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Sample records for antennal lobe glomeruli

  1. Maxillary palp glomeruli and ipsilateral projections in the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Rajashekhar; V R Shamprasad

    2004-12-01

    The antennal lobe was examined by Golgi-silver impregnation to differentiate the glomeruli depending on the source and types of inputs. Thirty-five of the 43 ‘identified’ olfactory glomeruli were Golgi-silver impregnated in the present study. Seven glomeruli compared to three, reported previously, were found to be targets of maxillary palp chemosensory neurons. These include glomeruli VA3, VC2, VM5, VA7m/VA7l of the ventral antennal lobe and DC2, DC3, DM5 of the dorsal antennal lobe. The number of glomeruli receiving the maxillary palp sensory projections tallies with the number of Drosophila olfactory receptors (seven) reported to be expressed exclusively in the maxillary palp. Twenty-eight Golgi-impregnated glomeruli were found to receive input from the antennal nerve. The ratio of glomeruli serving the maxillary palp to those serving the antenna (∼ 1 : 5) matches with the ratio of Drosophila olfactory receptors expressed in these two olfactory organs respectively. In addition to glomerulus V, glomeruli VP1-3, VL1, VL2a/2p and VC3m/3l were found to receive ipsilateral projections. Thus, additional ipsilateral glomeruli have been identified.

  2. Representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRuchty

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects are equipped with various types of antennal sensilla, which house thermosensitive neurons adapted to receive different parameters of the thermal environment for a variety of temperature-guided behaviors. In the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri, the physiology and the morphology of the thermosensitive sensillum coeloconicum (Sc has been thoroughly investigated. However, the central projections of its receptor neurons are unknown. Here we selectively stained the three neurons found in single Sc and tracked their axons into the brain of Atta vollenweideri workers. Each of the three axons terminates in a single glomerulus of the antennal lobe (Sc-glomeruli. Two of the innervated glomeruli are adjacent to each other and are located laterally, while the third one is clearly separated and located medially in the antennal lobe. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging of antennal lobe projection neurons, we studied where in the antennal lobe thermal information is represented. In the 11 investigated antennal lobes, we found up to 10 different glomeruli in a single specimen responding to temperature stimulation. Both, warm- and cold-sensitive glomeruli could be identified. The thermosensitive glomeruli were mainly located in the medial part of the antennal lobe. Based on the general representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe and functional data on the Sc-glomeruli we conclude that temperature stimuli received by Sc are processed in the medial of the three target glomeruli. The present study reveals an important role of the antennal lobe in temperature processing and links a specific thermosensitive neuron to its central target glomerulus.

  3. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information. PMID:25597397

  4. Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures. PMID:26496732

  5. Calcium Imaging of Pheromone Responses in the Insect Antennal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susy M.; Wang, Jing W.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium imaging is a powerful technique that permits the visual monitoring of neural responses to pheromones and other odors in large ensembles of neurons. Here, we describe a method that permits the monitoring of Drosophila antennal lobe responses to odors using the genetically encoded calcium monitor GCaMP.

  6. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli. PMID:16943499

  7. Rapid odor processing in the honeybee antennal lobe network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, many insects need to identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants on a rich and dynamic olfactory background. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that bees recognize learned odors within less than 200ms, indicating a rapid processing of olfactory input in the sensory pathway. We studied the role of the honeybee antennal lobe network in constructing a fast and reliable code of odor identity using in vivo intracellular recordings of individual projection neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs. We found a complementary ensemble code where odor identity is encoded in the spatio-temporal pattern of response latencies as well as in the pattern of activated and inactivated PN firing. This coding scheme rapidly reaches a stable representation within 50-150ms after stimulus onset. Testing an odor mixture versus its individual compounds revealed different representations in the two morphologically distinct types of lateral and median (l- and m- PNs. Individual m-PNs mixture responses were dominated by the most effective compound (elemental representation whereas l-PNs showed suppressed responses to the mixture but not to its individual compounds (synthetic representation. The onset of inhibition in the membrane potential of l-PNs coincided with the responses of putative inhibitory interneurons that responded significantly faster than PNs. Taken together, our results suggest that processing within the local interneuron network of the AL is an essential component of constructing the antennal lobe population code.

  8. Olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: New insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Lapeyre, Benoit; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In the course of evolution, eusociality has appeared several times independently in Hymenoptera, within different families such as Apidae (bees), Formicidae (ants), and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), among others. The complex social organization of eusocial Hymenoptera relies on sophisticated olfactory communication systems. Whereas the olfactory systems of several bee and ant species have been well characterized, very little information is as yet available in Vespidae, although this family represents a highly successful insect group, displaying a wide range of life styles from solitary to eusocial. Using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstructions, we investigated the organization of the olfactory pathway in queens, workers, and males of the eusocial hornet Vespa velutina. First, we found that caste and sex dimorphism is weakly pronounced in hornets, with regard to both whole-brain morphology and antennal lobe organization, although several male-specific macroglomeruli are present. The V. velutina antennal lobe contains approximately 265 glomeruli (in females), grouped in nine conspicuous clusters formed by afferent tract subdivisions. As in bees and ants, hornets display a dual olfactory pathway, with two major efferent tracts, the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tracts (m- and l-ALT), separately arborizing two antennal lobe hemilobes and projecting to partially different regions of higher order olfactory centers. Finally, we found remarkable anatomical similarities in the glomerular cluster organizations among hornets, ants, and bees, suggesting the possible existence of homologies in the olfactory pathways of these eusocial Hymenoptera. We propose a common framework for describing AL compartmentalization across Hymenoptera and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2335-2359, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850231

  9. Population coding is essential for rapid information processing in the moth antennal lobe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, R.; Namiki, S.; Kanzaki, R.; Kitano, K.; Nishikawa, I.; Lánský, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1536, NOV 6 (2013), s. 88-96. ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : olfactory information processing * antennal lobe * population coding * decoding analysis Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2013

  10. Radiation-induced reduction of the glial population during development disrupts the formation of olfactory glomeruli in an insect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interactions between neurons and between neurons and glial cells have been shown by a number of investigators to be critical for normal development of the nervous system. In the olfactory system of Manduca sexta, sensory axons have been shown to induce the formation of synaptic glomeruli in the antennal lobe of the brain. Oland and Tolbert (1987) found that the growth of sensory axons into the developing antennal lobe causes changes in glial shape and disposition that presage the establishment of glomeruli, each surrounded by a glial envelope. Several lines of evidence lead us to hypothesize that the glial cells of the lobe may be acting as intermediaries in developmental interactions between sensory axons and neurons of the antennal lobe. In the present study, we have tested this hypothesis by using gamma-radiation to reduce the number of glial cells at a time when neurons of the antennal system are postmitotic but glomeruli have not yet developed. When glial numbers are severely reduced, the neuropil of the resulting lobe lacks glomeruli. Despite the presence of afferent axons, the irradiated lobe has many of the features of a lobe that developed in the absence of afferent axons. Our findings indicate that the glial cells must play a necessary role in the inductive influence of the afferent axons

  11. In-vivo two-photon imaging of the honey bee antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Albrecht; Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Antolini, Renzo; Vinegoni, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Due to the honey bee's importance as a simple neural model, there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities. Herein we report on the use of two-photon microscopy for in-vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honey bee's olfactory system focusing on its primary centers, the antennal lobes (ALs). Our imaging platform allows for simultaneously obtaining both morphological measurements of the AL and in-vivo calcium recording of neural activities. By applying external odor stimuli to the bee's antennas, we were able to record the characteristic odor response maps. Compared to previous works where conventional fluorescence microscopy is used, our approach offers all the typical advantages of multi-photon imaging, providing substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions while minimizing photo-damages and autofluorescence contribution with a four-fold improvement in the functional signal. Moreover, the multi-photon associated extended penetration depth allows for functional ima...

  12. Fast dynamics of odor rate coding in the insect antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrot, Martin Paul; Farkhooi, Farzad; Menzel, Randolf

    2011-01-01

    Insects identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants in complex natural scenes where odor concentrations and mixture composition can change rapidly. In the honeybee, a combinatorial code of activated and inactivated projection neurons (PNs) develops rapidly within tens of milliseconds at the first level of neural integration, the antennal lobe (AL). The phasic-tonic stimulus-response dynamics observed in the neural population code and in the firing rate profiles of single neurons is faithfully captured by two alternative models which rely either on short-term synaptic depression, or on spike frequency adaptation. Both mechanisms work independently and possibly in parallel to lateral inhibition. Short response latencies in local interneurons indicate that local processing within the AL network relies on fast lateral inhibition that can suppress effectively and specifically odor responses in single PNs. Reviewing recent findings obtained in different insect species, we conclude that the insect olfactory...

  13. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  14. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  15. Spiking patterns and their functional implications in the antennal lobe of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    Full Text Available Bursting as well as tonic firing patterns have been described in various sensory systems. In the olfactory system, spontaneous bursts have been observed in neurons distributed across several synaptic levels, from the periphery, to the olfactory bulb (OB and to the olfactory cortex. Several in vitro studies indicate that spontaneous firing patterns may be viewed as "fingerprints" of different types of neurons that exhibit distinct functions in the OB. It is still not known, however, if and how neuronal burstiness is correlated with the coding of natural olfactory stimuli. We thus conducted an in vivo study to probe this question in the OB equivalent structure of insects, the antennal lobe (AL of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. We found that in the moth's AL, both projection (output neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs are spontaneously active, but PNs tend to produce spike bursts while LNs fire more regularly. In addition, we found that the burstiness of PNs is correlated with the strength of their responses to odor stimulation--the more bursting the stronger their responses to odors. Moreover, the burstiness of PNs was also positively correlated with the spontaneous firing rate of these neurons, and pharmacological reduction of bursting resulted in a decrease of the neurons' responsiveness. These results suggest that neuronal burstiness reflects a physiological state of these neurons that is directly linked to their response characteristics.

  16. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  17. The anatomical basis for modulatory convergence in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Metheny, Jackie D; Bradley, Samual P; Kesari, Aditya; Dacks, Andrew M

    2016-06-15

    The release of neuromodulators by widely projecting neurons often allows sensory systems to alter how they process information based on the physiological state of an animal. Neuromodulators alter network function by changing the biophysical properties of individual neurons and the synaptic efficacy with which individual neurons communicate. However, most, if not all, sensory networks receive multiple neuromodulatory inputs, and the mechanisms by which sensory networks integrate multiple modulatory inputs are not well understood. Here we characterized the relative glomerular distribution of two extrinsic neuromodulators associated with distinct physiological states, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), in the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. By using immunocytochemistry and mass dye fills, we characterized the innervation patterns of both 5-HT- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive processes relative to each other, to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), to projection neurons (PNs), and to several subsets of local interneurons (LNs). 5-HT immunoreactivity had nearly complete overlap with PNs and LNs, yet no overlap with ORNs, suggesting that 5-HT may modulate PNs and LNs directly but not ORNs. TH immunoreactivity overlapped with PNs, LNs, and ORNs, suggesting that dopamine has the potential to modulate all three cell types. Furthermore, the branching density of each neuromodulator differed, with 5-HT exhibiting denser arborizations and TH-ir processes being sparser. Our results suggest that 5-HT and DA extrinsic neurons target partially overlapping glomerular regions, yet DA extends further into the region occupied by ORNs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1859-1875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26560074

  18. Central Projection of Antennal Sensory Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Mirid Bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ma, Bai-Wei; Guo, Pei; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli. We found that the axons of the sensory neurons project into the brain via the ipsilateral antennal nerve, and descend further into the gnathal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, mesothoracic ganglion, and metathoracic ganglion, and reach as far as to the abdominal ganglion. Such a projection pattern indicates that antennal sensory neurons of A. lucorum may be potentially directly connected to motor neurons. The antennal lobe, however, is the major target area of antennal sensory neurons. The antennal lobe is composed of a large number of glomeruli, i.e. 70–80 glomeruli in one AL of A. lucorum. The results of this study which provide information about the basic anatomical arrangement of the brain olfactory center of A. lucorum, are important for further investigations of chemosensory encoding mechanisms of the mirid bug. PMID:27478892

  19. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  20. Ensemble response in mushroom body output neurons of the honey bee outpaces spatiotemporal odor processing two synapses earlier in the antennal lobe.

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    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile - the antennal lobe (AL - and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center - the mushroom body (MB - in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84-120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback.

  1. Ensemble Response in Mushroom Body Output Neurons of the Honey Bee Outpaces Spatiotemporal Odor Processing Two Synapses Earlier in the Antennal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile – the antennal lobe (AL) – and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center – the mushroom body (MB) – in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN) of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN) of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84–120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback. PMID:23209711

  2. Homomeric RDL and heteromeric RDL/LCCH3 GABA receptors in the honeybee antennal lobes: two candidates for inhibitory transmission in olfactory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien Pierre; Bazelot, Michaël; Barbara, Guillaume Stéphane; Paute, Sandrine; Gauthier, Monique; Raymond-Delpech, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel receptors are abundant in the CNS, where their physiological role is to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. In insects, this inhibitory transmission plays a crucial role in olfactory information processing. In an effort to understand the nature and properties of the ionotropic receptors involved in these processes in the honeybee Apis mellifera, we performed a pharmacological and molecular characterization of GABA-gated channels in the primary olfactory neuropile of the honeybee brain-the antennal lobe (AL)-using whole cell patch-clamp recordings coupled with single-cell RT-PCR. Application of GABA onto AL cells at -110 mV elicited fast inward currents, demonstrating the existence of ionotropic GABA-gated chloride channels. Molecular analysis of the GABA-responding cells revealed that both subunits RDL and LCCH3 were expressed out of the three orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster GABA-receptor subunits encoded within the honeybee genome (RDL, resistant to dieldrin; GRD, GABA/glycine-like receptor of Drosophila; LCCH3, ligand-gated chloride channel homologue 3), opening the door to possible homo- and/or heteromeric associations. The resulting receptors were activated by insect GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and CACA and blocked by antagonists fipronil, dieldrin, and picrotoxin, but not bicuculline, displaying a typical RDL-like pharmacology. Interestingly, increasing the intracellular calcium concentration potentiated GABA-elicited currents, suggesting a modulating effect of calcium on GABA receptors possibly through phosphorylation processes that remain to be determined. These results indicate that adult honeybee AL cells express typical RDL-like GABA receptors whose properties support a major role in synaptic inhibitory transmission during olfactory information processing. PMID:19906878

  3. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

  4. Physiological and morphological characterization of honeybee olfactory neurons combining electrophysiology, calcium imaging and confocal microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Galizia, Cosmas Giovanni; Kimmerle, B.

    2004-01-01

    The insect antennal lobe is the first brain structure to process olfactory information. Like the vertebrate olfactory bulb the antennal lobe is substructured in olfactory glomeruli. In insects, glomeruli can be morphologically identified, and have characteristic olfactory response profiles. Local neurons interconnect glomeruli, and output (projection) neurons project to higher-order brain centres. The relationship between their elaborate morphology and their physiology is not understood. We r...

  5. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Institute of Cytology RAS, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levchenko, Vladislav; Ryan, Robert P.; Cowley, Allen W. [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Staruschenko, Alexander, E-mail: Staruschenko@mcw.edu [Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. {yields} This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. {yields} We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  6. NSAIDs acutely inhibit TRPC channels in freshly isolated rat glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We have established a unique approach to search for physiologically relevant mechanisms of TRPC channels in podocytes. → This study describes endogenous TRPC channels in the isolated decapsulated glomeruli preparation. → We report for the first time that NSAIDs inhibit TRPC channels in podocytes. -- Abstract: Using a novel approach for analysis of TRPC channel activity, we report here that NSAIDs are involved into regulation of TRPC channels in the podocytes of the freshly isolated decapsulated glomeruli. Fluorescence and electron microscopy techniques confirmed the integrity of podocytes in the glomeruli. Western blotting showed that TRPC1, 3 and 6 are highly expressed in the glomeruli. Single-channel patch clamp analysis revealed cation currents with distinct TRPC properties. This is the first report describing single TRPC-like currents in glomerular podocytes. Furthermore, our data provide a novel mechanism of NSAIDs regulation of TRPC channels, which might be implicated in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier.

  7. Antennal Mechanosensory Neurons Mediate Wing Motor Reflexes in Flying Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, Akira; Dickinson, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have shown the importance of antennal mechanosensation in various aspects of insect flight control, the identities of the mechanosensory neurons responsible for these functions are still unknown. One candidate is the Johnston's organ (JO) neurons that are located in the second antennal segment and detect phasic and tonic rotations of the third antennal segment relative to the second segment. To investigate how different classes of JO neurons respond to differe...

  8. Cellular origins of type IV collagen networks in developing glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Dale R; Hudson, Billy G; Stroganova, Larysa; Borza, Dorin-Bogdan; St John, Patricia L

    2009-07-01

    Laminin and type IV collagen composition of the glomerular basement membrane changes during glomerular development and maturation. Although it is known that both glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes produce different laminin isoforms at the appropriate stages of development, the cellular origins for the different type IV collagen heterotrimers that appear during development are unknown. Here, immunoelectron microscopy demonstrated that endothelial cells, mesangial cells, and podocytes of immature glomeruli synthesize collagen alpha 1 alpha 2 alpha1(IV). However, intracellular labeling revealed that podocytes, but not endothelial or mesangial cells, contain collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). To evaluate the origins of collagen IV further, we transplanted embryonic kidneys from Col4a3-null mutants (Alport mice) into kidneys of newborn, wildtype mice. Hybrid glomeruli within grafts containing numerous host-derived, wildtype endothelial cells never expressed collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV). Finally, confocal microscopy of glomeruli from infant Alport mice that had been dually labeled with anti-collagen alpha 5(IV) and the podocyte marker anti-GLEPP1 showed immunolabeling exclusively within podocytes. Together, these results indicate that collagen alpha 3 alpha 4 alpha 5(IV) originates solely from podocytes; therefore, glomerular Alport disease is a genetic defect that manifests specifically within this cell type. PMID:19423686

  9. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  10. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. PMID:27097104

  11. Lipoxygenase products mediate the attachment of rat macrophages to glomeruli in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because there is an accumulation of macrophages in the Bowman's space during human and experimental glomerulonephritis, the authors have studied the binding of [3H]-uridine labeled macrophages to isolated glomeruli. Binding was related to the glomerular protein and macrophage concentrations, temperature, time of incubation, and was a saturable process. Macrophage adherence depended on glomerular lipoxygenase activity but not on glomerular cyclooxygenase activity since preincubation of glomeruli with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited this phenomenon whereas preincubation with indomethacin was ineffective. Glomeruli interacted with macrophages in converting arachidonic acid (C20:4) to prostaglandins (PG) since productions of 6 keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, and PGD2 by glomeruli and macrophages incubated in combination were much greater than the sums of their respective productions by glomeruli and macrophages incubated separately. Macrophages were the source of the supplementary synthesis of PG which was abolished when these cells were pretreated with aspirin. Stimulation of macrophages by glomeruli was blunted by pretreatment of glomeruli with NDGA. Production of PG and of 12-HETE by macrophages was stimulated by a lipid extract of glomeruli containing the oxygenated metabolites of C20:4. Direct addition of 12-HPETE also stimulated macrophage functions. These data suggest that macrophage attachment to glomeruli and macrophage stimulation in the presence of glomeruli depend on glomerular lipoxygenase activity

  12. Lipoxygenase products mediate the attachment of rat macrophages to glomeruli in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baud, L.; Sraer, J.; Delarue, F.; Bens, M.; Balavoine, F.; Schlondorff, D.; Ardaillou, R.; Sraer, J.D.

    1985-06-01

    Because there is an accumulation of macrophages in the Bowman's space during human and experimental glomerulonephritis, the authors have studied the binding of (/sup 3/H)-uridine labeled macrophages to isolated glomeruli. Binding was related to the glomerular protein and macrophage concentrations, temperature, time of incubation, and was a saturable process. Macrophage adherence depended on glomerular lipoxygenase activity but not on glomerular cyclooxygenase activity since preincubation of glomeruli with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) inhibited this phenomenon whereas preincubation with indomethacin was ineffective. Glomeruli interacted with macrophages in converting arachidonic acid (C20:4) to prostaglandins (PG) since productions of 6 keto-PGF1 alpha, TXB2, and PGD2 by glomeruli and macrophages incubated in combination were much greater than the sums of their respective productions by glomeruli and macrophages incubated separately. Macrophages were the source of the supplementary synthesis of PG which was abolished when these cells were pretreated with aspirin. Stimulation of macrophages by glomeruli was blunted by pretreatment of glomeruli with NDGA. Production of PG and of 12-HETE by macrophages was stimulated by a lipid extract of glomeruli containing the oxygenated metabolites of C20:4. Direct addition of 12-HPETE also stimulated macrophage functions. These data suggest that macrophage attachment to glomeruli and macrophage stimulation in the presence of glomeruli depend on glomerular lipoxygenase activity.

  13. Antennes lecteurs RFID à polarisation circulaire pour application robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Hebib, Sami; Bouaziz, Sofiene; Aubert, Hervé; Lerasle, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    National audience Dans ce papier, une nouvelle antenne lecteur RFID à polarisation circulaire a été développée pour la chaine de radiolocalisation du robot Rackham du LAAS-CNRS. Cette antenne (20 cm x 20 cm) permet de couvrir la totalité de bande RFID UHF (860-960 MHz) et présente un gain simulé de 4dBi. Deux exemplaires de cette antenne ont été fabriqués et mesurés. Les tests en radiolocalisation de ces antennes montrent leur conformité aux exigences de l'application robotique considérée....

  14. Control of Mitral/Tufted Cell Output by Selective Inhibition among Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economo, Michael N; Hansen, Kyle R; Wachowiak, Matt

    2016-07-20

    Inhibition is fundamental to information processing by neural circuits. In the olfactory bulb (OB), glomeruli are the functional units for odor information coding, but inhibition among glomeruli is poorly characterized. We used two-photon calcium imaging in anesthetized and awake mice to visualize both odorant-evoked excitation and suppression in OB output neurons (mitral and tufted, MT cells). MT cell response polarity mapped uniformly to discrete OB glomeruli, allowing us to analyze how inhibition shapes OB output relative to the glomerular map. Odorants elicited unique patterns of suppression in only a subset of glomeruli in which such suppression could be detected, and excited and suppressed glomeruli were spatially intermingled. Binary mixture experiments revealed that interglomerular inhibition could suppress excitatory mitral cell responses to odorants. These results reveal that inhibitory OB circuits nonlinearly transform odor representations and support a model of selective and nonrandom inhibition among glomerular ensembles. PMID:27346531

  15. Spontaneous activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in isolated normal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Meng, Yiman; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2006-12-01

    In this report, we describe that NF-kappaB is spontaneously activated in isolated, normal glomeruli. Ex vivo incubation of isolated rat glomeruli triggered expression of a NF-kappaB-dependent gene, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), in parallel with downregulation of IkappaBalpha and IkappaBbeta proteins and activation of the p65 NF-kappaB subunit. The induction of MCP-1 was also observed in mesangial cells coincubated with isolated glomeruli or exposed to media conditioned by isolated glomeruli (GCM), which was abrogated by inhibition of NF-kappaB. The activation of NF-kappaB by glomerulus-derived factors was confirmed using reporter mesangial cells that produce secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) under the control of the kappaB enhancer element. When the reporter cells were adoptively transferred into normal glomeruli, expression of SEAP mRNA and activity of SEAP were also upregulated in the explanted glomeruli. The molecular weight of factors responsible for activation of NF-kappaB was >50 kDa, and TNF-alpha was identified as one of glomerulus-derived activators. To examine upstream events involved, we focused on MAP kinases that are spontaneously activated in explanted glomeruli. Selective suppression of ERK or p38 MAP kinase significantly attenuated activation of NF-kappaB in mesangial cells triggered by coculture with isolated glomeruli. Interestingly, the suppressive effects by MAP kinase inhibitors were not observed in mesangial cells treated with GCM. These data suggested that NF-kappaB was spontaneously activated in explanted glomeruli via autocrine/paracrine factors including TNF-alpha and that the production of NF-kappaB activators by glomeruli was, at least in part, through MAP kinase pathways. PMID:16705144

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  11. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range. PMID:26655822

  12. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  13. Binding and degradation of 125I-insulin by renal glomeruli and tubules isolated from rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli and tubules were shown to exhibit specific binding of 125I-insulin and enzymatic degradation of the hormone. Binding to both renal fractions reached a plateau by 1 h at 220C and increased linearly with increasing protein concentrations. Binding was inhibited in both preparations by insulin and its analogues in the order of relative potency: insulin > despentapeptide insulin > proinsulin, but insulin was ten times more potent in inhibiting 125I-insulin binding to glomeruli than that to tubules, indicating a different affinity of receptors for the hormone in the two renal fractions (about 17 versus 210 μg unlabelled insulin/1 inhibiting 50% of the 125I-insulin binding to glomeruli and tubules, respectively). Bound 125I-insulin dissociated at a faster rate from tubules than from glomeruli; this release was accelreated by unlabelled insulin in both renal fractions, but to a greater extent in glomeruli than in tubules. Two-thirds of the total bound material released from glomeruli was found to be intact insulin as measured by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, whereas only one-third of the material released from tubules was intact. No direct relationship beteen binding and degradation of 125I-insulin in these renal fractions could be demonstrated, however, because of the release of proteolytic enzymes into the incubation medium resulting in almost all degradation being extracellular. Although differing in their affinity for 125I-insulin the high affinity glomerular insulin receptor and the lower affinity tubular insulin receptor have characteristics similar to those of insulin receptors in insulin responsive tissues. (orig.)

  14. A multisensory centrifugal neuron in the olfactory pathway of heliothine moths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Pfuhl, Gerit; Surlykke, Annemarie;

    2013-01-01

    . Additional responses to odors were recorded from the neuron in Heliothis virescens. The putative biological significance of the centrifugal antennal-lobe neuron is discussed with regard to its morphological and physiological properties. In particular, a possible role in multisensory processes underlying the...... fine processes in the dorsomedial region of the protocerebrum and extensive neuronal branches with blebby terminals in all glomeruli of the antennal lobe. Its soma is located dorsally of the central body close to the brain midline. Mass-fills of antennal-lobe connections with protocerebral regions...

  15. Transposition and Intermingling of Galphai2 and Galphao afferences into single vomeronasal glomeruli in the Madagascan lesser Tenrec Echinops telfairi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Suárez

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal system (VNS mediates pheromonal communication in mammals. From the vomeronasal organ, two populations of sensory neurons, expressing either Galphai2 or Galphao proteins, send projections that end in glomeruli distributed either at the rostral or caudal half of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, respectively. Neurons at the AOB contact glomeruli of a single subpopulation. The dichotomic segregation of AOB glomeruli has been described in opossums, rodents and rabbits, while Primates and Laurasiatheres present the Galphai2-pathway only, or none at all (such as apes, some bats and aquatic species. We studied the AOB of the Madagascan lesser tenrec Echinops telfairi (Afrotheria: Afrosoricida and found that Galphai2 and Galphao proteins are expressed in rostral and caudal glomeruli, respectively. However, the segregation of vomeronasal glomeruli at the AOB is not exclusive, as both pathways contained some glomeruli transposed into the adjoining subdomain. Moreover, some glomeruli seem to contain intermingled afferences from both pathways. Both the transposition and heterogeneity of vomeronasal afferences are features, to our knowledge, never reported before. The organization of AOB glomeruli suggests that synaptic integration might occur at the glomerular layer. Whether intrinsic AOB neurons may make synaptic contact with axon terminals of both subpopulations is an interesting possibility that would expand our understanding about the integration of vomeronasal pathways.

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 No description Larvae Eye-antennal discs ht...tp://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/NoD.Lar.05.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  3. File list: InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs dm3 Input control Larvae Eye-antennal discs SRX...645428,SRX737177,SRX457601,SRX209934,SRX457599,SRX386289 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/InP.Lar.50.AllAg.Eye-antennal_discs.bed ...

  4. Temporal lobe epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is a fairly homogenous syndrome in adults, with hippocampal sclerosis being the commonest etiology. In children, temporal lobe epilepsy is more commonly due to cortical dysplasia or tumors. The semiology and electrophysiology of temporal lobe seizures in children are distinct from adults and have age-dependent variations. The first-line treatment option in children includes antiepileptic drugs. Ketogenic diet and surgery are therapeutic options in refractory pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy.

  5. Rapid Identification of Potential Drugs for Diabetic Nephropathy Using Whole-Genome Expression Profiles of Glomeruli

    OpenAIRE

    Jingsong Shi; Song Jiang; Dandan Qiu; Weibo Le; Xiao Wang; Yinhui Lu; Zhihong Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate potential drugs for diabetic nephropathy (DN) using whole-genome expression profiles and the Connectivity Map (CMAP). Methodology. Eighteen Chinese Han DN patients and six normal controls were included in this study. Whole-genome expression profiles of microdissected glomeruli were measured using the Affymetrix human U133 plus 2.0 chip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between late stage and early stage DN samples and the CMAP database were used to identify pote...

  6. Identification and characterization of leukotriene C4 receptors in isolated rat renal glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immediate reduction of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate in response to intravenous infusion of leukotriene C4 in the rat prompted an analysis of isolated rat renal glomeruli for the presence of specific receptors for leukotriene C4. Specific binding of [3H]leukotriene C4 to glomeruli increased in a time-dependent manner, reached equilibrium after 60 minutes of incubation at 4 degrees C, and was 80% reversible upon addition of excess unlabeled leukotriene C4 at equilibrium. Specific binding of [3H]leukotriene C4 to glomeruli increased in a dose-dependent manner, approaching saturation at concentrations of 40-60 nM. Inhibition of binding of [3H]leukotriene C4 with increasing concentrations of unlabeled leukotriene C4 was dose dependent. The equilibrium dissociation constant for [3H]leukotriene C4 binding to glomeruli, calculated from saturation and competitive binding-inhibition studies, was 25 +/- 7 nM and 35 +/- 16 nM, respectively, and glomerular leukotriene C4 receptor density was 8.5 +/- 1.5 and 9.0 +/- 3.0 pmol/mg protein, respectively. The other natural vasoactive sulfidopeptide leukotrienes, leukotriene D4 and leukotriene E4, the chemotactic agent, leukotriene B4, and the sulfidopeptide leukotriene antagonist, FPL 55712, competed for the receptor at concentrations 2-3 orders of magnitude higher than the homoligand, leukotriene C4. The binding and specificity characteristics of the glomerular leukotriene C4 receptor are similar to those previously reported for the DDT1 nonvascular smooth muscle cell line derived from hamster vas deferens, for guinea pig ileum smooth muscle, and for a subcellular fraction of rat lung homogenate, and represent the first characterization of such a receptor in a vascular tissue

  7. Conception d'antennes spirales large bande à alimentation coplanaire pour des applications radar sur dirigeable

    OpenAIRE

    Louertani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Un dirigeable haute altitude (HAA: High Altitude Airship) évoluant à plus de 20 km au-dessus du sol est envisagé en tant que plate-forme d'accueil pour un réseau d'antennes spirales pour des applications radar. L'antenne spirale d'Archimède est un excellent élément rayonnant pour des applications nécessitant une large bande de fréquences ainsi qu'une polarisation circulaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l'alimentation se fait au centre de l'antenne spirale. Cependant, certains environnements inte...

  8. The anatomical pathways for antennal sensory information in the central nervous system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yoritsune, Atsushi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Antennae are one of the major organs to detect chemo- and mechanosensory cue in crickets. Little is known how crickets process and integrate different modality of information in the brain. We thus used a number of different anatomical techniques to gain an understanding of the neural pathways extending from the antennal sensory neurons up to centers in the brain. We identified seven antennal sensory tracts (assigned as T1–7) utilizing anterograde dye filling from the antennal nerve. Tracts T1...

  9. Stereological Evaluation of Renal Glomeruli in Offspring of Diabetic Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahman Dezfoolian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although in vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of glucosecan induce dysmorphogenesis of the embryonic kidney, the possible adverse effectsof exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia on kidney development, especially in regardto nephrogenesis, has not been evaluated.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes on glomerulistructures of the offspring, focusing on the following parameters: glomeruli volumeand number, mesangium volume, mesangial cell number and glomerular capillaryvolume.Materials and Methods: Before mating, fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats, dividedinto three groups, were diabetes induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of 65 mg/kg streptozotocyn (STZ. After 30 days of breast feeding, ten offsprings from eachgroup (two per mother were randomly selected for kidney removal. The kidneyswere weighed and their tissues were processed for light microscopy. Glomerular featureswere evaluated quantitatively using dissection as well as the Cavalieri methodand were then compared with sham and control groups.Results: At birth, the mean body weight of diabetic mothers’ offspring (DO was significantlylower than that of the control group’s offspring (CO and sham group’s offspring(SO (p=0.001, however, the mean body weight of the 30 day-old DO was notlower than that of CO and SO (p>0.05. The total renal volumes, cortical volumes,glomerular mean and total volumes, total mesangeal volumes, total capillary volumesand total glomerular numbers were significantly lower in the DO than in CO and SO(p<0.05. The numerical density of glomeruli and mesangial cells per glomeruli weresignificantly greater in DO than in CO and SO (p<0.05.Conclusion: We concluded that intrauterine hyperglycemia is accompanied by anephron deficit which may not be compensated within the first 30 days after birth.

  10. Datasets from label-free quantitative proteomic analysis of human glomeruli with sclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human glomeruli with intermediate (i-GS and advanced (GS sclerotic lesions as well as the normal control (Nor were captured from laser microdissection, digested by trypsin and subjected to shotgun LC-MS/MS analysis (LTQ-Orbitrap XL. The label-free quantification was performed using the Normalized Spectral Index (SIN to assess the relative molar concentration of each protein identified in a sample. All the experimental data are shown in this article. The data is associated to the research article submitted to Journal of Proteomics [1].

  11. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  12. Identification of Olfactory Volatiles using Gas Chromatography-Multi-unit Recordings (GCMR) in the Insect Antennal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Byers, Kelsey J.R.P.; Sanders, Elischa; Riffell, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms inhabit a world full of sensory stimuli that determine their behavioral and physiological response to their environment. Olfaction is especially important in insects, which use their olfactory systems to respond to, and discriminate amongst, complex odor stimuli. These odors elicit behaviors that mediate processes such as reproduction and habitat selection1-3. Additionally, chemical sensing by insects mediates behaviors that are highly significant for agriculture and human healt...

  13. Temporal features of spike trains in the moth antennal lobe revealed by a comparative time-frequency analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Capurro; Fabiano Baroni; Kuebler, Linda S.; Zsolt Kárpáti; Teun Dekker; Hong Lei; Hansson, Bill S; Pearce, Timothy C.; Olsson, Shannon B.

    2014-01-01

    The discrimination of complex sensory stimuli in a noisy environment is an immense computational task. Sensory systems often encode stimulus features in a spatiotemporal fashion through the complex firing patterns of individual neurons. To identify these temporal features, we have developed an analysis that allows the comparison of statistically significant features of spike trains localized over multiple scales of time-frequency resolution. Our approach provides an original way to utilize th...

  14. Physiological and morphological characterization of honeybee olfactory neurons combining electrophysiology, calcium imaging and confocal microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galizia, C G; Kimmerle, B

    2004-01-01

    The insect antennal lobe is the first brain structure to process olfactory information. Like the vertebrate olfactory bulb the antennal lobe is substructured in olfactory glomeruli. In insects, glomeruli can be morphologically identified, and have characteristic olfactory response profiles. Local neurons interconnect glomeruli, and output (projection) neurons project to higher-order brain centres. The relationship between their elaborate morphology and their physiology is not understood. We recorded electrophysiologically from antennal lobe neurons, and iontophoretically injected a calcium-sensitive dye. We then measured their spatio-temporal calcium responses to a variety of odours. Finally, we confocally reconstructed the neurons, and identified the innervated glomeruli. An increase or decrease in spiking frequency corresponded to an intracellular calcium increase or decrease in the cell. While intracellular recordings generally lasted between 10 and 30 min, calcium imaging was stable for up to 2 h, allowing a more detailed physiological analysis. The responses indicate that heterogeneous local neurons get input in the glomerulus in which they branch most strongly. In many cases, the physiological response properties of the cells corresponded to the known response profile of the innervated glomerulus. In other words, the large variety of response profiles generally found when comparing antennal lobe neurons is reduced to a more predictable response profile when the innervated glomerulus is known. PMID:14639486

  15. Effect of cAMP analogues on glomerular inulin space of isolated rats renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bemmelen, M X P; Szczepańska-Konkel, M; Jastorff, B; Jankowski, M; Angielski, S

    2005-03-01

    Cyclic AMP has been generally recognised as activator of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. However, there is little evidence about role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), in particular izoenzymes PKA-I and PKA-II, in glomeruli contractility. We measured changes of glomerular inulin space (GIS) as a marker of its contractility in the presence of phosphodiesterase resistance cAMP analogues; activators and inhibitors of PKA. Activator of PKA i.e. (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM) decreased GIS. (Rp) 8-Cl-cAMPS (0.1-100 microM), inhibitor of PKA, was ineffective but shifted concentration-response curve of (Sp) 8-Cl-cAMPS to right at 50 microM. Specific A site activation by N6-benzoyl-cAMP decreased GIS with maximum at 0.1 microM. Activation of B site by 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP (0.1-100 microM) had no effect. However, specific activation of both sites on PKA-I or PKA-II by site-selective analogue pairs e.g. 8-aminobutyloamino-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP or N6-benzoyl-cAMP plus 8-piperidino-cAMP respectively, significantly increased sensitivity of glomeruli to analogues. Our data suggest that activation of PKA-I or PKA-II might have an important role in the regulation of glomerular contractility. PMID:15795479

  16. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus V Verhagen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose and also retronasally (exhalation, enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odorant concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odorant concentration increases. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience.

  17. Pleural effusion and azygos lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufang, K.F.R.; Buelo, W.

    1981-11-01

    In patients with azygos lobe a right-sided hemopneumothorax can mimic upper mediastinal widening if in recumbent position the fluid can gather in the azygos lobe recess. The right lateral decubitus view with the horizontal beam will show fluid levels in the azygos region thus giving the correct diagnosis.

  18. Pleural effusion and azygos lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients with azygos lobe a right-sided hemopneumothorax can mimic upper mediastinal widening if in recumbent position the fluid can gather in the azygos lobe recess. The right lateral decubitus view with the horizontal beam will show fluid levels in the azygos region thus giving the correct diagnosis. (orig.)

  19. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid. PMID:23955594

  20. Antennal sensilla of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in relation to food preferences and habits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hu-Hai Chen; Yun-Xian Zhao; L E Kang

    2003-12-01

    The external structure, i.e. number and distribution of sensillae on male and female antennae of 12 species of grasshoppers belonging to Pamphaginae, Catantopinae, Oedipodinae and Gomphocerinae in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Five major types of antennal sensillae were detected – trichoid, long basiconic, short basiconic, slender and short basiconic, and coeloconic sensillae. Total number of antennal sensillae varied among different sexes, subfamilies, feeding groups, life forms and eco-forms. Males showed significantly more sensillae than females, due to presence of more short basiconic and coeloconic sensillae. Species under Catantopinae showed more long basiconic sensillae than the others. The Oedipodinae had the highest number of slender and short basiconic sensillae and coeloconic sensillae, followed by Catantopinae and Gomphocerinae; while Pamphaginae had the fewest. The total number of sensillae showed the same trend for these two types amongst the subfamilies as well, species which prefer habits on the ground possessed fewer antennal sensillae than species which prefer to stay on plants. The maximal number of antennal sensillae were observed in hygrophytous species, Chorthippus albomarginatus, in the 12 grasshopper species investigated, although the data is not statistically significant. The general trend which emerged was that species feeding on grass possessed more antennal sensillae, particularly coeloconic sensillae, compared to other feeding group species.

  1. Binding and degradation of /sup 125/I-insulin by renal glomeruli and tubules isolated from rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meezan, E.; Freychet, P.

    1982-04-01

    Isolated rat renal glomeruli and tubules were shown to exhibit specific binding of /sup 125/I-insulin and enzymatic degradation of the hormone. Binding to both renal fractions reached a plateau by 1 h at 22/sup 0/C and increased linearly with increasing protein concentrations. Binding was inhibited in both preparations by insulin and its analogues in the order of relative potency: insulin > despentapeptide insulin > proinsulin, but insulin was ten times more potent in inhibiting /sup 125/I-insulin binding to glomeruli than that to tubules, indicating a different affinity of receptors for the hormone in the two renal fractions (about 17 versus 210 ..mu..g unlabelled insulin/1 inhibiting 50% of the /sup 125/I-insulin binding to glomeruli and tubules, respectively). Bound /sup 125/I-insulin dissociated at a faster rate from tubules than from glomeruli; this release was accelerated by unlabelled insulin in both renal fractions, but to a greater extent in glomeruli than in tubules. Two-thirds of the total bound material released from glomeruli was found to be intact insulin as measured by trichloroacetic acid precipitation, whereas only one-third of the material released from tubules was intact. No direct relationship between binding and degradation of /sup 125/I-insulin in these renal fractions could be demonstrated, however, because of the release of proteolytic enzymes into the incubation medium resulting in almost all degradation being extracellular. Although differing in their affinity for /sup 125/I-insulin the high affinity glomerular insulin receptor and the lower affinity tubular insulin receptor have characteristics similar to those of insulin receptors in insulin responsive tissues.

  2. PORTAL SUPPLY TO CAUDATE LOBE AND QUADRATE LOBE OF LIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The precise knowledge of intra hepatic branching pattern of portal vein to caudate lobe and quadrate lobe is important for Gastroenterologist during hepatic segmental and subsegmental resection. The study was done in 47 adult human liver specimens. In this study methods like Manual dissection and Contrast study were used. During this study the portal branches to caudate l obe, Quadrate lobe and accessory branches to segment IV in addition to its branches were observed. The results were compared with previous studies

  3. Post-embryonic development of the antennal sensilla in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Dihego de Oliveira; Matiello-Guss, Cirlei Pereira; Rönnau, Milton; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2008-03-01

    The sensilla are sensory organs formed by cuticular and cellular structures specialized in reception of chemical and physical stimuli from the environment and transmission to the insect's central nervous system. In function of the great concentration of sensilla, the antennae are the main organs for interaction between bees and with the environment. This work studied the presence of antennal sensilla in the different phases of pupal development of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The results showed that antennal sensilla begin their development in the transition of the prepupae to the white-eyed pupae and finish it in the pigmented-body pupae phase. The antennal sensilla were exposed to the environment in the black-eyed pupae when the old cuticle is completely digested, suggesting that only in the final pupal phases can these bees perceive the environmental stimuli. PMID:17992691

  4. Olfactory subsystems in the honeybee: sensory supply and sex specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropf, Jan; Kelber, Christina; Bieringer, Kathrin; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2014-09-01

    The antennae of honeybee (Apis mellifera) workers and drones differ in various aspects. One striking difference is the presence of Sensilla basiconica in (female) workers and their absence in (male) drones. We investigate the axonal projection patterns of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in S. basiconica in honeybee workers by using selective anterograde labeling with fluorescent tracers and confocal-microscopy analysis of axonal projections in antennal lobe glomeruli. Axons of S. basiconica-associated ORNs preferentially projected into a specific glomerular cluster in the antennal lobe, namely the sensory input-tract three (T3) cluster. T3-associated glomeruli had previously been shown to be innervated by uniglomerular projection (output) neurons of the medial antennal lobe tract (mALT). As the number of T3 glomeruli is reduced in drones, we wished to determine whether this was associated with the reduction of glomeruli innervated by medial-tract projection neurons. We retrogradely traced mALT projection neurons in drones and counted the innervated glomeruli. The number of mALT-associated glomeruli was strongly reduced in drones compared with workers. The preferential projections of S. basiconica-associated ORNs in T3 glomeruli together with the reduction of mALT-associated glomeruli support the presence of a female (worker)-specific olfactory subsystem that is partly innervated by ORNs from S. basiconica and is associated with the T3 cluster of glomeruli and mALT projection neurons. We propose that this olfactory subsystem supports parallel olfactory processing related to worker-specific olfactory tasks such as the coding of colony odors, colony pheromones and/or odorants associated with foraging on floral resources. PMID:24817103

  5. Distinct receptors for insulin-like growth factor I in rat renal glomeruli and tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purified preparations of renal glomeruli and tubules were obtained by a procedure involving perfusion of rat kidneys with magnetic iron oxide particles to selectively separate the iron-containing glomeruli from the nonmagnetic tubules. Detergent-soluble extracts of both renal glomerular and tubular membranes showed high-affinity, specific binding of 125I-labeled insulin-like growth factor I (125I-IGF-I), whereas degradation of this peptide hormone was minimal during a 90-min incubation at 22 degrees C in the presence of 2.5 mM EDTA and 5 mM N-ethylmaleimide. The affinity of these receptors for IGF-I appeared identical in the two types of renal tissue, since 50% inhibition of 125I-IGF-I binding to both glomerular and tubular tissue occurred in the presence of approximately 3 x 10(-9) M unlabeled IGF-I. In contrast, insulin was much less effective at blocking 125I-IGF-I binding to either tissue, with 1 x 10(-6) M insulin required to produce 50% inhibition of binding. Relative to 125I-IGF-I binding, 125I-insulin binding to glomerular and tubular tissue was significantly lower per milligram protein. 125I-IGF-I was specifically cross-linked to a glomerular receptor subunit that migrated as two discrete bands with relative molecular weight (Mr) of 140,000-150,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels in the presence of 40 mM dithiothreitol. In contrast, 125I-IGF-I was cross-linked to a tubular receptor subunit that migrated as two discrete bands but at a slightly different position, with Mr of 120,000-140,000

  6. Deposition of idiotype-anti-idiotype immune complexes in renal glomeruli after polyclonal B cell activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the possible role of idiotypic interactions in the pathogenesis of the glomerular lesions observed in mice undergoing polyclonal B cell activation. BALB/c mice were studied for the presence of renal deposits of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype-immune complexes (IC) after injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The T15 idiotype is the major idiotype of BALB/c mice anti-phosphorylcholine (PC) antibodies, which are cross-reactive with the idiotype of the TEPC-15 myeloma protein. This model was used because T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC have been detected in the circulation of BALB/c mice after polyclonal B cell activation. First, an idiotype-specific immunofluorescence technique allowed us to detect T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins in glomeruli from day 6 to day 28 after LPS injection. Second, fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated TEPC-15 myeloma protein was found to localize in the glomeruli after in vivo injection 18 d after LPS administration. This renal localization was shown to be idiotype-specific and could be quantified in a trace-labeling experiment. Third, kidney-deposited immunoglobulins of mice injected with LPS were eluted, radiolabeled, and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Both T15 idiotype-bearing immunoglobulins and anti-T15 idiotype antibodies were detected in the eluates, providing further evidence for a renal deposition of T15 idiotype-anti-T15 idiotype IC. Polyclonal B cell activation is likely to result in a simultaneous triggering of many idiotypic clones and of corresponding anti-idiotypic clones represented in the B cell repertoire. This could lead to the formation of a variety of idiotype-anti-idiotype IC that could participate in the development of glomerular lesions

  7. Dementia of frontal lobe type.

    OpenAIRE

    Neary, D; Snowden, J S; Northen, B; GOULDING, P.

    1988-01-01

    A significant proportion of patients with presenile dementia due to primary cerebral atrophy do not have Alzheimer's disease. One form of non-Alzheimer dementia may be designated as dementia of frontal lobe type (DFT), on the basis of a characteristic neuropsychological picture suggestive of frontal lobe disorder, confirmed by findings on single photon emission tomography. The case histories of seven patients exemplify the disorder: a presentation of social misconduct and personality change, ...

  8. CLIC5A, a component of the ezrin-podocalyxin complex in glomeruli, is a determinant of podocyte integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Binytha; Al-Momany, Abass; Kulak, Stephen C; Kozlowski, Kathy; Obeidat, Marya; Jahroudi, Nadia; Paes, John; Berryman, Mark; Ballermann, Barbara J

    2010-06-01

    The chloride intracellular channel 5A (CLIC5A) protein, one of two isoforms produced by the CLIC5 gene, was isolated originally as part of a cytoskeletal protein complex containing ezrin from placental microvilli. Whether CLIC5A functions as a bona fide ion channel is controversial. We reported previously that a CLIC5 transcript is enriched approximately 800-fold in human renal glomeruli relative to most other tissues. Therefore, this study sought to explore CLIC5 expression and function in glomeruli. RT-PCR and Western blots show that CLIC5A is the predominant CLIC5 isoform expressed in glomeruli. Confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy reveal high levels of CLIC5A protein in glomerular endothelial cells and podocytes. In podocytes, CLIC5A localizes to the apical plasma membrane of foot processes, similar to the known distribution of podocalyxin and ezrin. Ezrin and podocalyxin colocalize with CLIC5A in glomeruli, and podocalyxin coimmunoprecipitates with CLIC5A from glomerular lysates. In glomeruli of jitterbug (jbg/jbg) mice, which lack the CLIC5A protein, ezrin and phospho-ERM levels in podocytes are markedly lower than in wild-type mice. Transmission electron microscopy reveals patchy broadening and effacement of podocyte foot processes as well as vacuolization of glomerular endothelial cells. These ultrastructural changes are associated with microalbuminuria at baseline and increased susceptibility to adriamycin-induced glomerular injury compared with wild-type mice. Together, the data suggest that CLIC5A is required for the development and/or maintenance of the proper glomerular endothelial cell and podocyte architecture. We postulate that the interaction between podocalyxin and subjacent filamentous actin, which requires ezrin, is compromised in podocytes of CLIC5A-deficient mice, leading to dysfunction under unfavorable genetic or environmental conditions. PMID:20335315

  9. Release of glomerular heparan-35SO4 proteoglycan by heparin from glomeruli of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnormalities in the incorporation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan into the glomerular basement membrane have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various proteinuric states, including diabetes mellitus. To understand further the interactions between proteoglycans and glomerular extracellular matrices, glomeruli were isolated from normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats after in vivo exposure to 35S-labeled sulfate and were treated with heparin in vitro. Heparin treatment released a unique heparan sulfate proteoglycan from glomerular cell surface or extracellular matrix proteoglycan receptors. Another, smaller heparan sulfate proteoglycan was the most abundant proteoglycan released into medium and was released constitutively in medium with or without added heparin. While the two heparin-extracted proteoglycans copurified on anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographic columns, they were resolved by composite 0.6% agarose--1.8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glomeruli from diabetic rats contained decreased proportions of the heparin-releasable heparan sulfate proteoglycan and more constitutively released heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The apparent molecular weight and intrinsic charge of the heparin-released proteoglycan mixture and the apparent molecular weight and sulfation pattern of their 35S-labeled glycosaminoglycan chains after nitrous acid deaminative cleavage were similar in the two groups. A brief trypsin digestion of heparin-treated glomeruli released proportionately less integral membrane and extracellular matrix 35S-labeled proteoglycans and 35S-labeled glycopeptides from diabetic glomeruli than form control glomeruli. Elution of these 35S-labeled macromolecules from anion-exchange columns and migration in agarose-polyacrylamide gels were similar in the two groups

  10. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  11. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  12. Rapid Identification of Potential Drugs for Diabetic Nephropathy Using Whole-Genome Expression Profiles of Glomeruli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingsong Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate potential drugs for diabetic nephropathy (DN using whole-genome expression profiles and the Connectivity Map (CMAP. Methodology. Eighteen Chinese Han DN patients and six normal controls were included in this study. Whole-genome expression profiles of microdissected glomeruli were measured using the Affymetrix human U133 plus 2.0 chip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between late stage and early stage DN samples and the CMAP database were used to identify potential drugs for DN using bioinformatics methods. Results. (1 A total of 1065 DEGs (FDR 1.5 were found in late stage DN patients compared with early stage DN patients. (2 Piperlongumine, 15d-PGJ2 (15-delta prostaglandin J2, vorinostat, and trichostatin A were predicted to be the most promising potential drugs for DN, acting as NF-κB inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, PI3K pathway inhibitors, or PPARγ agonists, respectively. Conclusion. Using whole-genome expression profiles and the CMAP database, we rapidly predicted potential DN drugs, and therapeutic potential was confirmed by previously published studies. Animal experiments and clinical trials are needed to confirm both the safety and efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of DN.

  13. Endocrine abnormalities in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy secrete ACTH at higher rates and in greater amounts than normal subjects. Temporal lobectomy restores ACTH secretion to normal amounts and rates. The ACTH secretion in temporal lobe epilepsy is independent of anticonvulsant drug effect and seizure frequency. Electrical stimulation of medial temporal lobe structures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy affected ACTH secretion in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that ACTH secretion is regulated by ...

  14. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99mTc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Conception d'Antenne Spirale intégrée sur SOI à 60 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moussa; Delaveaud, Christophe; Dussopt, Laurent; Ndagijimana, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    La conception d'une antenne spirale intégrée sur SOI est décrite. L'impact de la structure d'alimentation de l'antenne spirale à double brin sur le coefficient de réflexion et le rapport axial est analysé. Un bon coefficient de réflexion avec une bande passante de 35 GHz à -10 dB et une bonne polarisation circulaire couvrant une intervalle d'angle élévation de 120° indépendamment de l'angle d'azimut sont obtenus. L'efficacité de rayonnement simulée est de 80 % avec un gain simulé de 4.3 dBi....

  16. Gravity Perception in a Cladoceran-zooplankter: Anatomy of Antennal Socket Setae of Daphnia Magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Night orientation in Daphnia magna was recently associated with setae on the basal socket of the swimming antennae. Daphnids are suspected of maintaining nocturnal equilibrium by monitoring the gravity vector through upward setal deflections caused by sinking between antennal swimming strokes. Setae appear to be hydrodynamic rheoceptors that sense the gravity vector indirectly by mechanoreceptivity to the direction and velocity of water currents. Neuroanatomical stains have revealed cell bodies at the base of the setal shafts, dendritic connections through to the distal ends of the shafts, and axonal tracts around the antennal socket connecting with an additional cell body and continuing toward the brain. These anatomical observations combined with previous scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the setae are similar to mechanoreceptors and propreceptors used by higher crustaceans to sense water currents and gravity, and maintained balance.

  17. Identification of candidate aldehyde oxidases from the silkworm Bombyx mori potentially involved in antennal pheromone degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Julien; Bozzolan, Françoise; Solvar, Marthe; François, Marie-Christine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2007-12-01

    Signal inactivation is a crucial step in the dynamic of olfactory process and involves various Odorant-Degrading Enzymes. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the best models for studying olfaction in insects, the involvement of an antennal-specific aldehyde oxidase in the degradation of the sex pheromone component bombykal has been demonstrated over the three past decades by biochemical studies. However, the corresponding enzyme has never been characterized at the molecular level. Bioinformatic screening of B. mori genome and molecular approaches have been used to isolate several candidate sequences of aldehyde oxidases. Two interesting antennal-expressed genes have been further characterized and their putative functions are discussed in regard to their respective expression pattern and to our knowledge on aldehyde oxidase properties. Interestingly, one gene appeared as specifically expressed in the antennae of B. mori and associated in males with the bombykal-sensitive sensilla, strongly suggesting that it could encode for the previously biochemically characterized enzyme. PMID:17904312

  18. Electrophysiological and behavioural characterization of gustatory responses to antennal 'bitter' taste in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin; de Paula Mota, Theo Rolla; Gauthier, Monique

    2005-12-01

    We combined behavioural and electrophysiological experiments to study whether bitter taste is perceived at the antennal level in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Our behavioural studies showed that neither quinine nor salicin delivered at one antenna at different concentrations induced a retraction of the proboscis once it was extended in response to 1 M sucrose solution delivered to the opposite antenna. Bees that extended massively their proboscis to 1 M sucrose responded only partially when stimulated with a mixture of 1 M sucrose and 100 mM quinine. The mixture of 1 m sucrose and 100 mM salicin had no such suppressive effect. No behavioural suppression was found for mixtures of salt solution and either bitter substance. Electrophysiological recordings of taste sensillae at the antennal tip revealed sensillae that responded specifically either to sucrose or salt solutions, but none responded to the bitter substances quinine and salicin at the different concentrations tested. The electrophysiological responses of sensillae to 15 mM sucrose solution were inhibited by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM quinine, but not by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM salicin. The responses of sensillae to 50 mM NaCl were reduced by a mixture of 50 mm NaCl and 1 mM quinine but not by a mixture of 50 mM NaCl and 1 mM salicin. We concluded that no receptor cells for the bitter substances tested, exist at the level of the antennal tip of the honeybee and that antennal bitter taste is not represented as a separate perceptual quality. PMID:16367782

  19. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal ...

  20. Physiological organization and topographic mapping of the antennal olfactory sensory neurons in female hawkmoths, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaninia, Majid; Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-10-01

    The hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has been a keystone system for developmental, neurobiological, and ecological studies for several decades. Because many of its behaviors are driven by olfactory cues, a thorough understanding of the Manduca olfactory system is essential to studying its biology. With the aim of functionally characterizing single antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and determining their detailed topographic location, we performed systematic single-sensillum recordings on 4 morphological types of olfactory sensilla: trichoid-A and -B and basiconic-A and -B. We were able to unambiguously differentiate the colocalized cells associated with single sensilla based on their spike amplitudes. Using a panel of 61 biologically relevant compounds established in behavioral and gas chromatography-electrophysiology experiments, we made 223 recordings from these sensilla. Based on the response spectra of 187 responding OSNs, the sensilla fell into 12 distinct functional classes encompassing 29 OSNs. Selectivity of the 25 responding OSNs varied from narrowly tuned (responding to only one or a subset of compounds), to very broadly tuned (responding to multiple compounds), in a concentration-dependent manner. Four OSNs, however, did not respond to the tested components. Topographic mapping of the sensilla revealed that some physiological sensillum types are confined to particular locations on the antennal surface while other classes are more or less irregularly scattered all over the antennal annuli. Such information will prove beneficial for future receptor deorphanization, in situ hybridization, and molecular manipulation experiments. PMID:25092901

  1. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  2. The frontal lobe and aggression

    OpenAIRE

    SÉGUIN, JEAN R.

    2009-01-01

    Frontal lesions often lead to psychosocial problems. It is not surprising that frontal lobe dysfunctions have been proposed to underlie antisocial behaviour in individuals without apparent lesions. However, physical aggression and violence have never been systematically related to acquired lesions. Whereas, traditional neuropsychological testing identifies problems in cognitive and emotional information processing, recent brain-imaging studies have revealed both the frontal structural and fun...

  3. Enigma Of The Orefrontal Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudanan M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are approximately three signature behavioral/cognitive syndromes that occur after damage to prefrontal cortex and its circuitary. First, damage to the dorsolateral prefrontal circuit causes executive dysfunction. These patients have difficulty in generating hypotheses and flexibility in maintaining and shifting sets as required by changing task demands. Second, damage to the orbitofrontal circuit causes disinhibited, irritable and labile behavior. This type of lesion also results in imitation and utilization behavior. Unlike patients with dorsolateral damage, these patients may not have executive impairments. Thirdly, damage to the medial frontal/anterior cingulate circuit causes akinesia, apathy and unconcern. Of course, patients may have damage to more than one of these frontal circuits, leading to a combination of clinical deficits. Unfortunately, these deficits may be hard to quantify on standard neuropsychological tests and may only be evident in real-life situations. This paucity of "objective" findings may lead to overlooking the possibility of damage to the frontal lobes in some patients. The frontal lobes may be less "hard-wired" than other cortical areas. They may act as an orchestrator for integrating other cortical areas and for calling up behavior programs that are appropriate for the context. Although this article is intended to outline a number of apparent frontal lobe functions, it is obvious that the functions of this massive and phylogenetically novel prefrontal cortex are complex, interrelated and as yet incompletely understood.

  4. Distribution of volumes of individual glomeruli in kidneys at autopsy: association with physical and clinical characteristics and with ethnic group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Wendy E; Hughson, Michael D; Diouf, Boucar; Zimanyi, Monika; Samuel, Terence; McNamara, Bridgette J; Douglas-Denton, Rebecca N; Holden, Libby; Mott, Susan A; Bertram, John F

    2011-01-01

    We have demonstrated considerable variability in the volumes of different glomeruli in given individuals (individual glomerular volume: IGV) in a stereologic study of kidneys at forensic autopsy performed to investigate sudden or unexpected death in people without manifest kidney disease. We review some important associations of IGV by subject characteristics and by ethnic groups. IGVs were measured by the Cavalieri method in 30 glomeruli in each of 111 adult males who belonged to 4 ethnic groups, i.e. US Whites, African-Americans, Africans from Senegal, and Australian Aborigines. Correlations of pooled IGV values with certain subject characteristics were evaluated in the US Whites. Pooled IGV data were compared in subjects across the 4 ethnic groups. In US Whites, mean IGV and its variance were greater with higher age, lower nephron number, lower birth weight, and with gross obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular death. In comparisons by ethnic group, mean IGV and IGV ranges were higher in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines than in US Whites and African Senegalese subjects. We conclude that glomerular enlargement with volume heterogeneity marks more advanced age, relative nephron deficiency, lower birth weight, obesity, hypertension, and advanced cardiovascular disease. The findings in African-Americans and Australian Aborigines suggest that larger IGVs and volume heterogeneity might mark populations with accentuated susceptibility to hypertension and kidney disease, but the data need to be further examined in the context of the determining characteristics defined in the US Whites. PMID:21659730

  5. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  6. Olfaction in the Colorado potato beetle: Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Leptinotarsa sp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sen; B K Mitchell

    2001-06-01

    Sensillae on the antennae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata are described using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and compared with SEM observations of antennal sensilla in L. haldemani and L. texana. In all the three species, 13 distinct sensillar types were identified with a higher density of sensilla in the more polyphagous species, L. decemlineata than in the moderately host specific L. haldemani and the highly host specific L. texana. Cuticular specializations and the predominance of olfactory sensilla are discussed in relation to host specificity in the three species.

  7. Neuronal organization of a fast-mediating cephalothoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A

    2011-06-15

    Crickets use their long antennae as tactile sensors. Confronted with obstacles, conspecifics, or predators, antennal contacts trigger short-latency motor responses. To reveal the neuronal pathway underlying these antennal-guided locomotory reactions we identified descending interneurons that rapidly transmit antennal-tactile information from the head to the thorax in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Antennae were stimulated with forces approximating those of naturally occurring antennal contacts. Responding interneurons were individually identified by intracellular axon recordings in the pro-mesothoracic connective and subsequent tracer injection. Simultaneous with the intracellular recordings, the overall spike response in the neck connectives was recorded extracellularly to reveal the precise response-timing of each individual neuron within the collective multiunit response. Here we describe four descending brain neurons and two with the soma in the subesophageal ganglion. All antennal-touch elicited action potentials apparent in the neck connective recordings within 10 ms after antennal-contact are generated by these six interneurons. Their dendrites ramify in primary antennal-mechanosensory neuropils of the head ganglia. Each of them consistently generated action potentials in response to antennal touching and three of them responded also to different visual stimulation (light-off, movement). Their descending axons conduct action potentials with 3-5 m/s to the thoracic ganglia where they send off side branches in dorsal neuropils. Their physiological and anatomical properties qualify them as descending giant fibers in the cricket and suggest an involvement in evoking fast locomotory reactions. They form a fast-mediating cephalo-thoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information, whereas all other antennal-tactile interneurons had response latencies exceeding 40 ms. PMID:21452239

  8. Conception d'antennes miniatures intégrées pour solutions RF SiP

    OpenAIRE

    Jeangeorges, Mickaël

    2010-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente la conception et l'optimisation d'antennes miniatures intégrées en modules de type System in Package. L'objectif est de répondre à un besoin croissant en modules intégrés complets, comprenant tous les composants nécessaires pour apporter des fonctionnalités sans-fil aux objets communicants. Afin de remplir cet objectif, les antennes doivent satisfaire de nombreux critères, autant au niveau des performances (adaptation, bande passante, efficacité, diagramme de rayonnement) ...

  9. TLR2 Plays a Critical Role in HMGB1-Induced Glomeruli Cell Proliferation Through the FoxO1 Signaling Pathway in Lupus Nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiao-Juan; Wu, Chao; Yang, Gui-Fang; Liu, Qing-Juan; Liu, Jin-Xi; Hao, Jun; Xing, Ling-Ling; Yang, Min; Liu, Shu-Xia

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the role and possible mechanisms of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in high-mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 (HMGB1)-induced mouse mesangial cell (MMC) proliferation and glomeruli proliferation of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice. First, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), TLR2 and Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice was quantified, and the correlation with cell proliferation of glomeruli was analyzed. Then, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR2 neutralization antibody, and small hairpin TLR2 (shTLR2) were used to confirm the role of TLR2 in HMGB1-induced MMC proliferation. Furthermore, wild-type FoxO1 (WT-FoxO1) vector was used to investigate the effect of FoxO1 pathway on HMGB1-induced MMC proliferation. Finally, electroporation was used to knockdown TLR2 in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice, and renal function, FoxO1, and PCNA expression were detected. The results showed that the TLR2 expression was upregulated and FoxO1 expression was decreased in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice, and these effects were significantly correlated with cell proliferation of the glomeruli. In vitro, the TLR2 neutralization antibody and the WT-FoxO1 vector, both reduced the MMC proliferation levels induced by HMGB1. The TLR2 neutralization antibody also blocked the HMGB1-dependent activation of the FoxO1 pathway and cell proliferation. In addition, transfection with shTLR2 decreased the proliferation levels and PCNA expression induced by HMGB1. In vivo, treatment with shTLR2 significantly reduced the PCNA expression in the glomeruli of MRL/Fas(lpr) mice and improved renal function. In addition, treatment with shTLR2 or blocking of TLR2 also reduced the translocation of FoxO1. Thus, TLR2 plays a critical role in HMGB1-induced glomeruli cell proliferation through the FoxO1 signaling pathway in lupus nephritis. PMID:26799193

  10. Antennal development in the praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia highlights multitudinous processes in hemimetabolous insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Carle

    Full Text Available Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres on which sensory organs (sensilla are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla.

  11. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-07-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four categories: aversion, aggression, antennal search, and no response. Regardless of the stimulants, the crickets exhibited antennal search and aversion most frequently in response to the first and second stimuli, respectively. The frequency of aversion was significantly higher to the tibia of H. venatoria than to other stimulants. The most striking observation was that aggressive responses were exclusive to the H. venatoria tibia. To specify the hair type that induced aggression, we manipulated two types of common hairs (bristle and fine) on the tibia of the predatory spider. When bristle hairs were removed from the H. venatoria tibia, aggression was significantly reduced. These results suggest that antennae can discriminate the tactile texture of external objects and elicit adaptive behavioral responses. PMID:22534774

  12. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  13. Parallel processing in the honeybee olfactory pathway: structure, function, and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rössler, Wolfgang; Brill, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Animals face highly complex and dynamic olfactory stimuli in their natural environments, which require fast and reliable olfactory processing. Parallel processing is a common principle of sensory systems supporting this task, for example in visual and auditory systems, but its role in olfaction remained unclear. Studies in the honeybee focused on a dual olfactory pathway. Two sets of projection neurons connect glomeruli in two antennal-lobe hemilobes via lateral and medial tracts in opposite ...

  14. Fluvastatin inhibits activation of JAK and STAT proteins in diabetic rat glomeruli and mesangial cells under high glucose conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong SHI; Song ZHAO; Chen WANG; Ying LI; Hui-jun DUAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the mechanism of the protective role of fluvastatin on diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats were treated daily with fluvastatin (4 mg/kg body weight) by gavage. The animals were killed 4 weeks later and urine and blood samples were collected. The kidney tissues were removed and subjected to the following experiments. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) were cultured under normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L), HG+AG490 (10 μmol/L), or HG with fluvastatin (1 pmol/L). Glomeruli or the GMC lysate was immunoprecipi- tated and/or immunoblotted with antibodies against Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), SH2- domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), phosphospecific SHP-2, and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT), respectively. Trans- forming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The protein synthesis of TGF-β1 and fibronectin in the culture medium of GMC was detected by ELISA. Results: The phosphorylation levels of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2 increased significantly, and SHP-1 phosphorylation was reduced in glom- eruli of diabetic rats. Treatment with fluvastatin reduced phosphorylation levels of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2 in glomeruli of diabetic rats, but it had no effect on the dephosphorylation of SHP-1. The exposure of GMC to 30 mmol/L glucose caused the activation of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2. It upregulated TGF-β1 expression and increased protein synthesis of fibronectin. These high glucose-induced changes were suppressed by fluvastatin, as well as AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor. Conclusion: The regulation of the phosphorylation of JAK/STAT by fluvastatin may be responsible for its renal protective effects on diabetic nephropathy.

  15. The frontal lobes and inhibitory function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuropsychological studies using traditional tasks of inhibitory functions, such as the Wisconsin card sorting test (WCST) and the Go/No-Go Task have revealed that the frontal lobe is responsible for several types of inhibitory functions. However, the detailed psychological nature of the inhibitory functions and the precise location of their critical foci within the frontal lobe remain to be investigated. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides spatial and temporal resolution that allowed us to illuminate at least 4 frontal regions involved in inhibitory functions: the dorsolateral, ventrolateral, and rostral parts of the frontal lobe and the presupplementary motor area (preSMA). The ventrolateral part of the frontal lobe in the right hemisphere was activated during response inhibition. The preSMA in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition of proactive interference immediately after the dimension changes of the WCST. The rostral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated during inhibition long after the dimension changes. The dorsolateral part of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere was activated at the dimension changes in the first time, but not in the second time. These findings provide clues to our understanding of functional differentiation of inhibitory functions and their localization in the frontal lobe. (author)

  16. Automated lobe-based airway labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Suicheng; Wang, Zhimin; Siegfried, Jill M; Wilson, David; Bigbee, William L; Pu, Jiantao

    2012-01-01

    Regional quantitative analysis of airway morphological abnormalities is of great interest in lung disease investigation. Considering that pulmonary lobes are relatively independent functional unit, we develop and test a novel and efficient computerized scheme in this study to automatically and robustly classify the airways into different categories in terms of pulmonary lobe. Given an airway tree, which could be obtained using any available airway segmentation scheme, the developed approach consists of four basic steps: (1) airway skeletonization or centerline extraction, (2) individual airway branch identification, (3) initial rule-based airway classification/labeling, and (4) self-correction of labeling errors. In order to assess the performance of this approach, we applied it to a dataset consisting of 300 chest CT examinations in a batch manner and asked an image analyst to subjectively examine the labeled results. Our preliminary experiment showed that the labeling accuracy for the right upper lobe, the right middle lobe, the right lower lobe, the left upper lobe, and the left lower lobe is 100%, 99.3%, 99.3%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. Among these, only two cases are incorrectly labeled due to the failures in airway detection. It takes around 2 minutes to label an airway tree using this algorithm. PMID:23093951

  17. Emphysema lung lobe volume reduction: effects on the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew S.; Kim, Hyun J.; Abtin, Fereidoun G.; Galperin-Aizenberg, Maya; Pais, Richard; Da Costa, Irene G.; Ordookhani, Arash; Chong, Daniel; Ni, Chiayi; McNitt-Gray, Michael F.; Goldin, Jonathan G. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Center for Computer Vision and Imaging Biomarkers, Department of Radiological Sciences, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Strange, Charlie [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Columbia, SC (United States); Tashkin, Donald P. [David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-07-15

    To investigate volumetric and density changes in the ipsilateral and contralateral lobes following volume reduction of an emphysematous target lobe. The study included 289 subjects with heterogeneous emphysema, who underwent bronchoscopic volume reduction of the most diseased lobe with endobronchial valves and 132 untreated controls. Lobar volume and low-attenuation relative area (RA) changes post-procedure were measured from computed tomography images. Regression analysis (Spearman's rho) was performed to test the association between change in the target lobe volume and changes in volume and density variables in the other lobes. The target lobe volume at full inspiration in the treatment group had a mean reduction of -0.45 L (SE = 0.034, P < 0.0001), and was associated with volume increases in the ipsilateral lobe (rho = -0.68, P < 0.0001) and contralateral lung (rho = -0.16, P = 0.006), and overall reductions in expiratory RA (rho = 0.31, P < 0.0001) and residual volume (RV)/total lung capacity (TLC) (rho = 0.13, P = 0.03). When the volume of an emphysematous target lobe is reduced, the volume is redistributed primarily to the ipsilateral lobe, with an overall reduction. Image-based changes in lobar volumes and densities indicate that target lobe volume reduction is associated with statistically significant overall reductions in air trapping, consistent with expansion of the healthier lung. (orig.)

  18. Possible Relic Lobes in Giant Radio Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Godambe, S; Saikia, D J; Wiita, P J

    2009-01-01

    We present low-frequency observations with the GMRT of three giant radio sources (J0139+3957, J0200+4049 and J0807+7400) with relaxed diffuse lobes which show no hotspots and no evidence of jets. The largest of these three, J0200+4049, exhibits a depression in the centre of the western lobe, while J0139+3957 and J0807+7400 have been suggested earlier by Klein et al. and Lara et al. respectively to be relic radio sources. We estimate the spectral ages of the lobes. All three sources have compact radio cores. Although the radio cores suggest that the sources are currently active, we suggest that the lobes in these sources could be due to an earlier cycle of activity.

  19. Antenne réseau cylindrique pour station sol GPS différentiel

    OpenAIRE

    Souny, Bernard; Poret, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Les multitrajets dû à la présence d'obstacles au voisinage du sol restent une source d'erreurs difficile à supprimer dans les techniques différentielles de localisation par satellite. Nous proposons une antenne constituée d'un réseau cylindrique vertical à forte coupure au voisinage du sol permettant de réduire l'influence de ces multitrajets. La synthèse de ce réseau pose des problèmes spécifiques liés à un pas d'échantillonnage plus faible que la demi longueur d'onde et à la nécessité d'avo...

  20. Gravity receptors in a microcrustacean water flea - Sensitivity of antennal-socket setae in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.; Farmer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Gravity receptors of Dephnia magna were discovered on the basal segment of the swimming antennae and were shown to respond to upward water currents that pass the animal as it sinks between swimming strokes. Sensitivity of the gravity perceiving mechanism was tested by subjecting daphnids to a series of five decreasingly dense aqueous solutions (neutral density to water) in darkness (to avoid visual cues). Three-dimensional, video analysis of body position (pitch, yaw and roll) and swimming path (hop and sink, vertical and horizontal patterns) revealed a gradual threshold that occurred near a density difference between the animal and its environment of less than 0.25%. Because daphnids do not sink but continue to slide after stroking in the increased density solutions, gravity perception appears to occur during a vertical swing of the longitudinal body axis to the vertical plane, about their center of gravity, and, thereby, implies a multidirectional sensitivity for the antennal-socket setae.

  1. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2009-09-25

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

  2. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAUD-NETTO J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  3. Plasma transport in the magnetotail lobes

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, S.; Lybekk, B.; K. Svenes; Pedersen, A.; M. Förster; H. Vaith; Torbert, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Earth's magnetosphere is populated by particles originating from the solar wind and the terrestrial ionosphere. A substantial fraction of the plasma from these sources are convected through the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of convective plasma transport through the Earth's magnetotail lobes for various geomagnetic conditions. The results are based on a combination of density measurements from the Electric Field and Waves Experiment (EFW) and c...

  4. Agenesis of right upper lobe of lung

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Yen-Ta; Lin, Rong-Luh

    2015-01-01

    Agenesis of the right upper lobe of the lung is a very uncommon congenital anomaly and may be referred to chest clinics in adulthood for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph. The presentations of chest radiograph may imitate many common situations such as right upper lobe collapse presenting as an ipsilateral shifting of the mediastinum or elevation of the right hemidiaphragm due to eventration or subdiaphragmatic lesions. A chest computed tomography is considered the most concl...

  5. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  6. Imaging memory in temporal lobe epilepsy: predicting the effects of temporal lobe resection

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, S. B.; Powell, R. H. W.; Yogarajah, M.; Samson, R. S.; Symms, M.R.; Thompson, P J; Koepp, M J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging can demonstrate the functional anatomy of cognitive processes. In patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, evaluation of preoperative verbal and visual memory function is important as anterior temporal lobe resections may result in material specific memory impairment, typically verbal memory decline following left and visual memory decline after right anterior temporal lobe resection. This study aimed to investigate reorganization of memory functi...

  7. Immunological perspectives of temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Lehtimäki, Kai; Kai, Lehtimäki; Palmio, Johanna; Johanna, Palmio; Alapirtti, Tiina; Tiina, Alapirtti; Peltola, Jukka; Jukka, Peltola

    2013-10-15

    The temporal lobes are affected in many different neurological disorders, such as neurodegenerative diseases, viral and immunological encephalitides, and epilepsy. Both experimental and clinical evidence suggests a different inflammatory response to seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) in comparison to those with extra-TLE (XTLE). Proinflammatory cytokines and several autoantibodies have been shown to be associated with TLE compared to other epilepsy types suggesting the specific role and structure of the temporal lobe. Abundant experience suggests that activation of both innate and adaptive immunity is associated with epilepsy, particularly refractory focal epilepsy. Limbic encephalitis often triggers temporal lobe seizures, and a proportion of these disorders are immune-mediated. Histological evidence shows activation of specific inflammatory pathways in resected temporal lobes of epileptic patients, and certain epileptic disorders have shown increased incidence in patients with autoimmune diseases. Rapid activation of proinflammatory cytokines is observed after single seizures, but there is also evidence of chronic overproduction of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators in patients with TLE, suggesting a neuromodulatory role of inflammation in epilepsy. In this review we summarize current data on the presence and the role of immunological factors in temporal lobe seizures, and their possible involvement in epileptogenesis. PMID:23998423

  8. Analyse électromagnétique rigoureuse et rapide d'un problème multi-échelle et variable de transmission entre deux antennes ULB

    OpenAIRE

    Guelilia, Zakaria; Loison, Renaud; Gillard, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    National audience Dans ce papier, une méthode rapide et rigoureuse (MM-DG-FDTD) est proposée, validée et exploitée pour analyser électromagnétiquement des problèmes multi-échelles de transmission entre deux antennes ULB dans lesquels la position de l'antenne de réception varie.

  9. Spontaneous left medial liver lobe torsion and left lateral lobe infarction in a rottweiler

    OpenAIRE

    Bhandal, Jitender; Kuzma, Alan; Starrak, Greg

    2008-01-01

    The abdominal ultrasonogram of a dog admitted for acute onset of collapse revealed an abnormally displaced left medial liver lobe with no blood flow. Surgical and histological findings confirmed the ultrasonographic diagnosis of left liver lobe torsion. Ultrasonographic findings were useful and probably sufficient for a correct diagnosis.

  10. Rheoceptive mediators of graviperception in a water flea: Morphological implications of antennal-socket setae in daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Aquatic microcrustaceans of the genus Daphnia are known to orient to light during the day. At night, in the absence of visual cues, daphnids were suspected of maintaining equilibrium by monitoring the direction of gravity through their swimming antennae. Recent investigations using simulated, weightlessness conditions coupled with absence of illumination revealed hair like structures or setae on the basal, articulating socket of the antennae that, when surgically removed, resulted in disorientation. Given the simulated weightlessness or neutrally buoyant condition that eliminated sinking of the normally negatively buoyant Daphnia, it was proposed that the antennal socket setae function as rheoceptors stimulated by the upward rush of water currents during gravity induced, sinking phase of daphnid swimming movements. This rheoceptively mediated, gravity perception hypothesis is further supported by morphological investigations. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that antennal socket setae are anatomically similar to proprioceptors used by higher crustaceans to monitor gravitational direction.

  11. CONCEPTION ET OPTIMISATION DE RESEAUX D’ANTENNES IMPRIMEES A FAISCEAUX MULTIPLES APPLICATION DES RESEAUX DE NEURONES

    OpenAIRE

    Chaker, Hichem,

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse développe d’une part des techniques d’optimisation de réseaux d’antennes imprimées multifaisceaux, basées sur les méthodes méta-heuristiques, telles que l’essaim de particule adaptative et leur modèle hybride avec les algorithmes génétiques. D’autre part, elle exploite la notion d’intelligence artificielle en utilisant les réseaux de neurones pour la modélisation du problème de synthèse de réseaux d’antennes imprimées à faisceaux multiples. Le problème de synthèse c...

  12. Inter-specific and developmental differences on the array of antennal chemoreceptors in four species of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gracco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the pattern of chemoreceptor sensilla in adults and fifth stage nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Triatoma infestans and T. sordida in order to study differences and similarities between genera and species. Three types of sensilla were analyzed by light microscopy: thin-walled trichoidea, thick-walled trichoidea and basiconica. The number of sensilla of each three types were counted. The length of the antennal segments were also used as a variable for the analysis. The statistical analysis showed that the number of these antennal chemoreceptors had significant differences between species and between adults and nymphs of each species. Discriminant analysis separates incompletely the fifth stage nymphs of the four species and showed similarity between them. Discriminant analysis performed with 12 variables of the antennae, allowed a complete separation of the adults of the four species.

  13. MRI in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features in temporal lobe epilepsy and correlated them with clinical variables, such as age, illness duration, past history, and the frequency of seizure. Cerebral MRI was performed in 45 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy of unknown etiology, using a 0.5 T and/or a 1.5 T MRI systems. The temporal lobe was seen as high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and/or proton density-weighted images in 6 patients, although it was missed on CT and T1-weighted images. The high intensity area seemed to reflect sclerosis of the temporal lobe. This finding was significantly associated with partial seizure. Of these patients, 3 had a history of febrile convulsions. Ten patients had slight dilatation of the inferior horn of the lateral ventricle. They were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those without dilatation. Furthermore, 6 patients with unilateral dilatation were significantly younger than the other 4 with bilateral dilatation. Nine patients had small multiple high signal areas in white matter, mainly in the parietal lobe, which suggested vascular origin. These patients were significantly old at the time of onset and examination, as compared with those having no such findings. In depicting high signal intensity areas, a 1.5 T MRI system was not always superior to a 0.5 T MRI system. Proton density-weighted images were better than T2-weighted images in some patients. (N.K.)

  14. Effect of lobe profile on the load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw; STRZELECKI

    2001-01-01

    The rotors of turbogenerators operate in 2-lobe journal bearings. These bearings can bedesigned with the same or different profile of upper and bottom lobe, e.g. the upper lobe has cylin-drical and bottom one the offset profile. Shaping the bearing profile this way allows the variation ofstatic and dynamic characteristics of bearing. The static characteristics consist among others theload capacity of bearing which is very important parameter. The paper introduces the results ofcalculations of load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing characterised by different profiles of upperand bottom lobe. The laminar, adiabatic oil flow in the bearing lubricating gap, parallel orientationof journal and bearing axis as well as the static equilibrium position of journal have been assumed.

  15. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  16. Lung lobe collapse: pathophysiology and radiologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiographic changes caused by collapse of lung lobes in pulmonary disease, pneumothorax, and pleural effusion depend on the lobar recoiling force and local pleural pressure. Differences in the tendency of normal lung lobes or regions to collapse depend on the relative surface-to-volume ratio, determined by shape and size of the region or lobe. This ratio affects the physiologic parameters of pulmonary interdependence, compliance, and collateral air flow. Pulmonary surfactant increases compliance, particularly at low volumes, maintains alveolar stability, and assists in maintaining capillary patency and preventing pulmonary edema. Its loss due to lung injury increases collapsing forces. In the presence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion, diseases that cause lobar collapse produce localized air or fluid entrapment that is a diagnostic sign of the presence of the underlying pulmonary disease

  17. How many lobes do you see?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsantsaridou Angeliki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Accessory fissures represent a variation of the normal lung anatomy. Incomplete development or even the absence of the major or minor fissures can lead to confusion in distinguishing adjacent lobes. This report aims to present a rare intraoperative finding of an anatomic malformation of the right lung in a 19-year old male patient with recurrent pneumothorax who underwent a surgical repair. An accessory fissure which was separating the superior segment of the lower lobe from the basal segments gave to the whole lung the unique image of a four-lobed one. A profound knowledge of the accessory fissures, even if they are incidentally discovered, is of pivotal importance for the thoracic surgeon and leads to optimal operative assessment and strategic planning.

  18. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongzhen Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 46 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 gustatory receptors (GRs, 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs, 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs: 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs, 12 esterase (ESTs, and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9, 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12, 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35, and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57 were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this

  19. X-rays from jets and lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigelson, E. D.

    1983-01-01

    The current status of X-ray detections (and non-detections) of radio jets and lobes is presented. High resolution images obtained with the Einstein Observatory reveal X-ray emission associated with jet and lobe components of Virgo A, Centaurus A, 3C273, and possibly other radio structures. The Vir A and Cen A jet emission is probably s ynchrotron in origin, requiring in situ particle acceleration to extremely high energies. Inverse Compton emission is the likely cause of asymmetrical X-ray features in the halo of Vir A, supporting the assumption of equipartition.

  20. X-rays from jets and lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current status of X-ray detections (and non-detections) of radio jets and lobes is reviewed. The author summarizes the findings and interpretation of several detections of jet and lobe X-ray emission made with the EINSTEIN observatory in Virgo A, Centaurus A, 3C273, and possibly other radio structures. The Vir A (=M27) and Cen A jet emission is probably synchrotron in origin, requiring in situ particle acceleration to extremely high energies. Inverse Compton emission is the likely cause of asymmetrical X-ray features in the halo of Vir A, supporting the assumption of equipartition. (Auth.)

  1. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L J; Frasnelli, E; Versace, E

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species' natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  2. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. J.; Frasnelli, E.; Versace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species’ natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  3. Size determines antennal sensitivity and behavioral threshold to odors in bumblebee workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Halbig, Christine; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    The eusocial bumblebees exhibit pronounced size variation among workers of the same colony. Differently sized workers engage in different tasks (alloethism); large individuals are found to have a higher probability to leave the colony and search for food, whereas small workers tend to stay inside the nest and attend to nest duties. We investigated the effect of size variation on morphology and physiology of the peripheral olfactory system and the behavioral response thresholds to odors in workers of Bombus terrestris. Number and density of olfactory sensilla on the antennae correlate significantly with worker size. Consistent with these morphological changes, we found that antennal sensitivity to odors increases with body size. Antennae of large individuals show higher electroantennogram responses to a given odor concentration than those of smaller nestmates. This finding indicates that large antennae exhibit an increased capability to catch odor molecules and thus are more sensitive to odors than small antennae. We confirmed this prediction in a dual choice behavioral experiment showing that large workers indeed are able to respond correctly to much lower odor concentrations than small workers. Learning performance in these experiments did not differ between small and large bumblebees. Our results clearly show that, in the social bumblebees, variation in olfactory sensilla number due to size differences among workers strongly affects individual odor sensitivity. We speculate that superior odor sensitivity of large workers has favored size-related division of labor in bumblebee colonies.

  4. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  5. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  6. Profiling cytokines in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common types of partial epilepsy. Because about 30% of the TLE patients poorly respond to medication, identification of new drug targets to treat TLE is imperative. This requires detailed knowledge of the pathophysiology of TLE . The aim of this thesis

  7. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s−2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s−1.

  8. Agenesis of right upper lobe of lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chiu-Ping; Lu, Yen-Ta; Lin, Rong-Luh

    2015-06-01

    Agenesis of the right upper lobe of the lung is a very uncommon congenital anomaly and may be referred to chest clinics in adulthood for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph. The presentations of chest radiograph may imitate many common situations such as right upper lobe collapse presenting as an ipsilateral shifting of the mediastinum or elevation of the right hemidiaphragm due to eventration or subdiaphragmatic lesions. A chest computed tomography is considered the most conclusive examination used to diagnose lung agenesis. Three-dimensional reconstructed images can be particularly helpful in delineating abnormalities of the bronchi and associated arterial and venous structures. We describe here a young woman with allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma since her early childhood. She was referred to our clinic for an incidental finding of abnormal chest radiograph after a school health checkup. Right upper lobe atelectasis or intra-abdominal lesions were initially suspected. After a thorough image study, she was diagnosed as a case of agenesis of the right upper lobe. Our report emphasizes the importance that a high index of suspicion and adequate image investigation are necessary to diagnose congenital lung anomalies. PMID:26090110

  9. Limbic Network Synchronization and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jefferys, J. G. R.; Jiruška, Přemysl; de Curtis, M.; Avoli, M.

    4. New York : Oxford University Press, 2012 - (Noebels, J.; Avoli, M.; Rogawski, M.; Olsen, R.; Delgado-Escueta, A.), s. 176-189. ISBN 978-0-19-974654-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : synchronization * temporal lobe epilepsy * seizures Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Radiologic evaluation of right middle lobe collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many pathogenetic factors for collapse of right middle lobe; profuse peribronchial clustering of lymph nodes about the right middle lobe bronchus, poor drainage of the bronchus because of its acute angle of take-off from the intermediate bronchus, and the isolation of this small lobe from the right upper and lower lobes, and thus from the aerating effects of collateral ventilation. Retrospectively we reviewed 36 cases of right of right middle lobe collapse of which causes were confirmed by histopathologic or bronchographic findings during the recent 6 years from March 1983 to February 1988 at Inje College Pusan Paik Hospital, and obtained the following results: 1. Male to female ratio was 1:1:4,and peak incidence (64%) was in the fifth and sixth decades with the mean age of 51.1 years. 2. Bronchiectasis was the most common cause (30.6%), and the others were chronic bronchitis (25.0%), pulmonary tuberculosis (19.4%), lung cancer (16.7%), and non-specific inflammatory disease (8.3%). This suggests benign disease is 5 times more common cause of right middle lobe collapse than lung cancer. 3. Among the plain chest radiolograph findings, obliteration of right cardiac border and triangular radiopaque density were the most frequent findings(77.8% in each) and the next was downward and anterior displacement of minor and major fissures (55.6%) 4. Bronchography was done in 11 cases; bronchiectasis was found in 8 cases and chronic bronchitis in 3 cases. Right middle lobe bronchus was obstructed in 2 cases of chronic bronchitis. 5. Chest CT scan was performed in 4 cases of lung cancer, 2 of non-specific inflammatory disease, and 1 of pulmonary tuberculosis: all of lung cancer revealed hilar mass, budged or lobulated fissures, in homogenous density, and mediastinal lymph node enlargement, and all benign disease showed homogenous density and flat to concave fissures. Right middle lobar bronchus narrowing was seen in 5 cases and its obstruction in 2 cases

  11. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango

    2000-06-01

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the antennal segments to bring phlebotomine more in line with other subfamilies and families while a description of antennal sensilla is provided for the first time in phlebotomine sandflies. Each flagellum consists of scape, pedicel, flagellomeres I to XIII and apiculus. The antennal segments contain scales and sensilla and the latter consist of sensilla trichodea, s. basiconica, s. auricillica, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica and their putative functions are discussed. The sensilla chaeticum hitherto known as antennal ascoid in the phlebotomine sandflies was used to differentiate within and between species. Differences in its relative size to the flagellomere between the populations of P. argentipes collected from the endemic and non-endemic areas in Tamil Nadu state, southern India were established. These differences are considered to be a character displacement as means of premating reproductive isolating mechanism among the populations/members of species complex.

  12. Leukocyte nucleus segmentation and nucleus lobe counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zong-Han

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leukocytes play an important role in the human immune system. The family of leukocytes is comprised of lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, and neutrophils. Any infection or acute stress may increase or decrease the number of leukocytes. An increased percentage of neutrophils may be caused by an acute infection, while an increased percentage of lymphocytes can be caused by a chronic bacterial infection. It is important to realize an abnormal variation in the leukocytes. The five types of leukocytes can be distinguished by their cytoplasmic granules, staining properties of the granules, size of cell, the proportion of the nuclear to the cytoplasmic material, and the type of nucleolar lobes. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency.Biomedical technologists can currently recognize abnormal leukocytes using human eyes. However, the quality and efficiency of diagnosis may be compromised due to the limitations of the biomedical technologists' eyesight, strength, and medical knowledge. Therefore, the development of an automatic leukocyte recognition system is feasible and necessary. It is essential to extract the leukocyte region from a blood smear image in order to develop an automatic leukocyte recognition system. The number of lobes increased when leukemia, chronic nephritis, liver disease, cancer, sepsis, and vitamin B12 or folate deficiency occurred. Clinical neutrophil hypersegmentation has been widely used as an indicator of B12 or folate deficiency. Results The purpose of this paper is to contribute an automatic leukocyte nuclei image segmentation method for such recognition technology. The other goal of this paper is to develop the method of counting the number of lobes in a cell nucleus. The experimental results

  13. Antennal structure of male and female Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani-Peres (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): description and morphological alterations after cold storage or heat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Delphine; Vernon, Philippe; Krespi, Liliane; Le Lannic, Jo; Van Baaren, Joan

    2006-12-01

    Several species of the genus Aphidius are used in biological control programs against aphid pests throughout the world and their behavior and physiology are well studied. But despite knowing the importance of sensory organs in their behavior, their antennal structure has never been described. We describe here the types and distribution of antennal sensilla in Aphidius rhopalosiphi, a larval parasitoid of several aphid species and observe how this antennal structure is modified after cold storage or heat exposure. Six types of sensilla were found on both male and female antennae. Male and female antennae differed in the total number of antennomeres (16 in males, 14 in females) and in the number and distribution of three of the six types of sensilla. After cold storage or heat exposure, we observed the appearance of a small number of abnormal sensilla. PMID:17019677

  14. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility. PMID:26644774

  16. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Nejati; Majid Nejati

    2012-01-01

    Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont ...

  17. Video electroencephalogram telemetry in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti Mani

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The ro...

  18. MRI findings of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI findings were analyzed retrospectively in 46 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in which the side of epileptogenic focus had been confirmed by EEG studies. T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained by the use of a 1.0 or 1.5 T superconducting-type MRI machine with a coronal scan perpendicular to the axis of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. Additional axial and sagittal scans were performed in some cases. The area of the hippocampal body was measured quantitatively using a computerized image-analysis system in 26 cases in which the hippocampus had been visualized with enough contrast on T1-weighted coronal images. Abnormal findings were observed in 31/46 (67%) cases. Hippocampal (HC) and temporal lobe (TL) atrophy were observed in 18/46 (39%) and 23/46 (50%) cases respectively, and the side of the atrophy corresponded with the side of the epileptogenic focus, as confirmed by EEG studies, with specificities of 89% and 74% respectively. A quantitative measurement of the area of the hippocampal body showed unilateral hippocampal atrophy more than 10% in 18/25 (69%) cases (10-25%: 10 cases, 25-50%: 7 cases, 50%2 abnormality was observed in only 4 cases. Structural lesions were observed in 4 cases including an arachnoid cyst, an astrocytoma in amygdala, the Dandy-Walker syndrome, and tuberous sclerosis, using the more efficient imaging qualities than the CT scan. From these observations, it is apparant that superconducting MRI is extremely useful in the diagnosis of the epileptogenic topography of temporal lobe epilepsy. Particularly, hippocampal atrophy was found to correspond with the side of the epileptogenic focus on EEG with a high specificity; its quantitative evaluation could be one of the most important standards in detecting the operative indications for temporal lobe epilepsy. (author)

  19. Functional neuroanatomy of the insular lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Stephani, C.; Fernandez-Baca Vaca, G.; Maciunas, R.; Koubeissi, M.; Lüders, H.

    2010-01-01

    The insula is the fifth lobe of the brain and it is the least known. Hidden under the temporal, frontal and parietal opercula, as well as under dense arterial and venous vessels, its accessibility is particularly restricted. Functional data on this region in humans, therefore, are scarce and the existing evidence makes conclusions on its functional and somatotopic organization difficult. 5 patients with intractable epilepsy underwent an invasive presurgical evaluation with implantation of dia...

  20. Neurokinin-1 Receptor Immunoreactive Neuronal Elements in the Superficial Dorsal Horn of the Chicken Spinal Cord: With Special Reference to Their Relationship with the Tachykinin-containing Central Axon Terminals in Synaptic Glomeruli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synaptic glomeruli that involve tachykinin-containing primary afferent central terminals are numerous in lamina II of the chicken spinal cord. Therefore, a certain amount of noxious information is likely to be modulated in these structures in chickens. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry with confocal and electron microscopy to investigate whether neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R)-expressing neuronal elements are in contact with the central primary afferent terminals in synaptic glomeruli of the chicken spinal cord. We also investigated which neuronal elements (axon terminals, dendrites, cell bodies) and which neurons in the spinal cord possess NK-1R, and are possibly influenced by tachykinin in the glomeruli. By confocal microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivities were seen in a variety of neuronal cell bodies, their dendrites and smaller fibers of unknown origin. Some of the NK-1R immunoreactive profiles also expressed GABA immunoreactivities. A close association was observed between the NK-1R-immunoreactive neurons and tachykinin-immunoreactive axonal varicosities. By electron microscopy, NK-1R immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies, conventional dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites in laminae I and II. Among these elements, dendrites and vesicle-containing dendrites made contact with tachykinin-containing central terminals in the synaptic glomeruli. These results indicate that tachykinin-containing central terminals in the chicken spinal cord can modulate second-order neuronal elements in the synaptic glomeruli

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy. Usefulness for the etiological diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improvement in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques, the ability to identify lesions responsible for temporal lobe epilepsy has increased. MR imaging has also enabled the in vivo diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis. Brain tumors are responsible for 2-4% of epilepsies in adult population and 10-20% of medically intractable epilepsy. The sensitivity of MR imaging in the diagnosis of tumors and other lesions of the temporal lobe (vascular malformations, etc.) is around 90%. Both hippocampal sclerosis and other temporal lobe lesions are amenable to surgical therapy with excellent postsurgical seizure outcome. In this article, we characterize and underline distinguishing features of the different pathological entities. We also suggest an approach to reviewing the MR images of an epileptic patient. (author)

  2. Antennal transcriptome and differential expression of olfactory genes in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Min-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Hua; Qin, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Wei-Rong; Falabella, Patrizia; Du, Yan-Li

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth (YPM), Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), is a multivoltine insect pest of crops and fruits. Antennal-expressed receptors are important for insects to detect olfactory cues for host finding, mate attraction and oviposition site selection. However, few olfactory related genes were reported in YPM until now. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the antennal transcriptomes of male and female YPM. In total, 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 46 putative odorant receptors (ORs) and 7 putative ionotropic receptors (IRs) were annotated and identified as olfactory-related genes of C. punctiferalis. Further analysis of RT-qPCR revealed that all these olfactory genes are primarily or uniquely expressed in male and female antennae. Among which, 3 OBPs (OBP4, OBP8 and PBP2) and 4 ORs (OR22, OR26, OR44 and OR46) were specially expressed in male antennae, whereas 4 ORs (OR5, OR16, OR25 and OR42) were primarily expressed in female antennae. The predicted protein sequences were compared with homologs in other lepidopteran species and model insects, which showed high sequence homologies between C. punctiferalis and O. furnacalis. Our work allows for further functional studies of pheromone and general odorant detection genes, which might be meaningful targets for pest management. PMID:27364081

  3. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F; Lapoint, Richard T; Faucher, Cécile P; Hildebrand, John G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-03-10

    Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species' odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires. PMID:25624509

  4. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  5. Antennal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases in a pest insect: diversity and putative function in odorant and xenobiotics clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolan, F; Siaussat, D; Maria, A; Durand, N; Pottier, M-A; Chertemps, T; Maïbèche-Coisne, M

    2014-10-01

    Uridine diphosphate UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. They are involved in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including odorants. Several UGTs have been reported in the olfactory organs of mammals and involved in olfactory processing and detoxification within the olfactory mucosa but, in insects, this enzyme family is still poorly studied. Despite recent transcriptomic analyses, the diversity of antennal UGTs in insects has not been investigated. To date, only three UGT cDNAs have been shown to be expressed in insect olfactory organs. In the present study, we report the identification of eleven putative UGTs expressed in the antennae of the model pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these UGTs belong to five different families, highlighting their structural diversity. In addition, two genes, UGT40R3 and UGT46A6, were either specifically expressed or overexpressed in the antennae, suggesting specific roles in this sensory organ. Exposure of male moths to the sex pheromone and to a plant odorant differentially downregulated the transcription levels of these two genes, revealing for the first time the regulation of insect UGTs by odorant exposure. Moreover, the specific antennal gene UGT46A6 was upregulated by insecticide topical application on antennae, suggesting its role in the protection of the olfactory organ towards xenobiotics. This work highlights the structural and functional diversity of UGTs within this highly specialized tissue. PMID:24698447

  6. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  7. Mass transport in the magnetotail lobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The Earth's magnetosphere is populated by particles originating from the solar wind and the terrestrial ionosphere. A substantial fraction of the plasma from these sources are convected through the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of convective mass transport through the Earth's magnetotail lobes for various geomagnetic conditions. The results are based on a combination of density measurements from the Electric Field and Waves Experiment (EFW) and convection velocities from the Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) on board the Cluster spacecraft. The results show that variations in the plasma mass flow is primarily attributed to changes in the convection velocity, whereas the plasma density remains fairly constant and shows little correlation with geomagnetic activity. During disturbed conditions there is also an increased abundance of heavier ions, which combined with enhanced convection, cause an accentuation of the mass flow. The convective transport is much slower than the field aligned transport. A substantial amount of plasma therefore escape downtail without ever reaching the central plasma sheet.

  8. It's All in the Mix: Blend-Specific Behavioral Response to a Sexual Pheromone in a Butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsdotter-Mellström, Helena; Eriksson, Kerstin; Liblikas I, Ilme; Wiklund, Christer; Borg-Karlson, Anna K; Nylin, Sören; Janz, Niklas; Carlsson, Mikael A

    2016-01-01

    Among insects, sexual pheromones are typically mixtures of two to several components, all of which are generally required to elicit a behavioral response. Here we show for the first time that a complete blend of sexual pheromone components is needed to elicit a response also in a butterfly. Males of the Green-veined White, Pieris napi, emit an aphrodisiac pheromone, citral, from wing glands. This pheromone is requisite for females to accept mating with a courting male. Citral is a mixture of the two geometric isomers geranial (E-isomer) and neral (Z-isomer) in an approximate 1:1 ratio. We found that both these compounds are required to elicit acceptance behavior, which indicates synergistic interaction between processing of the isomers. Using functional Ca(2+) imaging we found that geranial and neral evoke significantly different but overlapping glomerular activity patterns in the antennal lobe, which suggests receptors with different affinity for the two isomers. However, these glomeruli were intermingled with glomeruli responding to, for example, plant-related compounds, i.e., no distinct subpopulation of pheromone-responding glomeruli as in moths and other insects. In addition, these glomeruli showed lower specificity than pheromone-activated glomeruli in moths. We could, however, not detect any mixture interactions among four identified glomeruli, indicating that the synergistic effect may be generated at a higher processing level. Furthermore, correlations between glomerular activity patterns evoked by the single isomers and the blend did not change over time. PMID:26973536

  9. Planck revealed bulk motion of Centaurus A lobes

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Kashin, A L; Khachatryan, H G; Mirzoyan, S; Yegorian, G; Jetzer, Ph; Qadir, A; Vetrugno, D

    2015-01-01

    Planck data towards the active galaxy Centaurus A are analyzed in the 70, 100 and 143 GHz bands. We find a temperature asymmetry of the northern radio lobe with respect to the southern one that clearly extends at least up to 5 degrees from the Cen A center and diminishes towards the outer regions of the lobes. That transparent parameter - the temperature asymmetry - thus has to carry a principal information, i.e. indication on the line-of-sight bulk motion of the lobes, while the increase of that asymmetry at smaller radii reveals the differential dynamics of the lobes as expected at ejections from the center.

  10. Incidence of a pyramidal lobe on thyroid scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma camera pertechnetate and radioiodine thyroid scans were reviewed to determine the incidence of recognition of a pyramidal lobe. Ten to 17% of normals and of patients with various thyroid disease states had a pyramidal lobe on their scans. However, in patients with diffuse toxic goiter, 43% had a pyramidal lobe on the thyroid images. There appears to be a correlation between elevated thyroid function studies (likely in thyroid mass) and the incidence of a pyramidal lobe on thyroid scans in diffuse toxic goiter

  11. Types of submarine fan lobes: Models and implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (United States))

    1991-01-01

    Different lobe models imply significantly different reservoir geometries; thus, one must apply the proper lobe model to ancient fan sequences. Braided suprafan lobes are characterized by stacked channel sand bodies with good lateral and vertical communication, and they constitute excellent reservoir facies. Depositional lobes, composed of sheet-like sand bodies with good lateral and moderate vertical communication, exhibit properties of good reservoir facies. Fanlobes, which refer to meandering channels and associated levee facies of large mud-rich submarine fans such as the Mississippi fan, are characterized by offset stacked sand bodies with poor lateral and vertical communication .These lenticular sands have the potential to be moderately good reservoir facies. Ponded lobes, which represent mud-rich slump facies of slope environments, comprise poor reservoir facies because of low sand content and poor sand-body connectivity. Furthermore, the presence of contorted mud layers in ponded lobes is expected to hinder fluid flow. External mounded reflections in seismic profiles often are interpreted as lobes; however, there are no definite seismic criteria to delineate mud-rich lobes from sand-rich lobes.

  12. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  13. MR imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging examinations of 31 patients undergoing temporal lobe resection for refractory partial epilepsy were reviewed retrospectively for the presence of signal abnormalities as well as atrophy. High-signal abnormalities were present in only two of the described 31 patients (6.5%). Pathologically, these represented mesial temporal sclerosis and a hamartoma. Of the remaining 29 cases, 13 showed pathologically varying degrees of mesial temporal sclerosis and gliosis and 16 were pathologically normal. Atrophy, as determined by gross asymmetry, sulcal and temporal horn enlargement, and computer volume measurements, was observed in 23 of 31 patients, correlating with the clinically affected side in 20 and the contralateral side in three. In this series, in contrast to others reported, focal MR signal abnormalities were not detected in the vast majority of patients with mesial temporal sclerosis

  14. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: structure and distribution of sensilla on the flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2009-10-01

    The antennae are a critically important component of the ant's highly elaborated chemical communication systems. However, our understanding of the organization of the sensory systems on the antennae of ants, from peripheral receptors to central and output systems, is poorly understood. Consequently, we have used scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy to create virtually complete maps of the structure, numbers of sensory neurons, and distribution patterns of all types of external sensilla on the antennal flagellum of all types of colony members of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Based on the outer cuticular structures, the sensilla have been classified into seven types: coelocapitular, coeloconic, ampullaceal, basiconic, trichoid-I, trichoid-II, and chaetic sensilla. Retrograde staining of antennal nerves has enabled us to count the number of sensory neurons housed in the different types of sensilla: three in a coelocapitular sensillum, three in a coeloconic sensillum, one in an ampullaceal sensillum, over 130 in a basiconic sensillum, 50-60 in a trichoid-I sensillum, and 8-9 in a trichoid-II sensillum. The basiconic sensilla, which are cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive in the ant, are present in workers and unmated queens but absent in males. Coelocapitular sensilla (putatively hygro- and thermoreceptive) have been newly identified in this study. Coelocapitular, coeloconic, and ampullaceal sensilla form clusters and show biased distributions on flagellar segments of antennae in all colony members. The total numbers of sensilla per flagellum are about 9000 in unmated queens, 7500 in workers, and 6000 in males. This is the first report presenting comprehensive sensillar maps of antennae in ants. PMID:19763622

  15. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona; Mombaerts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene-targeted strains of the OR-IRES-marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, "count every cell" strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain-specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17-fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene-targeted strains. PMID:26100963

  16. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rotating superconductor magnet is described for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet

  17. Temporal lobe lesions and psychosis in multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, R; Zigmond, A S

    2010-01-01

    Lesions in the temporal lobe are associated with psychiatric manifestations in multiple sclerosis. The authors describe this case of a young man with multiple sclerosis who presented with first-episode psychosis and had acute lesions in the temporal lobe. He was successfully treated with olanzapine and β-interferon.

  18. Torsion of Pedunculated Accessory Liver Lobe with Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Khandelwal, Kamlesh K.; Gomes, Rachel M.; Bhagvat, Vikrant

    2012-01-01

    Accessory lobes of the liver are very uncommon and rarely symptomatic. We report the occurrence of torsion and infarction of a pedunculated accessory lobe of the liver with acute cholecystitis. The speculated possibilities of the coexistent pathologies and its management are discussed.

  19. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  20. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research projects on epilepsy addressed two main issues: the pathophysiology of the inter-ictal hypo-metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy and the role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizure. Our research projects focused primarily on temporal lobe epilepsy: The pathophysiology of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism and its correlation with the epileptogenic network was investigated in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Inter-ictal hypo-metabolism is commonly found in mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) but its pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. We hypothesized that metabolic changes reflect the preferential networks involved in ictal discharges. We analyzed the topography of inter-ictal hypo-metabolism according to electro-clinical patterns in 50 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis (HS) and consistent features of MTLE. Based on electro-clinical correlations we identified 4 groups:1) mesial group characterized by mesial seizure onset without evidence of early spread beyond the temporal lobe; 2) anterior mesio-lateral group (AML) with early anterior spread, involving the anterior lateral temporal cortex and insulo-fronto-opercular areas; 3) widespread mesio-lateral group (WML) with widespread spread, involving both anterior and posterior lateral temporal and peri-sylvian areas; 4) bi-temporal group (BT) with early contralateral temporal spread. Results of FDG-PET imaging in each group were compared to control subjects using statistical parametric mapping software (SPM99). MRI data and surgical outcome in each group were compared to metabolic findings. Hypo-metabolism was limited to the hippocampal gyrus, the temporal pole and the insula in the mesial group. Gradual involvement of the lateral temporal cortex, the insula and the peri-sylvian areas was observed in the AML and WML groups. The BT group differed from the others by mild bi-temporal involvement, bilateral insular hypo-metabolism and longer epilepsy duration. MRI

  1. Spike voltage topography in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A; Asadollahi, Marjan; Shimamoto, Shoichi; Lorenzo, Matthew; Sperling, Michael R

    2016-07-15

    We investigated the voltage topography of interictal spikes in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) to see whether topography was related to etiology for TLE. Adults with TLE, who had epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant seizures from 2011 until 2014 at Jefferson Comprehensive Epilepsy Center were selected. Two groups of patients were studied: patients with mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) on MRI and those with other MRI findings. The voltage topography maps of the interictal spikes at the peak were created using BESA software. We classified the interictal spikes as polar, basal, lateral, or others. Thirty-four patients were studied, from which the characteristics of 340 spikes were investigated. The most common type of spike orientation was others (186 spikes; 54.7%), followed by lateral (146; 42.9%), polar (5; 1.5%), and basal (3; 0.9%). Characteristics of the voltage topography maps of the spikes between the two groups of patients were somewhat different. Five spikes in patients with MTS had polar orientation, but none of the spikes in patients with other MRI findings had polar orientation (odds ratio=6.98, 95% confidence interval=0.38 to 127.38; p=0.07). Scalp topographic mapping of interictal spikes has the potential to offer different information than visual inspection alone. The present results do not allow an immediate clinical application of our findings; however, detecting a polar spike in a patient with TLE may increase the possibility of mesial temporal sclerosis as the underlying etiology. PMID:27288809

  2. Dust Temperatures in the Galactic Center Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchilla-Garcia, Luis G.; Morris, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The Galactic Center Lobe (GCL), located toward positive latitudes above the Galactic center and extending to a distance of ~150 pc, is apparently a bubble of hot gas that is manifested at all wavelengths from radio to X-rays. In mid- to far-infrared dust emission, the GCL shows several superposed, elongated structures oriented perpendicular to the Galactic plane. Among them are the dust ridge centered on AFGL5376 and another defining the Double Helix Nebula (DHN). Using temperature maps constructed from a combination of archival WISE and SPITZER data, we have found that these features exhibit dramatic spatial variations in their dust temperatures, with the DHN and the AFGL5376 ridge being much warmer, and therefore substantially brighter in the 20 - 25 µm range, than several other linear features. Furthermore, the cooler linear structures tend to have rather constant dust temperatures, in sharp contrast to the highly variable emission within the warmer features. We will summarize the implications of these results for the nature of the dust heating sources. The candidate heating mechanisms are direct photon heating by stars in the central cluster, thermal heating by exposure to a hot coronal gas, and the impact of ions driven by magnetosonic waves or shocks.

  3. Extrahippocampal Desynchronization in Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is traditionally associated with both hypersynchronous activity in the form of interictal epileptic discharges and hippocampal sclerosis, recent findings suggest that desynchronization also plays a central role in the dynamics of this pathology. The objective of this work is to show the imbalance existing between mesial activities in patients suffering from mesial TLE, with normal mesial structures. Foramen ovale recordings from six patients with mesial TLE and one with lateral TLE were analyzed through a cluster analysis and synchronization matrices. None of the patients present findings in the MRI presurgical evaluation. Numerical analysis was carried out in three different situations: awake and sleep interictal and also during the preictal stage. High levels of desynchronization ipsilateral to the epileptic side were present in mesial TLE patients. Low levels of desynchronization were present in the lateral TLE patient during the interictal stage and almost zero in the preictal stage. Implications of these findings in relation with seizure spreading are discussed.

  4. Resting state networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Mauro; Avoli, Massimo; de Villers-Sidani, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    Summary Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is typically described as a neurologic disorder affecting a cerebral network comprising the hippocampus proper and several anatomically related extrahippocampal regions. A new level of complexity was recently added to the study of this disorder by the evidence that TLE also appears to chronically alter the activity of several brain-wide neural networks involved in the control of higher order brain functions and not traditionally linked to epilepsy. Recently developed brain imaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis of resting state connectivity, have greatly contributed to these observations by allowing the precise characterization of several brain networks with distinct functional signatures in the resting brain, and therefore also known as “resting state networks.” These significant advances in imaging represent an opportunity to investigate the still elusive origins of the disabling cognitive and psychiatric manifestations of TLE, and could have important implications for its pathophysiology and, perhaps, its therapy. Herein we review recent studies in this field by focusing on resting state networks that have been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment in patients with epilepsy: the default mode network, the attention network, and the reward/emotion network. PMID:24117098

  5. Submarine fan lobe models: Implications for reservoir properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R.J. (Mobil Research and Development Corp., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1990-09-01

    A multitude of submarine fan lobe models, advocating widely different reservoir properties, has been introduced into the sedimentologic literature. Four of these models are compared to show their differences in reservoir properties. Braided suprafan lobes are characterized by stacked sand bodies with good lateral and vertical communication, and they constitute excellent reservoir facies. The unchanneled depositional lobes, composed of sheetlike sand bodies with good lateral and moderate vertical communication, exhibit properties of good reservoir facies. Fanlobes, which refer to meandering channels and associated levee facies of large mud-rich submarine fans such as the Mississippi Fan in the Gulf of Mexico, are characterized by offset stacked sand bodies with poor lateral and vertical communication. These lenticular sands have the potential to be moderately good reservoir facies. Ponded lobes, which represent mud-rich slump facies of slope environments, comprise poor reservoir facies because of poor sand content and poor sand-body connectivity caused by chaotic bedding. Furthermore, the presence of slumped mud layers in ponded lobes is expected to hinder fluid flow. Because different lobe models vary significantly from one another in terms of reservoir properties, caution must be exercised to apply the proper lobe model to ancient fan sequences in hydrocarbon exploration and production.

  6. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  7. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  8. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  9. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  10. Suppression of grating lobes for MMW sparse array setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertl

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available For arrays the placement of the single elements determines the angular resolution and the unambiguity interval. The width of the total array determines the resolution capabilities. The wider the elements are placed from each other, the more space in Fourier domain is covered by the measurement and the resolution in time domain will improve. On the other hand the density of the elements has an effect on the angular interval in which objects can be detected unambiguously. For objects within the unambiguous interval grating lobes will appear outside this area while objects outside result in grating lobes in the interval of interest. In this paper the properties of arrays regarding resolution and unambiguity interval will be discussed and methods for the suppression of ambiguous grating lobes are suggested. One approach to suppress the influence of the grating lobes lies in the evaluation of different frequency bands.

  11. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  12. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  13. A volumetric study of parietal lobe subregions in Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Wendy E.; Kesler, Shelli R.; Eliez, Stephan; Warsofsky, Ilana S.; Haberecht, Michael; Reiss, Allan L.

    2004-01-01

    Turner syndrome, a genetic disorder that results from the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome in females, has been associated with specific impairment in visuospatial cognition. Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between parietal lobe abnormalities and visuospatial deficits in Turner syndrome. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to measure parietal lobe subdivisions in 14 participants with Turner syndrome (mean age 13 years 5 months, SD 5 years) and 14...

  14. The neurobiology of cognitive disorders in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Brian; Lin, Jack J.; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and especially memory disruption is a major complicating feature of the epilepsies. In this review we begin with a focus on the problem of memory impairment in temporal lobe epilepsy. We start with a brief overview of the early development of knowledge regarding the anatomic substrates of memory disorder in temporal lobe epilepsy, followed by discussion of the refinement of that knowledge over time as informed by the outcomes of epilepsy surgery (anterior temporal lobecto...

  15. Mirror Focus in a Patient with Intractable Occipital Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiyoung; Shin, Hae kyung; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Choi, Su Jung; Joo, Eun Yeon; Hong, Seung Bong; Hong, Seung Chul; Seo, Dae-Won

    2014-01-01

    Mirror focus is one of the evidence of progression in epilepsy, and also has practical points for curative resective epilepsy surgery. The mirror foci are related to the kindling phenomena that occur through interhemispheric callosal or commissural connections. A mirror focus means the secondary epileptogenic foci develop in the contralateral hemispheric homotopic area. Thus mirror foci are mostly reported in patients with temporal or frontal lobe epilepsy, but not in occipital lobe epilepsy....

  16. Spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with an azygos lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Sadikot, R. T.; Cowen, M E; Arnold, A G

    1997-01-01

    The association between a spontaneous pneumothorax and an azygos lobe is surprisingly rare. A case is reported in which surgical management was difficult; it is suggested that thoracotomy is preferable to video- assisted thoracoscopic surgery in this situation. It is possible that the presence of an azygos lobe might protect against the subsequent development of a spontaneous pneumothorax, and the possible mechanism of this is discussed. 






  17. Pulmonary Lobe Segmentation in CT Examinations Using Implicit Surface Fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Pu, Jiantao; Zheng, Bin; Leader, Joseph Ken; Fuhrman, Carl; Knollmann, Friedrich; Klym, Amy; Gur, David

    2009-01-01

    Lobe identification in computed tomography (CT) examinations is often an important consideration during the diagnostic process as well as during treatment planning because of their relative independence of each other in terms of anatomy and function. In this study, we present a new automated scheme for segmenting lung lobes depicted on three-dimensional CT examinations. The unique characteristic of this scheme is the representation of fissures in the form of implicit functions using Radial Ba...

  18. Preoperative amygdala fMRI in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bonelli, S. B.; Powell, R.; Yogarajah, M; Thompson, P.J.; Symms, M. R.; Koepp, M.J.; Duncan, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Anterior temporal lobe resections (ATLR) benefit 70% of patients with refractory mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but may be complicated by emotional disturbances. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the role of the amygdala in processing emotions in TLE and whether this may be a potential preoperative predictive marker for emotional disturbances following surgery. Methods: We studied 54 patients with refractory mesial TLE due to hippocampal sc...

  19. The role of GABAB receptors in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, K.

    2004-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common partial epilepsy syndrome seen in adult humans. The hippocampus is a key structure in the evolution of temporal lobe seizures. The axons of the dentate granule cells, the mossy fibres, constitute a major hippocampal excitatory input. Inhibitory phenomena at mossy fibre synapses may therefore prevent seizure propagation through the hippocampus. One such inhibitory phenomenon is heterosynaptic depression. In this thesis I studied the role of GABAB recep...

  20. Medical image of the week: right middle lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan EA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 73 year-old woman, a lifetime non-smoker, presented to the pulmonary clinic with chronic dyspnea on exertion and cough. Physical exam was unremarkable and pulmonary function testing showed normal spirometry. A chest radiograph revealed calcified mediastinal adenopathy and increased density in the right middle lobe region (Figure 1. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed significant narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus with partial atelectasis and prominent calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Figure 2. Bronchoscopy showed no endobronchial lesions but there was evidence of extrinsic compression surrounding the right middle lobe orifice. An endobronchial biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. Bronchoscopy cultures and cytology were negative and this was presumed to be from a previous infection with histoplasmosis given the patient’s long-term residence in an endemic area. Given chronic narrowing of right middle lobe bronchus with persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe, the patient was diagnosed with right middle lobe syndrome. ...

  1. Bicavitary effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Z

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zaheda Khan,1 Kathryn Gates,2 Stephen A Simpson,31Emergency and Critical Care, Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, 2Emergency and Critical Care, Advanced Critical Care, Emergency and Specialty Services, Culver City, CA 3Emergency and Critical Care, Southern California Veterinary Specialty Hospital, Irvine, CA, USA Abstract: We described the diagnosis and successful treatment of pleural and peritoneal effusion secondary to liver lobe torsion in a dog. A 12-year-old female spayed Borzoi dog was referred for heart failure. Emergency room thoracic and abdominal ultrasound showed a large volume of pleural effusion with mild peritoneal effusion and an abdominal mass. Pleural fluid analysis classified the effusion as exudative. A complete ultrasound revealed mild peritoneal effusion and decreased blood flow to the right liver lobe. Other causes of bicavitary effusion were ruled out based on blood work, ultrasound, echocardiogram, and computed tomography. The patient was taken to surgery and diagnosed with caudate liver lobe torsion and had a liver lobectomy. At the 2-week postoperative recheck, the patient was doing well and there was complete resolution of the pleural effusion. Liver lobe torsion is a rare occurrence in dogs and can be difficult to diagnose. Clinical signs are nonspecific for liver lobe torsion and patients may present in respiratory distress with significant pleural fluid accumulation. When assessing patients with pleural and peritoneal effusion, liver lobe torsion should be considered as a differential diagnosis.Keywords: pleural effusion, peritoneal effusion, hepatic torsion

  2. Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium

  3. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  4. Disturbed temporal lobe circulation due to compression by pituitary adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to clarify the pathophysiology of temporal lobe-related symptoms in pituitary adenoma by investigating temporal lobe circulation in pituitary adenoma with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). The subjects were 37 patients with pituitary adenoma (74 regions in the bilateral temporal lobes) who underwent 123I-iofetamine (IMP) SPECT before treatment. Using imaging analysis software 3D-SSP, the temporal lobes were evaluated in the bottom view on SPECT using the following method. Regions of interest (ROI) were established in the anteromedial (AM), posteromedial (PM), anterolateral (AL), and posterolateral (PL) regions of the temporal lobe, and the activity ratio (AR) of the counts/pixel in each ROI to those throughout the entire brain was determined. The AR in the 37 patients was compared with that in 37 healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the temporal lobes in patients with pituitary adenoma were classified according to the presence or absence of compression caused by the tumor, pituitary apoplexy, and hormone production, and evaluated. The AR in the AM and AL was significantly lower in the pituitary adenoma than in the healthy group (both, p<0.001). In the pituitary adenoma group, the AR in the AM, AL, and PL was significantly lower in the compression than in the non-compression group (p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.01, respectively). Classification based on the presence or absence of pituitary apoplexy or hormone production did not significantly differ with the AR values. We conclude that pituitary adenoma causes hypoperfusion in the temporal lobe at a high frequency, and direct compression by the tumor is a cause of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) reduction. (author)

  5. Frontal lobe atrophy of the brain in schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported here are the CT findings on cerebral atrophic lesion chiefly developed in the frontal lobe in schizophrenics with unusual organic encephalopathy. Encephalopathy was recognized in 84 (73%) of 115 schizophrenics and 13 (33%) of 40 neurotics. In an attempt to exclude the effects of aging on encephalopathy, the ages at CT and at the development of disease, the number of morbid years, subtypical schizophrenia and relation between the clinical severity and the atrophic condition were comparatively studied. As a result, cerebral atrophy tended to increase along with aging, but the findings differed in that atrophia classified by age covered the entire brain in general, whereas atrophia in schizophrenics was found in the frontal lobe. In particular, because of the fact that clinical severity and atrophia in the frontal lobe are high correlated and that severe atrophia is recognized even in young people, schizophrenia and atrophia in the frontal lobe are considered to be closely related to each other. It is therefore suggested that the CT findings are useful to clinicians for finding appropriate methods to deal with the prognosis of schizophrenics in their daily diagnosis and for the therapeutic prevention of encephalatrophy by stimulating the frontal lobe, thereby delaying mental deterioration. (author)

  6. Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

  7. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  8. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  9. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Ying-Che

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical excision for a cosmetically better facial appearance. The computed tomography (CT scan showed a well-defined giant lipoma arising from the left deep parotid gland. The lipoma was successfully enucleated after full exposure and mobilization of the overlying facial nerve branches. The surgical specimen measured 9 × 6 cm in size, and histopathology revealed fibrolipoma. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery, with a satisfying facial contour and intact facial nerve function. Conclusion Giant lipomas involving the deep parotid lobe are extremely rare. The high-resolution CT scan provides an accurate and cost-effective preoperative investigative method. Surgical management of deep lobe lipoma should be performed by experienced surgeons due to the need for meticulous dissection of the facial nerve branches. Superficial parotidectomy before deep lobe lipoma removal may be unnecessary in selected cases because preservation of the superficial lobe may contribute to a better aesthetic and functional result.

  10. Reconstructing the population activity of olfactory output neurons that innervate identifiable processing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigehiro Namiki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the functional organization of the moth antennal lobe (AL, the primary olfactory network, using in vivo electrophysiological recordings and anatomical identification. The moth AL contains about 60 processing units called glomeruli that are identifiable from one animal to another. We were able to monitor the output information of the AL by recording the activity of a population of output neurons, each of which innervated a single glomerulus. Using compiled intracellular recordings and staining data from different animals, we mapped the odor-evoked dynamics on a digital atlas of the AL and geometrically reconstructed the population activity. We examined the quantitative relationship between the similarity of olfactory responses and the anatomical distance between glomeruli. Globally, the olfactory response profile was independent of the anatomical distance, although some local features were present.

  11. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá SS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in

  12. Fine Structure of Antennal Sensilla of Paysandisia archon and Electrophysiological Responses to Volatile Compounds Associated with Host Palms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ruschioni

    Full Text Available Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae is a serious pest of palm trees. A comprehensive knowledge of the insect olfactory system is essential for the development of efficient semiochemical-based control methods. The olfactory sensilla are located particularly on the antennae, and these can detect plant volatiles that provide important cues for the insects in the search for their host plants. To date, the fine structure of P. archon antennal sensilla studies and their role in host-plant perception have not been investigated in great detail. Using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennae of both sexes of P. archon are described here in detail, according to the different types, quantities and distributions of the sensilla. Six types of sensilla were identified. The most widespread are sensilla trichoidea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricilica, which are associated with olfactory function. These have cuticular shafts characterised by numerous pores, and they are innervated by two or three sensory neurons. Sensilla coeloconica, sensilla chaetica and sensilla ampullacea are associated with olfactory or olfactory-thermoreception, mechano-gustatory, and thermo-hygroreception functions, respectively. Moreover, the role of P. archon antennae in locating of the host palms was evaluated using electroantennograms, to monitor responses to ester and terpene compounds previously identified as volatiles of damaged/fermenting palm tissues. P. archon showed responses to all of the synthetic chemicals tested, with greater responses in the females, providing a significant sex*dose effect. Among the compounds tested, ethyl isobutyrate elicited the strongest antenna responses. The fine structure of the cuticular and cellular components of the P. archon antenna sensory equipment is described for the first time. The results of this study form an important starting point and complement physiological and behavioural

  13. Usefulness of PET in non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. To evaluate the usefulness of PET in patients with refractory non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy. Material and methods. We present three patients with features of temporal lobe epilepsy refractory to medication, where high definition MRI was normal. Results. These patients had PET hypometabolism in the temporal areas related to clinical and neurophysiological findings. Two of these patients were implanted with subdural grids to confirm the diagnosis and the third was operated directly based on the findings of PET. Encourage the presentation of the importance in recent years is acquiring the PET. Conclusion. In those patients in clinical neurophysiology and epilepsy with suspected temporal lobe, but in the MRI images show no structural lesions, PET can play an important role defining the diagnosis. (authors)

  14. Binary Evolution: Roche Lobe Overflow and Blue Stragglers

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanova, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    One of the principal mechanisms that is responsible for the origin of blue stragglers is mass transfer that takes place while one of the binary companions overfills its Roche lobe. In this Chapter, we overview the theoretical understanding of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow: classification, how both the donor and of the accretor respond to the mass transfer on different timescales (adiabatic response, equilibrium response, superadiabatic response, time-dependent response) for different types of their envelopes (convective and radiative). These responses, as well as the assumption on how liberal the process is, are discussed in terms of the stability of the ensuing mass transfer. The predictions of the theory of mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow are then briefly compared with the observed mass-transferring systems with both degenerate and non-degenerate donors. We conclude with the discussion which cases of mass transfer and which primordial binaries could be responsible for blue stragglers formation...

  15. Atypical language representation in children with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulisova, Alice; Korman, Brandon; Rey, Gustavo; Bernal, Byron; Duchowny, Michael; Niederlova, Marketa; Krsek, Pavel; Novak, Vilem

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated language organization in children with intractable epilepsy caused by temporal lobe focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) alone or dual pathology (temporal lobe FCD and hippocampal sclerosis, HS). We analyzed clinical, neurological, fMRI, neuropsychological, and histopathologic data in 46 pediatric patients with temporal lobe lesions who underwent excisional epilepsy surgery. The frequency of atypical language representation was similar in both groups, but children with dual pathology were more likely to be left-handed. Atypical receptive language cortex correlated with lower intellectual capacity, verbal abstract conceptualization, receptive language abilities, verbal working memory, and a history of status epilepticus but did not correlate with higher seizure frequency or early seizure onset. Histopathologic substrate had only a minor influence on neuropsychological status. Greater verbal comprehension deficits were noted in children with atypical receptive language representation, a risk factor for cognitive morbidity. PMID:27064828

  16. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  17. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  18. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-22

    Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  19. Radiosurgery in the Management of Intractable Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñagarícano, José; Serletis, Demitre

    2015-09-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) describes recurrent seizure activity originating from the depths of the temporal lobe. MTLE patients who fail two trials of medication now require testing for surgical candidacy at an epilepsy center. For these individuals, temporal lobectomy offers the greatest likelihood for seizure-freedom (up to 80-90%); unfortunately, this procedure remains largely underutilized. Moreover, for select patients unable to tolerate open surgery, novel techniques are emerging for selective ablation of the mesial temporal structures, including stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). We present here a review of SRS as a potential therapy for MTLE, when open surgery is not an option. PMID:26390538

  20. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  1. Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Rolston

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy continue to have seizures despite medical therapy. For these patients, one recourse is surgical resection of the mesial temporal lobe, with its attendant risks. Noninvasive treatment with Gamma Knife radiosurgery is under active investigation as a possible alternative to open surgery. Accumulated evidence from multiple studies shows radiosurgery to be comparable in outcomes to surgical resection. A definitive randomized, controlled trial, the Radiosurgery or Open Surgery for Epilepsy (ROSE trial, is currently underway, and further investigation of this promising treatment is crucial in our advancement of alternative therapies to treat refractory epilepsy.

  2. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    Intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is an invalidating disease and many patients are resistant to medical treatment. Increased glutamate concentration has been found in epileptogenic foci and may induce local over-excitation and cytotoxicity; one of the proposed mechanisms involves reduced...... extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  3. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  4. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  5. Human Herpesvirus-6 in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-01-01

    Brain samples obtained from surgical resections in 8 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) and 7 patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE) were quantitatively analyzed for HHV-6 in a study at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

  6. Coupled Shape Modeling of the Medial Temporal Lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Larsen, Rasmus; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller;

    Here we investigate how regions in the Medial Temporal Lobe(MTL) in a dataset consisting of 13 di®erent people changes us- ing a Principal Component Analysis(PCA). The regions investigated are the Temporopolar, Parahippocampal, Entorhinal, Hippocampal, Perirhi- nal and Amygdalar regions. The MTL is...

  7. Grooves on the occipital lobe of Indian brains.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisaria, K K

    1984-01-01

    The existence of a groove on the occipital lobe formed by the dural venous sinus or ridge has only rarely been described in the past. As observed in this study such grooves are either unilateral or bilateral and their incidence is very high in Indian brains.

  8. Metabolic changes in occipital lobe epilepsy with automatisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChongHWong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Some studies suggest that the pattern of glucose hypometabolism relates not only to the ictal-onset zone, but also reflects seizure propagation. We investigated metabolic changes in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE that may reflect propagation of ictal discharge during seizures with automatisms. Methods: Fifteen patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for intractable OLE and had undergone interictal Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET between 1994 and 2004 were divided into two groups (with and without automatisms during seizure. Significant regions of hypometabolism were identified by comparing 18F-FDG-PET results from each group with 16 healthy controls by using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 2. Key Findings: Significant hypometabolism was confined largely to the epileptogenic occipital lobe in the patient group without automatisms. In patients with automatisms, glucose hypometabolism extended from the epileptogenic occipital lobe into the ipsilateral temporal lobe. Significance: We identified a distinctive hypometabolic pattern that was specific for OLE patients with automatisms during a seizure. This finding supports the postulate that seizure propagation is a cause of glucose hypometabolism beyond the region of seizure onset.

  9. Vortex structures downstream a lobed nozzle/mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Hu; Toshio Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the evolutions of unsteady vortex structures downstream a lobed mixer/nozzle. A novel dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was used to measure all 3-components of vorticity distributions to revealed both the large-scale streamwise vortices produced by the lobed mixer/nozzle and the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures generated due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities simultaneously and quantitatively for the first time. The instantaneous and the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions displayed quite different aspects about the evolutions of the unsteady vortex structures. While the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions indicated the overall effect of the special geometry of the lobed nozzle/mixer on the enhanced mixing process, the instantaneous vorticity distributions elucidated many details about how the enhanced mixing process was conducted. In addition to quantitatively confirming conjectures of previous studies, further insight about the formation, evolution and interaction characteristics of the unsteady vortex structures downstream of the lobed mixer/nozzle were also uncovered quantitatively in the present study.

  10. Arousal Enhanced Memory Retention Is Eliminated Following Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahs, Fredrik; Kumlien, Eva; Fredrikson, Mats

    2010-01-01

    The amygdala, situated in the anterior medial temporal lobe (MTL), is involved in the emotional enhancement of memory. The present study evaluated whether anterior MTL-resections attenuated arousal induced memory enhancement for pictures. Also, the effect of MTL-resections on response latencies at retrieval was assessed. Thirty-one patients with…

  11. The anterior temporal lobes support residual comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Holly; Zahn, Roland; Keidel, James L; Binney, Richard J; Sage, Karen; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-03-01

    Wernicke's aphasia occurs after a stroke to classical language comprehension regions in the left temporoparietal cortex. Consequently, auditory-verbal comprehension is significantly impaired in Wernicke's aphasia but the capacity to comprehend visually presented materials (written words and pictures) is partially spared. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural basis of written word and picture semantic processing in Wernicke's aphasia, with the wider aim of examining how the semantic system is altered after damage to the classical comprehension regions. Twelve participants with chronic Wernicke's aphasia and 12 control participants performed semantic animate-inanimate judgements and a visual height judgement baseline task. Whole brain and region of interest analysis in Wernicke's aphasia and control participants found that semantic judgements were underpinned by activation in the ventral and anterior temporal lobes bilaterally. The Wernicke's aphasia group displayed an 'over-activation' in comparison with control participants, indicating that anterior temporal lobe regions become increasingly influential following reduction in posterior semantic resources. Semantic processing of written words in Wernicke's aphasia was additionally supported by recruitment of the right anterior superior temporal lobe, a region previously associated with recovery from auditory-verbal comprehension impairments. Overall, the results provide support for models in which the anterior temporal lobes are crucial for multimodal semantic processing and that these regions may be accessed without support from classic posterior comprehension regions. PMID:24519979

  12. Human Herpesvirus-6 in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain samples obtained from surgical resections in 8 patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE and 7 patients with neocortical epilepsy (NE were quantitatively analyzed for HHV-6 in a study at the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD.

  13. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  14. Behavioural responses to human skin extracts and antennal phenotypes of sylvatic first filial generation and long rearing laboratory colony Rhodnius prolixus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Iván Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1 and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.

  15. Different regulation of miR-29a-3p in glomeruli and tubules in an experimental model of angiotensin II-dependent hypertension: potential role in renal fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castoldi, Giovanna; di Gioia, Cira; Giollo, Fabrizio; Carletti, Raffaella; Bombardi, Camila; Antoniotti, Marco; Roma, Francesca; Zerbini, Gianpaolo; Stella, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the angiotensin II (Ang II) induced-differential miRNA expression in renal glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis in an experimental model of Ang II-dependent hypertension. To clarify this issue, Sprague Dawley rats were treated with Ang II (200 ng/kg per minute, n = 15) or physiological saline (n = 14) for 4 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and albuminuria were measured every 2 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, renal glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis was evaluated by histomorphometric analysis, after Sirius-Red and Masson's trichrome staining. Ang II increased systolic blood pressure (P < 0.0001), albuminuria (P < 0.01) and both glomerular and tubulo-interstitial fibrosis (P < 0.01). Using laser capture microdissection and miRNA microarray analysis this study showed that miR-29a-3p was down-regulated in renal tubules and up-regulated in glomeruli. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments confirmed in Ang II-treated rats a down-regulation of miR-29a-3p in tubules (P < 0.01), while no significant changes were observed in glomeruli. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) was identified as putative miR-29a-3p target (by TargetScan, miRanda, Tarbase software) and functionally confirmed by luciferase activity assay. These data demonstrate that the effects of Ang II on miR-29a-3p expression in renal tubules is different from the one exerted in the glomeruli and that miR-29a-3p targets MMP-2. These results suggest that the development of renal fibrosis at glomerular and tubulo-interstitial level depends on different molecular mechanisms. PMID:26700017

  16. Dopamine- and Tyrosine Hydroxylase-Immunoreactive Neurons in the Brain of the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanaka, Yoshitaka; Minoura, Run; Nishino, Hiroshi; Miura, Toru; Mizunami, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    The catecholamine dopamine plays several vital roles in the central nervous system of many species, but its neural mechanisms remain elusive. Detailed neuroanatomical characterization of dopamine neurons is a prerequisite for elucidating dopamine’s actions in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the distribution of dopaminergic neurons in the brain of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana, using two antisera: 1) an antiserum against dopamine, and 2) an antiserum against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH, an enzyme required for dopamine synthesis), and identified about 250 putatively dopaminergic neurons. The patterns of dopamine- and TH-immunoreactive neurons were strikingly similar, suggesting that both antisera recognize the same sets of “dopaminergic” neurons. The dopamine and TH antibodies intensively or moderately immunolabeled prominent brain neuropils, e.g. the mushroom body (memory center), antennal lobe (first-order olfactory center) and central complex (motor coordination center). All subdivisions of the mushroom body exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. Comparison of immunolabeled neurons with those filled by dye injection revealed that a group of immunolabeled neurons with cell bodies near the calyx projects into a distal region of the vertical lobe, which is a plausible site for olfactory memory formation in insects. In the antennal lobe, ordinary glomeruli as well as macroglomeruli exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. It is noteworthy that the dopamine antiserum labeled tiny granular structures inside the glomeruli whereas the TH antiserum labeled processes in the marginal regions of the glomeruli, suggesting a different origin. In the central complex, all subdivisions excluding part of the noduli and protocerebral bridge exhibit both dopamine and TH immunoreactivity. These anatomical findings will accelerate our understanding of dopaminergic systems, specifically in neural circuits underlying aversive memory

  17. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper Versus Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    OpenAIRE

    EdwardIngenito; ArschangValipour; MordechaiKramer; FranzStanzel; RalfEberhardt

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema. Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therap...

  18. A case report: right upper lobectomy with middle lobe preservation after right lower lobectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Igai, Hitoshi; Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Kawatani, Natsuko; Ibe, Takashi; Shimizu, Kimihiro

    2015-01-01

    Few reports have described right upper and lower lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe because of the risk of middle lobe torsion or emphysematous change. Herein we describe a successful result following lobectomy with preservation of the middle lobe for metachronous pulmonary metastasis originating from colon cancer in the right upper lobe after initial right lower lobectomy. A 69-year-old man who had undergone right lower lobectomy for pulmonary metastasis originating from colon ca...

  19. Physiological Modeling of Responses to Upper vs Lower Lobe Lung Volume Reduction in Homogeneous Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arschang eValipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: In clinical trials, homogeneous emphysema patients have responded well to upper lobe volume reduction but not lower lobe volume reduction. Materials/Methods: To understand the physiological basis for this observation, a computer model was developed to simulate the effects of upper and lower lobe lung volume reduction on RV/TLC and lung recoil in homogeneous emphysema.Results: Patients with homogeneous emphysema received either upper or lower lobe volume reduction therapy based on findings of radionucleotide scintigraphy scanning. CT analysis of lobar volumes showed that patients undergoing upper (n=18; -265 mL/site and lower lobe treatment (n=11; -217 mL/site experienced similar reductions in lung volume. However, only upper lobe treatment improved FEV1 (+11.1±14.7% vs -4.4±15.8% and RV/TLC (-5.4± 8.1% vs -2.4±8.6%. Model simulations provided an unexpected explanation for this response. Increases in transpulmonary pressure subsequent to volume reduction increased RV/TLC in upper lobe alveoli, while caudal shifts in airway closure decreased RV/TLC in lower lobe alveoli. Upper lobe treatment, which eliminates apical alveoli with high RV/TLC values, lowers the average RV/TLC of the lung. Conversely, lower lobe treatment, which eliminates caudal alveoli with low RV/TLC values, has less effect. Conclusions: Lower lobe treatment in homogeneous emphysema is uniformly less effective than upper lobe treatment.

  20. Seismic definition of fan lobe types of Mississippi Fan, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, P.; Buffler, R.T.

    1986-05-01

    Detailed seismic stratigraphic studies in the upper and middle Mississippi Fan identified 12 fan lobes. Three different types of fan lobes are present. The type 1 fan lobe consists of two seismic sequences. At the base of the lower sequence are mounded reflectors that change upward to hummocky reflectors. The upper sequence has stacked high-amplitude reflectors flanked on either side by low-amplitude, laterally continuous reflectors. These type 1 fan lobes are interpreted as mass transport deposits overlain by a single channel with extensive overbank deposits. The type 2 fan lobe has seismic and geologic facies similar to the upper sequence of type 1. Both type 1 and type 2 fan lobes have a single channel that is sinuous in the middle fan. The type 3 fan lobe is characterized by several stacked high-amplitude reflectors, flanked by laterally continuous low-amplitude reflectors. These represent a bifurcating channel system showing several episodes of deposition and abandonment. Most of the sediments in the Mississippi Fan were deposited in type 2 or the upper sequence of type 1 fan lobes. Sediments in the lower sequence of the type 1 lobe are areally and volumetrically limited. Of the 12 fan lobes, 7 are type 1, 4 are type 2, and 1 is type 3. Deep Sea Drilling Project Leg 96 drilling penetrated only the modern lobe, which is a type 2 fan lobe.

  1. Psychosis and temporal lobe epilepsy-role of electroconvulsive therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Naomi Mifflen; Gadit, Amin

    2012-01-01

    A 49-year-old female presented for admission with features of being withdrawn, inability to comprehend questions, auditory hallucinations and disorganised thoughts. She also had a previous diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. She did not respond well to psychotropic medications. During her sleep deprived EEG, she had a brief episode of seizures. Following this, she showed improvement in psychosis for a day or so. Based on this finding, it was decided to initiate a course of electroconvulsive ...

  2. Bilateral white matter abnormality in children with frontal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Widjaja, Elysa; Kis, Antonella; Go, Cristina; Snead, O. Carter; Smith, Mary Lou

    2013-01-01

    In frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), interictal discharges and seizures are more likely to spread to contralateral hemisphere and become secondarily generalized. The aim of this study was to assess white matter (WM) integrity in children with FLE using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Children with FLE and normal MRI, and healthy controls with no neurological or psychiatric disorders underwent DTI on 3 T MRI. Whole brain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps were compared betwee...

  3. Quantitative analysis of structural neuroimaging of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Memarian, N; Thompson, PM; Engel, J.; Staba, RJ

    2013-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is the most common of the surgically remediable drug-resistant epilepsies. MRI is the primary diagnostic tool to detect anatomical abnormalities and, when combined with EEG, can more accurately identify an epileptogenic lesion, which is often hippocampal sclerosis in cases of MTLE. As structural imaging technology has advanced the surgical treatment of MTLE and other lesional epilepsies, so too have the analysis techniques that are used to measure differen...

  4. Functional Connectivity Homogeneity Correlates with Duration of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J.; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) often is associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality, was performed o...

  5. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Prithika Chary; Bhuvaneshwari Rajendran

    2013-01-01

    Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G) including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and i...

  6. Giant lipoma arising from deep lobe of the parotid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu Ying-Che; Chiang Feng-Yu; Chi Hung-Pin; Wu Che-Wei; Chan Leong-Perng; Kuo Wen-Rei

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Lipomas are common benign soft tissue neoplasms but they are found very rarely in the deep lobe of parotid gland. Surgical intervention in these tumors is challenging because of the proximity of the facial nerve, and thus knowledge of the anatomy and meticulous surgical technique are essential. Case presentation A 71-year-old female presented with a large asymptomatic mass, which had occupied the left facial area for over the past fifteen years, and she requested surgical ...

  7. The lateralising significance of hypergraphia in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, JKA; Robertson, MM; Trimble, MR

    1982-01-01

    Six patients with hypergraphia and epilepsy are presented and their clinical features compared with other patients reported in the literature. It is suggested that hypergraphia occurs more frequently in patients with right-sided non-dominant temporal lobe lesions, in contrast for example to the schizophreniform presentation of left-sided lesions. Other features of psychopathology possibly associated with non-dominant lesions, including elation, hypereligiosity and déjà vu experiences, are als...

  8. Influence of anxiety on memory performance in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Franklin C.; Westerveld, Michael; Langfitt, John T.; Hamberger, Marla; Hamid, Hamada; Shinnar, Shlomo; Sperling, Michael R.; Devinsky, Orrin; Barr, William; Tracy, Joseph; Masur, David; Bazil, Carl W; Spencer, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the degree to which anxiety contributed to inconsistent material-specific memory difficulties among 243 temporal lobe epilepsy patients from the Multisite Epilepsy Study. Visual memory performance on the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) was lower for those with high versus low level of anxiety, but was not found to be related to side of TLE. Verbal memory on the California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) was significantly lower for left than right TLE patients with low anxiety, ...

  9. Somnambulism Due to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Somnambulism (sleep walking is a disorder of arousal that falls under the parasomnia group. It is more common in children than in adults. (1. The onset of sleep walking in adult life is most unusual and suggests the presence of secondary causes rather than a primary sleep disorder (1. We report a 30-year-old male who presented with repeated episodes of sleep waling possibly due to nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy.

  10. Decision making, the frontal lobes and foraging behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kolling, Nils Stephen; Rushworth, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to understand the function of the frontal lobes during different types of decisions thusfar mostly neglected in cognitive neuroscience. Namely, I sought to understand how decisions are made when comparisons are not about a simple set of concrete options presented, but rather require a comparison with one specific encounter and a sense of the value of the current environment (Chapter 2-3). Additionally, I wanted to understand how decisions between concrete options ca...

  11. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  12. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  13. Temporal lobe necrosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) shows a high frequency of skull base erosion and intracranial spread. This tumour is usually treated with radiation therapy. The medial and inferior portions of both temporal lobes are included within the radiation portals. These areas are therefore potential sites of radiation-induced necrosis. It is important to recognize this complication and separate it from intracranial tumour recurrence because the treatments of these entities are different. (authors)

  14. RADIO RECOMBINATION LINES TOWARD THE GALACTIC CENTER LOBE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Galactic center (GC) lobe is a degree-tall shell seen in radio continuum images of the GC region. If it is actually located in the GC region, formation models would require massive energy input (e.g., starburst or jet) to create it. At present, observations have not strongly constrained the location or physical conditions of the GC lobe. This paper describes the analysis of new and archival single-dish observations of radio recombination lines toward this enigmatic object. The observations find that the ionized gas has a morphology similar to the radio continuum emission, suggesting that they are associated. We study averages of several transitions from H106α to H191ε and find that the line ratios are most consistent with gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The radio recombination line widths are remarkably narrow, constraining the typical electron temperature to be less than about 4000 K. These observations also find evidence of pressure broadening in the higher electronic states, implying a gas density of ne = 910+310-450 cm-3. The electron temperature, gas pressure, and morphology are all consistent with the idea that the GC lobe is located in the GC region. If so, the ionized gas appears to form a shell surrounding the central 100 parsecs of the galaxy with a mass of roughly 105 M sun, similar to ionized outflows seen in dwarf starbursts.

  15. The secondary lobe as anatomic landmark for different pulmonary diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to present the spectrum of pathological findings in the pulmonary parenchyma, based on the knowledge of the secondary lobe and its components. The evaluation was made using high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and compared with the histopathological findings. By definition, the secondary lobe is the small portion of pulmonary tissue separated by septa of connective tissue and supplied by 2-5 or more terminal bronchioles according to their central or peripheral location. Different disorders may become evident as a consequence of : 1) Bronchiolar obstruction (transient or definitive); 2) Intra-alveolar or wall involvement; 3) Involvement of the support tissue; 4) Involvement of the vascular or lymphatic structures. The etiology may be idiopathic, infectious, due to inhalation, neoplastic, allergic, due to collagen diseases, secondary to drug administration and/or post-transplantation. The evaluation of the secondary lobe components, with fine section HRCT, is the dynamic method of choice for the characterisation of pulmonary diseases, and allows to perform earlier and more precise differential diagnoses, when correlated with the clinical findings. The addition of sections during expiration to the routine study is paramount to underscore perfusion disturbances, which may remain undiagnosed during deep inspiration. The goal of this study is to review some of these disorders in which HRCT may be very useful and to correlate our observations with the histopathological findings. (author)

  16. The Centaurus A Northern Middle Lobe as a Buoyant Bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Saxton, C J; Bicknell, G V; Saxton, Curtis J.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Bicknell, Geoffrey V.

    2001-01-01

    We model the northern middle radio lobe of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) as a buoyant bubble of plasma deposited by an intermittently active jet. The extent of the rise of the bubble and its morphology imply that the ratio of its density to that of the surrounding ISM is less than 10^{-2}, consistent with our knowledge of extragalactic jets and minimal entrainment into the precursor radio lobe. Using the morphology of the lobe to date the beginning of its rise through the atmosphere of Centaurus A, we conclude that the bubble has been rising for approximately 140Myr. This time scale is consistent with that proposed by Quillen et al. (1993) for the settling of post-merger gas into the presently observed large scale disk in NGC 5128, suggesting a strong connection between the delayed re-establishment of radio emission and the merger of NGC 5128 with a small gas-rich galaxy. This suggests a connection, for radio galaxies in general, between mergers and the delayed onset of radio emission. In our model, the elongated X-...

  17. Impairments in proverb interpretation following focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Patrick; Shallice, Tim; Robinson, Gail; MacPherson, Sarah E; Turner, Martha; Woollett, Katherine; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2013-09-01

    The proverb interpretation task (PIT) is often used in clinical settings to evaluate frontal "executive" dysfunction. However, only a relatively small number of studies have investigated the relationship between frontal lobe lesions and performance on the PIT. We compared 52 patients with unselected focal frontal lobe lesions with 52 closely matched healthy controls on a proverb interpretation task. Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests, including a fluid intelligence task (Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices). Lesions were firstly analysed according to a standard left/right sub-division. Secondly, a finer-grained analysis compared the performance of patients with medial, left lateral and right lateral lesions with healthy controls. Thirdly, a contrast of specific frontal subgroups compared the performance of patients with medial lesions with patients with lateral frontal lesions. The results showed that patients with left frontal lesions were significantly impaired on the PIT, while in patients with right frontal lesions the impairments approached significance. Medial frontal patients were the only frontal subgroup impaired on the PIT, relative to healthy controls and lateral frontal patients. Interestingly, an error analysis indicated that a significantly higher number of concrete responses were found in the left lateral subgroup compared to healthy controls. We found no correlation between scores on the PIT and on the fluid intelligence task. Overall our results suggest that specific regions of the frontal lobes contribute to the performance on the PIT. PMID:23850600

  18. Surgical management of epilepsy associated with temporal lobe tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankhla

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: Despite advancement in neuroimaging and improvement in the knowledge of tumor behavior, the optimal surgical treatment of patients with temporal-lobe tumors remains unclear. Controversies still exist regarding the type of tumor surgery, i.e., lesionectomy alone or in combination with resection of mesial temporal structures and epileptogenic cortex adjacent to the tumor and the extent of tumor removal. In this retrospective study, the authors have analyzed seizure outcome in a series of children with epileptogenic temporal lobe tumors who had been treated only by lesionectomy. Materials and Methods: Sixteen patients including 7 boys and 9 girls, with a mean age of 9.9 years (range: 5-17 years underwent lesionectomy as the only surgical treatment for temporal lobe tumor related epilepsy. The interval between onset of seizures and surgery ranged from 3 months to 7.5 year (mean 5.9 year. Ten patients (62.5% presented with complex partial seizures and the remaining 6 (37.5% had simple partial seizures with secondary generalization, with seizure frequency varying from several per day to only a few per month. All tumors were located within the temporal lobes: 8 temporomesial, 5 temporolateral and 3 temporobasal. Cortical dysplasia adjacent to tumor, hippocampal sclerosis or tumor infiltration was not demonstrated in any patient. Results: Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved in 11 (69% and subtotal resection in 5 (31% patients. The histopathological diagnosis was ganglioglioma in 6 (37.5% patients, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 5 (31.3%, low-grade astrocytoma in 2 (12.5%, juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma in 2 (12.5% and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma in 1 (6.3%. At a mean follow-up of 5.2 years (range, 1.4-9.3 years, 11 (69% patients were seizure-free (Engel class I and 4 (25% others had a significant improvement in the seizure frequency (Engel class II. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that good long

  19. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal; Chunli Deng

    2012-01-01

    Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the ano...

  20. Visuomotor coordination and motor representation by human temporal lobe neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankus, Ariel; Fried, Itzhak

    2012-03-01

    The division of cortical visual processing into distinct dorsal and ventral streams is a key concept in primate neuroscience [Goodale, M. A., & Milner, A. D. Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends in Neurosciences, 15, 20-25, 1992; Steele, G., Weller, R., & Cusick, C. Cortical connections of the caudal subdivision of the dorsolateral area (V4) in monkeys. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 306, 495-520, 1991]. The ventral stream is usually characterized as a "What" pathway, whereas the dorsal stream is implied in mediating spatial perception ("Where") and visually guided actions ("How"). A subpathway emerging from the dorsal stream and projecting to the medial-temporal lobe has been identified [Kravitz, D. J., Saleem, K. S., Baker, C. I., & Mishkin, M. A new neural framework for visuospatial processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 12, 217-230, 2011; Cavada, C., & Goldman-Raiuc, P. S. Posterior parietal cortex in rhesus monkey: I. Parcellation of areas based on distinctive limbic and sensory cortico-cortical connections. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 287, 393-421, 1989]. The current article studies the coordination of visual information typically associated with the dorsal stream ("Where"), with planned movements, focusing on the temporal lobe. We recorded extracellular activity from 565 cells in the human medial-temporal and frontal lobes while 13 patients performed cued hand movements with visual feedback (visuomotor task), without feedback (motor task), or observed visual feedback without motor movement (visual-only task). We discovered two different neural populations in the human medial-temporal lobe. One consists of motor-like neurons representing hand position, speed or acceleration during the motor task but not during the visuomotor or visual tasks. The other is specific to the parahippocampal gyrus (an area known to process visual motion [Gur, M., & Snodderly, D. M. Direction selectivity in V1 of alert monkeys: Evidence for parallel

  1. Optimisation Multi-Objectif par Orientation Angulaire d’Antennes Imprimées Implantées sur des Surfaces Conformées

    OpenAIRE

    DJENNAS, Sidi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Cette thèse présente une brève revue des concepts et méthodes d’optimisation et détaille en outre l’implémentation d’un « Algorithme Génétique Multi-Objectif » (AGMO) associé à un module d’analyse pour résoudre le problème de synthèse de réseaux conformés d’antennes imprimées. Le problème de synthèse consiste à estimer les orientations locales en azimut et en élévation des éléments rayonnants qui permettent de fournir un diagramme de rayonnement aussi proche que possible des...

  2. Conception et réalisation du système de déploiement des antennes du nanosatellite OUFTI-1

    OpenAIRE

    Wertz, Jérôme; Lenaerts, Vincent; Bruls, Olivier; Denis, Amandine

    2010-01-01

    Le satellite OUFTI-1 est un CubeSat (par définition, satellite cubique de 10 cm d'arête et de maximum 1 kg) développé à l'Université de Liège. Le sujet du travail de fin d'études porte sur la conception et la fabrication de ses antennes, ainsi que de leur système de déploiement. Le résultat du TFE est un prototype possédant toutes les fonctions du système et ayant subi des tests sous vide. The OUFTI-1 satellite is a CubeSat (a standard cubic satellite of 10cm edge and 1 kg mass maximum)...

  3. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2 km 3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that

  4. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  5. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianying Li; Cheng Xu; Xiaohua Cao; Qiang Gao; Yan Wang; Yanfang Wang; Juyi Peng; Kerang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  6. Right upper lobe lung cancer: Resection through left anterior mediastinotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirois, Marco; Abu Arab, Walid; Turcotte, Eric; Poulin, Yannick

    2016-01-01

    There is sparse information concerning approaches to metachronous lung cancer in patients who had a previous pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. We describe the case of a 55-year-old woman who underwent a left pneumonectomy for lung carcinoma. Four years later, a radiological examination revealed a hypermetabolic nodule in the right upper lobe, which was located in the left hemithorax because of right lung hyperinflation and a mediastinal shift to the left. Wedge resection was carried out through a left anterior mediastinotomy. We believe that an anterior mediastinotomy represents a valuable option for the management of recurrent lung cancer after previous surgery. PMID:26124429

  7. "Old" tail lobes provide significant additional substorm power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishin, V.; Mishin, V. V.; Karavaev, Y.

    2012-12-01

    In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during rounding the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs correspond in the magnetosphere to the old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux Ψ1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides transport of the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ɛ' from solar wind into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux Ψ2 is usually supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but it is far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the β = Ψ2/Ψ02, where Ψ02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and Ψ2 is variable magnetic flux during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient β decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in β as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux Ψ2, which was considered to be constant earlier, to the ' transport process of the Poynting flux from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. A weakening of the transport process at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in β. Estimates showed that coefficient β during each regime and the computed Poynting flux varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that effectively

  8. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Murai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  9. Are the dimensions of submarine lobe systems independent of allogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-05-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola / Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai Basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a lobe complex deposited in the shallow subsurface, offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (calibre and rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, the lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin-floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas, like the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. Basin floor topography confining the lobes can be very subtle, and only occur on one side of the system. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes, in the order of 1 or 2 km3. The largest lobes are observed in the Zaïre fan, where the average lobe volume reaches 3.3 km3 and the smallest lobes are observed in the Corsican trough where the average lobe volume is 0.4 km3. This variation in lobe volume is minor when compared to the variation observed in present-day up-dip drainage systems, which provide sediment to the deep-water depositional

  10. How to escape from haller's rule: Olfactory system complexity in small and large Trichogramma evanescens parasitic wasps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Woude, Emma; Smid, Hans M

    2016-06-15

    While Haller's rule states that small animals have relatively larger brains, minute Trichogramma evanescens Westwood (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasps scale brain size linearly with body size. This linear brain scaling allows them to decrease brain size beyond the predictions of Haller's rule, and is facilitated by phenotypic plasticity in brain size. In the present study we addressed whether this plasticity resulted in adaptations to the complexity of the morphology of the olfactory system of small and large T. evanescens. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy to compare size and number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe in the brain, and scanning electron microscopy to compare length and number of olfactory sensilla on the antennae. The results show a similar level of complexity of the olfactory system morphology of small and large wasps. Wasps with a similar genotype but very different brain and body size have similarly sized olfactory sensilla and most of them occur in equal numbers on the antennae. Small and large wasps also have a similar number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Glomeruli in small brains are, however, smaller in both absolute and relative volume. These similarities between small and large wasps may indicate that plasticity in brain size does not require plasticity in the gross morphology of the olfactory system. It may be vital for wasps of all sizes to have a large number of olfactory receptor types, to maintain olfactory precision in their search for suitable hosts, and consequently maintain their reproductive success and Darwinian fitness. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1876-1891, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26560192

  11. Novel assessment of global metabolism by 18F-FDG-PET for localizing affected lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Jonah; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J; Rubello, Domenico; Alavi, Abass

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel method of global quantitative analysis for use in the diagnosis and treatment evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied 16 patients diagnosed with TLE who underwent fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (F-FDG-PET) and MRI at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. To quantify temporal lobe hypometabolism, we averaged the mean standardized uptake value across regions of interest (ROIs) encompassing each lobe in its entirety and calculated the metabolic ratios and lateralization indices for each patient on the basis of global measurements. For comparison, we carried out a traditional 'punch biopsy' ROI analysis by averaging the mean standardized uptake value within 1 cm diameter ROIs across select slices. Both techniques were performed twice by the same rater to test intraobserver variability. An expert observer carried out visual analyses of both F-FDG-PET and MRI for reference. The global quantitative analysis identified a seizure focus lateralization in agreement with clinical evaluations for 91% of patients on both trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.92 for metabolic ratios and lateralization indices, respectively. The punch biopsy analysis was in agreement for 91 and 82% of patients on respective trials, with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 and 0.75. Expert visual analyses carried out on F-FDG-PET and MRI were in agreement for 64 and 9% of patients, respectively. The global quantitative analysis proved to be the most accurate and reliable of the methods tested. This technique has the potential to improve metabolic analysis in TLE and other neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:27092666

  12. Subregional Mesiotemporal Network Topology Is Altered in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Bernasconi, Neda; Hong, Seok-Jun; Dery, Sebastian; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent drug-resistant epilepsy in adults and commonly associated with variable degrees of mesiotemporal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of inter-regional connectivity have unveiled disruptions in large-scale cortico-cortical networks; little is known about the topological organization of the mesiotemporal lobe, the limbic subnetwork central to the disorder. We generated covariance networks based on high-resolution MRI surface-shape descriptors of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala in 134 TLE patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls. Graph-theoretical analysis revealed increased path length and clustering in patients, suggesting a shift toward a more regularized arrangement; findings were reproducible after split-half assessment and across 2 parcellation schemes. Analysis of inter-regional correlations and module participation showed increased within-structure covariance, but decreases between structures, particularly with regards to the hippocampus and amygdala. While higher clustering possibly reflects topological consequences of axonal sprouting, decreases in interstructure covariance may be a consequence of disconnection within limbic circuitry. Preoperative network parameters, specifically the segregation of the ipsilateral hippocampus, predicted long-term seizure freedom after surgery. PMID:26223262

  13. Left temporal lobe structural and functional abnormality underlying auditory hallucinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Hugdahl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we review recent findings from our laboratory that auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia are internally generated speech mis-representations lateralized to the left superior temporal gyrus and sulcus. Such experiences are, moreover, not cognitively suppressed due to enhanced attention to the voices and failure of fronto-parietal executive control functions. An overview of diagnostic questionnaires for scoring of symptoms is presented, together with a review of behavioural, structural and functional MRI data. Functional imaging data have either shown increased or decreased activation depending on whether patients have been presented an external stimulus or not during scanning. Structural imaging data have shown reduction of grey matter density and volume in the same areas in the temporal lobe. The behavioral and neuroimaging findings are moreover hypothesized to be related to glutamate hypofunction in schizophrenia. We propose a model for the understanding of auditory hallucinations that trace the origin of auditory hallucinations to uncontrolled neuronal firing in the speech areas in the left temporal lobe, which is not suppressed by volitional cognitive control processes, due to dysfunctional fronto-parietal executive cortical networks.

  14. Double discontinuities at the magnetotail plasma sheet-lobe boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Whang

    Full Text Available A double discontinuity is a compound structure composed of a slow shock layer and an adjoining rotational discontinuity layer on the postshock side. We use high-resolution data from Geotail and Wind spacecraft to examine the interior structure within the finite thickness of the discontinuity at the plasma sheet-lobe boundary and found that recognizable MHD structures at the boundary can be stand-alone slow shocks or double discontinuities. The plasma density increases significantly and the magnetic field intensity decreases significantly across the interior of the slow shock layer. Through the rotational layer, the magnetic field rotates about the normal direction of the shock surface, as the plasma density and the magnetic field intensity remain nearly unchanged. The rotational angle can vary over a wide range. We notice that the observations of double discontinuities are no less frequent than the observations of stand-alone slow shocks. Identification of slow shocks and double discontinuities infers that plasma and magnetic field lines continuously move across the boundary surface from the lobe into the plasma sheet, and there is a conversion of magnetic field energy into plasma thermal energy through the slow shock layer. The double discontinuities also allows for a rapid rotation of the postshock magnetic field lines immediately behind the shock layer to accommodate the environment of the MHD flow in the plasma sheet region.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma sheet Space plasma physics (discontinuities; shock waves

  15. Radio Recombination Lines toward the Galactic Center Lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Law, C J; Yusef-Zadeh, F; Maddalena, R

    2009-01-01

    The Galactic Center lobe is a degree-tall shell seen in radio continuum images of the Galactic center (GC) region. If it is actually located in the GC region, formation models would require massive energy input (e.g., starburst or jet) to create it. At present, observations have not strongly constrained the location or physical conditions of the GC lobe. This paper describes the analysis of new and archival single-dish observations of radio recombination lines toward this enigmatic object. The observations find that the ionized gas has a morphology similar to the radio continuum emission, suggesting that they are associated. We study averages of several transitions from H106alpha to H191epsilon and find that the line ratios are most consistent with gas in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The radio recombination line widths are remarkably narrow, constraining the typical electron temperature to be less than about 4000 K. These observations also find evidence of pressure broadening in the higher electronic stat...

  16. Cervical lung lobe herniation in dogs identified by fluoroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Laura A; Robertson, Ian D; Hawkins, Eleanor C

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency of cervical lung lobe herniation (CLLH) in dogs evaluated fluoroscopically and to identify associated characteristics. Reports of diagnostic procedures and patient summaries from 2008 to 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Signalment, body weight, duration of cough, presence of heart murmur and airway collapse, and radiographic findings were compared between dogs with and without CLLH. Of the 121 dogs that were examined, CLLH occurred in 85 (70%). The extra-thoracic trachea kinked during herniation in 33 (39%) dogs with CLLH. Collapse of the intra-thoracic trachea (assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically) and collapse of major bronchi (assessed fluoroscopically) were strongly associated with CLLH. Although redundant dorsal tracheal membrane on radiographs was associated with CLLH, extra-thoracic tracheal collapse, assessed fluoroscopically or bronchoscopically, was not. No other associations were found. Cervical lung lobe herniation was present in most dogs evaluated during cough and was associated with intra-thoracic large airway collapse, but not duration of cough. PMID:24155415

  17. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Múnera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.

  18. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS. PMID:26844222

  19. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration. PMID:25331599

  20. Altered serial position learning after frontal lobe lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslinger, P J; Grattan, L M

    1994-06-01

    The serial position function is a powerful and highly reliable feature of human learning, with well-described primacy and recency effects. We tested the hypothesis that frontal lobe lesions in patients would disrupt the serial position function since such patients are known to have disturbed temporal ordering, learning in the presence of interference, encoding and organizational approaches to learning. Performance was compared in patients with focal, acquired lesions of frontal and non-frontal cortices, using a standardized paradigm of verbal list learning. Results indicated a similar pattern of performance on first trial learning for the two groups. However, across learning trials, frontal lesion subjects failed to maintain significant primacy and recency effects. Non-frontal lesion subjects consistently showed the expected U-shaped serial position curve across all trials. Subjective organization in learning was particularly deficient in the dorsolateral frontal lesion subjects. We propose that serial position effects are qualitatively different after frontal lobe lesion, being transitory and prone to alteration by the cumulative effects of disturbed temporal-spatial processing across learning trials. PMID:8084427

  1. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders may afflict children. One problem is the lack of objective data to arrive at a specific clinical diagnosis. Abnormalities in neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid have been reported to play an important role in the onset of these disorders. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred to us with the diagnosis of ADHD or autism and reported as having temper problems by their families. These patients were injected with a dose of Tc-99m HMPAO calculated according to patient age and weight and were imaged 1 hour later using a Picker camera with Fan Beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT using 3D as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal images. With the help of surface rendered 3D images with a cut off of 88% (high) and 60-65% (lower value depending on the patient RCBF value), we observed increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children whose parents did not report temper problems. Increase in perfusion to the temporal lobes may indicate an association with oppositional or aggressive behavior that may be amenable to treatment. Brain SPECT may be useful not only in early diagnosis, but also in guiding appropriate therapy

  2. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[123I]iodo-α-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  3. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemoto, K.; Takuji, N.; Kawasaki, J.; Kawai, I.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those witout either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three gro...

  4. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. PMID:23801572

  5. Prognosis and segment-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer in the right lower lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Tomizawa, Kenji; Suda, Kenichi; Takemoto, Toshiki; Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Sakakura, Noriaki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Kuwano, Hiroyuki; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Sakao, Yukinori

    2015-01-01

    Background Although lobe-specific nodal spread of primary lung cancer has been recently described, segment-specific nodal spread remains unclear. We investigated the frequency of hailer and mediastinal lymph node involvement and survival in patients with tumors located in the superior segment (SS) and basal segment (BS) in the right lower lobe. Methods Two hundred and sixty-three patients with primary lung cancer originating in the right lower lobe underwent lobectomy with systematic mediasti...

  6. Neuropsychiatry of frontal lobe dysfunction in violent and criminal behaviour: a critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Brower, M; Price, B

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To establish the link between frontal lobe dysfunction and violent and criminal behaviour, based on a review of relevant literature.
METHODS—Articles relating evidence of frontal lobe dysfunction with violence or crime were collected through a MEDLINE search using the keyword "frontal lobe" combined with the terms "aggression," "violence," "crime," "antisocial personality disorder," "psychopathy," "impulse control disorders", and "episodic dyscontrol." Referenc...

  7. Inheritance of central neuroanatomy and physiology related to pheromone preference in the male European corn borer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis, is a textbook example of pheromone polymorphism. Males of the two strains (Z and E prefer opposite ratios of the two pheromone components, Z11- and E11-tetradecenyl acetate, with a sex-linked factor underlying this difference in preference. The male antennal lobes of the two strains contain a pheromone sensitive macroglomerular complex (MGC that is identical in morphology, but reversed in functional topology. However, hybrids prefer intermediate ratios. How a topological arrangement of two glomeruli can accommodate for an intermediate preference was unclear. Therefore we studied the neurophysiology of hybrids and paternal backcrosses to see which factors correlated with male behavior. Results Projection neuron (PN recordings and stainings in hybrids and backcrosses show a dominance of the E-type MGC topology, notwithstanding their intermediate preference. Apparently, the topological arrangement of glomeruli does not directly dictate preference. However, two other factors did correlated very well with preference. First, volumetric measurements of MGC glomeruli demonstrate that, whereas in the parental strains the medial MGC glomerulus is more than 2 times larger than the lateral, in hybrids they are intermediate between the parents, i.e. equally sized. Paternal backcrosses showed that the volume ratio is sex-linked and co-dominant. Second, we measured the summed potential difference of the antennae in response to pheromone stimulation using electroantennogram recordings (EAG. Z-strain antennae responded 2.5 times stronger to Z11 than to E11-14:OAc, whereas in E-strain antennae the ratio was approximately equal. Hybrid responses were intermediate to the parents, and also here the antennal response of the paternal backcrosses followed a pattern similar to the behavioral phenotype. We found no differences in frequency and types of projection and local interneurons encountered

  8. Changes in frontal lobe function before and after surgery in patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated neuropsychological function in 18 patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm who showed good postoperative outcomes. We paid particular attention to frontal lobe function. We also investigated relationships between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and frontal lobe function. Patients were examined using digit span, word fluency (WF), Stroop and trail-making tests to clarify frontal lobe function before and 1-2 months after surgery. We also used the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Raven's colored progressive matrices (RCPM) and revised Wechsler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-R) to examine cognitive function. CBF was measured using 133Xe-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) before and 1-2 months after surgery. Tests revealed that the patients' postoperative neuropsychological status was improved compared to the preoperative status for MMSE, RCPM and WAIS-R. Among the tests of frontal lobe function, WF results had deteriorated significantly after surgery. Resting CBF in the frontal lobe was significantly decreased. Regional CBF in the frontal lobe was decreased significantly in comparison with values in the parietal and temporal lobes in patients showing deterioration of WF. Deterioration of WF correlated with CBF changes in the frontal lobe. These results suggest that surgery for unruptured cerebral aneurysm exerts detrimental effects on frontal lobe function that may be related to CBF changes. (author)

  9. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  10. Effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Steve N H; Chan, Alan H S; Yu, R F

    2012-01-01

    The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe (effective visual field) shape characteristics was studied using three levels of luminance contrast with combinations of positive and negative polarities. The binocular effective visual field for a detection task, with a peripherally presented target (V) embedded in a homogeneous competing background (Xs), was mapped on 24 imaginary axes passing through the fixation point. The results showed that visual lobes mapped using positive polarity were statistically larger in area, rounder and more regular in shape than those for negative polarity. The medium contrast condition lobes were more symmetric and regular than low contrast condition lobes, and lobe area and perimeter increased with increasing luminance contrast ratio. Under the interaction of positive polarity and high luminance contrast, visual lobes were found to be larger, smoother and rounder. The high level of luminance and contrast however resulted in a higher degree of visual discomfort. The results indicated that positive polarity and contrast of medium (26:1) to high (41:1) levels are possible display settings for better visual lobe characteristics and better anticipated search performance. Practitioner Summary: The effect of display polarity and luminance contrast on visual lobe shape characteristics was examined with uniform stimulus materials in this study. The results help to identify the optimum display settings for luminance contrast and display polarity to enhance lobe shape characteristics and hence search performance in industrial inspection tasks. PMID:22676836

  11. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiyeon Kim,1 Seong Hoon Kim,2 Sung Chul Lim,2 Woojun Kim,2 Young-Min Shon3 1Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Neurology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, 3Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG and a poor response group (PRG were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively.Results: There were 46 (54.8% patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2% patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05. The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05. The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05.Conclusion: In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective

  12. Cassini observations of ionospheric plasma in Saturn's magnetotail lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, M.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jackman, C. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Melin, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Saturn's magnetosphere with the Cassini mission have established the importance of Enceladus as the dominant mass source for Saturn's magnetosphere. It is well known that the ionosphere is an important mass source at Earth during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, but lesser attention has been dedicated to study the ionospheric mass source at Saturn. In this paper we describe a case study of data from Saturn's magnetotail, when Cassini was located at ≃ 2200 h Saturn local time at 36 RS from Saturn. During several entries into the magnetotail lobe, tailward flowing cold electrons and a cold ion beam were observed directly adjacent to the plasma sheet and extending deeper into the lobe. The electrons and ions appear to be dispersed, dropping to lower energies with time. The composition of both the plasma sheet and lobe ions show very low fluxes (sometimes zero within measurement error) of water group ions. The magnetic field has a swept-forward configuration which is atypical for this region, and the total magnetic field strength is larger than expected at this distance from the planet. Ultraviolet auroral observations show a dawn brightening, and upstream heliospheric models suggest that the magnetosphere is being compressed by a region of high solar wind ram pressure. We interpret this event as the observation of ionospheric outflow in Saturn's magnetotail. We estimate a number flux between (2.95 ± 0.43) × 109 and (1.43 ± 0.21) × 1010 cm-2 s-1, 1 or about 2 orders of magnitude larger than suggested by steady state MHD models, with a mass source between 1.4 ×102 and 1.1 ×103 kg/s. After considering several configurations for the active atmospheric regions, we consider as most probable the main auroral oval, with associated mass source between 49.7 ±13.4 and 239.8 ±64.8 kg/s for an average auroral oval, and 10 ±4 and 49 ±23 kg/s for the specific auroral oval morphology found during this event. It is not clear how much of this mass is

  13. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  14. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Martins; Luis Faísca; Francisco Esteves; Cláudia Sim(a)o; Mariline Gomes Justo; Angélica Muresan; Alexandra Reis

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions.

  15. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  16. Accessory liver lobe of the gallbladder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handra-Luca, Adriana

    2016-09-01

    The accessory liver lobe (ALL) of the gallbladder wall is rare, mentioned by Meckel since 1822. We present two cases of ALL occurring in two adult women. The ALLs were diagnosed at microscopic examination of cholecystectomy specimens for lithiasic cholecystitis and were located at the gallbladder body level. They measured 0.5 and 1.1 cm and were pediculated from the gallbladder serosa. Luschka duct complexes were seen in the adjacent subserosa in one of the cases. The main clinical relevance of ALL of the gallbladder resides in the differential diagnosis with a lymph node and in the risk of peroperative hemorragia or bile leakage by sectioning of the connecting blood vessels and/or bile duct. Intraparietal ALL may interfere with dysmotility, possibly resulting in bile stagnation and stone formation. PMID:27147442

  17. Autism in siblings with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Tomoko; Kumada, Tomohiro; Saito, Keiko; Fujii, Tatsuya

    2013-02-01

    In 1999, Hirose et al. reported a Japanese family with autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) associated with a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α4 subunit mutation (S252L). We followed the siblings of this family, and found that the elder brother had Asperger's disorder without mental retardation (MR) and the younger brother had autistic disorder with profound MR. The clinical epileptic features of the siblings were very similar, and both had deficits in socialization, but their cognitive development differed markedly. It thus seems that epilepsy is the direct phenotype of the S252L mutation, whereas other various factors modulate the cognitive and social development. No patients with ADNFLE have previously been reported to have autism spectrum disorder or profound MR. PMID:22883468

  18. Subcortical mapping of calculation processing in the right parietal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Lazzarini, Anna; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Rustemi, Oriela; Cagnin, Annachiara; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on

  19. The Unique Kinetics of Iron Release from Transferrin: The Role of Receptor, Lobe-Lobe Interactions and Salt at Endosomal pH

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Shaina L.; Chasteen, N. Dennis; Steere, Ashley N.; Mason, Anne B.

    2009-01-01

    The transferrins are a family of bilobal iron-binding proteins that play the crucial role of binding ferric iron and keeping it in solution, thereby controlling the levels of this important metal. Human serum transferrin (hTF) carries one iron in each of two similar lobes. Understanding the detailed mechanism of iron release from each lobe of hTF during receptor mediated endocytosis has been extremely challenging because of the active participation of the transferrin receptor (TFR), salt, a c...

  20. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi) and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conejo Bayón, Francisco; Maese, Jesús; Fernandez Oliveira, Aníbal; Mesas, Tamara; Herrera de la Llave, Estibaliz; Álvarez Avellón, Tania; Menéndez-González, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi), 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA), yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA) and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA) are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), frontotemporal lobe degeneration (FTLD) and correlation with cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD), formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: A series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65–85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT) plus one experienced tracer (ET) traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: Learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA. Conclusion: Our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA) have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest. PMID:25414666

  1. Characteristics and treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of complicated febrile convulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, K; Takuji, N; Kawasaki, J; Kawai, I

    1998-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the close correlation between complicated febrile convulsions (CFC) and medial temporal lobe epilepsy and to delineate characteristics of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were divided into those with a prior episode of CFC (n=52), those with febrile convulsions other than CFC, and those without either (n=345). Clinical constellations, neuroimaging, drug resistance, and effects of temporal lobectomy of the three groups were compared. A close association between CFC and temporal lobe epilepsy was confirmed. The salient features of temporal lobe epilepsy with CFC were early age at onset of habitual seizures (about 10 years), the predominance of autonomic auras, and a high incidence of MRI evidence of unilateral medial temporal sclerosis. Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with prior CFC had an excellent outcome after surgery, by contrast with an unfavourable response to drug therapy. The surgical results were discouraging in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy without history of any febrile convulsions and without solid brain tumours. These results indicate surgical intervention as the choice of therapy in a substantial number of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy with a history of CFC. PMID:9489540

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  3. Frontal Lobe Activity and Affective Behavior of Infants of Mothers with Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Geraldine; And Others

    1992-01-01

    In comparison to infants of mothers who had no symptoms of depression, infants of mothers with symptoms exhibited reduced left frontal lobe activity during play and failed to exhibit increased right frontal lobe activity during distress. Infants of symptomatic mothers showed less distress during maternal separation than infants of nonsymptomatic…

  4. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Reveals Correlated Inter-Lobe Motion in Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellmon, Nicholas; Sun, Xiaonan; Sirinupong, Nualpun; Edwards, Brian; Li, Chunying; Yang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    SMYD proteins are an exciting field of study as they are linked to many types of cancer-related pathways. Cardiac and skeletal muscle development and function also depend on SMYD proteins opening a possible avenue for cardiac-related treatment. Previous crystal structure studies have revealed that this special class of protein lysine methyltransferases have a bilobal structure, and an open–closed motion may regulate substrate specificity. Here we use the molecular dynamics simulation to investigate the still-poorly-understood SMYD2 dynamics. Cross-correlation analysis reveals that SMYD2 exhibits a negative correlated inter-lobe motion. Principle component analysis suggests that this correlated dynamic is contributed to by a twisting motion of the C-lobe with respect to the N-lobe and a clamshell-like motion between the lobes. Dynamical network analysis defines possible allosteric paths for the correlated dynamics. There are nine communities in the dynamical network with six in the N-lobe and three in the C-lobe, and the communication between the lobes is mediated by a lobe-bridging β hairpin. This study provides insight into the dynamical nature of SMYD2 and could facilitate better understanding of SMYD2 substrate specificity. PMID:26717235

  5. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in dementia patients with frontal lobe symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, Mala; Geitung, Jonn-Terje (Dept. of Geriatrics, Haraldsplass Deaconess Hospital, Bergen (Norway)), e-mail: mnaik@broadpark.no; Lundervold, Arvid (Dept. of Biomedicine, Univ. of Bergen (Norway)); Nygaard, Harald (Olaviken Hospital (Norway))

    2010-07-15

    Background: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recent MRI technique demonstrating white matter tracts in the brain. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disease and this method has been used to demonstrate the loss of axonal fibers and myelin and decrease of fiber density in this condition. Purpose: To study a possible correlation between frontal lobe symptoms in patients with dementia and reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in white matter/fascicles in the frontal lobes. Material and Methods: The study included 23 patients with dementia and frontal lobe symptoms and 20 controls (10 Alzheimer patients without frontal lobe symptoms and 10 normal controls). Clinical tests and MRI with DTI were performed. FA in subcortical white matter of both the frontal lobes was analyzed and correlated with clinical frontal score tests. Results: We found a significant correlation between frontal score results and reduction in FA in the frontal lobes. The FA in the study group was significantly lower than the FA in the control group. Conclusion: The present study reveals that there is a probable correlation between the extent of frontal lobe symptoms and FA in fascicles/white matter tissue in the frontal lobes

  7. Noise Reduction with Lobed Mixers: Nozzle-Length and Free-Jet Speed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James C.; Boyd, Kathy C.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic test results are presented for 1/4th-scaled nozzles with internal lobed mixers used for reduction of subsonic jet noise of turbofan engines with bypass ratio above 5 and jet speeds up to 830 ft/s. One coaxial and three forced lobe mixers were tested with variations in lobe penetration, cut-outs in lobe-sidewall, lobe number and nozzle-length. Measured exit flow profiles and thrusts are used to assist the inferences from acoustic data. It is observed that lobed mixers reduce the low-frequency noise due to more uniformly mixed exit flow; but they may also increase the high-frequency noise at peak perceived noise (PNL) angle and angles upstream of it due to enhanced mixing inside the nozzle. Cut-outs and low lobe penetration reduce the annoying portion of the spectrum but lead to less uniform exit flow. Due to the dominance of internal duct noise in unscalloped, high-penetration mixers their noise is not reduced as much with increase in free-jet speed as that of coaxial or cut-out lobed mixers. The latter two mixers also show no change in PNL over the wide range of nozzle-lengths tested because most of their noise sources are outside the nozzle; whereas, the former show an increase in noise with decrease in nozzle-length.

  8. Frontal Lobe Involvement in a Task of Time-Based Prospective Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Craig P.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2009-01-01

    Time-based prospective memory (PM) has been found to be negatively affected by aging, possibly as a result of declining frontal lobe (FL) function. Despite a clear retrospective component to PM tasks, the medial temporal lobes (MTL) are thought to play only a secondary role in successful task completion. The present study investigated the role of…

  9. Cerebral metabolic changes (F-18-FDG PET) during selective anterior temporal lobe amobarbital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N; Hajek, M; Antonini, A; Maguire, P; Muller, S; Valavanis, A; Leenders, KL; Regard, M; Schiess, R; Wieser, HG

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral glucose utilisation using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG PET) was measured in 4 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy during a selective anterior temporal lobe (TL) amobarbital test (ATLAT) and compared with their baseline values. F-18-FDG was injected intrave

  10. Intermittent torsion of accessory hepatic lobe: An unusual cause of recurrent right upper quadrant pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jambhekar Kedar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An accessory lobe of the liver is a rare congenital anomaly that can undergo torsion and present as an acute surgical emergency. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively. We report the preoperative utility of CT scan and MRI in the diagnosis and surgical planning of a case of intermittent accessory hepatic lobe torsion.

  11. The COMT Val158Met Polymorphism and Temporal Lobe Morphometry in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Warren D.; Züchner, Stephan; Payne, Martha E.; Messer, Denise F.; Doty, Tracy J.; MacFall, James R.; BEYER, JOHN L.; Krishnan, K. Ranga R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the relationship between COMT Val158Met genotype and temporal lobe volumes, including the caudate as a control region. 31 healthy subjects completed 1.5T brain MRI and genotyping. After controlling for demographics, Val158 allele homozygotes exhibited significantly smaller temporal lobe and hippocampal volumes, with a trend for smaller amygdala volumes.

  12. Flow simulation of the effects of pressure angle to lobe pump rotor meshing characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobe pump rotor profiles' radius of base circle, addendum circle and root circle are closely connected with pressure angle. The change of pressure angle has some effect on lobe pump performance. This paper focuses on two-dimensional profile lobe pump and introduces involute rotor profiles and pressure angle parameter equation. We used geometry and two rotor mesh characteristics to establish lobe pump models of different pressure angles. Monitored the lobe pump's pressure and velocity of input and output cross section. We used the K-Epsilon turbulence model and the dynamic meshes to compute the two-dimensional turbulence flow field of the lobe pump and obtained the pressure and velocity pulsation picture of different models and speeds. The results show with increasing pressure angle, the velocity of output decreases. The fluctuation of velocity is kept almost constant. When the pressure angle is 45°, the lobe pump has good comprehensive properties. The increasing of rotor speed makes the output flow and the oil absorption pressure increase. But the pressure fluctuation is acute. The lobe pump has vortex and leakage phenomenon in work progress. It will cause energy losses and decrease efficiency

  13. 不同剂量木糖醇对糖尿病大鼠肾小球Ⅳ型胶原表达的影响%Effect of xylitol on the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈丽津; 尹彦斌; 郝久营; 王华; 孙丽荣

    2010-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of xylitol on the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli in diabetic rats. Methods Fourty Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups(8 rats in each grarp):normal control group( group NC) ,diabetes control group( group DC), 5% xylitol-treated group (group lowdose), 10% xylitol-treated group ( group medium-dose) and 20% xylitol-treated group ( group high-dose).At the end of 8 weeks, the level of serum uric acid in each group was tested using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The rats were sacrificed, and the collagen-Ⅳ expression of glomeruli were determined by immunohistorical chemistry. Results At the end of 8 weeks,the concentration of serum uric acid was increased in the diabetes groups compared with group NC. Group low-dose and group mediumdose had higher concentration of serum uric acid compared with group DC(P < 0.05 ). Whereas, group highdose had lower concentration of serum uric acid compared with group DC(P <0.05). The expression of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli was up-regulated in all diabetes groups at the end of 8 weeks ( P < 0.05 ). Compared with group DC, the expression of Col-Ⅳ was significantly increased in group low-dose and group medium-dose,and decreased in group high-dose(P < 0.05). Conclusions Low and medium dose of dietary xylitol supplementation could raise the level of serum uric acid and deposition of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli. Diabetic nephropathy would be worsen. High dose of xylitol can decrease the level of serum uric acid,as well as the expression of Col-Ⅳ in glomeruli. The injuries to the kidney could be protected.%目的 探讨不同剂量木糖醇对糖尿病大鼠肾小球Ⅳ型胶原表达的影响.方法 将40只大鼠随机分为5组(每组8只):正常对照组(NC组),糖尿病对照组(DC组),糖尿病5%木糖醇组(低剂量组),糖尿病10%木糖醇组(中剂量组),糖尿病20%木糖醇组(高剂量组).第8周末处死大鼠,用反相高效液相法(RP-HPLC)测定

  14. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  15. White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe suggest the side of the seizure foci in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Y.; Yagishita, A. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan); Arai, N. [Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Institute, Department of Clinical Neuropathology, Fuchu, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-07-15

    White matter abnormalities in the anterior temporal lobe (WAATL) are sometimes observed on magnetic resonance (MR) images of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Our purpose was to determine whether WAATL could indicate if the seizure foci are ipsilateral on electroencephalograms (EEG) in TLE patients. We reviewed 112 consecutive patients with medically intractable TLE. We compared the side of seizure foci on EEG (preoperative and intraoperative) and MR images. Both loss of gray-white matter demarcation and increased signal intensity changes in the anterior white matter (positive WAATL) were observed in 54 of 112 patients (48.2%) with TLE. WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on preoperative intracranial EEG with subdural electrodes (iEEG) and on intraoperative electrocorticography (ECG) in all the patients. In 47 patients, MR images showed WAATL and focal lesions that were possibly epileptogenic for TLE. In 2 of the 47 patients, the seizure foci on iEEG and ECG were contralateral to the focal lesion; in the remaining 45 patients, the seizure foci on surface EEG (sEEG) and ECG and the focal lesion were on the same side. In three patients, no focal lesions were seen but WAATL were present on the same side as the seizure foci on sEEG and ECG. In four patients, MR images showed focal lesions for which epileptogenicity was questionable, and WAATL on the same side as the seizure foci on EEG. WAATL are clinically useful because they indicate the side of the seizure foci. (orig.)

  16. Preserving lung after traumatic transection of left lower lobe bronchus from bullet injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Muhammad Shoaib; Mishwani, A H; Oparka, J; Buchan, K

    2015-06-01

    A 22-year-old soldier was shot in the left chest by a bullet from close range. He was found to have a left haemothorax and remained shocked despite aggressive resuscitation. Due to difficult terrain and night time movement restrictions, there were limitations to the transfer of patient. So he was attended at a peripheral hospital. At emergency thoracotomy, three segmental arteries to left upper lobe were ligated and haemostasis was secured. The level of transection of left lower lobe bronchus was identified to be below the origin of the apical segmental bronchus. The lower lobe bronchus was successfully re-attached and followed up with a daily bronchoscopic clearance of distal airway. The patient made a full recovery. Anastomosis of left lower lobe bronchus after traumatic transection is a viable option for preserving an amputated lobe, in trauma settings, provided haemostatic control has been adequately achieved. PMID:24515083

  17. Constraining the sedimentology and stratigraphy of submarine intraslope lobe deposits using exhumed examples from the Karoo Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spychala, Y. T.; Hodgson, D. M.; Flint, S. S.; Mountney, N. P.

    2015-06-01

    Intraslope lobe deposits provide a process record of the infill of accommodation on submarine slopes and their recognition enables the accurate reconstruction of the stratigraphic evolution of submarine slope systems. Extensive exposures of discrete sand-prone packages in Units D/E and E, Fort Brown Formation, Karoo Basin, South Africa, permit analysis of the sedimentology and stacking patterns of three intraslope lobe complexes and their palaeogeographic reconstruction via bed-scale analysis and physical correlation of key stratal surfaces. The sand-prone packages comprise tabular, aggradationally to slightly compensationally stacked lobe deposits with constituent facies associations that can be attributed to lobe axis, lobe off-axis, lobe-fringe and distal lobe-fringe environments. Locally, intraslope lobe deposits are incised by low aspect ratio channels that mark basinward progradation of the deepwater system. The origin of accommodation on the slope for lobe deposition is interpreted to be due to differential compaction or healing of scars from mass wasting processes. The stacking patterns and sedimentary facies arrangement identified in this study are distinct from those of more commonly recognized basin-floor lobe deposits, thereby enabling the establishment of recognition criteria for intraslope lobe deposits in other less well exposed and studied fine-grained systems. Compared to basin floor lobes, intraslope lobes are smaller in volume, influenced by higher degrees of confinement, and tend to show aggradational stacking patterns.

  18. Do children with aggressive behavior have temporal lobe changes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggressive behavior and mood disorders frequently appear in childhood. There is often lack of objective data to support a specific clinical diagnosis. Ultimately it is likely that alterations in production, concentration, storage, release, reuptake and degradation of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid play key roles in the manifestations of mood disorders. We sought to determine if more gross anatomic patterns of regional brain activation in a 'baseline' state might also supply an objective means of verifying the presence of a mood disorder characterized by anger or aggressive behavior. We studied 8 patients, 3 girls and 5 boys, ages ranging from 6 to 12, referred for SPECT brain imaging with the diagnosis of an attention deficit disorder or autism. All had been reported as having temper problems on the routine questionnaire completed by the parents prior to SPECT imaging. The patients, who were not sedated, had absolute cerebral blood flow measured by the xenon 133 gas inhalation technique followed by intravenous injection of Tc-99m HMPAO with an administered dose calculated according to patient age and weight. One hour following the injection, high resolution brain SPECT imaging was performed using a Picker triple headed camera with fan beam collimators. We analyzed the brain SPECT studies using 3D volume rendered semi-transparent images with dual cut off windows of 88 percent (high) and 60-65 percent (lower value depending on the patient absolute mean cortical blood flow), as well as the traditional transverse, coronal and sagittal sections. The dual window 3D display helped demonstrate increased perfusion or activation of either or both right and left temporal lobes in all 8 of the patients. This pattern was not seen in children with similar clinical diagnoses but whose parents did not report temper problems. These preliminary findings support the proposition that an increase in perfusion to the temporal

  19. Intrinsic controls on the range of volumes, morphologies, and dimensions of submarine lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelat, A.; Covault, J.A.; Hodgson, D.M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S.S.

    2010-01-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Za??re fan, offshore Angola/Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a shallow subsurface lobe complex , offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (available grain size range and supply rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14km??length 35km??thickness 12m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas. Examples of such systems include the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon, and the Za??re systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5km??length 8km??thickness 30m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes (a narrow range around 1 or 2km3), which suggests that there is a control to the total volume of sediment that individual lobes can reach before they shift to a new locus of deposition. This indicates that the extrinsic processes control the number of lobes deposited per unit time rather than their dimensions. Two alternative hypotheses are presented to explain the similarities in lobe volumes calculated from the six very different systems. The first states that the wide range of

  20. Language processing within the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Patric; Mecklinger, Axel; Grunwald, Thomas; Fell, Juergen; Elger, Christian E; Friederici, Angela D

    2005-01-01

    Although the hippocampal formation is essential for verbal memory, it is not fully understood how it contributes to language comprehension. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) directly from two substructures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), the rhinal cortex and the hippocampus proper, while epilepsy patients listened to sentences that either were correct or contained semantic or syntactic violations. Semantic violations elicited a large negative ERP response peaking at approximately 400 ms in the rhinal cortex. In contrast, syntactically incorrect sentences elicited a negative deflection of 500-800 ms in the hippocampus proper. The results suggest that functionally distinct aspects of integration in language comprehension are supported by different MTL structures: the rhinal cortex is involved in semantic integration, whereas the hippocampus proper subserves processes of syntactic integration. An analysis of phase synchronization within the gamma band between rhinal and hippocampal recording sites showed that both of the above-mentioned ERP components were preceded by an increase of phase synchronization. In contrast to these short phasic increases of phase synchronization in both violation conditions, correct sentences were associated with a long-lasting synchronization in a late time window, possibly reflecting the integration of semantic and syntactic information as required for normal comprehension. PMID:15714509

  1. Crucial role of astrocytes in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhäuser, C; Grunnet, M; Carmignoto, G

    2016-05-26

    Astrocytes sense and respond to synaptic activity through activation of different neurotransmitter receptors and transporters. Astrocytes are also coupled by gap junctions, which allow these cells to redistribute through the glial network the K(+) ions excessively accumulated at sites of intense neuronal activity. Work over the past two decades has revealed important roles for astrocytes in brain physiology, and it is therefore not surprising that recent studies unveiled their involvement in the etiology of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. Investigation of specimens from patients with pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy and epilepsy models revealed alterations in expression, localization and function of astrocytic connexins, K(+) and water channels. In addition, disturbed gliotransmission as well as malfunction of glutamate transporters and of the astrocytic glutamate- and adenosine-converting enzymes - glutamine synthetase and adenosine kinase, respectively - have been observed in epileptic tissues. Accordingly, increasing evidence indicates that dysfunctional astrocytes are crucially involved in processes leading to epilepsy. These new insights might foster the search for new targets for the development of new, more efficient anti-epileptogenic therapies. PMID:25592426

  2. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  3. Functional connectivity homogeneity correlates with duration of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haneef, Zulfi; Chiang, Sharon; Yeh, Hsiang J; Engel, Jerome; Stern, John M

    2015-05-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often associated with progressive changes to seizures, memory, and mood during its clinical course. However, the cerebral changes related to this progression are not well understood. Because the changes may be related to changes in brain networks, we used functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to determine whether brain network parameters relate to the duration of TLE. Graph theory-based analysis of the sites of reported regions of TLE abnormality was performed on resting-state fMRI data in 48 subjects: 24 controls, 13 patients with left TLE, and 11 patients with right TLE. Various network parameters were analyzed including betweenness centrality (BC), clustering coefficient (CC), path length (PL), small-world index (SWI), global efficiency (GE), connectivity strength (CS), and connectivity diversity (CD). These were compared for patients with TLE as a group, compared to controls, and for patients with left and right TLE separately. The association of changes in network parameters with epilepsy duration was also evaluated. We found that CC, CS, and CD decreased in subjects with TLE compared to control subjects. Analyzed according to epilepsy duration, patients with TLE showed a progressive reduction in CD. In conclusion, we found that several network parameters decreased in patients with TLE compared to controls, which suggested reduced connectivity in TLE. Reduction in CD associated with epilepsy duration suggests a homogenization of connections over time in TLE, indicating a reduction of the normal repertoire of stronger and weaker connections to other brain regions. PMID:25873437

  4. Corpora amylacea in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Marlise de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA founded in 6 to 63% of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49%, whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001. Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus.

  5. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

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    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  6. Hsp60 response in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammazza, Antonella Marino; Colangeli, Roberto; Orban, Gergely; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Bello, Margherita Lo; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Bucchieri, Fabio; Pomara, Cristoforo; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Macario, Alberto J. L.

    2015-01-01

    The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management. PMID:25801186

  7. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon.

  8. Temporal lobe dysfunction in childhood autism: a PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood autism is a severe developmental disorder that impairs the acquisition of some of the most important skills in human life. Progress in understanding the neural basis of childhood autism requires clear and reliable data indicating specific neuro-anatomical or neuro-physiological abnormalities. The purpose of the present study was to research localized brain dysfunction in autistic children using functional brain imaging. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in 21 primary autistic children and 10 age-matched non autistic children. A statistical parametric analysis of rCBF images revealed significant bilateral temporal hypoperfusion in the associative auditory cortex (superior temporal gyrus) and in the multimodal cortex (superior temporal sulcus) in the autistic group (p<0.001). In addition, temporal hypoperfusion was detected individually in 77% of autistic children. These findings provide robust evidence of well localized functional abnormalities in autistic children located in the superior temporal lobe. Such localized abnormalities were not detected with the low resolution PET camera (14-22). This study suggests that high resolution PET camera combined with statistical parametric mapping is useful to understand developmental disorders. (authors)

  9. Temporal lobe signs: electroencephalographic validity and enhanced scores in special populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarec, K; Persinger, M A

    1985-06-01

    Internal and external validity tests were completed for an inventory that has been used to infer signs of temporal lobe lability. Strong, positive correlations were reported for a normal (reference) population between the numbers of responses that referred to paranormal experiences (including feelings of a "presence") and separately to religious beliefs and the numbers of spikes per minute within electroencephalographic recordings from the temporal lobe. Numbers of spikes were also correlated with the subjects' scores on the hysteria, schizophrenia, and psychasthenia scales from the MMPI. These clusters of items were not correlated with electrical activity from the occipital lobe (the comparison region). Numbers of responses to control clusters of mundane experiences were not correlated with the temporal lobe measures. A group of student poets scored higher on different subclusters of temporal lobe signs and on the schizophrenia and mania scales of the MMPI than the reference group. For both groups, there were positive correlations between the amount of alpha activity in the temporal lobe only and answers to items such as "hearing inner voices" and "feeling as if things were not real." These results demonstrate that quantitative measures of electrical changes in the temporal lobe are correlated with (or with the report of) specific experiences that are prevalent during surgical or epileptic stimulation of this brain region. PMID:3927256

  10. Activation on occipital lobe in children with abacus mental calculation training: an fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: By exploring the activation on occipital lobe in children with and without abacus mental calculation training when they engaged in different calculation tasks with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), to identify the possible mechanism of occipital lobe in abacus mental calculation. Methods: fMRI was performed in children trained with and without (sixteen in each group) abacus mental calculation when they engaged in addition, subtraction. multiplication, division, and number-object control judging tasks. The data processing and statistical analysis were performed on SPM 2.0 (statistical parametric mapping 2.0) and the related-brain functional areas were identified. The activation on occipital lobe was observed carefully. The difference in activated areas of occipital lobe was statistically significant between two groups engaged in different tasks of calculations (P<0.01). Result: Bilateral occipital lobe, especially in the cuneus and lingual gyrus, were activated in children trained with abacus mental calculation. The main activated area was lingual gyrus in children without abacus mental calculation. Conclusion: The occipital lobe participates visuospatial processing in the abacus mental calculations. The neuromechanism maybe account for the specific activation in occipital lobe. (authors)

  11. Temporal lobe epilepsy: Comparison of CT and MR in 100 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The value of CT and MR was studied in 100 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Axial CT scans were obtained before and after contrast injection. Coronary MR scans were carried out with T1-(SE 400/30, GE 315/14) and T2-weighted sequences (SE 1600/30 + 70). A circumscribed lesion was demonstrated in fifteen patients by CT and in 25 patients by MR. With the exception of a small area of calcification, all lesions seen on CT could also be recognized on MR. Better sensitivity and improved demonstration of the temporal lobes makes MR the method of choice in the diagnosis of temporal lobe epilepsy. (orig./GDG)

  12. Experimental investigation of the mixing performance of a lobed jet flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meslem, Amina; Nastase, Ilinca; Abed-Meraim, Kamel

    2008-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow in a turbulent isothermal air lobed jet is presented. A lobed jet is compared, in the near field, with an isothermal axisymmetric jet with the same exit Reynolds number in terms of dynamics and mixing enhancement. It was found that the streamwise variation of the volumetric flow rate is characterized by a slope is more than twice larger than that for the reference circular jet. This high entrainment rate is governed, at the same time, by the turbulent structures generated by the asymmetric shape of the nozzle and by the high convection in these structures induced by the inner and outer penetration angles of their lobes.

  13. Tailward propagation of Pi2 waves in the Earth's magnetotail lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Volwerk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Pi2 waves are an intergral part of the substorm process and have been observed on the ground and in space. Using the special ability of Cluster to determine the propagation direction of signals measured in the magnetometer data, it is found that in the lobes of the Earth's magnetotail, for the cases in this study, the Pi2 waves are travelling tailward. The polarization of the waves in the lobes corresponds well with the polarization observed in the highest latitude ground station. The propagation velocity of the Pi2 waves in the lobes is basically Alfvénic.

  14. Interleukin-6 levels are increased in temporal lobe epilepsy but not in extra-temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liimatainen, Suvi; Fallah, Mahdi; Kharazmi, Elham; Peltola, Maria; Peltola, Jukka

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have reported activation of inflammatory cytokines in seizures, but clinical characteristics of epilepsy associated with cytokine activation have not been well established. In this study, serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were measured, and clinical characteristics of epilepsy were assessed in 86 well-evaluated patients with refractory focal epilepsy and in 5 patients with controlled focal epilepsy. Epilepsy was evaluated based on patient histories, electroclinical findings, and high-resolution brain MRI scans. Sixty-three healthy blood donors served as controls. IL-6 concentrations were chronically increased in epilepsy patients (11%) compared with healthy controls (0%) (P = 0.007). Increased levels of IL-6 were more prevalent in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) compared to patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.028). Also the mean and the median serum levels of IL-6 were higher in patients with TLE than in patients with extra-TLE (P = 0.042). Concentrations of IL-1RA were not significantly different in patients compared with controls. Indicated by increased levels of IL-6 in TLE, epilepsy type is important in determining chronic overproduction of cytokines in refractory focal epilepsy. The results may reflect a chronic immunological process in the brain in patients with refractory epilepsy. PMID:19252806

  15. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  16. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  17. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Seong Hoon; Lim, Sung Chul; Kim, Woojun; Shon, Young-Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL) in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients. Methods Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG) findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG) and a poor response group (PRG) were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively. Results There were 46 (54.8%) patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2%) patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05). The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05). The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05). Conclusion In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective studies with a much larger population are warranted. PMID:27555776

  18. Micropolar Lubricant Effects on the Performance of a Two- Lobe Bearing with Pressure Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANYAM SHARMA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two lobe bearings are commonly used in the high speed rotating machineries industries. The use of two lobe bearings, considered to be more stable than ordinary plain cylindrical bearings. In the upper half the dam is provided and relief track in the lower half. Performance of two lobe pressure dam bearings under micropolarfluid is evaluated. Finite element method is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. . Fluid film pressures are obtained by solving modified Reynolds equation, thus pressure obtained is used to find performance characteristics of this bearing. Results are obtained for various micropolar parameter like coupling number andnon-dimensional characteristics length. The results show that Two-lobe Pressure dam bearing is superior to twolobe bearing,

  19. Temporal lobe epilepsy: a unique window into living human brain epigenetic gene regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Grote, Alexander; Schoch, Susanne; Becker, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    This scientific commentary refers to ‘Differential DNA methylation profiles of coding and non-coding genes define hippocampal sclerosis in human temporal lobe epilepsy’ by Miller-Delaney et al. (10.1093/brain/awu373).

  20. Comparable constitutive expression and activity of cytochrome P450 between the lobes of the porcine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Martin Krøyer; Zamaratskaia, Galia; Ekstrand, Bo

    2014-10-01

    Due to limited availability of human liver tissue for the study of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), porcine liver tissue has been suggested as an alternative source to prepare microsomes and hepatocytes. The porcine liver is made by four different lobes. The present study investigated the expression and activity of specific CYP450 isoforms in the four lobes, with the purpose to examine if one lobe of the porcine liver resembles the human more than others. Samples from the four major lobes were taken from female pigs and mRNA expression and activity of CYP1A, 2A, 2C, 2D, 2E and 3A determined. The results showed no differences in specific mRNA expression and activity of any of the investigated CYP450 isoforms. In conclusion, the study shows that all parts of the porcine liver are equally useful as model tissue. PMID:24952075

  1. Automated design system for a rotor with an ellipse lobe profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An internal lobe pump (ILP) is suitable for machine tool oil hydraulics, automotive engines, compressors, and various other devices. In particular, the ILP is an essential component of an automotive engine, used to feed lubricant oil through the system. The main components of an ILP are its rotors. The outer rotor is typically characterized by lobes with an elliptical shape, and the inner rotor profile is a conjugate to the outer profile. This paper describes a theoretical analysis of an ILP and the development of an integrated automated system for rotor design. This system is composed of three main modules and has been developed using AutoLISP for the AutoCAD program. The system generates a new lobe profile and automatically calculates flow rate and flow rate irregularity according to the lobe profile generated. Results obtained from the analysis can enable oil pump designers and manufacturers to become more efficient

  2. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Quantitative MR Volumetry in Detection of Hippocampal Atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Farid, Nikdokht; Girard, Holly M.; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Smith, Michael E.; Magda, Sebastian W.; Lim, Wei Y.; Lee, Roland R.; McDonald, Carrie R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative MR imaging can enhance standard visual analysis, providing a viable means for translating volumetric analysis into clinical practice and increasing the detection of hippocampal atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy in both community and tertiary care settings.

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Double-lobed radio sources catalog (van Velzen+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velzen, S.; Falcke, H.; Kording, E.

    2015-06-01

    We derived a model that predicts the FR II density on the radio sky by using the luminosity function of quasars and a linear relation between the accretion disc and lobe radio luminosity. (1 data file).

  4. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The proposed

  5. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James C., E-mail: jross@bwh.harvard.edu [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States); Kindlmann, Gordon L. [Computer Science Department and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Okajima, Yuka; Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Díaz, Alejandro A. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silverman, Edwin K. [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Washko, George R. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Dy, Jennifer [ECE Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Estépar, Raúl San José [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF CAUDATE LOBE OF THE LIVER AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala HS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of the caudate lobe of the liver is a prerequisite for better surgical outcome. Morphology of the caudate lobe has significance in diagnostic imaging and also minimally invasive surgical approaches. So we have taken up this study to know the detailed morphology of the caudate lobe. Materials and methods: The morphology of caudate lobe was studied in 100 formalin fixed adult livers obtained from the department of anatomy, Kempegowda institute of medical sciences and Bangalore medical college, Bangalore. The livers were studied for the morphological variations of the caudate lobe. Results: Various shapes of the caudate lobe were noticed. Vertical fissure extending upwards from lower border was seen in 30%. Prominent papillary process was seen in 21%. Prominent caudate process was seen in 9%. Discussion: Various shapes of the caudate lobe were encountered in the present study. Sahni et al and Joshi SD et al also reported a variety of shapes of the caudate lobe. Vertical fissure extending upwards from the inferior border was seen in 30% of the livers. Kogure et al noticed the notch in approximately half of the patients undergoing hepatectomy. Kogure et al also noted that the external notch may be a vestige of the portal segmentation of the caudate lobe. Prominent papillary process was observed in 21% of the livers. Joshi SD et al have also found prominent papillary process in 33% of the livers in their study. Auh et al observed that on CT (Computed Tomography, a normal or small papillary process may be mistaken for enlarged porta hepatis lymph nodes. When enlarged papillary process extends on to left side it can mimic pancreatic body mass. Conclusion: The incidence of morphological variations of caudate lobe is very high in this study. The papillary process of caudate lobe is a potential source of pitfalls in interpretation of CT images at and just below the porta hepatis. Knowledge of these

  7. Spatial memory deficits in juvenile rats with pilocarpine induced temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbán-Kis K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of epilepsy in humans is temporal lobe epilepsy. Characteristic to this form of the disease is the frequent pharmacoresistance and the association with behavioural disorders and cognitive impairment. The objective of our study was to establish the degree of cognitive impairment in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy after an initial epileptogenic exposure but before of the onset of the effect of long-duration epilepsy.

  8. Hepatocellular cancer in an extra liver lobe in the lower abdominal cavity - Differential diagnosis and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case described is that of a 36 year old patient with a known tumor in her lower abdominal cavity which has been observed to increase in size for the passed 16 years. Intraoperatively, one observed a very rare finding of an extra liver lobe of the left liver lobe and located in the lower abdominal cavity. Located within is a multifocal therapeutically treatable hepatocellular cancer. (orig.)

  9. Remote Hemorrhage in the Cerebellum and Temporal Lobe after Lumbar Spine Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Shotaro Watanabe; Seiji Ohtori; Sumihisa Orita; Kazuyo Yamauchi; Yawara Eguchi; Yasuchika Aoki; Junichi Nakamura; Masayuki Miyagi; Miyako Suzuki; Gou Kubota; Kazuhide Inage; Takeshi Sainoh; Jun Sato; Yasuhiro Shiga; Koki Abe

    2015-01-01

    Cerebellar hemorrhage remote from the site of surgery can complicate neurosurgical procedures. However, this complication after lumbar surgery is rare. Furthermore, hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after spine surgery is rarer still. Herein we present a case of remote hemorrhage in both the cerebellum and the temporal lobe after lumbar spine surgery. A 79-year-old woman with a Schwannoma at the L4 level presented with low back and bilateral leg pain refractory to conser...

  10. Increased In Vivo Expression of an Inflammatory Marker in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Jussi; Kreisl, William C; Fujita, Masahiro; Dustin, Irene; Khan, Omar; Appel, Shmuel; Zhang, Yi; Morse, Cheryl; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.; Theodore, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies and clinical observations suggest that epilepsy is associated with inflammation. Translocator protein (TSPO) (18 kDa), a marker of inflammation, is increased in vitro in surgical samples from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. TSPO can be measured in the living human brain with PET and the novel radioligand 11C-PBR28. In this study, we sought to determine whether in vivo expression of TSPO is increased ipsilateral to the seizure focus in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

  11. Gangliogliomas: characteristic imaging findings and role in the temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganglioglioma is an uncommon neoplasm of the central nervous system, most frequently seen in the temporal lobe, and usually associated with medically refractory epilepsy in children and young adults. Few reports have considered ganglioglioma-associated epileptogenicity arising in the temporal lobe. The purpose of our study was to define the imaging features of ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe and their relation to the seizure foci revealed by electrocorticograms. We reviewed 24 patients with pathologically confirmed ganglioglioma in the temporal lobe. Computed tomography (CT) images showed gangliogliomas to be isodense (91.7%), and on T1-weighted images (T1-WI) most gangliogliomas (79.2%) were isointense to the gray matter. A cystic lesion was seen in 14 of 24 of the gangliogliomas (58.3%). Mass effects were not seen in any of the ten tumors without cystic components. One patient showed tumor recurrence. Dual pathology was seen in two cases (8.3%). In 23 cases, epileptogenicity was confirmed in the tumors by intraoperative electrocorticogram. The remaining case had no epileptogenicity. A tumor presenting isointensity to gray matter on T1-WI without mass effects in the medial temporal lobe in a young patient with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) might be the characteristic imaging of temporal lobe ganglioglioma. However, such tumors are not always associated with epileptogenicity, even if a ganglioglioma is found in a patient with TLE. The seizure foci may be contralateral to the ganglioglioma. Therefore, we need to investigate the hippocampus, white matter abnormalities of the ipsilateral and contralateral anterior temporal lobe, and other focal lesions closely. (orig.)

  12. Hippocampal Volumetry and Memory fMRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Korczykowski, Marc; Yushkevich, Paul A.; Lawler, Kathy; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Tracy, Joseph I.; Wolf, Ronald L.; Sperling, Michael R.; French, Jacqueline A.; Detre, John A

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the utility of structural and functional MRI at 1.5 and 3 Tesla (T) in the pre-surgical evaluation and prediction of post-surgical cognitive outcome in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Forty-nine patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for temporal lobe (TL) resection and twenty-five control subjects were studied. Patients completed standard pre-surgical evaluations including, intracarotid amobarbital test (IAT) and neuropsychological testing. During functional imaging, su...

  13. Computed tomography imaging of the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland is a normal anatomical variant found frequently in the general population. This structure consists of normal thyroid tissue located in the upper part of the thyroid isthmus, extending upward in the form of a fibrous chord that connects it to the foramen caecum at the bottom of the tongue. This paper reviews thyroid anatomy and embryology, and highlights the main features of the pyramidal lobe, including the anatomy, epidemiology and computed tomography imaging.

  14. Impaired Spleen Formation Perturbs Morphogenesis of the Gastric Lobe of the Pancreas

    OpenAIRE

    Hörnblad, Andreas; Eriksson, Anna U.; Sock, Elisabeth; Hill, Robert E.; Ahlgren, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    Despite the extensive use of the mouse as a model for studies of pancreas development and disease, the development of the gastric pancreatic lobe has been largely overlooked. In this study we use optical projection tomography to provide a detailed three-dimensional and quantitative description of pancreatic growth dynamics in the mouse. Hereby, we describe the epithelial and mesenchymal events leading to the formation of the gastric lobe of the pancreas. We show that this structure forms by p...

  15. Glutamate Imaging (GluCEST) Lateralizes Epileptic Foci in Non-Lesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kathryn Adamiak; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Das, Sandhitsu; Stephanie H Chen; Hadar, Peter N.; Pollard, John R.; Lucas, Timothy H.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Litt, Brian; Hariharan, Hari; Elliott, Mark A.; Detre, John A; Reddy, Ravinder

    2015-01-01

    When neuroimaging reveals a brain lesion, drug-resistant epilepsy patients show better outcomes after resective surgery than do the one-third of drug resistant epilepsy patients who have normal brain MRIs. We applied a glutamate imaging method, GluCEST (Glutamate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer), to patients with non-lesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) based on conventional MRI. GluCEST correctly lateralized the temporal lobe seizure focus on visual and quantitative analysis in all pa...

  16. The Role of Amygdala in Emotional and Social Functions: Implications for Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Cristinzio Perrin, Chiara; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2007-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is among the most frequent causes of chronic and drug-resistant seizure disorders. It is typically associated with lesions involving critical limbic structures within the anterior medial temporal lobe, such as the amygdala and hippocampus. While the role of the hippocampus and adjacent cortical regions in memory function is now well established, the role of the amygdala and related brain circuits is still poorly known. The amygdala is a complex neural structure implicat...

  17. Pulmonary congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation involving upper lobe with successful surgical management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Garg

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A four-week-old infant born after a normal vaginal delivery presented with dyspnea of one month duration. His radiologic evaluation showed multiple cystic lesions involving the left upper lobe, although lower lobe is the usual site. It was removed after pnemonectomy and the fi nal pathological diagnosis was congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (type II. The postoperative follow up showed excellent recovery and normal development of the child.

  18. Left lower lobe torsion following upper lobectomy-prompt recognition and treatment improve survival

    OpenAIRE

    Alassar, Aiman; Marchbank, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Lobar torsion is a rare but life-threatening complication after lung resection. We report a case of left lower lobe torsion in 57-year-old women after upper lobectomy for underlying lung cancer. Definitive diagnosis of lung torsion was made at exploratory thoracotomy following abnormal chest radiography and bronchoscopy on the first post-operative day. An emergency completion pneumonectomy was performed and left lower lobe was resected. The post-operative course was uncomplicated and patient ...

  19. Famous face identification in temporal lobe epilepsy: Support for a multimodal integration model of semantic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Drane, Daniel L.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Phatak, Vaishali; Loring, David W.; Gross, Robert E.; Hebb, Adam O.; Silbergeld, Daniel L; Miller, John W.; Voets, Natalie L.; Saindane, Amit M; Barsalou, Lawrence; Meador, Kimford J.; Ojemann, George A.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate that the left and right anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) perform critical but unique roles in famous face identification, with damage to either leading to differing deficit patterns reflecting decreased access to lexical or semantic concepts but not their degradation. Famous face identification was studied in 22 presurgical and 14 postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients and 20 healthy comparison subjects using free recall and multiple choice (MC) paradi...

  20. Thermal plasma in the giant lobes of the radio galaxy Centaurus A

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, S P; McClure-Griffiths, N M; Ekers, R D; Carretti, E; Robishaw, T; Mao, S A; Gaensler, B M; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Stawarz, L

    2013-01-01

    We present a Faraday rotation measure (RM) study of the diffuse, polarized, radio emission from the giant lobes of the nearest radio galaxy, Centaurus A. After removal of the smooth Galactic foreground RM component, using an ensemble of background source RMs located outside the giant lobes, we are left with a residual RM signal associated with the giant lobes. We find the most likely origin of this residual RM is from thermal material mixed throughout the relativistic lobe plasma. The alternative possibility of a thin-skin/boundary layer of magnetoionic material swept up by the expansion of the lobes is highly unlikely since it requires, at least, an order of magnitude enhancement of the swept up gas over the expected intragroup density on these scales. Strong depolarisation observed from 2.3 to 0.96 GHz also supports the presence of a significant amount of thermal gas within the lobes; although depolarisation solely due to RM fluctuations in a foreground Faraday screen on scales smaller than the beam cannot ...

  1. Combined effects of electroacupuncture and anti-depression drugs on the hippocampus and frontal lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Duan; Ya Tu; Shuang Jiao; Liping Chen

    2010-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been clinically used to treat depression and has resulted in favorable effects in China. However, results from animal studies and pathology do not reflect the influence of electroacupuncture treatment on in vivo physiological functions. To thoroughly and dynamically observe pathological changes during depression, the present study established EA + fluoxetine and fluoxetine groups to observe depression in patients. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to determine the correlation between hippocampal frontal lobe metabolite changes and mental disorder scale. Results revealed significantly increased N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) in the bilateral hippocampus and right frontal lobe of depression patients treated with EA compared with fluoxetine. Changes in NAA/Cr in bilateral hippocampus and right frontal lobe in both groups, before and after treatment, negatively correlated with severity and curative effects. Choline/Cr changes in the bilateral frontal lobes of both groups were significant before and after treatment, but negatively correlated with curative effects. Choline/Cr changes in the bilateral hippocampus were significant in the EA + fluoxetine group before and after treatment, but negatively correlated with severity and the curative effects of depression. These results demonstrate abnormal biochemical metabolism in bilateral frontal lobes and hippocampus of depression patients, and show that EA significantly altered biochemical indices in the frontal lobes and hippocampus compared with fluoxetine.

  2. Redefining Lumpectomy Using a Modification of the Sick Lobe Hypothesis and Ductal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives. The Sick Lobe hypothesis states that breast cancers evolve from entire lobes or portions of lobes of the breast where initiation events have occurred early in development. The implication is that some cancers are isolated events and others are truly multi-focal but limited to single lobar-ductal units. Methods. This is a single surgeon retrospective review of early stage breast cancer lumpectomy patients treated from 1/2000 to 2/2005. Ductal endoscopy was used direct lumpectomy surgical margins by defining ductal anatomy and mapping proliferative changes within the sick lobe for complete excision. Results. Breast conservation surgery for stage 02 breast cancer with an attempt to perform endoscopy in association with therapeutic lumpectomy was performed in 554 patients (successful endoscopy in 465 cases). With an average followup of >5 years for the entire group, annual hazard rate for local failure in traditional lumpectomy without ductal mapping was 0.97%/yr. and for lumpectomy with ductal mapping and excision of entire sick lobe was 0.18%/yr. With endoscopy, 42% of patients were found to have extensive disease within their sick lobe. Conclusions. Targeting breast cancer lumpectomy using endoscopy and excision of regional associated proliferation seems associated with lower recurrence in this non-randomized series

  3. Radio Lobes of Pictor A: an X-ray spatially resolved Study

    CERN Document Server

    Migliori, G; Palumbo, G G C; Brunetti, G; Stanghellini, C

    2007-01-01

    A new XMM observation has made possible a detailed study of both lobes of the radio galaxy Pictor A. Their X-ray emission is of non thermal origin and due to Inverse Compton scattering of the microwave background photons by relativistic electrons in the lobes, as previously found. In both lobes, the equipartition magnetic field (Beq) is bigger than the Inverse Compton value (Bic), calculated from the radio and X-ray flux ratio. The Beq/Bic ratio never gets below 2, in spite of the large number of reasonable assumptions tested to calculate Beq, suggesting a lobe energetic dominated by particles. The X-ray data quality is good enough to allow a spatially resolved analysis. Our study shows that Bic varies through the lobes. It appears to increase behind the hot spots. On the contrary, a rather uniform distribution of the particles is observed. As a consequence, the radio flux density variation along the lobes appears to be mainly driven by magnetic field changes.

  4. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of three rat prostate lobes (lateral, dorsal and ventral in experimental hyperprolactinemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Gącarzewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of prostate gland besides androgens. The goal of this study was to reveal the influence of elevated prolactin concentration on epithelial cells of prostate. We compared the morphology of epithelial cells of prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes and expression of androgen receptors in these cells in rats with hyperprolactinemia and in control rats. We used sexually mature male Wistar rats. The experimental rats received metoclopramide; the control group received saline in the same way. The prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were collected routinely for light and electron microscopy. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction of androgen receptor in epithelial cells of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes was evaluated by measure of optical density with computer image analysis. The light and electron (transmission and scanning microscopes were used for morphological observations. Results: In experimental rats twofold increase in prolactin and twofold decrease in testosterone found. In experimental group the expression of androgen receptor was lower in columnar epithelial cells of dorsal and ventral lobes but higher in lateral one. We observed morphological abnormalities in columnar epithelial cells of lateral and dorsal lobes. The columnar epithelial cells of ventral lobes didn't show any morphological changes in hyperprolactinemia.

  5. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t21 = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t21 = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t21 = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t21 = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t21 = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  6. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Psicologia Medica]. E-mail: fgraeff@keynet.com.br; Santos, A.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Guimaraes, F.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2003-07-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t{sub 21} = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t{sub 21} = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t{sub 21} = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t{sub 21} = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t{sub 21} = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  7. The Role of Lobe Selection on FEV1 Response in Endobronchial Valve Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberator, Cole; Shenoy, Kartik; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Criner, Gerard

    2016-08-01

    Endobronchial valve (EBV) therapy has shown improvement in symptoms and lung function despite limited understanding of ideal patient selection. The impact of lobe selection on EBV therapy is unclear. We performed a retrospective analysis to determine the role of lobe selection and identify preprocedure predictors of response to EBV therapy. A total of 492 patients from the USA and Europe were randomized to EBV or control therapy. Spirometry and functional measurements were taken at baseline and 12 months later. At 365 days patients undergoing EBV therapy showed improvement in FEV1 change compared to control regardless of treatment to upper or lower. There was no difference in FEV1 change between the upper and lower lobe treatment groups ( 5 .99, 7.04, p = 0.75). In addition lobe selection was not identified as a significant modifier of FEV1 change in multiple linear regression analysis. Complete lobe fissure was the only significant predictor of FEV1 change (OR 4.14 (2.29, 7.47)). Our results suggest that lobe selection does not play a major role in EBV therapy response. Complete fissure status preprocedure has the greatest influence on FEV1 improvement. These results have implications on patient selection for current treatment and in future EBV studies. PMID:26789984

  8. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  9. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  10. Longer epilepsy duration and multiple lobe involvement predict worse seizure outcomes for patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the surgical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS and neurocysticercosis (NCC. Methods A retrospective investigation of patients with TLE-HS was conducted in a tertiary center. Results Seventy-nine (62.2%, 37 (29.1%, 6 (4.7%, and 5 (3.9% patients were Engel class I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Fifty-two (71.2% patients with epilepsy durations ≤ 10 years prior to surgery were seizure-free 1 year after the operation compared to 27 (50.0% patients with epilepsy durations > 10 years (p = 0.0121. Forty-three (72.9% patients with three or fewer lobes affected by NCC were seizure-free one year after the operation, and 36 (52.9% patients with more than three involved lobes were seizure-free after surgery (p = 0.0163. Conclusions Longer epilepsy durations and multiple lobe involvement predicted worse seizure outcomes in TLE-HS plus NCC patients.

  11. A Chandra Study of the Lobe/ISM Interactions Around the Inner Radio Lobes of Centaurus A: Constraints on the Temperature Structure and Transport Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Kraft, R P; Birkinshaw, M; Worrall, D M; Penna, R F; Forman, W R; Hardcastle, M J; Jones, C; Murray, S S

    2007-01-01

    We present results from deeper {\\em Chandra} observations of the southwest radio lobe of Centaurus A, first described by Kraft et al. (2003). We find that the sharp X-ray surface brightness discontinuity extends around $\\sim$75% of the periphery of the radio lobe, and detect significant temperature jumps in the brightest regions of this discontinuity nearest to the nucleus. This demonstrates that this discontinuity is indeed a strong shock which is the result of an overpressure which has built up in the entire lobe over time. Additionally, we demonstrate that if the mean free path for ions to transfer energy and momentum to the electrons behind the shock is as large as the Spitzer value, the electron and proton temperatures will not have equilibrated along the SW boundary of the radio lobe where the shock is strongest. Thus the proton temperature of the shocked gas could be considerably larger than the observed electron temperature, and the total energy of the outburst correspondingly larger as well. We inves...

  12. Temporal lobe epilepsy: etiology, fisiopathogeny and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seizures constitute one of the first causes of consultation in neurology and medical emergencies in all etary groups. The partial seizures are the most frequent form of clinical presentation specially those originated in the temporal lobes. In this revision article the author offers an update of the fisiopathogeny, the etiology and MRI findings in temporal epilepsy, and actualizes concepts derived from basic sciences. Selected cases of frequent pathologic causes contribute to illustrate this paper. In the physiopathology of the generalized seizures, alterations of the nets or thalamus cortical neuronal circuits and anomaly in the ionic canals functions have been demonstrated; in the partial seizures, particularly in the Mesial Temporal Sclerosis, alterations in the conformation of excitatory neo circuits have been verified. There are evidences of specific genetic seizures that express or appear sometime after birth, and others acquired, in which there is a variable time lapse between the action of a determined noxa and the installation of the clinical status, which suggest the existence of an epileptogenic mechanism as a gradual process in its development, and open a promissory field of investigation in search of preventive therapies. In many cases of acquired lesions seizures are related to the excitotoxicity mediated by glutamate as a possible trigger of the process. Besides, neuronal division has been demonstrated in the hippocampus, which could explain a neurogenic mechanism in the development of the seizures. The pathologic molecular findings in cortical malformations and the function of the glial cells in the neuronal homeostasis, contribute with data that sustain the neuro genesis of the seizures. The MRI provides a valuable information in Mesial Temporal Sclerosis, CNS tumoral lesions, neuronal migration disorders, vascular malformation, trauma and infections. Conclusion. The knowledge derived from areas as molecular biology, genetic and

  13. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy: a neurodevelopmental or progressively dementing disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, C; Elger, C E

    2009-10-01

    To what degree does the so-called 'initial hit' of the brain versus chronic epilepsy contribute towards the memory impairment observed in chronic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients? We examined cross-sectional comparisons of age-related regressions of verbal learning and memory in 1156 patients with chronic TLE (age range 6-68 years, mean epilepsy onset 14 +/- 11 years) versus 1000 healthy control subjects (age range 6-80 years) and tested the hypothesis that deviations of age regressions (i.e. slowed rise, accelerated decline) will reveal critical phases during which epilepsy interferes with cognitive development. Patients were recruited over a 20-year period at the Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn. Healthy subjects were drawn from an updated normative population of the Verbaler Lern- und Merkfähigkeitstest, the German pendant to the Rey Auditory Verbal learning Test. A significant divergence of age regressions indicates that patients fail to build up adequate learning and memory performance during childhood and particularly during adolescence. The learning peak (i.e. crossover into decline) is seen earlier in patients (at about the age of 16-17 years) than for controls (at about the age of 23-24 years). Decline in performance with ageing in patients and controls runs in parallel, but due to the initial distance between the groups, patients reach very poor performance levels much earlier than controls. Patients with left and right TLEs performed worse in verbal memory than controls. In addition, patients with left TLE performed worse than those with right TLE. However, laterality differences were evident only in adolescent and adult patients, and not (or less so) in children and older patients. Independent of age, hippocampal sclerosis was associated with poorer performance than other pathologies. The results indicate developmental hindrance plus a negative interaction of cognitive impairment with mental ageing, rather than a progressively

  14. Temporal lobe surgery in childhood and neuroanatomical predictors of long-term declarative memory outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirrow, Caroline; Cross, J Helen; Harrison, Sue; Cormack, Francesca; Harkness, William; Coleman, Rosie; Meierotto, Ellen; Gaiottino, Johanna; Vargha-Khadem, Faraneh; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The temporal lobes play a prominent role in declarative memory function, including episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts and concepts). Surgical resection for medication-resistant and well-localized temporal lobe epilepsy has good prognosis for seizure freedom, but is linked to memory difficulties in adults, especially when the removal is on the left side. Children may benefit most from surgery, because brain plasticity may facilitate post-surgical reorganization, and seizure cessation may promote cognitive development. However, the long-term impact of this intervention in children is not known. We examined memory function in 53 children (25 males, 28 females) who were evaluated for epilepsy surgery: 42 underwent unilateral temporal lobe resections (25 left, 17 right, mean age at surgery 13.8 years), 11 were treated only pharmacologically. Average follow-up was 9 years (range 5-15). Post-surgical change in visual and verbal episodic memory, and semantic memory at follow-up were examined. Pre- and post-surgical T1-weighted MRI brain scans were analysed to extract hippocampal and resection volumes, and evaluate post-surgical temporal lobe integrity. Language lateralization indices were derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging. There were no significant pre- to postoperative decrements in memory associated with surgery. In contrast, gains in verbal episodic memory were seen after right temporal lobe surgery, and visual episodic memory improved after left temporal lobe surgery, indicating a functional release in the unoperated temporal lobe after seizure reduction or cessation. Pre- to post-surgical change in memory function was not associated with any indices of brain structure derived from MRI. However, better verbal memory at follow-up was linked to greater post-surgical residual hippocampal volumes, most robustly in left surgical participants. Better semantic memory at follow-up was associated with smaller resection

  15. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xianhui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae possess highly-exaggerated, sexually dimorphic eye-stalks that play an important role in the mating system of these flies. Eye-stalks are increasingly being used as a model system for studying sexual selection, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms producing variation in these ornamental traits. Therefore, we constructed an EST database of genes expressed in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc of the highly dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni. We used this set of genes to construct microarray slides and compare patterns of gene expression between lines of flies with divergent eyespan. Results We generated 33,229 high-quality ESTs from three non-normalized libraries made from the developing eye-stalk tissue at different developmental stages. EST assembly and annotation produced a total of 7,066 clusters comprising 3,424 unique genes with significant sequence similarity to a protein in either Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae. Comparisons of the transcript profiles at different stages reveal a developmental shift in relative expression from genes involved in anatomical structure formation, transcription, and cell proliferation at the larval stage to genes involved in neurological processes and cuticle production during the pupal stages. Based on alignments of the EST fragments to homologous sequences in Drosophila and Anopheles, we identified 20 putative gene duplication events in T. dalmanni and numerous genes undergoing significantly faster rates of evolution in T. dalmanni relative to the other Dipteran species. Microarray experiments identified over 350 genes with significant differential expression between flies from lines selected for high and low relative eyespan but did not reveal any primary biological process or pathway that is driving the expression differences. Conclusion The catalogue of genes identified in the EST database provides a valuable

  16. Particle doses in the pulmonary lobes of electronic and conventional cigarette users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study was to estimate size segregated doses from e-cigarette aerosols as a function of the airway generation number in lung lobes. After a 2-second puff, 7.7 × 1010 particles (DTot) with a surface area of 3.6 × 103 mm2 (STot), and 3.3 × 1010 particles with a surface area of 4.2 × 103 mm2 were deposited in the respiratory system for the electronic and conventional cigarettes, respectively. Alveolar and tracheobronchial deposited doses were compared to the ones received by non-smoking individuals in Western countries, showing a similar order of magnitude. Total regional doses (DR), in head and lobar tracheobronchial and alveolar regions, ranged from 2.7 × 109 to 1.3 × 1010 particles and 1.1 × 109 to 5.3 × 1010 particles, for the electronic and conventional cigarettes, respectively. DR in the right-upper lung lobe was about twice that found in left-upper lobe and 20% greater in right-lower lobe than the left-lower lobe. - Highlights: • Lobar doses were compared for mainstreams of electronic and conventional cigarettes. • Aerosol doses from e-cigarettes were more than double that from conventional ones. • Doses from a 2-s puff exceed the daily doses of a no smoking Australian subject. • Highest deposition densities occurred at the lobar bronchi. • Aerosol deposition was greater in the right than in the left lung lobes. - Lobar bronchi and right lung lobes represent sites where effects of the aerosol from e-cigarette smoke may be more likely to occur

  17. A THYROID GLAND SHOWING PYRAMIDAL LOBE WITH LEVATO R GLANDULAE THYROIDEA .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreekanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The Literature is replete with wide range of common and rare variations of thyroid gland. The presence of pyramidal lobe (accessory lo be – a rostral directed stalk that results from the retention and growth of the caudal end of thyroglossal duct and fibrous or fibromuscular levator glandulae thyroidea (LGT ari sing from its apex are commonly occurring variations . A 50 yrs Old Male Cadaver showed leva tor glandulae thyroidea with cranio caudal extension from the body of the hyoid bone to the ap ex of pyramidal lobe which was projecting upwards from the left ¾ th of isthmus without any encroachment on the left lo be of the thyroid gland. In the groove clearly demarcating pyramidal lobe from the left lobe, a glandular branch of anterior branch of left superior thyroid artery w as seen. It entered the pyramidal lobe inferiorly, just above the lower border of the isth mus. Just adjacent to the right lobe a small portion of isthmus with prominent and free upper border and lower border is seen. Due its frequent presence it may not be fascinating to the Anatomists but can definitely challenge the skill o f operating neck surgeons performing thyroidectomies, lobectomies and isthmusectomies an d Otolaryngologists performing tracheostomies ,tracheotomies and laryngotomies. T he wide range of variations in the number, size, extent and consistency of the levator glandul ae thyroidea (LGT and pyramidal lobe necessitate the pre operative ultrasonographic examina tion or scintigraphical images or intense contrast enhancement on CT/MRI scan for total anato mical details enabling relatively a safer surgery.

  18. Seismic stratigraphic comparison of DSDP Leg 96 results with older Mississippi fan lobes, Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, P.; Buffler, R.T.

    1987-05-01

    DSDP Leg 96 drilled the youngest depositional lobe of the Mississippi fan at nine sites. These sites were designed to provide a set of reference cores to help explain the development of Quaternary and older submarine fans. The youngest fan lobe is dominated by a single, sinuous aggradational channel system, characterized by high-amplitude reflections that represent channel-lag gravels and sands, while adjacent laterally continuous reflections correspond to fine-grained overbank sediments. Analysis of 12,000 km of multifold seismic data from the Mississippi fan provides a method for comparing the drilling results with the seismic stratigraphy of the nine older Mississippi fan lobes. Sinuous channels and associated facies are present in all older lobes in the middle fan area, although there is a greater diversity in channel/overbank distribution and interpreted depositional processes. For example, four of the lobes have several coeval channels that are fed by separate submarine canyons in the slope, and a bifurcating channel pattern caused by channel avulsion is present in six different lobes along the middle and lower fan. In addition, an important seismic facies consisting of mounded, hummocky, and chaotic reflections is present at the base of six older lobes. This facies is more areally restricted than the overlying, well-developed channel/overbank deposits and is interpreted to represent coarse-grained channel sediments deposited during lowering sea level. Although Leg 96 drilling provides sedimentologic information that can be used for comparison with other fans, this seismic stratigraphic study of the entire Mississippi fan suggests that additional processes were operating that were not explained by the drilling results.

  19. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  20. Disruption of attention to novel events after frontal lobe injury in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, K.; Mesulam, M; Holcomb, P.; Calvo, V.; Acar, D.; Chabrerie, A.; Kikinis, R.; Jolesz, F.; Rentz, D.; Scinto, L.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate whether frontal lobe damage in humans disrupts the natural tendency to preferentially attend to novel visual events in the environment.
METHODS—Nine patients with chronic infarctions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and 23 matched normal controls participated in a study in which subjects viewed repetitive background stimuli, infrequent target stimuli, and novel visual stimuli (for example, fragmented or "impossible" objects). Subjects controlled viewing duration by a button press that led to the onset of the next stimulus. They also responded to targets by pressing a foot pedal. The amount of time spent looking at the different kinds of stimuli, and the target detection accuracy and speed served as dependent variables.
RESULTS—Overall, normal controls spent significantly more time than frontal lobe patients looking at novel stimuli. Analysis of responses across blocks showed that initially frontal lobe patients behaved like normal controls by directing more attention to novel than background stimuli. However, they quickly began to distribute their viewing time evenly between novel and background stimuli, a pattern that was strikingly different from normal controls. By contrast, there were no differences between frontal lobe patients and normal controls for viewing duration devoted to background and target stimuli, target detection accuracy, or reaction time to targets. Frontal lobe patients did not differ from normal controls in terms of age, education, estimated IQ, or mood, but were more apathetic as measured by self report and informants' judgments. Attenuated responses to novel stimuli significantly correlated with degree of apathy.
CONCLUSIONS—This study demonstrates that DLPFC injury selectively impairs the natural tendency to seek stimulation from novel and unusual stimuli. These data provide the first quantitative behavioural demonstration that the human frontal lobes play a critical part in directing and

  1. Pitch angle distributions of energetic ions in the lobes of the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of energetic (> 35 keV) ion data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft obtained during 1982-1983, when the spacecraft made a series of traversals of the distant geomagnetic tail (XGSE > - 230 RE), indicates that the pitch angle distribution of energetic ions in the distant tail lobes is usually highly anisotropic, being peaked closely perpendicular to the magnetic field direction, but with a small net flow in the antisunward direction. In this paper we present a model, based on the motion of single particles into and within the tail lobes, which accounts for these observed distributions. This model assumes that the lobe ions originate in the magnetosheath, where the energetic ion population consists of two components; a spatially uniform ''solar'' population, and a population of ''terrestrial'' origin, which decreases in strength with downtail distance. The pitch angle distribution at any point within the lobe may be constructed, assuming that the value of the distribution function along the particle trajectory is conserved. In general, those ions with a large field-aligned component to their motion enter the lobes in the deep tail, where the ''terrestrial'' source is weak, whilst those moving closely perpendicular to the field enter the lobes at positions much closer to the Earth, where the source is strong. The fluxes of these latter ions are therefore much enhanced above the rest of the pitch angle distribution, and are shown to account for the form of the observed distributions. The model also accounts for the more isotropic ion population observed in the lobe during solar particle events, when the ''terrestrial'' component of the magnetosheath source may be considered negligible in comparison to the enhanced ''solar'' component. (author)

  2. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: markmcdonaldmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Linton, Okechukwu R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Calley, Cynthia S.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3}, or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3} or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving

  3. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm3, or aV70 > 1.7 cm3. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm3 or aV70 > 1.7 cm3. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving higher dose. The EC50

  4. Light and electron microscopic immunocytochemistry of neurons in the blowfly optic lobe reacting with antisera to RFamide and FMRFamide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nässel, D R; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Johansson, K U;

    1988-01-01

    immunoreactive processes. The RF-like immunoreactive neurons in the optic lobes are of two main classes: (1) two types of large field projection neurons and (2) five types of local neurons. One type of projection neurons (five in each lobe) connects the entire projected retinal mosaic of the medulla and lobula...... in the optic lobe with protocerebral centres associated with the mushroom body calyx. The other type (2-3 invading each lobe) has cell bodies in the protocerebrum and contralateral processes invading optic lobes. Of the class of local neurons there are two amacrine RF-like immunoreactive neurons in......Different antisera to the molluscan cardioexcitatory peptide FMRFamide, and its fragment, RFamide (Arg-Phe-NH2), label a distinct population of neurons in the optic lobe of the blowfly, Calliphora erythrocephala. Seven morphological types of RFamide/FMRFamide-like immunoreactive neurons could be...

  5. The giant lobes of Centaurus A observed at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    McKinley, B; Gaensler, B M; Feain, I J; Bernardi, G; Wayth, R B; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Offringa, A R; Arcus, W; Barnes, D G; Bowman, J D; Bunton, J D; Cappallo, R J; Corey, B E; Deshpande, A; deSouza, L; Emrich, D; Goeke, R; Greenhill, L J; Hazelton, B J; Herne, D; Hewitt, J N; Kaplan, D L; Kasper, J C; Kincaid, B B; Koenig, R; Kratzenberg, E; Lonsdale, C J; Lynch, M J; McWhirter, S R; Mitchell, D A; Morales, M F; Morgan, E; Oberoi, D; Ord, S M; Pathikulangara, J; Prabu, T; Remillard, R A; Rogers, A E E; Roshi, A; Salah, J E; Sault, R J; Shankar, N Udaya; Srivani, K S; Stevens, J; Subrahmanyan, R; Tingay, S J; Waterson, M; Webster, R L; Whitney, A R; Williams, A; Williams, C L; Wyithe, J S B

    2013-01-01

    We present new wide-field observations of Centaurus A (Cen A) and the surrounding region at 118 MHz with the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) 32-tile prototype, with which we investigate the spectral-index distribution of Cen A's giant radio lobes. We compare our images to 1.4 GHz maps of Cen A and compute spectral indices using temperature-temperature plots and spectral tomography. We find that the morphologies at 118 MHz and 1.4 GHz match very closely apart from an extra peak in the southern lobe at 118 MHz, which provides tentative evidence for the existence of a southern counterpart to the northern middle lobe of Cen A. Our spatially-averaged spectral indices for both the northern and southern lobes are consistent with previous analyses, however we find significant spatial variation of the spectra across the extent of each lobe. Both the spectral-index distribution and the morphology at low radio frequencies support a scenario of multiple outbursts of activity from the central engine. Our results are consi...

  6. Characteristics of X-point Lobe Structures in Single-Null Discharges on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, J R; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    Lobe structures due to the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been observed using wide-angle imaging of light from He1+ ions in the vicinity of the lower X-point in MAST. The data presented are from lower single-null discharges where RMPs of toroidal mode number, n, of 4 and 6 were applied. It has been found that, above a threshold value, the lobe structures extend radially, linearly with the coil current, both in L-mode and H-mode. It is observed that after the application of the RMP, as the toroidal rotation in the confined plasma decreases, the lobes extend radially, suggesting the plasma is less effectively screening the RMP field. Comparing the imaging data with results from vacuum modelling shows that this technique can accurately predict the number and poloidal location of the lobes, but over-estimates their radial extent. More accurate estimates of the extent of the lobes can be made by accounting for plasma screening of the RMP field. Qualitative agreement between simulation a...

  7. Characteristics of X-point lobe structures in single-null discharges on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobe structures due to the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been observed using wide-angle imaging of light from He1+ ions in the vicinity of the lower X-point in MAST. The data presented are from lower single-null discharges where RMPs of toroidal mode number, n, of 4 and 6 were applied. It has been found that, above a threshold value, the lobe structures extend radially, linearly with the coil current, both in L-mode and H-mode. It is observed that after the application of the RMP, as the toroidal rotation in the confined plasma decreases, the lobes extend radially. This suggests the plasma is less effectively screening the RMP field. Comparing the imaging data with results from vacuum modelling shows that this technique can accurately predict the number and poloidal location of the lobes, but over-estimates their radial extent. More accurate estimates of the extent of the lobes can be made by accounting for plasma screening of the RMP field. Qualitative agreement between simulation and experiment is found if it is assumed that the RMP penetrates 2% in normalized radius from the last closed flux surface. (paper)

  8. A study on evaluation of frontal lobe epilepsy using statistical parametric mapping of brain perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates alteration of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and identification of epileptic foci in interictal frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) using statistical parametric mapping (SPM). Noninvasive rCBF measurements using 99mTc-ECD SPECT were performed on 23 patients with frontal lobe epilepsy and 49 age-matched normal subjects. The FLE patients were divided into three groups, 3 patients with dorsolateral and frontocentral seizures, 2 patients with supplementary motor seizures, and 18 patients with frontobasal-cingulate seizures by Mihara's classification determined by clinical and EEG findings. The SPM analysis revealed rCBF abnormality in frontal lobes in 12 patients when compared rCBF data for each patient with those for normal subjects in accordance with Mihara's classification in 8. On the contrary, rCBF abnormality in frontal lobes was detected in 4 patients by visual inspection in accordance with the classification in only one. The rCBF significantly decreased in orbito-frontal regions, frontopolar regions, and anterior cingulate gyrus in the group with frontobasal-cingulate seizures as compared with age-matched normal subjects with confounding covariates of plasma concentrations of antiepileptic drugs. These results suggest that SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT gives us useful information about frontal lobe epilepsy even in the interictal phase. (author)

  9. [A case of frontal lobe syndrome followed by serial 123I-IMP SPECT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Y; Kodama, K; Minoshima, S; Ikeda, T; Uno, K; Anzai, Y; Kitakata, Y; Arimizu, N

    1993-03-01

    Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) studies with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) were performed in a 58-year-old man with frontal lobe syndrome. He had abulia and personality changes suggesting frontal lobe impairment. Six follow-up SPECT studies were conducted during 18 months from the onset. On the first scan, no abnormal pattern of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was found. On the second scan, a mild reduction of rCBF was observed in bilateral frontal lobes. Through the third to sixth scans, a progressed reduction of rCBF in bilateral frontal lobes was confirmed by a semi-quantitative regions-of-interest analysis. Contrarily, abulia was improved, and personality change was not progressed during that period. Magnetic resonance imaging on admission revealed only a small subdural hematoma and high intensity areas in the right frontal lobe, which were resolved at the time of the sixth SPECT scan. It is suggested that rCBF studies by SPECT is not necessary concordant with psychiatric symptoms, and has possible limitations in pathophysiological evaluation for psychiatric disorders. PMID:8479098

  10. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  11. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  12. Spatial memory for asymmetrical dot locations predicts lateralization among patients with presurgical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Franklin C; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Spencer, Dennis D

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the ability of an asymmetrical dot location memory test (Brown Location Test, BLT) and two verbal memory tests (Verbal Selective Reminding Test (VSRT) and California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II)) to correctly lateralize left (LTLE) or right (RTLE) mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that was confirmed with video-EEG. Subjects consisted of 16 patients with medically refractory RTLE and 13 patients with medically refractory LTLE who were left hemisphere language dominant. Positive predictive values for lateralizing TLE correctly were 87.5% for the BLT, 72.7% for the VSRT, and 80% for the CVLT-II. Binary logistic regression indicated that the BLT alone correctly classified 76.9% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 87.5% of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Inclusion of the verbal memory tests improved this to 92.3% of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy and 100% correct classification of patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy. Though of a limited sample size, this study suggests that the BLT alone provides strong laterality information which improves with the addition of verbal memory tests. PMID:26398592

  13. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD): comparative data of right and left hepatic lobe approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    To evaluate the difference in each procedure time and complication rates related to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) via the right and the left hepatic lobe. We performed PTBD in 120 patients with biliary obstruction below both main hepatic ducts. Of the 120 catheters, 54 were introduced via a left lobe approach and 66 through the right lobe. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same operator. For each patient, procedure time was recorded prospectively. PTBD related complications were classified as either early(up to 30 days after procedure) or late(after 30 days), and each complication graded as major, or minor according to its intensity. The difference in the mean procedure time(28.8 min, versus 36.2 min, left versus right approach group) and that in complication rates (37% versus 58%) were statistically significant({rho} < 0.05). Concerning major complication(bile peritonitis, sepsis, massive hemobilia, liver abscess, pyothorax), the percentages related to left and right lobe approach were 1.8% and 10.6%, and concerning minor complications(catheter obstruction or dislodgement, transient hemobilia, persistent fever or pain), the percentages were 36% and 51% respectively. PTBD via the left lobe approach was superior with short procedure time and low complication rates than the right approach.

  14. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD): comparative data of right and left hepatic lobe approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the difference in each procedure time and complication rates related to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) via the right and the left hepatic lobe. We performed PTBD in 120 patients with biliary obstruction below both main hepatic ducts. Of the 120 catheters, 54 were introduced via a left lobe approach and 66 through the right lobe. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same operator. For each patient, procedure time was recorded prospectively. PTBD related complications were classified as either early(up to 30 days after procedure) or late(after 30 days), and each complication graded as major, or minor according to its intensity. The difference in the mean procedure time(28.8 min, versus 36.2 min, left versus right approach group) and that in complication rates (37% versus 58%) were statistically significant(ρ < 0.05). Concerning major complication(bile peritonitis, sepsis, massive hemobilia, liver abscess, pyothorax), the percentages related to left and right lobe approach were 1.8% and 10.6%, and concerning minor complications(catheter obstruction or dislodgement, transient hemobilia, persistent fever or pain), the percentages were 36% and 51% respectively. PTBD via the left lobe approach was superior with short procedure time and low complication rates than the right approach

  15. Numerical study on the effect of a lobed nozzle on the flow characteristics of submerged exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, T. C.; Du, T.; Wu, D. Z.; Wang, L. Q.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the effecting mechanism of nozzle structure on the flow characteristics of submerged exhaust, the processes of air exhausted from a lobed nozzle and a round nozzle into water have been numerically simulated using realizable k – ε model under the framework of the volume of fluid (VOF) model. Both the flow structure and the upstream pressure fluctuations are taken into consideration. The calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental results, showing that gas exhausted from the lobed nozzle would flow along the axial direction easier. Flow structure of the gas exhausted from the lobed nozzle is more continuous and smoother. The pressure fluctuations in the upstream pipeline would also be reduced when gas exhausted from the lobed nozzle. The resulting analysis indicates that the lobed structure could deflect water flow into the gas jet. The induced water would be mixed into the gas jet in form of small droplets, making the jet more continuous. As a result, the mixed jet flow would be less obstructed by the surrounding water, and the upstream pressure fluctuation would be reduced. The work in this paper partly explained the effecting mechanism of nozzle structure on the flow characteristics of submerged exhaust. The results are useful in the designing of exhaust nozzles.

  16. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Filipa Lopes; José Paulo Monteiro; Maria José Fonseca; Conceição Robalo; Mário Rodrigues Simões

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  17. Asymmetry of medial and lateral temporal regional glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy by F-18-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the difference of glucose metabolism of medial and lateral temporal lobes of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) utilizing quantitative comparison of regional metabolic activities using asymmetric index. We studied 19 pathologically proven mesial TLE and 25 lateral TLE patients. Lateral TLE patients were either normal on magnetic resonance imaging (cryptogenic: n=14) or had structural lesions (lesional: n=11). Asymmetric index (ASI) was calculated as [(ipsilateral contralateral)/(ipsilateral + contralateral )]x200. ASI of medial and lateral lobes of mesial TLE was decreased (-16.4±8.3 and -12.7± 5.5, respectively). In cryptogenic lateral TLE, ASI of lateral temporal lobe was decreased (-11.8± 4.7), whereas that of medial temporal lobe was not decreased (-4.6±6.3). ASI of medial lobe of lesional lateral TLE was -7.3±9.1, which was significantly different from that of mesial TLE (p<0.05). Patients with lesional lateral TLE had evident metabolic defects or decrease (ASI: -22±10.5) in lateral temporal lobe. While we could not find the difference of metabolic activity in lateral temporal lobes between cryptogenic lateral TLE and mesial TLE patients, the difference of metabolic activity was significant in medial temporal lobes which was revealed by ASI quantitation. Asymmetric decrease of metabolic activity in both medial and lateral temporal lobes indicates medial temporal epilepsy. Symmetry of metabolic activity in medial temporal lobe combined with asymmetry of that in lateral temporal lobe may give hints that the epileptogenic zone is lateral

  18. The COMT Val108/158Met Polymorphism and Medial Temporal Lobe Volumetry in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Stefan; Morrow, Eric M; Roffman, Joshua L.; Wallace, Stuart R.; Naylor, Melissa; Bockholt, H. Jeremy; Lundquist, Antonia; Yendiki, Anastasia; Ho, Beng-Choon; White, Tonya; Manoach, Dara S.; Clark, Vincent P.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Gollub, Randy L.; Holt, Daphne. J.

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities of the medial temporal lobe have been consistently demonstrated in schizophrenia. A common functional polymorphism, Val108/158Met, in the putative schizophrenia susceptibility gene, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) has been shown to influence medial temporal lobe function. However, the effects of this polymorphism on volumes of medial temporal lobe structures, particularly in patients with schizophrenia, are less clear. Here we measured the effects of COMT Val108/158Met genot...

  19. The emplacement of pumice lobes ascertained from surface morphology and granulometry; examples from the 1993 deposits at Lascar Volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P. L.; Calder, E. S.; Weinerth, J.

    2011-12-01

    Pumice-rich pyroclastic density current (PDC) deposits (ignimbrites) are common products of silicic volcanoes on Earth. PDCs vary in particle concentration, velocity, temperature, bulk density, and mass-flux, and therefore produce a wide variety of ignimbrite morphologies. Pumice-rich lobes are common in small-volume ignimbrites but are also observed in classic large-scale ignimbrites. They provide information about the dynamics of the parent flow shortly before deposition. A new method for analyzing the coarse-tail (largest clasts) of ignimbrite using field-based photographic analysis has been developed. More than 33,000 clasts from the pumice lobes of the 1993 pumice flow deposits at Lascar have been measured, and their relationships to lobe morphology ascertained. Lobe margins (i.e. levees, clefts and snouts) are found to contain significantly larger pumice clasts and be more poorly-sorted than lobe tops (i.e. locations away from the margins). This relationship is much more pronounced in flat broad lobes, deposited on shallow (flow conditions depend on slope, influencing the clast distribution (sorting), and the morphology of the individual lobes. Lobes are tens of meters wide and are therefore observable in both air- and space-borne photography. More fully understanding the relationship between macroscopic lobe morphology and flow dynamics will aid remote-sensing investigations of explosive volcanic deposits in remote areas of the Earth as well as elsewhere in the solar system.

  20. Development of automated segmentation method for the posterior portion of the temporal lobe on coronal MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain MRI is an important method for examining the diseases caused by various cerebral pathologies, and the measurement of temporal lobe volume is useful for identifying dementia and temporal lobe abnormalities. However, no segmentation algorithm for the temporal lobe on coronal MR images has been established. Such an algorithm is needed because the shape of the temporal lobe on coronal images varies from area to area. The purpose of this research was to develop a segmentation method for the posterior portion of the temporal lobe on coronal MR images. The subjects were 11 normal patients, whose coronal T1-weighted images were selected for this study. The preprocessing algorithm for segmentation consists of smoothing, binarization, and thinning. The first step of the segmentation process consists of recognition techniques for the temporal lobe region on thinning images. The next step is distance transformation on identified thinning images. Finally, the temporal lobe was segmented by using the original images and distance transformation images and employing the newly developed algorithm. The rate of accuracy of automated recognition was over 74% for all cases, while the average rate of accuracy was 83.2±4.0%. These results suggest that this segmentation method can clearly segment the temporal lobe and has potential for clinical use. Based on this study, although it included only 11 normal patients, we have started applying this segmentation method to many patients, with or without temporal lobe disease. (author)

  1. Alfvén waves in the near-PSBL lobe: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Takada

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic low-frequency waves in the magnetotail lobe close to the PSBL (Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer are studied using the Cluster spacecraft. The lobe waves show Alfvénic properties and transport their wave energy (Poynting flux on average toward the Earth along magnetic field lines. Most of the wave events are rich with oxygen (O+ ion plasma. The rich O+ plasma can serve to enhance the magnetic field fluctuations, resulting in a greater likelihood of observation, but it does not appear to be necessary for the generation of the waves. Taking into account the fact that all events are associated with auroral electrojet enhancements, the source of the lobe waves might be a substorm-associated instability, i.e. some instability near the reconnection site, or an ion beam-related instability in the PSBL.

  2. Cerebral infarction secondary to temporal lobe herniation in head trauma: a CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral infarction is a known complication of temporal lobe herniation caused by a traumatic intracranial lesion. To ascertain the frequency, time of recognition, and influence on mortality of posttraumatic cerebral infarction secondary to temporal lobe herniation, we retrospectively reviewed brain CT scans and clinical records of 55 patients who had CT and clinical signs of temporal lobe herniation on admission date. Cerebral infarctions were recognized in seven (12.7%) patients on CT scans taken within two days after admission (mean: 1.3 days). Cerebral infarctions were in the terrtiories of the posterior cerebral artery in all seven patients, two of whom had infarctions of the anterior choroidal artery as well. Mortality (71.4%) for these seven patients was not statistically significant from that (50%) of patients without cerebral infarction admitted with the same range of Glasgow Coma Scale score. The result suggests that such cerebral infarction dose not greatly influence patient's mortality

  3. Scaling for lobe and cleft patterns in particle-laden gravity currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jackson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lobe and cleft patterns are frequently observed at the leading edge of gravity currents, including non-Boussinesq particle-laden currents such as powder snow avalanches. Despite the importance of the instability in driving air entrainment, little is known about its origin or the mechanisms behind its development. In this paper we seek to gain a better understanding of these mechanisms from a laboratory scale model of powder snow avalanches using lightweight granular material.

    The instability mechanisms in these flows appear to be a combination of those found in both homogeneous Boussinesq gravity currents and unsuspended granular flows, with the size of the granular particles playing a central role in determining the wavelength of the lobe and cleft pattern. When scaled by particle diameter a relationship between the Froude number and the wavelength of the lobe and cleft pattern is found, where the wavelength increases monotonically with the Froude number.

  4. Hemispheric lateralization interrupted: Material-specific memory deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Celone Willment

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The hemispheric lateralization of memory has largely been informed through the study of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy originating from medial temporal sources (mTLE. The material-specific model of memory relies on the basic framework that the left temporal lobe mediates verbal memories, while the right temporal lobe mediates nonverbal memories. Over the years, this model has been refined, and even challenged, as our understanding of the material-specific memory deficits in mTLE has been further elaborated in the neuropsychological and neuroimaging literature. The first goal of this mini-review is to highlight the major findings in the mTLE literature that have advanced and expanded our understanding of material-specific memory deficits in mTLE. Second, we will review how functional neuroimaging patterns of material-specific hemispheric lateralization in mTLE are being translated into the innovative clinical application of preoperative fMRI memory mapping.

  5. Phenylephrine but not ephedrine reduces frontal lobe oxygenation following anesthesia-induced hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Secher, Niels; Nissen, Peter;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressor agents are used to correct anesthesia-induced hypotension. We describe the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c)O(2)) following anesthesia-induced hypotension. METHODS: Following induction of anesthesia by fentanyl (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and...... propofol (2.0 mg kg(-1)), 13 patients received phenylephrine (0.1 mg iv) and 12 patients received ephedrine (10 mg iv) to restore mean arterial pressure (MAP). Heart rate (HR), MAP, stroke volume (SV), cardiac output (CO), and frontal lobe oxygenation (S(c)O(2)) were registered. RESULTS: Induction of...... induced by anesthesia has a negative impact on S(c)O(2) while ephedrine maintains frontal lobe oxygenation potentially related to an increase in CO....

  6. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  7. Centaurus A: constraints on the nature of the giant lobe filaments from XMM-Newton observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wykes, Sarka; Croston, Judith H

    2015-01-01

    We report on deep XMM-Newton observations of the vertex filament in the southern giant lobe of the Fanaroff-Riley class I radio galaxy Centaurus A. We find no X-ray excess from the filament region and place a 3 sigma upper limit on the 1 keV flux density of the filament of 9.6 nJy. This directly constrains the electron density and magnetic field strength in the filament. For the first time in an individual filament, we show that the excess in synchrotron emissivity cannot be produced purely by excess electrons: the filament magnetic field strength must be higher than in the giant lobes as a whole, and close to or above the equipartition value for the filament. The filaments are not significantly overpressured with respect to the surrounding lobe with a pressure provided by relativistic electrons.

  8. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE

  9. Use of statistical parametric mapping of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET in frontal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.; Amthauer, H.; Luedemann, L.; Hartkop, E.; Ruf, J.; Gutberlet, M.; Bertram, H.; Felix, R.; Venz, St. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Med. Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Merschhemke, M.; Meencke, H.-J. [Epilepsie-Zentrum Berlin-Brandenburg am Ev. Krkh. Koenigin Elisabeth Herzberge, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the use of statistical parametrical mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET for seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. Patients: 38 patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy supported by clinical findings and video-EEG monitoring. Method: Statistical parametrical maps were generated by subtraction of individual scans from a control group, formed by 16 patients with negative neurological/psychiatric history and no abnormalities in the MR scan. The scans were also analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively by manually drawn ROIs. Results: SPM showed a better accordance to the results of surface EEG monitoring compared with visual scan analysis and ROI quantification. In comparison with intracranial EEG recordings, the best performance was achieved by combining the ROI based quantification with SPM analysis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SPM analysis of FDG-PET data could be a useful as complementary tool in the evaluation of seizure focus lateralization in patients with supposed frontal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  10. Use of statistical parametric mapping of 18F-FDG-PET in frontal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Evaluation of the use of statistical parametrical mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET for seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. Patients: 38 patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy supported by clinical findings and video-EEG monitoring. Method: Statistical parametrical maps were generated by subtraction of individual scans from a control group, formed by 16 patients with negative neurological/psychiatric history and no abnormalities in the MR scan. The scans were also analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively by manually drawn ROIs. Results: SPM showed a better accordance to the results of surface EEG monitoring compared with visual scan analysis and ROI quantification. In comparison with intracranial EEG recordings, the best performance was achieved by combining the ROI based quantification with SPM analysis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SPM analysis of FDG-PET data could be a useful as complementary tool in the evaluation of seizure focus lateralization in patients with supposed frontal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  11. The Lobe Fissure Tracking by the Modified Ant Colony Optimization Framework in CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Jen Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chest computed tomography (CT is the most commonly used technique for the inspection of lung lesions. However, the lobe fissures in lung CT is still difficult to observe owing to its imaging structure. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to develop an efficient tracking framework to extract the lobe fissures by the proposed modified ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm. We used the method of increasing the consistency of pheromone on lobe fissure to improve the accuracy of path tracking. In order to validate the proposed system, we had tested our method in a database from 15 lung patients. In the experiment, the quantitative assessment shows that the proposed ACO method achieved the average F-measures of 80.9% and 82.84% in left and right lungs, respectively. The experiments indicate our method results more satisfied performance, and can help investigators detect lung lesion for further examination.

  12. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  13. Geodynamical processes in the channel connecting the two lobes of the Large Aral Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Muñiz

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the existence of the channel connecting the two lobes of the present Large Aral Sea are discussed. In situ measurements in 2005 show that differences between the measured depths and those contained in the available digital bathymetry of the lake are considerably different at the channel (7.5±0.9 m, at nine measurement stations along it and at the northern part of the eastern lobe (1.6±0.3 m, at six stations from the western to the eastern shore. Differences in the misfits observed in the two zones are discussed and thought to be a consequence of the variation of the transversal area of the channel as it enters the eastern lobe, which would affect the flow velocity and thus the strength of the erosion process at the bottom. Field data together with satellite images have been used to modify an original digital bathymetry of the lake and have been implemented into a 3-D hydrodynamical model. A numerical simulation shows that a wind of 12 m/s blowing from the east (112° generates velocities of up to 45 cm/s in the channel, allowing denser water from the eastern lobe (salinity: 132 g/kg to flow about 38 km towards the fresher western lobe (salinity: 98 g/kg in one day. The effect of the inflow on the vertical structure of the western lobe is also illustrated. Although nowadays the channel will be soon a thing of the past, in a more general context, the Aral Sea is presented as an example showing that geomorphologic and geophysical processes, along with hydrological and atmospheric processes, must be taken into account for short-term predictions.

  14. Geodynamical processes in the channel connecting the two lobes of the Large Aral Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roget

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the existence of the channel connecting the two lobes of the present Large Aral Sea are discussed. In situ measurements show that differences between the measured depths and those contained in the available digital bathymetry of the lake are considerably different at the channel (7.5±0.9 m, at nine measurement stations along it and at the northern part of the eastern lobe (1.6±0.3 m, at six stations from the western to the eastern shore. Differences in the misfits observed in the two zones are discussed and thought to be a consequence of the variation of the transversal area of the channel as it enters the eastern lobe, which would affect the flow velocity and thus the strength of the erosion process at the bottom. Field data together with satellite images have been used to modify an original digital bathymetry of the lake and have been implemented into a 3-D hydrodynamical model. A numerical simulation shows that a wind of 12 m/s blowing from the east (112° generates velocities of up to 45 cm/s in the channel, allowing denser water from the eastern lobe (salinity: 132 g/kg to flow about 38 km towards the fresher western lobe (salinity: 98 g/kg in one day. The effect of the inflow on the vertical structure of the western lobe is also illustrated. All in all, the Aral Sea is presented as an example where geomorphologic and geophysical processes, along with hydrological and atmospheric processes, must be taken into account for short-term predictions.

  15. Balint′s Syndrome As a Manifestation of Solitary Right Occipital Lobe Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Balint′s syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by a triad of occulomotor apraxia (psychic paralysis of gaze, optic ataxia and visual inattention and usually follows bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. We report this syndrome occurring in a patient with a solitary metastasis in right occipital lobe. To the best of our knowledge it has not been previously described in English literature. Pressure over the opposite occipital lobe due to mass effect, diaschisis and extension of edema along the corpus callosum involvement may contribute to this exceptional phenomenon.

  16. Effect of portal vein ligation on tumor growth and liver regeneration in rat cirrhotic liver lobes

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Rui; YUAN, YU-FENG; Ayav, Ahmet; JIANG, CHONG-QING; BRESLER, LAURENT; Liu, Zhi-Su; Tran, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of portal vein ligation (PVL) on the tumor growth rate and liver regeneration in rat cirrhotic liver lobes. A total of 45 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into PVL, hepatic tumor (HT) and HT + PVL groups (n=15 per group). Liver regeneration and tumor growth in ligated and non-ligated lobes were evaluated prior to and following PVL. In addition, serum alanine transaminase, total bilirubin levels and liver tissue samples were eval...

  17. Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.

    1996-02-01

    Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  18. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E;

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  19. Right cranial lung lobe torsion after a diaphragmatic rupture repair in a Jack Russell terrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terzo E

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A seven-year-old male Jack Russell terrier was presented with a history of coughing, generalised weakness and lethargy 10 days after an abdominal coeliotomy to repair a large diaphragmatic rupture. Thoracic radiographs demonstrated a soft tissue mass in the midcaudal right thoracic cavity. Ultrasonographic studies, bronchoscopy and subsequent exploratory thoracotomy confirmed a diagnosis of a right cranial lung lobe torsion (LLT, with an anomalous caudodorsal displacement of the affected lobe. LLT should be considered as a differential diagnosis for respiratory tract disease following diaphragmatic rupture repair.

  20. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  1. Case of viral encephalitis localized in the occipital lobe. Peculiar CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, Masahiro; Okino, Teruhiko; Kagawa, Mizuo; Kitamura, Koichi

    1987-10-01

    A case is reported of a 63-year-old female admitted to our hospital in Oct., 1986, with complaints of headache and visual field disturbance. A plain CT scan showed no abnormal low-density focal area. A contrast-enhancement CT scan, however, showed a localized linear abnormal enhancement in the right occipital lobe, without any mass-effect. A dynamic CT scan demonstrated a hyperemic perfusion pattern of the right occipital lobe. A visual-field examination showed left homonymous hemianopsia with concentric narrowing. These abnormal findings on CT, EEG, and ophthalmological examination disappeared within 3 weeks.

  2. Evaluation of refractory temporal lobe epilepsy of nontumorous origin with qualitative and quantitative MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that although MR imaging is superior to CT in the detection of focal lesions in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), its role in the detection of mesial temporal sclerosis remains controversial. This is significant, as the latter represents a frequent cause of TLE and manifests with only subtle atrophic changes and occasional high signal abnormalities. PReoperative MR images of 47 patients who had undergone temporal lobectomy for nontumoral TLE and of 20 control subjects were valuated for focal atrophy and hippocampal high signal abnormalities. Quantitative measurements were performed in 33 patients and 20 control subjects with use of a new brain volumetric analysis program to determine volumes of temporal lobes

  3. Alterations of pH and Pi in seizure foci of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous investigations with positron-emission tomography have demonstrated that glucose uptake is diminished in seizure foci. This paper reports on P-31 MR studies performed on patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in order to determine if metabolic alterations were detectablein seizure foci. In seven of eight patients, the pH of the seizure foci was significantly higher than the pH of the control temporal lobe. In addition, the inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentration was significantly higher in the seizure foci. These metabolic changes indicate that P-31 MR spectroscopymight be useful in the investigation of epilepsy

  4. Accessory lobe of the right liver mocking a pulmonary tumor in an adult woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yuka; Sakakura, Noriaki; Uchida, Tatsuo; Suyama, Motokazu

    2012-08-01

    We report a rare case of an accessory lobe of the liver in the right thoracic cavity with the past history of breast cancer. A 66-year-old woman underwent thoracotomy owing to a slowly growing suspected lung tumor identified by computed tomography. The intraoperative findings revealed an accessory lobe of the liver. If this possibility had been considered, the correct diagnosis could have been achieved using computed tomography with multi-directional scanning, so that an unnecessary operation could have been avoided. PMID:22618988

  5. Eph receptor and ephrin signaling in developing and adult brain of the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic, Maria; Nighorn, Alan; Koblar, Simon; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2007-02-01

    Roles for Eph receptor tyrosine kinase and ephrin signaling in vertebrate brain development are well established. Their involvement in the modulation of mammalian synaptic structure and physiology is also emerging. However, less is known of their effects on brain development and their function in adult invertebrate nervous systems. Here, we report on the characterization of Eph receptor and ephrin orthologs in the honeybee, Apis mellifera (Am), and their role in learning and memory. In situ hybridization for mRNA expression showed a uniform distribution of expression of both genes across the developing pupal and adult brain. However, in situ labeling with Fc fusion proteins indicated that the AmEphR and Amephrin proteins were differentially localized to cell body regions in the mushroom bodies and the developing neuropiles of the antennal and optic lobes. In adults, AmEphR protein was localized to regions of synaptic contacts in optic lobes, in the glomeruli of antennal lobes, and in the medial lobe of the mushroom body. The latter two regions are involved in olfactory learning and memory in the honeybee. Injections of EphR-Fc and ephrin-Fc proteins into the brains of adult bees, 1 h before olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, significantly reduced memory 24 h later. Experimental amnesia in the group injected with ephrin-Fc was apparent 1 h post-training. Experimental amnesia was also induced by post-training injections with ephrin-Fc suggesting a role in recall. This is the first demonstration that Eph molecules function to regulate the formation of memory in insects. PMID:17443785

  6. Differentiation of cryptogenic lateral from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using regional asymmetric index of F-18-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We tried to find the possibility of utilization of F-18-FDG PET to differentiate lateral (neocortical) from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE) if we adopted quantitative comparison of regional metabolic activities using asymmetric index. We studied 22 pathologically proven mesial TLE(group C in Figure), and 27 lateral TLE patients. Lateral TLE patients were normal on MR(cryptogenic: 15; group A) or had structural lesions (12: group B). Asymmetric index (AI) was calculated as (ipsilateral -contralateral) / (ipsilateral + contralateral ) x 200. AI of medial lobe of cryptogenic lateral TLE was not decreased (-4.66.2, > 0.05) and AI of medial lobe of cryptogenic lateral TLE was not decreased (-4.66.2, >0.05) and AI of lateral lobe was decreased (-13.68.9). AI of medial and lateral lobes of mesial TLE was decreased (-3.44.7 and -16.58.9, respectively). AI of medial lobe of lesional lateral TLE was -7.39.1 (p<0.05 compared with mesial TEL). It was evident that lateral lobe of lesional lateral TLE had metabolic defect or decrease (AI: -21.410.4). While we could not find difference of metabolic activity in lateral temporal lobes between cryptogenic lateral TLE and mesial TLE patients, the difference of metabolic activity was significant in medial temporal lobes which was revealed by AI quantitation. An AI value larger than -10 (cutoff: AI) predicted positively for lateral TLE(PPV:80%) and negatively for mesial TLE(NPV:77%). Asymmetry of metabolic activity in medial and not in lateral lobe of temporal lobe could give hints about whether the epileptogenic zones were mesial or lateral

  7. Conception d'un système d'antennes pour la localisation en temps réel avec réseau de capteurs sans fils.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Nogueira, Evanaska Maria,

    2013-01-01

    Les systèmes de localisation en temps réel (Real-Time Locating System - RTLS) sont de plus en plus employés dans l'industrie. Ils permettent l'automatisation de diverses tâches telles que l'identification et le suivi des objets au long de la chaîne d'approvisionnement, la surveillance d'équipements dans les usines et la sécurisation des biens. Ces systèmes sont basés sur des capteurs électroniques sans fil à faible puissance et à faible coût avec des antennes intégrées. Dans notre contexte, d...

  8. 9 CFR 325.8 - Transportation and other transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States of diseases (9 CFR 94), in addition to the requirements of paragraph (a) of this... concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in commerce; provisions... transactions concerning certain undenatured lungs or lung lobes from official establishments or in...

  9. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transpor

  10. Temporal Lobe Anatomy and Psychiatric Symptoms in Velocardiofacial Syndrome (22Q11.2 Deletion Syndrome)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kates, Wendy R.; Miller, Adam M.; Abdulsabur, Nuria; Antshel, Kevin M.; Conchelos, Jena; Fremont, Wanda; Roizen, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between mesial temporal lobe morphology, ratios of prefrontal cortex to amygdala and hippocampus volumes, and psychiatric symptomatology in children and adolescents with velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS). Method: Scores on behavioral rating scales and volumetric measures of the amygdala, hippocampus, and…

  11. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  12. Improved Cerebral Function in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Subtemporal Amygdalohippocampectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro; Mitsueda, Takahiro; Satow, Takeshi; Taki, Junya; Kinoshita, Masako; Miyamoto, Susumu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Ikeda, Akio; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2009-01-01

    The functional changes that occur throughout the human brain after the selective removal of an epileptogenic lesion remain unclear. Subtemporal selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH) has been advocated as a minimally invasive surgical procedure for patients with medically intractable mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We evaluated the effects…

  13. Altered functional connectivity and small-world in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The functional architecture of the human brain has been extensively described in terms of functional connectivity networks, detected from the low-frequency coherent neuronal fluctuations that can be observed in a resting state condition. Little is known, so far, about the changes in functional connectivity and in the topological properties of functional networks, associated with different brain diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we investigated alterations related to mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE, using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging on 18 mTLE patients and 27 healthy controls. Functional connectivity among 90 cortical and subcortical regions was measured by temporal correlation. The related values were analyzed to construct a set of undirected graphs. Compared to controls, mTLE patients showed significantly increased connectivity within the medial temporal lobes, but also significantly decreased connectivity within the frontal and parietal lobes, and between frontal and parietal lobes. Our findings demonstrated that a large number of areas in the default-mode network of mTLE patients showed a significantly decreased number of connections to other regions. Furthermore, we observed altered small-world properties in patients, along with smaller degree of connectivity, increased n-to-1 connectivity, smaller absolute clustering coefficients and shorter absolute path length. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We suggest that the mTLE alterations observed in functional connectivity and topological properties may be used to define tentative disease markers.

  14. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text]. METHODS...

  15. Phenylephrine decreases frontal lobe oxygenation at rest but not during moderately intense exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brassard, Patrice; Seifert, Thomas; Wissenberg, Mads;

    2010-01-01

    -infrared spectroscopy-derived frontal lobe oxygenation (ScO2) at rest and during exercise. At rest, nine healthy male subjects received bolus injections of phenylephrine (0.1, 0.25, and 0.4 mg), and changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP), MCA Vmean, internal jugular venous O2 saturation (SjvO2), ScO2), and arterial...

  16. Frontal lobe oxygenation is maintained during hypotension following propofol-fentanyl anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Nielsen, H.B.;

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses cerebral oxygen saturation (Sco2) as a balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption. In 71 patients, we evaluated whether marked reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during propofol-fentanyl anesthesia induction affects frontal lobe Sco2...

  17. Performance & stability analysis of a three lobe journal bearing with varying parameters: Experiments and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun; Saha, Ankuran; Biswas, Srijit

    2016-07-01

    3-lobe Hydrodynamic oil journal bearings are widely used in heavy industries as a part of different rotating machinery due to their high level of performances. 3-lobe hydrodynamic oil journal bearing allows the transmission of large amounts of loads at a mean speed of rotation. In this present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the pressure domain and subsequent effects in a 3 lobe journal bearing under different static loads in a stable operating speed. Analytical calculations were carried out with codes generated using Matlab software. Experiments were performed in Journal Bearing test rig incorporating 3-lobe under different loads with stable operating speed of 1000 RPM. It has been observed that an increase in load resulted rise in pressure profile, maximum pressure angle and temperature. A further attempt has been made to see the effect of eccentricity ratio and dynamic viscosity considering no change in the RPM. It has also been observed that dynamic viscosity has a significant effect on the stable operating speed. With the reduction in static load, the stability of operating speed attained at higher values.

  18. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  19. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haaland

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s−1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  20. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes.

  1. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes).

  2. BULLOUS DEGENERATION OF THE LEFT LOWER LOBE IN A HEROIN-ADDICT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMEENK, FWJM; SERLIE, J; VANDERJAGT, EJ; POSTMUS, PE

    1990-01-01

    A 34 yr old heroin addict was referred because of chest pain caused by air-trapping in a bulla in the left lower lobe. There was a marked difference between the functional residual capacity measured by body-plethysmography and helium dilution. A slow wash-in and wash-out were demonstrated by ventila

  3. Custom-made different designs of pressure clips for the management of ear lobe keloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshul Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Keloids are frequent finding after physical trauma. Keloids of ear lobe are common complication of ear piercing, although its incidence remains unknown. The use of intrakeloid resection and a form pressure device to treat pinna keloids. The recommendation of this therapy is to maintain constant pressure and duration of pressure therapy was about 25 weeks. Clinical innovation : This article will present inexpensive custom made pressure clips of various designs. The dimensions of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA plates in ear lobe clip presented by us though they esthetically not so good, but colored PMMA has been used to make it decorative and acceptable by most of the patients. This has been an encouraging experience to use the different designs. Discussion : Ear clip prosthesis has been developed for maintaining pressure on ear lobe keloids before and after surgical removal. The prosthesis includes an ear clip to which heat-polymerized acrylic resin is attached, which covers the keloid area. Pressure therapy is widely used to help in the early maturation of scar tissue and to prevent the recurrence of keloid. The preliminary report by Brent revealed that constant light pressure was an effective means of preventing post excision recurrence of ear lobe keloids using a decorative, spring-pressure earring.

  4. Tops like keloid following piercing of ear lobes treated with cryosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma N

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18 year old female had developed bilateral tops , like keloidal swelling on both ear lobes following piercing. These were treated with shave excision and cryosurgery with an indigenously developed instrument utilizing nitrous oxide as refrigernant. There has not in any recurrence of kenloid till 6 months of flow up.

  5. Observations of the giant radio lobes region of Centaurus A with SAS 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Clark, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    Observations of the X-ray flux from the extended radio lobes of the galaxy Centaurus A obtained with the SAS 3 observatory are reported. The 15 x 15 deg region that includes the lobes was mapped by superposing data from raster scans with the horizontal tubular collimator detectors, which have a 1.7 deg FWHM circular field of view. Data obtained is consistent with the presence of superposed emission from the point sources NGC 5128 and MX 1312-42, a previously unreported source detected by the Einstein Observatory IPC. Fluxes of 4.63 + or - 0.14 x 10 to the -10th and 4.6 + or - 0.6 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm per sec were measured for NGC 5128 and MX 1312-42, respectively, with best fit power law spectra of indices 0.83 + or - 0.04 and 0.62 + or - 0.10 and hydrogen column densities of 1.23 + or - 0.10 x 10 to the 23rd and 9.7 + or - 15.0 x 10 to the 21st atoms/sq cm. Results imply an upper limit of 2.9 x 10 to the 11th for the X-ray emission from the extended radio lobes of Cen A between 2 and 10 keV, which indicates a lower limit to the magnetic field in the lobes of 1.6 x 10 to the -6th gauss.

  6. Comparison of mesial versus neocortical onset temporal lobe seizures: neurodiagnostic findings and surgical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgerman, R S; Sperling, M R; French, J A; Saykin, A J; O'Connor, M J

    1995-07-01

    We compared historical features, surface EEG findings, results of intracarotid sodium amobarbital memory testing (IAT), and outcome after anterotemporal lobectomy (ATL) in patients with mesiotemporal lobe seizure onset with those with more diffuse temporal lobe seizure onset (intracranial EEG). Forty-eight patients evaluated consecutively between July 1985 and October 1991 with both scalp/sphenoidal and intracranial EEG were shown to have seizures originating in one temporal lobe. No patients had temporal lobe tumor or vascular malformation. Thirty-seven of the 48 patients had seizure onset in the amygdala/hippocampus (amyg/hipp). Eleven of the 48 had either temporal neocortical onset or simultaneous amyg/hipp and neocortical onset. Patients with mesial onset seizures were more likely to have lateralized memory impairment on IAT (p = 0.05). We noted a trend toward a difference in age of first risk for epilepsy between the two groups (p = 0.09) but not for a difference in any specific risk factor. There were no significant differences in surface EEG interictal findings. Unlike in previous studies, comparison of outcome between the two groups showed no difference in seizure-free outcome. Sudden unexpected death (SUD) was more frequent in neocortical seizure patients who were not seizure-free (p < 0.05). PMID:7555982

  7. "Pseudo-thyroid lobe": A diagnostic conundrum caused by ossified anterior longitudinal ligament on bone scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Fatima, Nosheen; Sajjad, Zafar; Zaman, Unaiza; Zaman, Areeba; Tahseen, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging is one of the most commonly performed nuclear medicine procedure around the world and characterized by its high sensitivity and relatively low specificity. False positive findings on a bone scan are very common; however, dense uptake over unilateral ossified anterior longitudinal ligament appearing as single thyroid lobe on a bone scan has not been described in the literature. PMID:25589815

  8. Hard X-Ray Spectrum from West Lobe of Radio Galaxy Fornax A Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Makoto S; Seta, Hiromi; Matsuta, Keiko; Yaji, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    An observation of the West lobe of radio galaxy Fornax A (NGC 1316) with Suzaku is reported. Since Feigelson et al. (1995) and Kaneda et al. (1995) discovered the cosmic microwave background boosted inverse-Comptonized (IC) X-rays from the radio lobe, the magnetic field and electron energy density in the lobes have been estimated under the assumption that a single component of the relativistic electrons generates both the IC X-rays and the synchrotron radio emission. However, electrons generating the observed IC X-rays in the 1 -- 10 keV band do not possess sufficient energy to radiate the observed synchrotron radio emission under the estimated magnetic field of a few micro-G. On the basis of observations made with Suzaku, we show in the present paper that a 0.7 -- 20 keV spectrum is well described by a single power-law model with an energy index of 0.68 and a flux density of 0.12+/-0.01 nJy at 1 keV from the West lobe. The derived multiwavelength spectrum strongly suggests that a single electron energy distr...

  9. Role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS in nonlesional temporal lobe ep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Aziz Kamal Aun

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: MR spectroscopy is a very sensitive guiding tool in predicting the temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE and the side of involvement in patients with TLE even in patients with MR negative studies. It helps in detecting abnormal spectra of various brain metabolites. MR spectroscopy has demonstrated consistent metabolic abnormalities in partial seizures. MRS can also detect bilateral affection with the ipsilateral side more affected.

  10. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  11. Familial temporal lobe epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia type IIIa

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fábera, Petr; Krijtová, H.; Tomášek, M.; Krýsl, D.; Zámečník, J.; Mohapl, M.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Marusič, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 31, Sep 2015 (2015), s. 120-123. ISSN 1059-1311 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14489 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : familial temporal lobe epilepsy * focal cortical dysplasia * epilepsy surgery * genetics of epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.822, year: 2014

  12. Peripheral inflammation acutely impairs human spatial memory via actions on medial temporal lobe glucose metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Neil A.; Doeller, Christian F.; Voon, Valerie; Burgess, Neil; Critchley, Hugo D

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited. METHODS Sequenti...

  13. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, S.; Paschmann, G.; Förster, M.; Quinn, J.; Torbert, R.; Vaith, H.; Puhl-Quinn, P.; Kletzing, C.

    2008-08-01

    A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s-1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  14. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  15. Carbamazepine reduces memory induced activation of mesial temporal lobe structures: a pharmacological fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okujava Michael

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose It is not known whether carbamazepine (CBZ; a drug widely used in neurology and psychiatry influences the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast changes induced by neuronal activation and measured by functional MRI (fMRI. We aimed to investigate the influence of CBZ on memory induced activation of the mesial temporal lobes in patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Material and Methods Twenty-one individual patients with refractory symptomatic TLE with different CBZ serum levels and 20 healthy controls were studied using BOLD fMRI. Mesial temporal lobe (MTL activation was induced by a task that is based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. The extent of significant MTL fMRI activation was measured and correlated with the CBZ serum level. Results In TLE patients, the extent of significant fMRI activation over both MTL was negatively correlated to the CBZ serum level (Spearman r = -0.654, P Conclusions In TLE patients, carbamazepine reduces the fMRI-detectable changes within the mesial temporal lobes as induced by effortful memory retrieval. FMRI appears to be suitable to study the effects of chronic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy.

  16. Role of HHV-6B Infection in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Millichap

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from Fujita Health University, Toyoake, and National Epilepsy Center, Shizuoka, Japan, studied the pathogenic role of HHV-6B in patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. Of 75 intractable MTLE patients, 52 had mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS and 23 were non-MTS patients.

  17. Controlling factors of turf-banked solifluction lobe evolution in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draebing, Daniel; Eichel, Jana

    2016-04-01

    Soil structure and moisture, thermal conditions and vegetation control solifluction movement, however, the spatial distribution of controlling factors and resultant spatial variability of movement are poorly understood. We use a (1) geomorphological and vegetation mapping of solifluction lobe properties, (2) temperature loggers to quantify thermal conditions, (3) 2D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Puerkhauer drilling and TDR measurements to evaluate material properties as well as (4) 3D Time-Lapse ERT to quantify spatial variability of material properties. Our results are used to (5) evaluate the influence of potential controlling factors on solifluction movement. Investigations took place on three turf-banked lobes (TBL) located at proximal and distal slopes of Little Ice Age and 1920s lateral moraines in the Turtmann glacier forefield, Swiss Alps. (1) Vegetation is spatially differentiated at TBLs. The treads are mostly covered by the ecosystem engineer Dryas octopetala, while other dwarf shrubs, shrubs and pioneer species were found at the high lobe risers (0.8-1.8 m). In contrast, less vegetated ridge-like features at the upper part of the treads are colonized by frost-tolerant species. Large blocks are located at the lobe fronts, probably impeding the lobe movement. (2) Temperature loggers show a lack of ground cooling due to snow isolation at the vegetated lower tread between 2014 and 2015. Thus, significant ground cooling in winter is reduced to the wind-exposed upper parts (ridges). (3) TBL material consists of sandy silt, thus, lobe material is much finer than subjacent moraine till and indicates former colluviation. As a consequence, 2D ERT demonstrates low-resistant areas until depths equal to riser height, thus, the finer TBL body is higher saturated than the coarser surrounding parent slope and more susceptible to gelifluction. On the contrary, risers show high resistivities indicating dry conditions which are supported by TDR results

  18. Contribution of 99Tcm-HMPAO SPECT in the evaluation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99Tcm-HMPAO (hexamethylpropylene amine oxime) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images were acquired for 31 patients with medically intractable epilepsy due to unilateral temporal lobe seizure focus to determine the contribution of these images to pre-surgical evaluation. Neuropsychological tests, electroencephalograms (EEGs) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were also used to select the side of resection. Interictal SPECT scans showed temporal lobe hypoperfusion in the side selected for surgery in 21 cases, hypoperfusion in the opposite temporal lobe (false lateralization) in two cases and a normal perfusion pattern in eight cases. The sensitivity of interictal SPECT scans was 67.7%. Ten patients underwent SPECT imaging in the ictal/post-ictal state. Increased regional cerebral blood flow was demonstrated in eight cases and was in agreement with the side selected for surgery in all of them. The range of time delay from the end of the seizure to the tracer injection was 0-146 s (mean ± SD of 49 ± 50 s). Another two cases demonstrated hypoperfusion of the temporal lobe extending to the adjacent cortical area in the side corresponding to the eventual site of surgery. The delay from seizure to injection was 70 and 400 s. These data suggest that SPECT is a useful non-invasive method of localizing the seizure focus in patients with intractable temporal lobe who are being considered for surgery. When both interictal and ictal studies are performed, SPECT has a higher predictive value and is more sensitive for epileptogenic zone identification. (author). 18 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Sub-band processing for grating lobe disambiguation in sparse arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersey, Ryan K.; Culpepper, Edwin

    2014-06-01

    Combined synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and ground moving target indication (GMTI) radar modes simultaneously generate SAR and GMTI products from the same radar data. This hybrid mode provides the benefit of combined imaging and moving target displays as well as improved target recognition. However, the differing system, antenna, and waveform requirements between SAR and GMTI modes make implementing the hybrid mode challenging. The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Gotcha radar has collected wide-bandwidth, multi-channel data that can be used for both SAR and GMTI applications. The spatial channels on the Gotcha array are sparsely separated, which causes spatial grating lobes during the digital beamforming process. Grating lobes have little impact on SAR, which typically uses a single spatial channel. However, grating lobes have a large impact on GMTI, where spatial channels are used to mitigate clutter and estimate the target angle of arrival (AOA). The AOA ambiguity has a significant impact in the Gotcha data, where detections from the sidelobes and skirts of the mainlobe wrap back into the main scene causing a significant number of false alarms. This paper presents a sub-banding method to disambiguate grating lobes in the GMTI processing. This method divides the wideband SAR data into multiple frequency sub-bands. Since each sub-band has a different center frequency, the grating lobes for each sub-band appear at different angles. The method uses this variation to disambiguate target returns and places them at the correct angle of arrival (AOA). Results are presented using AFRL Gotcha radar data.

  20. Management of the middle hepatic vein and its tributaries in right lobe living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Fei Yu; Jian Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left liver graft from a small donor will not meet the metabolic demands of a larger adult recipient. To overcome the problem of graft size insufifciency, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe has become a standard method for adult patients. As the drainage of the median sector (segmentsⅤ, Ⅷ andⅣ) is mainly by the middle hepatic vein (MHV), the issue of whether the MHV should or should not be taken with the graft or whether the MHV tributaries (Ⅴ5,Ⅴ8) should be reconstructed in the recipient remains to be settled. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1985-2006) on right lobe living donor liver transplantation, middle hepatic vein, vein graft, hepatic venoplasty and other related subjects. RESULTS: Some institutions had proposed their policy for the management of the MHV and its tributaries. Dominancy of the hepatic vein, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, and remnant liver volume as well as the donor-to-recipient body weight ratio, the volume of the donor's right lobe to the recipient's standard liver volume and the size of MHV tributaries are the major elements for the criteria of inclusion of the MHV, while for the policy of MHV tributaries reconstruction, the proportion of congestive area and the diameter of the tributaries are the critical elements. Optimal vein grafts such as recipient's portal vein and hepatic venoplasty technique have been used to obviate hepatic congestion and venous drainage disturbance. CONCLUSIONS:Taking right liver grafts with the MHV trunk (extended right lobe grafts) or performing the MHV tributaries reconstruction in modiifed right lobe grafts, according to the criteria proposed by the institutions with rich experience, can solve the congestion problem of the right paramedian sector and help to improve the outcomes of the patients. The additional use of optimal vein grafts and hepatic venoplasty also can guarantee excellent venous drainage.

  1. A Consensus Network of Gene Regulatory Factors in the Human Frontal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Stefano; Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Gerighausen, Daniel; Qin, Jing; Nowick, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs) we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies. PMID:27014338

  2. The relationship between frontal and temporal lobe lesions in traumatic brain injury and procedural memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the correlation between the location of chronic phase brain damage identified by a head MRI and the procedural memory test results in patients who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI). Subjects were 27 patients with TBI, who completed all of three procedural memory tasks (mirror-reading, mirror-drawing, and Tower of Toronto). Using a head MRI, the presence or absence of lesions in the frontal lobe and the temporal lobe were determined. To evaluate declarative memory, we implemented the Wechsler Memory Scale-Rivesed (WMS-R), Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), and Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (3-minute delayed recall). All three of procedural memory tasks were repeated 3 times a day for 3 consecutive days. The rate of improvement (%) of the procedural memory task was determined as {average of the results on the first day- average of the results on the third day)/average of the results on the first day} x 100. We obtained the rate of improvement for each of the three tasks. The patients were divided according to the existence of frontal and temporal lobe lesions in brain MRI, and then rates of improvement were compared by the existence of frontal or temporal lesion using the Mann-Whitney test. In result, the average value of the declarative memory test results was within the range of disorders for all items. On the procedural memory tasks, the rate of improvement did not significantly decrease by the presence of frontal or temporal lobe lesion. It is believed that the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are significantly involved in procedural memory. Also in TBI patients, the procedural memory tends to be retained. Our results suggest that frontal and temporal lobe lesions, which are frequently found in traumatic brain injury, are not likely to be related to procedural memory. (author)

  3. Ictal hyperperfusion of cerebellum and basal ganglia in temporal lobe epilepsy: SPECT subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ictal perfusion patterns of cerebellum and basal ganglia have not been systematically investigated in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Their ictal perfusion patterns were analyzed in relation with temporal lobe and frontal lobe hyperperfusion during TLE seizures using SPECT subtraction. Thirty-three TLE patients had interictal and ictal SPECT, video-EEG monitoring. SPGR MRI, and SPECT subtraction with MRI co-registration. The vermian cerebellar hyperperfusion (CH) was observed in 26 patients (78.8%) and hemispheric CH in 25 (75.8%). Compared to the side of epileptogenic temporal lobe, there were seven ipsilateral hemispheric CH (28.0%), fifteen contralateral hemispheric CH( 60.0%) and three bilateral hemispheric CH( 12.0%). CH was more frequently observed in patients with additional frontal hyperperfusion (15/15, 93.3%) than in patients without frontal hyperperfusion (11/18, 61.1 %). The basal ganglia hyperperfusion (14/15, 93.3%) than in patients without frontal hyperperfusion (BGH) was seen in 11 of the 15 patients with frontotemporal hyperperfusion (73.3%) and 11 of the 18 with temporal hyperperfusion only (61.1%). In 17 patients with unilateral BGH, contralateral CH to the BGH was observed in 14 (82.5%) and ipsilateral CH to BGH in 2 (11.8%) and bilateral CH in 1 (5.9%). The cerebellar hyperperfusion and basal ganglia hyperperfusion during seizures of TLE can be contralateral, ipsilateral or bilateral to the seizure focus. The presence of additional frontal or basal ganglia hyperperfusion was more frequently associated with contralateral hemispheric CH to their sides. However, temporal lobe hyperperfusion appears to be related with both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheric CH

  4. Demonstration of caudate lobe bile ducts using 3D-CT cholangiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinohara, Yasushi [Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-02-01

    The aim of this study is to make precise analysis of bile ducts of the caudate, lobe using 3D-CT cholangiography. Seventy obstructive jaundiced patients without lesions at the hilar duct level were included in this study. According to Kumon`s study, I divided the caudate lobe into three areas: spiegel lobe (sp), caudate process portion (cp) and paracaval portion (pc), and set the range for these three areas in cholangio CT. In 70 cases, 191 caudate branches were detected and those draining areas and confluence patterns were analysed. 3D-CT cholangiography could be obtained from randomized angles. In set up the 8 angles from 0deg to 330deg in sagittal plane to demonstrate intrahepatic bile ducts and investigate the suitable angles for detecting caudate lobe branches in each drainaing area. Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Sp group (104 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg and 330deg (detectabilities were 89.4%, 61.5%, 51.0% and 47.1% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Pc group (80 branches) were 180deg, 210deg, 150deg, 330deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 91.3%, 65.0%, 57.5%, 48.8% and 41.3% respectively). Suitable angles for detecting the branches of Cp group (67 branches) were 210deg, 180deg, 330deg, 150deg and 0deg (detectabilities were 80.1%, 73.1%, 50.7%, 49.3% and 47.8% respectively). The images from 150deg, 180deg, 210deg were necessary to demonstrate the caudate lobe branches in 3D-CT cholangiography. (author).

  5. Evaluation of ictal brain SPET using statistical parametric mapping in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated voxel-based analysis of brain images using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) is accepted as a standard approach in the analysis of activation studies in positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. This study aimed to investigate whether or not SPM would increase the diagnostic yield of ictal brain single-photon emission tomography (SPET) in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Twenty-one patients (age 27.14±5.79 years) with temporal lobe epilepsy (right in 8, left in 13) who had a successful seizure outcome after surgery and nine normal subjects were included in the study. The data of ictal and interictal brain SPET of the patients and baseline SPET of the normal control group were analysed using SPM96 software. The t statistic SPM(t) was transformed to SPM(Z) with various thresholds of P<0.05, 0.005 and 0.001, and corrected extent threshold P value of 0.05. The SPM data were compared with the conventional ictal and interictal subtraction method. On group comparison, ictal SPET showed increased uptake within the epileptogenic mesial temporal lobe. On single case analysis, ictal SPET images correctly lateralized the epileptogenic temporal lobe in 18 cases, falsely lateralized it in one and failed to lateralize it in two as compared with the mean image of the normal group at a significance level of P<0.05. Comparing the individual ictal images with the corresponding interictal group, 15 patients were correctly lateralized, one was falsely lateralized and four were not lateralized. At significance levels of P<0.005 and P<0.001, correct lateralization of the epileptogenic temporal lobe was achieved in 15 and 13 patients, respectively, as compared with the normal group. On the other hand, when comparison was made with the corresponding interictal group, only 7 out of 21 patients were correctly lateralized at the threshold of P<0.005 and five at P<0.001. The result of the subtraction method was close to the single case analysis on

  6. Girus and Sulcus of the Lateral Occipital Lobe: Anatomical Description and Terminological Proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Aguirre, Jhonny Fernando

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, presents a big variability in the descriptions of the classical texts of neuroanatomy, so much that the current International Anatomical Terminology does not include nominations about the morphologic structures of this region, except for the lunate sulcus, the pre-occipital notch and the transverse occipital sulcus.The macroscopic morphology of this region was examined in this study, in 19 right brain hemispheres and 8 left brain hemispheres post-mortem, fixed in formalin fixed, where it is described the presence, shape and orientation of the gyri and sulci, and the interhemispheric differences in on the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, identifying the most characteristic and constant patterns.Occipital sulci: We found a significant constancy of four occipital sulci: 1-Lunate Sulcus: Frequency: 81,48%, located behind the occipital lobe convexity, with a vertical or oblique orientation and arcuate form, usually presenting a concavity directed towards the occipital pole. 2-Lateral Occipital Sulcus: Frequency: 96,29%, located immediately forward to the lunate sulcus and coincides with its middle part, with a horizontal orientation; this sulcus is presented as a continuation from the temporal lobe, and it is the most constant of all of them. 3-Transverse Occipital Sulcus: Frequency: 92,6%, located at the top superior part of the lateral surface of the occipital lobe, with a horizontal orientation toward the occipital pole, forming a continuation of the intra-parietal sulcus; 4-Prepolar sulcus: Frequency: 62,96%; located behind the lunate sulcus, with a vertical or oblique orientation and arcuate form, is the shortest and less constant of all of them. Occipital Gyri: We have found the presence of four gyri: 1-Upper Occipital Gyrus: Frequency: 92,6%, located above the transverse occipital sulcus, reaching the upper edge of the lateral occipital surface; 2 – Middle Occipital Gyrus

  7. Retreat of the Puget lobe of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugerud, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Systematic geomorphic mapping from high-resolution, digital lidar topography (e.g., http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2009/1033/) is improving our understanding of the retreat of the Cordilleran ice sheet at the end of the last glaciation of northwest Washington. This history is of interest both because it provides a stratigraphic framework for earthquake-hazards studies and as an example of the interaction of grounded marine ice with rising sea level. The spatial distribution of outwash flats outlines a four-stage history of ice-margin retreat. Main stage is marked by drainage from the south margin of the Puget Lobe to the Chehalis valley via multiple channels. Russell stage began when ice retreated sufficiently for drainage to coalesce to a single path via Black Lake south of Olympia. Bretz stage began with a drop in local base level as ice-marginal drainage switched to a path across the Chimacum Peninsula southeast of Port Townsend. Whulge stage began when ice retreated from Admiralty Inlet, Glacial Lake Bretz drained, and Puget Sound became marine. A 5th, Sumas stage could be defined but ongoing work in the Bellingham area indicates that we don’t yet fully understand Sumas complexities. An apparently-folded outwash flat west of Bremerton provides what may be our best constraint on the frequency of large earthquakes on the Seattle fault (≥23 m differential uplift in ~16,000 years, or one 7-9 m uplift event per ~5,000 yrs); the weakest link in this argument is the assumption of southwards drainage from the retreating Puget Lobe. Several lines of evidence indicate that the Puget Lobe stagnated and melted in place: widespread dead-ice features; absence of end moraines between Olympia and central Whidbey Island; peculiarities in the outfall of Glacial Lake Bretz; and re-orientation of ice flow on northern Whidbey Island from N-S to NE-SW. Stagnation was likely caused by collapse of the Juan de Fuca lobe, which beheaded the Puget Lobe. Collapse was probably the result of a

  8. Role of JAK/STAT signaling in neuroepithelial stem cell maintenance and proliferation in the Drosophila optic lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → JAK/STAT activity is graded in the Drosophila optic lobe neuroepithelium. → Inactivation of JAK signaling causes disintegration of the optic lobe neuroepithelium and depletion of the neuroepithelial stem cells. → JAK pathway overactivation promotes neuroepithelial overgrowth. → Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to promote neuroepithelial growth and expansion. -- Abstract: During Drosophila optic lobe development, proliferation and differentiation must be tightly modulated to reach its normal size for proper functioning. The JAK/STAT pathway plays pleiotropic roles in Drosophila development and in the larval brain, has been shown to inhibit medulla neuroblast formation. In this study, we find that JAK/STAT activity is required for the maintenance and proliferation of the neuroepithelial stem cells in the optic lobe. In loss-of-function JAK/STAT mutant brains, the neuroepithelial cells lose epithelial cell characters and differentiate prematurely while ectopic activation of this pathway is sufficient to induce neuroepithelial overgrowth in the optic lobe. We further show that Notch signaling acts downstream of JAK/STAT to control the maintenance and growth of the optic lobe neuroepithelium. Thus, in addition to its role in suppression of neuroblast formation, the JAK/STAT pathway is necessary and sufficient for optic lobe neuroepithelial growth.

  9. Can anterior junction line be used to distinguish right middle from right upper lobe on CT scan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evalvate the usefulness on a CT chest scan, of the anterior junction line as an anatomical landmark to distinguish the right middle and the right upper lobe We found that the anterior junction line has a constant anatomical relationship with the right upper and middle lobe, and with this in mind, analysed connvcntional CT films of 86 patients with normal lung(group A) and 30 with architectural distortion(group B). On a series of slices, we compared the location of slice 1 with that of slice 2(slice 1:the slice which includes the lowest portion of the anterior junction line, slice 2:the initial slice, in which the right middle lobe occupies the whole of the lung anterior to the right major fissure). In group A(n=86), the right upper lobe, as seen in the anteromedial zone of slice 1, was present in 83 cases(96.5%). The right upper lobe on slice 1 was absent in two cases(2.3%) in which a minor fissure was almost completely abent. In group B(n=30), the right upper lobe on slice 1 was absent in 19 cases(63.3%). We suggest that on a CT chest scan, the anterior junction line can be used as an anatomical landmark in the differentiation of the right middle from the right upper lobe, and as an indicator of the presence of architectural distortion

  10. Simultaneous morphological and functional imaging of the honeybee's brain by two-photon microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanks to its rather simply structured but highly performing brain, the honeybee (Apis mellifera) is an important model for neurobiological studies. Therefore there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities adapted to this species. Herein we give a detailed report on the development and performance of a platform for in vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honeybee's brain, focusing on its primary olfactory centres, the antennal lobes (ALs). The experimental setup consists of a two-photon microscope combined with a synchronized odour stimulus generator. Our imaging platform allows to simultaneously obtain both morphological measurements of the ALs functional units, the glomeruli, and in vivo calcium recording of their neural activity. We were able to record the characteristic glomerular response maps to odour stimuli applied to the bee's antennae. Our approach offers several advantages over the commonly used conventional fluorescence microscopy. Two-photon microscopy provides substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions, while minimizing photo damage. Calcium recordings show a more than fourfold improvement in the functional signal with respect to the techniques available up to now. Finally, the extended penetration depth, thanks to the infrared excitation, allows the functional imaging of profound glomeruli which have not been optically accessible up to now.

  11. Triple pathological findings in a surgically amenable patient with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumin Tong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS is a well-recognized cause of intractable epilepsy; however, coexistence with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD is less common. Middle fossa epidermoid cysts are rare and may involve the temporal lobe. Most epidermoids are clinically silent, slow-growing, and seldom associated with overt symptomatology, including seizures. We describe a patient with multiple comorbidities including left MTS and a large epidermoid cyst involving the left quadrigeminal plate cistern compressing upon the cerebellar vermis and tail of the left hippocampus, resulting in refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. The patient underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy. The surgical pathology demonstrated a third pathological finding of left temporal FCD type Ia. The patient has been seizure-free since the surgery. This case provides additional information with regard to the understanding of epileptogenicity and surgical planning in patients with MTS and epidermoid cysts.

  12. LEFT LOBE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION FROM AB0-INCOMPATIBLE LIVING DONOR WITH SITUS INVERSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality that affects approximately 0.005% of all live births. Traditionally, this condition is considered as a contraindication for liver donation, primarily due to the peculiarities of the vascular anatomy and the diffi culties in graft placement in the abdominal cavity. Review of the world literature testifi es to fi ve cases of use of the whole liver from deceased donor with situs inversus in adult recipients, and to just one case of inverted right lobe transplantation from living donor to 53-year-old man. Thus, transplantation of an inverted left liver lobe from a living related donor in pediatric patients was performed for the fi rst time. The article presents a successful experience of liver transplantation in child with tyrosinemia type 1 from AB0-incompatible living donor with situs inversus.

  13. Abnormality of cerebral cortical glucose metabolism in temporal lobe epilepsy with cognitive function impairment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: People with epilepsy commonly report having problems with their memory. Many indicate that memory difficulties significantly hinder their functioning at work, in school, and at home. Besides, some studies have reported that memory performance as a prognostic factor is of most value in patients with risk of refractory epilepsy and when used in a multidisciplinary setting. However, the cerebral cortical areas involving memory impairment in epilepsy is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to access changes of cerebral glucose metabolism of epilepsy patients using [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET). Method: Nine temporal lobe epilepsy patients were studied. Each patient was confirmed with lesions in right mesial temporal lobe by MRI, PET and EEG. Serial cognition function tests were performed. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) was measured by PET at 45 minutes after injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Parametric images were generated by grand mean scaling each scan to 50. The images were then transformed into standard stereotactic space. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) was applied to find the correlations between verbal memory, figure memory, perception intelligent quotation (PIQ) and rCMRglc in epilepsy patients. The changes of rCMRglc were significant if corrected p value was less than 0.05. Results: There was no significant relationship between figure memory score and verbal memory score. FDG-PET scan showed changes of rCMRglc positive related with verbal memory score in precentral gyms of right frontal lobe (Brodmann area 4, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size 240) and cingulated gyms of right limbic lobe (Brodmann area 32, corrected p=0.002, voxel size 143). No negative relationship was demonstrable between verbal memory and rCMRglc in this study. Besides, significanfiy positive correlation between figure memory was shown in cuneus of right occipital lobe (Brodmann area 18, corrected p < 0.001, voxel size

  14. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E;

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA was...... visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  15. An unusual case of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis with four lobed thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT, an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with suspected follicular neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration cytology of neck swelling. Intraoperatively, thyroid gland was found having four lobes separated from each other. Total thyroidectomy was done and histopathology from all four lobes revealed HT. At present, there is no literature to support the fact that such distorted thyroid anatomy may be due to the underlying disease. If we consider it as thyroid gland anomaly, no such anomaly has been mentioned in the literature till date.

  16. Middle lobe syndrome: a singularly rare presentation of complicated pulmonary hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunal, Shekhar; Pilaniya, Vikas; Shah, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is crucial to the diagnosis of pulmonary hydatid disease, as it is often the first modality that raises suspicion of the disease. Middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of this disease is a distinct rarity. A 45-year-old woman, a never-smoker, presented with cough and streaky haemoptysis. Imaging demonstrated a trapezoidal opacity with its base towards the hilum and contiguous with the right cardiac border. The reformatted sagittal view confirmed the diagnosis of MLS. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) revealed an avascular white membranous structure wholly occluding the medial segment of the middle lobe. This was completely removed through gentle suction. Bronchial aspirate revealed hooklets of hydatid and echinococcal serology was positive. Subsequently, three cycles of albendazole were administered with remarkable clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detailed description of MLS caused by pulmonary hydatidosis that was completely removed through FOB. PMID:27045051

  17. Unusual solvation through both p-orbital lobes of a carbene carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadad, C. Z., E-mail: cacier.hadad@udea.edu.co [Grupo de Química-Física Teórica, Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, A. A. 1226 Medellín (Colombia); Jenkins, Samantha [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China); Flórez, Elizabeth [Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad de Medellín, Carrera 87 N° 30-65, Medellín (Colombia)

    2015-03-07

    As a result of a configurational space search done to explain the experimental evidence of transient specific solvation of singlet fluorocarbene amide with tetrahydrofuran, we found that the most stable structures consist in a group in which each oxygen of two tetrahydrofuran molecules act as electron donor to its respective empty p-orbital lobe of the carbene carbon atom, located at each side of the carbene molecular plane. This kind of species, which to our knowledge has not been reported before, explains very well the particular experimental characteristics observed for the transient solvation of this system. We postulate that the simultaneous interaction to both p-orbital lobes seems to confer a special stability to the solvation complexes, because this situation moves away the systems from the proximity of the corresponding transition states for the ylide products. Additionally, we present an analysis of other solvation complexes and a study of the nature of the involved interactions.

  18. The Improved Power of the Central Lobe in the Beam Combination and High Power Output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to increase the power fraction of the central lobe in the coherent beam combination of lasers in an array, the effects of the distance factor of near-field distribution on far-field interference patterns are calculated and demonstrated experimentally. An improved beam array of interwoven distribution is demonstrated to enable the power in the central lobe to reach 41%. An optimized mirror array is carefully designed to obtain a high duty ratio, which is up to 53.3% at a high power level. By using these optimized methods and designs, the passive phase locking of eight Yb-doped fiber amplifiers with ring cavities are obtained, and a pleasing interference pattern with 87% visibility is observed. The maximum coherent output power of the system is up to 1066 W. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  19. Exaltation in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropsychiatric symptom or portal to the divine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds. Considering theological perspectives and the idea of cosmic consciousness, the authors urge a holistic approach to the spiritual events of epileptic aura, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of the mind and its transcendent potential. PMID:25017116

  20. The Influence of Frontal Lobe Tumors and Surgical Treatment on Advanced Cognitive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shengyu; Wang, Yinyan; Jiang, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Brain cognitive functions affect patient quality of life. The frontal lobe plays a crucial role in advanced cognitive functions, including executive function, meta-cognition, decision-making, memory, emotion, and language. Therefore, frontal tumors can lead to serious cognitive impairments. Currently, neurosurgical treatment is the primary method to treat brain tumors; however, the effects of the surgical treatments are difficult to predict or control. The treatment may both resolve the effects of the tumor to improve cognitive function or cause permanent disabilities resulting from damage to healthy functional brain tissue. Previous studies have focused on the influence of frontal lesions and surgical treatments on patient cognitive function. Here, we review cognitive impairment caused by frontal lobe brain tumors. PMID:27072331

  1. Ictus expectoratus: a sign of complex partial seizures usually of non-dominant temporal lobe origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, P W; Kerr, D A; Olivi, A

    1999-12-01

    Spitting (or expectoration) is rarely seen with seizures. In Western society, spitting is a striking behavioral aberration. A 13-year-old child had intermittent agitated behavior, episodes of rage, spitting and confusion lasting up to 2 minutes. He stood up in church and told the preacher to 'shut up and sit down'. Epilepsy monitoring revealed spitting with polysharp and spike seizures resolved over the right temporal lobe. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right temporal lobe ganglioglioma. Spitting seizures resolved after resection. Ictal expectoration is rare. It may occur with epigastric aura, nausea, chewing, swallowing and fumbling. Literature review disclosed 17 cases, 12 of which arose from the non-dominant hemisphere. Most regressed with surgery and anticonvulsants. PMID:10627411

  2. Lateralization of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy by Imaging-Based Response-Driven Multinomial Multivariate Models

    OpenAIRE

    Nazem-Zadeh, Mohammad R.; Schwalb, Jason M.; Bagher-Ebadian, Hassan; Mahmoudi, Fariborz; Jafari-Khouzani, Kourosh; Elisevich, Kost V.; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    We have developed response-driven multinomial models, based on multivariate imaging features, to lateralize the epileptogenicity in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients. To this end, volumetrics and statistical quantities of FLAIR intensity and normalized ictal–interictal SPECT intensity on left and right hippocampi were extracted from preoperative images of forty-five retrospective TLE patients with surgical outcome of Engel class I. Using multinomial logistic function regression, the param...

  3. The Anticonvulsant and Antioxidant Effects of Berberine in Kainate-induced Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mojarad, Tourandokht Baluchnejad; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a long lasting neurological disorder in which patients suffer from spontaneous seizures. New treatments with novel mechanisms of action are needed to help those patients whose seizures are resistant to available drugs. In this study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of berberine in an intrahippocampal kainate model of TLE in rat. Methods In the present study, the anticonvulsant and antioxidant effects of intraperitoneal administr...

  4. AGN JET KINETIC POWER AND THE ENERGY BUDGET OF RADIO GALAXY LOBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results based on the analysis of radio galaxies and their hot X-ray emitting atmospheres suggest that non-radiating particles dominate the energy budget in the lobes of FR I radio galaxies, in some cases by a factor of more than 1000, while radiating particles dominate the energy budget in FR II radio galaxy lobes. This implies a significant difference in the radiative efficiency of the two morphological classes. To test this hypothesis, we have measured the kinetic energy flux for a sample of 3C FR II radio sources using a new method based on the observed parameters of the jet terminal hotspots, and compared the resulting Qjet-Lradio relation to that obtained for FR I radio galaxies based on X-ray cavity measurements. Contrary to expectations, we find approximate agreement between the Qjet-Lradio relations determined separately for FR I and FR II radio galaxies. This result is ostensibly difficult to reconcile with the emerging scenario in which the lobes of FR I and FR II radio galaxies have vastly different energy budgets. However, a combination of lower density environment, spectral aging and strong shocks driven by powerful FR II radio galaxies may reduce the radiative efficiency of these objects relative to FR Is and counteract, to some extent, the higher radiative efficiency expected to arise due to the lower fraction of energy in non-radiating particles. An unexpected corollary is that extrapolating the Qjet-Lradio relation determined for low power FR I radio galaxies provides a reasonable approximation for high power sources, despite their apparently different lobe compositions.

  5. Frozen debris lobe morphology and movement: an overview of eight dynamic features, southern Brooks Range, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Margaret M.; Gyswyt, Nora L.; Simpson, Jocelyn M.; Daanen, Ronald P.; Hubbard, Trent D.

    2016-05-01

    Frozen debris lobes (FDLs) are elongated, lobate permafrost features that mostly move through shear in zones near their bases. We present a comprehensive overview of eight FDLs within the Dalton Highway corridor (southern Brooks Range, Alaska), including their catchment geology and rock strengths, lobe soil characteristics, surface movement measurements collected between 2012 and 2015, and analysis of historic and modern imagery from 1955 to 2014. Field mapping and rock strength data indicate that the metasedimentary and metavolcanic bedrock forming the majority of the lobe catchments has very low to medium strength and is heavily fractured, thus easily contributing to FDL formation. The eight investigated FDLs consist of platy rocks typical of their catchments, organic debris, and an ice-poor soil matrix; massive ice, however, is present within FDLs as infiltration ice, concentrated within cracks open to the surface. Exposure of infiltration ice in retrogressive thaw slumps (RTSs) and associated debris flows leads to increased movement and various stages of destabilization, resulting in morphological differences among the lobes. Analysis of historic imagery indicates that movement of the eight investigated FDLs has been asynchronous over the study period, and since 1955, there has been an overall increase in movement rates of the investigated FDLs. The formation of surface features, such as cracks, scarps, and RTSs, suggests that the increased movement rates correlate to general instability, and even at their current distances, FDLs are impacting infrastructure through increased sediment mobilization. FDL-A is the largest of the investigated FDLs. As of August 2015, FDL-A was 39.2 m from the toe of the Dalton Highway embankment. Based on its current distance and rate of movement, we predict that FDL-A will reach the Dalton Highway alignment by 2023.

  6. Multivariate pattern analysis reveals anatomical connectivity differences between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Fang; Jie An; Ling-Li Zeng; Hui Shen; Fanglin (Frank)Chen; Wensheng Wang; Shijun Qiu; Dewen Hu

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated differences of clinical signs and functional brain network organizations between the left and right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE), but the anatomical connectivity differences underlying functional variance between the left and right mTLE remain uncharacterized. We examined 43 (22 left, 21 right) mTLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis and 39 healthy controls using diffusion tensor imaging. After the whole-brain anatomical networks were constructed fo...

  7. White Matter Abnormalities in Children with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A DTI and MEG Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Meng; Hong Zhao; Jingzhu Yang

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The widespread propagation of synchronized neuronal firing in seizure disorders may affect cortical and subcortical brain regions. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can noninvasively quantify white matter integrity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the abnormal changes of white matter in children with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using DTI. Materials and Methods: Eight children with clinically diagnosed TLE and eight age- and sex-matched healthy contro...

  8. Medial Temporal Lobe Contributions to Intra-Item Associative Recognition Memory in the Aging Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Dalton, Marshall Axel; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Hodges, John Russel; Piguet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a decline in episodic memory function. This is accompanied by degradation of and functional changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) which subserves mnemonic processing. To date no study has investigated age-related functional change in MTL substructures during specific episodic memory processes such as intra-item associative memory. The aim of this study was to characterize age-related change in the neural correlates of intra-item associative memory processing. Sixt...

  9. Astrocyte control of synaptic NMDA receptors contributes to the progressive development of temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Clasadonte, Jerome; Dong, Jinghui; Hines, Dustin J.; Haydon, Philip G.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a chronic brain disorder characterized by the occurrence of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Much of our knowledge of epilepsy is based on how neurons contribute to this disorder. Here we provide a view in which glial cells (astrocytes) contribute to the progressive development of TLE. We have combined a model of epilepsy that more closely mimics the complex features of seizures in epileptic patients, with astrocyte-specific molecular genetics to identify how as...

  10. Risk factors for spatial memory impairment in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Amlerová, J.; Laczó, J.; Vlček, Kamil; Javůrková, A.; Andel, R.; Marusič, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 1 (2013), s. 57-60. ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/09/1053 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : spatial navigation * temporal lobe epilepsy * Morris water maze Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  11. Detecting Differential Memory Performance Among Spanish-speaking Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Marquez de la Plata, C.; Lacritz, L.H.; Mitschke, R.; Van Ness, P.; Agostini, M.; Diaz-Arrastia, R.; Cullum, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    There is relatively little research pertaining to neuropsychological assessment of Spanish-speaking individuals with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The current study examined verbal and visual memory performances in 38 primarily Spanish-speaking patients with TLE (Right = 15, Left = 23) of similar epilepsy duration to determine if lateralizing differences can be found using verbal and nonverbal memory tests. On a test specifically designed to assess auditory learning and memory amo...

  12. Acute Onset of Psychosis in a Patient with a Left Temporal Lobe Arachnoid Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Mironov; Sabu John; Jonathan Auerbach; Ghassan Jamaleddine

    2014-01-01

    Arachnoid cysts are considered a rare neurological tumor, few of which exhibit any symptomatology. A 38-year-old Haitian American female with no past psychiatric history presented with rapid onset of psychosis. Workup for medical etiology proved to be within normal limits, with the exception of a left temporal lobe arachnoid cyst. The purpose of this paper is to add to a number of existing case reports that suggest a relationship between such lesions and psychiatric illness.

  13. Acute Onset of Psychosis in a Patient with a Left Temporal Lobe Arachnoid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mironov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arachnoid cysts are considered a rare neurological tumor, few of which exhibit any symptomatology. A 38-year-old Haitian American female with no past psychiatric history presented with rapid onset of psychosis. Workup for medical etiology proved to be within normal limits, with the exception of a left temporal lobe arachnoid cyst. The purpose of this paper is to add to a number of existing case reports that suggest a relationship between such lesions and psychiatric illness.

  14. Metabolic Hyperactivity of the Medial Posterior Parietal Lobes in Psychogenic Tremor

    OpenAIRE

    Hedera, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of psychogenic movement disorders, including psychogenic tremor (PT), is only emerging. Case Report This is a single case report of a patient who met diagnostic criteria for PT. He underwent positron emission tomography (PET) of brain with 18F-deoxyglucose at resting state. His PET study showed symmetrically increased 18F-deoxyglucose uptake in both posterior medial parietal lobes. There was no corresponding abnormality on structural imaging. Discussion Hypermet...

  15. Scaling for lobe and cleft patterns in particle-laden gravity currents

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, A.; Turnbull, B.; Munro, R.

    2013-01-01

    Lobe and cleft patterns are frequently observed at the leading edge of gravity currents, including non-Boussinesq particle-laden currents such as powder snow avalanches. Despite the importance of the instability in driving air entrainment, little is known about its origin or the mechanisms behind its development. In this paper we seek to gain a better understanding of these mechanisms from a laboratory scale model of powder snow avalanches using lightweight granular material.

  16. Investigation of frontal lobe activation with fNIRS and systemic changes during video gaming.

    OpenAIRE

    Tachtsidis, I; Papaioannou, A

    2013-01-01

    Frontal lobe activation caused by tasks such as videogames can be investigated using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), sometimes called optical topography. The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of video gaming (fighting and puzzle games) in the brain and the systemic physiology and to determine whether systemic responses during the gaming task are associated with the measurement of localised cerebral haemodynamic changes as measured by fNIRS. We used a continuou...

  17. CHRNB2 Is the Second Acetylcholine Receptor Subunit Associated with Autosomal Dominant Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy*

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Hilary A.; Favre, Isabelle; Kirkpatrick, Martin; Zuberi, Sameer M; Goudie, David; Heron, Sarah E.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Sutherland, Grant R.; Berkovic, Samuel F; Bertrand, Daniel; Mulley, John C

    2000-01-01

    Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is an uncommon, idiopathic partial epilepsy characterized by clusters of motor seizures occurring in sleep. We describe a mutation of the β2 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, effecting a V287M substitution within the M2 domain. The mutation, in an evolutionary conserved region of CHRNB2, is associated with ADNFLE in a Scottish family. Functional receptors with the V287M mutation are highly expressed in Xenopus oocytes ...

  18. Altered vesicular glutamate transporter expression in human temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Van Liefferinge, J.; Jensen, C.J.; Albertini, G.; Bentea, E.; Demuyser, T.; Merckx, E.; Aronica, E.; Smolders, I; Massie, A.

    2015-01-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for loading glutamate into synaptic vesicles. Altered VGLUT protein expression has been suggested to affect quantal size and glutamate release under both physiological and pathological conditions. In this study, we investigated mRNA and protein expression levels of the three VGLUT subtypes in hippocampal tissue of patients suffering from temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), International League Against Epilepsy...

  19. Relevance of the Glutathione System in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Evidence in Human and Experimental Models

    OpenAIRE

    Noemí Cárdenas-Rodríguez; Elvia Coballase-Urrutia; Claudia Pérez-Cruz; Hortencia Montesinos-Correa; Liliana Rivera-Espinosa; Aristides Sampieri; Liliana Carmona-Aparicio

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress, which is a state of imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen, is induced by a wide variety of factors. This biochemical state is associated with diseases that are systemic as well as diseases that affect the central nervous system. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder, and temporal lobe epilepsy represents an estimated 40% of all epilepsy cases. Currently, evidence from human and experimental models supports the involvement of oxidative stre...

  20. Ambiguous emotion recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy : the role of expression intensity.

    OpenAIRE

    Sedda, A; Rivolta, D.; SCARPA, P.; Burt, M.; Frigerio, E; Zanardi, G.; A. Piazzini; Turner, K.; Canevini, M P; Francione, S; Lo Russo, G; G. Bottini

    2013-01-01

    The lateralization of emotion processing is currently debated and may be further explored by examining facial expression recognition (FER) impairments in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Furthermore, there is also debate in the literature whether FER deficits in individuals with TLE are more pronounced in the right than in the left hemisphere. Individuals with TLE were tested with an FER task designed to be more sensitive than those classically used to shed light on this issue. A total of 25 rig...