OT expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and lower AVP expression in the PVN and supraoptic nucleus. The SCC group showed lower OT expression compared to the SC group, and higher OT and AVP expression in the PVN compared to the CC group. These results indicate that cocaine impairs social preference through competing with social reward. The differential activations of neurons within specific reward areas, and differential expression of OT and AVP are likely to play an important role in mediating the interaction between social and cocaine rewards. PMID:27163750

  17. Regional Brain Activation during Meditation Shows Time and Practice Effects: An Exploratory FMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Baron Short

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Meditation involves attentional regulation and may lead to increased activity in brain regions associated with attention such as dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether DLPFC and ACC were activated during meditation. Subjects who meditate were recruited and scanned on a 3.0 Tesla scanner. Subjects meditated for four sessions of 12 min and performed four sessions of a 6 min control task. Individual and group t-maps were generated of overall meditation response versus control response and late meditation response versus early meditation response for each subject and time courses were plotted. For the overall group (n = 13, and using an overall brain analysis, there were no statistically significant regional activations of interest using conservative thresholds. A region of interest analysis of the entire group time courses of DLPFC and ACC were statistically more active throughout meditation in comparison to the control task. Moreover, dividing the cohort into short (n = 8 and long-term (n = 5 practitioners (>10 years revealed that the time courses of long-term practitioners had significantly more consistent and sustained activation in the DLPFC and the ACC during meditation versus control in comparison to short-term practitioners. The regional brain activations in the more practised subjects may correlate with better sustained attention and attentional error monitoring. In summary, brain regions associated with attention vary over the time of a meditation session and may differ between long- and short-term meditation practitioners.

  18. Differential Activation Patterns of fMRI in Sleep-Deprived Brain: Restoring Effects of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggested a remediation role of acupuncture in insomnia, and acupuncture also has been used in insomnia empirically and clinically. In this study, we employed fMRI to test the role of acupuncture in sleep deprivation (SD. Sixteen healthy volunteers (8 males were recruited and scheduled for three fMRI scanning procedures, one following the individual’s normal sleep and received acupuncture SP6 (NOR group and the other two after 24 h of total SD with acupuncture on SP6 (SD group or sham (Sham group. The sessions were counterbalanced approximately two weeks apart. Acupuncture stimuli elicited significantly different activation patterns of three groups. In NOR group, the right superior temporal lobe, left inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus were activated; in SD group, the anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral insula, left basal ganglia, and thalamus were significantly activated while, in Sham group, the bilateral thalamus and left cerebellum were activated. Different activation patterns suggest a unique role of acupuncture on SP6 in remediation of SD. SP6 elicits greater and anatomically different activations than those of sham stimuli; that is, the salience network, a unique interoceptive autonomic circuit, may indicate the mechanism underlying acupuncture in restoring sleep deprivation.

  19. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament injury on bone curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hunter, D J; Lohmander, Stefan; Makovey, J;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Investigate the 5-year longitudinal changes in bone curvature after acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and identify predictors of such changes. METHODS: In the KANON-trial (ISRCTN 84752559), 111/121 young active adults with an acute ACL tear to a previously un-injured knee...... MR images. Curvature (mm(-1)) was determined for femur, tibia, medial/lateral femur, trochlea, medial/lateral tibia. Age, sex, treatment, BMI, meniscal injury, osteochondral fracture on baseline MR images were tested for association. RESULTS: Over 5 years, curvature decreased in each region (P < 0...

  20. 'Visual' cortical activation induced by acupuncture at vision-related acupoint: a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has attracted attention recently that acupuncture at vision-related acupoints, which are used to treat eye diseases according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), could activate the visual cortex. Cho and colleagues have reported that acupuncture at vision-related acupoints in the foot, activate the visual cortex bilaterally. Similar results were reported by Siedentopf and coworkers using laser acupuncture. However, Gareus et al. did not get the result. In this study, manual acupuncture was used to examine the response of central nervous system (CNS) to acupuncture at Liv3, one of important acupoints used to treat eye-related disease in clinic. To avoid the non-specific factors such as pain and anxiety, a sham acupoint which is approximately 10 mm anterior to Liv3 and innervated by the same spinal segment was selected as control. The CNS response was obtained by subtracting fMRI brain images evoked by nearby 'sham' acupoint from that evoked by the 'real' acupoint. 17 healthy right handed volunteers were comprised in the study. The images were got on 1.5T MR with EPI sequence. After 62 baseline scans, a silver needle 0.30 mm in diameter and 25 mm long was inserted and twirled for 60 scans; then the needle was withdrawn while fMRI scanning continued, until a total of 402 scans were acquired. During acupuncture, the needle was twirled manually clockwise and anticlockwise at 1 Hz with 'even reinforcing and reducing' needle manipulation. The depth of needle insertion at the sham acupoint was approximately 15 mm, the same as at the real acupoint. All the points in this study were on the right foot. The data were analyzed with spm99 using random effects analysis, discrepancies in the activation areas between Liv3 and the sham acupoint were obtained at p<0.01. Acupuncture at Liv3 significantly activated Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19) bilaterally, middle temporal gyrus, cerebellum, ipsilateral posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, contralateral postcentral gyrus, and

  1. 'Visual' cortical activation induced by acupuncture at vision-related acupoint: A fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has attracted attention recently that acupuncture at vision-related acupoints, which are used to treat eye diseases according to Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), could activate the visual cortex. Cho and colleagues have reported that acupuncture at vision-related acupoints in the foot, activate the visual cortex bilaterally. Similar results were reported by Siedentopf and coworkers using laser acupuncture. However, Gareus et al. did not get the result, In this study, manual acupuncture was used to examine the response of central nervous system (CNS) to acupuncture at Liv3, one of important acupoints used to treat eye-related disease in clinic. To avoid the non-specific factors such as pain and anxiety, a sham acupoint which is approximately 10 mm anterior to Liv3 and innervated by the same spinal segment was selected as control. The CNS response was obtained by subtracting fMRI brain images evoked by nearby 'sham' acupoint from that evoked by the 'real' acupoint. 17 healthy right handed volunteers were comprised in the study. The images were got on 1.5T MR with EPI sequence. After 62 baseline scans, a silver needle 0.30 mm in diameter and 25 mm long was inserted and twirled for 60 scans; then the needle was withdrawn while fMRI scanning continued, until a total of 402 scans were acquired. During acupuncture, the needle was twirled manually clockwise and anticlockwise at 1 Hz with 'even reinforcing and reducing' needle manipulation. The depth of needle insertion at the sham acupoint was approximately 15 mm, the same as at the real acupoint. All the points in this study were on the right foot. The data were analyzed with spm99 using random effects analysis, discrepancies in the activation areas between Liv3 and the sham acupoint were obtained at p<0.01. Acupuncture at Liv3 significantly activated Brodmann Area 19 (BA 19) bilaterally, middle temporal gyrus, cerebellum, ipsilateral posterior cingulate, parahippocampal gyrus, contralateral postcentral gyrus, and

  2. The impact of combined meniscus tear on quality of life after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harhaji Vladimir V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An anterior cruciate ligament injury represents a significant epidemiological problem worldwide, especially due to involving young, sporty and active working-age population. This study has been conducted in order to compare the quality of life of patients who had isolated anterior cruciate ligament tear and of those who suffered from an associated meniscal injury. Material and Methods. This study included 185 patients who had undergone reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament at the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology in Novi Sad from January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group A consisted of patients who had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction only, and group B consisted of patients who had partial meniscectomy in addition to the anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The follow-up period was 12 months. Results. Distribution of patients by gender was significantly in favor of men. In our study, 146 patients were male and 39 patients were female. The average age of patients was 26.1 years overall (16-55 years, being 26.9 years for men, and 23.3 years for female patients. Out of 185 patients, 110 had an isolated anterior cruciate ligament injury, while 75 suffered both meniscus, internal or external, and anterior cruciate ligament injury. Conclusion. The comparison of the quality of life of patients in both groups showed no statistically significant difference. Therefore, we were not able to prove the hypothesis about the superior quality of life of those patients who had suffered from a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament only.

  3. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

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    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  4. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari S

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing for a simultaneous arthrodesis and instrumentation during the primary surgical procedure. Experience of five patients with high cervical extradural compression, who underwent surgery using this approach between 1994 and 1999, is presented. The surgical procedures included excision of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (n=2; excision of prolapsed disc and osteophytes (n=2; and excision of a vertebral body neoplasm (n=1. Following the procedure, vertebral arthrodesis was achieved using an iliac graft in all the patients. Only one patient with vertebral body neoplasm required an additional anterior cervical plating procedure for stabilisation the construct. The complications included transient respiratory insufficiency and neurological deterioration in two patients; and, pharyngeal fistula and donor site infection in one patient.

  5. Novel Insights into Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction has become, standard orthopaedic practice worldwide with an estimated 175,000 reconstructions per year in the United States.6 The ACL remains the most frequently studied liga

  6. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  7. Anterior process fractures of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfrew, D.L.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Fractures of the anterior process of the calcaneus are often missed. This error follows from the tendency to focus exclusively on the mortise and malleoli when a history of ankle trauma is supplied. Seven patients with this fracture are presented. The anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and the radiographic features of this injury are discussed.

  8. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  9. Regional brain activity correlates of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E; Behm, Frederique M; Salley, Alfred N; Bates, James E; Coleman, R Edward; Hawk, Thomas C; Turkington, Timothy G

    2007-12-01

    Fifteen smokers participated in a study investigating brain correlates of nicotine dependence. Dependence was reduced by having subjects switch to denicotinized cigarettes for 2 weeks while wearing nicotine skin patches. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans assessed regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) after overnight nicotine abstinence on three occasions: (1) at baseline; (2) after 2 weeks of exposure to denicotinized cigarettes+nicotine patches; and (3) 2 weeks after returning to smoking the usual brands of cigarettes. Craving for cigarettes and scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) questionnaire decreased at the second session relative to the first and last sessions. Regional brain metabolic activity (normalized to whole brain values) at session 2 also showed a significant decrease in the right hemisphere anterior cingulate cortex. Exploratory post hoc analyses showed that the change in craving across sessions was negatively correlated with the change in rCMRglc in several structures within the brain reward system, including the ventral striatum, orbitofrontal cortex and pons. The between-session difference in thalamus activity (right hemisphere) was positively correlated with the difference in FTND scores. Correlational analyses also revealed that reported smoking for calming effects was associated with a decrease (at session 2) in thalamus activity (bilaterally) and with an increase in amygdala activity (left hemisphere). Reported smoking to enhance pleasurable relaxation was associated with an increase in metabolic activity of the dorsal striatum (caudate, putamen) at session 2. These findings suggest that reversible changes in regional brain metabolic activity occur in conjunction with alterations in nicotine dependence. The results also highlight the likely role of thalamic gating processes as well as striatal reward and corticolimbic regulatory pathways in the maintenance of cigarette addiction. PMID:17356570

  10. Brain activation during dual-task processing is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea N Wong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognitive performance and enhanced brain activation. Yet, the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness-related brain activation is associated with better cognitive performance is not well understood. In this cross-sectional study, we examined whether the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and executive function was mediated by greater prefrontal cortex activation in healthy older adults. Brain activation was measured during dual-task performance with functional magnetic resonance imaging in a sample of 128 healthy older adults (59-80 years. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with greater activation during dual-task processing in several brain areas including the anterior cingulate and supplementary motor cortex (ACC/SMA, thalamus and basal ganglia, right motor/somatosensory cortex and middle frontal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex, controlling for age, sex, education, and gray matter volume. Of these regions, greater ACC/SMA activation mediated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and dual-task performance. We provide novel evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness may support cognitive performance by facilitating brain activation in a core region critical for executive function.

  11. Abnormal Frontostriatal Activity During Unexpected Reward Receipt in Depression and Schizophrenia: Relationship to Anhedonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, Nuria; Metastasio, Antonio; Ziauddeen, Hisham; Spencer, Jennifer; Reinders, Niels R; Dudas, Robert B; Arrondo, Gonzalo; Robbins, Trevor W; Clark, Luke; Fletcher, Paul C; Murray, Graham K

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in reward processes may underlie motivational and anhedonic symptoms in depression and schizophrenia. However it remains unclear whether these alterations are disorder-specific or shared, and whether they clearly relate to symptom generation or not. We studied brain responses to unexpected rewards during a simulated slot-machine game in 24 patients with depression, 21 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 healthy controls using functional magnetic resonance imaging. We investigated relationships between brain activation, task-related motivation, and questionnaire rated anhedonia. There was reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, ventral striatum, inferior temporal gyrus, and occipital cortex in both depression and schizophrenia in comparison with healthy participants during receipt of unexpected reward. In the medial prefrontal cortex both patient groups showed reduced activation, with activation significantly more abnormal in schizophrenia than depression. Anterior cingulate and medial frontal cortical activation predicted task-related motivation, which in turn predicted anhedonia severity in schizophrenia. Our findings provide evidence for overlapping hypofunction in ventral striatal and orbitofrontal regions in depression and schizophrenia during unexpected reward receipt, and for a relationship between unexpected reward processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the generation of motivational states. PMID:26708106

  12. Suppressing emotions impairs subsequent stroop performance and reduces prefrontal brain activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Friese

    Full Text Available Abundant behavioral evidence suggests that the ability to self-control is limited, and that any exertion of self-control will increase the likelihood of subsequent self-control failures. Here we investigated the neural correlates underlying the aftereffects of self-control on future control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. An initial act of self-control (suppressing emotions impaired subsequent performance in a second task requiring control (Stroop task. On the neural level, increased activity during emotion suppression was followed by a relative decrease in activity during the Stroop task in a cluster in the right lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, an area engaged in the effortful implementation of control. There was no reliable evidence for reduced activity in the medial frontal cortex (MFC including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, which is involved in conflict detection processes and has previously also been implicated in self-control. Follow-up analyses showed that the detected cluster in the right lateral PFC and an area in the MFC were involved in both the emotion suppression task and the Stroop task, but only the cluster in the right lateral PFC showed reduced activation after emotion suppression during the Stroop task. Reduced activity in lateral prefrontal areas relevant for the implementation of control may be a critical consequence of prior self-control exertion if the respective areas are involved in both self-control tasks.

  13. Brain activation-based sexual orientation in female-to-male transsexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T-H; Kim, G-W; Kim, S-K; Jeong, G-W

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the sexual orientation in association with brain activation pattern in response to visual erotic stimuli in female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven FtM transsexuals who have had sex-reassignment surgery to alter their natal bodies with the gender-identity disorder were participated. Brain activation for sexual orientation was induced by visual stimuli with female and male erotic nude pictures compared with emotionally-neutral pictures. During viewing the erotic female pictures, the brain areas dominantly activated consist of the superior frontal gyrus, supplementary motor area, anterior/median cingulate gyri and hypothalamus, whereas during viewing male pictures, the brain areas with predominant activities were the middle frontal gyrus, precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, angular gyrus, precuneus, superior/middle occipital gyri, cerebellar cortex and vermis. These findings demonstrate that the brain activation patterns induced by viewing male or female erotic pictures show some correlation to the sexual orientation opposite to the genetic sex in FtM transsexuals. This study would be helpful to understand the neural mechanism associated with visual sexual arousal in patients with gender disorder. PMID:26581912

  14. Neuronal activities of forebrain structures with respect to bladder contraction in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Sakakibara, Ryuji; Nakazawa, Ken; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Shimizu, Eiji; Hattori, Takamichi; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2010-03-31

    The forebrain is one of the important suprapontine micturition centres. Previous studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the frontal lobe and the anterior cingulate gyrus elicited either inhibition or facilitation of bladder contraction. Patients with frontal lobe tumours and aneurysms showed micturition disorders. Functional brain imaging studies showed that several parts of the forebrain are activated during bladder filling. We aimed to examine neuronal activities of forebrain structures with respect to bladder contraction in cats. In 14 adult male cats under ketamine anaesthesia in which a spontaneous isovolumetric bladder-contraction/relaxation cycle had been generated, we carried out extracellular single-unit recording in forebrain with respect to the contraction/relaxation cycles in the bladder. We recorded 112 neurons that were related to the bladder-contraction/relaxation cycles. Ninety-four neurons were found to be tonically activated during the bladder-relaxation phase, whereas the remaining 18 neurons were tonically activated during the bladder-contraction phase. Both types of neuron were widely distributed around the cruciate sulcus. Most were located medially (medial and superior frontal gyrus) and the rest were located laterally (middle and inferior frontal gyrus). Neurons recorded in forebrain structures were activated with respect to the contraction/relaxation cycles in the bladder. Forebrain structures may have a significant role in regulating bladder contraction in cats. PMID:20153810

  15. Functional and structural alterations in the cingulate motor area relate to decreased fronto-striatal coupling in major depressive disorder with psychomotor disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances are a classic feature of major depressive disorders. These can manifest as lack of facial expressions and decreased speech production, reduced body posture and mobility, and slowed voluntary movement. The neural correlates of psychomotor disturbances in depression are poorly understood but it has been suggested that outputs from the cingulate motor area (CMA to striatal motor regions, including the putamen, could be involved. We used functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging to conduct a region-of-interest analysis to test the hypotheses that neural activation patterns related to motor production and gray matter volumes in the CMA would be different between depressed subjects displaying psychomotor disturbances (n=13 and matched healthy controls (n=13. In addition, we conducted a psychophysiological interaction analysis to assess the functional coupling related to self-paced finger-tapping between the caudal CMA and the posterior putamen in patients compared to controls. We found a cluster of increased neural activation, adjacent to a cluster of decreased gray matter volume in the caudal CMA in patients compared to controls. The functional coupling between the left caudal CMA and the left putamen during finger-tapping task performance was additionally decreased in patients compared to controls. In addition, the strength of the functional coupling between the left caudal CMA and the left putamen was negatively correlated with the severity of psychomotor disturbances in the patient group. In conclusion, we found converging evidence for involvement of the caudal CMA and putamen in the generation of psychomotor disturbances in depression.

  16. Anterior ethmoidal artery emerging anterior to bulla ethmoidalis: An abnormal anatomical variation in Waardenburg's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Danny K. C.; Shao, Angus; Campbell, Raewyn; Douglas, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In endoscopic sinus surgery, the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is usually identified as it traverses obliquely across the fovea ethmoidalis, posterior to the bulla ethmoidalis and anterior to or within the ground lamella's attachment to the skull base. Injury to the AEA may result in hemorrhage, retraction of the AEA into the orbit, and a retrobulbar hematoma. The resulting increase in intraorbital pressure may threaten vision. Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital, autosomal dom...

  17. Elastic Knee Sleeves Limit Anterior Tibial Translation in Healthy Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Csapo, Simona Hosp, Ramona Folie, Robert Eberle, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer

    2016-03-01

    aspect of the shank, just distal of the patella, recorded the anterior displacement of the tibia. Displacements were continuously recorded but only the discrete values coinciding with 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 N were extracted for statistical analyses. The GNRB® system features a measurement accuracy of 0.1 mm and has been shown to be a valid tool for measurements of anterior knee laxity (Jenny et al., 2013. To control inadvertent coactivation of hamstring muscles, which may bias the results of arthrometry measurements (Steele et al., 1994, the integrated electromyographic (EMG activity of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle was simultaneously recorded and normalized to additional recordings obtained during maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. These tests confirmed that, during arthrometry measurements, the EMG activities of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle were negligible and remained below 3% of MVC levels at all times. To assess measurement reliability, tests were repeated twice under both experimental conditions: first without and then after application of a light elastic knee sleeve (Cellacare Genu, Lohmann & Rauscher, Rengsdorf, Germany. According to the manufacturer’s information, this sleeve can be used for a variety of indications including injury prevention. Test-retest reliability of arthrometry measurements was excellent, as reflected by low typical measurement errors (0.08 mm and high correlation coefficients (r = 0.99, p < 0.001. Analysis of results (Figure 1 by factorial ANOVA revealed that the elastic sleeve tested in this study reduced the anterior displacement of the tibia by a small (max. 0.7 mm on average yet statistically significant amount (F(1,9 = 22.88, p = 0.001, r = 0.98. In an attempt to better understand the degree of protection provided by the sleeve, we determined its material properties by appending weight discs (2.5-15 kg, in steps of 2.5 kg to its dorsal aspect and measuring the resulting elongation. The resulting force

  18. Ten year follow-up study comparing conservative versus operative treatment of anterior cruciate ligament ruptures. A matched-pair analysis of high level athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Meuffels, Duncan; Favejee, Marein; Vissers, Maaike; Heijboer, Rien; Reijman, Max; Verhaar, Jan

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To compare long term outcome of highly active patients with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures treated operatively versus non-operatively. DESIGN: We reviewed high level athletes with an anterior cruciate ligament rupture on either MRI or arthroscopic evaluation more than 10 years previously, who were treated conservatively. They were pair-matched with patients who had had an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with bone-patella-tendon-bone, with respect to age, ...

  19. Trading experience modulates anterior insula to reduce the endowment effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lester C P; Ye, Karen J; Asai, Kentaro; Ertac, Seda; List, John A; Nusbaum, Howard C; Hortaçsu, Ali

    2016-08-16

    People often demand a greater price when selling goods that they own than they would pay to purchase the same goods-a well-known economic bias called the endowment effect. The endowment effect has been found to be muted among experienced traders, but little is known about how trading experience reduces the endowment effect. We show that when selling, experienced traders exhibit lower right anterior insula activity, but no differences in nucleus accumbens or orbitofrontal activation, compared with inexperienced traders. Furthermore, insula activation mediates the effect of experience on the endowment effect. Similar results are obtained for inexperienced traders who are incentivized to gain trading experience. This finding indicates that frequent trading likely mitigates the endowment effect indirectly by modifying negative affective responses in the context of selling. PMID:27482098

  20. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  1. Reconstrução do ligamento cruzado anterior: impacto do desempenho muscular e funcional no retorno ao mesmo nível de atividade pré-lesão Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: impact of muscular and functional performances on the return to pre-injury activity level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lygia Paccini Lustosa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A reconstrução do LCA objetiva restabelecer a biomecânica e minimizar a instabilidade do joelho. OBJETIVO: comparar performance muscular, funcional e frouxidão ligamentar, entre voluntários que retornaram ao mesmo nível de atividade pré-lesão e aqueles que não retornaram, após a reconstrução ligamentar. MÉTODOS: 25 homens, operados pelo mesmo cirurgião, com o ligamento patelar, via artroscopia e mais de dois anos de pós-operatório. Utilizou-se a Cincinnati Knee Rating System para divisão em: grupo adaptado - 15 indivíduos - retornaram ao mesmo nível pré-lesão e grupo não adaptado - 10 indivíduos - não retornaram ao mesmo nível. Todos realizaram o hop test e a corrida em oito para avaliação do desempenho funcional. A performance muscular foi avaliada pelo dinamômetro isocinético (Biodex System 3 Pro® e a frouxidão ligamentar determinada pelo artrômetro KT-1000 (Medmetric®. Utilizou-se o teste t independente e ANOVA para análise de associação. RESULTADOS: não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos em nenhuma das variáveis testadas e não houve diferença entre os membros - operado e não operado. CONCLUSÃO: O não retorno ao mesmo nível funcional pré-lesão não pode ser explicado pela frouxidão ligamentar residual ou pelas diferenças do desempenho muscular e funcional.INTRODUCTION: ACL reconstruction targets the reestablishment of joint biomechanics and minimization of knee instability. OBJECTIVE: to compare muscular and functional performances, and passive joint laxity between volunteers who, after ligament reconstruction, returned to the same pre-injury activity level and those who did not, METHODS: 25 men who had their ACL ligament arthroscopically reconstructed (patellar ligament by the same surgeon, at least two years previously were included in the study. The Cincinnati Knee Rating System was used in order to divide the volunteers into: Adapted Group - 15 individuals who

  2. Local Activity and Causal Connectivity in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wu

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to localize the epileptic focus and characterize its causal relation with other brain regions, to understand the cognitive deficits in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed in 37 children with BECTS and 25 children matched for age, sex and educational achievement. We identified the potential epileptogenic zone (EZ by comparing the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI signals between the groups. Granger causality analysis was applied to explore the causal effect between EZ and the whole brain. Compared with controls, children with BECTS had significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral calcarine, and decreased ALFF in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putaman/caudate, and left cerebellum. ALFF values in the putaman/caudate were positively correlated with verbal IQ scores in patients. The ALFF values in cerebellum and performance IQ scores were negatively correlated in patients. These results suggest that ALFF disturbances in the putaman/caudate and cerebellum play an important role in BECTS cognitive dysfunction. Compared with controls, the patients showed increased driving effect from the EZ to the right medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and decreased causal effects from the EZ to left inferior frontal gyrus. The causal effect of the left inferior frontal gyrus negatively correlated with disease duration, which suggests a relation between the epileptiform activity and language impairment. All together, these findings provide additional insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms of epilepitogenisis and cognitive dysfunction associated with BECTS.

  3. Local Activity and Causal Connectivity in Children with Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yun; Ji, Gong-Jun; Zang, Yu-Feng; Liao, Wei; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Ya-Li; Li, Ke; Zeng, Ya-Wei; Fang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to localize the epileptic focus and characterize its causal relation with other brain regions, to understand the cognitive deficits in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS). Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in 37 children with BECTS and 25 children matched for age, sex and educational achievement. We identified the potential epileptogenic zone (EZ) by comparing the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of spontaneous blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI signals between the groups. Granger causality analysis was applied to explore the causal effect between EZ and the whole brain. Compared with controls, children with BECTS had significantly increased ALFF in the right postcentral gyrus and bilateral calcarine, and decreased ALFF in the left anterior cingulate cortex, bilateral putaman/caudate, and left cerebellum. ALFF values in the putaman/caudate were positively correlated with verbal IQ scores in patients. The ALFF values in cerebellum and performance IQ scores were negatively correlated in patients. These results suggest that ALFF disturbances in the putaman/caudate and cerebellum play an important role in BECTS cognitive dysfunction. Compared with controls, the patients showed increased driving effect from the EZ to the right medial frontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex and decreased causal effects from the EZ to left inferior frontal gyrus. The causal effect of the left inferior frontal gyrus negatively correlated with disease duration, which suggests a relation between the epileptiform activity and language impairment. All together, these findings provide additional insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms of epilepitogenisis and cognitive dysfunction associated with BECTS. PMID:26225427

  4. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  5. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  6. Resting cerebral metabolism correlates with skin conductance and functional brain activation during fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Zeidan, Mohamed A; Pitman, Roger K; Milad, Mohammed R

    2012-02-01

    We investigated whether resting brain metabolism can be used to predict autonomic and neuronal responses during fear conditioning in 20 healthy humans. Regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose was measured via positron emission tomography at rest. During conditioning, autonomic responses were measured via skin conductance, and blood oxygen level dependent signal was measured via functional magnetic resonance imaging. Resting dorsal anterior cingulate metabolism positively predicted differentially conditioned skin conductance responses. Midbrain and insula resting metabolism negatively predicted midbrain and insula functional reactivity, while dorsal anterior cingulate resting metabolism positively predicted midbrain functional reactivity. We conclude that resting metabolism in limbic areas can predict some aspects of psychophysiological and neuronal reactivity during fear learning. PMID:22207247

  7. Evaluation of pain after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D W; Curry, C M; Ruterbories, L M; Avery, F L; Anson, P S

    1997-01-01

    Pain after arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate reconstruction was examined during the first 5 postoperative days to evaluate its intensity and duration. One hundred consecutive patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using a bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft were examined. During surgery, ketorolac (60 mg) was given intravenously and 0.25% bupivicaine (1 ml/kg total) was injected into the joint space and the graft donor site. After surgery, all patients received scheduled doses of oral acetaminophen (650 mg) and ketorolac (10 mg) four times a day, and they were allowed to take oral oxycodone (5 to 10 mg) every 2 hours as needed. Pain scores at rest and with activity reached a maximum on the 2nd postoperative morning. Oxycodone consumption also peaked on the 2nd postoperative day. Eighty-nine (89%) patients reported overall pain as mild or moderate, and 95 patients (95%) reported either excellent or good overall relief of pain. The 5-day cumulative mean of visual analog scale pain scores for attempting straight leg raises was significantly higher for patients unable to successfully perform that activity than for patients who were able to perform it. The association between elevated pain scores and diminished ability to perform straight leg raises suggests that pain may inhibit function and therefore early rehabilitation. PMID:9079170

  8. Functional magnetic resonance imaging during emotion recognition in social anxiety disorder: an activation likelihood meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coenraad J Hattingh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:Social anxiety disorder (SAD is characterised by abnormal fear and anxiety in social situations. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI is a brain imaging technique that can be used to illustrate neural activation to emotionally salient stimuli. However, no attempt has yet been made to statistically collate fMRI studies of brain activation, using the activation likelihood-estimate technique, in response to emotion recognition tasks in individuals with social anxiety disorder. Methods:A systematic search of fMRI studies of neural responses to socially emotive cues in SAD and GSP was undertaken. Activation likelihood-estimate (ALE meta-analysis, a voxel based meta-analytic technique, was used to estimate the most significant activations during emotional recognition. Results: 7 studies were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis, constituting a total of 91 subjects with SAD or GSP, and 93 healthy controls. The most significant areas of activation during emotional recognition versus neutral stimuli in individuals with social anxiety disorder compared to controls were: bilateral amygdala, left medial temporal lobe encompassing the entorhinal cortex, left medial aspect of the inferior temporal lobe encompassing perirhinal cortex and parahippocampus, right anterior cingulate, right globus pallidus, and distal tip of right postcentral gyrus.Conclusion:The results are consistent with neuroanatomic models of the role of the amygdala in fear conditioning, and the importance of the limbic circuitry in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  9. Diminished medial prefrontal activity behind autistic social judgments of incongruent information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamitsu Watanabe

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC, and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information.

  10. Diminished medial prefrontal activity behind autistic social judgments of incongruent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takamitsu; Yahata, Noriaki; Abe, Osamu; Kuwabara, Hitoshi; Inoue, Hideyuki; Takano, Yosuke; Iwashiro, Norichika; Natsubori, Tatsunobu; Aoki, Yuta; Takao, Hidemasa; Sasaki, Hiroki; Gonoi, Wataru; Murakami, Mizuho; Katsura, Masaki; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawakubo, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Kato, Nobumasa; Kano, Yukiko; Miyashita, Yasushi; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yamasue, Hidenori

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal information, the neural mechanisms underlying this symptom of ASD remain unclear. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we compared brain activity in 15 non-medicated adult males with high-functioning ASD to that of 17 age-, parental-background-, socioeconomic-, and intelligence-quotient-matched typically-developed (TD) male participants. Brain activity was measured while each participant made friend or foe judgments of realistic movies in which professional actors spoke with conflicting nonverbal facial expressions and voice prosody. We found that the ASD group made significantly less judgments primarily based on the nonverbal information than the TD group, and they exhibited significantly less brain activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex/ventral medial prefrontal cortex (ACC/vmPFC), and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) than the TD group. Among these five regions, the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC were most involved in nonverbal-information-biased judgments in the TD group. Furthermore, the degree of decrease of the brain activity in these two brain regions predicted the severity of autistic communication deficits. The findings indicate that diminished activity in the ACC/vmPFC and dmPFC underlies the impaired abilities of individuals with ASD to use nonverbal content when making judgments regarding other people based on incongruent social information. PMID:22745788

  11. Uveítes anteriores associadas a doenças sistêmicas Anterior uveitis associated to systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pavão Dimantas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As uveítes anteriores são caracterizadas pela inflamação preponderante do segmento anterior do olho. Hiperemia conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior com células e "flare", precipitados ceráticos e sinéquias posteriores são sinais que compõem o quadro inflamatório. Aspectos clínicos de algumas doenças sistêmicas envolvidas na etiologia das uveítes anteriores serão abordados neste artigo.Anterior uveitis describes a disease predominantly limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cell and flare, keratic precipitates, and iris abnormalities including posterior synechiae characterize the inflammation. This article discusses clinical aspects of the systemic diseases that cause anterior uveitis with review of the literature.

  12. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  13. Altered resting-state brain activity at functional MRI during automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tingyong; Feng, Pan; Chen, Zhencai

    2013-07-26

    Investigations of fear conditioning in rodents and humans have illuminated the neural mechanisms of fear acquisition and extinction. However, the neural mechanism of automatic memory consolidation of fear conditioning is still unclear. To address this question, we measured brain activity following fear acquisition using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). In the current study, we used a marker of fMRI, amplitude of low-frequency (0.01-0.08Hz) fluctuation (ALFF) to quantify the spontaneous brain activity. Brain activity correlated to fear memory consolidation was observed in parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus in resting-state. Furthermore, after acquired fear conditioning, compared with control group some brain areas showed ALFF increased in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in the experimental group, whereas some brain areas showed decreased ALFF in striatal regions (caudate, putamen). Moreover, the change of ALFF in vmPFC was positively correlated with the subjective fear ratings. These findings suggest that the parahippocampus, insula, and thalamus are the neural substrates of fear memory consolidation. The difference in activity could be attributed to a homeostatic process in which the vmPFC and ACC were involved in the fear recovery process, and change of ALFF in vmPFC predicts subjective fear ratings. PMID:23726994

  14. Exposure to GSM 900 MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world-wide and rapidly growing use of mobile phones has raised serious concerns about the biological and health-related effects of radio frequency (RF) radiation, particularly concerns about the effects of RFs upon the nervous system. The goal of this study was conducted to measure cytochrome oxidase (CO) levels using histochemical methods in order to evaluate regional brain metabolic activity in rat brain after exposure to a GSM 900 MHz signal for 45 min/day at a brain-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1.5 W/Kg or for 15 min/day at a SAR of 6 W/Kg over seven days. Compared to the sham and control cage groups, rats exposed to a GSM signal at 6 W/Kg showed decreased CO activity in some areas of the prefrontal and frontal cortex (infralimbic cortex, prelimbic cortex, primary motor cortex, secondary motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex areas 1 and 2 (Cg1 and Cg2)), the septum (dorsal and ventral parts of the lateral septal nucleus), the hippocampus (dorsal field CA1, CA2 and CA3 of the hippocampus and dental gyrus) and the posterior cortex (retrosplenial agranular cortex, primary and secondary visual cortex, perirhinal cortex and lateral entorhinal cortex). However, the exposure to GSM at 1.5 W/Kg did not affect brain activity. Our results indicate that 6 W/Kg GSM 900 MHz microwaves may affect brain metabolism and neuronal activity in rats

  15. Effects of Informative and Confirmatory Feedback on Brain Activation During Negative Feedback Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Kyoung Woo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current study compared the effects of informative and confirmatory feedback on brain activation during negative feedback processing. For confirmatory feedback trials, participants were informed that they had failed the task, whereas informative feedback trials presented task relevant information along with the notification of their failure. Fourteen male undergraduates performed a series of spatial-perceptual tasks and received feedback while their brain activity was recorded. During confirmatory feedback trials, greater activations in the amygdala, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the thalamus (including the habenular were observed in response to incorrect responses. These results suggest that confirmatory feedback induces negative emotional reactions to failure. In contrast, informative feedback trials elicited greater activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC when participants experienced failure. Further psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis revealed a negative coupling between the DLPFC and the amygdala during informative feedback relative to confirmatory feedback trials. These findings suggest that providing task-relevant information could facilitate implicit down-regulation of negative emotions following failure.

  16. Biomechanics and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Vercillo Fabio; Dede Ozgur; Wu Changfu; Woo Savio; Noorani Sabrina

    2006-01-01

    Abstract For years, bioengineers and orthopaedic surgeons have applied the principles of mechanics to gain valuable information about the complex function of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The results of these investigations have provided scientific data for surgeons to improve methods of ACL reconstruction and postoperative rehabilitation. This review paper will present specific examples of how the field of biomechanics has impacted the evolution of ACL research. The anatomy and biome...

  17. Current Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ha Sung; Seon, Jong Keun; Jo, Ah Reum

    2013-01-01

    The advances in the knowledge of anatomy, surgical techniques, and fixation devices have led to the improvement of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction over the past 10 years. Nowadays, double bundle and anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction that more closely restores the normal anatomy of the ACL are becoming popular. Although there is still no definite conclusion whether double bundle ACL reconstruction provides better clinical results than single bundle reconstruction, the...

  18. Familial predisposition to anterior cruciate ligament injury

    OpenAIRE

    Kenichi Goshima; Katsuhiko Kitaoka; Junsuke Nakase; Hiroyuki Tsuchiya

    2014-01-01

    Although several risk factors for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have been evaluated in the literature, there are few reports on familial predisposition. This study investigated the familial predisposition to ACL injury. The study included 350 patients who underwent ACL reconstruction between January 2005 and September 2008. All patients were surveyed by telephone or a written questionnaire about family history (FH) of ACL injury, sports played by family members, and mechanisms of in...

  19. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  20. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Wakeboarding

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Harlan M.; Sanders, Brett

    2012-01-01

    Background: Wakeboarding is an increasingly popular sport that involves aggressive stunts with high risk for lower extremity injury, including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture. Little has been reported on prevalence or mechanism of ACL injury while wakeboarding. Hypothesis: The prevalence of ACL injury in wakeboarding approaches that of other high-risk sports. Analyzing the mechanism of ACL injury may aid in future efforts of prevention. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. M...