WorldWideScience

Sample records for anterior al boom

  1. Floating boom assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, J.D.

    1994-08-03

    A floating boom has associated means for injecting one or more flows of fluid (gas and/or liquid) adjacent an external surface of the boom. Such a flow may be arranged to rise up the side of the boom, staying close to it owing to the Coanda effect. This may serve to discourage a lighter liquid (e.g. oil) on the surface of the bulk liquid from passing under the boom and/or assist passage of the lighter liquid over a weir into a reservoir (which may be provided within the boom). (Author)

  2. Rebeldía en Calama: desafío al orden centralista chileno en un contexto de boom minero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Emmanuel Penaglia Vásquez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2011, l as protestas en la ciudad minera de Calama marcaron un hito en la historia de los movimientos chilenos de protesta te rritorial. A l exigir autonomía, el 5% de las u tilidades generadas por el cobre (la recuperación de los royalties regionales alcanzados entre 1955 y 1973 luego derogadas en la dictadura militar, y la nacionalización de los recursos, e l movimiento social de Calama se diferencia de otras acciones colect ivas locales y regionales ligadas a fenómenos de representación contenciosa y nimby (no en mi patio trasero ; todas ellas acciones motivadas por razones económicas puntuales, en contra de las externalidades negativas ambientales o construidas sobre el peti cionismo al Estado. El presente artículo es un estudio de casos sobre el movimiento de Calama en el que se reflexiona en torno a tres elementos: la presencia de un liderazgo personalista; la existencia de dos identidades históricas : minera y atacameña; y e l desarrollo de mecanismos de agregación y solidaridad.

  3. Aproximación al tratamiento precoz de la mordida cruzada anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Espasa Suárez de Deza, José Enrique; Boj Quesada, Juan Ramón; Ustrell i Torrent, Josep Maria, 1953-

    1994-01-01

    La mordida cruzada anterior debe tratarse precozmente, para mejorar el entorno dentoalveolar y favorecer el crecimiento correcto de los maxilares. En este artículo se analizan: la etiología, el diagnóstico de la mordida cruzada anterior y se mencionan diferentes formas de tratamiento de esta maloclusión en dentición primaria y mixta.

  4. Ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e complicações no segmento ocular anterior de pacientes Evaluation of anterior ocular segment complications in patients with allergic keratoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bezerra de Menezes Botelho

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A alergia ocular é condição que pode ocasionar sintomas de coceira, ardor e lacrimejamento, podendo também ser ameaçadora para visão. A fisiopatologia envolve mecanismos de hipersensibilidade imunológica. Devido a fatores imunológicos, o segmento anterior destes pacientes está mais suscetível a alterações que ameaçam a acuidade visual, tais como: opacidades corneanas, ceratocone e catarata. MÉTODOS: Foram revistos, retrospectivamente, 186 pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite alérgica e selecionados pacientes que possuíam alterações de segmento anterior e acuidade visual menor ou igual a 0,6 corrigida em um ou ambos os olhos. A AV 0,6 foi escolhida aleatoriamente a fim de agrupar os pacientes. Estes pacientes foram analisados quanto à idade, sexo, tipo de alergia, tempo de aparecimento da doença (considerado como tempo de aparecimento de sintomas, tempo de latência (tempo que surgiu a complicação após o primeiro dia de atendimento, alterações sistêmicas, efeitos colaterais das drogas e complicações oculares. Estes pacientes não poderiam melhorar a AV com tratamento tópico e tinham acompanhamento mínimo de 3 meses. RESULTADOS: As alterações de segmento anterior que causaram AV menor ou igual a 0,6 (refração ou estenopeico sem possibilidade de melhora com medicação tópica foram: úlcera em escudo: 5 casos, catarata: 3 casos, opacidade corneana: 6 casos, perfuração ocular: 2 casos e ceratocone: 13 casos. CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com ceratoconjuntivite alérgica podem ter como principais causas de baixa acuidade visual alterações de segmento anterior, entre elas, opacidades corneanas, ceratocone e catarata.PURPOSE: To evaluate complications of allergic keratoconjuctivitis that caused reduction in visual acuity to 0.6 or less and that could not solve with clinic treatment. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively 186 charts and selected patients with visual acuity less than 0.6 on Snellen chart, associated

  5. Booming Sand Dunes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Nathalie

    "Booming" sand dunes are able to produce low-frequency sound that resembles a pure note from a music instrument. The sound has a dominant audible frequency (70-105 Hz) and several higher harmonics and may be heard from far distances away. A natural or induced avalanche from a slip face of the booming dune triggers the emission that may last for several minutes. There are various references in travel literature to the phenomenon, but to date no scientific explanation covered all field observations. This thesis introduces a new physical model that describes the phenomenon of booming dunes. The waveguide model explains the selection of the booming frequency and the amplification of the sound in terms of constructive interference in a confined geometry. The frequency of the booming is a direct function of the dimensions and velocities in the waveguide. The higher harmonics are related to the higher modes of propagation in the waveguide. The experimental validation includes quantitative field research at the booming dunes of the Mojave Desert and Death Valley National Park. Microphone and geophone recordings of the acoustic and seismic emission show a variation of booming frequency in space and time. The analysis of the sensor data quantifies wave propagation characteristics such as speed, dispersion, and nonlinear effects and allows the distinction between the source mechanism of the booming and the booming itself. The migration of sand dunes results from a complicated interplay between dune building, wind regime, and precipitation. The morphological and morphodynamical characteristics of two field locations are analyzed with various geophysical techniques. Ground-penetrating radar images the subsurface structure of the dunes and reveal a natural, internal layering that is directly related to the history of dune migration. The seismic velocity increases abruptly with depth and gradually increases with downhill position due to compaction. Sand sampling shows local

  6. Performance of floating oil booms in unsheltered waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Gregorio; Castro, Alberte

    2013-04-01

    Oil booms are a fundamental tool to diminish the impact of an oil spill. They tend to perform reasonably well in sheltered waters, e.g. within a harbour. However, their performance is often inadequate in open water conditions, under waves, winds and currents. And it is precisely in those conditions that they are needed if oil slicks are to be prevented from reaching certain particularly sensitive areas, such as estuaries, rias, etc. (Castro et al., 2010; Iglesias et al., 2010). In this work the performance of floating oil booms under waves and currents is assessed on the basis of laboratory experiments carried out in a state-of-the-art wave-current flume. Different oil boom models are used, representative of booms with long and short skirts and with different weights. The results show that different booms behave very differently under waves and currents, hence the importance of selecting the boom design that is appropriate for the actual conditions under which it will have to contain the oil slick. Thus, different oil booms should be used for different areas. References A. Castro, G. Iglesias, R. Carballo, J.A. Fraguela, 2010. Floating boom performance under waves and currents, Journal of Hazardous Materials 174, 226-235 G. Iglesias, A.Castro, J.A.Fraguela, 2010. Artificial intelligence applied to floating boom behavior under waves and currents, Ocean Engineering 37, 1513-1521.

  7. Boom Booom Net Radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimshaw, Mark Nicholas; Yong, Louisa; Dobie, Ian

    1999-01-01

    of an existing Internet radio station; Boom Booom Net Radio. Whilst necessity dictates some use of technology-related terminology, wherever possible we have endeavoured to keep such jargon to a minimum and to either explain it in the text or to provide further explanation in the appended glossary....

  8. Beyond the Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDY XIE

    2006-01-01

    @@ Annual GDP growth has averaged 10 percent in China in the past three years and 8 percent in India. During the same period,the global economy has enjoyed the biggest boom in decades,averaging 4.5 percent growth a year.

  9. Booming Dune Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, B.; Bonneau, L.

    2009-12-01

    Sand avalanches flowing down the leeward face of some desert dunes spontaneously produce a loud sound with a characteristic vibrato around a well-defined frequency, a phenomenon called the “song of dunes.” Here, we show through theory that a homogenous granular surface flow is linearly unstable towards growing elastic waves when a localized shear band forms at the interface between the avalanche and the static part of the dune. We unravel the nature of the acoustic amplifying mechanism at the origin of this booming instability. The dispersion relation and the shape of the most unstable modes are computed and compared to field measurements.

  10. Portable Sonic Boom Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamone, Joe

    2006-05-01

    A method is presented to simulate sonic booms using high fidelity and custom-built audio equipment that output to an acoustically treated listening environment, all of which is contained in a portable vehicle. The audio system has inherent low and high frequency performance limitations and also introduces distortion due to the frequency response of the system. The limitations of the system are compensated for by band-pass filtering a full-fidelity sonic boom signature and applying a system equalization filter. The purpose of the band-pass filter is to remove frequency content above and below the capabilities of the system yet retain the audible and felt characteristics of the full-fidelity waveform. The equalization filter, computed from time-domain Wiener filtering, compensates for the frequency-dependent system response of the audio system at several listening positions. The system performance is evaluated by comparing the PLdB, SEL(A) and SEL(C) of the measured system output to the full-fidelity waveform. Results show good agreement between the loudness levels of the full-fidelity waveform and the corresponding measured system output.

  11. The booming dune instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, B.; Bonneau, L.

    2009-12-01

    Sand avalanches flowing down the leeward face of some desert dunes spontaneously produce a loud sound with a characteristic vibrato around a well defined frequency, a phenomenon called the "song of dunes". Here, we show theoretically that an homogenous granular surface flow is linearly unstable towards growing elastic waves when a localized shear band form at the interface between the avalanche and the static part of the dune. We unravel the nature of the acoustic amplifying mechanism at the origin of this booming instability. The dispersion relation and the shape of the most unstable modes are computed and compared to field records performed in the Atlantic Sahara. We finally show that several characteristics predicted by the model and observed in the field allow to dismiss former hypothesis based on resonances or the synchronisation of sand grain collisions.

  12. Animation of boom failure processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computer animations of oil boom failure mechanisms were discussed. The animations are useful in demonstrating the transient processes of boom failure. They consist of a series of images obtained from the graphical output of a computational fluid dynamics program, FLUENT, while the modeling is based on boom failure experiments carried out in flowing water channels. The animations can be viewed on a PC running under Windows '95. Three types of failures are presented, i. e. drainage failure, droplet entrainment and critical accumulation. 11 refs., 3 figs

  13. Analysis of boom spreader mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1983-03-01

    The paper investigates weight and size of large boom spreaders employed for overburden haulage in surface mining. Major steel parts of the upper spreader construction are set in relation to one another (main frame, spreading boom, counterbalance mass, boom of counter mass etc.); their mass is compared for 16 boom spreaders with haulage capacities ranging from 4,400 to 15,400 m/sup 3//h of overburden removal. A formula is derived for calculating the mass of the upper structure in relation to its capacity and boom length. The influence of total equipment ground pressure and the mass of the spreader undercarriage is further analyzed: a diagram is given for the undercarriage mass required to achieve the necessary load bearing capacity. In order to maintain ground pressure values, length and width of undercarriage crawler tracks can be varied. Series of two to twelve crawler track undercarriages are available. Optimum size and mass of undercarriages is shown by parameters of 6 TAKRAF undercarriages.

  14. Boom clay pore water chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, geological disposal in clay is the primary option for the isolation of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel from the biosphere. The Boom Clay is studied as the potential host rock for methodological studies on the geological disposal of radioactive waste. It is present under the facilities of the SCK-CEN at Mol, at a depth of 190 to 293 m. The current R and D programme focuses on the feasibility and safety of radioactive waste disposal in the Boom Clay. In this framework, a detailed characterisation of the clay is performed (mechanical, physico-chemical and hydrogeological properties, variability, role of organic matter,...). In addition, high priority is given to the understanding of the basic phenomena which control the retention o f radionuclides in the clay. Therefore, it is very important to characterise and understand the pore water composition in the host rock. All the available information from previous studies on the Boom Clay pore water chemistry was synthesise d in a 'state of the art' report, status 2004. This report describes the pore water sampling and analytical techniques, the results, and interpretation of a series of studies carried out in-situ in the HADES URF and in the laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the most reliable technique(s) to obtain representative pore water samples, to determine the variation of the pore water composition in the Boom Clay, to present a coherent geochemical model for explaining the mechanisms controlling the Boom Clay pore water composition, and to propose a reference pore water composition to be used in the laboratory experiments, for speciation calculations, and for assessments of perturbation that might influence the Boom Clay pore water. The main conclusions will be presented here. (authors)

  15. The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK.CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay (Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010).One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ∼300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK.CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN3. NaN3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay water

  16. The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariën, A.; Bleyen, N.; Aerts, S.; Valcke, E.

    In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK•CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay ( Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010). One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ∼300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK•CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN 3. NaN 3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO 3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO 2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO 3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay

  17. Realism Assessment of Sonic Boom Simulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Brenda M.; Davies, Patrica; Hodgdon, Kthleen K.; Salamone, Joseph A., III; Pilon, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Developments in small supersonic aircraft design are predicted to result in low-intensity sonic booms. Booms generated by current aircraft are similar to those that led to the ban on commercial supersonic fli ght over the US, so are unsuitable for parametric studies of psychoac oustic response to low-intensity booms. Therefore, simulators have be en used to study the impact of predicted low-intensity sonic booms. H owever, simulators have been criticized because, when simulating conv entional-level booms, the sounds were observed to be unrealistic by p eople experienced in listening to sonic booms. Thus, two studies were conducted to measure the perceived realism of three sonic boom simul ators. Experienced listeners rated the realism of conventional sonic boom signatures when played in these simulators. The effects on percei ved realism of factors such as duration of post-boom noise, exclusion of very low frequency components, inclusion of ground reflections, a nd type of simulator were examined. Duration of post-boom noise was f ound to have a strong effect on perceived realism, while type of simu lator had a weak effect. It was determined that post-boom noise had t o be at least 1.5 seconds long for the sound to be rated very realist ic. Loudness level did not affect realism for the range of sounds pla yed in the tests (80-93 dB ASEL).

  18. El acceso al comportamiento religioso de los homínidos anteriores al Homo sapiens sapiens a través de la actividad simbólica

    OpenAIRE

    Enríquez Gilino, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    Nos enfrentamos aquí ante un asunto de muy difícil resolución, a un asunto que ha producido ríos de tinta y disputas entre los especialistas. Un asunto que no se ha concretado, un asunto que parece haberse abandonado por darse por imposible. Nos estamos refiriendo a las posibilidades religiosas de los homínidos anteriores Homo sapiens sapiens.Para abordar tan difícil cuestión comenzaremos por proponer una metodología apropiada, no sin antes analizar la problemática que encierra nuestro estudi...

  19. Cervicoplastia anterior Anterior cervicoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gomes Patrocínio

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Muitos pacientes buscam correção estética da frouxidão da pele do pescoço, depósito de gordura na região submentoneana ou bandas de platisma. Em grande parte dos casos a ação medial, via cervicoplastia anterior é necessária. OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a casuística e avaliar os resultados e complicações com a técnica de cervicoplastia anterior no Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Relato de série. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Quarenta e dois pacientes, entre 39 e 65 anos de idade, sendo 40 (95,2% do sexo feminino e 2 (4,8% do masculino, foram submetidos a cervicoplastia anterior. Retrospectivamente foram avaliados resultados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Destes, 34 apresentaram resultados satisfatórios, 4 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo cirurgião, 3 apresentaram déficit estético notado somente pelo paciente e 1 apresentou déficit estético necessitando cirurgia revisional. Ao estudo fotográfico, todos os pacientes apresentaram melhora do perfil cervical, redução das bandas de platisma e da frouxidão da pele, estabilização da musculatura cervical e acentuação do ângulo cervicomental, em graus variados. Houve complicação em 2 casos (discreto serohematoma e cicatriz um pouco alargada. CONCLUSÃO: A cervicoplastia, associada ou não à tração lateral pela ritidoplastia, é uma técnica que produz resultados satisfatórios na grande maioria dos casos.Many patients look for aesthetic correction of the laxity of neck skin, submandibular fat deposit or platisma bands. In a large part of the cases, medial action, through anterior cervicoplasty is necessary. AIM: To demonstrate the casuistic and to evaluate the results and complications with anterior cervicoplasty technique in the Otorhinolaryngology Service of the Federal University of Uberlândia. STUDY DESIGN: Serie report. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-two patients, between 39 and 65 years of age, being 40 (95

  20. Debris booms for protection of spillways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is included of concerns pertaining to the use of booms to protect spillways of dams from blockage by floating debris. A well designed and constructed debris boom, if properly maintained can help to protect spillways from blockage. For reservoirs with spillways which could be plugged by small amounts of debris, booms offer questionable protection because low floating wood can pass under even with low water velocity, and small debris can be washed over by wave action. The failure of a debris boom could cause spillway blockage. The strength of boom components can deteriorate rapidly and unpredictably because of various natural forces. For installations at high altitude, there must be time between ice breakup and and spilling to prevent damage if a boom is to be used. Boom design is very site specific. Debris consisting of whole trees with limbs exert very high forces. Debris inflow to a reservoir is difficult to predict on a long term basis. Booms will not stop the passage of all debris, and their effectiveness varies with the type of debris, and with weather and flood conditions. Aspects described include: boom types, boom loadings, location, durability, small dams, conclusions and recommendations. 2 refs., 11 figs

  1. Unstructured grids for sonic-boom analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi, Kamran

    1993-01-01

    A fast and efficient unstructured grid scheme is evaluated for sonic-boom applications. The scheme is used to predict the near-field pressure signatures of a body of revolution at several body lengths below the configuration, and those results are compared with experimental data. The introduction of the 'sonic-boom grid topology' to this scheme make it well suited for sonic-boom applications, thus providing an alternative to conventional multiblock structured grid schemes.

  2. Dynamic Analysis of The Intelligent Sprayer Boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiggers, Sine Leergaard; Maagaard, Jørgen; Terp, Christian Istjord;

    As part of the 3 year project “The intelligent Sprayer Boom”, financed by The Danish National Advanced Technology Foundation, the dynamics of the sprayer boom is to be analysed. In order to minimize the amount of herbicides used to kill the weeds in agriculture a new sprayer boom is being developed...... in Matlab. The model is made in order to analyse the boom movements. The purpose of the model is to support the development of the patented active damping system for the sprayer boom. The Multibody Dynamics model has been made based on data retrieved from a CAD model and a Finite Element model...

  3. Bearings for the biomass boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Duncan

    2011-03-15

    Biomass energy is booming –– more than two billion people depend on biomass for their energy and the International Energy Agency predicts that biomass' share of the global energy supply will treble by 2050. But in many developing countries it is still regarded as a traditional and dirty solution that is often criminalised, unsustainable and poorly paid. A more sophisticated approach that legalises and secures sustainable production by and for local people could help improve energy security, cut carbon emissions, protect forests and reduce poverty.

  4. Water discharging over weir with installed boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupriyanov Vladimir Pavlovich

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a possibility of booms application at spillway dams in order to reduce gates size and capacity of weight lifting device without changing weir discharge capacity. The prospects of booms application at weir top were proved during hydraulic researches conducted at JSC “NIIES” (Joint Stock Company “Scientific Research Institute of Energy Structures”. Basing on the conducted researches the recommendations of booms application at spillway facilities of Yumaguzinskaya and Upper Krasnogorskaya hydropower schemes, as well as at spillway facilities of Sayano-Shushenskaya and Plyavinskaya hydropower plants have been worked out. The main factor limiting wide application of booms at weirs is lack of feasible data for designing. At first, this data has to conclude methods of defining spillway discharge capacity and elevation of boom installation, which allows to keep the same spillway discharge capacity at rated head. The equations to define optimal elevation of boom installation and weir discharge capacity without its submergence have been analytically obtained for nappe-crested weir with installed boom. At the present time it is needed to conduct methodical experimental studies to define the discharge ratio and vertical compression according to different types of booms.

  5. Experts: Chinese Economic Boom Against Global Slowdown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China economic boom to last until at least 2020"The cycle of economic boom in China, the world’s fastest-growing major economy, would last until at least 2020", said an expert with the National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC), the top economic planner.

  6. Basin sidewall effects during comparable boom testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A quantitative investigation of the effects of boom sidewall clearance during first and gross oil loss speed tests was discussed. A second measure of sidewall was quantified in terms of flow characteristics at specific location in the boom apex. The test boom was rigged in 5 different configurations. First oil loss and gross oil loss tow speeds, and relative horizontal flow velocities within the boom apex were obtained for each configuration. Flow velocities of 0.5 to 1.5 knots in 0.25 knot increments were measured. Flow velocities illustrated similar flow characteristics within the apex regardless of side wall clearance. The results of the study illustrated that boom to basin sidewall clearance may be an independent test parameter without a significant bias. 5 tabs., 8 figs.,

  7. Oil containment tests of fire booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil collection performance of five currently available fire booms were tested in an Ohmsett test tank. Test tank performance was compared with at-sea tow test results for planing/submergence failure to establish the potential for use in in-situ burning of marine oil spills. It was found that the buoyancy-to-weight ratio of the booms had a loose correlation to oil containment performance. However, it was the material and the construction of the booms that appeared to have the most significant effect on performance. Steel-skirted booms showed better performance than fabric-skirted booms, despite lower buoyancy-to-weight ratio. Performance in the tank test was better than that in at-sea tests. 7 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  8. Structural analysis of oil containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years, major oil spills, such as the Exxon Valdez incident, and many smaller spills have given rise to a worldwide marine environmental concern. One of the most successful devices for containing and facilitating the recovery of spilled oil, and one which does not endanger or alter the environment in any way, is the oil containment boom. Described in this paper is a finite element (FE)-based method for structural analysis of oil booms. In general, a number of FE models for a typical oil boom section are set up using the COSMOS FEA code. These models differ from one another in oil boom geometry, deployment configurations, and oil boom components. The FEA (fimite element analysis) models are made from the plate elements (skirt and tube), truss elements (tension members and ballast chain), and beam elements (end connector). Loads due to tow/current velocity, wind velocity, wave action, and ballasting, as determined from aero/hydrodynamics analysis, are applied as distributed pressures on the plate and beam elements. This method will predict boom tensile load strength, detailed stress distribution, and distortion characteristics for a particular boom with specific deployment configuration and environmental condition. The derived information can be used to highlight critical design features, thereby optimizing the oil boom design. Alternatively, this information can be used for the selection of an oil boom suited for a particular application and, more importantly, can provide the user with a control evaluation tool to determine whether a given oil boom design can withstand the stresses of its intended application

  9. CO2 production from the Boom clay under thermal load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Organic matter is an important constituent of the clayey rocks studied as natural barriers in the context of radioactive waste disposal. The Boom Clay, currently considered by the Belgian agency for radioactive waste and enriched fissile materials Ondraf/Niras as a potential host formation for geological disposal, contains a substantial amount of organic matter (0.5-5 wt%) of low maturity. Low maturity of the organic matter together with the other diagenetic indicators point to the fact that Boom Clay was never deeply buried and thus never experienced temperatures significantly higher than present T of 15-20 C in the course of its geological history. In contrast to past geological evolution, the temperature in the near-field of a repository for heat-emitting radioactive wastes in the Boom Clay can reach 80-90 C depending on the waste type, cooling time prior to disposal and gallery spacing. It is well documented that Boom Clay kerogen will release significant amounts of CO2 even under mild thermal stress. The production of gaseous compounds like CO2 under moderate thermal stress may have a significant impact on the physico-chemical parameters of the pore water in the near field of the repository and thus may affect speciation and migration behaviour of the radionuclides. Until now, a number of experiments have been performed to determine the source and total CO2 yields under variable conditions, time and temperature regimes. In this contribution, we bring an overview of the available results on the Boom Clay capacity to produce CO2 as a response to thermal stress, its implications for the pore water chemistry and we put forward some perspectives with respect to future research. Deniau et al. (2005) and Lorant et al. (2008) performed closed pyrolyses on the isolated Boom Clay kerogen of the same origin at T between 80 and 200 C. It is estimated that the maximum amount of 'labile' CO2 that can be generated by the

  10. Control and operation of JET articulated boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1987 shutdown 32 toroidal limiters and 8 antennae have been installed using the JET articulated boom under visual control. Trials were done simulating remote conditions. This involved positioning of components up to 350 kg at a distance of 10 m, with 1mm accuracy. The boom has 8 main and 11 additional degrees of freedom for 3 TV camera articulated arms. The authors describe a dynamic simulation of the boom behaviour, including inertia cross coupling and elasticity of the joints, validated on the real system

  11. Witnessing the Booming Home Textile Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanzy Wang

    2012-01-01

    This August, Intertextile Home Textiles concluded successfully in the city of Shanghai with record-breaking number of exhibitors and buyers, presenting the booming home textiles markets both in China and abroad.

  12. Spray controller for horizontal boom movements compensation

    OpenAIRE

    El Bahir, Loussain; Lebeau, Frédéric; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert; Hanus, Raymond

    2002-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods show performance and price limitations. The purpose of this paper is to propose a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray distribution besides the effect of tractor speed variations. The controller is based on ...

  13. Indian Retail Boom : The Human Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Maan, Mahima

    2007-01-01

    Abstract The dissertation aims to study the Indian retail boom from the perspective of its people. The people of India have reacted in a negative way by protesting against the recent developments, especially the entry of big foreign (Wal-Mart) and domestic companies. So, it becomes interesting to know the opinion of its different sections of people. The various sections views were studied with respect to the advent of foreign companies, consumer ethnocentrism, the impact of retail boom a...

  14. The Boom Clay geochemistry: Natural evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay is studied as the reference formation for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. As the Boom Clay is considered as the main barrier for radionuclide migration/retention, a thorough characterisation of the clay and its pore water was done. This facilitates better understanding of the long-term geological processes and the distribution of the trace elements and radionuclides. From a mineralogical/geochemical point of view, the Boom Clay is considered as a rather homogeneous sediment, vertically as well as laterally. It is composed of detrital minerals, organic matter and fossils. Minerals are mainly clay minerals, quartz and feldspars. Minor amounts of pyrite and carbonates are also present. Small variations in mineralogical/geochemical composition are related to granulometrical variations. The radiochemical study indicates that the Boom Clay is in a state of secular radioactive equilibrium, meaning that the Boom Clay has not been disturbed for a very long time. Pore water sampling is done in situ from various piezometers, or by the squeezing or leaching of clay cores in the laboratory. These three pore water sampling techniques have been compared and evaluated. Boom Clay pore water is a NaHCO3 solution of 15 mM, containing 115 mg·l-1 of dissolved natural organic carbon. Some slight variations in pore water composition have been observed and can be explained by principles of chemical equilibrium. (author)

  15. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  16. Tc(IV) interaction with dissolved boom clay humic substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The redox-sensitive fission product technetium-99 is of great interest in nuclear waste disposal studies because of its potential of contaminating the geosphere due to its very long half-life and high mobility. Under oxidising conditions, technetium is present as pertechnetate, a highly soluble, anionic species, that does not sorb significantly on minerals or sediments. Under suitable reducing conditions, eg. in the presence of a reducing solid phase which can act as an electron donor, the solubility can be limited by the reduction of pertechnetate followed by the formation of a surface precipitate with a low solubility. However, in the presence of dissolved humic substances, the solubility may be enhanced due to the formation of Tc-HS complexes. The geochemical behaviour of the redox sensitive Technetium-99 (Tc) in reducing clay environments and in the presence of organic matter, was elucidated with a number of lab-scale Boom Clay batch experiments. In a new set of experiments, the influence of FeS2 on the interaction of Tc with dissolved Boom Clay organic matter was elucidated in batch systems prepared in a similar manner as in Maes et al (2003). In a second set of experiments, the long-term (up to 113 days) behaviour of the Tc interaction with dissolved Boom Clay O.M. was studied. Finally, (ir)reversibility effects concerning the interaction of Tc(IV) with dissolved Boom Clay HS were investigated by examining newly installed equilibrium conditions upon interchanging of supernatants of Tc spiked and not-spiked Boom Clay suspensions. EXAFS measurements (Maes et al., 2004) of different series of experiments were made to further elucidate the nature and kind of Tc(IV)-humic substances species (Gorleben and Boom Clay humic substances ) and to identify Tc(IV) species formed on solid phases (pyrite and magnetite): series 1 consisted of Tc species in presence of 2 different iron-containing surfaces (acting as the necessary reducing solid phase): pyrite and magnetite

  17. Sleipner mishap jolts booming Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on Norway's buoyant offshore industry that was stunned when the concrete substructure for Sleipner natural gas field's main production platform sank in the Grandsfjord off Stavanger late last month. The accident, a blow to Norway's gas sales program in Europe, came with offshore activity in the Norwegian North Sea moving into a new boom period. Currently, 10 oil and gas fields are under development, and several projects are on the drawing board. Aker Oil and Gas, a leading offshore firm, says the country's construction industry will be working at capacity for the next 4 years. Norwegian oil production has been hovering just below 2 million b/d since the beginning of this year, making Norway the North Sea's largest producer, a position formerly held by the U.K. Gas production averages about 3 bcfd. With European gas demand sharply increasing, Norway is under pressure to increase output from new fields in the mid to late 1990s. The Sleipner setback forces state owned Den norske stats oljeselskap AS (Statoil) to cast around for supplies. Sleipner was to have begun deliveries to a consortium of continental gas companies in October 1993. Statoil believes it can fill the gap from existing fields in Norwegian waters

  18. Analysis of sonic boom data to quantify distortions of shock profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionfriddo, Thomas A.

    1992-01-01

    Researchers at Penn State have been examining some sonic boom waveforms recorded during overflights by the Air Force which have become available to NASA and its contractors. The quality of the digitized data and the supporting meteorological data was such that one could test the applicability of molecular relaxation theories. In the late sixties, it had been supposed that the finite rise times in the absence of turbulence had neglected the vibrational relaxation of nitrogen molecules. Bass et al. have demonstrated that molecular relaxation definitely gives the correct order of magnitude of the observed rise times. However, the Air Force data in conjunction with the recent steady-state shock profile model theory of Kang and Pierce give the first opportunity to make a detailed quantitative assessment of the molecular relaxation hypothesis. Currently an investigation is ongoing to establish a method of quantifying the distortion of a sonic boom wave from a classic N-wave shape using the Air Force data taken at Edwards AFB in 1987. Using the premise that energy will be conserved approximately for a sonic boom wave both before and after the boom passes through the Earth's turbulent boundary layer, a classic undistorted waveform is constructed from the distorted signature received at the ground. A correlation between the mean-squared deviation of the distorted and undistorted waveforms and the distance the boom travels through the turbulence is sought.

  19. Sonic booms produced by US Air Force and US Navy aircraft: Measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. A.; Downing, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    A sonic measurement program was conducted at Edwards Air Force Base. Sonic boom signatures, produced by F-4, F-14, F-15, F-16, F-18, F-111, SR-71, and T-38 aircraft, were obtained under the flight track and at various lateral sites which were located up to 18 miles off-track. Thirteen monitors developed by Det 1 AL/BBE were used to collect full sonic boom waveforms, and nine modified dosimeters were used to collect supplemental peak overpressures and the C-weighted Sound Exposure Levels (CSEL) for 43 near steady supersonic flights of the above United States Air Force and United States Navy aircraft. This report describes the measured database (BOOMFILE) that contains sonic boom signatures and overpressures, aircraft tracking, and local weather data. These measured data highlight the major influences on sonic boom propagation and generation. The data from this study show that a constant offset of 26 from the peak overpressure expressed in dB gives a good estimate of the CSEL of a sonic boom.

  20. Analysis of a boom/bust cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper sets out to measure and quantify the impact of the oil shale development cycle of the 1980's. Information used for this analysis is the recently released U.S. Census Bureau population statistics compared to the population projections made in 1980 by the Colorado West Area Council of Governments. Actually anyone who was here and experienced the oil shale development cycle in the 1980's believes it was a severe boom and bust. It is just a matter of quantifying it. Andy Gulliford, the author of open-quotes Boomtown Bluesclose quotes describes in detail how many residents experienced their own personal boom/bust cycle in our region. Anyone interested in the cause and effects of the boom/bust cycle should read a copy of his book

  1. Suction effects in deep Boom clay block samples

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been and are being carried out on a stiff clay from an underground research laboratory located at Mol (Belgium) called Boom clay, in the context of research into deep nuclear waste disposal. Suction effects in deep Boom clay block samples were investigated through the characterisation of the water retention and of the swelling properties of the clay. The data obtained allowed an estimation of the sample initial suction that was reasonably compatible with the in-situ state of stress at a depth of 223 m. The relationship between suction and stress changes during loading and unloading sequences were also examined by running oedometer tests with suction measurements. A rather wide range of the ratio s/sigma 'v (being s the suction and sigma 'v the effective vertical stress) was obtained (0.61 - 1), different from that proposed by Bishop et al; (1974). Finally, the effect of suction release under an isotropic stress close to the estimated sample suction was investigated. A slight swel...

  2. GLOBAL Auto Shows Boom in 2007

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China's independent brands have been booming in recent years when the country's auto industry has seen a rapid growth. They have attracted the global attention, but still need to upgrade constantly whether in technology or business performance in order to strengthen their presence in the global market and become internationalized.

  3. Global credit and domestic credit booms

    OpenAIRE

    Claudio Borio; Robert McCauley; Patrick McGuire

    2011-01-01

    US dollar credit is growing quickly outside the United States, especially in Asia, and in some economies it has outpaced overall credit growth. Cross-border sources of credit bear watching in view of their record of outgrowing overall credit in credit booms. Foreign currency and cross-border sources of credit raise policy issues.

  4. Active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    The possibilities of implementing an active boom suspension is investigated. The performance improvement of an active suspension over a traditional passive one is studied in simulation, and shows a significant improvement. A closed-loop control system involving two ultrasonic distance transducers...

  5. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloew-Marsden, P.; Pedersen, Troels F.; Gottschall, J.; Vesth, A.; Paulsen, R.W.U.; Courtney, M.S.

    2010-08-15

    In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted with booms at the same height but pointing in 60 deg. different directions. In the examined case of a 1.9 m wide equilateral triangular lattice tower with booms protruding 4.1 m at 80 m height the measurement errors are observed to reach up to +- 2 %. Errors of this magnitude are severely problematic in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements corrected to an uncertainty estimated to better than 0.5%. This level of uncertainty is probably acceptable for the above mentioned applications. (author)

  6. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Jennings, A. L.; Black, J; C. Allen

    2013-01-01

    Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior). These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors...

  7. Boom clay pore water geochemistry at Mol site - State of the art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    of most elements at the base of the Putte Member reflects the presence of the 'double band', i.e. two coarser (silty) layers at this location. A coherent geochemical model was proposed by De Craen et al. (2004) to account for the pore water chemistry observed in the MORPHEUS piezometer (installed vertically downward from HADES URF). The model, assuming mineral dissolution/precipitation and cation exchange reactions as the principal processes, could reasonably well reproduce the observed data ranges. However, due to technical difficulties to measure reliably in situ pH and pCO2 at the time, these parameters were fitted by the model. In addition, the observed data ranges covered only a limited part of the Boom Clay and thus were not necessarily representative of the whole Boom Clay Formation. Recent progress in the optimisation of the sampling and measurement procedures led to the installation of a new circulation system around the PRACLAY gallery and an in-house routine application of gas analyses. In addition, a systematic screen for microbial activity became an integral part of the sampling campaigns in the piezometers around PRACLAY to verify the absence of microbial interference with the observed geochemical data. Today, we are able to probe in situ pH, pCO2 and pore water chemistry simultaneously. In this context, we can test, improve and further develop the present Boom Clay pore water geochemical model. Also, the use of additional piezometers for pore water sampling provides complementary data on larger scale thus better representing the overall natural variations in the Boom Clay pore water at Mol site. The modelling effort focuses on explaining the variations in the pore water chemistry observed in the Boom Clay at the formation scale. In-situ measured pH and pCO2 will serve as independent controllers to verify the robustness of the updated model. (authors)

  8. Flow distortion on boom mounted cup anemometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Friis Pedersen, Troels; Gottschall, Julia;

    in the measurement of wind turbine power performance, wind resource assessment and for providing purposeful in-field comparisons between different sensors, e.g. lidar anemometers. With the proposed method, direction dependent errors can be extracted and the mast flow distortion effect on the wind measurements......In this report we investigate on wind direction dependent errors in the measurement of the horizontal wind speed by boom mounted cup anemometers. The boom mounting on the studied lattice tower is performed according to IEC standard design rules, yet, larger deviations than predicted by flow models...... are observed. The errors on the measurements are likely caused by an underestimation of the flow distortions around the tower. In this paper an experimental method for deriving a correction formula and an in-field calibration is suggested. The method is based on measurements with two cup anemometers mounted...

  9. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay; Comportement thermo-hydro-mecanique de l'argile de Boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T

    2008-01-15

    This thesis studied the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of Boom clay, which was chosen to be the host material for the radioactive waste disposal in Mol, Belgium. Firstly, the research was concentrated on the soil water retention properties and the hydro-mechanical coupling by carrying out axial compression tests with suction monitoring. The results obtained permitted elaborating a rational experimental procedure for triaxial tests. Secondly, the systems for high pressure triaxial test at controlled temperature were developed to carry out compression, heating, and shearing tests at different temperatures. The obtained results showed clear visco-elasto-plastic behaviour of the soil. This behaviour was modelled by extending the thermo-elasto-plastic model of Cui et al. (2000) to creep effect. (author)

  10. Immigration and Housing Booms: Evidence from Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz??lez Luna, Libertad; Ortega, Francesc

    2009-01-01

    We estimate empirically the effect of immigration on house prices and residential construction activity in Spain over the period 1998-2008. This decade is characterized by both a spectacular housing market boom and a stunning immigration wave. We exploit the variation in immigration across Spanish provinces and construct an instrument based on the historical location patterns of immigrants by country of origin. The evidence points to a sizeable causal effect of immigration on b...

  11. Stock Price Booms and Expected Capital Gains

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Klaus; Beutel, Johannes; Marcet, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The booms and busts in U.S. stock prices over the post-war period can to a large extent be explained by fluctuations in investors' subjective capital gains expectations. Survey measures of these expectations display excessive optimism at market peaks and excessive pessimism at market troughs. Formally incorporating subjective price beliefs into an otherwise standard asset pricing model with utility maximizing investors, we show how subjective belief dynamics can temporarily delink stock price...

  12. Internet video monitoring of ice boom performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice released into the Niagara River from Lake Erie in the early freeze-up period of winter has been known to cause significant power generation losses at the hydroelectric power plants on the Niagara River. A monitoring program has been developed by the New York Power Authority and Ontario Hydro to help minimize the impacts of ice on power generation in the area. Water level gauges, water temperature probes and low-light-level television cameras are used to obtain real-time observations of certain ice and hydraulic characteristics. Visual observations of ice conditions in the vicinity of the intakes are also recorded. An ice boom, which is about 2,700 m long, is located nearly 50 km upstream from the generating stations which are about 11 km downstream of Niagara Falls. First-hand knowledge of the ice conditions at the ice boom is important for forecasting the availability of power from the Niagara River generating stations and planning possibilities for the power system. The monitoring program has proven to be useful in the evaluation of an ice boom design improvement. 25 figs

  13. On The Thermal Consolidation Of Boom Clay

    CERN Document Server

    Delage, Pierre; Cui, Yu-Jun

    2012-01-01

    When a mass of saturated clay is heated, as in the case of host soils surrounding nuclear waste disposals at great depth, the thermal expansion of the constituents generates excess pore pressures. The mass of clay is submitted to gradients of pore pressure and temperature, to hydraulic and thermal flows, and to changes in its mechanical properties. In this work, some of these aspects were experimentally studied in the case of Boom clay, so as to help predicting the response of the soil, in relation with investigations made in the Belgian underground laboratory at Mol. Results of slow heating tests with careful volume change measurements showed that a reasonable prediction of the thermal expansion of the clay-water system was obtained by using the thermal properties of free water. In spite of the density of Boom clay, no significant effect of water adsorption was observed. The thermal consolidation of Boom clay was studied through fast heating tests. A simple analysis shows that the hydraulic and thermal trans...

  14. Deployment and Characterisation of a Telescopic Boom for Sounding Rockets

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Mark; Keegan, John; Curran, Stephen; Vather, Dinesh; Duffy, Paul

    2011-01-01

    In any sounding rocket, volume and mass are at a premium. Payload designers strive towards smaller, lighter and cheaper mechanisms which can achieve the same goals. This project aims to reduce the mass and volume for probe deployment booms and their deployment mechanisms. An experiment (Telescobe) to test a low cost novel method of boom deployment using telescopic carbon fibre poles was developed. A custom camera measurement system was also developed to measure boom length and harmonic deflec...

  15. Automata-Based Analysis of Stage Suspended Boom Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Anping He; Jinzhao Wu; Shihan Yang; Yongquan Zhou; Juan Wang

    2013-01-01

    A stage suspended boom system is an automatic steeve system orchestrated by the PLC (programmable logic controller). Security and fault-recovering are two important properties. In this paper, we analyze and verify the boom system formally. We adopt the hybrid automaton to model the boom system. The forward reachability is used to verify the properties with the reachable states. We also present a case study to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed verification.

  16. Laboratory testing of a flexible boom for ice management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combating oil spills in the Arctic is a major challenge. Drilling or producing oil or gas in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) may allow booms to be deployed upstream of an offshore structure to clear the water of ice, thereby enabling conventional oil spill countermeasures to be used. Such a boom would be kept in place by two ice-going service vessels or by moored buoys. SINTEF NHL and NRC have performed a number of small-scale tests with a flexible boom in the NRC ice basin in Ottawa. The purpose of the tests was to measure the effectiveness of using a flexible boom for collecting ice, and to determine the loads associated with collecting the ice. In the tests, various boom configurations were towed against a broken ice field consisting of ice pieces typically 50--100 mm across and 30 mm thick. The ice concentration was usually 10/10, but it was reduced to 8/10 and 5/10 for two tests. The boom was towed at speeds of 20 and 50 mm-s-1. Both the width of the boom and the slackness of the boom were varied over reasonable ranges. Two six-component dynamometers were used to support the boom. Thus, the force components on each end of the boom were measured. Further, two video cameras were used to record the effectiveness of each boom configuration. In this paper, the full results of this test program are presented and the application of the test results to the full-scale situation are discussed. The tests show that, under certain conditions, the use of boom is feasible for ice management in oil-contaminated water

  17. A Cosmic Baby-Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-01

    faster than previously estimated. "These observations will demand a profound reassessment of our theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies in a changing Universe", says Gianpaolo Vettolani, the other co-leader of the VVDS project, working at INAF-IRA in Bologna (Italy). These results are reported in the September 22 issue of the journal Nature (Le Fèvre et al., "A large population of galaxies 9 to 12 billion years back in the life of the Universe").

  18. Modelling of cation concentrations in the outflow of NaNO3 percolation experiments through Boom Clay cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory percolation experiment was performed to study the effect of a NaNO3 plume on the Boom Clay. In this experiment, Boom Clay cores were consecutively percolated with Boom Clay pore water and Boom Clay pore water to which NaNO3 was added. The concentration of NaNO3 in the pore water was increased stepwise (0.1, 0.5, and 1 M NaNO3). The concentrations of Na, K, Ca, Mg and Sr in the eluted water were measured. After every switch of the NaNO3 concentration, the concentration profiles of K, Ca, Mg, and Sr showed a sharp rise, followed by a slow decrease. It was hypothesised that the cation elution curves are mainly determined by cation exchange processes. Reactive coupled transport modelling with the PHREEQC-2 code was used to describe the experimentally observed elution curves for the cations. Solute transport and water-clay interaction mechanisms, namely cation exchange, were accounted for in the model. Cation exchange parameters (cation exchange capacity and selectivity coefficients) previously determined on non-perturbed Boom Clay (De Craen et al., 2004) were used. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the influence of these parameter values on the goodness of the model to describe the experimental data. The model could fairly well describe the experimentally observed cation concentrations in the eluted water, confirming that cation exchange is indeed the dominant mechanism regulating the cation elution in the percolation experiments. (authors)

  19. Multidisciplinary design optimization for sonic boom mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcer, Isik A.

    Automated, parallelized, time-efficient surface definition and grid generation and flow simulation methods are developed for sharp and accurate sonic boom signal computation in three dimensions in the near and mid-field of an aircraft using Euler/Full-Potential unstructured/structured computational fluid dynamics. The full-potential mid-field sonic boom prediction code is an accurate and efficient solver featuring automated grid generation, grid adaptation and shock fitting, and parallel processing. This program quickly marches the solution using a single nonlinear equation for large distances that cannot be covered with Euler solvers due to large memory and long computational time requirements. The solver takes into account variations in temperature and pressure with altitude. The far-field signal prediction is handled using the classical linear Thomas Waveform Parameter Method where the switching altitude from the nonlinear to linear prediction is determined by convergence of the ground signal pressure impulse value. This altitude is determined as r/L ≈ 10 from the source for a simple lifting wing, and r/L ≈ 40 for a real complex aircraft. Unstructured grid adaptation and shock fitting methodology developed for the near-field analysis employs an Hessian based anisotropic grid adaptation based on error equidistribution. A special field scalar is formulated to be used in the computation of the Hessian based error metric which enhances significantly the adaptation scheme for shocks. The entire cross-flow of a complex aircraft is resolved with high fidelity using only 500,000 grid nodes after only about 10 solution/adaptation cycles. Shock fitting is accomplished using Roe's Flux-Difference Splitting scheme which is an approximate Riemann type solver and by proper alignment of the cell faces with respect to shock surfaces. Simple to complex real aircraft geometries are handled with no user-interference required making the simulation methods suitable tools for

  20. Waveforms and Sonic Boom Perception and Response (WSPR): Low-Boom Community Response Program Pilot Test Design, Execution, and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Juliet A.; Hodgdon, Kathleen K.; Krecker, Peg; Cowart, Robbie; Hobbs, Chris; Wilmer, Clif; Koening, Carrie; Holmes, Theresa; Gaugler, Trent; Shumway, Durland L.; Rosenberger, James L.; Philips, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    The Waveforms and Sonic boom Perception and Response (WSPR) Program was designed to test and demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of techniques to gather data relating human subjective response to multiple low-amplitude sonic booms. It was in essence a practice session for future wider scale testing on naive communities, using a purpose built low-boom demonstrator aircraft. The low-boom community response pilot experiment was conducted in California in November 2011. The WSPR team acquired sufficient data to assess and evaluate the effectiveness of the various physical and psychological data gathering techniques and analysis methods.

  1. Trade booms, trade busts, and trade costs

    OpenAIRE

    David S. Jacks; Christopher M. Meissner; Novy, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    What has driven trade booms and trade busts in the past and present? We derive a micro-founded measure of trade frictions from leading trade theories and use it to gauge the importance of bilateral trade costs in determining international trade flows. We construct a new balanced sample of bilateral trade flows for 130 country pairs across the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania for the period from 1870 to 2000 and demonstrate an overriding role for declining trade costs in the pre-World War I...

  2. Diffusion and sorption of 32Si-labelled silica in the boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term corrosion rate of nuclear waste glass in a repository might be controlled by the steady-state diffusion of dissolved silica and would be enhanced by the sorption of silica onto clay minerals. Irreversible sorption and moderate retardation have been observed for dissolved silica in boom clay. Values of ηR between 10 and 20 have been determined by means of four flow-through migration experiments, while Kd in the range 20 to 100 cm3, g-1 have been measured by batch sorption tests with 32Si on fresh and slightly oxidized boom clay. As non specific interactions cannot explain the sorption of neutral Si(OH)4, or of negative silicate species (Donnan exclusion), onto negatively charged clay minerals other mechanisms must be invoked: i.a., the chemisorption of dissolved silica Si(OH)4 onto specific Lewis acid sites (Al3+, Fe3+) present at the clay surface. The suggested mechanism could be similar to this explaining the irreversible chemisorption of oxy-anions of weak acids (as phosphate, or borate) onto aluminum and iron hydroxides in soils. Ligand exchange of aqueous silica with a hydroxyl group of Al(OH)3 may form a hydroxy-aluminosilicate (HAS) surface complex. Gibbsite layers accessible on the basal plane of kaolinite and on the edges of illite and smectite are possible sorption sites for the dissolved silica in boom clay. Moreover, hydrous ferric oxide produced by pyrite oxidation significantly increases the extent of silica sorption. (orig.)

  3. Sustainability in the tropics: does a boom in deforestation lead to a bust in development?

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Weinhold; Eust�quio J. Reis; Petterson Molina Vale

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the hypothesis tested in Rodrigues et al. (2009) that the process of human development in Amazonia follows a boom-and-bust (inverted U) pattern. We showthat the 'boombust' pattern that Rodrigues et al. report is a spurious artefact of spatial correlation, driven primarily by the large, multifaceted (and unobserved) differences between municipalities in and around Amazonas and Maranh�o states. We confirm these (non-) results in the time series data; there is no �smoking gun� d...

  4. Predicting the transverse volume distribution under an agricultural spray boom

    OpenAIRE

    Leunda, P.; Debouche, Charles; Caussin, R.

    1990-01-01

    The volume distribution of spray below individual agricultural flat-fan spray nozzles was fitted to a truncated normal distribution. This expresses the parameters as a function of the spray liquid pressure, the boom height and the nozzle orifice size. This model was used to predict the transverse distribution below an agricultural spray boom. Peer reviewed

  5. Doppler effect induced spin relaxation boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; Huang, Peihao; Hu, Xuedong

    2016-03-01

    We study an electron spin qubit confined in a moving quantum dot (QD), with our attention on both spin relaxation, and the product of spin relaxation, the emitted phonons. We find that Doppler effect leads to several interesting phenomena. In particular, spin relaxation rate peaks when the QD motion is in the transonic regime, which we term a spin relaxation boom in analogy to the classical sonic boom. This peak indicates that a moving spin qubit may have even lower relaxation rate than a static qubit, pointing at the possibility of coherence-preserving transport for a spin qubit. We also find that the emitted phonons become strongly directional and narrow in their frequency range as the qubit reaches the supersonic regime, similar to Cherenkov radiation. In other words, fast moving excited spin qubits can act as a source of non-classical phonons. Compared to classical Cherenkov radiation, we show that quantum dot confinement produces a small but important correction on the Cherenkov angle. Taking together, these results have important implications to both spin-based quantum information processing and coherent phonon dynamics in semiconductor nanostructures.

  6. On the thermal behaviour of Boom clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delage, P.; Cui Yu Jun [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussees, Paris (France); Sultan, N. [IFREMER, Brest (France)

    2004-07-01

    When temperature is increased, the various phenomena that occur in a saturated natural potential host clay for nuclear waste disposal (Boom clay from SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium) were experimentally investigated in a temperature controlled high stress triaxial cell. Firstly, the pore pressure build-up due to the difference in thermal dilation of both water and minerals was investigated through thermal consolidation tests. Interesting information was obtained about the dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure in Boom clay, based on the standard Terzaghi consolidation theory. Secondly, the volume change behaviour in drained conditions (i.e. under a very slow temperature increase) confirmed that the clay overconsolidation ratio (OCR) controlled the nature of the volume changes. Whereas overconsolidated soils use to dilate as any material when temperature is elevated, normally consolidated soils present a decrease in volume, which is less common. The principles of a coupled thermo-elasto-plastic model that was specifically developed to model this particular behaviour are finally presented. Obviously, it appears necessary to account in detail for these thermal phenomena in order to properly understand the response of the geological barrier in the near field once nuclear waste has been stored. (orig.)

  7. On the thermal behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When temperature is increased, the various phenomena that occur in a saturated natural potential host clay for nuclear waste disposal (Boom clay from SCK-CEN in Mol, Belgium) were experimentally investigated in a temperature controlled high stress triaxial cell. Firstly, the pore pressure build-up due to the difference in thermal dilation of both water and minerals was investigated through thermal consolidation tests. Interesting information was obtained about the dissipation of thermally induced pore pressure in Boom clay, based on the standard Terzaghi consolidation theory. Secondly, the volume change behaviour in drained conditions (i.e. under a very slow temperature increase) confirmed that the clay overconsolidation ratio (OCR) controlled the nature of the volume changes. Whereas overconsolidated soils use to dilate as any material when temperature is elevated, normally consolidated soils present a decrease in volume, which is less common. The principles of a coupled thermo-elasto-plastic model that was specifically developed to model this particular behaviour are finally presented. Obviously, it appears necessary to account in detail for these thermal phenomena in order to properly understand the response of the geological barrier in the near field once nuclear waste has been stored. (orig.)

  8. Design and operation of the JET articulated boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After tritium introduction, planned for JET about 1991, remote handling maintenance is vital to the continued operation of the machine. An articulated boom has been designed at JET as the sole support device for in-vessel transport of all equipment and servo-manipulators and is part of the JET Remote Handling plan. The boom was manufactured by NEI Thompson of Wolverhampton and AET of Coventry, England, delivered to JET in October 1984 and has been commissioned successfully to its full design performance. The boom has been used during the June 1985 maintenance period as a hands-on lifting device using a hand-held, push-button controller. Dynamic computer modelling of the boom has been carried out to analyse cross-coupling inertial effects arising in the horizontal plane. A/sup 1//5-scale, mechanical model has also been used to control the boom in a master-slave mode

  9. Domestic Crop Booms, Livelihood Pathways and Nested Transitions: Charting the Implications of Bangladesh’s Pangasius Boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belton, B.; Asseldonk, van I.J.M.; Bush, S.R.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly transforming Asian food systems are oriented largely towards domestic markets, yet literature on Asian crop booms deals almost exclusively with commodities produced for export. With reference to pangasius aquaculture in Bangladesh, we argue that ‘domestic crop booms’ - agricultural booms dri

  10. Re-engineering of a stainless steel fire boom for use in conjunction with conventional fire booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Re-engineering a large stainless steel oil retention boom to reduce its size, weight and cost is described. The large offshore stainless steel boom was redesigned to serve as a high-strength, durable burn pocket inserted between two lengths of conventional fabric fire boom. Deployment, sea-keeping, towing and retrieval characteristics of the pocket boom have been considered to be very good. Oil containment tests at Ohmsett showed that the boom can withstand catenary tow speeds of 1,5 m/sec without failure. Exposure to burning oil does not affect the oil containment characteristics of the boom; exposure to six hours of fire with full-scale heat fluxes of three hours of diesel fires and three hours of enhanced propane fires resulting in only minor damage, none of which would have detracted significantly from the boom's oil containment capabilities. The connector section incorporates various design modifications to ensure that the boom's service life will be at least one million wave cycles, or 45 days at sea at Sea State 3. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 13 figs

  11. Baby boom generation at the retirement onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojilković Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sudden increase in the number of live births after the Second World War due to an increase in fertility rates has led to the formation of cohorts with specific characteristics or baby boom generation. This generation is unique in the history of the demographic phenomenon that has affected and affects the functioning of many segments of society. The aim of this paper is to assess structure of baby boomers who are few years away from retirement, using demographic data. Impact of baby boomer age structure of current and future retirees is described with a graphical display of current and projected age pyramid of baby boomers. Demographic pattern that women live longer than men is evident in the projected pyramid. In addition, the number of baby boomers will lead to a "younger" old population. The imbalance in the number of men and women pensioners, as well as older cohorts of women and female baby boomers was analyzed. As a result, an increasing trend of women's age pensioners who are members of the baby boom generation was clearly observed, which is opposite to the older cohort of women who often were family pensioners. Different circumstances and conditions in which female boomers lived and worked will form a new "pension model" because they will gain their benefits as well as men, for the first time in significant number, unlike their mothers, which gained the right to retire after they become widows. Number of women age pensioners is getting greater comparing to men, as the result of changes in the economic activities of women in the last half of the 20th century. When baby boomers retire and exit the working population, this will create a vacuum, because the numerically smaller generations will enter working population, while the sudden and very shortly, the number of population older than 60 or 65 will increase, most of them will likely to acquire the right to a pension. It is undeniable that baby boomers had impact on demographic structure

  12. Brazil's sugarcane boom could affect regional temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With the world seeking to cut its dependence on fossil fuels, the use of bioethanol and other biofuels is on the rise. In Brazil, the second largest producer and consumer of bioethanol, this has led to a boom in sugarcane production. Based on new laws and trade agreements, researchers expect Brazil's production of sugarcane-derived ethanol to increase tenfold over the next decade, with considerable land being converted for growing sugarcane. Much of this expansion is expected to come at a loss of some of the country's cerrado savannas. So while a major aim of the turn to biofuels is to reduce the transfer of carbon to the atmosphere and mitigate global climate change, the shifting agricultural activity could have direct consequences on Brazil's climate by changing the region's physical and biogeochemical properties.

  13. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, C.F.; Barron, R.M. [Windsor Univ., Fluid Dynamics Research Institute, Windsor, ON (Canada)

    1998-09-01

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs.

  14. Empirically Bounding of Space Booms with Tape Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Jennings

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Self-deploying structures seek to provide a compact launch package for large, lightweight satellite booms. One self-deploying method is a foldable tape spring. This paper examines the large scale behavior of a boom attached by a tape spring hinge during mock deployments. A boom attached by tape spring to a rigid stand was released and the boom bounced up to 60° before coming to rest (as opposed to snap-through behavior. These large amplitude bounces can cause the boom to collide with sensors, other booms or arrays causing damage or preventing full deployment. Results show the first bounce of deployment is nearly bounded by a four parameter ellipse. The ellipses of similar folds are similar also, suggesting that a model can be developed. Free-fall tests simulating the free-free condition found in microgravity also show similar elliptical motion. Envelopes that bound the extents of the boom motion allow for collisions to be prevented by adjustment of the design.

  15. Testing fire resistant boom in waves and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A near full-scale screening test to evaluate the durability and ability of refractory-fabric fire resistant booms to contain oil during an in-situ burn without the environmental problems of burning crude oil or the cost of testing offshore, was developed. The boom was first flexed under tension for two hours, then deployed in a U-configuration in an outdoor wave tank. Propane gas was burned in the pocket of the boom to simulate the collection and burning phases of an in-situ burn. Finally, the boom was returned to the indoor wave flume for another two hours of wave action and then inspected for damage. Results indicated damage of the same type as suffered in previously conducted sea trials, although the extent of damage was less severe. These results led to recommendations for improvement of the test protocol which included: (1) increasing the heat flux to the boom, (2) improving the heat flux measurement, (3) increasing the tension in the fire boom during flame testing, and (4) improving the characterization of the waves near the fire boom. 16 refs., 6 figs

  16. Comparative study of models for oil boom simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as a tool for simulating a variety of fluid flows, including oil spills on water was discussed. A common response to an oil spill on water is to use an oil retention boom to contain the oil, and to use a skimmer to recover it. In order to be as efficient as possible in oil recovery, the speed of oil herding should be as high as possible, but if it exceeds a critical value, boom failure can occur and the oil may escape underneath the boom because of hydrodynamic forces. In this computational study, the flows around a flat plate barrier and a real boom configuration with the same draft were compared. Results showed that the flow patterns for the two cases at low velocity were almost the same. The exception was for the boom tip and oil slick regions where small differences in velocity and pressure were noticed. It was concluded that in studying boom failure, a simple flat plate barrier can be used instead of a real boom configuration with the same draft. 9 refs., 8 figs

  17. Disminución del rendimiento académico con el Plan Bolonia respecto al plan anterior en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel LÓPEZ RODRÍGUEZ

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available La incorporación del Sistema Europeo de Transferencia de Créditos (ECTS verá sus frutos en breve con la salida al mercado laboral de los primeros egresados. En este estudio se realiza una primera valoración de los resultados obtenidos, analizando si el plan de estudios (grado o licenciatura y el uso de las nuevas metodologías docentes han marcado diferencias significativas en el rendimiento académico. Los resultados indican que éste es mayor en los licenciados y para los alumnos que se han beneficiado de una nueva herramienta pedagógica. Se han considerado los datos de dos promociones de doble licenciatura y doble grado. Descartadas, como causas, inputs potencialmente importantes como nivel preuniversitario y opción de bachillerato se plantea, como causa de la disminución del rendimiento, la implantación de los grados con una inversión prácticamente nula, lo que habría supuesto que el alumnado carezca de la disminución de presencialidad requerida para la correcta autogestión académica

  18. Stacker/reclaimers line up for a boom time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    The current commodity boom and record freight rates are proving a boom for heavy materials handling plant manufacturers. New steel mills are to be built in Brazil and India. TKF has been awarded a contract for a further coal handling plant at Jimah in India. Techint, which recently acquired the German company Takraf, is to supply bucket-wheel stacker/reclaimers for the expansion of Ust-Luga coal terminal in Russia. Schade recently delivered six boom type stackers and six portal reclaimers to the Dawson coal consolidation project in Queensland. Five further stacker/reclaimers have been ordered for the Lake Linsay mine. 2 photos.

  19. Spray boom for selectively spraying a herbicidal composition onto dicots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a method and spray boom for discriminating cereal crop (monocot) and weeds (dicots). The spray boom includes means for digitally recording an image of a selected area to be treated by a nozzle on the spray boom, whereby a plant material is identified based on a segmentation...... procedure; and means for detecting the edges and estimating the angles of the edges of the leaves so as to discriminate between dicots and monocots; and means for activating one or more of the spray nozzles in response to detected dicots so as to selectively apply the herbicidal composition onto the sensed...

  20. Sonic Boom Computations for a Mach 1.6 Cruise Low Boom Configuration and Comparisons with Wind Tunnel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Cliff, Susan E.; Wilcox, Floyd; Nemec, Marian; Bangert, Linda; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Parlette, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Accurate analysis of sonic boom pressure signatures using computational fluid dynamics techniques remains quite challenging. Although CFD shows accurate predictions of flow around complex configurations, generating grids that can resolve the sonic boom signature far away from the body is a challenge. The test case chosen for this study corresponds to an experimental wind-tunnel test that was conducted to measure the sonic boom pressure signature of a low boom configuration designed by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D and AERO, are examined for their ability to accurately capture sonic boom signature. Numerical simulations are conducted for a free-stream Mach number of 1.6, angle of attack of 0.3 and Reynolds number of 3.85x10(exp 6) based on model reference length. Flow around the low boom configuration in free air and inside the Langley Unitary plan wind tunnel are computed. Results from the numerical simulations are compared with wind tunnel data. The effects of viscous and turbulence modeling along with tunnel walls on the computed sonic boom signature are presented and discussed.

  1. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) has developed an affordable and ultra-lightweight elastically self-deployable Roll-Out Boom technology that provides affordability...

  2. Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's innovative Elastic Deployable Composite Tubular Roll-Out Boom will provide revolutionary performance when compared to conventional state-of-the-art...

  3. Numerical modeling of oil containment by a boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hydrodynamic model of a boom for oil containment was developed. The physical phenomena which relate to oil containment were analysed. The important parameters from the analysis were used to develop a numerical model of interfacial instabilities for a two-phase system consisting of a layer of oil on top of a uniform flowing water stream. Vortex sheets were used to represent interfaces (air-water, air-oil, oil-water) and solid boundaries (boom, bottom). Flow velocities were calculated using Biot-Savart's law. The objective was to use the model to analyse oil containment failure mechanisms causing substantial loss of oil under the boom. Model calculations were found to be stable and accurate. Applications of the model to realistic cases of oil containment by a boom were presented. 33 refs., 12 figs

  4. Subjective Response to Simulated Sonic Booms in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A.; Brown, Sherilyn A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the environmental issues affecting the development of a second-generation supersonic commercial transport is the impact of sonic booms on people. Aircraft designers are attempting to design the transport to produce sonic boom signatures that will have minimum impact on the public. Current supersonic commercial aircraft produce an 'N-wave' sonic boom pressure signature that is considered unacceptable by the public. This has resulted in first-generation supersonic transports being banned from flying supersonic over land in the United States, a severe economic constraint. By tailoring aircraft volume and lift distributions, designers hope to produce sonic boom signatures having specific shapes other than 'N-wave' that may be more acceptable to the public. As part of the effort to develop a second-generation supersonic commercial transport, Langley Research Center is conducting research to study people's subjective response to sonic booms. As part of that research, a system was developed for performing studies of the subjective response of people to the occurrence of simulated sonic booms in their homes. The In-Home Noise Generation/Response System (IHONORS) provides a degree of situational realism not available in the laboratory and a degree of control over the noise exposure not found in community surveys. The computer-controlled audio system generates the simulated sonic booms, measures the noise levels, and records the subjects' ratings and can be placed and operated in individual homes for extended periods of time. The system was used to conduct an in-home study of subjective response to simulated sonic booms. The primary objective of the study was to determine the effect on annoyance of the number of sonic boom occurrences in a realistic environment. The effects on annoyance of several other parameters were also examined. Initially, data analyses were based on all the data collected. However, further analyser found that test subjects adapted to the sonic

  5. Tracking the Boom in Queensland’s Gasfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Rifkin

    2014-09-01

    The research reported in this paper, though only mid-way to completion, suggests that an action-research approach to developing indicators of cumulative impacts on housing, business, employment, liveability and trust in government shows promise for enabling stakeholders to track the multi-faceted effects of a resource boom.  We hope that such work helps stakeholders to mitigate the ups and downs of the cycle of boom, bust and recovery that can be driven by resource development.

  6. Assessment of Near-Field Sonic Boom Simulation Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, J. H.; Cliff, S. E.; Thomas, S. D.; Park, M. A.; McMullen, M. S.; Melton, J. E.; Durston, D. A.

    2008-01-01

    A recent study for the Supersonics Project, within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, has been conducted to assess current in-house capabilities for the prediction of near-field sonic boom. Such capabilities are required to simulate the highly nonlinear flow near an aircraft, wherein a sonic-boom signature is generated. There are many available computational fluid dynamics codes that could be used to provide the near-field flow for a sonic boom calculation. However, such codes have typically been developed for applications involving aerodynamic configuration, for which an efficiently generated computational mesh is usually not optimum for a sonic boom prediction. Preliminary guidelines are suggested to characterize a state-of-the-art sonic boom prediction methodology. The available simulation tools that are best suited to incorporate into that methodology are identified; preliminary test cases are presented in support of the selection. During this phase of process definition and tool selection, parallel research was conducted in an attempt to establish criteria that link the properties of a computational mesh to the accuracy of a sonic boom prediction. Such properties include sufficient grid density near shocks and within the zone of influence, which are achieved by adaptation and mesh refinement strategies. Prediction accuracy is validated by comparison with wind tunnel data.

  7. CONGENITAL ANTERIOR TIBIOFEMURAL SUBLUXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shahla

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Congenital anterior tibiofemoral subluxation is an extremely rare disorder. All reported cases accompanied by other abnormalities and syndromes. A 16-year-old high school girl referred to us with bilateral anterior tibiofemoral subluxation as the knees were extended and reduced at more than 30 degrees flexion. Deformities were due to tightness of the iliotibial band and biceps femuris muscles and corrected by surgical release. Associated disorders included bilateral anterior shoulders dislocation, short metacarpals and metatarsals, and right calcaneuvalgus deformity.

  8. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Sanjay; Saini, Pramod; Singh, Vivek; Kumar, Ramakant; Trikha, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Shoulder dislocations are the most common major joint dislocations encountered in the emergency departments. Bilateral shoulder dislocations are rare and of these, bilateral posterior shoulder dislocations are more prevalent than bilateral anterior shoulder dislocations. Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. We present a case of 24-year-old male who sustained bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following minor trauma, with associated greater tuberosity fracture on one side...

  9. Optical MEMS: boom, bust and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Chandra Mouli

    2005-10-01

    Optical Telecommunications bandwidth, spurred by the growth of the internet, experienced unprecedented growth in the late 1990's. The creation of new enterprises was vast and the expansion of established component, system and services companies was also breathtaking. This period of speculative growth was followed in 2001-2004 by one of the most significant market crashes in history. While $20B of venture capital was invested in optical telecom in the last 10 years, the vast majority of that has been written off in the last four. Countless start-ups inaugurated with great fanfare at the end of the 20th century were unceremoniously shut down at the start of the 21st. (1) As in all speculative bubbles, innovative technologies were born and buried. Nonetheless, new capabilities emerge from the chaos and disruption; one such example is the advent of Optical MEMS (MOEMS). Its development was vigorously pursued in both academic and corporate laboratories during the boom and, in the author's view; MOEMS constitutes a powerful and versatile tool set that is an invaluable residual of the last few years. In Telecommunications, MOEMS has proven to be the technology of choice for many optical switching and wavelength management applications. (2) Variable Optical Attenuators (VOA), Wavelength Blockers (WB), Dynamic Gain Equalizers (DGE), and most recently Wavelength Selective Switches (WSS) are being used in the numerous recent network deployments. Moreover, agile networks of the future will have MOEMS at every node. This presentation will provide an overview of the history of MOEMS in Telecommunications, discuss its byproducts and project the future of the technology.

  10. Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong

    2010-01-01

    An axisymmetric full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study was conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock (LaNCETS) research airplane, was considered. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature, similar to what was observed in the LaNCETS flight data, is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. The CFD results provide a detailed description of the nozzle flow physics involved in the LaNCETS nozzle at different nozzle expansion conditions and help in interpreting LaNCETS flight data as well as in the eventual CFD analysis of a full LaNCETS aircraft. The current study also provided important information on proper modeling of the LaNCETS aircraft nozzle. The primary objective of the current CFD research effort was to support the LaNCETS flight research data analysis effort by studying the detailed nozzle exhaust jet plume s imperfect expansion effects on the sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. Figure 1 illustrates the primary flow physics present in the interaction between the exhaust jet plume shock and the sonic boom coming off of an axisymmetric body in supersonic flight. The steeper tail shock from highly expanded jet plume reduces the dip of the sonic boom N-wave signature. A structured finite-volume compressible full Navier-Stokes CFD code was used in the current study. This approach is not limited by the simplifying assumptions inherent in previous sonic boom analysis efforts. Also, this study was the first known jet plume sonic boom CFD study in which the full viscous nozzle flow field was modeled, without

  11. Facts and features of radionuclide migration in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution which took place during ten years of research on the behaviour of radionuclides in Boom Clay is described. Initially, the Boom Clay was regarded as a chemically inert exchanger and the radiochemical research aimed at determining the distribution of cations between the clay and some liquid phases. The observation that Boom Clay deteriorates in contact with air and loses important intrinsic properties formed a major breakthrough in the research and led to a careful examination of the real in-situ conditions. Efforts devoted to the understanding of the chemical factors pertaining to the pH, the redox potential, the extent of the buffering capacity of FeS2 and CaCO3 in equilibrium with the interstitial aqueous phase are reviewed. Also emerging from the overall picture was the role of the organic material present in the Boom Clay. In contrast to the water percolating fractured formations which may not be in equilibrium with the rock, the interstitial aqueous phase is completely in equilibrium with Boom Clay mainly because of its low permeability and the large excesses of buffering components. As the retention mechanisms are better understood, a more coherent picture is obtained from distribution and diffusion experiments and the effects of consolidation are being investigated in detail. 23 refs.; 4 figs.; 3 tabs

  12. First clinical experience with a novel forearm boom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaulke, R; Abdulkareem, M; O'Loughlin, P F; Oszwald, M; Probst, C; Hildebrand, F; Krettek, C

    2010-01-01

    The optimal forearm boom should facilitate dynamic investigation of the wrist and approaches for wrist arthroscopy. It should be safely fixed at the operating table without any contact with the patient. It must be compatible with the arm of any patient and should be sterilisable. Repositioning of distal radius fractures, fluoroscopy and insertion of Kirschner-wires should not be restricted. According to these criteria the current investigators designed a new forearm boom which was subsequently used in 19 wrist arthroscopies and 9 distal radius fracture fixations. Twenty-eight patients with heights between 150 and 205 cm and forearm lengths between 17.5 to 37 cm were treated. Preoperatively, wrist motion was tested in those 19 wrists, that underwent wrist arthroscopy, before and after fixation by the forearm boom and any restriction due to usage of the novel device was found. The new forearm boom satisfied all of the criteria cited above. Therefore the current authors believe the new forearm boom may be valuable for the indications mentioned. PMID:21209480

  13. Research of low boom and low drag supersonic aircraft design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xiaoqiang; Li Zhanke; Song Bifeng

    2014-01-01

    Sonic boom reduction will be an issue of utmost importance in future supersonic trans-port, due to strong regulations on acoustic nuisance. The paper describes a new multi-objective optimization method for supersonic aircraft design. The method is developed by coupling Seebass-George-Darden (SGD) inverse design method and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Based on the method, different codes are developed. Using a computational architecture, a concep-tual supersonic aircraft design environment (CSADE) is constructed. The architecture of CSADE includes inner optimization level and out optimization level. The low boom configuration is gener-ated in inner optimization level by matching the target equivalent area distribution and actual equivalent area distribution. And low boom/low drag configuration is generated in outer optimiza-tion level by using NSGA-II multi-objective genetic algorithm to optimize the control parameters of SGD method and aircraft shape. Two objective functions, low sonic boom and low wave drag, are considered in CSADE. Physically reasonable Pareto solutions are obtained from the present optimization. Some supersonic aircraft configurations are selected from Pareto front and the optimization results indicate that the swept forward wing configuration has benefits in both sonic boom reduction and wave drag reduction. The results are validated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis.

  14. Modeling and simulation of the agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the application process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we design a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles combined with a four-rod linkage self-leveling suspension and electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The dynamic analysis shows that the suspension can realize an excellent self-leveling in a comparative small inclination range. In addition we build compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  16. Calculation and comparative measurement of a manipulator boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A manipulator system is fabricated for the use in a fusion reactor. The system allows to take in any arbitrary position in a plane. It consists of seven linked arms. During resting position, the manipulator boom is folded together in an antechamber. For the working position, the individual links are moved out through the opening to operate in a ring-shaped vacuum vessel. The stress analysis of the boom follows three steps: calculation of the global forces with a beam model dependent on the different working positions of the boom; calculation of the local stresses in the jointed arms with Finite-Element-Models for the worst load combination; and comparison of the calculations with strain gauge measurements

  17. Estimation of towing forces on oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of towing tests on oil retention booms are described which were carried out at the OHMSETT Test Facility to estimate the towing forces on a number of booms using a range of gap ratios, wave conditions and tow speeds. Data from the towing tests were used to develop a relationship to predict the tow force and the required tensile strength for the various boom and tow parameters. The value of the constant varied from as low as 1.2 to an average 1.9 for the calm condition, increasing sharply to an average 3.0 and 3.4 for the regular wave and harbour chop, respectively. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  18. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  19. The Impact of the Fracking Boom on Arab Oil Producers

    OpenAIRE

    Kilian, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the debate about the impact of the U.S. fracking boom on U.S. oil imports, on Arab oil exports, and on the global price of crude oil. First, I investigate the extent to which this oil boom has caused Arab oil exports to the United States to decline since late 2008. Second, I examine to what extent increased U.S. exports of refined products made from domestically produced crude oil have caused Arab oil exports to the rest of the world to decline. Third, the article ...

  20. The geochemical behaviour of uranium in the Boom Clay

    OpenAIRE

    Delécaut, Grégory

    2004-01-01

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay is currently studied as the reference host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste. In case of direct disposal of spent fuel, uranium isotopes are important contributors along with their daughters to the dose rate at very long term. Therefore, it is essential to study the migration of uranium in the host formation. The present work contributes to improve the knowledge of uranium speciation in the Boom Clay, U(IV) versus U(VI), and of...

  1. The Productivity Paradox and the Australian Mining Boom and Bust

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Dias Karunaratne

    2015-01-01

    Australia in the 1990s experienced a surge in multifactor productivity ushering in the ¡®golden age¡¯ of productivity. The subsequent 2000 decade witnessed a dramatic slump in productivity whilst the economy was riding the crest of the biggest terms- of- trade boom in its recorded history. This plummeting productivity occurring with a mining boom was a paradox. It created much concern and politicians and policymakers call for urgent action to reverse the productivity slump as it posed a threa...

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL injury; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ... knee. It prevents the knee from bending out. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is in the middle of the knee. ...

  3. Influence of vehicle configuration and flight profile on X-30 sonic booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Hicks, John

    1990-10-01

    The role of vehicle configuration and the flight profile on sonic booms produced by the experimental NASP X-30 is investigated. Sonic boom signatures, overpressure levels, and footprints for X-30 are presented and compared with sonic boom measurements for F-104, SR-71, Concorde, XB-70, and STS Orbiter. Results show that the sonic boom signatures for X-30 fall within those of previous high-speed planes.

  4. Boom in boarfish abundance: insight from otolith analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coad, Julie Olivia; Hüssy, Karin

    2012-01-01

    The boarfish Capros aper is a pelagic shoaling species widely distributed along the Northeast Atlantic continental shelf. In recent years, this species has experienced a dramatic boom in abundance in the Bay of Biscay and Celtic Sea. This study aims at resolving the mechanisms responsible for thi...

  5. Dynamic modeling of oil boom failure using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil retention boom failure mechanisms have been identified and studied using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a powerful modeling tool combining fluid dynamics and mathematics with high speed computer technology. This study utilized a commercially available CFD package, 'Fluent', to simulate the oil-water flow around a barrier. 'Drainage failure', 'droplet entrainment' and 'critical accumulation' were modeled using this software. Flow characteristics were found to be different for different failure mechanisms. In the drainage failure process, the oil slick was compressed against the barrier until the slick was deep enough for the oil to leak under the barrier. During boom failure due to droplet entrainment, the oil-water interface of the oil slick was wavy and unstable. During boom failure due to critical accumulation, the oil remained a single mass and moved under the barrier readily. The most significant observation, however, was that flow patterns around barriers are modified by the presence of oil. Therefore, towing and wave-conformity tests of booms will not be meaningful unless such tests are conducted with oil present. 15 refs., 11 figs

  6. Environmental Pollution: Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom. Volume I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Documentation Center, Alexandria, VA.

    The unclassified, annotated bibliography is Volume I of a two-volume set on Noise Pollution - Sonic Boom in a series of scheduled bibliographies on Environmental Pollution. Volume II is Confidential. Corporate author-monitoring agency, subject, title, contract, and report number indexes are included. (Author/JR)

  7. Inclined boom system with hydrofoil for waters with waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, K.V.; Miller, M.K.; Boccabella, A. [Miami Univ., Coral Gables, FL (United States)

    2005-07-01

    It is inevitable that spills and accidental discharges of oil will occur while transporting oil in tanker ships. Although marine oil spills have been reduced due to doubled hulled tankers and environmental regulations, oil spills still present a threat to bays, shorelines and marine life. Therefore, oil response must be rapid, effective and thorough. An innovative oil containment boom that can collect oil in waters with waves was designed and constructed. Booms contain the spread of oil after a spill and also concentrate oil into thicker layers, making recovery more effective. They can be used to direct and channel oil slicks along desired paths into skimming equipment. This newly designed boom includes a ramp placed at an angle of 12 degrees from the horizontal. Three collection zones are used in which oil is pumped out to an oil storage tank. The design incorporates a hydrofoil for stability. The hydrofoil counteracts the lift created by the ramp. Results show that the hydrofoils were effective at high flow rates and waves. At low flow rates, the boom units relied mostly on the Styrofoam flotation devices for stability. For experiments without waves, the collection efficiency ranged from 95.9 per cent to 99.6 per cent. At least 3 forward waves were created for the high and intermediate velocities. Five forward waves were created at the low velocity. The collection efficiency ranged from 51.7 per cent to 69.3 per cent. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  8. Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjeet Kumar; Ansari, Ms

    2014-09-01

    Congenital anterior urethral diverticulum (CAUD) may be found all along the anterior urethra and may present itself at any age, from infant to adult. Most children with this condition present with difficulty in initiating micturition, dribbling of urine, poor urinary stream, or urinary tract infection. A careful history will reveal that these children never had a good urinary stream since birth, and the telltale sign is a cystic swelling of the penile urethra. In this paper, we present two cases of CAUD that were managed by excision of the diverticulum with primary repair. PMID:26328174

  9. Drama in Dynamics: Boom, Splash, and Speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heather Marie Netzloff

    2004-12-19

    '' region that contains the remaining solvent molecules. But, despite the reduced cost relative to fully QM calculations, the EFP method, due to its complex, QM-based potential, does require more computation time than simple interaction potentials, especially when the method is used for large scale molecular dynamics simulations. Thus, the EFP method was parallelized to facilitate these calculations within the quantum chemistry program GAMESS. The EFP method provides relative energies and structures that are in excellent agreement with the analogous fully quantum results for small water clusters. The ability of the method to predict bulk water properties with a comparable accuracy is assessed by performing EFP molecular dynamics simulations. Molecular dynamics simulations can provide properties that are directly comparable with experimental results, for example radial distribution functions. The molecular PES is a fundamental starting point for chemical reaction dynamics. Many methods can be used to obtain a PES; for example, assuming a global functional form for the PES or, as mentioned above, performing ''on-the-fly'' dynamics with Al or semi-empirical calculations at every molecular configuration. But as the size of the system grows, using electronic structure theory to build a PES and, therefore, study reaction dynamics becomes virtually impossible. The program Grow builds a PES as an interpolation of Al data; the goal is to attempt to produce an accurate PES with the smallest number of Al calculations. The Grow-GAMESS interface was developed to obtain the Al data from GAMESS. Classical or quantum dynamics can be performed on the resulting surface. The interface includes the novel capability to build multi-reference PESs; these types of calculations are applicable to problems ranging from atmospheric chemistry to photochemical reaction mechanisms in organic and inorganic chemistry to fundamental biological phenomena such as photosynthesis.

  10. Commentary on the effect of steroid use in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion surgery; a randomized controlled trial by Shiveindra B. et al. Journal of Neurosurgery Spine 2015;23:137-43

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy E Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Background: Steroids are often used in patients undergoing anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) surgery to limit postoperative dysphagia. However, a major concern remains steroids′ impact is on fusion. Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double-blinded controlled study, the authors assessed the impact of steroids on swallowing/airway and fusion rates in 112 patients undergoing multilevel ACDF. The patients were randomly assigned to saline or dexamethasone groups prior to s...

  11. Aerodynamic Effects of a 24-foot Multisegmented Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Stephen B.; Smith, Mark S.; Frederick, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    An experimental multisegmented telescoping nose boom has been installed on an F-15B airplane to be tested in a flight environment. The experimental nose boom is representative of one that could be used to tailor the sonic boom signature of an airplane such as a supersonic business jet. The nose boom consists of multiple sections and could be extended during flight to a length of 24 ft. The preliminary analyses indicate that the addition of the experimental nose boom could adversely affect vehicle flight characteristics and air data systems. Before the boom was added, a series of flights was conducted to update the aerodynamic model and characterize the air data systems of the baseline airplane. The baseline results have been used in conjunction with estimates of the nose boom's influence to prepare for a series of research flights conducted with the nose boom installed. Data from these flights indicate that the presence of the experimental boom reduced the static pitch and yaw stability of the airplane. The boom also adversely affected the static-position error of the airplane but did not significantly affect angle-of-attack or angle-of-sideslip measurements. The research flight series has been successfully completed.

  12. Did housing policies cause the postwar boom in homeownership?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Chambers; Carlos Garriga; Donald E. Schlagenhauf

    2012-01-01

    After the collapse of housing markets during the Great Depression, the U.S. government played a large role in shaping the future of housing finance and policy. Soon thereafter, housing markets witnessed the largest boom in recent history. The objective in this paper is to quantify the contribution of government interventions in housing markets in the expansion of U.S. homeownership using an equilibrium model of tenure choice. In the model, home buyers have access to a menu of mortgage choices...

  13. Static dissolution of UO2 in interstitial Boom Clay water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Static dissolution experiments were performed with unirradiated UO2 in Boom Clay water. The objectives were (1) to measure the solubility of uranium species in Boom Clay water, with UO2 as the solid phase, and (2) to assess the impact of dissolved organic matter and carbonate concentration on this solubility. The tests were supported by calculations with geochemical codes to indicate possibly solubility controlling solid phases. The tests were performed in anoxic and reducing conditions, at 20 and 25 C. The following conclusions could be drawn: (1) Within 2 months in anoxic conditions, the uranium concentrations appear to approach saturation. (2) The near-saturation concentrations are between 2.4 and 7.8x10-7 M. (3) The influence of the carbonate concentration and humic acids on the uranium concentration was apparently small, but the interpretation is hampered by pH and Eh and/or pH conditions; this can probably be explained by small differences in experimental conditions. (5) The measured near steady-state uranium concentration in the real clay water agrees relatively well with the solubility calculated for uraninite. (6) Addition of sulfide species reduced the redox potential, but not the uranium concentrations, except in real Boom Clay water

  14. Uranium release from boom clay in bicarbonate media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of natural uranium from Boom Clay was studied to better understand the mechanisms governing the solid-liquid partitioning of uranium. Batch leaching experiments suggested that the portion of natural uranium released from clay is associated with colloids at a low bicarbonate concentration prevailing in Boom Clay. At increased bicarbonate concentrations, uranium was present predominantly as dissolved species indicating a formation of uranium carbonate complexes. The in situ aqueous uranium concentration, i.e., the concentration in the pore waters collected by piezometers was found to be 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower than the one measured by the batch techniques. These results illustrated that the batch techniques may cause a remobilization of uranium containing colloids from clay surfaces into solution when clay is suspended, agitated, and mechanically perturbed. These colloids are attributed to artefacts and are not considered to exist in situ because of the high compaction of Boom Clay. Due to the presence of colloids, a laboratory derived solid-liquid partitioning coefficient is not equivalent to and cannot simply be converted to the distribution coefficient Kd currently used in performance assessment calculations. (orig.)

  15. Boom accomodation effects on plasma and field measurements with RPWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Correa, P.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Odelstad, E.; Vaivads, A.; Bergman, J.

    2013-09-01

    While the JUICE spacecraft configuration and main contractor are yet to be decided, it is still possible to investigate general issues on the impact of various boom accomodation alternatives for measurements of plasma and electric fields using the Langmuir probe system of the Radio and Plasma Waves Investigation. These probes can be used as classical Langmuir probes, as electric field probes, or for mutual impedance measurements, and the impact of e.g. varying illumination and wake interference are different for each type of measurement. While there is a nominal JUICE trajectory for the main science mission, we have to do assumptions on the spacecraft pointing, e.g. nadir pointing during flybys of the various moons. The detailed spacecraft layout is not known, but we can arrive at general conclusions on the suitability of various boom accomodations by assuming a cube-like spacecraft with solar panels as rectangular wings. For disturbing structures like wakes and photoelectron clouds we use simple models based on previous simulations. Even though the detailed pointing and spacecraft design will quite certainly deviate from our assumptions, and the model has uncertainties also in other respects, we can still give some general conclusions on boom accomodation alternatives.

  16. Development of a thermodynamic sorption model for Boom Clay - The case of trivalent radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. Therefore, the quantification of the retardation and the elucidation of its underlying processes are indispensable for the demonstration of confidence (both scientifically and socio-politically) in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of mineral/colloidal phases, chemical equilibria and kinetically driven processes involved. In this presentation, we will focus on the aspects of trivalent lanthanide (Ln)/actinide (An) sorption in Boom Clay batch suspensions under geochemical conditions relevant for the Mol-Dessel region (Belgium) to demonstrate the above mentioned complexity. The aim of this investigation is to explain experimentally observed solid-liquid distribution coefficients (Kd values) in terms of the major mechanisms that dictate the aqueous and solid phase speciation of such radionuclides. More specifically, we will present the most recent improvements in understanding and modelling of sorption in such suspensions starting from a 'bottom-up' (or component additivity (Davis et al., 1998)) approach. In this approach, the geo-matrix of the Boom Clay is dismantled into its main components that are deemed responsible for dictating the solid-liquid distribution of trivalent Ln/An. Several components were identified: illite and smectite clay minerals, solid organic matter (kerogen), carbonates and dissolved organic matter. The sorption or uptake mechanisms of trivalent Ln/An on these components are quite different in nature and include ion

  17. ATLAS IV in situ heating test in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The small scale in-situ ATLAS (Admissible Thermal Loading for Argillaceous Storage) tests are performed to assess the hydro-mechanical effects of a thermal transient on the host Boom clay at the HADES underground research facility in Mol, Belgium. The initial test set-up, consisting of a heater borehole and two observation boreholes, was installed in 1991-1992. The first test (later named 'ATLAS I') was then performed from July 1993 to June 1996; during this time, the heater dissipated a constant power of 900 W. During the second phase ('ATLAS II'), the heating power was doubled (1800 W) and maintained constant from June 1996 to May 1997. This was followed by shutdown and natural cooling starting from June 1997 on. To broaden the THM characterization of the Boom clay at a larger scale and at different temperature levels, the test set-up was extended in 2006 by drilling two additional instrumented boreholes (AT97E and AT98E). The heater was switched on again from April 2007 to April 2008 with a stepwise power increase, followed by an instantaneous shutdown. This phase is called 'ATLAS III'. The above tests have provided a large set of good quality and well documented data on temperature, pore water pressure and total stress; these data allowed to make several interesting observations regarding the thermal anisotropy and THM coupling in the Boom clay. The straightforward geometry and well defined boundary conditions of the tests facilitate the comparison between measurement and numerical modeling studies. Based on the three dimensional coupled THM modeling of the ATLAS III test, the good agreement between measurement and numerical modeling of temperature and pore water pressure yields a set of THM parameters and confirms the thermo-mechanical anisotropy of the Boom clay. To get a better insight in the anisotropic THM behavior of the Boom clay, a new upward instrumented borehole was drilled above the ATLAS heater at

  18. Applications of flow visualization to the development of an innovative boom system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new oil retention boom system design was developed using a flow visualization technique. Hydrogen bubbles were generated on a fine wire cathode and placed in a stream of moving water with a strong light source to visualize the flow. Observations were made of the flow patterns around some basic shapes and booms modelled as cylinders with and without a skirt. The most effective system design had two booms with skirts in parallel with a submerged airfoil designed to cause the oil to separate and recirculate. Oil was allowed to flow above the airfoil into the recirculation region between the two floating booms. The new system is expected to outperform the conventional boom system only when flow velocity is high. Its most successful application would be in situations where flow is perpendicular to the length of the boom. 1 ref., 6 figs

  19. Effect of photoelectrons on boom-satellite potential differences during electron beam ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data taken on the SCATHA satellite at geosynchronous altitudes during periods of electron beam ejection in sunlight showed that the potential difference between an electrically isolated boom and the satellite main body was a function of beam current, energy, and boom-sun angle. The potential difference decreased as the boom area illuminated by the sun increased; the maximum and minimum potential differences were measured when minimum and maximum boom areas, respectively, were exposed to the sun. It is shown that photoelectrons, created on the boom, could be engulfed in the electrostatic field of the highly charged satellite main body. Theoretical calculations made using a simple current balance model showed that these electrons could provide a substantial discharging current to the main body and cause the observed variations in the potential difference between the main body and the booms. copyright American Geophysica Union 1987

  20. Tireoide ectópica no mediastino anterior Ectopic thyroid in the anterior mediastinum

    OpenAIRE

    Maria José Araújo da Cunha Guimarães; Carla Manuela Silva Valente; Lèlita Santos; Manuel Fontes Baganha

    2009-01-01

    A ectopia de tireoide é rara, e a sua localização no mediastino anterior é excepcional, estando descritos apenas 5 casos nos últimos 30 anos. Os autores apresentam 2 casos clínicos, além de uma revisão da literatura abordando a etiologia, a embriologia e manifestações clínicas de ectopia de tireoide.Ectopic thyroid is a rare condition, and its location in the anterior mediastinum is even rarer, there having been only 5 reported cases in the past 30 years. Here, we describe 2 clinical cases an...

  1. Analyzing price level in a booming economy: the case of Azerbaijan

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanov, Fakhri

    2011-01-01

    The study analyzes price level in Azerbaijani economy over the period of 2000-2007 by employing a specific approach. The paper concludes that price increases caused by a resource boom differs from the price increases generated by a non-booming economy. Thereby, inflation mainly caused by resource boom has its own specific features in terms of impact on economy and therefore requires specific policy response. Some policy recommendations related to monetary and fiscal policies are suggested for...

  2. A Numerical Method of Large-Scale Concrete Displacing Boom Dynamic and Experimental Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Ren; Yun-xin Wu; Zhao-wei Zhang; Wen-ze Shi

    2014-01-01

    Concrete displacing boom is large-scale motion manipulator. During the long distance pouring the postures needs to frequently change. This makes the real-time dynamic analysis and health monitoring difficult. Virtual spring-damper method is adopted to establish the equivalent hydraulic actuator model. Besides boom cylinder joint clearance is taken into account. Then transfer matrix method is used to build the multibody concrete placing boom model by dividing the system into two substructures....

  3. From boom to bust in the credit cycle: the role of mortgage credit

    OpenAIRE

    Bezemer, Dirk; Zhang, L.

    2014-01-01

    Based on newly collected data on 37 economies over 1970-2012, we provide a rich description of 187 credit booms, credit busts and other episodes. We explore the changing composition of bank credit over the credit cycle. In an event analysis we chart changes in capital flows, regulation, productivity and house prices over credit booms and busts. We also ask which credit boom eatures are connected to a subsequent credit growth contraction. We find that the interaction of mortgage credit growth ...

  4. Dynamic simulation of a planar flexible boom for tokamak in-vessel operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a dynamic model for the analysis of the vibrations of a planar articulated flexible boom to be used for tokamak in-vessel maintenance operations. The peculiarity of the mechanical structure of the boom enables us to consider separately the oscillations in the horizontal and vertical planes so that two separate models can be constructed for describing these phenomena. The results of simulations based on booms like that proposed for NET in-vessel operations are presented. (orig.)

  5. A dynamic model of mobile concrete pump boom based on discrete time transfer matrix method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wu; Wu, Yunxin; Zhang, Zhaowei

    2013-12-01

    Mobile concrete pump boom is typical multibody large-scale motion manipulator. Due to posture constantly change in working process, kinematic rule and dynamic characteristic are difficult to solve. A dynamics model of a mobile concrete pump boom is established based on discrete time transfer matrix method (DTTMM). The boom system is divided into sub-structure A and substructure B. Sub-structure A is composed by the 1st boom and hydraulic actuator as well as the support. And substructure B is consists of the other three booms and corresponding hydraulic actuators. In the model, the booms and links are regarded as rigid elements and the hydraulic cylinders are equivalent to spring-damper. The booms are driven by the controllable hydraulic actuators. The overall dynamic equation and transfer matrix of the model can be assembled by sub-structures A and B. To get a precise result, step size and integration parameters are studied then. Next the tip displacement is calculated and compared with the result of ADAMS software. The displacement and rotation angle curves of the proposed method fit well with the ADAMS model. Besides it is convenient in modeling and saves time. So it is suitable for mobile concrete pump boom real-time monitoring and dynamic analysis. All of these provide reference to boom optimize and engineering application of such mechanisms.

  6. Numerical study on (porous) net-boom systems - Front net inclined angle effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, - FLUENT - was used to simulate the flow of oil and water against a a family of net-boom structures in which the angle of inclination of the front is varied. The study also aimed at gaining a better understanding of the physical mechanisms which cause oil to escape under the rear boom. From the simulation and analysis it was concluded that critical velocity was significantly affected by the flow rate inside the net-boom region, that the highest critical velocity was achieved when the the front is nearly vertical or slightly inclined forward, and that there is an excellent potential to raise the critical velocity by deliberately designing net-boom structures. For a single solid boom, the critical velocity was found to be 0.3 to 0.4 metre/sec. A solid boom with front perforated plates may increase critical velocity to 0.5 metre/sec. A solid boom with a partially perforated front plate, which has a solid upper part, will raise the critical velocity to one metre/sec. Results of this investigation suggest that a properly-designed net-boom structure could raise the critical velocity to about two metres/sec, or even higher. Experimental data and the computed numerical velocity profiles are in reasonably good agreement, confirming the hypothesis that computational fluid dynamics can be used as reliable predictive tools for oil boom analysis and design. 16 refs., 13 figs

  7. Ohmsett's propane-fuelled test system for fire-resistant boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A propane-fuelled system for testing fire-resistant booms was installed at Ohmsett in the fall of 1998, the objective being to expose candidate booms to air-enhanced propane flames and waves, to reproduce a realistic in situ burning environment equal to that of a diesel or crude oil fire. Four fire boom systems have been successfully tested to date. The larger objective is to develop a complete boom performance evaluation system included this and other parameters such as towing performance and the ability to contain hot oil after exposure to flames. 5 refs., 8 figs

  8. Mass Boom Versus Big Bang Einstein was Right

    CERN Document Server

    Alfonso-Faus, A

    2003-01-01

    When considering possible time variations of fundamental physical constants one has to keep firm well established principles. Following this approach we keep firm the Action Principle, General Relativity (the Equivalence Principle), and Mach's Principle. Also we introduce a new principle under the name of "TOTAL INTERACTION" and reconsider Weinberg's relation with a new approach. Consistent with all these principles we find that all masses increase linearly with cosmological time (THE MASS BOOM) and that Planck's constant decreases also with this time.Then the whole quantum world shrinks with time too. This is the cause of the red shift

  9. Asia-Pacific focus of coming LNG trade boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Asia-Pacific region remains the centerpiece of a booming world trade in liquefied natural gas. Biggest growth in LNG demand is expected from some of the region's strongest economies such as Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan, Key LNG exporters such as Brunei, Malaysia, and Indonesia are scrambling to implement projects to meet that expected demand growth. Uncertainties cloud the outlook for Far East LNG trade, Australia, for one, is more cautious in pressing expansion of its LNG export capacity as more competing LNG expansions spring up around the world, notably in the Middle East and Africa

  10. CFD Simulations Of Sonic Booms In Near And Mid Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Samson H.; Edwards, Thomas A.; Lawrence, Scott L.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate generation and propagation of sonic booms in near- and mid-field regions of supersonic flows about simplified bodies representative of advanced airplanes. Parabolized Navier-Stokes equations integrated by implicit, approximate-factorization, finite-volume algorithm in which crossflow inviscid fluxes evaluated by Roe's flux-difference-splitting scheme. Near-field solutions obtained by applying algorithm to flows immediately surrounding bodies. Solutions transferred to computer codes based on Whitham"s F-function theory for extrapolation to far-field.

  11. Lateral Cutoff Analysis and Results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-Boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J., II; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah R.; Hill, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, the NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center (AFRC) and the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in partnership with other industry organizations and academia, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The test helped to build a dataset that will go toward further understanding of the unique acoustic propagation characteristics near the sonic boom carpet extremity. The FaINT was an effort that collected finely-space sonic boom data across the entire lateral cutoff transition region. A major objective of the effort was to investigate the acoustic phenomena that occur at the audible edge of a sonic boom carpet, including the transition and shadow zones. A NASA F-18B aircraft made supersonic passes such that its sonic boom carpet transition zone would intersect a linear 60-microphone, 7500-ft long array. A TG-14 motor glider equipped with a microphone on its wing also attempted to capture the same sonic boom rays that were measured on the ground, at altitudes of 3000 - 6000 ft above ground level. This paper determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, and established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic levels defining the lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region; analyzed the change in sonic boom levels as a function of distance from flight path both on the ground and 4500 ft above the ground; and compared between sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  12. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR-follow-up of autologous patellar ligament transplants for anterior cruciate ligament repair. Gadolinium-DTPA gestuetzte MRT zur Beurteilung des Einheilens von autologen Ligamentum-patellae-Transplantaten als vorderer Kreuzbandersatzplastik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosch, U.; Felix, R. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik); Hertel, P.; Bernard, M. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Unfallchirurgische Abt. Martin-Luther Krankenhaus); Lais, E. (Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany). Unfallchirurgische Abt. Klinikum Rudolf Virchow)

    1993-01-01

    Eighteen patients with autologous patellar tendon transplant for reconstruction the anterior cruciate ligament were examined postoperatively. The time between operation and MR study was up to 3 weeks in ten patients, between 3 and 35 weeks in three patients and more than 35 weeks in five patients. In all patients, Gd-DTPA enhancement on the surface of the ligamentous transplant was visualized. This enhancement was between 1 and 10 mm thick. In all patients, complete stability of the knee joint was postoperatively. In 15 patients achieved flexion and extension were normal at the postoperative investigation. Three patients had a limitation of knee movement. In these MR studies, significant hyperplasia of the synovial membrane of the entire joint was diagnosed, explaining the persisting problems. Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR of the knee joint allows non-invasive documentation of remodelling following a patellar ligament transplant and possible complications. (orig.).

  13. Modelling of natural organic matter-linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, Boom Clay is investigated for its potential to host a deep geological disposal repository. In order to demonstrate the suitability of the Boom Clay as a host rock, the mobility of critical radionuclides in this clay layer has been the subject of research during many years. As actinides, lanthanides and transition metals are known to form strong complexes with organic substances, the influence of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in Boom Clay on the mobility of these critical radionuclides is of crucial importance. Interaction of radionuclides with OM present in Boom Clay could on the one hand retard the migration due to complexation/colloid interaction with the immobile OM, and on the other hand the mobility and solubility of the radionuclide can be enhanced by the formation of complexes/colloids with the mobile OM. The conceptual understanding (and its numerical modelling) of the kinetic stability and transport of these complexes/colloids is therefore regarded as highly important for the the long-term safety assesment of the geological disposal. This can be broken down into two subproblems: 1. Describing the transport behaviour of mobile OM in Boom Clay; 2. Describing the interaction of RN with mobile OM and the transport behaviour of the resulting complexes in Boom Clay. The first part of this paper revolves around the first subproblem, where a robust model for the description of the migration behaviour of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) is derived based on data from column migration experiments using 14C-labelled NOM Tracer solution, obtained in the framework of the EC TRANCOM-II project. Clay plugs of different lengths and different Darcy velocities were used. Inverse modelling with the MATLAB and COMSOL numerical code was done in order to identify the most

  14. The anterior cingulate cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC has a role in attention, analysis of sensory information, error recognition, problem solving, detection of novelty, behavior, emotions, social relations, cognitive control, and regulation of visceral functions. This area is active whenever the individual feels some emotions, solves a problem, or analyzes the pros and cons of an action (if it is a right decision. Analogous areas are also found in higher mammals, especially whales, and they contain spindle neurons that enable complex social interactions. Disturbance of ACC activity is found in dementias, schizophrenia, depression, the obsessive-compulsive syndrome, and other neuropsychiatric diseases.

  15. 76 FR 20532 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ..., Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on the Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY for the Boom... Niagara River, Niagara Falls, NY during the Boom Days Fireworks on April 16, 2011. This temporary...

  16. On America’s Baby Boom Generation and It’s Social Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨娜

    2014-01-01

    Baby boom generation is the larger than expected generation in U.S born shortly after World War II. This post- World War II phenomenon upsets the phenomenon which had been a century-long decline in the U.S fertility rate. This paper simply analyzed America’s baby boom generation from three aspects.

  17. 76 FR 20530 - Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Boom Days, Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo... temporary safety zone in the Buffalo Outer Harbor, Buffalo, NY for the Boom Days Fireworks. This zone is intended to restrict vessels from Doug's Dive, the NFTA small boat harbor and a portion of the...

  18. Continued development of a test for fire booms in waves and flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The durability of a fire resistant boom and its ability to contain oil during an in situ burn without creating any environmental damage as a result of the burning crude was evaluated. The screening test included four stages: (1) the pre-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was flexed under tension in waves to simulate deployment of the boom and transit to the spill site, (2) the burn in wave stage, where the test boom was exposed to waves and repeated on hourly cycles of a propane gas fire to simulate oil burning operations, (3) the post-burn wave stress stage, where the test boom was again flexed under tension in waves to simulate retrieval of the boom, and (4) the oil-containment stage, where the ability of the boom to contain thick pools of hot oil was assessed. Three recommendations were made after the test program: (1) increase the heat generated by fire, (2) increase the tension on the boom, and (4) improve the data acquisition system. 10 refs., 10 tabs., 13 figs

  19. Micro-Ramps for External Compression Low-Boom Inlets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael; Loth, Eric; Chima, Rodrick V.; Hirt, Stefanie M.; DeBonis, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The application of vortex generators for flow control in an external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was investigated using RANS simulations with three-dimensional (3-D), structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code. The low-boom inlet design is based on previous scale model 1- by 1-ft wind tunnel tests and features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. Validation of the methodology was first performed for micro-ramps in supersonic flow on a flat plate with and without oblique shocks. For the inlet configuration, simulations with several types of vortex generators were conducted for positions both upstream and downstream of the terminating normal shock. The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and massflow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. The optimum upstream configuration was found to substantially reduce the post-shock separation area but did not significantly impact recovery at the aerodynamic interface plane (AIP). Downstream device placement allowed for fuller boundary layer velocity profiles and reduced distortion. This resulted in an improved pressure recovery and massflow ratio at the AIP compared to the baseline solid-wall configuration.

  20. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. PMID:21895057

  1. Solubility limited retention of strontium in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For over 25 years, the study of Boom Clay as a geological barrier to radioactive waste has focused on laboratory batch type and diffusion experiments using artificial tracers. These experiments may suffer from artefacts and are not always representative for natural conditions and the geological time scale. Only in recent years, the research has significantly taken natural evidences into account. An important objective of the natural evidence study is to test the models representing the retention of radionuclides by confronting the observed distribution of naturally present radionuclides. The distribution and retention of naturally present strontium in Boom Clay was studied for clay cores from recent drillings in HADES (Underground Research Facilities) 2001/4 and Mol-1 boreholes. The concentration of strontium was measured both on solid clay and in pore water extracted by mechanical squeezing from the clay cores. Strontium concentration was also determined in the pore water samples collected from a multi-filter piezometer installed in the HADES 2001/4 borehole. (authors)

  2. Boom bomer boomste en die idiolek van Elsabe Steenberg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. van der Westhuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Boom bomer boomste and the idiolect of Elsabe Steenberg. Elsabe Steenberg’s oeuvre,consisting among others of 42 narratives in book format, is richly textured and represents a notable depth of insight into the complexities of life. It is clear that, from an intertextual point of view, considering the entire body of her work is a way of accumulating evidence in order to discern aspects of her distinctive idiolect. This idiolect, however, also emerges when contemplating a representative work from her oeuvre. The text selected for this article, a youth novel in which the symbolism of trees manifests itself in various semantic permutations,communicating the author’s intrinsic life and world view, is Boom bomer boomste, also available in English under the title Tree-more, tree-most. The tree as object and how it functions in the narrative to become part of the theme, as well as the vision of life in this youth novel, can be scrutinised minutely if the effort is aimed at finding frequent recurring signs that maybe regarded as representative of the author’s idiolect. The use of the tree symbolism in the narrative worlds of Elsabe Steenberg points toward the most prolific sign contributing to this author’s idiolect: God is the Origin and the regenerating Force in the universe of Elsabe Steenberg’s life and work.

  3. Influence of ionic strength on the transport parameters of tritiated water and iodide in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfil its role as main barrier for High and Medium Level radioactive waste (HLW and MLW), Boom Clay relies on its advantageous capacity to minimise radionuclide transport by its slow diffusion and high retention properties. One of the key parameters in the radionuclide dispersion process is the diffusion accessible porosity (ηacc). Diffusion accessible porosity, is a transport parameter that is linked to the properties of each dispersing radionuclide and the geochemical conditions of Boom Clay. Disposing radioactive waste in Boom Clay will inevitably cause perturbations of which some can generate changes in the Boom Clay pore water chemistry. One effect of these chemical perturbations will be the increase of ionic strength of the pore water in the vicinity of a repository. This paper synthesises the results of the experimental work done to obtain the transport parameters of tritiated water and iodide for Boom Clay at different ionic strengths. (authors)

  4. Anterior hip pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, J W

    1999-10-15

    Anterior hip pain is a common complaint with many possible causes. Apophyseal avulsion and slipped capital femoral epiphysis should not be overlooked in adolescents. Muscle and tendon strains are common in adults. Subsequent to accurate diagnosis, strains should improve with rest and directed conservative treatment. Osteoarthritis, which is diagnosed radiographically, generally occurs in middle-aged and older adults. Arthritis in younger adults should prompt consideration of an inflammatory cause. A possible femoral neck stress fracture should be evaluated urgently to prevent the potentially significant complications associated with displacement. Patients with osteitis pubis should be educated about the natural history of the condition and should undergo physical therapy to correct abnormal pelvic mechanics. "Sports hernias," nerve entrapments and labral pathologic conditions should be considered in athletic adults with characteristic presentations and chronic symptoms. Surgical intervention may allow resumption of pain-free athletic activity. PMID:10537384

  5. Mindfulness as a booming, diverse and (non) religious phenomenon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    Mindfulness has become a phenomenon with widespread appeal in many Western countries. Like yoga, it has an Eastern religious origin, but through a long history it has been transformed and adapted to new cultural and social contexts. While the majority of research on mindfulness has been conducted...... within the health sciences, the aim of this article is to investigate the distribution, meaning and function of this practice through quantitative mapping and qualitative interviews with 16 mindfulness providers in the city of Aarhus in Denmark. The analysis reveals not just a booming phenomenon......, but also a field characterized by diversity in terms of authority claims, motivations and uses. The discussion focuses on whether mindfulness can be seen as a religious practice or as a typical expression of an individualized and secularized technique....

  6. The design, construction, and observation of permanently installed safety booms in ice covered waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelnour, R.; Abdelnour, E.; Comfort, G. [BMT Fleet Technology Ltd., Kanata (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    In order to minimize potential accidents resulting from accidental intrusion, safety booms have been deployed near hydroelectric power plants to warn boaters of fast water currents. In cold regions, the booms are installed in early June and removed in October to avoid ice damage. However, in some years substantial delays caused by high river flow have meant that the booms were installed only after the summer boating season was underway. In addition, because the window of opportunity between the desired date of removal of these booms and the start of ice formation is sometimes quite short, it can be difficult to decide on a removal date. This paper described the design, construction, and observation of a typical safety boom that was installed in the summer of 2006 at the headpond of the Bark Lake flow control dam operated by Ontario Power Generation. The boom design considerations included prevailing ice conditions at the site; historical water discharge and associated currents; water level fluctuations; and the ice observed during the winter of 2007. Design challenges and improvements were also discussed. The boom has performed as expected and has remained in the water year-round for the past 2 years. It was concluded that the project has achieved success in providing river users with a warning system that remains in place until the beginning of the ice freeze up and is ready again in the spring as soon as the ice disappears. 5 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  7. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1973-01-01

    The sonic boom flight test program conducted at Jackass Flats, Nevada, during the summer and fall of 1970 consisted of 121 sonic-boom-generating flights over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower. This test program was designed to provide information on several aspects of sonic boom, including caustics produced by longitudinal accelerations, caustics produced by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, sonic boom characteristics near lateral cutoff, and the vertical extent of shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes. The measured test data, except for the near-sonic flight data, were analyzed in detail to determine sonic boom characteristics for these flight conditions and to determine the accuracy and the range of validity of linear sonic boom theory. The caustic phenomena observed during the threshold Mach number flights and during the transonic acceleration flights are documented and analyzed in detail. The theory of geometric acoustics is shown to be capable of predicting shock wave-ground intersections, and current methods for calculating sonic boom pressure signature away from caustics are shown to be reasonably accurate.

  8. Homogeneity vs. Heterogeneity of Porosity in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructural investigations on Boom Clay at nano- to micrometer scale, using BIB-SEM methods, result in porosity characterization for different mineral phases from direct observations on high resolution SE2-images of representative elementary areas (REAs). High quality, polished surfaces of cross-sections of ∼ 1 mm2 size were produced on three different samples from the Mol-Dessel research site (Belgium). More than 33,000 pores were detected, manually segmented and analyzed with regard to their size, shape and orientation. Two main pore classes were defined: Small pores (< 500 nm (ED)) within the clay matrices of samples and =big' pores (> 500 nm (ED)) at the interfaces between clay and non-clay mineral (NCM) grains. Samples investigated show similar porosities regarding the first pore-class, but differences occur at the interfaces between clay matrix and NCM grains. These differences were interpreted to be due to differences in quantitative mineralogy (amount of non-clay mineral grains) and grain-size distributions between samples investigated. Visible porosities were measured as 15 to 17 % for samples investigated. Pore-size distributions of pores in clay are similar for all samples, showing log-normal distributions with peaks around 60 nm (ED) and more than 95 % of the pores being smaller than 500 nm (ED). Fitting pore-size distributions using power-laws with exponents between 1.56 and 1.7, assuming self-similarity of the pore space, thus pores smaller than the pore detection resolution following the same power-laws and using these power-laws for extrapolation of pore-size distributions below the limit of pore detection resolution, results in total estimated porosities between 20 and 30 %. These results are in good agreement with data known from Mercury Porosimetry investigations (35-40 % porosity) and water content porosity measurements (∼ 36 %) performed on Boom Clay. (authors)

  9. Tracking the Boom in Queensland’s Gasfields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Rifkin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During rapid resource development in a highly contested arena, effective processes for characterising cumulative, social and economic impacts are needed. In this article, we explain a strategy that uses an iterative process involving stakeholders to identify indicators of impacts of onshore natural gas development. The aim of the strategy is to arrive at a small set of indicators that those in the community, government and industry agree are salient and credible.Four major joint ventures are investing more than A$60 billion to tap Queensland, Australia’s onshore natural gas resources. Thousands of wells are reaching into natural gas in seams of coal that lie below aquifers that residents refer to as essential for their heavily agricultural region. The magnitude of these developments has been depicted as threatening the traditional base of political power that has rested with farmers. Nearby coal mining has given some communities the experience of the boomtown cycle, but it is placing unfamiliar strains on municipal resources in other towns. Gas companies provide funds in attempts to mitigate impacts, satisfying requirements of their elaborate social impact management plans (SIMPs.The research reported in this paper, though only mid-way to completion, suggests that an action-research approach to developing indicators of cumulative impacts on housing, business, employment, liveability and trust in government shows promise for enabling stakeholders to track the multi-faceted effects of a resource boom.  We hope that such work helps stakeholders to mitigate the ups and downs of the cycle of boom, bust and recovery that can be driven by resource development.

  10. Boom clay pore water, home of a diverse microbial community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Boom Clay pore water (BCPW) has been studied in the framework of geological disposal of nuclear waste for over two decades, thereby mainly addressing its geochemical properties. A reference composition for synthetic clay water has been derived earlier by modelling and spatial calibration efforts, mainly based on interstitial water sampled from different layers within the Boom clay. However, since microbial activity is found in a range of extreme circumstances, the possibility of microbes interacting with future radioactive waste in a host formation like Boom Clay, cannot be ignored. In this respect, BCPW was sampled from different Boom Clay layers using the Morpheus piezometer and subsequently analysed by a complementary set of microbiological and molecular techniques, in search for overall shared and abundant microorganisms. Similar to the previous characterization of the 'average' BCPW chemical composition, the primary aim of this microbiological study is to determine a representative BCPW microbial community which can be used in laboratory studies. Secondly, the in situ activity and the metabolic properties of members of this community were addressed, aiming to assess their survival and proliferation chances in repository conditions. In a first approach, total microbial DNA of the community was extracted from the BCPW samples. This molecular approach allows a broad insight in the total microbial ecology of the BCPW samples. By polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the highly conserved 16S rRNA genes in this DNA pool and subsequent sequencing and bio-informatics analysis, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) could be assigned to the microbial community. The bacterial community was found to be quite diverse, with OTUs belonging to 8 different phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Spirochetes, Chloroflexi and Deinococcus-Thermus). These results provide an overall view of the

  11. Ice-load measurements on the Lake Erie-Niagara River ice boom: 1996-97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and installation of a new ice boom at the entrance to the upper Niagara River at the north-east end of Lake Erie was described. Each year since 1964, the New York Power Authority and Ontario Hydro install a 2,700-meter long ice boom which spans the outlet of Lake Erie about three kilometres upstream of the Peace Bridge. The ice boom minimizes the impacts of ice on power generation in the Niagara River in the early freeze-up period of winter. A monitoring program has been developed in which water level gauges, water temperature probes and low-light-level television cameras are used to obtain real-time observations of certain ice and hydraulic characteristics. Visual observations of ice conditions in the vicinity of the New York Power Authority's intakes were also recorded. As a result of the monitoring program, a new boom design was developed which called for replacing the boom's Douglas Fir timbers with 0.76 m-diameter, 9.1 m-long steel pipe pontoons. In the 1996-97 season, the timbers in the boom were replaced with the steel pipe pontoons to evaluate the effectiveness of the new design through an ice load measurement program. The cable tensions and boom submergence at the three anchoring locations along the boom were measured. Several recommendations were made. In general, it was concluded that if the ice booms were composed entirely of steel pontoons, the release of ice into the river would be substantially reduced. 7 refs., 14 figs

  12. 自动调平喷杆式喷药机设计与试验研究%Design and Experimental Research on Automatic Levelling Boom Sprayer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳文; 杨自栋

    2016-01-01

    For the characters of undulating gentle slope of arable land and the different height of different crops, we de-sign this boom sprayer.The spray bar could remain parallel to the ground.The boom sprayer could lift freely within the al-lowable range through the hydraulic system.The boom sprayer also could complete the leveling work in the field.The spray bar is lifted by the hydraulic system and movable block.The spring and balancing dampers are used to complete the mechanical leveling work of spray bar.The boom sprayer plays a positive role in Improving the utilization of pesticides and reducing crop production costs.%针对耕地存在缓坡起伏及不同农作物具有不同的植株高度的特点,设计一套能够自由调节喷杆高度的喷杆式喷药机. 该机喷杆始终保持与地面平行,使喷药机在田间工作时能够通过液压系统进行自由提升,且在田间工作时可利用机械部件完成喷杆的调平工作. 系统利用动滑轮和液压系统完成喷杆的提升,利用弹簧和阻尼器完成喷杆的机械调平工作. 该喷药机对提高农药的利用率、降低农作物生产成本都具有积极的推动作用.

  13. Methodology for the Regulation of Boom Sprayers Operating in Circular Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serreta

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m2. Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in

  14. Methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers operating in circular trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramos, Francisco Javier; Vidal, Mariano; Boné, Antonio; Serreta, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for the regulation of boom sprayers working in circular trajectories has been developed. In this type of trajectory, the areas of the plots of land treated by the outer nozzles of the boom are treated at reduced rates, and those treated by the inner nozzles are treated in excess. The goal of this study was to establish the methodology to determine the flow of the individual nozzles on the boom to guarantee that the dose of the product applied per surface unit is similar across the plot. This flow is a function of the position of the equipment (circular trajectory radius) and of the displacement velocity such that the treatment applied per surface unit is uniform. GPS technology was proposed as a basis to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor. The viability of this methodology was simulated considering two circular plots with radii of 160 m and 310 m, using three sets of equipment with boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m. Data showed as increasing boom widths produce bigger errors in the surface dose applied (L/m(2)). Error also increases with decreasing plot surface. As an example, considering the three boom widths of 14.5, 24.5 and 29.5 m working on a circular plot with a radius of 160 m, the percentage of surface with errors in the applied surface dose greater than 5% was 30%, 58% and 65% respectively. Considering a circular plot with radius of 310 m the same errors were 8%, 22% and 31%. To obtain a uniform superficial dose two sprayer regulation alternatives have been simulated considering a 14.5 m boom: the regulation of the pressure of each nozzle and the regulation of the pressure of each boom section. The viability of implementing the proposed methodology on commercial boom sprayers using GPS antennas to establish the position and displacement velocity of the tractor was justified with a field trial in which a self-guiding commercial GPS system was used along with three precision GPS systems located in the sprayer

  15. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated

  16. Remediation of floating, open water oil spills: Comparative efficacy of commercially available polypropylene sorbent booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Ed L.

    1991-03-01

    Several complex methods of remediation are applied to open water oil spills. Sorbing the liquid hydrocarbons with polypropylene booms is an effective and less complex means of treating such events. There are, however, a variety of commercially available booms which display different performances in sorbing different viscosity hydrocarbons. There is no acceptable A.S.T.M. protocol to evaluate these booms for performance efficiency in various weather and hydrocarbon viscosity scenarios. The current paper proposes such a protocol and evaluates the most commonly used sorbent products with the new test procedures. Nine specific performance criteria, based on actual field applications, are demonstrated.

  17. Anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer: risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, C A; Andreasen, A H; Jørgensen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify risk factors for clinical anastomotic leakage (AL) after anterior resection for rectal cancer in a consecutive national cohort. METHOD: All patients with an initial first diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma were prospectively registered in a national...

  18. Tireoide ectópica no mediastino anterior Ectopic thyroid in the anterior mediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Araújo da Cunha Guimarães

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A ectopia de tireoide é rara, e a sua localização no mediastino anterior é excepcional, estando descritos apenas 5 casos nos últimos 30 anos. Os autores apresentam 2 casos clínicos, além de uma revisão da literatura abordando a etiologia, a embriologia e manifestações clínicas de ectopia de tireoide.Ectopic thyroid is a rare condition, and its location in the anterior mediastinum is even rarer, there having been only 5 reported cases in the past 30 years. Here, we describe 2 clinical cases and present a review of the literature regarding the etiology, embryology and clinical manifestations of ectopic thyroid.

  19. Integration of Engine, Plume, and CFD Analyses in Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Supersonic Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wu; Campbell, Richard; Geiselhart, Karl; Shields, Elwood; Nayani, Sudheer; Shenoy, Rajiv

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents an integration of engine, plume, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses in the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft, using a variable fidelity approach. In particular, the Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) is used for propulsion system cycle analysis and nacelle outer mold line definition, and a low-fidelity plume model is developed for plume shape prediction based on NPSS engine data and nacelle geometry. This model provides a capability for the conceptual design of low-boom supersonic aircraft that accounts for plume effects. Then a newly developed process for automated CFD analysis is presented for CFD-based plume and boom analyses of the conceptual geometry. Five test cases are used to demonstrate the integrated engine, plume, and CFD analysis process based on a variable fidelity approach, as well as the feasibility of the automated CFD plume and boom analysis capability.

  20. An ElectroAdhesive "Stick Boom" for Mars Sample Return Orbiting Sample Capture Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Electroadhesive "Sticky Boom", an innovative method for rendezvous and docking, is proposed for the Orbiting Sample Capture (OSC) portion of the Mars...

  1. Control of large spaceborne antenna systems with flexible booms by mechanical decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P. K. C.

    1983-01-01

    A simple practical method for designing antenna-feed attitude control systems for large deployable spaceborne antenna systems with long flexible booms is proposed. The basic idea is to mechanically decouple the antenna-feed from the boom so that the feed-attitude control system can be designed without taking the boom dynamics into consideration, thus avoiding a complex control problem involving an infinite-dimensional distributed parameter system. The validity of the proposed method is substantiated by analytical and numerical studies using a mathematical model for the flexible boom which could undergo both bending and torsional vibrations. This approach leads to simple antenna-feed attitude control systems which are amenable to physical implementation.

  2. An evaluation of propane as a fuel for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments have been conducted to measure and compare the thermal exposure to a fire-resistant boom from liquid hydrocarbon fuel and propane fires. The objective was to test the potential of propane fueled fires as a fire source for testing fire-resistant oil spill containment booms.Thermal exposure from propane fires have been measured with and without waves. Results indicated that although propane diffusion flames on water look like liquid hydrocarbon fuel flames and produce very little smoke, the heat flux at the boom location from propane fires is about 60 per cent of that from liquid hydrocarbon fuel fires. Despite the attractive features in terms of ease of application, control and smoke emissions, it was concluded that the low heat flux would preclude the application of propane as a fuel for evaluating fire resistant containment booms. 2 refs., 7 figs

  3. Second phase evaluation of a protocol for testing fire-resistant oil containment boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second series of fire tests for fire-resistant containment booms were conducted in a wave tank at the U.S. Coast Guard Fire and Safety Test Detachment in Mobile, Alabama, utilizing ASTM F-20 draft standards. Six different fire-resistant containment booms were used. Three of the six were modified designs of booms used in the first series of tests. The tests in this series were designed to address issues raised in the first series, namely the location of heat fluxes and thermocouples, and the protocol for water-cooled booms. The results of the second series of tests are discussed and compared to the first. Strengths and weaknesses of the test protocol and other possible improvements are also discussed. 5 refs., 5 tabs., 7 figs

  4. On the dynamic response and collapse of slender guyed booms for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housner, J. M.; Belvin, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure is developed for the analysis of the nonlinear transient response of an initially imperfect slender guyed boom having a concentrated mass at the tip. The analysis is compared with laboratory experiments, and the validated procedure is employed to study the transient response of a boom to suddenly applied step loads and prescribed initial velocities. Both cases approximate the transient conditions associated with commencing and terminating a slewing maneuver in space. Two nonlinear effects are examined, namely cable slackening and beam column behavior. It is shown that dynamic buckling of the boom may occur with excitations which result in slackening of a cable. It is also shown that transverse boom tip deflections are sensitive only to initial eccentricities when certain threshold values are exceeded. Design guidelines are established for combinations of pulse level and duration which meet performance requirements for allowable deflections.

  5. Sonic Boom Vibro-Acoustic Simulations using Multiple Point Sources Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AVEC proposes an innovative concept for the evaluation of human response studies to sonic booms inside realistic structures. The approach proposed is to simulate...

  6. A NASTRAN investigation of simulated projectile damage effects on a UH-1B tail boom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futterer, A. T.

    1980-01-01

    A NASTRAN model of a UH-1B tail boom that had been designed for another project was used to investigate the effect on structural integrity of simulated projectile damage. Elements representing skin, and sections of stringers, longerons and bulkheads were systematically deleted to represent projectile damage. The structure was loaded in a manner to represent the flight loads that would be imposed on the tail boom at a 130 knot cruise. The deflection of four points on the rear of the tail boom relative to the position of these points for the unloaded, undamaged condition of the tail boom was used as a measure of the loss of structural rigidity. The same procedure was then used with the material properties of the aluminum alloys replaced with the material properties of T300/5208 high strength graphite/epoxy fibrous composite material, (0, + or - 45, 90)s for the skin and (0, + or - 45)s for the longerons, stringers, and bulk heads.

  7. Credit Booms and Busts in Emerging Markets: The Role of Bank Governance and Risk Managment

    OpenAIRE

    Alin Marius ANDRIES; Brown, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent risk management and corporate governance mitigate the involvement of banks in credit boom and bust cycles. Using a unique, handcollected dataset on 156 banks from Central and Eastern Europe during 2005-2012, we assess whether banks with stronger risk management and corporate governance display more moderate credit growth in the pre-crisis credit boom as well as a smaller credit contraction and fewer credit losses in the crisis period. With respect to ban...

  8. Credit Booms and Busts in Emerging Markets: The Role of Bank Governance and Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Martin; Andries, Alin

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates to what extent risk management and corporate governance mitigate the involvement of banks in credit boom and bust cycles. Using a unique, hand-collected dataset on 156 banks from Central and Eastern Europe during 2005-2012, we assess whether banks with stronger risk management and corporate governance display more moderate credit growth in the pre-crisis credit boom as well as a smaller credit contraction and fewer credit losses in the crisis period. With respect to ba...

  9. Economic Booms and Risky Sexual Behavior: Evidence from Zambian Copper Mining Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Wilson

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies suggest that individual and household level economic shocks affect the demand for and supply of risky sex. However, little evidence exists on the effects of an aggregate shock on equilibrium risky sexual behavior. This paper examines the effects of the early twenty-first century copper boom on risky sexual behavior in Zambian copper mining cities. The results indicate that the copper boom substantially reduced rates of transactional sex and multiple partnerships in copper min...

  10. Improvement Of Spray Deposit Homogeneity Using A Pwm Spray Controller To Compensate Horizontal Boom Speed Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Lebeau, Frédéric; El Bahir, L.; Destain, Marie-France; Kinnaert, M.; Hanus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Longitudinal spray distribution is mainly affected by the horizontal speed variations of the nozzles. Manufacturers classically try to reduce unwanted nozzles movements using horizontal boom suspension but these methods have performance and price limitations. This paper describes a spray controller aiming to compensate the effect of the horizontal boom movements on the spray deposits homogeneity. The controller is based on three main components: a control law describing the relati...

  11. A Novel Telescopic Boom Deployment System for Use in Upper Atmosphere Research

    OpenAIRE

    Wylie, Mark; Duffy, Paul; Vather, Dinesh; Keegan, John; Curran, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Typical measurement probe deployment systems on sounding rockets employ hinged booms which extend the probes away from the rocket. This configuration often has a significant mass and may require a considerable amount of the rocket’s valuable payload volume. In an effort to reduce both mass and volume, the DIT Space Research Group have designed a light weight carbon fibre telescopic boom system, compatible with measurement probes commonly used in upper atmosphere research. Our design has been ...

  12. Design optimization of an articulated boom for NET in-vessel handling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In-vessel components of fusion reactors must be remotely replaceable. The necessary handling will be performed from inside the torus by means of work units. A major problem is to carry the work units inside the torus. One concept to solve this problem is to use an in-vessel handling unit based on an articulated boom. It is supported outside the torus and enters the torus through an entry port. Additional supports are not available. Then the work unit (manipulator unit, diverter handling unit or antenna handling unit), attached to the end-frame of the boom, is able to reach any point inside the torus. Therefore the boom consists of eleven links connected by yaw joints. Its stretched (unfolded) length is about 25 m. Due to the scissor type of design, the boom can be folded such that the required area to store it is only 10.25 x 3.2 m. The cross-sections of the links (except those staying outside the torus) are 350 x 1350 mm. In order to allow easy repair and exchange, the drive mechanisms for the joints and the necessary cable are located above the links. The resulting overall dimensions are such that the boom may pass the entry port having an opening of 650 x 1900 mm. The maximum load at the tip of the boom is about 3900 kg. It consists of the maximum payload of 1000 kg (which is the load of a diverter plate plus gripper) and the load of the diverter handling unit of 29000 kg. The design of the boom such that the stresses and strains are within allowed limits turned out to be a difficult task. It led to a boom dead load of about 25000 kg which is 25-times the payload. In this paper the structural mechanics assessment to find an appropriate design is described

  13. In-situ PCO2 measurement in boom clay: the pegasus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom Clay has been studied for over twenty-five years as a potential host rock for the final disposal of radioactive waste. To assess the safety of the Boom Clay as a geological barrier, a good understanding of its geochemistry is essential as it reveals the stability of the host rock and influences the migration of radionuclides. A recent study on the geochemistry of Boom Clay pore water highlights the need of a representative value of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2 ). Until now the used value of pCO2 of Boom Clay varies between 1,61 and 4,03 mbar (10-2.8 to 10-2.4 atm). A good solution to measure representative in-situ pCO2 values, is to use a set up in which the experimental boundaries are imposed and controlled by the Boom Clay formation itself. Under normal Boom Clay physico-chemical conditions, there is no gas phase present. This is because all volatile and gaseous species, thus also carbon dioxide, are below their saturation limit. They are only present as dissolved components of the Boom Clay pore water. This paper describes a new technique, based on the proportional Henry law relationship, to determine the in-situ pCO2. The main idea of the new pCO2 measurement technique is to bring Boom Clay pore water in contact with a chemically non reactive, inert, gas phase. As a consequence of this contact the dissolved carbon dioxide starts to transform into the gaseous phase. At equilibrium the distribution of the carbon dioxide between the gas and the liquid phase is proportionally related and defined by the Henry law constant. To make this new technique work under in-situ conditions the following experimental set up has been designed and constructed. (authors)

  14. NOFI oil Vee-Sweep and extension boom test at OHMSETT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NOFI Vee-Sweep is an inflatable oil collection boom held in a V configuration by cross netting attached to the skirt of the boom. The NOFI 600S is an inflatable oil boom used to divert oil into the Vee-Sweep. The lower section of the 600S skirt consists of a feather net and a ballast chain. The booms are designed for open-ocean skimming where a skimmer is placed in the Vee-Sweep apex to remove the collected oil. During testing, the booms were preloaded with oil and towed in the OHMSETT tank at various speeds and wave conditions. Each boom was tested for its first and gross (continuous) oil loss speeds. The Vee-Sweep was also evaluated for wave performance, oil thickness vs tow speed, oil loss rate, and critical tow speed. Finally, a DESMI-250 oil skimmer was placed in the Vee-Sweep apex and oil loss tests were run while the skimmer was operating. During the critical tow speed testing, failures occurred due to apex submergence at ca 3.5 knots in calm water and short-crested waves, and 2.4 knots in harbor chop. The oil loss tests showed that the Vee-Sweep retains oil at speeds significantly higher than conventional booms. First oil loss speeds ranged from 1.3 knots in calm water to 1.0 knot in regular waves. The Vee-Sweep's high buoyancy/weight ratio gave it good wave performance in all conditions tested. The 600S oil loss speeds were higher than those of most conventional booms, and performance was better when the feather net was attached. 1 ref., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  15. Dissolution Behaviour of UO2 in Anoxic Conditions: Comparison of Ca-Bentonite and Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine in how far the clay properties influence the dissolution of spent fuel, experiments were carried out with depleted UO2 in the presence of either compacted dry Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay groundwater (KB-BCW) or compacted dry Boom Clay with Boom Clay groundwater (BC-BCW). The leach tests were performed at 25 deg. C in anoxic atmosphere for 2 years. The U concentrations in the clay water were followed during these 2 years, and the amount of U in the clay was determined after 2 years in order to determine the UO2 dissolution rate. The uranium concentration after 0.45 μm filtration was 50 times higher in the Boom Clay with Boom Clay water (2.0 x 10-7 mol.L-1) than in Ca-bentonite with Boom Clay water (6.5 x 10-9 mol.L-1), probably due to colloid formation in the Boom Clay system. Most released uranium was found in the clay. The fraction of uranium, dissolved from the UO2 pellet and found on the clay represents about 42 % of total uranium release in the system BC-BCW and more than 76 % in the system KB-BCW. The higher uranium retention of Boom Clay goes together with a higher dissolution rate. Global dissolution rates were estimated at about 2.0 x 10-2 μg.cm-2.d-1 for the BCBCW system and 3.4 x 10-3 μg.cm-2.d-1 for the KB-BCW system. This is not much lower than for similar tests with spent fuel, reported in literature. (authors)

  16. Multidisciplinary management of anterior diastemata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Herkrath, Fernando José; Franco, Eduardo Jacomino;

    2007-01-01

    the aesthetic results when orthodontic therapy itself is not feasible. This article presents integrated orthodonticrestorative solutions of anterior diastemata, associated with the conditioning of the gingival tissue with composite resin, and discusses the most relevant aspects related to their etiology...

  17. Anterior approach for knee arthrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To develop a new method of magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) of the knee using an anterior approach analogous to the portals used for knee arthroscopy.Design. An anterior approach to the knee joint was devised mimicking anterior portals used for knee arthroscopy. Seven patients scheduled for routine knee MRA were placed in a decubitus position and under fluoroscopic guidance a needle was advanced from a position adjacent to the patellar tendon into the knee joint. After confirmation of the needle tip location, a dilute gadolinium solution was injected.Results and conclusion. All the arthrograms were technically successful. The anterior approach to knee MRA has greater technical ease than the traditional approach with little patient discomfort. (orig.)

  18. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Taperloc Microplasty stem and E-poly antioxidant-infused technology during a hip replacement through the anterior supine ... renewed interest at this time due to several advantages that it brings. The approach that is performed ...

  19. Anterior Approach Total Hip Replacement

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it to have any real negative or deleterious effect by removing the anterior capsule. Now I would ... is what happens with one of the competitive designs. Like I told you, I just take a ...

  20. CFD Analysis of Nozzle Jet Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics study is conducted to examine nozzle exhaust jet plume effects on the Sonic boom signature of a supersonic aircraft. A simplified axisymmetric nozzle geometry, representative of the nozzle on the NASA Dryden NF-15B Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock research airplane, is considered. The computational fluid dynamics code is validated using available wind-tunnel sonic boom experimental data. The effects of grid size, spatial order of accuracy. grid type, and flow viscosity on the accuracy of the predicted sonic boom pressure signature are quantified. Grid lines parallel to the Mach wave direction are found to give the best results. Second-order accurate upwind methods are required as a minimum for accurate sonic boom simulations. The highly underexpanded nozzle flow is found to provide significantly more reduction in the tail shock strength in the sonic boom N-wave pressure signature than perfectly expanded and overexpanded nozzle flows. A tail shock train in the sonic boom signature is observed for the highly underexpanded nozzle flow. Axisymmetric computational fluid dynamics simulations show the flow physics inside the F-15 nozzle to be nonisentropic and complex.

  1. High-Speed Research: 1994 Sonic Boom Workshop. Configuration, Design, Analysis and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, David A. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The third High-Speed Research Sonic Boom Workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center on June 1-3, 1994. The purpose of this workshop was to provide a forum for Government, industry, and university participants to present and discuss progress in their research. The workshop was organized into sessions dealing with atmospheric propagation; acceptability studies; and configuration design, and testing. Attendance at the workshop was by invitation only. The workshop proceedings include papers on design, analysis, and testing of low-boom high-speed civil transport configurations and experimental techniques for measuring sonic booms. Significant progress is noted in these areas in the time since the previous workshop a year earlier. The papers include preliminary results of sonic boom wind tunnel tests conducted during 1993 and 1994 on several low-boom designs. Results of a mission performance analysis of all low-boom designs are also included. Two experimental methods for measuring near-field signatures of airplanes in flight are reported.

  2. An investigation into the effect of playback environment on perception of sonic booms when heard indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Daniel; Davies, Patricia

    2015-10-01

    Aircraft manufacturers are interested in designing and building a new generation of supersonic aircraft that produce shaped sonic booms of lower peak amplitude than booms created by current supersonic aircraft. To determine if the noise exposure from these "low"booms is more acceptable to communities, new laboratory testing to evaluate people's responses must occur. To guide supersonic aircraft design, objective measures that predict human response to modified sonic boom waveforms and other impulsive sounds are needed. The present research phase is focused on understanding people's reactions to booms when heard inside, and therefore includes consideration of the effects of house type and the indoor acoustic environment. A test was conducted in NASA Langley's Interior Effects Room (IER), with the collaboration of NASA Langley engineers. This test was focused on the effects of low-frequency content and of vibration, and subjects sat in a small living room environment. A second test was conducted in a sound booth at Purdue University, using similar sounds played back over earphones. The sounds in this test contained less very-low-frequency energy due to limitations in the playback, and the laboratory setting is a less natural environment. For the purpose of comparison, and to improve the robustness of the model, both sonic booms and other more familiar transient sounds were used in the tests. The design of the tests and the signals are briefly described, and the results of both tests will be presented.

  3. Numerical Predictions of Sonic Boom Signatures for a Straight Line Segmented Leading Edge Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmiligui, Alaa A.; Wilcox, Floyd J.; Cliff, Susan; Thomas, Scott

    2012-01-01

    A sonic boom wind tunnel test was conducted on a straight-line segmented leading edge (SLSLE) model in the NASA Langley 4- by 4- Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT). The purpose of the test was to determine whether accurate sonic boom measurements could be obtained while continuously moving the SLSLE model past a conical pressure probe. Sonic boom signatures were also obtained using the conventional move-pause data acquisition method for comparison. The continuous data acquisition approach allows for accurate signatures approximately 15 times faster than a move-pause technique. These successful results provide an incentive for future testing with greatly increased efficiency using the continuous model translation technique with the single probe to measure sonic boom signatures. Two widely used NASA codes, USM3D (Navier-Stokes) and CART3D-AERO (Euler, adjoint-based adaptive mesh), were used to compute off-body sonic boom pressure signatures of the SLSLE model at several different altitudes below the model at Mach 2.0. The computed pressure signatures compared well with wind tunnel data. The effect of the different altitude for signature extraction was evaluated by extrapolating the near field signatures to the ground and comparing pressure signatures and sonic boom loudness levels.

  4. Potential and viscous flows past an oil boom: The instability problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important problem in oil spill containment by booms is the instability of the oil-water interface at the boom. This instability, which represents the conditions under which oil can escape under the boom, is investigated. Both the potential and viscous-flow models for thin slicks in two-dimensions are developed. Analytical instability formulas are derived using the velocity potentials for attached and detached flows due to uniform current past a flat plate in finite and infinite water depths. To understand the effect of viscosity on the instability criterion, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the fractional-step method in time domain to determine the pressure gradients along the boom. The numerically obtained viscous instability criterion is then compared with the potential-flow and experimentally determined instability criteria. The results show that the viscous flow model predicts a larger region of stability. It is numerically discovered from the instability criterion that the oil droplets at the boom, between the free surface and down to about 40% of the boom height can never escape, regardless of the current strength. It is also shown that the instability criterion depends weakly on the high Reynolds number. Reanalysis of the previous experimental data confirm these numerical findings

  5. The calculation of the instability criterion for a uniform viscous flow past an oil boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important problem in oil spill containment by booms is the instability of the oil-water interface at the boom. This instability, which represents the conditions under which oil can escape under the boom, is investigated. A viscous flow model for thin slicks in two dimensions is developed. To understand the effect of viscosity on the instability criterion, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved by the fractional-step method in time-domain to determine the pressure gradients along the boom. The numerically obtained viscous instability criterion is then compared with the potential flow and experimentally determined instability criteria. Analytical instability formulas for potential flows are based on the velocity potentials for attached and detached flows due to uniform current past a flat plate in finite and infinite water depths. The results show that the viscous flow model predicts a larger region of stability. It is numerically determined from the instability criterion that the oil droplets at the boom between the free surface and down to about 40 percent of the boom height can never escape, regardless of the current strength. It is also shown that the instability criterion depends weakly on the high Reynolds number. Reanalysis of the available experimental data confirms these findings

  6. Radionuclide solubilities in boom clay. Final report, part 1 : a report produced for ONDRAF/NIRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides from a High Level Waste repository situated in the Boom Clay at Mol would depend, in part, on their retardation within the Boom Clay. A number of parameters are required to assess such retardation; these include the solubilities of key radionuclides and their sorption behaviour. ONDRAF has identified neptunium and technetium as critical elements for which the solubility limit in Boom Clay water may be important. Selenium, uranium and plutonium have also been found to be of potential concern. AEA Technology plc was therefore requested to undertake a joint experimental and modelling study to determine the solubilities of these five elements under conditions representative of those in the Boom Clay. As well as being of use in performance assessments, such data may aid the interpretation of laboratory migration studies being carried out in Belgium. The modelling described in this report involves the use of the HARPHRQ program to guide an experimental programme for the measurement of radioelement solubility in Boom Clay water. Although, the main interest to ONDRAF is for measurements at the expected in-situ conditions in the Boom Clay, experiments may be performed at a range of pH and Eh conditions to provide a more detailed understanding of the aqueous chemistry of these key elements and to provide data for testing of geochemical models. Therefore the modelling was performed over a pH range 4-10

  7. Evaluating a protocol for testing fire-resistant oil-spill containment boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate a protocol for testing the ability of fire-resistant booms to withstand both fire and waves. Most response plans for in situ burning of oil at sea require the use of a fire-resistant boom to contain the oil during a burn. For this study, a wave tank was designed and constructed to assess the capabilities of a 15 m section of a boom subjected to a 5 m diameter fire with 0.15 m high waves. Five typical fire-resistant oil-spill containment booms were tested. The purpose of the project was to evaluate the test procedure, therefore the overall performance of the boom was not evaluated on a pass-fail criterion. The two most important aspects of the test method were repeatability and reproducibility. Some of the parameters tested included the effect of wind, waves, fire size, and fire duration. Methods to constrain the booms were also tested. 7 refs., 6 tabs., 7 figs

  8. Water-cooled, fire boom blanket, test and evaluation for system prototype development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial development of actively cooled fire booms indicated that water-cooled barriers could withstand direct oil fire for several hours with little damage if cooling water were continuously supplied. Despite these early promising developments, it was realized that to build reliable full-scale system for Navy host salvage booms would require several development tests and lengthy evaluations. In this experiment several types of water-cooled fire blankets were tested at the Oil and Hazardous Materials Simulated Test Tank (OHMSETT). After the burn test the blankets were inspected for damage and additional tests were conducted to determine handling characteristics for deployment, recovery, cleaning and maintenance. Test results showed that water-cooled fire boom blankets can be used on conventional offshore oil containment booms to extend their use for controlling large floating-oil marine fires. Results also demonstrated the importance of using thermoset rubber coated fabrics in the host boom to maintain sufficient reserve seam strength at elevated temperatures. The suitability of passively cooled covers should be investigated to protect equipment and boom from indirect fire exposure. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Update on anterior ankle impingement

    OpenAIRE

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Amendola, Annunziato

    2012-01-01

    Anterior ankle impingement results from an impingement of the ankle joint by a soft tissue or osteophyte formation at the anterior aspect of the distal tibia and talar neck. It often occurs secondary to direct trauma (impaction force) or repetitive ankle dorsiflexion (repetitive impaction and traction force). Chronic ankle pain, swelling, and limitation of ankle dorsiflexion are common complaints. Imaging is valuable for diagnosis of the bony impingement but not for the soft tissue impingemen...

  10. Anterior chamber depth during hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracitelli CPB

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Carolina Pelegrini Barbosa Gracitelli,1 Francisco Rosa Stefanini,1 Fernando Penha,1 Miguel Ângelo Góes,2 Sérgio Antonio Draibe,2 Maria Eugênia Canziani,2 Augusto Paranhos Junior1 1Ophthalmology Department, 2Division of Nephrology, Federal University of São Paulo – UNIFESP, São Paulo, Brazil Background: Exacerbation of chronic glaucoma or acute glaucoma is occasionally observed in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD because of anterior chamber depth changes during this therapy. Purpose: To evaluate anterior chamber depth and axial length in patients during HD sessions. Methods: A total of 67 eyes of 35 patients were prospectively enrolled. Axial length and anterior chamber depth were measured using ultrasonic biometry, and these measures were evaluated at three different times during HD sessions. Body weight and blood pressure pre- and post-HD were also measured. Results: There was no difference in the axial length between the three measurements (P = 0.241. We observed a significantly decreased anterior chamber depth (P = 0.002 during HD sessions. Conclusion: Our results support the idea that there is a change in anterior chamber depth in HD sessions. Keywords: anterior chamber, hemodialysis, axial length, acute angle-closure glaucoma

  11. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm. PMID:15151329

  12. Boom, Bust and Beyond: Arts and Sustainability in Calumet, Michigan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle Winkler

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cycles of boom and bust plague mining communities around the globe, and decades after the bust the skeletons of shrunken cities remain. This article evaluates strategies for how former mining communities cope and strive for sustainability in the decades well beyond the bust, using a case study of Calumet, Michigan. In 1910, Calumet was at the center of the mining industry in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, but in the century since its peak, mining employment steadily declined until the last mine closed in 1968, and the population declined by over 80%. This paper explores challenges, opportunities, and progress toward sustainability associated with arts-related development in this context. Methods are mixed, including observation, interviews, document review, a survey, and secondary data analysis. We follow Flora and Flora’s Community Capitals Framework to analyze progress toward sustainability. Despite key challenges associated with the shrunken city context (degraded tax base, overbuilt and aging infrastructure, diminished human capital, and a rather limited set of volunteers and political actors, we find the shrunken city also offers advantages for arts development, including low rents, less risk of gentrification, access to space, and political incentive. In Calumet, we see evidence of a spiraling up pattern toward social sustainability resulting from arts development; however impacts on environmental and economic sustainability are limited.

  13. Circuits of Memory: The War Memory Boom in Western Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R. Stephens

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In some Australian academic circles in the 1980s it was believed that, as the numbers of soldiers of the world wars declined over time, so would attendances at war remembrance ceremonies on Anzac Day and interest in war commemoration in general. Contrary to expectation, however, there has been a steady rise in eagerness for war memory in Australia over the past three decades manifest in media interest and increasing attendance at Anzac Day services. Rather than dying out, ‘Anzac’ is being reinvented for new generations. Emerging from this phenomenon has been a concomitant rise in war memorial and commemorative landscape building across Australia fuelled by government funding (mostly federal and our relentless search for a national story. Many more memorial landscapes have been built in Western Australia over the past thirty years than at the end of either of the World Wars, a trend set to peak in 2014 with the Centenary of Anzac. This paper examines the origins and progress of this boom in memorial building in Western Australia and argues that these new memorial settings establish ‘circuits of memory’ which ultimately re-enchant and reinforce the Anzac renaissance.

  14. 1995 NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop. Volume 2; Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baize, Daniel G. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    The High-Speed Research Program and NASA Langley Research Center sponsored the NASA High-Speed Research Program Sonic Boom Workshop on September 12-13, 1995. The workshop was designed to bring together NASAs scientists and engineers and their counterparts in industry, other Government agencies, and academia working together in the sonic boom element of NASAs High-Speed Research Program. Specific objectives of this workshop were to: (1) report the progress and status of research in sonic boom propagation, acceptability, and design; (2) promote and disseminate this technology within the appropriate technical communities; (3) help promote synergy among the scientists working in the Program; and (4) identify technology pacing, the development C, of viable reduced-boom High-Speed Civil Transport concepts. The Workshop was organized in four sessions: Sessions 1 Sonic Boom Propagation (Theoretical); Session 2 Sonic Boom Propagation (Experimental); Session 3 Acceptability Studies-Human and Animal; and Session 4 - Configuration Design, Analysis, and Testing.

  15. A summary of the lateral cutoff analysis and results from NASA's Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliatt, Larry J.; Hill, Michael A.; Haering, Edward A.; Arnac, Sarah R.

    2015-10-01

    In support of the ongoing effort by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to bring supersonic commercial travel to the public, NASA, in partnership with other industry organizations, conducted a flight research experiment to analyze acoustic propagation at the lateral edge of the sonic boom carpet. The name of the effort was the Farfield Investigation of No-boom Thresholds (FaINT). The research from FaINT determined an appropriate metric for sonic boom waveforms in the transition and shadow zones called Perceived Sound Exposure Level, established a value of 65 dB as a limit for the acoustic lateral extent of a sonic boom's noise region, analyzed change in sonic boom levels near lateral cutoff, and compared between real sonic boom measurements and numerical predictions.

  16. Design of Experiments for Both Experimental and Analytical Study of Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2009-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to study the plume effects on sonic boom signature for isolated nozzle configurations. The objectives of these analyses were to provide comparison to past work using modern CFD analysis tools, to investigate the differences of high aspect ratio nozzles to circular (axisymmetric) nozzles, and to report the effects of under expanded nozzle operation on boom signature. CFD analysis was used to address the plume effects on sonic boom signature from a baseline exhaust nozzle. Nearfield pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) between 6 and 10. A computer code was used to extrapolate these signatures to a ground-observed sonic boom N-wave. Trends show that there is a reduction in sonic boom N-wave signature as NPR is increased from 6 to 10. As low boom designs are developed and improved, there will be a need for understanding the interaction between the aircraft boat tail shocks and the exhaust nozzle plume. These CFD analyses will provide a baseline study for future analysis efforts. For further study, a design of experiments has been conducted to develop a hybrid method where both CFD and small scale wind tunnel testing will validate the observed trends. The CFD and testing will be used to screen a number of factors which are important to low boom propulsion integration, including boat tail angle, nozzle geometry, and the effect of spacing and stagger on nozzle pairs. To design the wind tunnel experiment, CFD was instrumental in developing a model which would provide adequate space to observe the nozzle and boat tail shock structure without interference from the wind tunnel walls.

  17. Analysis of Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Signature for Isolated Nozzle Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to study the plume effects on sonic boom signature for isolated nozzle configurations. The objectives of these analyses were to provide comparison to past work using modern CFD analysis tools, to investigate the differences of high aspect ratio nozzles to circular (axisymmetric) nozzles, and to report the effects of underexpanded nozzle operation on boom signature. CFD analysis was used to address the plume effects on sonic boom signature from a baseline exhaust nozzle. Near-field pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios (NPRs) between 6 and 10. A computer code was used to extrapolate these signatures to a ground-observed sonic boom N-wave. Trends show that there is a reduction in sonic boom N-wave signature as NPR is increased from 6 to 10. The performance curve for this supersonic nozzle is flat, so there is not a significant loss in thrust coefficient as the NPR is increased. As a result, this benefit could be realized without significant loss of performance. Analyses were also collected for a high aspect ratio nozzle based on the baseline design for comparison. Pressure signatures were collected for nozzle pressure ratios from 8 to 12. Signatures were nearly twice as strong for the two-dimensional case, and trends also show a reduction in sonic boom signature as NPR is increased from 8 to 12. As low boom designs are developed and improved, there will be a need for understanding the interaction between the aircraft boat tail shocks and the exhaust nozzle plume. These CFD analyses will provide a baseline study for future analysis efforts.

  18. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior Toxic anterior segment syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em conclusão notou-se que o foco principal deve ser a prevenção, pois o tratamento busca apenas suprimir a resposta inflamatória secundária. O tratamento nos casos de STSA consiste em intensa instilação de esteróides tópicos com seguimento rigoroso e controle de complicações tardias como o glaucoma.Toxic anterior segment syndrome is acute inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in extracellular damage with necrosis and apoptosis during an immune response. We have the report of a case of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS, in which the authors seek to emphasize the most common causes of the appearance of these syndrome. They point out the care that must be taken in the process of sterilization of surgical material, in addition to reviewing the best conduct when faced with these cases. In conclusion, it was noted that the main focus should be on prevention, as treatment only seeks to suppress the secondary inflammatory response. Treatment in cases of toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS consists of intense instillation of topical steroids with strict follow-up and control of late complications such as glaucoma.

  19. Organic matter linked radionuclide transport in Boom clay - Phenomenological understanding and abstraction to PA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the frame of the Belgian research program on long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive wastes coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, plastic clays (i.e., Boom Clay and Ypresian clays) are investigated for their potential to host a deep geological disposal repository for radioactive waste because of, among others, their ability to significantly retard radionuclide releases to the biosphere. The Boom Clay is characterised by the presence of a relatively high amount of dissolved organic matter (DOM, humic substances) which show a strong interaction with a suite of radionuclides (RN) like lanthanides, actinides and transition metals. This interaction with DOM leads in general to an increased mobility of the radionuclide as the OM can act as a colloidal carrier for the radionuclide. Therefore, the quantification and the understanding of the underlying processes are needed for the demonstration of confidence in the host formation to act as a suitable barrier. However, this is not an easy task, given the multitude of processes involved: complexation/colloid formation, sorption, kinetics, filtration, -. In this presentation, we will provide an overview of the research work that leads to a straightforward reactive transport model capturing fairly well the experimental observations. The model can be considered as an intermediate model providing a good basis for further safety abstraction on the one hand and the way to a more detailed phenomenological understanding on the other hand. The research is focussed on the underlying processes that govern speciation, sorption and transport. These underlying processes are investigated in a bottom-up approach, from simple systems to more complex systems. Interpretation is done using thermodynamic based models. Whereas the contribution of Bruggeman et al. focusses mainly on (batch) sorption studies (of trivalent RN), this presentation will provide more details on the

  20. Evaluation of Anterior Segment's Structures in Tilted Disc Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsoy, Ercan; Demirel, Ersin Ersan; Cumurcu, Tongabay

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate anterior segment's structures by Pentacam in patients with tilted disc syndrome (TDS). Methods. Group 1 included forty-six eyes of forty-six patients who have the TDS. Group 2 including forty-six eyes of forty-six cases was the control group which was equal to the study group in age, gender, and refraction. A complete ophthalmic examination was performed in both groups. All cases were evaluated by Pentacam. The axial length (AL) of eyes was measured by ultrasound. Quantitative data obtained from these measurements were compared between two groups. Results. There was no statistically significant difference for age, gender, axial length, and spherical equivalent measurements between two groups (p = 0.625, p = 0.830, p = 0.234, and p = 0.850). There was a statistically significant difference for central corneal thickness (CCT), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber angle (ACA), and pupil size measurements between two groups (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, p = 0.003, and p = 0.001). Also, there was no statistically significant difference for anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV), and lens thickness (LT) measurements between two groups (p = 0.130, p = 0.910, and p = 0.057). Conclusion. We determined that CCT was thinner, CV was less, and ACA was narrower in patients with TDS. There are some changes in the anterior segment of the eyes with tilted disc. PMID:27648303

  1. Laboratory hydro-mechanical characterisation of Boom Clay at Essen and Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boom Clay has been selected as a potential host rock formation for the geological disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium. In the present work, the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay samples from the borehole Essen-1 at a depth of 220-260 m and from HADES that is the underground rock laboratory at Mol in Belgium, at 223-m depth was investigated in the laboratory by performing low pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.05 to 3.2 MPa), high pressure odometer tests (vertical effective stress ranging from 0.125 to 32 MPa), isotropic consolidation tests (confining effective stress ranging from the in situ stress to 20 MPa) and triaxial shear tests. It has been observed that the mineralogy, geotechnical properties and hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay from Essen at 227-m, 240-m and 248-m depths are similar to that of Boom Clay from Mol. As in the case of Boom Clay at Mol, the failure envelope of Boom Clay at Essen in the p'- q plane is not linear. The slope of the portion beyond the pre-consolidation stress of Boom Clay from Essen is almost the same as that from Mol, suggesting a similar internal friction angle of about 13 deg. The compression curves (void index Iv versus logarithm of vertical stress) beyond the pre-consolidation stress are the same for both samples from Mol and Essen, and situated between the intrinsic compression line (ICL) and the sedimentation compression line (SCL). The yield stress determined from odometer tests seems to be stress-path dependent and lower than the pre-consolidation stress. Thus determining the over-consolidation ratio (OCR) using the yield stress value would lead to an incorrect estimate. From a practical point view, the laboratory test results from Essen and their comparison with those from Mol provide important information regarding the transferability of knowledge on Boom Clay at different sites, taking into account the fact that most investigations have been carried out on Boom Clay at Mol

  2. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques.

  3. Anterior cruciate ligament - updating article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzo, Marcus Vinicius Malheiros; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Rezende, Fernando Cury; Gracitelli, Guilherme Conforto; Debieux, Pedro; Cohen, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    This updating article on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has the aim of addressing some of the most interesting current topics in this field. Within this stratified approach, it contains the following sections: ACL remnant; anterolateral ligament and combined intra and extra-articular reconstruction; fixation devices; and ACL femoral tunnel creation techniques. PMID:27517015

  4. The Iron Law of Financial Markets: Self-fulfilling Prophecies and Speculative Booms and Busts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Radonjić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the factors which, in the absence of strong financial regulation, sustain the Iron Law of the Financial Markets asserting that speculative booms and busts occur more or less regularly from 17 century to the present. The first factor is that financial markets are self-fulfilling system. The second is that human nature does not change and is based on egoism, materialism, loss aversion, exaggerated hopes and fears, emulation, propensity to gamble, herd behavior and so on. Lastly, there is the extreme brevity of the financial memory. In order to enable economic authorities and/or individuals to detect timely that the unsustainable boom is under the way, we have identified the common features of historically recorded speculative episodes. Stages through which the system passes on its way from unsustainable rise to inevitable fall are: displacement, boom, overtrading, financial distress and discredit or revulsion.

  5. Pilot Test of a Novel Method for Assessing Community Response to Low-Amplitude Sonic Booms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Horonjeff, Richard D.; Harris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A pilot test of a novel method for assessing residents annoyance to sonic booms was performed. During a two-week period, residents of the base housing area at Edwards Air Force Base provided data on their reactions to sonic booms using Smartphone-based interviews. Noise measurements were conducted at the same time. The report presents information about data collection methods and about test participants reactions to low-amplitude sonic booms. The latter information should not be viewed as definitive for several reasons. It may not be reliably generalized to the wider U.S. residential population (because it was not derived from a representative random sample) and the sample itself was not large.

  6. Design methodology for a community response questionnaire on sonic boom exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbry, John E., Jr.; Fields, James M.; Molino, John A.; Demiranda, Gwendolyn A.

    1991-05-01

    A preliminary draft questionnaire concerning community response to sonic booms was developed. Interviews were conducted in two communities that had experienced supersonic overflights of the SR-71 airplane for several years. Even though the overflights had ceased about 6 months prior to the interviews, people clearly remembered hearing sonic booms. A total of 22 people living in central Utah and 23 people living along Idaho/Washington state border took part in these interviews. The draft questionnaire was constantly modified during the study in order to evaluate different versions. Questions were developed which related to annoyance, startle, sleep disturbance, building vibration, and building damage. Based on the data collected, a proposed community response survey response instrument was developed for application in a full-scale sonic boom study.

  7. Simulation and controller design for an agricultural sprayer boom leveling system

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jian

    2011-01-01

    According to the agricultural precision requirements, the distance from sprayer nozzles to the corps should be kept between 50 cm to 70 cm. The sprayer boom also needs to be kept parallel to the field during the operation process. Thus we can guarantee the quality of the chemical droplets distribution on the crops. In this paper we introduced a sprayer boom leveling system for agricultural sprayer vehicles with electro-hydraulic auto-leveling system. The suitable hydraulic actuating cylinder and valve were selected according to the specific systemic specifications. Furthermore, a compensation controller for the electro-hydraulic system was designed based on the mathematical model. With simulations we can optimize the performance of this controller to make sure a fast leveling response to the inclined sprayer boom. © 2011 IEEE.

  8. In-situ chemical osmosis experiment in boom clay at the underground research laboratory of Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clay rich layers have traditionally been regarded as natural protective covers in regional aquifers because of their low permeability. In the absence of water conducting features, these deposits provide the low flow environment required for waste containment. Comprehensive understanding of the physical and chemical processes that control water and solute transport through low permeability argillaceous formations and to the environment is a key factor for assessing their suitability as host rocks. The Boom Clay, an over consolidated marine Oligocene deposit, is considered as a potential host rock for radioactive waste disposal. For more than two decades, extensive hydraulic and hydrochemical research has been carried out in the Boom Clay at the HADES Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Mol (Belgium). The main objective of the experiments conducted at the HADES URL has been to characterize the in-situ hydrogeological conditions, to determine the hydraulic parameters, and to study the mechanisms controlling the chemistry and the composition of the Boom Clay pore water. (authors)

  9. Stress analysis of an articulated boom for in-vessel-handling of fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high radioactivity levels, in-vessel maintenance work in the plasma chamber of a tokamak fusion machine can be done only by remote handling equipment, which is introduced into the torus-type plasma chamber by means of an articulated boom. The remote handling units have to be operated without any support provided for at the walls of the plasma chamber. A new articulated boom design is currently developed in the KfK for the NET project. This device is to bear at its tip working loads of up to 3900 kg (max. weight of remote handling equipment 2900 kg, of interchangeable components 1000 kg). In order to allow as precise manipulation as possible, the degree of sogging of the boom tip under its own load or under the working load has to be kept as small as possible. (orig./DG)

  10. Radionuclide solubilities in boom clay. Final report, part 2 : a report produced for ONDRAF/NIRAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides from a High Level Radioactive Waste repository situated in the Boom Clay at Mol would depend, in part, on their retardation within the Boom Clay. A number of parameters are required to assess such retardation; these include the solubilities of key radionuclides and their sorption behaviour. ONDRAF/NIRAS has identified neptunium, technetium, selenium, uranium and plutonium as elements for study. AEA Technology plc was requested to undertake a joint experimental and modelling study to determine the solubilities of these five elements under conditions representative of those in the Boom Clay (the in situ chemical conditions are pH∼8, Eh ∼ -230 mV). The work programme was carried out over three years, and for completeness this final report includes all the results

  11. Study on thermally induced vibration of flexible boom in various thermal environments of vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Changduk; Oh, Kyung-Won; Park, Hyun-Bum; Sugiyama, Y.

    2005-02-01

    In order to simulate the thermally-induced vibration phenomenon of the flexible thin boom structure of the spacecraft such as the thin solar panel and the flexible cantilever with the attached tip mass in space, the thermally-induced vibration including thermal flutter of the flexible thin boom with the concentrated tip mass was experimentally investigated at various thermal environments using a heat lamp and both vacuum and air condition using the vacuum chamber. In this experimental study, divergence speed, natural frequency and thermal strains of the thermally-induced vibration were comparatively evaluated at various thermal environment conditions. Finally the thermally-induced vibration of the flexible boom structure of the earth orbit satellite in solar radiation environment from the earth eclipse region including umbra and penumbra was simulated using the vacuum chamber and power control of the heating lamp.

  12. Válvula de uretra anterior Anterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Tucci Jr.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar os aspectos clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos de pacientes portadores de válvula da uretra anterior. Descrição: em dois neonatos, o diagnóstico presuntivo de patologia obstrutiva do trato urinário foi sugerido pela ultra-sonografia realizada no período pré-natal, confirmando-se o diagnóstico de válvula de uretra anterior pela avaliação pós-natal. Os pacientes foram submetidos a tratamento cirúrgico paliativo, com vesicostomia temporária e, posteriormente, definitivo, pela fulguração endoscópica das válvulas. Ambos evoluíram com função renal normal. Comentários: a válvula da uretra anterior é anomalia rara que deve ser considerada em meninos com quadro radiológico pré-natal sugestivo de obstrução infravesical, secundariamente à hipótese mais comum de válvula da uretra posterior. Ressaltamos a utilização da vesicostomia como derivação urinária temporária nestes casos, prevenindo potenciais complicações pela manipulação da uretra do recém-nascido.Objective: to discuss clinical signs, diagnostic tools and therapeutics of anterior urethral valves, an obstructive anomaly of the urinary system in males. Description: signs of urinary tract obstruction were identified on pre-natal ultrasound in two male fetuses and the diagnosis of anterior urethral valves was made through post-natal evaluation. As an initial treatment, vesicostomy was performed in both patients. Later, the valves were fulgurated using an endoscopic procedure. During the follow-up period both patients presented normal renal function. Comments: anterior urethral valves are a rare form of urethral anomaly that must be ruled out in boys with pre-natal ultrasound indicating infravesical obstruction. Vesicostomy used as an initial treatment rather than transurethral fulguration may prevent potential complications that can occur due to the small size of the neonatal urethra.

  13. [Microsurgical anatomy importance of A1-anterior communicating artery complex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroy-Sosa, Alejandro; Pérez-Cruz, Julio César; Reyes-Soto, Gervith; Delgado-Hernández, Carlos; Macías-Duvignau, Mario Alberto; Delgado-Reyes, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: la arteria cerebral anterior se origina de la bifurcación de la arteria carótida interna lateral al quiasma óptico, posteriormente se une con su homóloga contralateral mediante la arteria comunicante anterior. El complejo precomunicante(A1)-arteria comunicante anterior es el lugar más frecuente de variantes anatómicas y el sitio con mayor cantidad de aneurismas (30 a 37%). Objetivo: conocer la anatomía microquirúrgica, las variantes anatómicas y la importancia del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior en cirugía neurológica de la patología vascular, principalmente aneurismas, en población mexicana. Material y métodos: estudio prospectivo y descriptivo efectuado en el Departamento de Anatomía de la Facultad de Medicina (UNAM) en 30 encéfalos inyectados. Se estudió la anatomía microquirúrgica (longitud y calibre) del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior de la arteria cerebral anterior y sus variantes. Resultados: se encontraron 60 segmentos precomunicantes. La longitud promedio del lado izquierdo fue de 11.35 mm y del derecho de 11.84 mm. El calibre medio en el lado izquierdo fue de 1.67 mm y en el derecho de 1.64 mm. El número promedio de perforantes en el lado izquierdo fue de 7.9 y en el derecho de 7.5. La arteria comunicante anterior se encontró en 29 encéfalos sobre el quiasma óptico, su trayecto dependió de la longitud del segmento A1. La longitud media del segmento fue de 2.84 mm, el calibre fue de 1.41 mm y el número promedio de perforantes de 3.27. En 18 encéfalos (60%) se encontraron variantes del complejo A1-arteria comunicante anterior y dos aneurismas tipo blíster. Conclusión: es necesario entender la anatomía microquirúrgica del complejo segmento precomunicante-arteria comunicante anterior y conocer las variantes para tener una visión en tercera dimensión durante la cirugía de aneurismas.

  14. 围油栏形状优化的数值模拟%Numerical simulation of oil booms shape optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芳; 许颖

    2011-01-01

    文中对传统围油栏进行形状优化,应用流体体积分数法(VOF),数值模拟优化后的围油栏对两种不同粘度油类拦油效果;通过分析、比较拦油失效速度、失效时间以及围油栏失效前的栏前受压,说明围油栏形状优化的可行性,以提高围油栏的拦油性能.%Floating booms is commonly used to hold back oil spill on water surface, while oil boom failure often occurs in cases of water currents with high velocity. In order to improve the performance of booms, firstly volume of fluid (VOF) method was applied to numerically simulate traditional booms, and then the optimization of oil boom was carried out by changing the structure and shape of booms. Through the analysis and comparison of the block oil failure speed, failure time and the pressure before boom failure, the numerical simulate results indicate that the optimization shape of oil booms are feasible to improve oil spill interceptions.

  15. Simplified sonic-boom prediction. [using aerodynamic configuration charts and calculators or slide rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, H. W.

    1978-01-01

    Sonic boom overpressures and signature duration may be predicted for the entire affected ground area for a wide variety of supersonic airplane configurations and spacecraft operating at altitudes up to 76 km in level flight or in moderate climbing or descending flight paths. The outlined procedure relies to a great extent on the use of charts to provide generation and propagation factors for use in relatively simple expressions for signature calculation. Computational requirements can be met by hand-held scientific calculators, or even by slide rules. A variety of correlations of predicted and measured sonic-boom data for airplanes and spacecraft serve to demonstrate the applicability of the simplified method.

  16. CAPITAL FLOWS, CONSUMPTION BOOMS AND ASSET BUBBLES: A BEHAVIOURAL ALTERNATIVE TO THE SAVINGS GLUT HYPOTHESIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laibson, David; Mollerstrom, Johanna

    2010-05-01

    Bernanke (2005) hypothesized that a "global savings glut" was causing large trade imbalances. However, we show that the global savings rates did not show a robust upward trend during the relevant period. Moreover, if there had been a global savings glut there should have been a large investment boom in the countries that imported capital. Instead, those countries experienced consumption booms. National asset bubbles explain the international imbalances. The bubbles raised consumption, resulting in large trade deficits. In a sample of 18 OECD countries plus China, movements in home prices alone explain half of the variation in trade deficits.

  17. Calculation program for the analysis of the performance of boom-type reclaimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergonzoli, A.; Ferretti, C.

    1986-04-01

    The paper describes a calculation program which allows the performance of a slewing boom bucket wheel reclaimer to be thoroughly analysed. The features required for the correct sizing of the structural and operational components can be evaluated and the optimum operating criteria under the most frequent operating conditions can be defined. Topics covered are: general description of the calculation program including reclaiming rate analysis and power requirement analysis; and program control and description of results including representation of results with and without boom slewing, and representation of statistical parameters.

  18. Characterization of the wine boom in Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912 Caracterización del boom vitivinícola en Mendoza (Argentina, 1904-1912

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Barrio de Villanueva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mendocinean viticulture experimented between 1904 and 1912 a booming economical growth consistent with the national average growth. In this article we present the values of some variables that illustrate some representative indicators of that section of the economy. We attempt to reconstruct the production costs of grapes and wines and the possible revenues of the viticulture actorsEn consonancia con el ritmo de crecimiento de la economía nacional, la vitivinicultura mendocina vivió, entre 1904 y 1912, un verdadero boom económico-productivo. En este artículo se presenta información de dicho fenómeno a través de algunas variables representativas del sector. En segundo lugar, se intenta reconstruir los costos de producción de uva y vino, y la probable rentabilidad de los actores vitivinícolas

  19. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  20. Oil-slick instability near an oil boom: The influence of free-slip and exact free-surface conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of an oil spill, oil booms are often used to contain the oil before attempting to skim the oil by using oil-skimmers. Under certain conditions, the oil droplets can leave the oil slick and enter the water. A simple balance of hydrodynamic forces on such a droplet results in an instability criterion which determines whether the droplets will be swept past the boom or not. This criterion depends on the pressure gradient along the boom. In this study, the solution of viscous flow past an oil boom problem by the fractional-step method in a curvilinear coordinate system is used to calculate the pressure gradient and to study the effectiveness of oil-containment by booms. The influence of approximate free-surface conditions, such as rigid-lid no-slip, rigid-lid free-slip, and the exact free-surface condition on the instability criterion is investigated

  1. 38 CFR 3.379 - Anterior poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Anterior poliomyelitis. 3... Specific Diseases § 3.379 Anterior poliomyelitis. If the first manifestations of acute anterior poliomyelitis present themselves in a veteran within 35 days of termination of active military service, it...

  2. Epidermoid cyst in Anterior, Middle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kankane Vivek Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidermoid cysts are benign slow growing more often extra-axial tumors that insinuate between brain structures, we present the clinical, imaging, and pathological findings in 35 years old female patients with atypical epidermoid cysts which was situated anterior, middle & posterior cranial fossa. NCCT head revealed hypodense lesion over right temporal and perisylvian region with extension in prepontine cistern with mass effect & midline shift and MRI findings revealed a non-enhancing heterogeneous signal intensity cystic lesion in right frontal & temporal region extending into prepontine cistern with restricted diffusion. Patient was detoriated in night of same day of admission, emergency Fronto-temporal craniotomy with anterior peterousectomy and subtotal resection was done. The histological examination confirms the epidermoid cyst. The timing of ectodermal tissue sequestration during fetal development may account for the occurrence of atypical epidermoid cysts.

  3. Anterior impingement syndrome in dancers

    OpenAIRE

    O’Kane, John William; Kadel, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Anterior impingement is a common problem in dancers occurring primarily secondary to the repetitive forced ankle dorsiflexion inherent in ballet. Symptoms generally occur progressively and may respond to conservative treatment including addressing biomechanical faults that contribute to the problem. As impingement progresses, movements essential to ballet may become impossible and arthroscopic ankle surgery is often effective for both diagnosis and treatment, allowing athletes to return to da...

  4. RETAINED STONE PIECE IN ANTERIOR CHAMBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZvornicaninJasmin, Nadarevic-VodencarevicAmra

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We read with interest the article by Surekha et al. regarding the retained stone piece in anterior chamber. Similar to the results of previous studies, the authors found that delayed intraocular foreign body (IOFB management can result in good visual outcome without an apparent increased risk of endophthalmitis or other deleterious side effects. However, the authors failed to explain the exact reason for the diminution of vision in patients left eye. It is unclear what the uncorrected visual acuity was and what kind of correction was used, more precisely type and amount of cylinder, given the presence of the corneal opacity. Since the size of the IOFB is approximately 4x4x1mm, significant irido-corneal angle changes resulting in intraocular pressure raise and optic nerve head damage can be expected. Traumatic glaucoma following open globe injury can occur in 2.7 to 19% of cases, with several risk factors associated with glaucoma development (advanced age, poor visual acuity at presentation,perforating rather than penetrating ocular injury,lens injury, presence of vitreous hemorrhage and presence of an IOFB. Earlier reportsof latetraumaticoptic neuropathy onset, even after several years, indicate that this possibility cannot be completely ruled out too. Therefore, repeated intraocular pressure measurements, gonioscopy, pupillary reaction assessment, together with through posterior segment examination including visual field and optical coherence tomography examinations can be useful in determining the possible optic nerve damage as one of the possible reasons for visual acuity reduction. The authors did not suggest any operative treatment at this time. However, it should bear in mind that the inert anterior chamber IOFB could be a risk factor for non-infectious endophthalmitis development even after many years. Also, long term retained anterior chamber foreign body leads to permanent endothelial cell loss and can even result in a corneal

  5. Evaluation of the Effects of Menstrual Cycle on Anterior Chamber Parameters as Measured with Pentacam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Seyhan Karatepe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the effects of endogenous gonadotropic hormones (follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and sex steroids (progesterone, estrogen to anterior segment parameters. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Thirty healthy females who had a menstrual cycle of 28±1 day and with a mean age of 36.5±7.56 (range, 20 – 46 years were included in the study. Starting from the first day of their cycle, Pentacam Scheimpflug camera measurements were performed on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 12th, 16th, 21st, 26th, and 28th days. The central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, anterior segment volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle value, and pupilla diameter of both eyes were evaluated. Repeated measures analysis of variance test was used for statistical analysis. Re sults: No difference that reaches statistical significance was found in the means of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber volume, keratometric values, anterior chamber angle, and pupilla diameter between the days. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the right eyes on the 1st day was 2.72±0.44 mm, whereas it was 2.77±0.46 mm on the 26th day. Mean anterior chamber depth measurement of the left eyes on the 1st day was 2.74±0.42 mm, whereas it was 2.80±0.43 mm on the 26th day. This increment of anterior chamber depth value from the 1st to the 26th days was found to be statistically significant (p≤0.05. Dis cus si on: Progesterone and estrogen that rise in the second half of the menstrual cycle might have a deepening effect on the anterior chamber. These findings should be further investigated with more profound studies that also evaluate the hormonal values and their correlations with anterior segment parameters. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 15-8

  6. Non-Recourse Mortgage and Housing Price Boom, Bust, and Rebound

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, Te; Ding, Li

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of non-recourse vs. recourse mortgages on housing price dynamics in major US metropolitan statistical areas for the period from 2000 to 2013. We find evidence that non-recourse states experience faster price growth during the boom period (2000-2006), a sharper pric

  7. Interactions between Eurozone and US Booms and Busts: A Bayesian Panel Markov-switching VAR Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Billio (Monica); R. Casarin (Roberto); F. Ravazzolo (Francesco); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Interactions between the eurozone and US booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis. The model accommodates changes in low and high data frequencie

  8. Construction and Control of an active suspension for a field sprayer boom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Skovsgaard; Sørensen, Paul Haase

    1998-01-01

    perforamnce of an active and passive boom suspension. A model has been made of an advanced active system, that combines a traditional trapezoid, with a spring pendulum system. The system can be described with a linear forth order model. The system has been the foundation for an active suspension...

  9. Cart3D Analysis of Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    A plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data and perform CFD on a configuration where a nozzle plume passed through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedge-shaped shock generator. Three configurations were analyzed consisting of two strut mounted wedges and one propulsion pod with an aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept. Research efforts at NASA were intended to enable future supersonic flight over land in the United States. Two of these efforts provided data for regulatory change and enabled design of low boom aircraft. Research has determined that sonic boom is a function of aircraft lift and volume distribution. Through careful tailoring of these variables, the sonic boom of concept vehicles has been reduced. One aspect of vehicle tailoring involved how the aircraft engine exhaust interacted with aft surfaces on a supersonic aircraft, such as the tail and wing trailing edges. In this work, results from Euler CFD simulations are compared to experimental data collected on sub-scale components in a wind tunnel. Three configurations are studied to simulate the nozzle plume interaction with representative wing and tail surfaces. Results demonstrate how the plume and tail shock structure moves with increasing nozzle pressure ratio. The CFD captures the main features of the plume and shock interaction. Differences are observed in the plume and deck shock structure that warrant further research and investigation.

  10. Simulator Study of Indoor Annoyance Caused by Shaped Sonic Boom Stimuli With and Without Rattle Augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathsam, Jonathan; Loubeau, Alexandra; Klos, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's High Speed Project is developing a predictive capability for annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms transmitted indoors. The predictive capability is intended for use by aircraft designers as well as by aircraft noise regulators who are considering lifting the current prohibition on overland civil supersonic flight. The goal of the current study is to use an indoor simulator to validate two models developed using headphone tests for annoyance caused by sonic booms with and without rattle augmentation. The predictors in the proposed models include Moore and Glasberg's Stationary Loudness Level, the time derivative of Moore and Glasberg's time-varying short-term Loudness Level, and the difference between two weighted sound exposure levels, CSEL-ASEL. The indoor simulator provides a more realistic listening environment than headphones due to lowfrequency sound reproduction down to 6 Hz, which also causes perceptible tactile vibration. The results of this study show that a model consisting of {PL + (CSEL-ASEL)} is a reliable predictor of annoyance caused by shaped sonic booms alone, rattle sounds alone, and shaped sonic booms and rattle sounds together.

  11. Prediction of sonic boom from experimental near-field overpressure data. Volume 2: Data base construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatt, C. R.; Reiners, S. J.; Hague, D. S.

    1975-01-01

    A computerized method for storing, updating and augmenting experimentally determined overpressure signatures has been developed. A data base of pressure signatures for a shuttle type vehicle has been stored. The data base has been used for the prediction of sonic boom with the program described in Volume I.

  12. Was Lates Late? A Null Model for the Nile Perch Boom in Lake Victoria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, Andrea S.; Galic, Nika; Goudswaard, Kees P. C.; van Nes, Egbert H.; Scheffer, Marten; Witte, Frans; Mooij, Wolf M.

    2013-01-01

    Nile perch (Lates niloticus) suddenly invaded Lake Victoria between 1979 and 1987, 25 years after its introduction in the Ugandan side of the lake. Nile perch then replaced the native fish diversity and irreversibly altered the ecosystem and its role to lakeshore societies: it is now a prised export product that supports millions of livelihoods. The delay in the Nile perch boom led to a hunt for triggers of the sudden boom and generated several hypotheses regarding its growth at low abundances – all hypotheses having important implications for the management of Nile perch stocks. We use logistic growth as a parsimonious null model to predict when the Nile perch invasion should have been expected, given its growth rate, initial stock size and introduction year. We find the first exponential growth phase can explain the timing of the perch boom at the scale of Lake Victoria, suggesting that complex mechanisms are not necessary to explain the Nile perch invasion or its timing. However, the boom started in Kenya before Uganda, indicating perhaps that Allee effects act at smaller scales than that of the whole Lake. The Nile perch invasion of other lakes indicates that habitat differences may also have an effect on invasion success. Our results suggest there is probably no single management strategy applicable to the whole lake that would lead to both efficient and sustainable exploitation of its resources. PMID:24204684

  13. Changing Fortunes: How China’s Boom Caused the Financial Crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mees (Heleen)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis dissertation includes five academic papers that – one way or the other – all relate to China. The first paper delivers proof for the central thesis of this thesis, which is that China’s boom caused the 2008 financial crisis and ensuing recession. As much as I hoped from the outset t

  14. Equity in an Educational Boom: Lessons from the Expansion and Marketisation of Tertiary Schooling in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Mikolaj; Rok, Jakub

    2014-01-01

    This article shows how the probability of enrolment in tertiary schools has evolved for different social groups in Poland during the period of the educational boom. It also analyses how the socio-economic status influences the choices between full-time and part-time studies (the latter being of relatively low quality), and the probability of…

  15. Characterization of groundwater flow in the environment of the Boom Clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1975, the possibility to dispose of high-level radioactive waste in the Boom Clay formation has been investigated in Belgium at the test site in Mol. This research involves detailed studies of the hydrogeological system at various scales, observations of groundwater levels in the regional and local piezometric networks, several site investigations including geophysics and core-drilled boreholes. The knowledge gained during the long-term hydrogeological research is integrated in groundwater models. Major differences in the groundwater regimes above and below the Boom Clay gave rise to two models simulating these two sub-systems separately. The Neogene aquifer model is used to simulate the groundwater flow above the Boom Clay and the Deep aquifer pumping model to simulate the groundwater flow below the Boom Clay. The regional groundwater research improved the understanding of the regional flow system, since it has enabled to explain the behaviour of the aquifer system using a combination of a steady-state model for the Neogene aquifers and a transient model for the deep aquifers. This combination of modelling tools can offer a representative set of boundary conditions for the consecutive models that will depend on the scenarios required for the performance assessment of the integrated repository system. (authors)

  16. Investigating the pore-water chemistry effects on the volume change behaviour of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Essen site has been chosen as an alternative site for nuclear waste disposal in Belgium. The soil formation involved at this site is the same as at Mol site: Boom clay. However, owing to its geographical situation closer to the sea, Boom clay at Essen presents a pore water salinity 4-5 times higher than Boom clay at Mol. This study aims at studying the effects of pore water salinity on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom clay. Specific odometer cells were used allowing 'flushing' the pore water in soil specimen by synthetic pore water or distilled water. The synthetic pore water used was prepared with the chemistry as that for the site water: 5.037 g/L for core Ess83 and 5.578 g/L for core Ess96. Mechanical loading was then carried out on the soil specimen after flushing. The results show that water salinity effect on the liquid limit is negligible. The saturation or pore water replacement under the in situ effective stress of 2.4 MPa does not induce significant volume change. For Ess83, hydro-mechanical behaviour was found to be slightly influenced by the water salinity; on the contrary, no obvious effect was identified on the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Ess96. This can be attributed to the higher smectite content in Ess83 than in Ess96. (authors)

  17. Amsterdam Book Design: Irma Boom, Hansje van Halem, Lesley Moore = Amsterdamskij knižnyj dizajn

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Lommen

    2012-01-01

    Published on the occasion of the exhibition 'Amsterdam Book Design : Irma Boom, Hansje van Halem, Lesley Moore', from May 26th until June 17th 2012 in the creative platform Taiga Space, Saint Petersburg. In cooperation with Netherlands Institute Saint-Petersburg.

  18. Experimental Measurements of Sonic Boom Signatures Using a Continuous Data Acquisition Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J.; Elmiligui, Alaa A.

    2013-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to determine the effectiveness of a technique to measure aircraft sonic boom signatures using a single conical survey probe while continuously moving the model past the probe. Sonic boom signatures were obtained using both move-pause and continuous data acquisition methods for comparison. The test was conducted using a generic business jet model at a constant angle of attack and a single model-to-survey-probe separation distance. The sonic boom signatures were obtained at a Mach number of 2.0 and a unit Reynolds number of 2 million per foot. The test results showed that it is possible to obtain sonic boom signatures while continuously moving the model and that the time required to acquire the signature is at least 10 times faster than the move-pause method. Data plots are presented with a discussion of the results. No tabulated data or flow visualization photographs are included.

  19. Slot Nozzle Effects for Reduced Sonic Boom on a Generic Supersonic Wing Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Raymond S.

    2010-01-01

    NASA has conducted research programs to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas. Restrictions are due to the disturbance from the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Results from two-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses (performed on a baseline Mach 2.0 nozzle in a simulated Mach 2.2 flow) indicate that over-expanded and under-expanded operation of the nozzle has an effect on the N-wave boom signature. Analyses demonstrate the feasibility of reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave by controlling the nozzle plume interaction with the nozzle boat tail shock structure. This work was extended to study the impact of integrating a high aspect ratio exhaust nozzle or long slot nozzle on the trailing edge of a supersonic wing. The nozzle is operated in a highly under-expanded condition, creating a large exhaust plume and a shock at the trailing edge of the wing. This shock interacts with and suppresses the expansion wave caused by the wing, a major contributor to the sonic boom signature. The goal was to reduce the near field pressures caused by the expansion using a slot nozzle located at the wing trailing edge. Results from CFD analysis on a simulated wing cross-section and a slot nozzle indicate potential reductions in sonic boom signature compared to a baseline wing with no propulsion or trailing edge exhaust. Future studies could investigate if this effect could be useful on a supersonic aircraft for main propulsion, auxiliary propulsion, or flow control.

  20. Political economy of China and India: dealing with air pollution in the two booming economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqun Zhu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available China e India son dos economías en auge hoy en día, pero ambos sufren de daños al medio ambiente. Para conseguir un desarrollo sostenible, los dos países tienen que prestar más atención a la protección del medio ambiente. Este artículo examina en primer lugar las causas y consecuencias de los problemas de contaminación grave del aire en China e India. A continuación, se describe cómo China y la India tratan el problema de la contaminación del aire y sugiere formas para mejorar. El autor sostiene que el control de la contaminación del aire y de la protección del medio ambiente en general es un proyecto integral que requiere esfuerzos concertados de los gobiernos en todos los niveles, de la comunidad científica, de empresarios, juristas, grupos no gubernamentales y comunitarios, de la comunidad internacional, y de los ciudadanos como individuos. La educación y la estricta aplicación de la ley siguen siendo la clave del éxito. La experiencia de China e India en el control de la contaminación del aire proporcionan algunas lecciones útiles para otros países en desarrollo._____________ABSTRACT:China and India are two booming economies today, but both are suffering from environmental damages. To achieve sustainable develpment, the two countries have to pay more attention to the protection of environment. This article first examines the causes and consequences of the serious air pollution problems in China and India. It then discusses how China and India are dealing with the air pollution problem and suggests ways for improvement. The author argues that air pollution control and environmental protection in general are a comprehensive project that requires concerted efforts by governments at all levels, the scientific communtity, businesses, legal scholars, non-governmental and grass-roots groups, the international community, and individual citizens. Education and stricter law enforcement remain the key to success. China and India

  1. Physical model of a floating trash boom to control aquatic weeds at the TVA Widows Creek Fossil Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Widows Creek Fossil plant seasonally encounters adverse accumulations of aquatic weeds at the intakes of the condenser cooling water pumps. To reduce the accumulations, a floating trash boom has been proposed for the intakes. To evaluate the hydraulic feasibility of a boom, a physical model of the intakes has been built at the TVA Engineering Laboratory. The model was used to determine the boom alignment and depth of skimming needed to successfully deflect weeds away from the intakes and provide self-cleaning

  2. Swing chute with a long stacker boom from the heavy machinery construction state company TAKRAF, Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents mathematical calculations on the construction, stress and stability of the stacker boom segments. Equations are made for stresses on the truss girders and the girder mass. Construction variants for the stacker boom with conveyor belts from 1400 to 1800 mm using different truss designs are discussed; the reduction of the stacker boom mass is envisaged. The construction variants are also examined for possibilities of damage resulting from lumps and stones and for additional weight caused by walkways constructed for maintenance purposes.

  3. Swing chute with a long stacker boom from the heavy machinery engineering state company TAKRAF, Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1979-08-01

    This paper characterizes the construction and the statics of a TAKRAF made swing chute series. The average pressure of the chute on the ground is kept at about 8 N/cm2. The relation between the chute mass, the conveying capacity and the length and mass of the stacker boom construction is discussed and shown in graphs. The influence of a reduction of 10% and 20% of the conveying capacity on the chute mass is also presented. A light stacker boom construction is preferred. Variants of the boom truss construction and the mass distribution of the truss segments with and without load are considered.

  4. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves; Marcelo Jarczun Kac; Tiago Bisol; Bruno Franco Fernandes; Demian Temponi Eskenazi

    2013-01-01

    A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA) é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em...

  5. New York Marcellus Shale: Industry boom put on hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercurio, Angelique

    2012-01-16

    , New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, West Virginia, and Wyoming are pursuing. Positive labor market impacts are another major economic draw. According to the Revised Draft SGEIS on the Oil, Gas and Solution Mining Regulatory Program (September 2011), hydraulic fracturing would create between 4,408 and 17,634 full-time equivalent (FTE) direct construction jobs in New York State. Indirect employment in other sectors would add an additional 29,174 FTE jobs. Furthermore, the SGEIS analysis suggests that drilling activities could add an estimated $621.9 million to $2.5 billion in employee earnings (direct and indirect) per year, depending upon how much of the shale is developed. The state would also receive direct tax receipts from leasing land, and has the potential to see an increase in generated indirect revenue. Estimates range from $31 million to $125 million per year in personal income tax receipts, and local governments would benefit from revenue sharing. Some landowner groups say the continued delay in drilling is costing tens of thousands of jobs and millions of dollars in growth for New York, especially in the economically stunted upstate. A number of New York counties near Pennsylvania, such as Chemung, NY, have experienced economic uptick from Pennsylvania drilling activity just across the border. Chemung officials reported that approximately 1,300 county residents are currently employed by the drilling industry in Pennsylvania. The Marcellus shale boom is expected to continue over the next decade and beyond. By 2015, gas drilling activity could bring 20,000 jobs to New York State alone. Other states, such as Pennsylvania and West Virginia, are also expected to see a significant increase in the number of jobs. Catalyst 2: Political Reality of the Moratorium. Oil and gas drilling has taken place in New York since the 19th century, and it remains an important industry with more than 13,000 currently active wells. The

  6. Anterior chest wall examination reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior chest wall involvement is not infrequently observed within inflammatory arthropaties, particularly if one considers seronegative spondiloarthritides and SAPHO syndrome. Physical examination is unreliable and conventional X-rays analysis is an unsatisfactory tool during diagnostic work-up of this region. Scintigraphic techniques yield informations both on the activity and on the anatomical extent of the disease while computerized tomography visualize the elementary lesions, such as erosions, which characterize the process. Moreover, when available, magnetic resonance imaging couple the ability to finely visualize such lesions with the possibility to show early alterations and to characterize the “activity” of the disease, presenting itself as a powerful tool both for diagnosis and follow-up. This review briefly shows the applications of imaging techniques for the evaluation of the anterior chest wall focusing on what has been done in the SAPHO syndrome which can be considered prototypical for this regional involvement since it is the osteo-articular target mainly affected by the disease.

  7. Flashback. El tiempo de los gitanos (Kusturica). Quieto, muere, resucita (Kanevski). Boom, Boom (R. Vergés). Henry, retrato de un asesino (Me Naugthon). La vida privada de Sherlock Holmes (B. Wilder). Sed de mal (Welles)

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, Xosé; Alonso Quintás, Enrique; Arias, Dany

    1992-01-01

    Nogueira, X.; Alonso Quintás, E.; Arias, D. (1992). Flashback. El tiempo de los gitanos (Kusturica). Quieto, muere, resucita (Kanevski). Boom, Boom (R. Vergés). Henry, retrato de un asesino (Me Naugthon). La vida privada de Sherlock Holmes (B. Wilder). Sed de mal (Welles). Vértigo. Revista de cine. (2):3-8. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/42914. 3 8 2

  8. Elastic Knee Sleeves Limit Anterior Tibial Translation in Healthy Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Csapo, Simona Hosp, Ramona Folie, Robert Eberle, Michael Hasler, Werner Nachbauer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Knee sleeves or braces represent auxiliary tools that have repeatedly been used by athletes, in an attempt to increase knee stability and, thus, reduce the risk of (recurrent ligamentous injuries. Since ACL injuries typically occur in situations involving either torsion or hyperextension of the knee, it has been speculated that braces might protect the ACL by countering excessive anterior translation of the tibia with respect to the femur (Beynnon et al., 1997. However, the preponderance of in vivo studies to test this hypothesis was performed in cohorts of patients suffering from existent ligamentous (Branch et al., 1988; Colville et al., 1986 or other knee injury (Beynnon et al., 1997; Fleming et al., 2000. This complicates the extrapolation of results to healthy subjects. Further, the braces used in these studies were mostly rigid constructs that consisted of either uni- or bilateral hinged bars (Rishiraj et al., 2009. Such braces might hinder performance (Veldhuizen et al., 1991 and would be rejected by the vast majority of healthy athletes. For these reasons, we would like to use this letter to the editor to report the results of our experiments investigating whether a relatively light elastic knee sleeve would limit the degree of anterior tibial translation in computerized arthrometry tests as performed in a sample of non-injured subjects. We recruited ten female college students (age: 23.4 ± 3.2 yrs, height: 1.68 ± 0.05 m, mass: 59.9 ± 5.5 kg who were free of acute or previous injury or any form of orthopaedic disease of the knee joints. The anterior displacement of the tibia was measured using the GNRB® computerized arthrometer (GeNouRob, Laval, France. With subjects lying in the supine position, the lower leg was firmly fixed with plastic caps mounted over the ankle joint and patella. An electrical pressure pad then exerted increasing pressure of up to 250 N on the calf, while a motion sensor, which was positioned on the ventral

  9. Positioning of anterior teeth in removable dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strajnić Ljiljana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this paper was to present methods of placement of artificial anterior teeth in edentulous individuals. The following review takes account of the majority of papers published during the last 100 years. The review has been divided into sections regarding the method used to determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Geometric aspect Gysi (1895-1920 produced the first scientific theory about the position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiognomic theory The aim of this theory is to find the most natural position for artificial anterior teeth for each individual. Camper's "face angle" as a physiognomic criterion, has been introduced in papers of Wehrli (1961, Marxhors (1966, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973. Esthetic aspect Important names in the field of dental esthetics are: Schön and Singer (1961, Arnheim (1965, Krajiček (1969, Tanzer (1968, Lombardi (1973, Goldstein (1976. They have introduced principles of visual aspects for selection of contours, dimension and position of artificial anterior teeth. Constitution aspect Flagg (1880, Williams (1913 and Hrauf (1957, 1958, have considered body constitution and individual characteristics regarding position of artificial anterior teeth. Physiological theory In 1971, Marxhors pointed to the fact that the position of artificial teeth corresponds with the function of the surrounding soft tissue and from the aspect of physiognomy as well. Phonetic aspect According to Silverman (1962 artificial anterior teeth are nearest when we pronounce the sound "S". Cephalometrical research Rayson (1970, Watson (1989, Strajnić Lj. (1999, Bassi F. (2001 have presented cephalometric radiographic analyses of natural anterior teeth compared with cephalometric radiographic analyses of artificial anterior teeth. A review of dental literature shows several factors suggesting modalities which should determine the position of artificial anterior teeth. Numerous methods have been designed for

  10. Pharyngocutaneous fistula after anterior cervical spine surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sansur, Charles A.; Early, Stephen; Reibel, James; Arlet, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Pharyngocutaneous fistulae are rare complications of anterior spine surgery occurring in less than 0.1% of all anterior surgery cases. We report a case of a 19 year old female who sustained a C6 burst fracture with complete quadriplegia. She was treated urgently with a C6 corpectomy with anterior cage and plating followed by posterior cervical stabilization at another institution. Post operatively she developed a pharyngocutaneous fistula that failed to heal despite several attempts of closu...

  11. Incidental Anterior Cruciate Ligament Calcification: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hisami; Fischer, Hans

    2016-03-01

    The calcification of knee ligaments is a finding noted only in a handful of case reports. The finding of an anterior cruciate ligament calcification has been reported once in the literature. Comparable studies involving the posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and an ossicle within the anterior cruciate ligament are likewise discussed in reports of symptomatic patients. We report a case of incidentally discovered anterior cruciate ligament calcification. We discuss the likely etiology and clinical implications of this finding.

  12. The treatment of gas in the performance assessment for the disposal of HLW and MLW in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium the Boom Clay is studied as potential host rock for the geological disposal of high level (HLW) and intermediate level radioactive waste (ILW). The Boom Clay has been chosen because of its very low hydraulic conductivity (2 10-12 m/s). Consequently, transport of contaminants in pore water of the Boom Clay is diffusion-controlled whereas advection has a negligible contribution to the overall migration. Also the transport of dissolved gas is very limited. Therefore, when gas is generated this can easily lead to a gas pressure build-up and thus to a safety concern. In the following sections the experimental evidence about gas generation and transport in Boom Clay are briefly summarised, then the approach used to treat the gas issue, followed by the assessment of the gas generation and the assessment of its potential consequences. (authors)

  13. The effect of fiscal policy in terms of government spending on private consumption in recessions and booms in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Kassaipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical study on measuring the effects of fiscal policy in terms of government spending on private consumption in both recession and booms over the period of 1965-2010. The proposed study uses Hodric-Prescott filter to find the cycle of recessions and booms. Then, we use autoregressive distributed lag model to estimate the changes. The results of this survey indicate that, in long term, an increase on government expenditures normally impacts private sector positively in both recessions and booms. The impact in short terms is positive during the recessions but during the booming session, there is no meaningful relationship between government spending and private spending.

  14. Herniation of the anterior lens capsule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Nolette

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Herniation of the anterior lens capsule is a rare abnormality in which the capsule bulges forward in the pupillary area. This herniation can be mistaken for an anterior lenticonus where both the capsule and the cortex bulge forward. The exact pathology behind this finding is still unclear. We report the clinical, ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM and histopathological findings of a case of herniation of the anterior lens capsule. UBM helped to differentiate this entity from anterior lenticonus. Light microscopy revealed capsular splitting suggestive of capsular delamination and collection of fluid (aqueous in the area of herniation giving it a characteristic appearance.

  15. Perawatan Gigitan Terbalik Anterior Dengan Menggunakan Inclined Plane

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Wilda A.

    2008-01-01

    Gigitan terbalik anterior adalah suatu anomali posisi gigi anterior atas yang lebih ke lingual dibandingkan gigi anterior bawah. Anomali gigitan terbalik anterior dapat ditemui pada periode gigi sulung, gigi bercampur, dan gigi permanen. Faktor etiologi gigitan terbalik anterior dibedakan atas dental, fungsional atau skeletal. Untuk menentukan etiologi dari anomali gigitan terbalik anterior perlu dilakukan diagnosa yang tepat. Perawatan gigitan terbalik anterior ini dapat dilakukan de...

  16. Sonic boom results for a nominal mission 3B. Space Shuttle engineering and operations support, engineering systems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained in the analysis of the effects of sonic boom overpressures at ground level for a nominal Mission 3B with the current baseline guidance are reported. These results are in the form of ground level overpressures generated along the groundtrack out to lateral cutoff from Mach 3.0-1.10 at 0.10 (tenth) Mach intervals. Preliminary trajectory constraints which will reduce excess sonic boom overpressures to approximately 2.0 PSF are included.

  17. Validation of sonic boom propagation codes using SR-71 flight test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanteyeva, Lyudmila G.; Kovalenko, Victor V.; Pavlyukov, Evgeny V.; Teperin, Leonid L.; Rackl, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The results of two sonic boom propagation codes, ZEPHYRUS (NASA) and BOOM (TsAGI), are compared with SR-71 flight test data from 1995. Options available in the computational codes are described briefly. Special processing methods are described which were applied to the experimental data. A method to transform experimental data at close ranges to the supersonic aircraft into initial data required by the codes was developed; it is applicable at any flight regime. Data are compared in near-, mid-, and far fields. The far-field observation aircraft recorded both direct and reflected waves. Comparison of computed and measured results shows good agreement with peak pressure, duration, and wave shape for direct waves, thus validating the computational codes.

  18. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated.

  19. The effect of waves on the oil slick at a retention boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the previous paper on this subject it was found that the oil-water interface at the retention boom becomes unstable under certain conditions permitting an oil escape under the boom. In the absence of waves, the experimental results were in fair agreement with predictions; but, when the waves were present, the instability occurred much earlier than predicted. In this paper the behavior of waves is studied both analytically and experimentally. It is found that the waves consist of a combination of stationary and progressive waves which is confirmed by the experiment, but the oil thickness variation on waves if found from experiment to be much grater than predicted. With certain modifications to the theory, the predicted onset of instability falls closely to experimental value

  20. The A/sub 2/Rs-B 8800. 110 boom spreader and modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.-J.

    1988-10-01

    Reviews design and specifications of the 8800.110 boom spreader series produced by the TAKRAF manufacturer of the GDR. The equipment was introduced in 1967 and 34 units have since been built in different versions. Spreaders have booms from 95 to 140 m long, conveyor belts with 1.80 or 2.00 m belt width and an overburden removal capacity between 4,000 and 15,000 m/sup 3//h. A list of spreaders operating in GDR, Soviet and Polish surface mines is provided. The most advanced versions are types 10000.100 and 15000.100 for conveyor belt widths of 2.00 and 2.25 m. The manufacturer is preparing 9 new units for production. Schemes of equipment variants are shown.

  1. A solid state converter for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1972-01-01

    The problems inherent in present systems of instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom include limited frequency response, expensive connecting cables, sensitivity to cable length and type, high sensitivity to environmental conditions, and additional limitations of individual system components. Furthermore, differing requirements have resulted in the use of two different systems for aircraft noise and sonic boom measurements respectively. To alleviate these difficulties a unified system of instrumentation suitable for both types of measurements was developed. The system features a new solid state converter connected to a zero drive amplifier. The system was found insensitive to cable length and type up to at least 1000 ft and requires no impedance matching networks. The converter itself has flat frequency response from dc to 28 kHz (- 3 db), dynamic range of 72 db, and noise floor of 50 db in the band 22.4 Hz to 22.4 kHz.

  2. Revisiting the palm oil boom in Southeast Asia: The role of fuel versus food demand drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Daniel J.; Balagtas, Joseph V; Gruere, Guillaume P.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 30 years, palm oil production has known a ninefold increase, with almost all production growth concentrated in Malaysia and Indonesia. Several public reports have associated the palm oil boom with extensive deforestation, often pointing to the increase in biofuel demand in developed nations as a main driver of this phenomenon. Other demand drivers, especially as related to the food sector, have not been studied as much. In particular, regulations on genetically modified (GM) food ...

  3. Experimental study of surface texture and resonance mechanism of booming sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The sound-producing mechanism of booming sand has long been a pending problem in the blown sand physics. Based on the earlier researches, the authors collected some silent sand samples from Tengger Desert, Australian Desert, Kuwait Desert, beaches of Hainan Island and Japanese coast as well as the soundless booming sand samples from the Mingsha Mountain in Dunhuang to make washing experiments. In the meantime the chemical corrosion experiment of glass micro-spheres, surface coating experiment and SEM examination were also conducted. The experimental results show that the sound production of booming sand seems to have nothing to do with the presence of SiO2 gel on the surface of sand grains and unrelated to the surface chemical composition of sand grains but is related to the resonance cavities formed by porous (pit-like) physical structure resulting from a number of factors such as wind erosion, water erosion, chemical corrosion and SiO2 gel deposition, etc. Its resonance mechanism is similar to that of Hemholz resonance cavity. Under the action of external forces, numerous spherical and sand grains with smooth surface and porous surface are set in motion and rub with each other to produce extremely weak vibration sound and then become audible sound by human ears through the magnification of surface cavity resonance. However the booming sands may lose their resonance mechanism and become silent sand due to the damping action caused by the invasion of finer particles such as dust and clay into surface holes of sand grains. Therefore, clearing away fine pollutants on the quartz grain surface is an effective way to make silent sand emit audible sound.

  4. Book review: understanding the crisis in Greece: from boom to bust

    OpenAIRE

    Halikiopoulou, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The new book from Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis provides a good and honest account of the Greek economic crisis, focusing on issues that are both sensitive and critical: nepotism and corruption. At a time when elections are fast approaching, Daphne Halikiopoulou finds this book to be extremely relevant and topical. Understanding The Crisis in Greece: From Boom to Bust. Michael Mitsopoulos & Theodore Pelagidis. Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan. March 2012. 288 pages.

  5. Thin-walled composite deployable booms with tape-spring hinges

    OpenAIRE

    Mallikarachchi, H.M. Yasitha Chinthaka

    2011-01-01

    Deployable structures made from ultra-thin composite materials can be folded elastically and are able to self-deploy by releasing the stored strain energy. Their lightness, low cost due to smaller number of components, and friction insensitive behaviour are key attractions for space applications. This dissertation presents a design methodology for lightweight composite booms with multiple tape-spring hinges. The whole process of folding and deployment of the tape-spring ...

  6. Interactions between eurozone and US booms and busts: A Bayesian panel Markov-switching VAR model

    OpenAIRE

    Billio, Monica; Casarin, Roberto; Ravazzolo, Francesco; Dijk, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Interactions between eurozone and United States booms and busts and among major eurozone economies are analyzed by introducing a panel Markov-switching VAR model. The model is well suitable for a multi-country cyclical analysis and accommodates changes in low and high data frequencies and endogenous time-varying transition matrices of the country-specific Markov chains. The transition matrix of each Markov chain depends on its own past history and on the history of other chains...

  7. Stability of 125I and 14C labelled boom clay organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The candidate host formation for the disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium is boom clay which may contain up to 4% organic matter (OM). A limited fraction (less than 0.05%) of this OM is mobile. OM can complex radionuclides and so influence their migration. The migration behaviour of the OM itself has been extensively studied but to date such studies have used absorbancy measurements to quantify the OM. Unfortunately various problems accompany the use of absorbancy measurements. The particular problems may be overcome by using radiolabelled OM. Accordingly as a precursor to planned in situ migration experiments in boom clay (BC) using radiolabelled OM, stability studies on 125I and 14C labelled materials have been conducted. The 125I containing solutions were analysed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the 14C solutions using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). Dissappointingly at the relevant pH of 8.5, even in the absence of the clay, the 125I label was found to be unstable. However the 14C labelled OM (14C-BC-OM) was stable under the mild conditions employed in the test, so its stability was investigated in the presence of boom clay. The results were compared with that of 14C labelled humic acids (14C-HA), treated similarly. Unexpectedly the 14C labelled material was found to be partially unstable in the presence of boom clay. However the instability has not hampered the laboratory column experiments and should not hamper the proposed in situ experiments with this material. (orig.)

  8. Boom or gloom? Examining the Dutch disease in a two-speed economy

    OpenAIRE

    Bjørnland, Hilde C.; Thorsrud, Leif Anders

    2013-01-01

    Traditional studies of the Dutch disease do not typically account for productiv- ity spillovers between the booming energy sector and non-oil sectors. This study identifies and quantifies these spillovers using a Bayesian Dynamic Factor Model (BDFM). The model allows for resource movements and spending effects through a large panel of variables at the sectoral level, while also identifying disturbances to the real oil price, global demand and non-oil activity. Using Norway as a...

  9. Creep behaviour in thermal and mechanical consolidation tests on Boom clay

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Trung Tinh; Cui, Yu Jun; Delage, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Boom clay, a stiff clay from the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) at Mol (Belgium) may be the host medium for a long-term radioactive waste storage facility. To study the thermal-hydromechanical properties of this clay, an experimental investigation was carried out on a testing system permitting high pressure triaxial tests at controlled temperature. Thermal and mechanical consolidation tests were carried out, following isobar heating and isothermal compression paths. The results showed ...

  10. Dynamic Adjustments to Terms of Trade Shocks: The USA Productivity Boom and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Richard G.; Robertson, Peter E.

    2007-01-01

    How has the USA’s “new economy” productivity boom affected Australia? We consider this question using a dynamic multi-sector growth model of the Australian and USA economies. We find that productivity growth in the USA durables sector generates small but important gains to Australia. We find that the transmission of growth is generated through increased export demand for Agriculture. Consequently we find that the USA’s productivity growth tends to favour Australia’s traditional export sectors...

  11. Toxic Anterior Segment Syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Öner

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is a sterile intraocular inflammation caused by noninfectious substances, resulting in extensive toxic damage to the intraocular tissues. Possible etiologic factors of TASS include surgical trauma, bacterial endotoxin, intraocular solutions with inappropriate pH and osmolality, preservatives, denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices (OVD, inadequate sterilization, cleaning and rinsing of surgical devices, intraocular lenses, polishing and sterilizing compounds which are related to intraocular lenses. The characteristic signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, corneal edema, hypopyon and nonreactive pupil usually occur 24 hours after the cataract surgery. The differential diagnosis of TASS from infectious endophthalmitis is important. The main treatment for TASS formation is prevention. TASS is a cataract surgery complication that is more commonly seen nowadays. In this article, the possible underlying causes as well as treatment and prevention methods of TASS are summarized. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2011; 41: 407-13

  12. Mild toxic anterior segment syndrome mimicking delayed onset toxic anterior segment syndrome after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Na Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS is an acute sterile postoperative anterior segment inflammation that may occur after anterior segment surgery. I report herein a case that developed mild TASS in one eye after bilateral uneventful cataract surgery, which was masked during early postoperative period under steroid eye drop and mimicking delayed onset TASS after switching to weaker steroid eye drop.

  13. Design of an Indoor Sonic Boom Simulator at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Jacob; Sullivan, Brenda M.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2008-01-01

    Construction of a simulator to recreate the soundscape inside residential buildings exposed to sonic booms is scheduled to start during the summer of 2008 at NASA Langley Research Center. The new facility should be complete by the end of the year. The design of the simulator allows independent control of several factors that create the indoor soundscape. Variables that will be isolated include such factors as boom duration, overpressure, rise time, spectral shape, level of rattle, level of squeak, source of rattle and squeak, level of vibration and source of vibration. Test subjects inside the simulator will be asked to judge the simulated soundscape, which will represent realistic indoor boom exposure. Ultimately, this simulator will be used to develop a functional relationship between human response and the sound characteristics creating the indoor soundscape. A conceptual design has been developed by NASA personnel, and is currently being vetted through small-scale risk reduction tests that are being performed in-house. The purpose of this document is to introduce the conceptual design, identify how the indoor response will be simulated, briefly outline some of the risk reduction tests that have been completed to vet the design, and discuss the impact of these tests on the simulator design.

  14. Analysis of Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a 59-Degree Wing Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Recent work has been performed to reduce the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Previous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses showed how the shock wave formed at the nozzle lip interacted with the nozzle boat-tail expansion wave. The nozzle lip shock moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and reduced the nozzle boat-tail expansion. Lip shock movement caused a favorable change in the observed pressure signature. These results were applied to a simplified supersonic vehicle geometry with no inlets and no tail, in which the goal was to demonstrate how under-expanded nozzle operation reduced the sonic boom signature by twelve percent. A secondary goal was to demonstrate the use of the Cart3D inviscid code for off-body pressure signatures including the nozzle plume effect.

  15. Exhaust Nozzle Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Test Results for Vectored Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions were due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Recent work has been performed to reduce the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Previous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis showed how the shock wave formed at the nozzle lip interacts with the nozzle boat-tail expansion wave. An experiment was conducted in the 1- by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Results show how the shock generated at the nozzle lip affects the near field pressure signature, and thereby the potential sonic boom contribution for a nozzle at vector angles from 3 to 8 . The experiment was based on the NASA F-15 nozzle used in the Lift and Nozzle Change Effects on Tail Shock experiment, which possessed a large external boat-tail angle. In this case, the large boat-tail angle caused a dramatic expansion, which dominated the near field pressure signature. The impact of nozzle vector angle and nozzle pressure ratio are summarized.

  16. Under-Track CFD-Based Shape Optimization for a Low-Boom Demonstrator Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wintzer, Mathias; Ordaz, Irian; Fenbert, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed outer mold line shaping of a Mach 1.6, demonstrator-sized low-boom concept is presented. Cruise trim is incorporated a priori as part of the shaping objective, using an equivalent-area-based approach. Design work is performed using a gradient-driven optimization framework that incorporates a three-dimensional, nonlinear flow solver, a parametric geometry modeler, and sensitivities derived using the adjoint method. The shaping effort is focused on reducing the under-track sonic boom level using an inverse design approach, while simultaneously satisfying the trim requirement. Conceptual-level geometric constraints are incorporated in the optimization process, including the internal layout of fuel tanks, landing gear, engine, and crew station. Details of the model parameterization and design process are documented for both flow-through and powered states, and the performance of these optimized vehicles presented in terms of inviscid L/D, trim state, pressures in the near-field and at the ground, and predicted sonic boom loudness.

  17. Current-driven plasmonic boom instability in three-dimensional gated periodic ballistic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Shur, M.

    2016-05-01

    An alternative approach of using a distributed transmission line analogy for solving transport equations for ballistic nanostructures is applied for solving the three-dimensional problem of electron transport in gated ballistic nanostructures with periodically changing width. The structures with varying width allow for modulation of the electron drift velocity while keeping the plasma velocity constant. We predict that in such structures biased by a constant current, a periodic modulation of the electron drift velocity due to the varying width results in the instability of the plasma waves if the electron drift velocity to plasma wave velocity ratio changes from below to above unity. The physics of such instability is similar to that of the sonic boom, but, in the periodically modulated structures, this analog of the sonic boom is repeated many times leading to a larger increment of the instability. The constant plasma velocity in the sections of different width leads to resonant excitation of the unstable plasma modes with varying bias current. This effect (that we refer to as the superplasmonic boom condition) results in a strong enhancement of the instability. The predicted instability involves the oscillating dipole charge carried by the plasma waves. The plasmons can be efficiently coupled to the terahertz electromagnetic radiation due to the periodic geometry of the gated structure. Our estimates show that the analyzed instability should enable powerful tunable terahertz electronic sources.

  18. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Sozer, Emre; Moini-Yekta, Shayan

    2016-01-01

    NASA and Industry are performing vehicle studies of configurations with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern configuration designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty in the aft signatures with often greater boundary layer effects and nozzle jet pressures. Wind tunnel testing at significantly lower Reynolds numbers than in flight and without inlet and nozzle jet pressures make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel from Mach 1.6 to 2.0 will be used to assess the effects of shocks from components passing through nozzle jet plumes on the sonic boom pressure signature and provide datasets for comparison with CFD codes. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of wind tunnel test models with a variety of shock generators that simulate horizontal tails and aft decks have been studied to provide suitable models for sonic boom pressure measurements using a minimally intrusive pressure rail in the wind tunnel. The computational results are presented and the evolution of candidate wind tunnel models is summarized and discussed in this paper.

  19. The interaction between Synroc-C and pure water or Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the interaction between Synroc-C and deionized water or Boom clay disposal media. The authors used powdered Synroc-C to achieve high SA/V (surface area to volume) conditions (100, 1,000, 10,000 m-1). The temperature was 90 C. Reaction progress up to 10-+6 days/m was reached. They conclude that dissolution in DW is mainly controlled by initial ion exchange, followed by matrix dissolution. In both Boom clay media (a 500 g/l and a 2,000 g/l clay/claywater mixture) matrix dissolution is dominating. The depletion depth of the main Synroc constituent Ti is below 250 mn in the clay media, and below 2 nm in DW after 110 days corrosion at 100 m-1. The corrosion rates are very small, though the authors cannot present meaningful values. The effect of Boom clay is mainly to increase the solubility of Ti, Zr and the rare earths in solution

  20. [EATING DISORDERS IN PEDIATRIC AGE: A BOOM PATHOLOGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas Disotuar, Yunior; Murray Hurtado, Mercedes; Rubio Morell, Belén; Murjani Bharwani, Hima S; Jiménez Sosa, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Objetivos: determinar las características de los pacientes en edad pediátrica afectados de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria que requirieron ingreso en el Servicio de Pediatría del Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Canarias (CHUC). Material y método: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo de una cohorte de pacientes pediátricos diagnosticados de trastornos de la conducta alimentaria e ingresados en planta de hospitalización pediátrica durante los últimos siete años. Resultados: de los 35 pacientes de la muestra, un 85,7% fueron mujeres, con una edad media al debut de 13,5 años. En el 77,1% de los casos el diagnóstico principal fue el de anorexia nerviosa de tipo restrictivo. Las alteraciones analíticas más frecuentes detectadas en el momento del ingreso consistieron en descenso de los niveles plasmáticos de proteína fijadora del retinol (RBP), presente en el 57,6% de los casos, e hipovitaminosis D, que en esta muestra estaba presente en el 46,9% de los casos. Se requirió el uso de suplementos hipercalóricos en el 71,4% de los pacientes durante la hospitalización. La ganancia ponderal media durante la estancia fue mayor cuanto menor era el índice de masa corporal (IMC) al ingreso (p = 0,006). Conclusiones: los TCA son enfermedades con incidencia creciente en la edad pediátrica. La pubertad constituye un momento de especial vulnerabilidad para el desarrollo de los TCA (así como de complicaciones médicas secundarias a la desnutrición). En muchos casos el ingreso hospitalario constituye una herramienta necesaria para un correcto manejo, instaurándose las medidas de control necesarias para la recuperación ponderal, la prevención de complicaciones del soporte nutricional y el abordaje de la psicopatología subyacente. El diagnóstico y tratamiento precoz resultan cruciales para evitar una excesiva pérdida ponderal y mayor incidencia de complicaciones.

  1. Anterior segment complications of retinal photocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1975-03-01

    Seven patients had anterior segment complications following xenon arc retinal photocoagulation. Irreversible keratopathy was induced in two cases; all patients showed evidence of iris injury. The absorption of radiation by the iris was considered the main factor in producing overheating of the anterior segment.

  2. Dentulous Appliance for Upper Anterior Edentulous Span

    OpenAIRE

    Chalakkal, Paul; Devi, Ramisetty Sabitha; Srinivas, G Vijay; Venkataramana, Pammi

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses about a fixed dentulous appliance that was constructed to replace the primary upper anterior edentulous span in a four year old girl. It constituted a design, whereby the maxillary primary second molars were used to support the appliance through bands and a wire that contained an acrylic flange bearing trimmed acrylic teeth, anteriorly. The appliance was functionally and aesthetically compliant.

  3. Totally thrombosed giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Roopesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant anterior communicating artery aneurysmsarerare. Apatient presented with visual dysfunction, gait ataxia and urinary incontinence. MRI showed a giant suprasellar mass.At surgery, the lesion was identified as being an aneurysm arising from the anterior communicating artery.The difficulty in preoperative diagnosis and relevant literature are reviewed.

  4. Joint effects of osmotic and matric suctions on hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One long-term management option of the Belgian Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials (ONDRAF/NIRAS) is the direct underground disposal of Eurobitum Bituminized radioactive Waste (BW) in Boom Clay. In Geological disposal conditions, contact of the BW which contains large amounts of highly soluble NaNO3 with groundwater will result in water uptake and swelling of the waste and in subsequent diffusion of the dissolved salt through the host clay formation. Within the framework of the compatibility of Boom Clay with large amounts of nitrate-bearing bituminized radioactive waste an experimental research program have been started to investigate the effect of the leaching of large amounts of sodium nitrate on hydro-mechanical behaviour of Boom Clay. Change of pore water chemistry can affect clays through a variety of adsorption/desorption phenomena driven by osmotic suction (concentration) effects and cationic exchange mechanisms. For Boom Clay the dominant cation present is sodium ion Na+ at a concentration of about 10-2 mol/l. Therefore, when Boom Clay is exposed to NaNO3, cation exchange effects are expected to be negligible compared to osmotic suction effects. Indeed, two processes are expected to take place, chemical consolidation and chemically induced consolidation. Chemical consolidation occurs due to the transfer of mass of water and salt from the pore space into the inter-lamellar space and/or external surface of clusters and vice versa. Chemically induced consolidation is due to the osmotic flow of water out of the sample that takes place in response to the chemical (concentration) gradient. The relevance of osmotic suction effects has been addressed by Mokni (2011) and a formulation has been proposed for the analysis of deformation induced by osmotic processes in double structure porous media. The formulation is based on the distinction within the material of a microstructural

  5. Anterior Shoulder Instability with Concomitant Superior Labrum from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) Lesion Compared to Anterior Instability without SLAP Lesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durban, Claire Marie C.; Kim, Je Kyun; Kim, Sae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to investigate the clinical characteristics of patients with combined anterior instability and superior labrum from anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesions, and to analyze the effect of concomitant SLAP repair on surgical outcomes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent arthroscopic stabilization for anterior shoulder instability between January 2004 and March 2013. A total of 120 patients were available for at least 1-year follow-up. Forty-four patients with reparable concomitant detached SLAP lesions (group I) underwent combined SLAP and anterior stabilization, and 76 patients without SLAP lesions (group II) underwent anterior stabilization alone. Patient characteristics, preoperative and postoperative pain scores, Rowe scores, and shoulder ranges of motion were compared between the 2 groups. Results Patients in group I had higher incidences of high-energy trauma (p = 0.03), worse preoperative pain visual analogue scale (VAS) (p = 0.02), and Rowe scores (p = 0.04). The postoperative pain VAS and Rowe scores improved equally in both groups without significant differences. Limitation in postoperative range of motion was similar between the groups (all p-value > 0.05). Conclusions Anterior instability with SLAP lesion may not be related to frequent episodes of dislocation but rather to a high-energy trauma. SLAP fixation with anterior stabilization procedures did not lead to poor functional outcomes if appropriate surgical techniques were followed. PMID:27247742

  6. Modified Linear Theory Aircraft Design Tools and Sonic Boom Minimization Strategy Applied to Signature Freezing via F-function Lobe Balancing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Timothy Paul

    Commercial supersonic travel has strong business potential; however, in order for the Federal Aviation Administration to lift its ban on supersonic flight overland, designers must reduce aircraft sonic boom strength to an acceptable level. An efficient methodology and associated tools for designing aircraft for minimized sonic booms are presented. The computer-based preliminary design tool, RapidF, based on modified linear theory, enables quick assessment of an aircraft's sonic boom with run times less than 30 seconds on a desktop computer. A unique feature of RapidF is that it tracks where on the aircraft each segment of the of the sonic boom came from, enabling precise modifications, speeding the design process. Sonic booms from RapidF are compared to flight test data, showing that it is capability of predicting a sonic boom duration, overpressure, and interior shock locations. After the preliminary design is complete, scaled flight tests should be conducted to validate the low boom design. When conducting such tests, it is insufficient to just scale the length; thus, equations to scale the weight and propagation distance are derived. Using RapidF, a conceptual supersonic business jet design is presented that uses F-function lobe balancing to create a frozen sonic boom using lifting surfaces. The leading shock is reduced from 1.4 to 0.83 psf, and the trailing shock from 1.2 to 0.87 psf, 41% and 28% reductions respectfully. By changing the incidence angle of the surfaces, different sonic boom shapes can be created, and allowing the lobes to be re-balanced for new flight conditions. Computational fluid dynamics is conducted to validate the sonic boom predictions. Off-design analysis is presented that varies weight, altitude, Mach number, and propagation angle, demonstrating that lobe-balance is robust. Finally, the Perceived Level of Loudness metric is analyzed, resulting in a modified design that incorporates other boom minimization techniques to further reduce

  7. Solární boom v České Republice, ekonomické souvislosti a důsledky pro krajinu

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegelbauer, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis "Solar Boom in the Czech Republic, economical contexts and effects on the environment" is focused on the continuously debated issue, which is a dramatic increase in the number of photovoltaic power plants in the Czech republic between 2008 and 2010. This work analyze solar boom in the Czech Republic, explains the causes and circumstances of its origin and describes the causes of solar boom and its effects on investors, final customers and also on nature. This bachelor's thes...

  8. The quinoa boom of the southern Bolivian Altiplano - linking geomorphology, erosion and spatial production patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Lasse; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik

    2014-05-01

    . While agricultural exploitation prior to 2003 was mainly restricted to quaternary alluvial deposit, the post-2003 expansion entered the flat shoreface topography of late Pleistocene Lake Tauca (18-14 ka BP; Placzek et al 2006) and hence a domain of increased soil salinity. These recent developments pretty well illustrate southern Bolivia's "quinoa boom": an escalating, land-intensive production on marginal soils, characterized by high erosion rates and a dissipative resource use. Given the arid conditions and the resulting low resilience of the landscape, the current trends are likely to trigger widespread land degradation, jeopardizing future livelihood opportunities. References Placzek C, Quade J, Patchett, PJ 2006. Geochronology and stratigraphy of late Pleistocene lake cycles on the southern Bolivian Altiplano: Implications for causes of tropical climate change. GSA Bulletin 118, 515-532. Jacobsen, S-E 2011. The situation for quinoa and its production in Southern Bolivia: From economic success to environmental disaster. J. Agronomy & Crop Science 197, 390-399.

  9. The potential use of swelling clays for backfilling and sealing of underground repositories: The case of the Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium the SCK/CEN is studying the geological disposal of high level radioactive waste in the Boom clay formation. In such an argillaceous repository, the backfilling and sealing features will be multiple: boreholes, shafts, access drifts, disposal galleries or holes and dams. A preliminary selection study screening industrial materials has been performed based on the following criteria: at least as good thermal and hydraulic properties as the in situ Boom clay, sufficient volumetric swelling and swelling pressure, proven geochemical compatibility and stability. This study has shown that swelling clays are the most promising materials. Because of its evident geochemical compatibility and its easy availability, it is a logic choice to study the re-use of the excavated clay. The hydraulic, thermal and geochemical retention and swelling properties of the Boom clay were studied and the results are compared to those of bentonites. The main results of this study are: a hydraulic conductivity as low as 10-13 m/s can be reached which is one order of magnitude lower than that of the in situ Boom clay but is one order of magnitude higher than those of bentonite; the volumetric swelling of the Boom clay is rather limited but a swelling pressure of about 4 MPa can be obtained which is about a factor five lower than for bentonites but also corresponds to the in situ lithostatic pressure; the radionuclide retention properties of the in situ Boom clay are at least as good as those of dense bentonites and are for some nuclides even better; steam drastically reduces the volumetric swelling of bentonites which also leads to a higher hydraulic conductivity. The swelling properties of the Boom clay are also to be affected by steam, but the effect is less dramatic. In particular, its low hydraulic conductivity seems to be conserved. (author). 14 refs, 4 figs, 6 tabs

  10. Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China%Excess Liquidity, Housing Price Booms and Policy Challenges in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Guo; Chen Li

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating asymmetric cost and benefit of supplying excess liquidity into an otherwise standard time inconsistency model this paper offers an explanation of the excess liquidity and housing price booms recently experienced in China. We find that the central bank's incentive to stimulate eeonomie growth with excess liquidity fuels real estate prices and accelerates inflation bias. Therefore, the central bank should free itself from the pressure to achieve an economic growth rate higher than the potential level and assign an appropriate weight to the real estate price fluctuations in the central bank's objective function, so that the central bank "s policy of stimulating economic growth with excess liquidity can be constrained.

  11. Variability in the hydraulic conductivity of the Boom clay in the Campine Basin, NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10-12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02 ∼ 0.04 m/m) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formation in the framework of radioactive waste disposal requires rigorous quantitative characterization of key formation properties such as the hydraulic conductivity (K). Hydraulic conductivities of Boom Clay measured through various testing techniques in the laboratory, i.e. tracer percolation experiments, constant head permeameter experiments and isostatic experiments, exhibit similar K values in the order of 10-12 m/s. Based on a large set of test samples, the impact of sample scale, hydraulic gradient range adopted in the tests, stress controlled methods and pre-existing fissures in the sample on the K value is shown to be quite limited. In situ measurements obtained from both several-centimetre long piezometer filters and percolation into a 7-metre long gallery and 21-meter long shaft at the HADES underground research facility yield K values that are very similar to values measured in the laboratory on samples of a few centimetres. This indicates that the K measurements for the Boom Clay obtained through various techniques are very consistent. K values measured on a centimetre-scale are also representative at the metre-scale, which is often the size of grid cells used in numerical simulations for long-term safety assessments. Spatial analysis of K values across the Boom

  12. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    OpenAIRE

    Behari S; Banerji D; Trivedi P; Jain V; Chhabra D

    2001-01-01

    The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA) accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing ...

  13. Quadriceps muscle contraction protects the anterior cruciate ligament during anterior tibial translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aune, A K; Cawley, P W; Ekeland, A

    1997-01-01

    The proposed skiing injury mechanism that suggests a quadriceps muscle contraction can contribute to anterior cruciate ligament rupture was biomechanically investigated. The effect of quadriceps muscle force on a knee specimen loaded to anterior cruciate ligament failure during anterior tibial translation was studied in a human cadaveric model. In both knees from six donors, average age 41 years (range, 31 to 65), the joint capsule and ligaments, except the anterior cruciate ligament, were cut. The quadriceps tendon, patella, patellar tendon, and menisci were left intact. One knee from each pair was randomly selected to undergo destructive testing of the anterior cruciate ligament by anterior tibial translation at a displacement rate of 30 mm/sec with a simultaneously applied 889 N quadriceps muscle force. The knee flexion during testing was 30 degrees. As a control, the contralateral knee was loaded correspondingly, but only 5 N of quadriceps muscle force was applied. The ultimate load for the knee to anterior cruciate ligament failure when tested with 889 N quadriceps muscle force was 22% +/- 18% higher than that of knees tested with 5 N of force. The linear stiffness increased by 43% +/- 30%. These results did not support the speculation that a quadriceps muscle contraction contributes to anterior cruciate ligament failure. In this model, the quadriceps muscle force protected the anterior cruciate ligament from injury during anterior tibial translation.

  14. Colloids formation versus complexation in radionuclides natural organic matter interaction studies: the case of Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: Complexation of radionuclides (RN) by Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the host rock may pose a negative impact on the safety of a radioactive waste repository. This is because the formed complexes may increase the solubility, decrease the sorption, and thus enhance the mobility of RN. For Boom Clay, the reference host formation in Belgium for methodological research, and the one with probably the most abundant NOM content among the studied sites in the world, such a negative impact has not been demonstrated. This paper illustrates that Boom Clay NOM plays only a negligible role in RN complexation, based on data produced by the EC project TRANCOM-II. Classic approaches use a conditional stability constant (CSC) to measure the extent of interaction between RN and NOM. Such approaches borrow the theories from aquatic chemistry and model NOM as a complexing ligand. At neutral to alkaline pH, the condition relevant for most of disposal sites, side reactions such as hydrolysis and carbonate complexation interfere with the formation of RN-NOM complexes so that a CSC is highly conditional. Most of the published CSC values are very large implying high stabilities of formed RN-NOM complexes. A large value of a CSC predicts an increase in solubility and, if the formed RN-NOM complex is not sorbed, a decrease in sorption. Such predictions should be tested, before applied in safety assessments, by solubility and sorption experiments under relevant disposal conditions. Solubilities of laboratory prepared, amorphous tetravalent uranium and thorium phases were determined under geochemical conditions of Boom Clay with varying concentrations of NOM, mainly humic acid. Experimental results showed that Boom Clay NOM did not have an observable impact on the solubility of U(IV) and Th. For both actinides, however, NOM facilitated the formation of U/Th bearing colloids resulting in an apparent increase of U(IV) and Th concentration 3 orders of

  15. ANTERIOR KNEE PAIN IN TRANSTENDINOUS AND PARATENDINOUS APPROACHES OF TIBIAL INTERLOCKING NAIL: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyaneshwar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anterior knee pain has been described as the most common complication after intramedullary nailing of fracture shaft of tibia. Dissection of the patellar tendon and its sheath during transtendinous nailing is thought to be as one of the contributing causes of chronic anterior knee pain. The purpose of this prospective, randomized study was to compare the incidence of anterior knee pain after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture with transtendinous and paratendinous incision technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From April 2012 to October 2013 eighty patients with closed tibial shaft fractures were admitted and treated in our institution. Patients were randomized for treatment with paratendinous or transtendinous nailing (as 24 patients did not complete their follow up or were lost in follow up, so 56 patients were analyzed finally. For assessment we used visual analogue scales to report the level of anterior knee pain. The scales described by Lysholm and Gillquist and by Tegner et al., were also used to quantitate the functional results. RESULTS: 12 of the 28 (42% patients treated with transtendinous nailing. reported anterior knee pain whereas 8 patients out of 28 (28%, in which paratendinous technique was used had persistent anterior knee pain after minimum final follow up of 24 weeks, with no significant statistical difference. The Lysholm, Tegner functional scoring systems showed a significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Compared with a transtendinous approach, a paratendinous approach for nail insertion does not reduce the incidence of chronic anterior knee pain or functional impairment after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. In long term, anterior knee pain seems to disappear from many patients. Since our study is small and have short duration of follow up, further larger studies and long duration of follow up is needed to establish the results

  16. Structural health monitoring of an inflatable boom subjected to simulated micrometeoroid/orbital debris damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazaga, Pablo A.; Peairs, Daniel M.; Wilkie, W. Keats; Inman, Daniel J.

    2006-03-01

    Inflatable-rigidizeable composite space structures are an emerging technology that could revolutionize the design of large on-orbit satellites. These structural systems have the advantages of low mass, high packaging efficiency, low life cycle cost, low part counts, and high deployment reliability. As they are rigidized on-orbit, they do not depend on internal pressure to maintain their shape once deployed. However, as thin-walled structures, micrometeoroids and orbital debris (MMOD) are still a potential threat to their structural integrity. Such impacts will create punctures on the structure of varying sizes related to the size and kinetic energy of the debris/meteorite. For closed-cell geometries, such as booms or struts, MMOD objects can penetrate the outer wall twice, once on initial impact and once upon exiting the structure. As impact damage and structural degradation will be cumulative over time, being able to monitor the structural integrity of these satellites would be of great interest. Impedance-based structural health monitoring schemes using distributed piezoelectric transducers are one possible approach. In this study, several Macro-Fiber Composite (MFC) piezoelectric devices were installed on a representative space-inflatable rigidizeable composite boom and used in ground tests as collocated sensor-actuators for detecting and assessing simulated micrometeoroid/orbital debris strike damage. Electrical impedance signatures were compared before and after application of the simulated damage to determine the extent of the damage sustained. Both small and large footprint MFC piezocomposite sensor/actuators were shown to be effective in characterizing simulated MMOD punctures along the entire length of the boom.

  17. In situ and laboratory migration experiments through boom clay at Mol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical characterization and migration studies in the Boom clay, envisaged as a potential host sediment for high level waste disposal in Belgium, were started some 15 years ago. A synthesis study of this experimental work has recently been conducted to compile all available data. From a comparison of the available migration data and the data requirements as derived from the performance assessment studies PAGIS (1988) and PACOMA (1991) the new migration programme (1991-1995) was defined. The critical radionuclides, both with relation to dose rates to man and to missing or unreliable migration data, turned out to be 14 C, 99 Tc. 135 Cs and 237 Np. A second group of radionuclides was found to be possibly critical: 79 Se, 93 Zr, 107 Pd, U-, Am-, Cm-, and Pu-isotopes. This report concentrates on the experimental results as obtained from the migration experiments started in the previous migration programme. Some of the reported radionuclides e.g. 90 Sr) have lost their critical character and will not be further studied within the new programme. New experimental data from laboratory tests have become available for Np, Cs, Sr and C (as HC03-) and the first results on the migration of organic molecules dissolved in the interstitial Boom clay water are reported. The hydraulic parameters (the hydraulic conductivity K and the storage coefficient So) were calculated from both laboratory percolation experiments and in situ piezometric measurements. Conclusions concerning Boom clay anisotropy are drawn. Finally, a short description of the ongoing in situ HTO injection experiment is given and the experimental data are analyzed and discussed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  18. The design of a large scale heater test in boom clay - the Praclay experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRACLAY aims to demonstrate the suitability of the Boom Clay host rock, in terms of performance of the disposal, to undergo the thermal load induced by the vitrified HI. PRACLAY represents an important milestone for the Safety and Feasibility Cases 1 (2013) and II (2020). PRACLAY is developed to be design-independent to overcome possible future changes in the design. The temperature criterion is: The maximum temperature in clay-based backfill materials, used as engineered barriers, for heat producing radioactive waste, must be kept below 100 C. PRACLAY regroups a set of four experiments. The PRACLAY Crossing consists in the intersection of the connecting gallery and the PRACLAY gallery, and aims to demonstrate that it is possible to construct a crossing between an access gallery and a disposal gallery at an acceptable cost and limiting the perturbation in the host-rock. The PRACLAY Heater Test has to demonstrate that Boom Clay will behave as predicted under a thermal load. The PRACLAY Plug Test is aimed at demonstrating that it is possible to cut-off hydraulically the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the engineered barriers of the disposal galleries with a horizontal plug. 4. The PRACLAY backfill test aims to test the installation and the performance of different types of backfill or buffer material (cement, slaked lime, bentonite, Boom Clay...) that could be considered in the design of disposal galleries. The paper will present the objectives, the preliminary model predictions, and, as a result of these, the design of the test, including the monitoring plan and the choices regarding the boundary and initial conditions. (authors)

  19. A second hydrocarbon boom threatens the Peruvian Amazon: trends, projections, and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Peruvian Amazon is home to extraordinary biological and cultural diversity, and vast swaths of this mega-diverse region remain largely intact. Recent analysis indicates, however, that the rapid proliferation of oil and gas exploration zones now threatens the region's biodiversity, indigenous peoples, and wilderness areas. To better elucidate this dynamic situation, we analyzed official Peruvian government hydrocarbon information and generated a quantitative analysis of the past, present, and future of oil and gas activities in the Peruvian Amazon. We document an extensive hydrocarbon history for the region-over 104 000 km of seismic lines and 679 exploratory and production wells-highlighted by a major exploration boom in the early 1970s. We show that an unprecedented 48.6% of the Peruvian Amazon has been recently covered by oil and gas concessions, up from just 7.1% in 2003. These oil and gas concessions overlap 17.1% of the Peruvian Amazon protected area system and over half of all titled indigenous lands. Moreover, we found that up to 72% of the Peruvian Amazon has been zoned for hydrocarbon activities (concessions plus technical evaluation agreements and proposed concessions) in the past two years, and over 84% at some point during the past 40 years. We project that the recent rapid proliferation of hydrocarbon zones will lead to a second exploration boom, characterized by over 20 000 km of new seismic testing and construction of over 180 new exploratory wells in remote, intact, and sensitive forest areas. As the Peruvian Amazon oil frontier rapidly expands, we conclude that a rigorous policy debate is urgently needed in order to avoid the major environmental impacts associated with the first exploration boom of the 1970s and to minimize the social conflict that recently led to deadly encounters between indigenous protesters and government forces.

  20. Effect of excavation induced fractures on radionuclide migration through the boom clay (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay at a depth of 200 m below surface is being evaluated as a potential host formation for the disposal of high-level nuclear waste. In order to investigate this option, an underground research facility composed of two access shafts and a 200 m long gallery was excavated in the Boom Clay for research purposes (HADES-URF). Around the gallery, excavation induced fractures are observed. The majority of these fractures are approximately parallel planes with an average spacing of around 70 cm, a strike approximately perpendicular to the tunnel axis and a dip between 30 and 70 degrees. fracturing and self-sealing processes in Boom (and Opalinus) Clay were studied in the EC SELFRAC project (EC contract FIKW-CT2001-00182). The research performed in the framework of this project shows that the excavation induced fractures around the connecting gallery are limited to a zone of 1 m. This gallery was excavated using an industrial technique and with minimal radial convergence. Moreover self-sealing processes, which will further limit the influence of these fractures, have clearly been demonstrated in laboratory and in-situ experiments. The potential effect of these excavation induced fractures on the radionuclide migration through the clay is investigated in this study under the conservative assumption that no self-sealing occurs. A hydrogeological model of the clay is built with a radionuclide source in the middle of the clay surrounded by different fracture configurations. The radionuclide flux through the upper and lower boundaries of the clay into the surrounding aquifers is calculated and compared for different fracture configurations. (authors)

  1. El auge económico latinoamericano The Latin American Economic Boom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSÉ ANTONIO OCAMPO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo argumenta que el auge latinoamericano reciente tiene su origen en la coincidencia de una bonanza de precios de materias primas (más de productos mineros que agrícolas con condiciones de financiamiento externo excepcionales. Se ha reflejado en una reducción del endeudamiento externo y una acumulación de reservas internacionales, pero no en austeridad fiscal, y ha reforzado la especialización tradicional de la región en exportaciones basadas en recursos naturales. Junto con el menor crecimiento de la oferta laboral, ha facilitado el aumento de la tasa de ocupación y la difusión de los beneficios del auge a un conjunto más amplio de la población, pero no ha logrado revertir el deterioro acumulado en la calidad de los puestos de trabajo.This paper argues that the recent Latin American boom is the joint effect of the commodity price boom (primarily of mineral rather than agricultural goods and exceptional external financial conditions. It has been reflected in a reduction in foreign indebtedness and increased international reserves, but not in fiscal austerity, and has reinforced the traditional specialization of the region in natural resource-based exports. Together with a slower growth of the workforce, it has generated a rapid increase in the employment rate and the diffusion of the benefits of the boom to a broader segment of the population, but it has not reversed the accumulated deterioration in job quality.

  2. Sonic Booms on Big Structures (SonicBOBS) Phase I Database; NASA Dryden Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Arnac, Sarah Renee

    2010-01-01

    This DVD contains 13 channels of microphone and up to 22 channels of pressure transducer data collected in September, 2009 around several buildings located at Edwards Air Force Base. These data were recorded by NASA Dryden. Not included are data taken by NASA Langley and Gulfstream. Each day's data is in a separate folder and each pass is in a file beginning with "SonicBOBS_" (for microphone data) or "SonicBOBSBB_" (for BADS and BASS data) followed by the month, day, year as two digits each, followed by the hour, minute, sec after midnight GMT. The filename time given is for the END time of the raw recording file. In the case of the microphone data, this time may be several minutes after the sonic boom, and is according to the PC's uncalibrated clock. The Matlab data files have the actual time as provided by a GPS-based IRIG-B signal recorded concurrently with the data. Microphone data is given for 5 seconds prior to 20 seconds after the sonic boom. BADS and BASS data is given for the full recording, 6 seconds for the BADS and 10 seconds for the BASS. As an example of the naming convention, file "SonicBOBS_091209154618.mat" is from September 12, 2009 at 15:46:18 GMT. Note that data taken on September 12, 2009 prior to 01:00:00 GMT was of the Space Shuttle Discovery (a sonic boom of opportunity), which was on September 11, 2009 in local Pacific Daylight Time.

  3. Care of children with anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1981-09-01

    The clinical features of 290 children with anterior uveitis are presented. The vast majority suffered from chronic uveitis. Specific uveitis entities in children include the syndrome of 'chronic iridocyclitis' in girls, heterochromic cyclitis, and pars planitis. Systemic associations include sarcoidosis, the Vogt-Harada-Koyanagi syndrome, and the seronegative arthritides (juvenile chronic arthritis, juvenile ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, and rarely Reiter's and Beçet's syndromes). Children with a pauciarticular onset of juvenile chronic arthritis, especially when combined with positive findings for antinuclear antibody, are at particular risk of developing chronic anterior uveitis. Most cases of chronic anterior uveitis can be controlled with topical corticosteroids. Those that are resistant to both topical and systemic corticosteroids may have to be treated with chlorambucil. The operation of lensectomy is a great advance in the management of complicated cataract. Secondary glaucoma is the most devastating complication of chronic anterior uveitis in children and responds poorly to therapy.

  4. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan); M.T. Poldervaart (Michelle T.); R.L. Diercks (Ron L.); A.W.F.M. Fievez (Alex W.F.M.); T.W. Patt (Thomas W.); C.P. van der Hart (Cor P.); E.R. Hammacher (Eric); F. van der Meer (Fred); E.A. Goedhart (Edwin A.); A.F. Lenssen (Anton F); S.B. Muller-Ploeger (Sabrina B); M.A. Pols (Margreet); D.B.F. Saris (Daniel)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulate

  5. Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion with Plating Broward Health Medical Center Fort Lauderdale, FL November 17, 2011 I'm Dr. Matthew Moore, head of the Spine Care Center here at North Broward Medical Center. And ...

  6. Análise da freqüência mediana do sinal eletromiográfico de indivíduos com lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior em exercícios isométricos de cadeia cinética aberta e fechada Análisis de la frecuencia media de la señal eletromiográfica de individuos con lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior en ejercicios isométricos de cadena cinética abierta cerrada Analysis of the medium frequency of the electromyographic signal of individuals with lesion of the anterior cruciate ligament in isometric exercises of open and closed kinetic chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Maciel Pizzato

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Indivíduos com lesão do ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA possuem importantes alterações funcionais na musculatura periarticular do joelho. Sendo assim, é de suma importância caracterizar tais alterações, bem como enfatizar um efetivo protocolo de reabilitação para esses indivíduos, com conseqüente retorno às atividades físicas. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o comportamento da freqüência mediana (Fmed em indivíduos com lesão do LCA durante contrações isométricas em exercícios de cadeia cinética aberta (CCA e fechada (CCF. Entre lesados e não lesados, 40 indivíduos realizaram a extensão do joelho através da contração isométrica voluntária máxima (CIVM nos aparelhos leg extension e leg press a 30°, 60° e 90° de flexão do joelho. Os resultados revelaram valores da Fmed menores para indivíduos com lesão do LCA quando comparados com o membro contralateral e grupo controle em CCA (p 0,05 na comparação entre os grupos, não evidenciando esse tipo de lesão. Portanto, a Fmed parece ser uma ferramenta eletromiográfica eficaz na caracterização da lesão crônica do LCA. Além disso, exercícios em CCF parecem ser os mais indicados para a reabilitação desses indivíduos.Individuos con lesión del ligamento cruzado anterior (LCA poseen importantes alteraciones funcionales en la musculatura periarticular de la rodilla. Siendo así, es de suma importancia caracterizar tales alteraciones, así como enfatizar un efectivo protocolo de rehabilitación para estos individuos para que puedan retornar a las actividades físicas. El objetivo de este estudio ha sido el de analizar el comportamiento de la frecuencia mediana (Fmed en individuos con lesión de LCA durante contracciones isométricas en ejercicios de cadena cinética abierta (CCA y cerrada (CCC. 40 individuos, entre lesionados y no lesionados, realizaron extensión de la rodilla a través de contracción isométrica voluntaria máxima (CIVM en los aparatos

  7. Couples' Labour Supply Responses to Job Loss: Boom and Recession Compared

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Mark L.; Longhi, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    We examine how couples' labour supply behaviour in the UK responds to a job loss by one partner, using the Labour Force Survey to compare the period of growth of 1995-2007 to the Great Recession and its aftermath of 2008-11. In single earner couples during the recession, both men and women substantially increased their job search activity following a partner's job loss, while the increase in search during the boom was smaller (and non-existent for men). However, the increase in job search dur...

  8. Couples’ labour supply responses to job loss: boom and recession compared

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan, Mark L.; Longhi, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    We examine how couples’ labour supply behaviour in the UK responds to a job loss by one partner, using the Labour Force Survey to compare the period of growth of 1995-2007 to the Great Recession and its aftermath of 2008-11. In single earner couples during the recession, both men and women substantially increased their job search activity following a partner’s job loss, while the increase in search during the boom was smaller (and non-existent for men). However, the increase in job search...

  9. Development of the Large Aperture Reflector/Boom Assembly for the SMAP Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobrem, Mehran; Keay, Edward; Marks, Geoff; Slimko, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Soil Moisture Active/Passive (SMAP) mission is to measure and monitor global soil moisture dynamics and freeze/thaw states. The rotating Reflector and Boom Assembly (RBA) on SMAP presents significant design and development challenges. The payload configuration utilizes a common Radiometer and Radar feedhorn and a 6-meter deployable mesh reflector all spinning at 14.6 rpm. The evolution of the RBA system solution, development of the mass properties management approach and RBA dynamics are discussed.

  10. The electrochemistry of carbon steel in simulated concrete pore water in boom clay repository environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas-Camacho O.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of corrosion damage of canisters to experimentally inaccessible times is vitally important in assessing various concepts for the disposal of High Level Nuclear Waste. Such prediction can only be made using deterministic models, whose predictions are constrained by the time-invariant natural laws. In this paper, we describe the measurement of experimental electrochemical data that will allow the prediction of damage to the carbon steel overpack of the super container in Belgium’s proposed Boom Clay repository by using the Point Defect Model (PDM. PDM parameter values are obtained by optimizing the model on experimental, wide-band electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data.

  11. The Gold Boom in Madre de Dios: continuity of the extractive-market economy

    OpenAIRE

    De La Torre, José Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Since 1973 there have been changes at all levels in the Madre de Dios region, as a consequence of the intense working of gold that has been initialized. This gold boom means an awakening of a new merchand-extractive economy, which has been present in the region since the rubber era, but with some intermittences. These days the gold mining is the principal economic activity in the region, but its growth has affected other activities, mainly agriculture, which has a negative effect over the reg...

  12. Advection of an alkaline fluid through boom clay cores: geochemical modelling of experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the ECOCLAY II project, with the financial support of NIRAS-ONDRAF and the European Commission, SCK-CEN has carried out experiments on the percolation of alkaline cement waters through Boom Clay cores. The effluent from these percolation experiments has been analysed as a function of time to provide information about the fluid-rock interactions occurring in the samples. However, the changes in the effluent composition with time are quite complex and require interpretation if insight is to be gained into the mechanisms of the interactions occurring in the samples between the invading alkaline fluid and the Boom Clay. Two cementitious waters were used in the experiments: a high pH (∼ 13,5) young cement water (YCW ) representing the initial eluate from a cement, and a lower pH (∼ 12) evolved cement water (ECW) representing the fluids that would emerge from the cements after long times. These fluids were passed through Boom Clay cores over several years and the composition of the effluent fluid monitored. The primary purpose of the modelling work was to provide an explanation of the processes controlling the interactions between the alkaline fluids and the Boom Clay. Four mechanisms were considered: the maintenance of the dissolution-precipitation thermodynamic equilibrium between the minerals and the pore fluids, ion exchange, kinetically controlled dissolution of primary minerals, and the functional group capacity of organic matter as a function of pH. The modelling was carried out using three essentially independent geochemical modelling packages: PHREEQC [Parkhurst and Apello, 1999] (Serco Assurance), PRECIP [Noy, 1990] (British Geological Survey) and CRUNCH [Steefel, 2001] (SCK-CEN). However, the general approach was similar in the three cases. Overall, this work has shown that it is possible to model the experiments to reproduce the main features seen on the correct time scales using simple models of plausible mechanisms. Similar conclusions have

  13. Assessing the spatial continuity of low permeability media for deep waste disposal: the Boom Clay case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Boom Clay is currently investigated as potential host formation for the deep disposal of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. Deep disposal safety relies on multiple barriers: the 'super-container' containing the vitrified waste, the repository itself and the host formation in which the disposal could be constructed. The latter is the most important as it is the one that has to slow the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere for a sufficiently long time when the man-made barriers are no longer effective. So it is the site's geology that must ensure that the long-term radiological impact of the waste in the repository stays below the nationally and internationally allowable limits and is therefore significantly lower than natural radioactivity. The Boom Clay is a marine Oligocene clay of approximately 100 m thick deposited in the North Sea basin. It is known in Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium as a continuous layer gently dipping (∼1 deg.) towards the north-north-east but also gaining thickness in this direction. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Boom Clay is its structure of bands that are several tens of centimeters thick, reflecting mainly cyclical variations in grain size (silt and clay content). The Boom Clay aquitard requires to be precisely characterized in terms of hydrogeological parameters, to confirm its role of geological barrier between its surrounding aquifers. Therefore, hydraulic conductivity and diffusion parameters have been intensively measured at only a few boreholes in Belgium, mainly located in the Mol-Dessel area, assuming a good lateral continuity of the geology. Combining these measurements with more densely acquired geophysical information allows quantifying their spatial variability and consolidating the continuity assumption. From a methodological point of view, the 3D modeling of hydrogeological parameters requires to solve several issues. First, it is required to find a

  14. Radionuclide transport in the Neogene aquifer system located in the environment of the Boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). In the frame of the performance assessments of a disposal system located in the Boom Clay Formation, the transport of radionuclides diffusing through the clay barrier into the aquifers located above is modelled. The transport model for the Neogene aquifer is based on a series of groundwater flow models simulating the aquifer systems in the surroundings of the Boom Clay. This series of groundwater models include the regional north-eastern Belgium model simulating flow both above and below the Boom Clay, the recently updated deep-aquifer pumping model, simulating transient flow in the over-exploited aquifers below the Boom Clay and finally the catchment-scale Neogene aquifer model, simulating flow in the aquifer system above the Boom Clay. The Neogene aquifer system consists of two main aquifers. The Pliocene aquifer is located at the top, separated from the underlying Miocene aquifer by the Kasterlee Clay aquitard. The Miocene aquifer consists of three hydrostratigraphic units: the Diest, Berchem and Voort Formations; with the last two having a lower hydraulic conductivity than the Diest unit. The transport model for the Neogene aquifer represents a fraction of the catchment-scale Neogene aquifer model. It stretches from the local divide between the Grote and Kleine Nete Rivers up to the Kleine Nete River, representing the main model sink. The boundary conditions and the sources/sinks in the Pliocene aquifer are defined mostly by the surface water features, such as the rivers, brooks, lakes and canals. In the partially confined Miocene aquifer, the effect of the surface water features is dampened and the heads at the model

  15. Bank Recycling of Petro Dollars to Emerging Market Economies During the Current Oil Price Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Wiegand

    2008-01-01

    High oil prices have once again led to large external surpluses of oil exporting countries, similar to the 1970s and 1980s. This paper analyzes the extent to which (i) oil exporters use bank deposits to invest these surpluses, and (ii) banks are lending on these funds to emerging market economies. Bank recycling of petro dollars to emerging market economies is found to be almost as important as in the 1970s and 1980s, even though during the current boom, petro dollar bank flows tend to origin...

  16. Numerical investigation of the seismic detectability of carbonate thin beds in the Boom Clay formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcione, José M.; Gei, Davide

    2016-07-01

    The present study evaluates the capacity of the Boom Clay as a host rock for disposal purposes, more precisely its seismic characterization, which may assess its long-term performance to store radioactive wastes. Although the formation is relatively uniform and homogeneous, there are embedded thin layers of septaria (carbonates) that may affect the integrity of the Boom Clay. Therefore, it is essential to locate these geobodies. The seismic data to characterize the Boom Clay has been acquired at the Kruibeke test site. The inversion, which allowed us to obtain the anisotropy parameters and seismic velocities of the clay, is complemented with further information such as log and laboratory data. The attenuation properties have been estimated from equivalent formations (having similar composition and seismic velocities). The inversion yields quite consistent results although the symmetry of the medium is unusual but physically possible, since the anisotropy parameter ɛ is negative. According to a time-domain calculation of the energy velocity at four frequency bands up to 900 Hz, velocity increases with frequency, a behaviour described by the Zener model. Then, we use this model to describe anisotropy and anelasticity that are implemented into the equation of motion to compute synthetic seismograms in the space-time domain. The technique is based on memory variables and the Fourier pseudospectral method. We have computed reflection coefficients of the septaria thin layer. At normal incidence, the P-wave coefficient vanishes at specific thicknesses of the layer and there is no conversion to the S wave. For example, calculations at 600 Hz show that for thicknesses of 1 m the septarium can be detected more easily since the amplitudes are higher (nearly 0.8). Converted PS waves have a high amplitude at large offsets (between 30° and 80°) and can be useful to identify the target on this basis. Moreover, we have investigated the effect of septaria embedded in the Boom

  17. A solid-state converter for measurement of aircraft noise and sonic boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.; Shope, W. W.

    1974-01-01

    A solid-state converter, used in a system of instrumentation for measuring aircraft noise and sonic boom, features a dual-gate FET mixer and an output stage designed for compatibility with a zero drive amplifier. With a half-inch condenser microphone the converter itself has an operating frequency range from dc-28 kHz (-3 dB), a dynamic range of 72 dB, and a noise floor of 50 dB in the band from 22.4 Hz to 22.4 kHz; the system requires no impedance matching networks and is insensitive to cable length up to at least 3000 ft.

  18. Assessing the spatial continuity of low permeability media for deep waste disposal: the Boom Clay case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannee, N. [GEOVARIANCES, 49bis Av. Franklin Roosevelt, BP91, Avon, 77212 (France); Berckmans, A.; Wouters, L. [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Deraisme, J. [GEOVARIANCES (France); Chiles, J.P. [Ecole des Mines de Paris (France)

    2009-06-15

    The Boom Clay is currently investigated as potential host formation for the deep disposal of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. Deep disposal safety relies on multiple barriers: the 'super-container' containing the vitrified waste, the repository itself and the host formation in which the disposal could be constructed. The latter is the most important as it is the one that has to slow the migration of radionuclides towards the biosphere for a sufficiently long time when the man-made barriers are no longer effective. So it is the site's geology that must ensure that the long-term radiological impact of the waste in the repository stays below the nationally and internationally allowable limits and is therefore significantly lower than natural radioactivity. The Boom Clay is a marine Oligocene clay of approximately 100 m thick deposited in the North Sea basin. It is known in Germany, The Netherlands and Belgium as a continuous layer gently dipping ({approx}1 deg.) towards the north-north-east but also gaining thickness in this direction. One of the most remarkable characteristics of the Boom Clay is its structure of bands that are several tens of centimeters thick, reflecting mainly cyclical variations in grain size (silt and clay content). The Boom Clay aquitard requires to be precisely characterized in terms of hydrogeological parameters, to confirm its role of geological barrier between its surrounding aquifers. Therefore, hydraulic conductivity and diffusion parameters have been intensively measured at only a few boreholes in Belgium, mainly located in the Mol-Dessel area, assuming a good lateral continuity of the geology. Combining these measurements with more densely acquired geophysical information allows quantifying their spatial variability and consolidating the continuity assumption. From a methodological point of view, the 3D modeling of hydrogeological parameters requires to solve several issues. First, it is required

  19. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterior uveitis. PMID:22694887

  20. Anterior Eye Imaging with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong

    The development of corneal and anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) technology has advanced rapidly in recently years. The scan geometry and imaging wavelength are both important choices to make in designing anterior segment OCT systems. Rectangular scan geometry offers the least image distortion and is now used in most anterior OCT systems. The wavelength of OCT light source affects resolution and penetration. An optimal choice of the OCT imaging wavelength (840, 1,050, or 1,310 nm) depends on the application of interest. Newer generation Fourier-domain OCT technology can provide scan speed 100-1000 times faster than the time-domain technology. Various commercial anterior OCT systems are available on the market. A wide spectrum of diagnostic and surgical applications using anterior segment OCT had been investigated, including mapping of corneal and epithelial thicknesses, keratoconus screening, measuring corneal refractive power, corneal surgery planning and evaluation in LASIK, intracorneal ring implantation, assessment of angle closure glaucoma, anterior chamber biometry and intraocular lens implants, intraocular lens power calculation, and eye bank donor cornea screening.

  1. ALS - resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources - ALS ... The following organizations are good resources for information on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis : Muscular Dystrophy Association -- mda.org/disease/amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis National Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Registry -- ...

  2. Focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Victor V

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, the effects of focusing of Rayleigh waves generated by high speed trains in the supporting ground under the condition of ground vibration boom are considered theoretically. These effects are similar to the effects of focusing of sound waves radiated by aircraft under the condition of sonic boom. In particular, if a railway track has a bend to provide the possibility of changing direction of train movement, the Rayleigh surface waves generated by high-speed trains under the condition of ground vibration boom may become focused. This results in concentration of their energy along a simple caustic line at one side of the track and in the corresponding increase in ground vibration amplitudes. The effect of focusing of Rayleigh waves may occur also if a train moves along a straight line with acceleration and its current speed is higher than Rayleigh wave velocity in the ground. The obtained results are illustrated by numerical calculations.

  3. The A/SUB/2Rs-B 7200. 95 boom spreader - newly developed equipment from Koethen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, H.J.

    1984-04-01

    This paper explains design and performance of this TAKRAF boom spreader for overburden removal in brown coal surface mines. The spreader was developed for medium sized surface mines; its design is a further improvement of the A/SUB/2Rs-B 6300.95 boom spreader, employed in various surface mines in Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania. The new spreader has a spoil removal capacity of 90,000 m/SUP/3/d, a mass of 1,550 tons, spreading boom length of 95 m and a 1,800 m wide conveyor belt system. Two men operate the equipment. The first new spreader has been assembled and is ready for continuous operation in the Drmno brown coal surface mine in Yugoslavia for block working in a width of 80 m, spoil bank height of 25 m and a spreading volume of 2,000 m/SUP/3/m. Further design details and specifications are provided. (In German)

  4. Exhaust Plume Effects on Sonic Boom for a Delta Wing and a Swept Wing-Body Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Lake, Troy

    2012-01-01

    Supersonic travel is not allowed over populated areas due to the disturbance caused by the sonic boom. Research has been performed on sonic boom reduction and has included the contribution of the exhaust nozzle plume. Plume effect on sonic boom has progressed from the study of isolated nozzles to a study with four exhaust plumes integrated with a wing-body vehicle. This report provides a baseline analysis of the generic wing-body vehicle to demonstrate the effect of the nozzle exhaust on the near-field pressure profile. Reductions occurred in the peak-to-peak magnitude of the pressure profile for a swept wing-body vehicle. The exhaust plumes also had a favorable effect as the nozzles were moved outward along the wing-span.

  5. The effect of gamma radiation on the dissolution of high-level waste glass in boom clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of γ-radiation on the dissolution of candidate high-level waste glasses was investigated in potential disposal environments at 90 deg C. The media consisted of mixtures of Boom Clay, bentonite clay and cement with clay water. During the experiments the pH of Boom Clay decreased, probably mainly by radiolytical oxidation of pyrite. The addition of bentonite, cement and glass buffered the pH decrease. Under radiation the glass mass losses decreased, whereas the leach rate of soluble elements was not influenced or appeared to increase. This is explained through the radiolytical acidification, and possibly by bubble formation in the glass. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  6. A critical review of laboratory and in-situ hydraulic conductivity measurements for the Boom Clay in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Li; Rogiers, Bart; Gedeon, Matej; Marivoet, Jan; De Craen, Mieke; Mallants, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    The Boom Clay has been investigated for more than 30 years as a candidate host formation for the disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium. The very low hydraulic conductivity (on the order of 10− 12 m/s) in combination with limited hydraulic gradients over the host formation (0.02–0.04) results in water flow in the Boom Formation being negligible and diffusion the dominant transport mechanism. The assessment of the long-term barrier function of the host clay formatio...

  7. Exhaust Nozzle Plume Effects on Sonic Boom Test Results for Isolated Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond S.

    2011-01-01

    Reducing or eliminating the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions were due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed off the aircraft. Recent work has been performed to reduce the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Previous Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis showed how the shock wave formed at the nozzle lip interacts with the nozzle boat-tail expansion wave. An experiment was conducted in the 1- by 1-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel at the NASA Glenn Research Center to validate the computational study. Results demonstrated how the nozzle lip shock moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio (NPR) and reduced the nozzle boat-tail expansion, causing a favorable change in the observed pressure signature. Experimental results were presented for comparison to the CFD results. The strong nozzle lip shock at high values of NPR intersected the nozzle boat-tail expansion and suppressed the expansion wave. Based on these results, it may be feasible to reduce the boat-tail expansion for a future supersonic aircraft with under-expanded nozzle exhaust flow by modifying nozzle pressure or nozzle divergent section geometry.

  8. Efficient sweet pepper transformation mediated by the BABY BOOM transcription factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidmann, Iris; de Lange, Brenda; Lambalk, Joep; Angenent, Gerco C; Boutilier, Kim

    2011-06-01

    Pepper (Capsicum L.) is a nutritionally and economically important crop that is cultivated throughout the world as a vegetable, condiment, and food additive. Genetic transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens (agrobacterium) is a powerful biotechnology tool that could be used in pepper to develop community-based functional genomics resources and to introduce important agronomic traits. However, pepper is considered to be highly recalcitrant for agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and current transformation protocols are either inefficient, cumbersome or highly genotype dependent. The main bottleneck in pepper transformation is the inability to generate cells that are competent for both regeneration and transformation. Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Brassica napus BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor overcomes this bottleneck and can be used to efficiently regenerate transgenic plants from otherwise recalcitrant sweet pepper (C. annuum) varieties. Transient activation of BABY BOOM in the progeny plants induced prolific cell regeneration and was used to produce a large number of somatic embryos that could be converted readily to seedlings. The data highlight the utility of combining biotechnology and classical plant tissue culture approaches to develop an efficient transformation and regeneration system for a highly recalcitrant vegetable crop. PMID:21305301

  9. Air-assisted boom sprayer and spray deposition on bean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer Fernando Cesar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of safe pesticide application techniques with low volume rates, frequency and spray drift, along with the need to obtain better control level of crop pest control levels, justify the air-assistance in boom sprayers. The aim of this research was to evaluate the spray deposition on bean plants with different nozzles and volume rates by air-assisted and non-assisted sprayers. A completely randomized experiment was carried out using copper oxide as a tracer (50% metalic copper for deposit evaluation. The artificial targets were fixed on the upper and under-side of the leaflets, at the top and lower third of the same plants under the spray boom. After application, targets were washed individually with an extracting solution of nitric acid (1.0 mol L-1. The tracer deposition on the artificial targets was quantified by atomic absorption spectrofotometry. The effects of air-assisted spray were not significant in relation to spray deposition 48 days after emergence of the bean plants.

  10. Testing the Deployment Repeatability of a Precision Deployable Boom Prototype for the Proposed SWOT Karin Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnes, Gregory S.; Waldman, Jeff; Hughes, Richard; Peterson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's proposed Surface Water Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled to launch in 2020, would provide critical information about Earth's oceans, ocean circulation, fresh water storage, and river discharge. The mission concept calls for a dual-antenna Ka-band radar interferometer instrument, known as KaRIn, that would map the height of water globally along two 50 km wide swaths. The KaRIn antennas, which would be separated by 10 meters on either side of the spacecraft, would need to be precisely deployable in order to meet demanding pointing requirements. Consequently, an effort was undertaken to design build and prototype a precision deployable Mast for the KaRIn instrument. Each mast was 4.5-m long with a required dilitation stability of 2.5 microns over 3 minutes. It required a minimum first mode of 7 Hz. Deployment repeatability was less than +/- 7 arcsec in all three rotation directions. Overall mass could not exceed 41.5 Kg including any actuators and thermal blanketing. This set of requirements meant the boom had to be three times lighter and two orders of magnitude more precise than the existing state of the art for deployable booms.

  11. Wind Tunnel Model Design for Sonic Boom Studies of Nozzle Jet Flows with Shock Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Susan E.; Denison, Marie; Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Morr, Donald E.; Durston, Donald A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are performing studies of supersonic aircraft concepts with low sonic boom pressure signatures. The computational analyses of modern aircraft designs have matured to the point where there is confidence in the prediction of the pressure signature from the front of the vehicle, but uncertainty remains in the aft signatures due to boundary layer and nozzle exhaust jet effects. Wind tunnel testing without inlet and nozzle exhaust jet effects at lower Reynolds numbers than in-flight make it difficult to accurately assess the computational solutions of flight vehicles. A wind tunnel test in the NASA Ames 9- by 7-Foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel is planned for February 2016 to address the nozzle jet effects on sonic boom. The experiment will provide pressure signatures of test articles that replicate waveforms from aircraft wings, tails, and aft fuselage (deck) components after passing through cold nozzle jet plumes. The data will provide a variety of nozzle plume and shock interactions for comparison with computational results. A large number of high-fidelity numerical simulations of a variety of shock generators were evaluated to define a reduced collection of suitable test models. The computational results of the candidate wind tunnel test models as they evolved are summarized, and pre-test computations of the final designs are provided.

  12. Shocks and sonic booms in the intracluster medium X-ray shells and radio galaxy activity

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, C S; Begelman, M C

    2001-01-01

    Motivated by hydrodynamic simulations, we discuss the X-ray appearance of radio galaxies embedded in the intracluster medium (ICM) of a galaxy cluster. We distinguish three regimes. In the early life of a powerful source, the entire radio cocoon is expanding supersonically and hence drives a strong shock into the ICM. Eventually, the sides of the cocoon become subsonic and the ICM is disturbed by the sonic booms of the jet's working surface. In both of these regimes, X-ray observations would find an X-ray shell. In the strong shock regime, this shell will be hot and relatively thin. However, in the weak shock (sonic-boom) regime, the shell will be approximately the same temperature as the undisturbed ICM. If a cooling flow is present, the observed shell may even be cooler than the undisturbed ICM due to the lifting of cooler material into the shell from the inner (cooler) regions of the cluster. In the third and final regime, the cocoon has collapsed and no well-defined X-ray shell will be seen. We discuss wa...

  13. Popular Demobilization, Agribusiness Mobilization, and the Agrarian Boom in Post-Neoliberal Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Lapegna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on ethnographic research, archival data, and a catalog of protest events, this article analyzes the relationship between popular social movements, business mobilization, and institutional politics in Argentina during the post-neoliberal phase, which arguably began circa 2003. How did waves of popular mobilization in the 1990s shape business mobilization in the 2000s? How did contentious politics influence institutional politics in the post-neoliberal period? What are the changes and continuities of the agrarian boom that cut across the neoliberal and post-neoliberal periods? While I zoom in on Argentina, the article goes beyond this case by contributing to three discussions. First, rather than limiting the analysis to the customary focus on the mobilization of subordinated actors, it examines the demobilization of popular social movements, the mobilization of business sectors, and the connections between the two. Second, it shows the ways in which the state can simultaneously challenge neoliberal principles while also favoring the global corporations that dominate the contemporary neoliberal food regime. Finally, the case of Argentina sheds light on the political economy of the "Left turn" in Latin America, particularly the negative socio-environmental impacts of commodity booms. The article concludes that researchers need to pay closer attention to the connections between contentious and institutional politics, and to the protean possibilities of neoliberalism to inspire collective actions.

  14. Regional modelling of the confined aquifers below the Boom clay in NE-Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the framework of the Belgian research program on the long term management of high-level and/or long-lived radioactive waste coordinated by ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Boom Clay is considered as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste in NE-Belgium (Campine area). The hydrogeological program at SCK.CEN supports the long-term performance assessments of the geological disposal of radioactive waste by performing a phenomenological research of the aquifer systems surrounding the studied disposal system. One of the important components of this programme is the regional hydrogeological modelling. The regional hydrogeology is studied using two main models - the steady state Neogene aquifer model (NAM) and the transient deep aquifer pumping model (DAP), developed to characterize and quantify the regional groundwater flow in, respectively, the aquifers lying above the Boom Clay in the Nete catchment area (NAM), and the aquifers lying below the Boom Clay in the Campine area (DAP). This paper describes the most recent update of the DAP model. The DAP model represents the confined part of the groundwater system located stratigraphically below the Boom Clay. This includes the parts of the Oligocene aquifer, the Bartoon aquitard system and the Ledo-Paniselian-Brusselian aquifer buried under the Boom Clay. Due to the considerable pumping from these aquifers in combination with a limited recharge, a gradual decrease in groundwater levels has been observed in more than 30-year piezometric records. In the DAP model, the shallow aquifer system overlying the Boom Clay is replaced by fixed head boundaries: this aquifer system is dominated by close-to-surface hydrological processes and the heads fluctuate seasonally without any apparent long-term trend. In the horizontal direction, the model extends to the south as far as the outcrops of the major aquitards: the Maldegem Formation confining the Ledo

  15. Modelling transport of 14C-labelled Natural Organic Matter (NOM) in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom Clay formation is considered to be the reference formation for HLW disposal R and D. Assessments to date have shown that the host clay layer is a very efficient barrier for the containment of the disposed radionuclides. Due to absence of significant water movement), diffusion - the dominant transport mechanism, combined with generally high retardation of radionuclides, leads to extremely slow radionuclide migration. However, trivalent lanthanides and actinides form easily complexes with the fulvic and humic acids which occur in Boom Clay and in its interstitial water. Colloidal transport may possibly result in enhanced radionuclide mobility, therefore the mechanisms of colloidal transport must be better understood. Numerical modeling of colloidal facilitated radionuclide transport is regarded an important means for evaluating its importance for long-term safety. The paper presents results from modeling experimental data obtained in the framework of the EC TRANCOM-II project, and addresses the migration behavior of relevant radionuclides in a reducing clay environment, with special emphasis on the role of the Natural Organic Matter (NOM)[1]. Percolation type experiments, using stable 14C-labelled NOM, have been interpreted by means of the numerical code HYDRUS-1D[2]. Tracer solution collected at regular intervals was used for inverse modeling with the HYDRUS-1D numerical code to identify the most likely migration processes and the associated parameters. Typical colloid transport submodels tested included kinetically controlled attachment/detachment and kinetically controlled straining and liberation. (authors)

  16. Studying the migration behaviour of radionuclides in boom clay by electromigration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migration studies are an important part in the assessment of the performance of the Boom Clay Formation as a candidate for geological disposal of High-Level radwaste in Belgium. However, classical diffusion experiments take a long time because of the excellent retention characteristics of the Boom Clay. Electrical fields can be used to move ionic species. Especially for low permeability soils/sediments (such as clays), this driving force is far more efficient than a hydraulic gradient. As a consequence, the experimental time can be reduced drastically. This paper gives an overview on the quantitative and qualitative use of electromigration as a powerful technique to study radionuclides migration in clays. The enormous time gain in the determination of migration parameters for strongly retarded radionuclides as 137Cs+ and 226Ra2+ is first demonstrated. Secondly, we want to demonstrate that electromigration has some useful features to study the behaviour of radionuclides with a more complex chemistry like the redox sensitive element uranium and Am-Organic Matter (OM) complexes. In the case of uranium, electromigration provides information on the speciation of the migrating species while for the Am-organic Matter complexes the role of OM as a possible carrier of actinides is investigated. (orig.)

  17. Geotechnical characterization of boom clay in relation to the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a laboratory study on the geotechnical properties of the Tertiary Boom clay. Tests were performed on 'undisturbed' samples of clay taken from a location 247 m below surface at the SCK/CEN experimental site at Mol in Belgium. In geotechnical terms, the Boom clay (at depth) may be described as a hard, high-plasticity, overconsolidated clay. Test methods have included (a) the one-dimensional consolidation test with consolidation stresses up to 32 MPa, (b) the one dimensional swelling pressure test, (c) the isotropically-consolidated, undrained (CIU) triaxial test with pore pressure measurement, and (d) the unconsolidated undrained (UU) triaxial test. All triaxial tests were load-controlled. Limited test results are presented on pore pressure responses during heating under undrained conditions and on the effect of elevated temperature (80OC) on deformability and strength. It is found that significantly large excess pore pressures (circa 1 MPa under in situ stress conditions) may be developed during heating from ambient laboratory temperature to 80OC. The effect is due, at least in part, to the expansion of the pore fluid

  18. In situ burning via towed boom of oil spilled at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, operational guidance for the efficient use of combustion in the cleanup of a surface oil film, formed as a result of a spill at sea, is sought by approximate analysis. In remediation by burning, the spilled oil itself provides the energy for its cleanup. Attention is focused on situations holding relatively far from the source of the spill and/or relatively long after the spill: the oil is taken to have so dispersed that the thickness of the film is on the order of a few millimeters. Under such conditions, the oil film is unlikely to burn without the use of multiple towed booms, each boom spreading its already-ignited, localized fire to continuously collected, previously unignited portions of the oil film. A simple, quasisteady, two-dimensional analysis suggests efficient values for the tow speed and the tow--line length as functions of such parameters as the oil density, oil-film thickness, oil burn/evaporation rate, etc. The analysis leads to specific suggestions for apparently unreported laboratory experiments that may be informative prior to at-sea operation

  19. A unified approach to an augmented Burgers equation for the propagation of sonic booms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masafumi; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Aoyama, Takashi; Sakai, Takeharu

    2015-04-01

    Nonlinear propagation through a relaxing atmosphere of pressure disturbances extracted from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow around a supersonic aircraft is simulated using an augmented Burgers equation. The effects of nonlinearity, geometrical spreading, atmospheric inhomogeneity, thermoviscous attenuation, and molecular vibration relaxation are taken into account. The augmented Burgers equation used for sonic boom propagation calculations is often solved by the operator splitting method, but numerical difficulties arise with this approach when dissipation is not effective. By re-examining the solution algorithms for the augmented Burgers equation, a stable method for handling the relaxation effect has been developed. This approach can handle the Burgers equation in a unified manner without operator splitting and, therefore, the resulting scheme is twice as fast as the original one. The approach is validated by comparing it with an analytical solution and a detailed CFD of dispersed plane wave propagation. In addition, a rise time prediction of low-boom supersonic aircraft is demonstrated. PMID:25920838

  20. Investigating the time-dependent behaviour of Boom clay under thermo-mechanical loading

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yu-Jun; Tang, Anh-Minh; Delage, Pierre; Li, Xiang-Ling; 10.1680/geot.2009.59.4.319

    2009-01-01

    Among the various laboratory studies to investigate the Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical (THM) behaviour of Boom clay, relatively few were devoted to the time dependent behaviour, limiting any relevant analysis of the long-term behaviour of the disposal facility. The present work aims at investigating the time-dependent behaviour of Boom clay under both thermal and mechanical loading. High-pressure triaxial tests at controlled temperatures were carried out for this purpose. The tests started with constant-rate thermal and/or mechanical consolidation and ended with isobar heating and/or isothermal compression at a constant stress rate or by step loading. Significant effects of temperature as well as of compression and heating rates were observed on the volume change behaviour. After being loaded to a stress lower than the pre-consolidation pressure (5 MPa) at a low temperature of 25\\degree C and at a rate lower than 0.2 kPa/min, the sample volume changes seemed to be quite small, suggesting a full dissipation of pore w...

  1. A/sub 2/Rs-B 15400. 120 boom stacker - high capacity equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H.

    1982-05-01

    This article presents specifications and technical details of the largest boom stacker built by TAKRAF for spoil bank build-up in brown coal surface mines. The technical specifications include: 260,000 m/sup 3/d overburden conveying capacity, length of stacking boom up to 195 m, driving speed 9 m/min, equipment weight 3,800 t, conveyor belt speed 6.7 m/s, conveyor belt width 2.5 m. Details are given on the design of the undercarriage and the crawler tracks; 2 versions with either 6 or 12 crawler chains are available. The upper structure is capable of slewing 220 degrees, features of its design are given. The conveyor system consists of 3 belt conveyors, 2 with a driving force of 1,500 kW, the third belt is driven by 2x630 kW. Facilities for operating personnel and auxiliary equipment for machine cleaning, maintenance and repair are also described. (In German)

  2. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  3. Output-Adaptive Tetrahedral Cut-Cell Validation for Sonic Boom Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.

    2008-01-01

    A cut-cell approach to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that utilizes the median dual of a tetrahedral background grid is described. The discrete adjoint is also calculated, which permits adaptation based on improving the calculation of a specified output (off-body pressure signature) in supersonic inviscid flow. These predicted signatures are compared to wind tunnel measurements on and off the configuration centerline 10 body lengths below the model to validate the method for sonic boom prediction. Accurate mid-field sonic boom pressure signatures are calculated with the Euler equations without the use of hybrid grid or signature propagation methods. Highly-refined, shock-aligned anisotropic grids were produced by this method from coarse isotropic grids created without prior knowledge of shock locations. A heuristic reconstruction limiter provided stable flow and adjoint solution schemes while producing similar signatures to Barth-Jespersen and Venkatakrishnan limiters. The use of cut-cells with an output-based adaptive scheme completely automated this accurate prediction capability after a triangular mesh is generated for the cut surface. This automation drastically reduces the manual intervention required by existing methods.

  4. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen, and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time. How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the ShanghaiSecuritiesJournal. Edited excerpts follow:

  5. Bond Boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Ministry of Finance recently kick-started a pilot program allowing local governments of Shanghai and Shenzhen,and Zhejiang and Guangdong provinces to issue bonds for the first time.How will the new policy affect fiscal capacities of local governments and the broader economy? What else should the country do to build a healthy bond market? Economists and experts discussed these issues in an interview with the Shanghai Securities Journal.Edited excerpts follow.

  6. Dinámicas espaciales generadas a partir de las agroexportaciones: el boom de los espárragos en Ica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Toledo Asenjo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial Dynamics Generated by Agroexports: The Asparragus Boom at IcaDifferent economic and subsistence activities respond to changes or dynamics that are formed in each context. At present, globalization appears as one of the main factors that influence on the economic activities. That is, it is undeniable that all economic activities transform their processes induced by that phenomenon as well as the distinct regions have required to get integrated to that process. In that sense, the states, procuring to get integrated to the global context have contributed to the configuration of the new commercial scenery. This implies that many societies with distinct living patterns have had to adequate to a new commercial dynamics, where exports are the principal connection to the global market. The main objective of this paper is to identify and analyze the spatial dynamics originated as result of agro exports such as the case of the asparagus’ «boom» at the Ica Valley. Moreover, there is a revision of some environmental dynamics or impacts that the process has given way in order to have a correct vision of the topic. To do this, there was a spatial review of the study area based on satellite images in identified dates, from which it was possible to see gross evidence of a spatial transformation and the appearance of new land use formsLas distintas actividades económicas y de subsistencia responden a los cambios o dinámicas que se forman en cada contexto. Actualmente, la globalización aparece como uno de los factores principales de influencia sobre las actividades económicas. Es decir, es innegable que todas las actividades económicas transforman sus procesos inducidas por ese fenómeno, en la medida que las distintas regiones han requerido integrarse al proceso. En ese sentido, los Estados, al procurar sumarse al contexto global han contribuido a la configuración del nuevo escenario comercial. Esto implica que muchas sociedades con costumbres

  7. Geo-scientific characterisation of the Boom clay in the Netherlands in light of permanent confinement of radio-active waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only, full text follows: Recently, the OPERA research program has been initiated in the Netherlands. Its central objective is to develop initial, conditional safety cases for repositories in the Boom Clay and Zechstein rock-salt formations. TNO Geological Survey of the Netherlands has been granted two projects that deal with the geo-scientific characterisation of the Tertiary Boom Clay in the Netherlands, one of which is in cooperation with Utrecht University. The set-up of these projects is presented. The Boom Clay is the clay member of the Oligocene, marine Rupel Formation. Its official Dutch geological name is Rupel Clay member. The Boom Clay lies close to the surface in the southwestern and eastern margin of the Netherlands and its top lies at about 800 m below sea level in the northwestern corner of the Dutch mainland. The thickness varies from less than 50 m to over 200 m. In the first project, TNO will determine the present geological and geohydrological characteristics and features of the Boom Clay and of the geological environment enclosing the proposed host-rock. Based on an inventory of relevant literature references, existing map data, additional well data and recent seismic interpretations, we will determine the present regional scale geometry (depth and thickness maps) and past geodynamics of the Boom Clay and its hydro-stratigraphical overburden. This modelling stage will be followed by both lithological and geohydrological characterisation of the Boom Clay and its overburden, resulting in an assessment of lithological variation, an assessment of geohydrological properties, pressure gradients and the potential of existing overpressures within the Boom Clay and within the hydro-stratigraphical units of the overburden. In the second project, TNO and UU will characterise the sediment-geochemical properties as well as the groundwater composition above and below the Boom Clay. Insight into the geochemical

  8. Response to Nieminen et al.'s Feature Article on Executive Coaching and Facilitated Multisource Feedback: Toward Better Understanding of a Growing HRD Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Toby

    2013-01-01

    Executive coaching is a booming, but understudied, HRD-related practice. Given the limited number of available studies that have been deployed with rigor and systematic methods, the study by Nieminen et al. adds to our understanding of the impact of executive coaching and multisource feedback on leadership development. Explored in the context of a…

  9. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  10. Síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Filipe de Albuquerque Alves

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome tóxica do segmento anterior (STSA é uma severa reação inflamatória aguda causada por agente não infeccioso que entra no segmento anterior, resultando em lesão celular tóxica com necrose e apoptose mediado por resposta imunológica. Neste relato de caso de STSA são enfatizadas as causas mais comuns para o aparecimento da síndrome, apontam para os cuidados que devem ser tomados no processo de esterilização do material cirúrgico além de revisar a melhor conduta diante desses casos. Em conclusão notou-se que o foco principal deve ser a prevenção, pois o tratamento busca apenas suprimir a resposta inflamatória secundária. O tratamento nos casos de STSA consiste em intensa instilação de esteróides tópicos com seguimento rigoroso e controle de complicações tardias como o glaucoma.

  11. 99technetium speciation and pathways under boom clay reducing conditions when starting form different initial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: 99Technetium (Tc) is a redox-sensitive fission product whose geochemical behaviour in Boom Clay was intensively studied during the last years [1, 2]. However, several questions remain concerning the in situ migration behaviour of Tc in reducing sediments that are rich in humic substances (HS). When adding technetium as TcVIIO4- in concentrations in the range of 10-7 - 10-4 mol/L to Boom Clay suspension batches, it was observed that the added TcVII was reduced to TcIV according to XANES data [2]. However, the thermodynamically predicted TcO2 precipitate was not formed: (1) the concentration of Tc remaining in solution after reaction with the solid phase increases with the total amount of Tc added and (2) dissolved Tc concentrations were orders of magnitude above the predicted Tc solubility. This observation could be explained and described by a hydrophobic sorption mechanism of neutral Tc species on dissolved Boom Clay HS with a constant K-value [1]. The neutral Tc species were identified as TcIV Eigen-colloids - polymeric chains of TcO(OH)2 - by EXAFS measurements [2]. Moreover, batch (ir)reversibility experiments and column migration experiments starting out from the Tc-humic substance mixed colloids showed that the interaction is to a large extent irreversible, or at least kinetically favoured, thus precluding the adsorption of TcIV on the solid phase or the precipitation of a TcO2 phase. When adding technetium as a precipitated TcO2 phase, i.e. starting from conditions of under-saturation, to systems containing Boom Clay HS, the observed geochemical behaviour is dramatically different than the pathway outlined above. If TcIV precipitates are made starting from TcVII and using H4N2 as a reductant, an amorphous solid phase which is loosely bound and consists mainly of colloidal aggregates, is observed to be formed. Its solubility in synthetic (inorganic) groundwater is generally higher than the expected theoretical solubility of

  12. Esthetic crown lengthening for maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonick, M

    1997-08-01

    In the maxillary anterior region, the gingival labial margin position is an important parameter in the achievement of an ideal smile. The relationship between the periodontium and the restoration is critical if gingival health and esthetics are to be achieved. Periodontal therapy is a necessary and useful adjunct when any anterior restoration is undertaken. Anterior surgical crown lengthening may be undertaken to avoid restorative margin impingement on the biologic width. Crown lengthening is also used to alter the gingival labial profiles. This article discusses the esthetic parameters of ideal gingival labial positions and presents a classification of crown-lengthening procedures and the procedure for a two-stage crown-lengthening technique. The two-stage crown-lengthening technique is surgically precise because healing is predictable.

  13. THYMOLIPOMA: A RARE, LARGE ANTERIOR MEDIASTINAL MASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premananth

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thymolipoma is a rare benign tumor of anterior mediastinum, described by Lange in 1916. 1 Less than 200 cases have been reported worldwide. 2 It accounts for 2% to 9% of thymic tumours. 3 We report a case of thymolipoma in a 37 year s old male patient, who pre sented with cough, dys p nea, chest pain for 2 months. CT THORAX revealed a large anterior mediastinal mass extending in to right hemithorax arising from thymus gland, with multiple areas of fat density, no significant mediastinal adenopathy, complete collap se of right middle and lower lobe suggestive of thymolipoma. CT guided biopsy suggestive of thymic neoplasm. The tumour was removed enbloc through surgery. Histopathological examination of large mass lesion confirmed thymolipoma. We report this case to emp hasize the importance of considering thymolipoma as a differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal mass, although rare.

  14. Nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis mimicking orbital inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch MC

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Chen Lynch,1 Andrew B Mick21Optometry Clinic, Ocala West Veterans Affairs Specialty Clinic, Ocala, FL, USA; 2Eye Clinic, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, CA, USABackground: Anterior scleritis is an uncommon form of ocular inflammation, often associated with coexisting autoimmune disease. With early recognition and aggressive systemic therapy, prognosis for resolution is good. The diagnosis of underlying autoimmune disease involves a multidisciplinary approach.Case report: A 42-year-old African American female presented to the Eye Clinic at the San Francisco Veteran Affairs Medical Center, with a tremendously painful left eye, worse on eye movement, with marked injection of conjunctiva. There was mild swelling of the upper eyelid. Visual acuity was unaffected, but there was a mild red cap desaturation. The posterior segment was unremarkable. The initial differential diagnoses included anterior scleritis and orbital inflammatory disease. Oral steroid treatment was initiated with rapid resolution over a few days. Orbital imaging was unremarkable, and extensive laboratory work-up was positive only for antinuclear antibodies. The patient was diagnosed with idiopathic diffuse, nonnecrotizing anterior scleritis and has been followed for over 5 years without recurrence. The rheumatology clinic monitors the patient closely, as suspicion remains for potential arthralgias including human leukocyte antigen-B27-associated arthritis, lupus-associated arthritis, seronegative rheumatoid arthritis, recurrent juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and scleroderma, based on her constitutional symptoms and clinical presentation, along with a positive anti-nuclear antibody lab result.Conclusion: Untreated anterior scleritis can progress to formation of cataracts, glaucoma, uveitis, corneal melting, and posterior segment disease with significant risk of vision loss. Patients with anterior scleritis must be aggressively treated with systemic anti

  15. [Fluctuations in relative income and the baby boom in the United States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourcier De Carbon, P

    1997-01-01

    This work argues that fluctuations in relative income of young adults in the US after World War II coincided with the dramatically increased fertility of the baby boom and were probably a significant determining factor in its occurrence and eventual interruption. The US total fertility rate declined rapidly in the early 20th century, from 3.8 in 1900 to 2.44 in 1929 and 2.24 in 1935-36. Fertility was below replacement level in 1932-39. Its spectacular recovery from the early 1940s culminated in the year 1957, with a total fertility rate of 3.77. Fertility declined rapidly again in the late 1960s and attained its low point in 1976, with a total fertility rate of 1.74. It has slowly increased since then, especially with the arrival of increasing numbers of high-fertility immigrants from Latin America beginning in the late 1980s. Although per capita gross national product in the US rose dramatically between 1929 and 1994, income distribution also changed, as did the relative income from wages and salaries of workers under 40 years old. From the end of World War II until the late 1950s, the wage and salary income of young workers increased more rapidly than did that of older workers, so that younger workers were at an advantage during the years of the baby boom. Young workers also benefited from federal programs such as Fulbright scholarships, home loan programs, and veterans benefits. Transfer payments for pensions and higher interest rates progressively improved the position of older workers, and younger workers faced a loss of relative income in the 1960s and 1970s that coincided with the end of the baby boom and that quite likely was a causative factor. With the progressive aging of the US population, the relative loss of income of younger workers will probably intensify and be joined by a relative loss of political power, as the proportion of the electorate in the prime childbearing years shrinks further.

  16. Up on the Mountain As more and more Chinese hit the slopes,a fledgling ski industry looks to boom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAITLIN; ELLEN; THOMPSON

    2004-01-01

    EVERY year in China, one million people take up skiing. China. Skiing. Although the two aren’t yet synonymous, flocks of newly converted devotees, a booming industry and even faint Olympic hopes are snowballing the sport into a cultural phenomenon.The Swiss Alps it isn’t, but the closest ski area to the capital is Nanshan Ski Village. Outfitted with

  17. Developments in modelling of thermohydro-geomechanical behaviour of Boom clay and clay-based buffer materials (volume 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is composed of two parts: The first part (Volume 1) lays the foundations of a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the interaction between water and soil skeleton during thermal dilatation. The second part (volume 2) is devoted to the development and the application of advance constitutive modelling of mechanical behaviour of clays taking into account the extensive tests of Boom clay reported in the first volume. The development concentrated on the improvement of prediction of the volumetric response of clay skeleton: (a) improving the dilatancy prediction at low to high overconsolidation ratios (Section 2). An elasto-plastic constitutive model has been developed to account for this effect (Section 3.2.); (b) modelling of swelling effects (Section 2.5). A preliminary interpretative model for swelling prediction has been developed (Section 2.5). The application part consisted in interpreting the experimental results obtained for Boom clay to calibrate a set of constants (Section 3) for performing numerical analyses (Section 4) for the thermomechanical model already calibrated for Boom clay (Appendix). Interpretation of the tests required an assessment of influence of the strong anisotropy effects revealed by Boom clay on the basis of an interpretative model characterized by a kinematic hardening plasticity and coupled elasticity (section 3)

  18. Selenite reduction in boom clay: effect of FeS{sub 2}, clay minerals and dissolved organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, C.; Maes, A.; Vancluysen, J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Lab. for Colloid Chemistry, Leuven (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    In Belgium, the Boom clay layer is considered as the candidate host rock for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). For this disposal, Selenium 79 is considered to be a critical radionuclide and responsible for the highest dose to man over a period of tens of thousands of years. The behaviour and reactivity of Se thereby depend on its speciation and on its complex biogeochemical transformations. {sup 79}Se is thought to occur in, and be released from the solid waste matrix in a variety of redox states, including Se oxyanions such as SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} or SeO{sub 4}{sup 2-}. The composition of the solid and liquid phases of Boom clay was published before. In this paper, the reduction of Se oxyanions was investigated by adding appropriate amounts of SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-} in over-saturation with respect to the proclaimed thermodynamical solubility of reduced Se solid phases (SeO, FeSe, FeSe{sub 2}), to a number of systems which represent Boom clay geochemical conditions. The range of systems is chosen in order to incorporate in an increasing way the different Se competing organic and inorganic phases present in the Boom clay matrix. (authors)

  19. Heterologous expression of the BABY BOOM AP2/ERF transcription factor enhances the regeneration capacity of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Srinivasan, C.; Liu, Z.; Heidmann, I.; Supena, E.D.J.; Fukuoka, H.; Joosen, R.V.L.; Lambalk, J.; Angenent, G.C.; Scorza, R.; Custers, J.B.M.; Boutilier, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    Gain-of-function studies have shown that ectopic expression of the BABY BOOM (BBM) AP2/ERF domain transcription factor is sufficient to induce spontaneous somatic embryogenesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh) and Brassica napus (B. napus L.) seedlings. Here we examined the effect of

  20. Selenite reduction in boom clay: effect of FeS2, clay minerals and dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Belgium, the Boom clay layer is considered as the candidate host rock for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW). For this disposal, Selenium 79 is considered to be a critical radionuclide and responsible for the highest dose to man over a period of tens of thousands of years. The behaviour and reactivity of Se thereby depend on its speciation and on its complex biogeochemical transformations. 79Se is thought to occur in, and be released from the solid waste matrix in a variety of redox states, including Se oxyanions such as SeO32- or SeO42-. The composition of the solid and liquid phases of Boom clay was published before. In this paper, the reduction of Se oxyanions was investigated by adding appropriate amounts of SeO32- in over-saturation with respect to the proclaimed thermodynamical solubility of reduced Se solid phases (SeO, FeSe, FeSe2), to a number of systems which represent Boom clay geochemical conditions. The range of systems is chosen in order to incorporate in an increasing way the different Se competing organic and inorganic phases present in the Boom clay matrix. (authors)

  1. The investigation of the neptunium complexes formed upon interaction of high level waste glass and boom clay media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since complexes formed between actinides released from high level waste glass and humic acids present in high concentration in boom clay porewater may control the actinide solubility in the clay formation, a research programme has been started to study the complexes formed between neptunium, the most critical actinide in the Belgian performance assessment studies, and boom clay porewater. The leaching experiments give a maximum solution concentration of Np in boom clay porewater of 10-6 M after 24 days. In the leachates, Np is mainly associated with colloidal particles of small sizes and is present as a mixture of two oxidation states, V and IV. The retention of Np in the glass increases with increasing SA/V (geometrical surface area on solution volume ratio). A high solution concentration is accompanied by a high retention of Np. The characterisation of the mobile boom clay organic matter (OM) gives a proton exchange capacity (PEC) equal to 2.9 meq g-1 OM at pH 8.5. Related to this value, the interaction constants (β) of the literature were reviewed and calculated according to their proton exchange capacity for the pH of interest. (orig.)

  2. Godunov method and computer program to determine the pressure and flow field associated with a sonic boom focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.; Zalosh, R. G.

    1973-01-01

    A computer method has been developed to calculate the flow field associated with sonic boom focusing. Solutions are obtained for focussing caused by localized cold spots in the atmosphere, as well as for N-waves with concave fronts. Results include focus factors and the length scales of the focal region. Both strong and weak shock waves are studied.

  3. The "Boom" and "Bust" Patterns of Communities within the Energy Rich Region of West Virginia: A Case Study of Moundsville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiger, Brandon S.

    The increasing worldwide demand for energy will provide Energy Rich Regions (ERRs) the opportunity to increase their wealth and quality of living. However, a reoccurring pattern of boom and bust cycles in ERRs suggests the need for more sustainable development strategies. A mixed methods approach (case study) is employed to explore the "wicked human problems" occurring in one community, Moundsville, WV and to discover development patterns that might inform sustainable development strategies for the future. This study explores briefly the distant past development patterns, and in greater detail the pre-boom and most current boom in natural gas. First, data will be derived from a conceptual "Energy Rich Region Template" that explores the sustainability of development from the inclusive wealth forms of natural, human, and physical capital. The qualitative data analysis software (MAXQDA) is used to systematically collect and organize data and information into a community-wide knowledge base (specifically the seven years of city council minutes). This framework can assist future research dedicated to similar cases. Furthermore, this case may support communities and or policymakers in the development of a programming guide for converting the natural capital into other reproducible capital forms, thus avoiding the development cycle of boom and bust.

  4. Feasibility study on conducting overflight measurements of shaped sonic boom signatures using the Firebee BQM-34E RPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglieri, Domenic J.; Sothcott, Victor E.; Keefer, Thomas N., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    A study was performed to determine the feasibility of establishing if a 'shaped' sonic boom signature, experimentally shown in wind tunnel models out to about 10 body lengths, will persist out to representative flight conditions of 200 to 300 body lengths. The study focuses on the use of a relatively large supersonic remotely-piloted and recoverable vehicle. Other simulation methods that may accomplish the objective are also addressed and include the use of nonrecoverable target drones, missiles, full-scale drones, very large wind tunnels, ballistic facilities, whirling-arm techniques, rocket sled tracks, and airplane nose probes. In addition, this report will also present a background on the origin of the feasibility study including a brief review of the equivalent body concept, a listing of the basic sonic boom signature characteristics and requirements, identification of candidate vehicles in terms of desirable features/availability, and vehicle characteristics including geometries, area distributions, and resulting sonic boom signatures. A program is developed that includes wind tunnel sonic boom and force models and tests for both a basic and modified vehicles and full-scale flight tests.

  5. Dual (type IV left anterior descending artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozdil Baskan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Congenital coronary artery anomalies are uncommon. Dual left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD is defined as the presence of two LADs within the anterior interventricular sulcus (AIVS, and is classified into four types. Type IV is a rarely reported subtype and differs from the others, with a long LAD originating from the right coronary artery (RCA. Dual LAD is a benign coronary artery anomaly, but should be recognised especially before interventional procedures. With the increasing use of multidedector computed tomography (MDCT, it is essential for radiologists to be aware of this entity and the cross-sectional findings.

  6. ANTERIOR OSTEOPHYTE IDENTIFICATION IN CERVICAL VERTEBRAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Chougale

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Radiologist always examines X-ray to determine abnormal changes in cervical, lumbar & thoracic vertebrae. Osteophyte (bony growth may appear at the corners of vertebrae so that vertebral shape becomes abnormal. This paper presents the idea from Image processing techniques such as customised Hough transform which will be used for segmentation which should be independent of rotation, scale, noise & shape. This segmented image will be then used for computing size invariant, convex hull based features to differentiate normal cervical vertebrae from cervical vertebrae containing anterior osteophyte. This approach effectively finds anterior osteophytes in cervical vertebrae.

  7. The NASA High Speed ASE Project: Computational Analyses of a Low-Boom Supersonic Configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Walter A.; DeLaGarza, Antonio; Zink, Scott; Bounajem, Elias G.; Johnson, Christopher; Buonanno, Michael; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Yoo, Seung Y.; Kopasakis, George; Christhilf, David M.; Chwalowski, Pawel

    2014-01-01

    A summary of NASA's High Speed Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) project is provided with a focus on a low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed-Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. The summary includes details of the computational models developed to date including a linear finite element model (FEM), linear unsteady aerodynamic models, structured and unstructured CFD grids, and discussion of the FEM development including sizing and structural constraints applied to the N+2 configuration. Linear results obtained to date include linear mode shapes and linear flutter boundaries. In addition to the tasks associated with the N+2 configuration, a summary of the work involving the development of AeroPropulsoServoElasticity (APSE) models is also discussed.

  8. PI control based on fuzzy set-point weighting tracking for hydraulic crane boom system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong YANG; An LUO; Karl-Erik RYDBERG

    2006-01-01

    A PI control strategy based on fuzzy set-point weighting following was proposed for the active damping control of a hydraulic crane boom system (HCBS). Two valve-controlled PI controllers, which include a proportional feedforward controller based on fuzzy set-point weighting following and a limited semi-integrator(LSI), are designed respectively. LSI is used to limit output signal and to prevent wind up at the low frequency of the spectrum. By using a range camera and an electronic feedback control, the tip damping on the HCBS can be adjusted artificially. A collaborative control simulation technique of HOPSAN and MATLAB/SIMULINK is applied to the controller design. Simulation results show that the proposed PI control system has less overshoot as well as faster response. The tip damping on the HCBS during operation is improved.

  9. Boom-and-bust development patterns across the Amazon deforestation frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S L; Ewers, Robert M; Parry, Luke; Souza, Carlos; Veríssimo, Adalberto; Balmford, Andrew

    2009-06-12

    The Brazilian Amazon is globally important for biodiversity, climate, and geochemical cycles, but is also among the least developed regions in Brazil. Economic development is often pursued through forest conversion for cattle ranching and agriculture, mediated by logging. However, on the basis of an assessment of 286 municipalities in different stages of deforestation, we found a boom-and-bust pattern in levels of human development across the deforestation frontier. Relative standards of living, literacy, and life expectancy increase as deforestation begins but then decline as the frontier evolves, so that pre- and postfrontier levels of human development are similarly low. New financial incentives and policies are creating opportunities for a more sustained development trajectory that is not based on the depletion of nature and ecosystem services. PMID:19520958

  10. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques

    2013-11-27

    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly. PMID:24383250

  11. [Cigarette and advertising poster: history of a dangerous connection in the post-war economic boom].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques

    2013-11-27

    The advertising poster's main characteristic is the ability to convey a commercial message quickly and publicly thanks to its straightforward image and text. The young people, being the tobacco industry's principal target, are particularly exposed to these messages. This kind of advertisement becomes a mean of counterstroke as soon as the cigarette's harmfulness is acknowledged. Some of the cigarette industry's strategies can be revealed by the historical analysis of a 253 posters corpus selected among the main cigarette manufacturers in Switzerland at the time of the post-war economic boom. With the misuse of sport's theme, the overvaluation of the filter's efficiency, the use of a vocabulary that implies lightness and by erasing the image of smoke in its advertisement, the industry tries to reassure the smoker wrongly.

  12. Analysis of Offshore Knuckle Boom Crane - Part One: Modeling and Parameter Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten K. Bak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an extensive model of a knuckle boom crane used for pipe handling on offshore drilling rigs. The mechanical system is modeled as a multi-body system and includes the structural flexibility and damping. The motion control system model includes the main components of the crane's electro-hydraulic actuation system. For this a novel black-box model for counterbalance valves is presented, which uses two different pressure ratios to compute the flow through the valve. Experimental data and parameter identification, based on both numerical optimization and manual tuning, are used to verify the crane model. The demonstrated modeling and parameter identification techniques target the system engineer and takes into account the limited access to component data normally encountered by engineers working with design of hydraulic systems.

  13. Flight test measurements and analysis of sonic boom phenomena near the shock wave extremity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, G. T.; Kane, E. J.

    1974-01-01

    A NASA flight test program conducted during the summer and fall of 1970 was devoted to investigating sonic boom phenomena near caustics formed by steady flight near the threshold Mach number, during accelerations, and at the lateral extremes of the ground carpet. The vertical extent of the shock waves attached to near-sonic airplanes was also studied. The flights were conducted over the 1500 ft instrumented BREN tower so that vertical surveys through the shock waves were measured. These data on caustic phenomena near the shock wave extremity were analyzed in detail and compared with theoretical results. Amplifications of shock wave strength varied from 2 to 5 during longitudinal accelerations, from 1 to 1.8 during steady threshold Mach number flight, and up to 3 for small inadvertent accelerations during flight near the threshold Mach number.

  14. Design and Development of Animal Drawn Ground Metered Axle Mechanism Boom Sprayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Amonye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A spraying technology was developed for use by rural farmers in Northern Nigeria. The farming systems in these areas are put into consideration and in keeping with appropriate technology initiative. The technology was designed to offer the farmers an equitable sprayer that shall be drawn by animal farm power and that is effective and affordable. The equipment was constructed using the parameters obtained from design and tested at a farmland within the University premises of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, in Nigeria. The equipment consists of a boom with multiple Controlled Droplet Applicator (CDA atomizer nozzles, a gear pump, a chemical tank, and chair for an operator; all attached to a framework bolted to a rear axle. It was observed that the Dynamic Wheel Load assuming even distribution of load was found to be 1575N and a net pull of 820N. The net pull offers convenient task and shall easily swallow energy requirement for spraying uphill terrains.

  15. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  16. ANTERIOR COLUMN FRACTURES OF THE ACETABULUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HEEG, M; OTTER, N; KLASEN, HJ

    1992-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients at three to 19 years after displaced anterior fracture-dislocations of the hip. Eighteen of them were treated by traction, after ensuring that the femoral head was adequately reduced beneath the undisrupted part of the weight-bearing dome. Two required operati

  17. Anterior retropharyngeal approach to the cervical spine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behari S

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The anterior retropharyngeal approach (ARPA accesses anteriorly situated lesions from the clivus to C3, in patients with a short neck, Klippel Feil anomaly or those in whom the C2-3 and C3-4 disc spaces are situated higher in relation to the hyoid bone and the angle of mandible where it is difficult to approach this region using the conventional anterior approach, due to the superomedial obliquity of the trajectory. The ARPA avoids the potentially contaminated oropharyngeal cavity providing for a simultaneous arthrodesis and instrumentation during the primary surgical procedure. Experience of five patients with high cervical extradural compression, who underwent surgery using this approach between 1994 and 1999, is presented. The surgical procedures included excision of ossified posterior longitudinal ligament (n=2; excision of prolapsed disc and osteophytes (n=2; and excision of a vertebral body neoplasm (n=1. Following the procedure, vertebral arthrodesis was achieved using an iliac graft in all the patients. Only one patient with vertebral body neoplasm required an additional anterior cervical plating procedure for stabilisation the construct. The complications included transient respiratory insufficiency and neurological deterioration in two patients; and, pharyngeal fistula and donor site infection in one patient.

  18. Anterior process fractures of the calcaneus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renfrew, D.L.; El-Khoury, G.Y.

    1985-07-01

    Fractures of the anterior process of the calcaneus are often missed. This error follows from the tendency to focus exclusively on the mortise and malleoli when a history of ankle trauma is supplied. Seven patients with this fracture are presented. The anatomy, mechanism of injury, clinical presentation, and the radiographic features of this injury are discussed.

  19. Anorgasmia in anterior spinal cord syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Berić, A; Light, J K

    1993-01-01

    Three male and two female patients with anorgasmia and dissociated sensory loss due to an anterior spinal cord syndrome are described. Clinical, neurophysiological and quantitative sensory evaluation revealed preservation of the large fibre dorsal column functions from the lumbosacral segments with concomitant severe dysfunction or absence of the small fibre neospinothalamic mediated functions. These findings indicate a role for the spinothalamic system in orgasm.

  20. Causes of anterior cruciate ligament injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent anterior cruciate ligament injuries it is necessary to define risk factors and to analyze the most frequent causes of injuries - that being the aim of this study. The study sample consisted of 451 surgically treated patients, including 400 sportsmen (65% of them being active and 35% recreational sportsmen, 29% female and 71% male; of whom 90% were younger than 35. Sports injuries, as the most frequent cause of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, were recorded in 88% of patients (non-contact ones in 78% and contact ones in 22%, injuries occurring in everyday activities in 11% and in traffic in 1%. Among sportsmen, reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament was most frequently performed in football players (48%, then in handball players (22%, basketball players (13%, volleyball players (8%, martial arts fighters (4%. However, the injury incidence was the highest among the active basketball players (1 injured among 91 active players. Type of footwear, warming up before the activity, genetic predisposition and everyday therapy did not have a significant influence on getting injured. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries happened three times more often during matches, in the middle and at the end of a match and training session (79%, at landing after the jump or when changing direction of movement (75% without a contact with other competitors, on dry surfaces (79%, among not so well prepared sportsmen.

  1. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G; Cheuteu, R; Bilong, Y; Wiedemann, P

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  2. Anterior Chamber Live Loa loa: Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagmeni, G.; Cheuteu, R.; Bilong, Y.; Wiedemann, P.

    2016-01-01

    We reported a case of unusual intraocular Loa loa in a 27-year-old patient who presented with painful red eye. Biomicroscopy revealed a living and active adult worm in the anterior chamber of the right eye. After surgical extraction under local anesthesia, parasitological identification confirmed L. loa filariasis. PMID:27441005

  3. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M;

    2013-01-01

    To compare, in young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear, the mid-term (five year) patient reported and radiographic outcomes between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  4. Tunnel widening in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clatworthy, M G; Annear, P; Bulow, J U;

    1999-01-01

    We report a prospective series evaluating the incidence and degree of tunnel widening in a well-matched series of patients receiving a hamstring or patella tendon graft for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. We correlated tunnel widening with clinical factors, knee scores, KT-1000...

  5. Guideline on anterior cruciate ligament injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuffels, Duncan E; Poldervaart, Michelle T; Diercks, Ronald; Fievez, Alex W F M; Patt, Thomas W; Hart, Cor P van der; Hammacher, Eric R; Meer, Fred van der; Goedhart, Edwin A; Lenssen, Anton F; Muller-Ploeger, Sabrina B; Pols, Margreet A; Saris, Daniel B F

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Orthopaedic Association has a long tradition of development of practical clinical guidelines. Here we present the recommendations from the multidisciplinary clinical guideline working group for anterior cruciate ligament injury. The following 8 clinical questions were formulated by a steer

  6. Novel Insights into Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.E. Meuffels (Duncan)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAnterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is one of the most common sports injuries of the knee. ACL reconstruction has become, standard orthopaedic practice worldwide with an estimated 175,000 reconstructions per year in the United States.6 The ACL remains the most frequently studied liga

  7. Treatment for acute anterior cruciate ligament tear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frobell, Richard B; Roos, Harald P; Roos, Ewa M;

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: In young active adults with an acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, do patient reported or radiographic outcomes after five years differ between those treated with rehabilitation plus early ACL reconstruction and those treated with rehabilitation and optional delayed ACL...

  8. Anterior ethmoidal artery emerging anterior to bulla ethmoidalis: An abnormal anatomical variation in Waardenburg's syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Danny K. C.; Shao, Angus; Campbell, Raewyn; Douglas, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In endoscopic sinus surgery, the anterior ethmoidal artery (AEA) is usually identified as it traverses obliquely across the fovea ethmoidalis, posterior to the bulla ethmoidalis and anterior to or within the ground lamella's attachment to the skull base. Injury to the AEA may result in hemorrhage, retraction of the AEA into the orbit, and a retrobulbar hematoma. The resulting increase in intraorbital pressure may threaten vision. Waardenburg's syndrome (WS) is a rare congenital, autosomal dom...

  9. Anterior capsule tear after laser iridotomy complicating phacoemulsification

    OpenAIRE

    Vivien Cherng Hui, Yip; Sanjay, Srinivasan; Benjamin Chong-Ming, Chang

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old Indian lady had a history of bilateral laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) for primary angle closure. Subsequently she developed cataract in both the eyes. Right eye cataract surgery was complicated by an anterior capsule rupture, which was discovered intra-operatively at the site of the LPI. Trypan blue was used to stain the anterior capsule to delineate the anterior capsule defect. An attempt at continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis was unsuccessful, and the anterior capsulotomy w...

  10. Surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alazzawi, Sulaiman; Sukeik, Mohamed; Ibrahim, Mazin; Haddad, Fares S

    2016-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injury is among the most common soft tissue injuries of the knee joint and reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament is the gold standard treatment for young active symptomatic patients. This review summarizes the surgical treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury.

  11. Uveítes anteriores associadas a doenças sistêmicas Anterior uveitis associated to systemic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Pavão Dimantas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As uveítes anteriores são caracterizadas pela inflamação preponderante do segmento anterior do olho. Hiperemia conjuntival, reação de câmara anterior com células e "flare", precipitados ceráticos e sinéquias posteriores são sinais que compõem o quadro inflamatório. Aspectos clínicos de algumas doenças sistêmicas envolvidas na etiologia das uveítes anteriores serão abordados neste artigo.Anterior uveitis describes a disease predominantly limited to the anterior segment of the eye. Conjunctival hyperemia, anterior chamber cell and flare, keratic precipitates, and iris abnormalities including posterior synechiae characterize the inflammation. This article discusses clinical aspects of the systemic diseases that cause anterior uveitis with review of the literature.

  12. Displaced fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakar, Chrishan; Allibone, James [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Spinal Deformity, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, Srinivasan [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, Stanmore, Middlesex (United Kingdom); University College, The Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    In the acute setting, accurate radiological interpretation of paediatric cervical spine trauma can be difficult due to a combination of normal variants and presence of multiple synchondroses. We present a rare case of a fracture through the anterior atlantal synchondrosis in a paediatric spine. A five-year-old boy, who fell backwards onto the top of his head while swinging across on a monkey bar frame, presented with neck pain, cervical muscle spasm and decreased right lateral rotation and extension of his neck. Computed tomography showed a displaced diastatic fracture through right anterior atlantal synchondrosis. There are only 12 cases of paediatric C1 fractures reported in the world literature. The importance of considering this diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting, and the normal variants in the paediatric atlas that can cause diagnostic dilemma to the interpreting radiologist, are discussed in this case report. (orig.)

  13. Anterior uveitis in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanski, J J

    1977-10-01

    The ocular and systemic characteristics of 160 patients with anterior uveitis and seronegative juvenile rheumatoid arthritis are reviewed. Chronic uveitis occurred in 131 patients, 76% of whom were girls. Both eyes were involved in 70% of the cases. Band keratopathy occurred in 41% of the eyes, cataract in 42%, and secondary glaucoma in 19%. Only 11 patients had uveitis before the onset of arthritis. Notable correlations included a pauciarticular onset of arthritis in 95% of the patients, and positive tests for antinuclear antibody in 82%. Of 29 patients with acute anterior uveitis, 27 were boys. The inflammation responded well to therapy, and serious complications did not occur. At follow-up 21 patients had typical ankylosing spondylitis, and five had sacroiliitis. The incidence of positive results of tests for HLA-B27 antigen was 94%.

  14. Decision Making in the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART): Anterior Cingulate Cortex Signals Loss-Aversion but not the Infrequency of Risky Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Fukunaga, Rena; Brown, Joshua W.; Bogg, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula (IFG/AI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) are key regions involved in risk appraisal during decision making, but accounts of how these regions contribute to decision-making under risk remain contested. To help clarify the roles of these and other related regions, we used a modified version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002) to distinguish between decision-making and feedback-related processes when participants decided to pursu...

  15. Erlotinib-related bilateral anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Kashif; Kumar, Indu; Usman-Saeed, Muniba; Usman Saeed, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the case of a 68-year-old woman with secondary adenocarcinoma of the lungs from an unknown primary. Erlotinib was started which produced symptoms suggestive of uveitis. Erlotinib was stopped and restarted a month later at a lower dose, which resulted in severe bilateral anterior uveitis. The uveitis settled after stopping erlotinib and treatment with topical steroids and cycloplegics. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of erlotinib-related anterio...

  16. Multimodal emotion perception after anterior temporal lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Valérie Milesi; Chiara Cristinzio; Margitta Seeck

    2014-01-01

    In the context of emotion information processing, several studies have demonstrated the involvement of the amygdala in emotion perception, for unimodal and multimodal stimuli. However, it seems that not only the amygdala, but several regions around it, may also play a major role in multimodal emotional integration. In order to investigate the contribution of these regions to multimodal emotion perception, five patients who had undergone unilateral anterior temporal lobe resection were exposed...

  17. Anterior Tibial Artery Pseudoaneurysm: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Tor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aneurysmsatic changes of the infrapopliteal arteries are rarely seen. They are pseudoaneurysms rather than true aneursyms. The most important cause of them is trauma. There is not a standart treatment for infrapopliteal aneursyms. In this study, we have evaluated a case operated for anterior tibial artery pseudoaneurysm developed after penetrant trauma and diagnosed two weeks later. [Cukurova Med J 2012; 37(3.000: 172-175

  18. Psychological Aspects of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Ardern, Clare; Kvist, Joanna; Webster, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Impairment-based evaluation has, until recently, been the mainstay of orthopaedic research in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. However, participation-based outcomes, in particular returning to sport, have lately garnered increased research attention. This is important because returning to sport is typically a main concern of injured athletes. Recent metaanalyses have demonstrated that the return to sport rate after ACL reconstruction is disappointingly low, and that a range of...

  19. Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Lik Thai; Blum, Robert Alexander; Cheng, Chee Peng; Hanifudin, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral anterior uveitis secondary to erlotinib phone: +44-784-3617788 (Lim, Lik Thai) (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Lim, Lik Thai) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - Glasgow - UNITED KINGDOM (Blum, Robert Alexander) Ophthalmology Department, Gartnavel General Hospital - Great Western Road - G12 0YN - G...

  20. Anterior segment dysgenesis in mosaic Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, I; Haigh, P; Clayton-Smith, J.; Clayton, P.; Price, D.; Ridgway, A; Donnai, D

    1997-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND—Females with Turner syndrome commonly exhibit ophthalmological abnormalities, although there is little information in the literature documenting findings specific to Turner syndrome mosaics. Ophthalmic findings are described in four patients with mosaic Turner syndrome. All had anterior chamber abnormalities and all four had karyotypic abnormalities with a 45, X cell line. The possible relation between the karyotypic and the phenotypic findings in these patients is discussed.
...

  1. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    OpenAIRE

    Shmuel Graffi; Beatrice Tiosano; Ran Ben Cnaan; Jonathan Bahir; Modi Naftali

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by...

  2. Solární boom v ČR, ekonomické souvislosti a důsledky pro krajinu

    OpenAIRE

    Votavová, Martina

    2011-01-01

    The diploma thesis "Solar Boom in the Czech republic, Economical Contexts and Effects on Nature" is focused on a big raise of number of photovoltaics in Czech republic in last two years. This work informs about the present state of the use of solar energy in the Czech Republic, about the government interventions, about the economic and geographic conditions of solar energy in our republic. Diploma also analysis causes of solar boom and its effects on investors, on final customers and also on ...

  3. The role of natural organic matter in the migration behaviour of americium in the Boom Clay - Part 1: migration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of publication follows: In demonstrating the suitability of Boom Clay as reference site for studying the disposal of radioactive waste, the role of the relatively high amount of Natural Organic Matter (NOM) present in the Boom Clay on the mobility of critical radionuclides needs to be investigated thoroughly. It is generally accepted that trivalent actinides and lanthanides form strong complexes with humic substances. Complexation of these trivalent radionuclides with NOM present in the Boom Clay may therefore have two opposite effects. If complexed by the aqueous phase NOM (the mobile NOM), the radionuclide transport will be governed by the mobility of these dissolved radionuclide- NOM species. If complexed by the solid phase NOM (the immobile NOM) the migration will be retarded. One of the aims of the EC projects TRANCOM-Clay and TRANCOM-II was to investigate the role of mobile NOM as radionuclide carrier in order to develop a conceptual model for inclusion in a performance assessment (PA) model. The migration behaviour of Americium (used as an analogue for the critical radionuclide Pu) was investigated by complexing 241Am with radiolabelled (14C-labelled) NOM before passing through undisturbed Boom Clay cores contained in columns. The use of two different radionuclides, allows the migration behaviour of both the NOM and the Am to be followed. The results of the migration experiments showed that the Am-NOM complexes dissociated when they came into contact with Boom Clay and that the bulk of Am became immobilised (either as Am complexed to immobile NOM or sorbed to the mineral phase). Only a small percentage of the complex persisted as 'stabilised' Am-OM complex which exhibited slow dissociation kinetics upon moving through the Boom Clay. When the applied radionuclide source also contains Am in the form of an inorganic solid phase (when Am is applied above the solubility limit), a continuous source of Am exists to form 'temporarily stabilised' Am

  4. Low-Speed Control of Heavy-Load Transfer Robot with Long Telescopic Boom Based on Stribeck Friction Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo You

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The severe low-speed creep phenomenon occurs in the telescopic boom system of a heavy-load transfer robot with a long telescopic boom as a result of nonlinear friction. In order to improve control precision and operation performance at low speeds, we built a three-loop control nonlinear model of an AC servo motor with Stribeck friction disturbance. Traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller (PID and fuzzy PID controls were, respectively, adopted in the position loop, and the control performance was simulated. The results showed that a system with fuzzy PID control eliminates “flat top” position tracking and “dead zone” speed tracking, which are generated by traditional PID, and thereby decreases the effect of friction on the performance of the servo system. This elimination also improved the tracking accuracy and robustness of the system.

  5. Modelling of silica diffusion experiments with 32Si in Boom Clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertsens, Marc; De Cannière, Pierre; Moors, Hugo

    2003-03-01

    A mathematical model describing the dissolution of nuclear glass directly disposed in clay combines a first-order dissolution rate law with the diffusion of dissolved silica in clay. According to this model, the main parameters describing the long-term dissolution of the glass are etaR, the product of the diffusion accessible porosity eta and the retardation factor R, and the apparent diffusion coefficient D(app) of dissolved silica in clay. For determining the migration parameters needed for long-term predictions, four Through-Diffusion (T-D) experiments and one percolation test have been performed on undisturbed clay cores. In the Through-Diffusion experiments, the concentration decrease after injection of 32Si (radioactive labelled silica) was measured in the inlet compartment. At the end of the T-D experiments, the clay cores were cut in thin slices and the activity of labelled silica in each slice was determined. The measured activity profiles for these four clay cores are well reproducible. Since no labelled silica could be detected in the outlet compartments, the Through-Diffusion experiments are fitted by two In-Diffusion models: one model assuming linear and reversible sorption equilibrium and a second model taking into account sorption kinetics. Although the kinetic model provides better fits, due to the sufficiently long duration of the experiments, both models give approximately similar values for the fit parameters. The single percolation test leads to an apparent diffusion coefficient value about two to three times lower than those of the Through-Diffusion tests. Therefore, dissolved silica appears to be strongly retarded in Boom Clay. A retardation factor R between 100 and 300 was determined. The corresponding in situ distribution coefficient K(d) is in the range 25-75 cm(3) g(-1). The apparent diffusion coefficient of dissolved silica in Boom Clay is estimated between 2 x 10(-13) and 7 x 10(-13) m(2) s(-1). The pore diffusion coefficient is in the

  6. El Boom y el fracaso de los intelectuales. Sobre Conversación en la Catedral (1969 de Vargas Llosa y Cien años de soledad (1967 de García Márquez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El debate en torno al papel de los intelectuales tiene un lugar central en el Boom de la Literatura Latinoamericana. Por un lado,  porque es un momento en que los escritores saltan a la esfera pública e intervienen en ámbitos que exceden o literario. Por otro, porque ha sido uno de los temas que ha ocupado a la crítica en su afán de adscribir el fenómeno al mercado o a las circunstancias políticas de América Latina. Bajo el supuesto de esa centralidad, el presente artículo busca desentrañar las representaciones del intelectual que aparecen en dos novelas del período: Conversación en la Catedral (1969 de Mario Vargas Llosa y Cien años de soledad (1967 de Gabriel García Márquez. En ellas aparecen elementos y problemáticas presentes en los debates que les son contemporáneos con una mirada más amplia que la que opone al escritor y el político (o al intelectual y el revolucionario. Las tareas propias del letrado y la relación con la esfera pública y con las masas definen a los dos personajes principales a partir de los que se puede reconstruir una definición del intelectual.

  7. Anterior Segment Eye Assessment of Refractive Surgery Candidates in the Southeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhjavanpour, Neda; Payandeh, Abolfazl; Rajabi, Majid; Shoja, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Anterior segment eye parameters are essential factors in diagnosis, screening and management of abnormal ocular conditions. Based on the previous studies, they might differ from one race or population to another. Sistan-and-Baluchestan province, the southeast of Iran, has special weather conditions and race, plus lack of research on these diagnostic factors. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess anterior segment parameters using pentacam in this area. 800 eyes of subjects which had been referred to the Al-Zahra eye hospital of Zahedan, the capital city of the province, for corneal refractive surgery from October 2014 to March 2015 participated in this research. 95% confidence limits for mean of central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth and volume were (536.02, 541.20), (3.13, 3.18) and (187.63, 192.58) respectively. Multiple linear regression models showed a lower mean central corneal thickness, and maximum/minimum of keratometry, for males than females, adjusting for age and spherical equivalent. Inversely, anterior chamber depth, and volume were more in males. In order to diagnosis and treating ocular diseases which have effect on retinal thickness, precisely specification of predictive factors is highly needed. PMID:27357884

  8. Booming markets for Moroccan argan oil appear to benefit some rural households while threatening the endemic argan forest

    OpenAIRE

    Lybbert, Travis J.; Aboudrare, Abdellah; Chaloud, Deborah; Magnan, Nicholas; Nash, Maliha

    2011-01-01

    Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. High-value argan markets have sparked a bonanza of argan activity. Nongovernmental organizations, international and domestic development agencies, and argan oil cooperatives aggressively promote the win–win aim of simultaneously benefiting local people and the health of the argan forest. This paper tests some of these win–win claims. Analysis of a panel of detailed household data suggests that the boom has enabled some rur...

  9. Operational comparison of two types of tractor sprayers (microner and boom-type) against wheat crop weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid, M; H Zaki Dizaji; A Marzban

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, the tractor mounted boom sprayer is used in many agricultural fields. These sprayers have many advantages compared to other sprayers, but in Iran, their field efficiency is much lower than that of the developed countries, because the tank volume and consumption of pesticides per hectare is often so highthat spraying per hectare takesa long time for handling the solutions and transporting the sprayers. Also spray droplet size is ordinarily high and its distribution is u...

  10. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected the sectoral c...

  11. Extractive Industries and Local Development in the Peruvian Highlands: Socio-Economic Impacts of the Mid-1990s Mining Boom

    OpenAIRE

    Ticci, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Since the late Nineties, the mining sector in Peru has been experiencing a protracted period of rapid growth. This paper investigates local impacts of the mining boom on migration, on access to basic services, on labour market and on occupational distribution across sectors. By applying propensity score matching technique, mining and non-mining districts are compared. The results show that recent mining expansion has encouraged migration inflows to mining districts and affected th...

  12. A Novel Technique for Anterior Vaginal Wall Prolapse Repair: Anterior Vaginal Wall Darn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Köse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study is to introduce a new technique, anterior vaginal wall darn (AVWD, which has not been used before to repair the anterior vaginal wall prolapse, a common problem among women. Materials and Methods. Forty-five women suffering from anterior vaginal wall prolapse were operated on with a new technique. The anterior vaginal wall was detached by sharp and blunt dissection via an incision beginning from the 1 cm proximal aspect of the external meatus extending to the vaginal apex, and the space between the tissues that attach the lateral walls of the vagina to the arcus tendineus fascia pelvis (ATFP was then darned. Preoperation and early postoperation evaluations of the patients were conducted and summarized. Results. Data were collected six months after operation. Cough stress test (CST, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q evaluation, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7, and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6 scores indicated recovery. According to the early postoperation results, all patients were satisfied with the operation. No vaginal mucosal erosion or any other complications were detected. Conclusion. In this initial series, our short-term results suggested that patients with grade II-III anterior vaginal wall prolapsus might be treated successfully with the AVWD method.

  13. Plume and Shock Interaction Effects on Sonic Boom in the 1-foot by 1-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castner, Raymond; Elmiligui, Alaa; Cliff, Susan; Winski, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The desire to reduce or eliminate the operational restrictions of supersonic aircraft over populated areas has led to extensive research at NASA. Restrictions are due to the disturbance of the sonic boom, caused by the coalescence of shock waves formed by the aircraft. A study has been performed focused on reducing the magnitude of the sonic boom N-wave generated by airplane components with a focus on shock waves caused by the exhaust nozzle plume. Testing was completed in the 1-foot by 1-foot supersonic wind tunnel to study the effects of an exhaust nozzle plume and shock wave interaction. The plume and shock interaction study was developed to collect data for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) validation of a nozzle plume passing through the shock generated from the wing or tail of a supersonic vehicle. The wing or tail was simulated with a wedgeshaped shock generator. This test entry was the first of two phases to collect schlieren images and off-body static pressure profiles. Three wedge configurations were tested consisting of strut-mounted wedges of 2.5- degrees and 5-degrees. Three propulsion configurations were tested simulating the propulsion pod and aft deck from a low boom vehicle concept, which also provided a trailing edge shock and plume interaction. Findings include how the interaction of the jet plume caused a thickening of the shock generated by the wedge (or aft deck) and demonstrate how the shock location moved with increasing nozzle pressure ratio.

  14. Comparison of volatility distributions in the periods of booms and stagnations: an empirical study on stock price indices

    CERN Document Server

    Kaizoji, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare statistical properties of stock price indices in periods of booms with those in periods of stagnations. We use the daily data of the four stock price indices in the major stock markets in the world: (i) the Nikkei 225 index (Nikkei 225) from January 4, 1975 to August 18, 2004, of (ii) the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from January 2, 1946 to August 18, 2004, of (iii) Standard and Poor's 500 index (SP500) from November 22, 1982 to August 18, 2004, and of (iii) the Financial Times Stock Exchange 100 index (FT 100) from April 2, 1984 to August 18, 2004. We divide the time series of each of these indices in the two periods: booms and stagnations, and investigate the statistical properties of absolute log returns, which is a typical measure of volatility, for each period. We find that (i) the tail of the distribution of the absolute log-returns is approximated by a power-law function with the exponent close to 3 in the periods of booms while the distribution is described b...

  15. Packaging, deployment, and panel design concepts for a truss-stiffened 7-panel precision deployable reflector with feed boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Walter L., Jr.; Collins, Timothy J.; Dyess, James W.; Kenner, Scott; Bush, Harold G.

    1993-01-01

    A concept is presented for achieving a remotely deployable truss-stiffened reflector consisting of seven integrated sandwich panels that form the reflective surface, and an integrated feed boom. The concept has potential for meeting aperture size and surface precision requirements for some high-frequency microwave remote sensing applications. The packaged reflector/feed boom configuration is a self-contained unit that can be conveniently attached to a spacecraft bus. The package has a cylindrical envelope compatible with typical launch vehicle shrouds. Dynamic behavior of a deployed configuration having a 216-inch focal length and consisting of 80-inch-diameter, two-inch-thick panels is examined through finite-element analysis. Results show that the feed boom and spacecraft bus can have a large impact on the fundamental frequency of the deployed configuration. Two candidate rib-stiffened sandwich panel configurations for this application are described, and analytical results for panel mass and stiffness are presented. Results show that the addition of only a few rib stiffeners, if sufficiently deep, can efficiently improve sandwich panel stiffness.

  16. Validation of glass dissolution and Si diffusion parameters with a combined glass dissolution-diffusion experiment in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Existing knowledge on glass dissolution and silica diffusion in Boom Clay is validated by experiments where both phenomena could be studied simultaneously. SON68 glass coupons, doped with radioactive 32Si, were sandwiched between two cores of fresh humid Boom Clay and heated to 30 deg. C. At the end of the experiment, the system was dismantled, the mass loss of the glass coupon was measured, and the clay core was sliced to determine the diffusion profile of the 32Si dissolved from the glass. These data were completed with analyses of the clay water and surface analyses for analogous tests with undoped glass. The results are interpreted by assuming congruent glass dissolution at a constant rate, with a glass silica saturation concentration between 14 and 20 mg/l, a forward glass dissolution rate (at zero silica concentration) of 0.028 g.m-2day-1, an apparent silica diffusion coefficient in the clay of 1.4 10-12 m2sec-1, and a distribution coefficient for silica on Boom Clay between 0.010 and 0.075 m3kg-1. These parameter values are close to the range found in literature. It was not necessary to consider diffusion through the gel, precipitation or detailed geochemical reactions. The modeling exercise shows that the existing knowledge about the subsystems glass and clay can successfully be integrated to describe the coupled processes in the whole system. (author)

  17. Selenite reduction in Boom clay: Effect of FeS2, clay minerals and dissolved organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several experiments were set up to study Se speciation and solubility in the reducing Boom clay environment, starting from oxidized Se species which were added in oversaturation with respect to the thermodynamic solubility of reduced Se solid phases. Upon introduction of SeO32- to FeS2-containing samples, adsorption of SeO32- occurred at the FeS2 surface, and led to a reduction and precipitation of a Se0 solid phase with a solubility of 3x10-9 M (after 60 days). In the presence of humic substances, an association of Se with these humic substances was observed and the 3x10-9 M solubility limit was not reached in the same time delay. Upon introduction of SeO32- to Boom clay suspensions (equilibration up to 9 months), the initial adsorption of SeO32- on the solid phase was increased with respect to systems containing only FeS2, due to the presence of (illite) clay minerals. This competing adsorption process, and the presence of humic substances, again decreased the kinetics of reduction with respect to FeS2 samples. Also, an association of Se with Boom clay humic substances was observed, and amounted up to ∼10-7 M in some samples after 9 months equilibration. - Selenite reduction by FeS2 is kinetically controlled, with clay minerals and organic matter playing an important role

  18. In situ corrosion studies on candidate container materials for the underground disposal of high level radioactive waste in Boom Clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCK·CEN has developed in the early 1980's, with the support of NIRAS/ONDRAF and EC, an extensive in situ corrosion program to evaluate the long-term corrosion behavior of various candidate container materials for the disposal of conditioned high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel. The in situ corrosion experiments were performed in the underground research facility, HADES, situated in the Boom Clay formation at a depth of 225 meters below ground level. These experiments place the samples either in direct contact with clay (type I), in a humid clay atmosphere (type 2), or in a concrete saturated clay atmosphere (type 3). During the period 1985--1994, twelve in situ corrosion experiments were installed in the underground laboratory. The exploitation of these experiments ended in 1996. All samples were recuperated and analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss the results from the type 1 corrosion experiments (samples in direct contact with Boom Clay). Surface analyses tend to indicate that the so-called corrosion-resistant materials, e.g. stainless steels, Ni- and Ti-alloys, remain intact after exposure to Boom Clay between 16 and 170 C, whereas carbon steel presents significant pitting corrosion. Carbon steel seems to be unsuitable for the Belgian repository concept (pits up to 240microm deep are detected after direct exposure to the argillaceous environment for 2 years at 90 C). The stainless steels look very promising candidate container materials

  19. Early CO2 and polar liquid production from the boom clay kerogen upon thermal stress in relation with waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) ranging from ca. I to 5 wt% (average content of ca. 3 wt%) occur in the Boom Clay. Global examination showed that the Boom Clay contains low maturity type II kerogen (as commonly observed in immature sedimentary rocks the kerogen accounts for the bulk of the total OM of the clay) and this kerogen (isolated from a clay core stored and processed under strict anaerobic conditions) exhibits an especially high oxygen content. Based on such features, the Boom Clay kerogen should be prone to generate large amounts of liquid and gaseous compounds, including hetero-atomic compounds, upon thermal stress. Indeed, preliminary experiments showed the production, under a relatively moderate thermal stress of a variety of polar oxygen-containing compounds. The aim of the present study was to derive detailed molecular and kinetic information on the production of liquid and gaseous compounds, upon the type of thermal stress that the near field clay would undergo during disposal of high activity waste. Emphasis was put on low molecular weight oxygen-containing components. Indeed, the latter may influence the confinement properties of the clay barrier and the radionuclide transport through various processes like changes in PCO2, in pH, in complexation ability and in microbial growth in relation with changes in OM availability. (authors)

  20. La hemiplejia en el reblandecimiento anterior del bulbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Trelles

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available A propósito de un caso de reblandecimiento limitado al territorio arterial anterior y mediano del bulbo que se traducía, clínicamente, por una hemiplejía controlateral con trastornos sensitivos y ausencia de compromiso del facial o de la lengua, y del análisis de 8 casos anatomo-clínicos encontrados en una revisión bibliográfica, los autores discuten el problema de la irrigación arterial del bulbo, el cuadro clínico y el tan debatido asunto de la pretendida flaccidez de estas hemiplejias. Desde el punto de vista de la vascularización arterial del bulbo, se insiste en que ésta es compleja y variable según que se trate del sector oral contiguo a la protuberancia, del sector caudal contiguo a la médula o del sector intermediario a los dos. Desde el punto de vista clínico, en los casos típicos, se trata de una hemiplejia espástica con trastornos sensitivos sin compromiso del facial, ni del hipogloso. De los nueve casos anatomo-clínicos registrados hasta el presente, seis con larga sobrevida, presentaron hemiplejia espástica; dos, con sobrevidas cortas, se encontraban en la etapa de transición hacia la espasticidad; uno con lesiones extensas presentó una flaccidez permanente. En lo que se refiere al problema de la pretendida flaccidez de estas hemiplejias vemos que las hemiplejías bulbares no escapan a la regla de las lesiones del haz piramidal, las que después de una primera etapa de flaccidez evolucionan hacia la espasticidad. Por tanto las conclusiones doctrinarias referentes al haz piramidal basadas en ésta pretendida flaccidez de la hemiplejía bulbar son erróneas y deben revisarse.

  1. Lifecycle effects of a recession on health behaviors: Boom, bust, and recovery in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-03-01

    This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the crisis, and all but sweets continued to decline during the recovery. Health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruit, fish oil, and vitamins/minerals and getting recommended sleep) followed more idiosyncratic paths. Overall, most behaviors reverted back to their pre-crisis levels or trends during the recovery, and these short-term deviations in trajectories were probably too short-lived in this recession to have major impacts on health or mortality. A notable exception is for binge drinking, which declined by 10% during the 2 crisis years, continued to fall (at a slower rate of 8%) during the 3 recovery years, and did not revert back to the upward pre-crisis trend during our observation period. These lingering effects, which directionally run counter to the pre-crisis upward trend in consumption and do not reflect price increases during the recovery period, suggest that alcohol is a potential pathway by which recessions improve health and/or reduce mortality.

  2. Lifecycle effects of a recession on health behaviors: Boom, bust, and recovery in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Corman, Hope; Noonan, Kelly; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-03-01

    This study uses individual-level longitudinal data from Iceland, a country that experienced a severe economic crisis in 2008 and substantial recovery by 2012, to investigate the extent to which the effects of a recession on health behaviors are lingering or short-lived and to explore trajectories in health behaviors from pre-crisis boom, to crisis, to recovery. Health-compromising behaviors (smoking, heavy drinking, sugared soft drinks, sweets, fast food, and tanning) declined during the crisis, and all but sweets continued to decline during the recovery. Health-promoting behaviors (consumption of fruit, fish oil, and vitamins/minerals and getting recommended sleep) followed more idiosyncratic paths. Overall, most behaviors reverted back to their pre-crisis levels or trends during the recovery, and these short-term deviations in trajectories were probably too short-lived in this recession to have major impacts on health or mortality. A notable exception is for binge drinking, which declined by 10% during the 2 crisis years, continued to fall (at a slower rate of 8%) during the 3 recovery years, and did not revert back to the upward pre-crisis trend during our observation period. These lingering effects, which directionally run counter to the pre-crisis upward trend in consumption and do not reflect price increases during the recovery period, suggest that alcohol is a potential pathway by which recessions improve health and/or reduce mortality. PMID:26687768

  3. Central and Eastern Europe After the Boom - Time for a Stragegy Change for Foreign Multinationals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold Schuh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the global financial and economic crisis ended a six-year-long boom period with an average growth rate well above 5% in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE. Although not the originators of the crisis some CEE countries such as the Baltic States and Ukraine were among the worst hit by this economic downturn. The crisis did not only shatter the financial markets, banks and the real economy but also the growth image of CEE. The huge market potential and expected higher growth rates resulting from the catching-up process to West European standards have been the main reason for the flood of foreign direct investments into the countries of the region in the two decades before. Suddenly, foreign direct investors were confronted with stalled and even collapsing market growth, shrinking disposable household income, business customers and partners on the verge of bankruptcy and no real sign of a quick recovery. While the situation improved a little in 2011, the economic outlook and the sentiment of foreign investors have remained gloomy, at least for parts of the region. It is obvious that when faced with such a huge economic downturn companies stop geographic expansion and put the brakes on investments.

  4. Droplets spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers under different environmental and operational conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson S. Sasaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT During pesticide spraying, the psychrometric conditions of the air may cause evaporation of the droplets along their trajectory from the nozzle to the target. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of air psychrometric conditions and operating pressure on the droplet spectrum of air-assisted boom sprayers. The test was performed using a prototype equipped with an axial fan, a flow homogenizer, temperature and relative air humidity sensors, a spray nozzle and a gas-heating system to warm up the airflow. With the assembled system and the aid of a particle analyser, the JSF 11002 spray nozzle was evaluated with respect to droplet spectrum in four air psychrometric conditions (7, 14, 21 and 28 hPa and at four operating pressures (200, 300, 400 and 500 kPa. At the end, evaporation losses were observed during the sprayings. For a given operating pressure and for each increment of 1 hPa in vapor pressure deficit, there was a diameter reduction of approximately 0.0759, 0.518 and 1.514 μm for the parameters DV0.1, DV0.5 and DV0.9, respectively. The diameter of the droplets decreased as the operating pressure increased.

  5. Boom or bust : developing countries' rough ride on the commodity price rollercoaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current high commodity prices are driven by strong demand from the emerging economies of China and India in addition to high consumption in the United States. Many developing countries are experiencing massive windfall revenues from high commodity prices. However, commodity prices are highly volatile in the short term, and can vary as much as 50 per cent in a single year. While developed country producers are supported by subsidies and social safety nets, developing countries and smallholder producers feel the extent of commodity price volatility more directly. Many developing countries are becoming locked into the production and export of primary commodities whose volatile prices are declining over the long term, and over which they have very little control. Price volatility makes sound fiscal planning difficult for both countries and producers. Price booms and busts also drive social inequalities, livelihood inequalities, and corruption. Price swings can cause conflict over valuable land and resources, and does not create incentives for sound environmental stewardship. This paper described the impacts of commodity price volatility in developing countries with the aim of promoting discussion about what can be done to help stabilize revenues for countries as well as producers. Price trends and their importance were reviewed, and the theoretical benefits of liberalized commodity markets were examined. Previous attempts to stabilize commodity prices were reviewed. It was concluded that the best long-term solution to the commodity price problem is economic diversification. Recommendations for promoting economic diversification were provided. 43 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Is it 'boom times' for baleen whales in the Pacific Arctic region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sue E

    2016-09-01

    The marine ecosystem in the Pacific Arctic region has experienced dramatic transformation, most obvious by the loss of sea ice volume (75%), late-summer areal extent (50%) and change in phenology (four to six weeks longer open-water period). This alteration has resulted in an opening of habitat for subarctic species of baleen whales, many of which are recovering in number from severe depletions from commercial whaling in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Specifically, humpback, fin and minke whales (Megaptera novaeangliae, Balaenoptera physalus and Balaenoptera acutorostrata) are now regularly reported during summer and autumn in the southern Chukchi Sea. These predators of zooplankton and forage fishes join the seasonally resident grey whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and the arctic-endemic bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus) in the expanding open-ocean habitat of the Pacific Arctic. Questions arising include: (i) what changes in whale-prey production and delivery mechanisms have accompanied the loss of sea ice, and (ii) how are these five baleen whale species partitioning the expanding ice-free habitat? While there has been no programme of research specifically focused on these questions, an examination of seasonal occurrence, foraging plasticity and (for bowhead whales) body condition suggests that the current state of Pacific Arctic marine ecosystem may be 'boom times' for baleen whales. These favourable conditions may be moderated, however, by future shifts in ecosystem structure and/or negative impacts to cetaceans related to increased commercial activities in the region. PMID:27601724

  7. Technical feasibility of a concept radioactive waste disposal facility in Boom clay in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The current management strategy in the Netherlands for radioactive waste is interim storage for approximately 100 years, followed by final deep geological disposal. At present, both Boom Clay and Salt formations are being considered and investigated via the OPERA (Onderzoeks Programma Eindberging Radioactief Afval) and CORA (Commissie Opberging Radioactief Afval) research programmes respectively, instigated by COVRA (Centrale Organisatie Voor Radioactief Afval). This paper outlines the on-going investigation into the initial technical feasibility of a high-level radioactive waste disposal facility, located within a stratum of Boom Clay, as part of the OPERA research programme. The feasibility study is based on the current Belgian Super-container concept, incorporating specific features relevant to the Netherlands, including the waste inventory and possible future glaciation. The repository is designed to be situated at approximately 500 m depth in a Boom Clay stratum of approximately 100 m thickness, and will co-host vitrified High Level Waste (HLW), spent fuel from research reactors, non-heat generating HLW, Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LILW) and depleted uranium. The total footprint is designed to be 3050 m by 1300 m, and will be segregated by waste type. The waste will be stored in drifts drilled perpendicular to the main galleries and will vary in length and diameter depending upon waste type. The repository life-cycle can be considered in three phases: (i) the pre-operation phase, including the conceptual development, site investigation and selection, design and construction; (ii) the operational phase, including waste emplacement and any period of time prior to closure; and (iii) the post-operational phase. The research on the technical feasibility of the repository will investigate whether the repository can be constructed and whether it is able to perform the appropriate safety functions and meet

  8. The Origin of Inlet Buzz in a Mach 1.7 Low Boom Inlet Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bernhard H.; Weir, Lois

    2014-01-01

    Supersonic inlets with external compression, having a good level performance at the critical operating point, exhibit a marked instability of the flow in some subcritical operation below a critical value of the capture mass flow ratio. This takes the form of severe oscillations of the shock system, commonly known as "buzz". The underlying purpose of this study is to indicate how Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) analysis of supersonic inlets will alter how we envision unsteady inlet aerodynamics, particularly inlet buzz. Presented in this paper is a discussion regarding the physical explanation underlying inlet buzz as indicated by DES analysis. It is the normal shock wave boundary layer separation along the spike surface which reduces the capture mass flow that is the controlling mechanism which determines the onset of inlet buzz, and it is the aerodynamic characteristics of a choked nozzle that provide the feedback mechanism that sustains the buzz cycle by imposing a fixed mean corrected inlet weight flow. Comparisons between the DES analysis of the Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMCO) N+2 inlet and schlieren photographs taken during the test of the Gulfstream Large Scale Low Boom (LSLB) inlet in the NASA 8x6 ft. Supersonic Wind Tunnel (SWT) show a strong similarity both in turbulent flow field structure and shock wave formation during the buzz cycle. This demonstrates the value of DES analysis for the design and understanding of supersonic inlets.

  9. Supply of the numerical simulation for the evaluation of the sonic boom of meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, infra-sound is one survey technique monitoring nuclear explosions. These ones have to be distinguished from natural sources of infra-sound like atmospheric meteorite entries. With a view to investigate meteorites as an infra-sound source, finite volume simulations of the hypersonic flow are performed at sufficiently far distances to reach the acoustic regime. They are then matched to a nonlinear ray tracing method to propagate the signal within the atmosphere down to the ground. For perfect gases, this approach allows us to validate the theoretical model based on simplifying assumptions. More realistic simulations in real gases at thermochemical equilibrium, show a major modification of the pressure field in the near field but a moderate influence for infra-sound at the ground level. Numerical results are compared to infra-sound and seismic measurements in the case of the well-documented meteorite of Carancas (Peru, 2007). This confrontation highlights a good agreement for the spectrum of the waveform but a large overestimation of the overpressure at receptors located near the impact crater. This study also allowed us to propose a new entry trajectory for the meteorite, and to identify one of the recorded signals as a sonic boom. (author)

  10. Aeroelastic Tailoring Study of N+2 Low Boom Supersonic Commerical Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Chan-Gi

    2015-01-01

    The Lockheed Martin N+2 Low - boom Supersonic Commercial Transport (LSCT) aircraft was optimized in this study through the use of a multidisciplinary design optimization tool developed at the National Aeronautics and S pace Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center. A total of 111 design variables we re used in the first optimization run. Total structural weight was the objective function in this optimization run. Design requirements for strength, buckling, and flutter we re selected as constraint functions during the first optimization run. The MSC Nastran code was used to obtain the modal, strength, and buckling characteristics. Flutter and trim analyses we re based on ZAERO code, and landing and ground control loads were computed using an in - house code. The w eight penalty to satisfy all the design requirement s during the first optimization run was 31,367 lb, a 9.4% increase from the baseline configuration. The second optimization run was prepared and based on the big-bang big-crunch algorithm. Six composite ply angles for the second and fourth composite layers were selected as discrete design variables for the second optimization run. Composite ply angle changes can't improve the weight configuration of the N+2 LSCT aircraft. However, this second optimization run can create more tolerance for the active and near active strength constraint values for future weight optimization runs.

  11. Boom or bust : developing countries' rough ride on the commodity price rollercoaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, O.; Gibson, J.

    2006-10-15

    Current high commodity prices are driven by strong demand from the emerging economies of China and India in addition to high consumption in the United States. Many developing countries are experiencing massive windfall revenues from high commodity prices. However, commodity prices are highly volatile in the short term, and can vary as much as 50 per cent in a single year. While developed country producers are supported by subsidies and social safety nets, developing countries and smallholder producers feel the extent of commodity price volatility more directly. Many developing countries are becoming locked into the production and export of primary commodities whose volatile prices are declining over the long term, and over which they have very little control. Price volatility makes sound fiscal planning difficult for both countries and producers. Price booms and busts also drive social inequalities, livelihood inequalities, and corruption. Price swings can cause conflict over valuable land and resources, and does not create incentives for sound environmental stewardship. This paper described the impacts of commodity price volatility in developing countries with the aim of promoting discussion about what can be done to help stabilize revenues for countries as well as producers. Price trends and their importance were reviewed, and the theoretical benefits of liberalized commodity markets were examined. Previous attempts to stabilize commodity prices were reviewed. It was concluded that the best long-term solution to the commodity price problem is economic diversification. Recommendations for promoting economic diversification were provided. 43 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  12. Cart3D Simulations for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aftosmis, Michael J.; Nemec, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Simulation results for the First AIAA Sonic Boom Prediction Workshop (LBW1) are presented using an inviscid, embedded-boundary Cartesian mesh method. The method employs adjoint-based error estimation and adaptive meshing to automatically determine resolution requirements of the computational domain. Results are presented for both mandatory and optional test cases. These include an axisymmetric body of revolution, a 69deg delta wing model and a complete model of the Lockheed N+2 supersonic tri-jet with V-tail and flow through nacelles. In addition to formal mesh refinement studies and examination of the adjoint-based error estimates, mesh convergence is assessed by presenting simulation results for meshes at several resolutions which are comparable in size to the unstructured grids distributed by the workshop organizers. Data provided includes both the pressure signals required by the workshop and information on code performance in both memory and processing time. Various enhanced techniques offering improved simulation efficiency will be demonstrated and discussed.

  13. 崛起的西南儿童文学%Boomed-up Southwest China Children's Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泉根

    2001-01-01

    大西南云贵川渝三省一市的儿童文学,在20世纪八九十年代奇迹般地崛起,成为继北京、上海(以及江浙)之后我国又一个儿童文学重要基地。就西南儿童文学创作的整体景观而言,以动物小说、儿童诗与儿歌、童话寓言与科幻取得的成绩最大,最能体现出西南儿童文学的美学个性,并在全国文坛具有实质性影响。%Through 20th 80s and 90s, in the southwest China(the three provinces of Yunnan, Guizhou ,Sichuan and Chongqingcity)children's literature boomed up surprisingly. It has been one of the important bases, following the other two children's literature central zone Beijing and Shanghai(or East China )in the temporary time. Southwest China children's literature works have acquired great achievement in the areas of animal story, children poetry, fairy tale, fable and science literature, which embody the culture characteristics and aesthetics pursuit of southwest China literature as queer and romantic, humorous and rough, thus obtained essential effect in the national literature world.

  14. MRI appearances of the anterior fibulocalcaneus muscle: a rare anterior compartment muscle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Bhavin [Basildon and Thurrock University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Imaging Department, Essex (United Kingdom); Amiras, Dimitri [Imperial College Health Care NHS Trust, Imaging Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-01

    MRI of a 62-year-old female presenting with ankle pain demonstrated an accessory muscle within the anterior compartment of the lower leg. The muscle originated from the fibula and anterior crural septum. The tendon passed anterior to the lateral malleolus and inserted at the critical angle of Gissane on the calcaneus. This muscle was initially described in the anatomic literature by Lambert and Atsas in 2010. To our knowledge, this is the first time the MRI appearances of this muscle has been described in the radiological literature. Awareness of the fibulocalcaneal muscle is important as it may represent a cause of ankle pain. In addition, the tendon could potentially be harvested for use in reconstructive procedures. (orig.)

  15. Anterior Decompression and Anterior Instrumentation of Tuberculosis of Cervicothoracic Spine by Cervicomanubrial Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anant Kumar Garg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of result of anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior instrumentation in tuberculosis of cervicothoracic spine in terms of the neurological recovery, reconstruction of spine and prevention of deformity along with relief of pain. Materials and Methods: All five patients with cervicothoracic caries spine had surgery through anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy in our hospital and underwent excision of the involved vertebrae and intervertebral discs followed by anterior spinal reconstruction with titanium spacer cage filled with cancellous iliac crest bone graft and Orion plate with locking screw. Antitubercular drugs were administered for 12 months. The follow-up period ranged from 12 to 36 months. Results: Analysis of result was done on the basis of clinical and radiological criteria. Clinical assessment based on Frankel grade and modified JOA score showed significant improvement from preoperative findings. Radiological assessment showed osteointegration, no spinal instability and no progression of the deformity. The pain control, based on visual analog scale changed from a pre-operative average of 7.5 to 2 at the last follow-up thereby indicating significant improvement and all patients returned to preoperative functional status. One patient had transient hoarseness of voice. No other complication had been encountered in the immediate post operative and during the follow-up period. Conclusions: Our study showed that anterior cervical approach with manubriotomy and anterior insertion of titanium cage, filled with autogenous bone graft, secured with locking plate instrumentation has a successful role in the eradication of infection, neurological recovery, segmental spinal reconstruction and it also reduces surgical time, blood loss, and surgical complications and approach related comorbidity in follow up period. Level of Evidence- Level 4, Case series

  16. Toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetinkaya S

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Servet Cetinkaya,1 Zeynep Dadaci,2 Hüsamettin Aksoy,3 Nursen Oncel Acir,2 Halil Ibrahim Yener,4 Ekrem Kadioglu5 1Ophthalmology Clinics, Turkish Red Crescent Hospital, Konya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Mevlana University, Konya, 3Ophthalmology Clinics, Karaman State Hospital, Karaman, 4Konya Eye Center Hospital, Konya, 5Ophthalmology Clinics, Beyhekim State Hospital, Konya, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical findings and courses of five patients who developed toxic anterior-segment syndrome (TASS after cataract surgery and investigate the cause.Materials and methods: In May 2010, on the same day, ten patients were operated on by the same surgeon. Five of these patients developed TASS postoperatively.Results: Patients had blurred-vision complaints on the first day after the operation, but no pain. They had different degrees of diffuse corneal edema, anterior-chamber reaction, fibrin, hypopyon, iris atrophies, and dilated pupils. Their vision decreased significantly, and their intraocular pressures increased. Both anti-inflammatory and antiglaucomatous therapies were commenced. Corneal edema and inflammation resolved in three cases; however, penetrating keratoplasty was needed for two cases and additional trabeculectomy was needed for one case. Although full investigations were undertaken at all steps, we could not find the causative agent.Conclusion: TASS is a preventable complication of anterior-segment surgery. Recognition of TASS, differentiating it from endophthalmitis, and starting treatment immediately is important. Controlling all steps in surgery, cleaning and sterilization of the instruments, and training nurses and other operation teams will help us in the prevention of TASS. Keywords: cataract, phacoemulsification, TASS, corneal edema, inflammation

  17. Infections after reconstructions of anterior cruciate ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infections after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are rare, but, on the other hand, they are difficult to be treated. The aim of this study was to analyze causes of infections, risk factors, diagnostics, and possibilities of their prevention. Material and Methods. Seventeen deep infections (1.2% were found in 1425 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Fifteen patients were males and two were females. Out of 475 professional athletes nine (1.9% had this postoperative complication. Eleven patients with septic arthritis were allergic to penicillin. Three of them had immunosuppressive diseases. Results. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in eleven cases (65%, other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus groups were found in four and three patients, respectively; while one patient had infection although the punctate was negative. Out of 965 patients with the patellar tendon grafts, ten (1.03% had this complication, while the incidence was 1.52% (7/460 in those with the hamstring grafts. Fifteen infections were acute with obvious symptoms within 14 days after surgery. Severe pain, limited range of motion, swelling of the knee joint and fever were the most common symptoms, while rubor and pus developed rarely. The infection was three times more frequent in the patients who had undergone surgery lasting more than 1.5 hour. Discussion and Conclusion. The following population groups are at risk of developing septic arthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions: professional athletes, those who are allergic to penicillin, and those with immunosuppressive diseases. Staphyllococus aureus is the most common cause of infection. The patients with the hamstring autografts have a higher risk than those with the patellar tendon grafts. Preventive measures that should be performed include aseptic conditions in operative rooms, irrigation of the graft before its placement into the bone tunnels

  18. The Anterior Cingulate Cortex and Pain Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Neil Fuchs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The neural network that contributes to the suffering which accompanies persistent pain states involves a number of brain regions. Of primary interest is the contribution of the cingulate cortex in processing the affective component of pain. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent data obtained using novel behavioral paradigms in animals based on measuring escape and/or avoidance of a noxious stimulus. These paradigms have successfully been used to study the nature of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex to higher order pain processing in rodents.

  19. Biological fixation in anterior cruciate ligament surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hwa Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Successful anterior cruciate ligament (ACL reconstruction with tendon graft requires extensive tendon-to-bone healing in the bone tunnels and progressive graft ligamentization for biological, structural, and functional recovery of the ACL. Improvement in graft-to-bone healing is crucial for facilitating early, aggressive rehabilitation after surgery to ensure an early return to pre-injury activity levels. The use of various biomaterials for enhancing the healing of tendon grafts in bone tunnels has been developed. With the biological enhancement of tendon-to-bone healing, biological fixation of the tendon graft in the tunnel can be achieved in ACL reconstruction.

  20. [LAPAROSCOPIC ANTERIOR UTERINE LIGAMENTOPEXY--OUR EXPERIENCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagovest, Bechev; Magunska, Nadya; Kovachev, Emil; Ivanov, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    A great number operative techniques for correction of retroverted uterus are reported in the last years. The aim of these different methods is correction of the retroversion of the uterus, which is connected with pelvic congestion and symptomatic relief. We present a clinical case of 26 years old patient with one Caesarean section. The lady complains of chronic pelvic pain, dispareunia and dismenorrhea. The US exam shows an uterus in strong retroversion position. We restored the anatomic position of the uterus using laparoscopic anterior ligementopexy.

  1. AL Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desport Estelle

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Definition of the disease AL amyloidosis results from extra-cellular deposition of fibril-forming monoclonal immunoglobulin (Ig light chains (LC (most commonly of lambda isotype usually secreted by a small plasma cell clone. Most patients have evidence of isolated monoclonal gammopathy or smoldering myeloma, and the occurrence of AL amyloidosis in patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma or other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders is unusual. The key event in the development of AL amyloidosis is the change in the secondary or tertiary structure of an abnormal monoclonal LC, which results in instable conformation. This conformational change is responsible for abnormal folding of the LC, rich in β leaves, which assemble into monomers that stack together to form amyloid fibrils. Epidemiology AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidois in developed countries with an estimated incidence of 9 cases/million inhabitant/year. The average age of diagnosed patients is 65 years and less than 10% of patients are under 50. Clinical description The clinical presentation is protean, because of the wide number of tissues or organs that may be affected. The most common presenting symptoms are asthenia and dyspnoea, which are poorly specific and may account for delayed diagnosis. Renal manifestations are the most frequent, affecting two thirds of patients at presentation. They are characterized by heavy proteinuria, with nephrotic syndrome and impaired renal function in half of the patients. Heart involvement, which is present at diagnosis in more than 50% of patients, leading to restrictive cardiopathy, is the most serious complication and engages prognosis. Diagnostic methods The diagnosis relies on pathological examination of an involved site showing Congo red-positive amyloid deposits, with typical apple-green birefringence under polarized light, that stain positive with an anti-LC antibody by immunohistochemistry and

  2. Anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of patients with anterior scleritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levison, Ashleigh L; Lowder, Careen Y; Baynes, Kimberly M; Kaiser, Peter K; Srivastava, Sunil K

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe the findings seen on anterior segment spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in patients with anterior scleritis and determine the feasibility of using SD-OCT to image and grade the degree of scleral inflammation and monitor response to treatment. All patients underwent slit lamp examination by a uveitis specialist, and the degree of scleral inflammation was recorded. Spectral domain OCT imaging was then performed of the conjunctiva and scleral tissue using a standardized acquisition protocol. The scans were graded and compared to clinical findings. Twenty-eight patients with anterior scleritis and ten patients without ocular disease were included in the study. Seventeen of the scleritis patients were followed longitudinally. Common findings on SD-OCT in patients with active scleritis included changes in hyporeflectivity within the sclera, nodules, and visible vessels within the sclera. There was significant variation in findings on SD-OCT within each clinical grade of active scleritis. These changes on SD-OCT improved with treatment and clinical improvement. SD-OCT imaging provided various objective measures that could be used in the future to grade inflammatory activity in patients with anterior scleritis. Longitudinal imaging of patients with active scleritis demonstrated that SD-OCT may have great utility in monitoring response to treatment.

  3. Accuracy of Lachman and Anterior Drawer Tests for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Makhmalbaf

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Background: The knee joint is prone to injury because of its complexity and weight-bearing function. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL ruptures happen in young and physically active population and can result in instability, meniscal tears, and articular cartilage damage. The aim of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of Lachman and anterior drawer test in ACL injury in compare with arthroscopy.   Methods: In a descriptive, analytical study from 2009 to 2013, 653 patients who were suspected to ACL rapture were entered the study. Statistical analysis was performed by the usage of SPSS 19.0. Multiple comparison procedure was performed for comparing data between clinical examination and arthroscopic findings and their relation with age and sex. Results: Mean age of patients was 28.3±7.58 years (range from 16 to 68 years. From 428 patients, 41.2% (175 patients were between 26 and 35, 38.8% (165 ones between 15 and 25 and 20% (85 patients over 36 years. 414 patients were male (97.2% and 12 were female (2.8%. Sensitivity of anterior drawer test was 94.4% and sensitivity of Lachman test was 93.5%. Conclusion: The diagnosis and decision to reconstruct ACL injury can be reliably made regard to the anterior drawer and Lachman tests result. The tests did not have privilege to each other. These test accuracy increased considerably under anesthesia especially in women.

  4. The normal anterior cruciate ligament as a model for tensioning strategies in anterior cruciate ligament grafts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP; Verdonschot, N; van Kampen, A

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is some confusion about the relationship between the tension placed on the graft and the joint position used in the fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. This is because of deficiency in accurate basic science about this important interaction in the normal and reconstructe

  5. The normal anterior cruciate ligament as a model for tensioning strategies in anterior cruciate ligament grafts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, M.P.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.; Kampen, A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is some confusion about the relationship between the tension placed on the graft and the joint position used in the fixation of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. This is because of deficiency in accurate basic science about this important interaction in the normal and reconstructe

  6. Penghentian Karies Gigi Sulung Anterior (Laporan Penelitian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titi Pratiwi Indra Yoga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu cara menanggulangi karies pada gigi sulung anterior adalah dengan mengasah gigi menjadi bentuk self cleansing atau tapered dan kemudian mengolesnya dengan larutan SnF2 10%. Cara ini relatif mudah mengerjakannya serta murah biayanya. Keburukannya hanya pada masalah estetis, yaitu bentuk gigi menjadi lebih kecil, serta adanya staining kecoklatan karena pengendapan Sn. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui apakah cara ini dapat menghentikan karies pada gigi sulung anterior, serta sampai berapa lama pengaruh SnF2 10% dapat menghentikan karies. Sampel diambil dari murid TK yang berusia 2,5 sampai 5 tahun, gigi sulung anteriornya terkena karies email pada bagian proksimal satu atau dua sisi. Mengingat usia sampel yang masih muda, maka sampai akhir penelitian hanya didapat 20 orang anak yang memenuhi kriteria, dan hasil penelitian dihitung secara statistik dengan X2 – test. Hasil penelitian ternyata prosedur perawatan ini berhasil secara bermakna setelah 3-6 bulan (X2 = 0.056, df = 1, dan p < 0.05.

  7. Adjacent Segment Pathology after Anterior Cervical Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jae Yoon; Park, Jong-Beom; Seo, Hyoung-Yeon; Kim, Sung Kyu

    2016-06-01

    Anterior cervical fusion has become a standard of care for numerous pathologic conditions of the cervical spine. However, subsequent development of clinically significant disc disease at levels adjacent to fused discs is a serious long-term complication of this procedure. As more patients live longer after surgery, it is foreseeable that adjacent segment pathology (ASP) will develop in increasing numbers of patients. Also, ASP has been studied more intensively with the recent popularity of motion preservation technologies like total disc arthroplasty. The true nature and scope of ASP remains poorly understood. The etiology of ASP is most likely multifactorial. Various factors including altered biomechanical stresses, surgical disruption of soft tissue and the natural history of cervical disc disease contribute to the development of ASP. General factors associated with disc degeneration including gender, age, smoking and sports may play a role in the development of ASP. Postoperative sagittal alignment and type of surgery are also considered potential causes of ASP. Therefore, a spine surgeon must be particularly careful to avoid unnecessary disruption of the musculoligamentous structures, reduced risk of direct injury to the disc during dissection and maintain a safe margin between the plate edge and adjacent vertebrae during anterior cervical fusion.

  8. MRI of anterior cruciate ligament autografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogi, Shigeyuki; Ariizumi, Mitsuko; Yamagishi, Tsuneo [The Aoyama Tokyo Metropolitan office' s Hospital (Japan); Agata, Toshihiko; Tada, Shinpei; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of MRI in the evaluation of autografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. The subjects were 110 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon autografts who underwent clinical examination, MRI, and arthroscopy of the knee. T1- and T2-weighted MR images were obtained in sagittal plane. Clinical findings were categorized into three groups: normal, borderline, and abnormal. The MRI appearances of the autografts were categorized into three types: straight continuous band (type I), interrupted band (type II) and generalized increased intensity band (type III). The clinical findings and MRI findings were compared with arthroscopic findings. Ninety-six percent of the type I showed no autograft tear on arthroscopy. In comparison with the clinical findings, MRI was found to be well correlated with arthroscopic findings. In conclusion, if the clinical findings are normal, patients are to be followed-up without MRI and arthroscopy. However, if clinical findings are either borderline or abnormal, MRI should be performed prior to arthroscopy. (author)

  9. Cytokine response in peripheral blood indicates different pathophysiological mechanisms behind anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Baatrup, G; Gjedsted, J;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after rectosigmoid resection is a serious complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. This case-control pilot study investigated the changes in blood concentration of 10 different cytokines and 2 complement factors in relation to symptomatic AL...... after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for resection of rectosigmoid cancer had blood samples taken the day before surgery and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Four patients with symptomatic AL were identified. Twenty-two age- and disease......-matched patients constituted the control group. The concentration of 10 cytokines (granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, interleukin-1β, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-5, interleukin-6, interleukin-8, interleukin-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α) and 2 complement factors (mannan...

  10. Boom and bust: housing equity withdrawal and consumption decisions and their impacts on household wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gist, John R; Figueiredo, Carlos; Verma, Satyendra K

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine whether the surge in housing refinance and equity withdrawal generated by the housing boom disproportionately affected older households in terms of decisions on whether to refinance, whether to withdraw equity, and how much to withdraw, and how in turn these decisions affected their household wealth. Using the Federal Reserve's Survey of Consumer Finances, the authors found the highest rates of refinancing and cashing out equity among older (although not necessarily the oldest) households. The authors also found that appreciation in house value, being a baby boomer, and having higher household income were the factors that most increased the probability of refinancing and withdrawing equity. Amounts cashed out were higher among older than among younger households. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates showed that amounts withdrawn were increased by price appreciation, financial assets, and income, along with being a "pre-boomer" or "early boomer." Older cohorts displayed larger wealth effects than younger ones, but their withdrawn equity was a smaller percentage of total net worth. A relatively small percentage of respondents' dollars was used for consumption, and most dollars were used for home improvement, other investment, or debt repayment. However, massive equity withdrawal and the subsequent collapse of housing prices have caused housing leverage to soar, putting some homeowners "underwater" and jeopardizing others' retirement preparedness. The ensuing housing finance crisis raises numerous policy issues, from reform of mortgage underwriting, securitization, servicing, and foreclosure procedures, to potential limitations on borrowing against unrealized housing equity gains, to enhanced government transfers for distressed older homeowners, to local and state revenue policy changes. PMID:22239279

  11. Doom and boom on a resilient reef: climate change, algal overgrowth and coral recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Diaz-Pulido

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Coral reefs around the world are experiencing large-scale degradation, largely due to global climate change, overfishing, diseases and eutrophication. Climate change models suggest increasing frequency and severity of warming-induced coral bleaching events, with consequent increases in coral mortality and algal overgrowth. Critically, the recovery of damaged reefs will depend on the reversibility of seaweed blooms, generally considered to depend on grazing of the seaweed, and replenishment of corals by larvae that successfully recruit to damaged reefs. These processes usually take years to decades to bring a reef back to coral dominance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In 2006, mass bleaching of corals on inshore reefs of the Great Barrier Reef caused high coral mortality. Here we show that this coral mortality was followed by an unprecedented bloom of a single species of unpalatable seaweed (Lobophora variegata, colonizing dead coral skeletons, but that corals on these reefs recovered dramatically, in less than a year. Unexpectedly, this rapid reversal did not involve reestablishment of corals by recruitment of coral larvae, as often assumed, but depended on several ecological mechanisms previously underestimated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These mechanisms of ecological recovery included rapid regeneration rates of remnant coral tissue, very high competitive ability of the corals allowing them to out-compete the seaweed, a natural seasonal decline in the particular species of dominant seaweed, and an effective marine protected area system. Our study provides a key example of the doom and boom of a highly resilient reef, and new insights into the variability and mechanisms of reef resilience under rapid climate change.

  12. Il boom dell’Italia in Giappone: riflessioni critiche su Occidentalismo e Italianismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Miyake

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the modern age, Occidentalism as a process of signifying practices based upon the notion of “the West” has played a hegemonic role in the configuration of collective identity and alterity. The imaginary geography of “the West” has been one of the most effective in inscribing the whole world and humanity along hierarchic and fluid lines of inclusion and exclusion, encompassing global relations of power in geopolitical contexts, as well as knowledge practices in geocultural spheres. In spite of post-colonial engagements aimed to de-naturalize the notions of “the West” and “the East”, little critical attentions has been paid so far to the inter-relational and complicit processes between Occidentalism, Orientalism and self-Orientalism.             This paper shall explore the historical genalogy of discourses on Italy (Italianism in modern Japan, which brought to the Italian boom in the 1990s, elevating at present Italy to the rank of the most-loved foreign country among Japanese women and youth. This study suggests that the prevailing image of Italy has been articulated and re-produced since modern age as an ambivalent icon: a superior-seeming and ‘archetypical West’ based on the insistence of its antique and classical features (Roman Empire, Humanism, Renaissance, and at the same time, an inferior-seeming and ‘backward West’ based on the insistence of its pre-moderns aspects (history, gastronomy, fashion, landscapes, cheerful people, etc.. The popularity of this configuration suggests the strategic relevance of the Italian looking glass self which enables to mediate deep rooted and contradictory pro-western and anti-western tensions in modern and contemporary Japan.

  13. Review of 31 cases of anterior thoracolumbar fixation with the anterior thoracolumbar locking plate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J A; Bowen, S; Branch, C L; Meredith, J W

    1999-07-15

    Anterior fixation devices for the thoracolumbar spine have gained wide acceptance as viable alternatives to long-segment posterior fixation in cases of thoracolumbar spine trauma. This review was undertaken to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the Synthes anterior thoracolumbar locking plate (ATLP) system. Over a 3-year period, 31 patients with unstable traumatic fractures of the thoracolumbar spine underwent corpectomy, placement of a structural bone graft, and anterior fixation in which the Synthes ATLP system was used. Long-term follow-up data were obtained in 29 patients. Two patients were lost to follow up, one at 4 months and the other at 1 year. In the remaining patients, the average length of follow up was 20 months. In all patients radiographic evidence of solid bone fusion was demonstrated on follow-up plain x-ray films, and there were no signs or symptoms of pseudarthrosis. No patient suffered neurological deterioration as a result of surgery, and there was relatively little morbidity associated with this plating system. To date, none of the patients in this study has developed any delayed complications related to the fixation device. In one patient, who had sustained a severe flexion injury, loosening of the anterior fixation device occurred, and the patient developed progressive kyphosis, which required a posterior stabilization procedure. These results appear slightly better than those obtained in published studies in which other anterior plating systems were used, indicating that this system is safe and effective in the treatment of unstable fractures of the thoracolumbar spine. PMID:16918232

  14. [Role of transanal drainage tube in the prevention of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection for rectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Song; Tong, Weidong

    2016-06-01

    Anastomotic leakage (AL) is one of the most serious complications of anterior resection for rectal cancer with morbidity about 10%. Distance of anastomosis to anal margin, underlying disease, surgical technique and perioperative situations are associated with AL. The transanal drainage tube (TDT) after anastomosis is gradually proved to be useful in prevention of AL. Most of the literatures suggest that TDT is simple and safe, and can reduce the incidence of AL. The materials and the operating process of TDT have been universalized gradually: application of silicone or rubber material, large lumen with several side holes, placement at a distance of 3 to 5 cm above the anastomosis for 5 to 7 days. However, selection bias existed in previous studies, and the main problems were disunity of enrolling standard and exclusion of patients with high AL risk, which would not fully reflect the value of TDT. Defunctioning stoma (or diverting stoma, DS) is a common method to prevent and treat the AL. At present, efficacy comparison between TDT and DS remains controversial. Thus, randomized, double-blind, controlled trials are needed to investigate the value of TDT in prevention of AL after anterior resection, especially for middle and low rectal cancer. PMID:27353109

  15. Anterior Cervical Spinal Surgery for Multilevel Cervical Myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Jung-Ju Huang; Lih-Huei Chen; Chi-Chien Niu; Tsai-Sheng Fu; Po-Liang Lai; Wen-Jer Chen

    2004-01-01

    Background: In multilevel spinal cord compression caused by cervical spondylosis, surgeonsface the choice of performing a posterior route as a laminectomy orlaminoplasty, or an anterior route as multiple adjacent interbody decompressionsor corpectomies. The anterior cervical operation is not considered bysome clinicians because of concerns about complications and the complexityof multilevel anterior cervical surgery.Methods: In this retrospective study, 14 patients with multilevel cervical sp...

  16. Complications of the anterior approach to the cervical spine

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelo Lemos Vieira da Cunha; Francisco Alves de Araújo Júnior; Cássio Czottis Grapiglia; Denildo César Amaral Veríssimo; Roberta Rehder; Samir Ale Bark; Luis Alencar Biurrum Borba

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the complications of anterior approach to the cervical spine in patients who underwent cervical arthrodesis with instrumentation. METHODS: Prospective and descriptive study was conducted from January 2009 to April 2010. All patients who underwent arthrodesis of the cervical spine by anterior approach were included, regardless the diagnosis. Access was made by the anterior approach on the right side. We evaluated the number of operated levels (1, 2 or 3 levels) and,...

  17. Current approach in diagnosis and management of anterior uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Rupesh; Murthy Somasheila; Sangwan Virender; Biswas Jyotirmay

    2010-01-01

    Uveitis is composed of a diverse group of disease entities, which in total has been estimated to cause approximately 10% of blindness. Uveitis is broadly classified into anterior, intermediate, posterior and panuveitis based on the anatomical involvement of the eye. Anterior uveitis is, however, the commonest form of uveitis with varying incidences reported in worldwide literature. Anterior uveitis can be very benign to present with but often can lead to severe morbidity if not treated...

  18. Double anterior chamber in a patient with glaucoma and microspherophakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Khakshoor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 16-year-old woman with microspherophakia and secondary open angle glaucoma. The patient presented with a membrane dividing the anterior chamber into two segments without edema or Descemet′s membrane detachment. Slit lamp biomicroscopy, Pentacam, and specular microscopy images were obtained. Double anterior chamber is primarily found in patients with anterior chamber anomalies when there is no history of surgery or trauma.

  19. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Varun Kumar Singh; Gauresh Shantaram Vargaonkar

    2014-01-01

    Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle.Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare.We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male.Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test.Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result.

  20. Transanal stent in anterior resection does not prevent anastomotic leakage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Steffen; Bulut, O; Christensen, Ib Jarle;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A defunctioning transanal stent may theoretically reduce the leakage rate after anterior rectal resection. We present a randomized open study with the aim of comparing the leakage rate after anterior resection with a loop ileostomy, a transanal stent, both or neither. PATIENTS AND METH....... On this basis it was decided to discontinue the study prematurely for ethical reasons. CONCLUSION: Decompression of the anastomosis with a transanal stent does not reduce the risk of anastomotic leakage after anterior resection....

  1. Rehablitation of mandibular fracture with anterior teeth loss

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Meenakshi; Singh, Ajay; Rajpal, Jaisika; K. K. Gupta; Singh, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    We report here on rehabilitating a case with mandibular fracture and lower anterior teeth loss. Three double-staged implants were placed in the lower anterior region; in an attempt to rehabilitate the condition of five missing lower teeth, two natural teeth were prepared to act as natural abutments. Teeth implant-supported prosthesis was fabricated. Patient with a right mandibular fracture and loss of lower anterior missing teeth was successfully rehabilitated with teeth implant-supported pro...

  2. Audit on necessity of radiographs in anterior shoulder dislocations

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ahmadi, M.D; M. Mofidi, M.D.

    2008-01-01

    AbstractBackground and Purpose: Anterior shoulder dislocation is the most common major joint dislocation. In most cases, this dislocation is being relocated in emergency departments. Routinely, pre and post reduction radiographs are performed. This study was done to determine the necessity of radiographs in the emergency department for management of patients with suspected anterior shoulder dislocation.Materials and Methods: In this case series study, 116 patients suspected of anterior should...

  3. No volumetric differences in the anterior cingulate of psychopathic individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Andrea L.; Yang, Yaling; Raine, Adrian; Colletti, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Functional imaging studies of psychopathy have demonstrated reduced activity in the anterior cingulate, yet it is unclear whether this region is structurally impaired. In this study, we used structural MRI to examine whether volumetric differences exist in the anterior cingulate between psychopathic (n=24) and control (n=24) male participants. We found no group differences in the volume of the anterior cingulate or its dorsal and ventral subregions. Our findings call into question whether the...

  4. Bonding a veneered zirconia anterior fixed partial denture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Chavali, Ramakiran; Burgess, John O

    2015-01-01

    This case report documents the rationale and procedure for bonding a veneered zirconia restoration. A three-unit zirconia fixed partial denture (FPD) was fabricated with facial and incisal porcelain veneering. The intaglio surface of the prosthesis was abraded with 50-μm aluminum oxide (Al2O3) particles and coated with one layer of a 10-methacryloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP) primer. The FPD was tried into the mouth and occlusal adjustment was performed with a fine grit diamond, and then it was polished with zirconia polishing points. The intaglio surfaces of the abutment crowns were cleaned with 37% phosphoric acid and rinsed. A self-etch adhesive was applied to the tooth preparations and light-cured, and the crowns were filled with cement and seated. Excess cement was immediately wiped away with a brush, followed by spot-curing of the margins. The case demonstrates that, when properly designed, veneered zirconia restorations offer acceptable esthetic and mechanical properties for anterior FPDs. PMID:25822406

  5. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhai Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and aqueous depth (AD. Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA. Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59±27.37 μm, 3.70±0.30 mm, and 3.16±0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14±26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71±0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17±0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45±6.07 μm, P<0.05. The differences in ACD and AD measurements were not statistically significant. The 95% LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between −9.44 and 14.35 μm, −0.15 and 0.12 mm, and −0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic.

  6. Comparison between a New Optical Biometry Device and an Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomographer for Measuring Central Corneal Thickness and Anterior Chamber Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhai; Lu, Weicong; Savini, Giacomo; Chen, Hao; Wang, Chengfang; Yu, Xinxin; Bao, Fangjun; Wang, Qinmei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare between a new optical biometer (AL-Scan, Nidek Co., Aichi, Japan) and an anterior segment optical coherence tomographer (Visante AS-OCT, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Dublin, USA) for measuring central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and aqueous depth (AD). Methods. Sixty-three eyes of 63 normal subjects were examined with AL-Scan and Visante AS-OCT in this prospective study. One eye per subject was measured three times with both devices to record their CCT, ACD, and AD. All procedures were performed by the same operator. Agreement between the two devices was assessed using paired t-tests, Bland-Altman plots, and 95% limits of agreement (LoA). Results. The mean CCT, ACD, and AD measured by AL-Scan were 538.59 ± 27.37 μm, 3.70 ± 0.30 mm, and 3.16 ± 0.30 mm, respectively. The mean values obtained by the Visante OCT were 536.14 ± 26.61 μm for CCT, 3.71 ± 0.29 mm for ACD, and 3.17 ± 0.29 mm for AD. The mean CCT by the AL-Scan was higher than that obtained by the Visante AS-OCT (difference = 2.45 ± 6.07 μm, P LoA of CCT, ACD, and AD were between -9.44 and 14.35 μm, -0.15 and 0.12 mm, and -0.15 and 0.12 mm, respectively. Conclusions. Since these two devices were comparable for measuring CCT, ACD, and AD, their results can be interchangeably used in the clinic. PMID:27403339

  7. Winging of scapula due to serratus anterior tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Singh Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Winging of scapula occurs most commonly due to injury to long thoracic nerve supplying serratus anterior muscle. Traumatic injury to serratus anterior muscle itself is very rare. We reported a case of traumatic winging of scapula due to tear of serratus anterior muscle in a 19-year-old male. Winging was present in neutral position and in extension of right shoulder joint but not on "push on wall" test. Patient was managed conservatively and achieved satisfactory result. Key words: Serratus anterior tear; Scapula; Wounds and injuries

  8. Chemical durability of vitrified high-level waste and spent fuel under simulated repository conditions of a Boom Clay formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian programme is considering both the closed and open fuel cycle options. In the closed cycle, HLW glasses from the former Eurochemic reprocessing plant and from the French R7T7 plants are studied. R and D is focused on the interaction with the Boom Clay disposal host and potential near field environments. In surface laboratory testing we developed new set-ups to investigate various coupled processes: (1) combined glass leaching/Si diffusion in clay, (2) diffusion/sorption/precipitation of Si in clay, (3) effect of the presaturation of clay with Si, and (4) the mobile concentrations of e.g. Np, Tc, Se in clay slurries after leaching from glass. In the CORALUS in situ test, we installed four tubes in the underground laboratory (SCK-CEN site), and retrieved two of them after an interaction time of ∼1 year (90 deg. C) and ∼3 years (30 deg C). The R and D on the geological disposal of spent fuel in Boom Clay is focused on two major issues: (1) study the effect of α-activity on the dissolution of α-doped UO2 (simulating spent fuel ages between 150 and 90000 years), and (2) study the influence of Boom Clay and potential backfill materials (apatite, cement, sand) on the α-doped UO2 dissolution rate. Different experimental set-ups have been elaborated. Flowthrough tests in clay water and static tests in clay slurries were carried out in reducing conditions. We report the main results obtained on both HLW glass and doped UO2. Both HLW glass and UO2 show a similar evolution of the dissolution behaviour with time in the clay containing media. After an initial relatively fast dissolution characterized by sorption onto the clay, a much lower dissolution rate is observed. For both waste forms this results in expected lifetimes during geological disposal of 105 years or more. (author)

  9. Combined operative technique with anterior surgical approach and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgical lobectomy for anterior superior sulcus tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Chen, Fengshi; Aoyama, Akihiro; Sato, Toshihiko; Date, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely used, but surgical resections of superior sulcus tumours remain challenging because of their anatomical location. For such cases, less-invasive procedures, such as the anterior transcervical-thoracic and transmanubrial approaches, have been widely performed because of their excellent visualization of the subclavian vessels. Recently, a combined operative technique with an anterior surgical approach and VATS for anterior superior sulcus tumours has been introduced. Herein, we report three cases of anterior superior sulcus tumours successfully resected by surgical approaches combined with a VATS-based lobectomy. In all cases, operability was confirmed by VATS, and upper lobectomies with hilar and mediastinal lymph node dissections were performed. Subsequently, dissections of the anterior inlet of the tumours were performed using the transmanubrial approach in two patients and the anterior trans-cervical-thoracic approach in one patient. Both approaches provided excellent access to the anterior inlet of the tumour and exposure of the subclavian vessels, resulting in radical resection of the tumour with concomitant resection of the surrounding anatomical structures, including the chest wall and vessels. In conclusion, VATS lobectomy combined with the anterior surgical approach might be an excellent procedure for the resection of anterior superior sulcus tumours.

  10. Oil Palm Boom and Land-Use Dynamics in Indonesia: The Role of Policies and Socioeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gatto, Marcel; Wollni, Meike; Qaim, Matin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate land-use dynamics in Jambi, Sumatra, one of the hotspots of Indonesia’ recent oil palm boom. Data from a structured village survey are used to analyze the role of socioeconomic and policy factors. Oil palm is partly grown on large plantations, but smallholders are also involved significantly. We find that, in spite of significant oil palm expansion, rubber remains the dominant crop. Most of the oil palm growth takes place on previous fallow and rubber land. Oil palm has not bee...

  11. Neurologic complication after anterior sciatic nerve block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Shruti; Hadzic, Admir; Vloka, Jerry D; Cafferty, Maureen S; Moucha, Calin S; Santos, Alan C

    2005-05-01

    The lack of reported complications related to lower extremity peripheral nerve blocks (PNBs) may be related to the relatively infrequent application of these techniques and to the fact that most such events go unpublished. Our current understanding of the factors that lead to neurologic complications after PNBs is limited. This is partly the result of our inability to conduct meaningful retrospective studies because of a lack of standard and objective monitoring and documentation procedures for PNBs. We report a case of permanent injury to the sciatic nerve after sciatic nerve block through the anterior approach and discuss mechanisms that may have led to the injury. Intraneural injection and nerve injury can occur in the absence of pain on injection and it may be heralded by high injection pressure (resistance).

  12. Tibial Tubercle Osteotomy for Anterior Knee Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasia, Davide; Rosso, Federica; Cottino, Umberto; Governale, Giorgio; Cherubini, Valeria; Dettoni, Federico; Bruzzone, Matteo; Rossi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mid-term radiological and clinical outcomes of tibial tubercle osteotomy in patients affected by anterior knee pain. In addition, prognostic factors correlated with the outcomes were evaluated. Methods: The patients treated with tibial tubercle osteotomy (anteromedialization) for anterior knee pain between 2002 and 2014 were included. Exclusion criteria: 1) previous knee surgeries; 2) different procedures to treat anterior knee pain; 3) history of patellar dislocation, 4) Rheumatic conditions. Different variables were collected, as shown in. The patients were prospectively evaluated using the WOMAC short form and Kujala scores. An objective evaluation was performed looking for different potential risk factors and using part of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Radiological evaluation was performed, including the congruence angle, the grade of osteoarthritis (Kellegren-Lawrence) and the patellar tilt angle. Three main outcomes were identified. The multiple logistic regression was used to analyze the correlation between the variables and a worse outcome. Results: 72 cases were included in the study (9 bilateral). 72.2% of the cases were female, and the average age was 42,2 years (SD15,9). The average BMI was 24.4 kg/m2 (SD5,2). In 70.8% of patients a lateral release was associated to the tibial tubercle osteotomy. 77.8% of patients were evaluated clinically, the remaining, who were unable to come for the visits, were interviewed and the subjective scores were administered by phone. The average follow-up was 68.4 months (SD35.5).In 62.5% of cases a valgus lower limb alignment was detected, with 25% and 39.3% of patients having respectively an increased femoral antiversion and foot pronation. Post-operatively there was a statistical significant improvement in all the scores. No differences in the pre-operative and post-operative congruence angle or patellar tilt were detected (p>0.05). All

  13. Foreign Body Embedded in Anterior Chamber Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shmuel Graffi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. We present a case of a metallic foreign body embedded in the anterior chamber angle. After standing in close proximity to a construction worker breaking a tile, a 26-year-old woman using soft contact lens for the correction of mild myopia presented to emergency department for evaluation of a foreign body sensation of her right eye. Methods and Results. Diagnosis was confirmed by gonioscopic examination and a noncontrast CT scan of head and orbits. The foreign body was removed by an external approach without utilizing a magnet. The patient's final outcome was favorable. Discussion. The above is a rare clinical situation, which is impossible to detect on slit-lamp examination without a gonioscopic view. Proper imaging and a specific management are mandatory in order to achieve favorable outcome.

  14. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takaki, Kazuhiro; Tomari, Kazuhide; Asao, Tsunenori [Shinbeppu Hospital, Oita (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, the authors retrospectively reviewed 39 MR imaging examinations in 39 patients. We classified the MR imaging patterns of the torn ACL into four types. Torn ACL appears as a homogeneous iso-intensity mass on Type I images; as a continuous thin and waving low-intensity band with or without high-signal-intensity spots on the Type II images; as a disrupted band with a high-signal-intensity area on Type III images and as an absence of the ACL on Type IV images. We also report secondary lesions on MR imaging findings associated with tears of the ACL, posterior cruciate ligament index and bone bruising, in our patients. (author).

  15. MR imaging of anterior cruciate ligament tears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, the authors retrospectively reviewed 39 MR imaging examinations in 39 patients. We classified the MR imaging patterns of the torn ACL into four types. Torn ACL appears as a homogeneous iso-intensity mass on Type I images; as a continuous thin and waving low-intensity band with or without high-signal-intensity spots on the Type II images; as a disrupted band with a high-signal-intensity area on Type III images and as an absence of the ACL on Type IV images. We also report secondary lesions on MR imaging findings associated with tears of the ACL, posterior cruciate ligament index and bone bruising, in our patients. (author)

  16. MR imaging evaluation of anterior cruciate ligaments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 546 knees, the authors have obtained MR images (0.5 T or 1.5 T). The protocol included 5-mm-thick contiguous sagittal and oblique coronal images (in the plane of the anterior cruciate ligament [ACL]) and T1-, proton-density-, and T2-weighted sequences. In 174 patients, correlations with arthroscopic or surgical findings were available. In these cases, sagittal and oblique coronal images were retrospectively and separately read by two radiologists, who were blinded to other results. The mean accuracy of sagittal MR images alone was 88% for the depiction of partial and complete ACL tears, intraligamental bleeding, and scarring; the accuracy of oblique coronal images alone was 96%. Use of sagittal and oblique coronal images together achieved 98% accuracy

  17. Patellotibial contusions in anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissman, Robert D; England, Eric; Mehta, Kaushal; Nepute, Joshua; Von Fischer, Nathaniel; Apgar, Josh; Javadi, Ariyan

    2014-02-01

    Bone contusions are an important ancillary finding of many knee injuries. Not only are they a source of pain, they may suggest a mechanism of injury or a specific derangement of the knee joint. We have encountered a small number of patients being evaluated for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears with unexplained patellar and tibial edema at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. We present three individuals with contusions of the inferior patella with a corresponding contusion of the anteromedial tibial plateau. Internal derangements in these patients were similar to other individuals with acute ACL tears, however osseous contusions were more widespread. In conclusion, patellotibial contusions are rare and may indicate an injury with forces greater than usually encountered in most ACL tears. A careful search for uncommon associated injuries is prudent in these high-energy knee injuries. PMID:24037484

  18. Concrescent triplets involving primary anterior teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Odontogenesis is a complex process wherein more than 200 genes are known to play a significant role in tooth development. An imbalance can lead to an abnormality in the number, size, shape or structure of the developing tooth/teeth. The presence of an extra dental lamina forms a supernumerary tooth. The supernumerary teeth are of two types: A rudimentary tooth where the supernumerary tooth does not resemble any tooth in the normal series or a supplemental tooth in which this anomalous tooth resembles one in the normal series. It is also very rare to encounter triple teeth in primary dentition. The union of these teeth may be through fusion, gemination, concrescence or a combination of fusion and gemination. Presented is a rare case of concrescence involving maxillary deciduous incisors and a supplemental tooth in a 7-year-old boy. The differential diagnosis, etiology, and complications of primary anterior triple teeth are discussed.

  19. Anterior cruciate ligament injuries: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy, Robert H; Silvers, Holly J; Mandelbaum, Bert R

    2010-03-01

    The relatively high risk of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture among female athletes has been a major impetus for investigation into the etiology of this injury. A number of risk factors have been identified, both internal and external to the athlete, including neuromuscular, anatomical, hormonal, shoe-surface interaction, and environmental, such as weather. The anatomic and neuromuscular risk factors, often gender related, are the focus of most ACL injury prevention programs. Although studies have shown that biomechanic- centered prevention programs can reduce the risk of ACL injury, many questions remain unanswered. More research is needed to increase our understanding of the risk factors for ACL injury; how injury prevention programs work and can the clinical application of such programs be optimized. PMID:20160623

  20. Endoscopic anterior decompression in cervical disc disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yad Ram Yadav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although microscopic anterior cervical discectomy with or without fusion are common surgical procedures for treatment of cervical herniated discs, loss of disc height, pseudarthrosis, and adjacent disc degeneration are some of the problems associated with it. This study is aimed to evaluate results of endoscopic microforaminotomy in cervical disc diseases. Materials and Methods: A prospective study of 50 patients of mono segmental soft or hard disc causing myeloradiculopathy was undertaken. A visual analogue scale (VAS for neck and arm pain and functional outcomes using the Nurick grading system were assessed. There were 28, 12, 8, and 2 patients at C5-6, C6-7, C4-5, and C3-4 levels disc diseases, respectively. Patients with two or more level disc, instabilities, disc extending more than half vertebral body height, and previous operation at the same segment were excluded. Results: Age ranged from 21 to 67 years. Average postoperative reduction in disc height, operating time, and blood loss was 1.1 mm, 110 minutes, and 30 ml, respectively. Average pre-operative VAS score for arm pain and Nurick grading was 7.6 and 2.7, which improved to 1.9 and 0.82, respectively. All patients improved; 1, 2, 3 grade improvement was seen in 10, 27, and 10 patients, respectively. There was no significant complication or any mortality. Conclusion: Although longer follow up of large number of patients is required, endoscopic microforaminotomy is a safe and an effective alternative to microscopic anterior discectomy with or without fusion.

  1. Etiological aspects of anterior open bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Ljiljana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Open bite is a multifactorial phenomenon and no single factor can account for open-bite. Etiology plays an important role in diagnosis. Heredity, unfavorable growth patterns, incorrect jaw postoure, are the characteristics of skeletal open bite. Digit sucking. Depending on where the thumb is placed, a number of different types of dental problems can develop. Malocclusions of the late mixed or permanent dentitions, caused by thumb sucking are not self corrected and orthodontic treatment is necessary for their correction. Lymphatic tissue. In order to produce oral respiration, the mandible is postured inferiorly with the tongue protruded and resting against the oral floor. This postural alteration induces dental and skeletal modifications similar to those caused by thumb sucking. This may cause excessive eruption of the posterior teeth, leading to an increase in the vertical dimension of the face and result in development of anterior open bite. Tongue thrust. Tongue habits cause an anterior open bite or they develop secondarily to thumb sucking. In skeletal open bite the tongue habit acts as a secondary factor which helps to maintain or exacerbate the condition. Many orthodontists have had a discouraging experience of completing dental treatment, with what appeared to be good results, only to discover that the case had relapsed because the patient had a tongue thrust swallowing pattern. Conclusion. Dentoalveolar or habitual open bite is caused by habits, which influence the growth and development of dentoalveolar processes and contribute to occlusal disharmonies. Prior to eruption of adult dentition, open bite related to oral habits is usually not a concern as when the habits stop, because the erupting dentition tends to improve spontaneously. Treatment is usually not necessary until permanent teeth erupt (~6 years old. .

  2. Clinical Outcomes Following Revision Anterior Shoulder Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Rachel M.; Mellano, Chris; Shin, Jason J.; Feldheim, Terrence F.; Mascarenhas, Randhir; Yanke, Adam Blair; Cole, Brian J.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Verma, Nikhil N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes following revision anterior shoulder stabilization performed either via all-arthroscopic soft tissue repair or via Latarjet coracoid transfer. Methods: A retrospective review of prospectively collected data on 91 shoulders undergoing revision anterior shoulder stabilization was performed. All patients underwent prior soft tissue stabilization; those with prior open bone grafting procedures were excluded. For patients with 25% glenoid bone loss, Latarjet was performed (n=28). Patients were queried regarding recurrent instability (subluxation or dislocation). Clinical outcomes were evaluated using validated patient reported outcome questionnaires including the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, Simple Shoulder Test (SST), visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI). Results: A total of 63 shoulders in 62 patients (46 males, 16 females) with an average age of 23.2 ± 6.9 years were included in the revision arthroscopy group. At an average follow-up of 46.9 ± 16.8 months (range, 15 to 78), the mean WOSI score was 80.1 (range, 15.0 to 100), and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet group. Thirteen (46%) had more than one previous stabilization attempt. ), the average WOSI score was 71.9, and there were significant improvements (pLatarjet. Conclusion: Both arthroscopic revision stabilization and Latarjet coracoid transfer result in satisfactory outcomes in patients who have failed previous arthroscopic capsulolabral repair. Recurrent instability rates were higher in the all-arthroscopic group (19% versus 7%). Longer-term studies are required to determine whether similar results are maintained over time, and to provide guidance on focused clinical indications for this challenging patient population.

  3. Spatial memory and -fos expression in supramammillary nucleus, anterior cingulated gyrus and entorhinal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Santín Núñez, Luis Javier; Aguirre, José A.; Rubio Fernández, Sandra; Begega Losa, María Azucena; Miranda Cuevas, Rubén; Arias Pérez, Jorge Luis

    2001-01-01

    Este trabajo se aproxima al estudio de los substratos cerebrales de la memoria espacial en ratas, empleando la expresión celular de la proteína c-Fos. Para ello, se analizó la expresión de la proteína c-Fos después de la ejecución de una tarea de memoria de referencia y otra de trabajo espacial. De este modo, se cuantificó el número de núcleos neuronales c-Fos positivos en varias regiones cerebrales: corteza entorrinal, giro cingulado anterior y núcleo supramamilar. Los resultados mostraron q...

  4. Differentiating type 1 from type 2 big bubbles in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dua HS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Harminder S Dua,1 Tarek Katamish,2 Dalia G Said,1 Lana A Faraj1 1Section of Academic Ophthalmology, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Cairo University, Cairo, EgyptWe read with interest the paper by Anwar et al.1 The authors have described a technique to bare Descemet’s membrane (DM by multiple lamellar dissection of the deep corneal stroma when stromal injection of air fails to achieve a big bubble (BB in deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK.Read the original article

  5. Assessment of the environmental sustainability of modern vehicle drives. On the way from Diesel car boom to electric vehicles; Bewertung der Umwelteffizienz moderner Autoantriebe. Auf dem Weg vom Diesel-Pkw-Boom zu Elektroautos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmers, Eckard [FH Trier (Germany). Fachbereich Umweltplanung/Umwelttechnik

    2010-10-15

    Motorized traffic is among the biggest CO{sub 2}-emitting sources and is additionally dominating NO{sub x} emission. Engine technology shifts are approaching, while automobiles developed in Germany and Europe are exported worldwide together with the European emission thresholds for cars. The Diesel car boom induced by EU commission, national EU governments and car industry is accordingly analyzed for sustainability and its effects on environment. German CO{sub 2} emission reduction numbers by motorized traffic, as claimed by the government, are questioned. Radiative forcing by soot (black carbon) Diesel car emissions is added on the CO{sub 2} emissions by fuel combustion. Diesel cars without particle filters are found to cause an atmospheric warming. Modelled and measured NO{sub x} emission data are assessed to mismatch considerably. In spite of an ambitious national NO{sub x} reduction plan there is excess NO{sub x} emission by the German and European Diesel car boom. In this context environmental sustainability of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is investigated. Direct (by car) und indirect (by power plant) emissions (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 10}, SO{sub 2}) of cars with internal combustion engines (ICE) and BEVs, respectively, are calculated and compared. CO{sub 2}-ecoanalysis revealed advantages for BEVs even operated with current German electricity mix based on around 15 % renewable sources. (orig.)

  6. Stability and Controls Analysis and Flight Test Results of a 24-Foot Telescoping Nose Boom on an F-15B Airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moua, Cheng M.; Cox, Timothy H.; McWherter, Shaun C.

    2008-01-01

    The Quiet Spike(TradeMark) F-15B flight research program investigated supersonic shock reduction using a 24-ft telescoping nose boom on an F-15B airplane. The program goal was to collect flight data for model validation up to 1.8 Mach. In the area of stability and controls, the primary concerns were to assess the potential destabilizing effect of the oversized nose boom on the stability, controllability, and handling qualities of the airplane and to ensure adequate stability margins across the entire research flight envelope. This paper reports on the stability and control analytical methods, flight envelope clearance approach, and flight test results of the F-15B telescoping nose boom configuration. Also discussed are brief pilot commentary on typical piloting tasks and refueling tasks.

  7. Vibration Control of the Boom System of Truck-Mounted Concrete Pump Based on Constant-Position Commandless Input Shaping Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vibration of the boom system is inevitably caused by periodic disturbances, which are induced by pumping concrete. In this paper, an active control strategy of constant-position commandless input shaping technique is developed to suppress vibration. Based on a set of independent modal equations obtained by adopting modal approach, the double-impulse control with reverse direction is proposed, which is aiming at not only suppressing vibration, but also avoiding the variation of the equilibrium position of the boom system after active control action. And the characteristic of time-lag existing in real system is also taken into account for optimizing the control action. Experiments of vibration control were implemented on a 52-meter-long five-boom system to verify the proposed control strategy.

  8. Human Simulated Intelligent Control with Double-Direction Dead-Zone Compensation for Joint Motion Control of a Large-Sized Boom System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongsheng Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint motion control of a 52-meter-long five-boom system driven by proportional hydraulic system is developed. It has been considered difficult due to strong nonlinearities and parametric uncertainties, the effect of which increases with the size of booms. A human simulated intelligent control scheme is developed to improve control performance by modifying control mode and control parameters. In addition, considering the negative effects caused by frequent and redundant reverse actions of the proportional valve, a double-direction compensation scheme is proposed to deal with the dead-zone nonlinearity of proportional valve. Sinusoidal motions are implemented on a real boom system. The results indicate that HSIC controller can improve control accuracy, and dead-zone nonlinearity is effectively compensated by proposed compensation scheme without introducing frequent reverse actions of proportional valve.

  9. Transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a skeletally immature knee using anterior tibialis allograft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yool; Jang, Soo-Jin; Son, Jung-Hwan

    2011-05-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in the skeletally immature individual is being recognized with increasing frequency. Nonoperative treatment of ACL injuries in skeletally immature patients have not been favorable. Surgical treatment options for complete ACL tears include primary ligament repair, extraarticular tenodesis, transphyseal reconstruction, partial transphyseal reconstruction, and physeal-sparing reconstruction. The advantage of transphyseal reconstruction is placement of the graft tissue in an isometric position, which provides better results, according to the literature. The potential disadvantage is angular or limb-length discrepancy caused by physeal violation. Controversy exists in allograft selection about whether bone or soft tissue passes into physes. The use of standard tunnels provides reliable results, but carries the risk of iatrogenic growth disturbance from physeal injury.This article presents 4 cases of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients that had satisfactory functional outcomes with no growth disturbances. This is the first report of transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis allograft in skeletally immature patients in the English-speaking literature. All patients underwent transphyseal ACL reconstruction using anterior tibialis tendon allograft. None of the patients had angular deformities. No early physeal arrest was measured between the preoperative and postoperative radiographs. At last follow-up, the results of the Lachman test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. All patients demonstrated full range of knee motion (comparing the reconstructed knee to the contralateral knee). The results of the pivot-shift test were normal for 3 patients and nearly normal for 1 patient. No patients reported giving way.

  10. Boom komiksowy. Polski rynek historii obrazkowych w latach 2000-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz Zapała

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lata 2000-2003, ze względu na wzmożoną aktywność wydawniczą na polu historii obrazkowych oraz szum medialny jej towarzyszący, bywają określane „boomem komiksowym”. Gwałtowny wzrost koniunktury na komiks w początkach XXI wieku rozpoczęły należące do Egmont Polska: magazyn „Świat Komiksu” oraz imprint Klub Świata Komiksu (publikujący m.in. niebywale popularną serię Thorgal. Wkrótce po komercyjnym sukcesie Egmontu na rynek opowieści obrazkowych wkroczyli inni wydawcy, których można podzielić na dwie grupy. Pierwszą stanowili edytorzy, którzy wcześniej publikowali jedynie książki, np. wydawnictwa Amber, Muza, Siedmioróg. Drugi zbiór tworzyły oficyny stricte komiksowe, m.in. Kultura Gniewu, Mandragora, Post. „Boom komiksowy” doprowadził także do znacznych zmian w strukturze rynku periodycznych historii obrazkowych – prawie wszystkich odbiorców utracił TM-Semic (lider rynku komiksowego w latach 90, wydawca czasopism z przygodami superbohaterów, np. „Batmana”,  nowych czytelników zyskały natomiast niskonakładowe magazyny, które publikowały głównie polski komiks autorski (m.in. „AQQ”, „Krakers”, „KKK”, „Produkt”. W latach 2000-2003 rozwinął się również polski rynek mang (komiksów japońskich, którego liderem w tym czasie było wydawnictwo Japonica Polonica Fantastica (63% udział w rynku. Podczas „boomu komiksowego” rynek  historii obrazkowych skierowanych do dzieci zdominowała oferta Egmontu (np. magazyny „Kaczor Donald” i „Czarodziejki: W.I.T.C.H.” oraz cykl Gigant Poleca. Łącznie w latach 2000-2003 we wszystkich segmentach polskiego rynku komiksowego ukazało się 1455 pozycji komiksowych, czyli prawie o jedną czwartą więcej niż w ciągu całych lat dziewięćdziesiątych.

  11. [Key points in anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiaoping; Qian, Dongdong; Yuan, Yu; Meng, Xiangfeng

    2013-04-01

    This paper introduced the key points in fabricating anterior esthetic restorations with all ceramic materials, including pre-operative smile design, standard tooth preparation, provisional restoration fabrication, all ceramic materials selection, all ceramic restoration bonding, ceramic crack and fracture prevention. And then, the authors summarized and reviewed the clinical common problems in anterior esthetic restorations.

  12. Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Frank W; Frobell, Richard; Lohmander, Stefan;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a whole joint scoring system, the Anterior Cruciate Ligament OsteoArthritis Score (ACLOAS), for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based assessment of acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and follow-up of structural sequelae, and to assess its reliability. DESIGN...

  13. Dysphagia due to anterior cervical osteophytosis: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Frederico Miguel Santos Silva Marquez Correia; João Paulo de Sousa Goucha Jorge; Ana Sofia Teixeira Neves; Gabriel Filipe Gonçalves Xavier; Marco Miguel Barroso de Oliveira; José Eduardo Paiva Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to highlight the possibility of dysphagia induced by anterior cervical osteophytes. When not diagnosed early this condition may be responsible for complications such as severe dysphagia and potential lung aspiration, especially in elderly patients. Analysis of a case report of a 72-year old woman who presented cervical pain and progressive dysphagia. Imaging studies have shown anterior ce...

  14. [Bilateral anterior uveiopapillitis, suspicious of Lyme disease--case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicula, Cristina; Nicula, D; Rusu, Ioana; Popescu, Raluca

    2013-01-01

    We present the case of a patient which associated bilateral anterior uveitis manifestations with those of bilateral anterior inflammatory optic neuropathy. We followed the evolution of the case under treatment and we discussed the differential diagnosis and the association of the two ocular pathologies.

  15. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, F.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue engineeri

  16. Anterior chamber cholesterolosis in a patient with retinoblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bryan K; Say, Emil Anthony T; Chévez-Barrios, Patricia; Lee, Thomas C; Kim, Jonathan W

    2016-01-01

    Anterior chamber cholesterolosis is a rare phenomenon typically associated with non-neoplastic conditions such as hyphema or Coats disease; it has never been reported to be associated with intraocular malignancy. We report a case of anterior chamber cholesterolosis presenting in the setting of retinoblastoma and discuss clinical features relevant for its differentiation from Coats disease. PMID:27330481

  17. Return to Play Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ryan C; Hulstyn, Michael J; Fleming, Braden C; Owens, Brett D; Fadale, Paul D

    2016-10-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions are commonly performed in an attempt to return an athlete to sports activities. Accelerated rehabilitation has made recovery for surgery more predictable and shortened the timeline for return to play. Despite success with and advancements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions, some athletes still fail to return to play. PMID:27543405

  18. Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament : Alternative Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Eijk, F. van

    2009-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term results of reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament with an allograft. Due to the poor results found, further studies were performed to investigate alternative strategies for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament in the field of tissue engineering.

  19. Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament: MRI evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedoya, Maria A.; Jaramillo, Diego [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Radiology Department, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McGraw, Michael H. [Hospitalof theUniversityof Pennsylvania, Divisionof Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Wells, Lawrence [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Orthopaedics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Bilateral agenesis of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is extremely rare. We describe a 13-year-old girl who presented with bilateral knee pain without history of trauma; she has two family members with knee instability. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral absence of the ACL, and medial posterior horn meniscal tears. Bilateral arthroscopic partial meniscectomy and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed. (orig.)

  20. [Large distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm associated with azygos anterior cerebral artery: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Y; Kawamata, T; Matsumoto, H; Kunii, N; Matsumoto, K

    1998-10-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with a distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysm (DACAA) manifesting as severe headache and monoparesis of the left lower limb. Computed tomography revealed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interhemispheric fissure, bilateral sylvian fissures, and basal cistern, and a hematoma in the supracallosal region. Angiography showed a large aneurysm (23 x 18 mm) located on the distal end of the azygos anterior cerebral artery (azygos ACA) at the supracallosal portion. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the hematoma as a mixed intensity mass, compressing the corpus callosum downward, and the aneurysm as a flow void anterior to the hematoma. Unilateral frontoparietal parasagittal craniotomy was performed with a horse-shoe shaped incision. The aneurysm was clipped via the interhemispheric approach, and the hematoma was aspirated. Postoperative angiography showed disappearance of the aneurysm and intact azygos ACA. The patient was discharged with mild monoparesis, paresthesia of the left lower limb and diagnostic dyspraxia. DACAA almost always arises at or near the genu of the corpus callosum and is often associated with vascular anomaly. In the literature, 22 of 26 cases of large and giant DACAA were located at or near the genu, but only 3 cases, including ours, in the supracallosal area. 11 cases were associated with azygos ACA. Therefore, hemodynamic stress caused by vascular anomaly may be involved in the formation of large or giant DACAA in contrast with cases of normal DACAA. PMID:9789300