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Sample records for antennal lobe glomeruli

  1. Maxillary palp glomeruli and ipsilateral projections in the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Rajashekhar; V R Shamprasad

    2004-12-01

    The antennal lobe was examined by Golgi-silver impregnation to differentiate the glomeruli depending on the source and types of inputs. Thirty-five of the 43 ‘identified’ olfactory glomeruli were Golgi-silver impregnated in the present study. Seven glomeruli compared to three, reported previously, were found to be targets of maxillary palp chemosensory neurons. These include glomeruli VA3, VC2, VM5, VA7m/VA7l of the ventral antennal lobe and DC2, DC3, DM5 of the dorsal antennal lobe. The number of glomeruli receiving the maxillary palp sensory projections tallies with the number of Drosophila olfactory receptors (seven) reported to be expressed exclusively in the maxillary palp. Twenty-eight Golgi-impregnated glomeruli were found to receive input from the antennal nerve. The ratio of glomeruli serving the maxillary palp to those serving the antenna (∼ 1 : 5) matches with the ratio of Drosophila olfactory receptors expressed in these two olfactory organs respectively. In addition to glomerulus V, glomeruli VP1-3, VL1, VL2a/2p and VC3m/3l were found to receive ipsilateral projections. Thus, additional ipsilateral glomeruli have been identified.

  2. Anatomical organization of antennal-lobe glomeruli in males and females of the scarab beetle Holotrichia diomphalia (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji-Hua; Wang, Zhi-Ying; Sun, Fan

    2011-09-01

    The glomerular organization of the primary olfactory brain center, the antennal lobe, was studied in males and females of Holotrichia diomphalia adults using serial histological sections labeled by the reduced silver-stain technique. The results revealed an apparent sexual dimorphism. Whereas an enlarged cap-shaped glomerulus was found at the antennal nerve entrance into the antennal lobe in males, no such unit was present in females. Also the size of the antennal lobe differed between the sexes, the antennal lobe of males being larger than that of females. We estimated the total number of glomeruli at approximately 60 units in the female antennal lobe. In males, we could discriminate only those glomeruli that were located in the anterior area of the antennal lobe.

  3. Integration of the antennal lobe glomeruli and three projection neurons in the standard brain atlas of the moth Heliothis virescens

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    Bjarte B Løfaldli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital three dimensional standard brain atlases are valuable tools for integrating neuroimaging data of different preparations. In insects, standard brain atlases of five species are available, including the atlas of the female Heliothis virescens moth brain. Like for the other species, the antennal lobes of the moth brain atlas were integrated as one material identity without internal structures. Different from the others, the H. virescens standard brain atlas exclusively included the glomerular layer of the antennal lobe. This was an advantage in the present study for performing a direct registration of the glomerular layer of individual preparations into the standard brain. We here present the H. virescens female standard brain atlas with a new model of the antennal lobe glomeruli integrated into the atlas, i.e. with each of the 66 glomeruli identified and labelled with a specific number. The new model differs from the previous H. virescens antennal lobe model both in respect to the number of glomeruli and the numbering system; the latter according to the system used for the antennal lobe atlases of two other heliothine species. For identifying female specific glomeruli comparison with the male antennal lobe was necessary. This required a new male antennal lobe atlas, included in this paper. As demonstrated by the integration of three antennal lobe projection neurons of different preparations, the new standard brain atlas with the integrated glomruli is a helpful tool for determining the glomeruli innervated as well as the relative position of the axonal projections in the protocerebrum.

  4. Elucidating the Neuronal Architecture of Olfactory Glomeruli in the Drosophila Antennal Lobe

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    Veit Grabe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory glomeruli are morphologically conserved spherical compartments of the olfactory system, distinguishable solely by their chemosensory repertoire, anatomical position, and volume. Little is known, however, about their numerical neuronal composition. We therefore characterized their neuronal architecture and correlated these anatomical features with their functional properties in Drosophila melanogaster. We quantitatively mapped all olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs innervating each glomerulus, including sexually dimorphic distributions. Our data reveal the impact of OSN number on glomerular dimensions and demonstrate yet unknown sex-specific differences in several glomeruli. Moreover, we quantified uniglomerular projection neurons for each glomerulus, which unraveled a glomerulus-specific numerical innervation. Correlation between morphological features and functional specificity showed that glomeruli innervated by narrowly tuned OSNs seem to possess a larger number of projection neurons and are involved in less lateral processing than glomeruli targeted by broadly tuned OSNs. Our study demonstrates that the neuronal architecture of each glomerulus encoding crucial odors is unique.

  5. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: glomerular organizations of antennal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2010-06-15

    Ants have well-developed chemosensory systems for social lives. The goal of our study is to understand the functional organization of the ant chemosensory system based on caste- and sex-specific differences. Here we describe the common and sex-specific glomerular organizations in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Differential labeling of the two antennal nerves revealed distinct glomerular clusters innervated by seven sensory tracts (T1-T7 from ventral to dorsal) in the antennal lobe. T7 innervated 10 glomeruli, nine of which received thick axon terminals almost exclusively from the ventral antennal nerve. Coelocapitular (hygro-/thermoreceptive), coeloconic (thermoreceptive), and ampullaceal (CO2-receptive) sensilla, closely appositioned in the flagellum, housed one or three large sensory neurons supplying thick axons exclusively to the ventral antennal nerve. These axons, therefore, were thought to project into T7 glomeruli in all three castes. Workers and virgin females had about 140 T6 glomeruli, whereas males completely lacked these glomeruli. Female-specific basiconic sensilla (cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive) contained over 130 sensory neurons and were completely lacking in males' antennae. These sensory neurons may project into T6 glomeruli in the antennal lobe of workers and virgin females. Serotonin-immunopositive neurons innervated T1-T5 and T7 glomeruli but not T6 glomeruli in workers and virgin females. Because males had no equivalents to T6 glomeruli, serotonin-immunopositive neurons appeared to innervate all glomeruli in the male's antennal lobe. T6 glomeruli in workers and virgin females are therefore female-specific and may have functions related to female-specific tasks in the colony rather than sexual behaviors.

  6. Sexual dimorphism in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Nishino, Hiroshi; Misaka, Yuko; Kubota, Maiko; Tsuji, Eriko; Satoji, Yuji; Ozaki, Mamiko; Yokohari, Fumio

    2008-02-01

    The carpenter ant, a social hymenopteran, has a highly elaborated antennal chemosensory system that is used for chemical communication in social life. The glomeruli in the antennal lobe are the first relay stations where sensory neurons synapse onto interneurons. The system is functionally and structurally similar to the olfactory bulbs of vertebrates. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of glomeruli and subsequent morphometric analyses, we found sexual dimorphism of the antennal lobe glomeruli in carpenter ants, Camponotus japonicus. Female workers and unmated queens had about 430 glomeruli, the highest number reported so far in ants. Males had a sexually dimorphic macroglomerulus and about 215 ordinary glomeruli. This appeared to result from a greatly reduced number of glomeruli in the postero-medial region of the antennal lobe compared with that in females. On the other hand, sexually isomorphic glomeruli were identifiable in the dorsal region of the antennal lobe. For example, large, uniquely shaped glomeruli located at the dorso-central margin of the antennal lobe were detected in all society members. The great sexual dimorphism seen in the ordinary glomeruli of the antennal lobe may reflect gender-specific tasks in chemical communications rather than different reproductive roles.

  7. Three-dimensional antennal lobe atlas of male and female moths, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and glomerular representation of plant volatiles in females.

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    Masante-Roca, Ingwild; Gadenne, Christophe; Anton, Sylvia

    2005-03-01

    Spatiotemporal odour coding is thought to be linked closely with the specific glomerular anatomy of the primary olfactory centre. In most insects the number of the glomeruli within the antennal lobe is limited to fewer than 100, allowing their individual identification. In the grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana, a map of the antennal lobe glomeruli was reconstructed three-dimensionally, by comparing three different brains in males and females. The map of the antennal lobe of females served then as a basis to identify glomeruli containing dendritic arborisations of 14 physiologically characterised projection neurons. Projection neurons responding to the same plant compound did not always arborise in the same glomerulus and some neurons arborising in the same glomerulus responded to different compounds. Different zones of target glomeruli were, however, identified when pooling all neurons responding to one of two different compounds respectively (alpha-farnesene and nonatriene). All identified glomeruli of specifically responding projection neurons were situated close to the anterior surface of the antennal lobe. One broadly responding projection neuron arborised in a more posteriorly situated glomerulus. A local interneuron responding to only one compound was arborising densely in a neighbouring glomerulus and had sparse branches in all other glomeruli. These results are discussed with respect to plant odour processing and structure-function relations in antennal lobe neurons. The 3D AL atlas will, in the future, also be used to obtain a better understanding of coding mechanisms of grapevine odours in this pest insect.

  8. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information.

  9. Morphological characterization of the antennal lobes in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solari, Paolo; Corda, Valentina; Sollai, Giorgia; Kreissl, Sabine; Galizia, C Giovanni; Crnjar, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    The medfly Ceratitis capitata is one of the most important pests for horticulture worldwide. The knowledge about anatomy and function of the medfly olfactory system is still limited. The first brain structure to process olfactory information in insects is the antennal lobe (AL), which is composed of its functional and morphological units, the olfactory glomeruli. Here, we present a morphological three-dimensional reconstruction of AL glomeruli in adult brains. We used unilateral antennal backfills of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) with neural tracers, revealing the AL structure. We recorded confocal stacks acquired from whole-mount specimens, and analyzed them with the software AMIRA. The ALs in C. capitata are organized in glomeruli which are more tightly packed in the anterior part than the posterior one. Axons of ORNs bilaterally connect the ALs through a commissure between the two ALs. This commissure is formed by several distinct fascicles. Contralateral dye transfer suggests the presence of gap junctions connecting ORNs from both antennae. There was no statistical difference between the average volumes of female ALs (204,166 ± 12,554 μm(3)) and of male ALs (190,287 ± 11,823 μm(3)). In most specimens, we counted 53 glomeruli in each AL, seven of which were sexually dimorphic in size.

  10. Calcium imaging of odor-evoked responses in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbering, Ana F; Bell, Rati; Galizia, C Giovanni; Benton, Richard

    2012-03-14

    The antennal lobe is the primary olfactory center in the insect brain and represents the anatomical and functional equivalent of the vertebrate olfactory bulb. Olfactory information in the external world is transmitted to the antennal lobe by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), which segregate to distinct regions of neuropil called glomeruli according to the specific olfactory receptor they express. Here, OSN axons synapse with both local interneurons (LNs), whose processes can innervate many different glomeruli, and projection neurons (PNs), which convey olfactory information to higher olfactory brain regions. Optical imaging of the activity of OSNs, LNs and PNs in the antennal lobe - traditionally using synthetic calcium indicators (e.g. calcium green, FURA-2) or voltage-sensitive dyes (e.g. RH414) - has long been an important technique to understand how olfactory stimuli are represented as spatial and temporal patterns of glomerular activity in many species of insects. Development of genetically-encoded neural activity reporters, such as the fluorescent calcium indicators G-CaMP and Cameleon, the bioluminescent calcium indicator GFP-aequorin, or a reporter of synaptic transmission, synapto-pHluorin has made the olfactory system of the fruitfly, Drosophila melanogaster, particularly accessible to neurophysiological imaging, complementing its comprehensively-described molecular, electrophysiological and neuroanatomical properties. These reporters can be selectively expressed via binary transcriptional control systems (e.g. GAL4/UAS, LexA/LexAop, Q system) in defined populations of neurons within the olfactory circuitry to dissect with high spatial and temporal resolution how odor-evoked neural activity is represented, modulated and transformed. Here we describe the preparation and analysis methods to measure odor-evoked responses in the Drosophila antennal lobe using G-CaMP. The animal preparation is minimally invasive and can be adapted to imaging using wide

  11. Mechanisms of maximum information preservation in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Satoh

    Full Text Available We examined the presence of maximum information preservation, which may be a fundamental principle of information transmission in all sensory modalities, in the Drosophila antennal lobe using an experimentally grounded network model and physiological data. Recent studies have shown a nonlinear firing rate transformation between olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs and second-order projection neurons (PNs. As a result, PNs can use their dynamic range more uniformly than ORNs in response to a diverse set of odors. Although this firing rate transformation is thought to assist the decoder in discriminating between odors, there are no comprehensive, quantitatively supported studies examining this notion. Therefore, we quantitatively investigated the efficiency of this firing rate transformation from the viewpoint of information preservation by computing the mutual information between odor stimuli and PN responses in our network model. In the Drosophila olfactory system, all ORNs and PNs are divided into unique functional processing units called glomeruli. The nonlinear transformation between ORNs and PNs is formed by intraglomerular transformation and interglomerular interaction through local neurons (LNs. By exploring possible nonlinear transformations produced by these two factors in our network model, we found that mutual information is maximized when a weak ORN input is preferentially amplified within a glomerulus and the net LN input to each glomerulus is inhibitory. It is noteworthy that this is the very combination observed experimentally. Furthermore, the shape of the resultant nonlinear transformation is similar to that observed experimentally. These results imply that information related to odor stimuli is almost maximally preserved in the Drosophila olfactory circuit. We also discuss how intraglomerular transformation and interglomerular inhibition combine to maximize mutual information.

  12. Apis mellifera octopamine receptor 1 (AmOA1) expression in antennal lobe networks of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinakevitch, Irina T; Smith, Adrian N; Locatelli, Fernando; Huerta, Ramon; Bazhenov, Maxim; Smith, Brian H

    2013-01-01

    Octopamine (OA) underlies reinforcement during appetitive conditioning in the honey bee and fruit fly, acting via different subtypes of receptors. Recently, antibodies raised against a peptide sequence of one honey bee OA receptor, AmOA1, were used to study the distribution of these receptors in the honey bee brain (Sinakevitch et al., 2011). These antibodies also recognize an isoform of the AmOA1 ortholog in the fruit fly (OAMB, mushroom body OA receptor). Here we describe in detail the distribution of AmOA1 receptors in different types of neurons in the honey bee and fruit fly antennal lobes. We integrate this information into a detailed anatomical analysis of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), uni- and multi-glomerular projection neurons (uPNs, and mPNs) and local interneurons (LNs) in glomeruli of the antennal lobe. These neurons were revealed by dye injection into the antennal nerve, antennal lobe, medial and lateral antenno-protocerbral tracts (m-APT and l-APT), and lateral protocerebral lobe (LPL) by use of labeled cell lines in the fruit fly or by staining with anti-GABA. We found that ORN receptor terminals and uPNs largely do not show immunostaining for AmOA1. About seventeen GABAergic mPNs leave the antennal lobe through the ml-APT and branch into the LPL. Many, but not all, mPNs show staining for AmOA1. AmOA1 receptors are also in glomeruli on GABAergic processes associated with LNs. The data suggest that in both species one important action of OA in the antennal lobe involves modulation of different types of inhibitory neurons via AmOA1 receptors. We integrated this new information into a model of circuitry within glomeruli of the antennal lobes of these species.

  13. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli.

  14. Olfactory sensor processing in neural networks: lessons from modeling the fruit fly antennal lobe

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    J. Henning Proske

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The insect olfactory system can be a model for artificial olfactory devices. In particular, Drosophila melanogaster due to its genetic tractability has yielded much information about the design and function of such systems in biology. In this study we investigate possible network topologies to separate representations of odors in the primary olfactory neuropil, the antennal lobe. In particular we compare networks based on stochastic and homogeneous connection weight distributions to connectivities that are based on the input correlations between the glomeruli in the antennal lobe. We show that moderate homogeneous inhibition implements a soft winner-take-all mechanism when paired with realistic input from a database of odor responses in receptor cells. The sparseness of representations increases with stronger inhibition. Excitation, on the other hand, pushes the representation of odors closer together thus making them harder to distinguish. We further analyze the relationship between different inhibitory network topologies and the properties of the receptor responses to different odors. We show that realistic input from the database has a relatively high entropy of activation values over all odors and receptors compared to the theoretical maximum. Furthermore, under conditions in which the information in the input is artificially decreased, networks with heterogeneous topologies based on the similarity of glomerular response profiles perform best. These results indicate that in order to arrive at the most beneficial representation for odor discrimination it is important to finely tune the strength of inhibition in combination with taking into account the properties of the available sensors.

  15. Digital in vivo 3D atlas of the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Veit; Strutz, Antonia; Baschwitz, Amelie; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke

    2015-02-15

    As a model for primary olfactory perception, the antennal lobe (AL) of Drosophila melanogaster is among the most thoroughly investigated and well-understood neuronal structures. Most studies investigating the functional properties and neuronal wiring of the AL are conducted in vivo, although so far the AL morphology has been mainly analyzed in vitro. Identifying the morphological subunits of the AL-the olfactory glomeruli-is usually done using in vitro AL atlases. However, the dissection and fixation procedure causes not only strong volumetric but also geometrical modifications; the result is unpredictable dislocation and a distortion of the AL glomeruli between the in vitro and in vivo brains. Hence, to characterize these artifacts, which are caused by in vitro processing, and to reliably identify glomeruli for in vivo applications, we generated a transgenic fly that expresses the red fluorescent protein DsRed directly fused to the presynaptic protein n-synaptobrevin, under the control of the pan-neuronal promotor elav to label the neuropil in the live animal. Using this fly line, we generated a digital 3D atlas of the live Drosophila AL; this atlas, the first of its kind, provides an excellent geometric match for in vivo studies. We verified the identity of 63% of AL glomeruli by mapping the projections of 34 GAL4-lines of individual chemosensory receptor genes. Moreover, we characterized the innervation patterns of the two most frequently used GAL4-lines in olfactory research: Orco- and GH146-GAL4. The new in vivo AL atlas will be accessible online to the neuroscience community.

  16. Antenner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    1998-01-01

    Generelt om antenner, Trådantenner: halvbølgedipol antenner, monopolantenner, loopantenner, quadrifilar helixantenner, N-antenner, iverted-L og inverted-F antenner, Aperturantenner og Mikrostripantenner.......Generelt om antenner, Trådantenner: halvbølgedipol antenner, monopolantenner, loopantenner, quadrifilar helixantenner, N-antenner, iverted-L og inverted-F antenner, Aperturantenner og Mikrostripantenner....

  17. Olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: New insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Lapeyre, Benoit; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In the course of evolution, eusociality has appeared several times independently in Hymenoptera, within different families such as Apidae (bees), Formicidae (ants), and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), among others. The complex social organization of eusocial Hymenoptera relies on sophisticated olfactory communication systems. Whereas the olfactory systems of several bee and ant species have been well characterized, very little information is as yet available in Vespidae, although this family represents a highly successful insect group, displaying a wide range of life styles from solitary to eusocial. Using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstructions, we investigated the organization of the olfactory pathway in queens, workers, and males of the eusocial hornet Vespa velutina. First, we found that caste and sex dimorphism is weakly pronounced in hornets, with regard to both whole-brain morphology and antennal lobe organization, although several male-specific macroglomeruli are present. The V. velutina antennal lobe contains approximately 265 glomeruli (in females), grouped in nine conspicuous clusters formed by afferent tract subdivisions. As in bees and ants, hornets display a dual olfactory pathway, with two major efferent tracts, the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tracts (m- and l-ALT), separately arborizing two antennal lobe hemilobes and projecting to partially different regions of higher order olfactory centers. Finally, we found remarkable anatomical similarities in the glomerular cluster organizations among hornets, ants, and bees, suggesting the possible existence of homologies in the olfactory pathways of these eusocial Hymenoptera. We propose a common framework for describing AL compartmentalization across Hymenoptera and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2335-2359, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Organization of the olfactory pathway and odor processing in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

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    Zube, Christina; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes; Kirschner, Sebastian; Neef, Jakob; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-01-20

    Ants rely heavily on olfaction for communication and orientation. Here we provide the first detailed structure-function analyses within an ant's central olfactory system asking whether in the carpenter ant, Camponotus floridanus, the olfactory pathway exhibits adaptations to processing many pheromonal and general odors. Using fluorescent tracing, confocal microscopy, and 3D-analyses we demonstrate that the antennal lobe (AL) contains up to approximately 460 olfactory glomeruli organized in seven distinct clusters innervated via seven antennal sensory tracts. The AL is divided into two hemispheres regarding innervation of glomeruli by either projection neurons (PNs) with axons leaving via the medial (m) or lateral (l) antennocerebral tract (ACT). M- and l-ACT PNs differ in their target areas in the mushroom-body calyx and lateral horn. Three additional ACTs project to the lateral protocerebrum only. We analyzed odor processing in AL glomeruli by retrograde loading of PNs with Fura-2 dextran and fluorimetric calcium imaging. Odor responses were reproducible and comparable across individuals. Calcium responses to pheromonal and nonpheromonal odors were very sensitive (10(-11) dilution) and patterns were partly overlapping, indicating that processing of both odor classes is not spatially segregated within the AL. Response patterns to the main trail-pheromone component nerolic acid remained stable over a wide range of intensities (7-8 log units), while response durations increased indicating that odor quality is maintained by a stable pattern and intensity is mainly encoded in response durations. The structure-function analyses contribute new insights into important aspects of odor processing in a highly advanced insect olfactory system.

  19. Representation of pheromones, interspecific signals, and plant odors in higher olfactory centers; mapping physiologically identified antennal-lobe projection neurons in the male heliothine moth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Cheng eZhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the primary olfactory centre of the moth brain, for example, a few enlarged glomeruli situated dorsally, at the entrance of the antennal nerve, are devoted to information about female-produced substances whereas a set of more numerous ordinary glomeruli receives input about general odorants. Heliothine moths are particularly suitable for studying central chemosensory mechanisms not only because of their anatomically separated systems for plant odours and pheromones but also due to their use of female-produced substances in communication across the species. Thus, the male-specific system of heliothine moths includes two sub arrangements, one ensuring attraction and mating behavior by carrying information about pheromones released by conspecifics, and the other reproductive isolation via signal information emitted from heterospecifics. Based on previous tracing experiments, a general chemotopic organization of the male-specific glomeruli has been demonstrated in a number of heliothine species. As compared to the well explored organization of the moth antennal lobe, demonstrating a non-overlapping representation of the biologically relevant stimuli, less is known about the neural arrangement residing at the following synaptic level, i.e. the mushroom body calyces and the lateral horn. In the study presented here, we have labelled physiologically characterized antennal-lobe projection neurons in males of the two heliothine species, Heliothis virescens and Helicoverpa assulta, for the purpose of mapping their target regions in the protocerebrum. In order to compare the representation of plant odours, pheromones, and interspecific signals in the higher brain regions of each species, we have created standard brain atlases and registered three-dimensional models of distinct uniglomerular projection neuron types into the relevant atlas.

  20. A neural network model of general olfactory coding in the insect antennal lobe.

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    Getz, W M; Lutz, A

    1999-08-01

    A central problem in olfaction is understanding how the quality of olfactory stimuli is encoded in the insect antennal lobe (or in the analogously structured vertebrate olfactory bulb) for perceptual processing in the mushroom bodies of the insect protocerebrum (or in the vertebrate olfactory cortex). In the study reported here, a relatively simple neural network model, inspired by our current knowledge of the insect antennal lobes, is used to investigate how each of several features and elements of the network, such as synapse strengths, feedback circuits and the steepness of neural activation functions, influences the formation of an olfactory code in neurons that project from the antennal lobes to the mushroom bodies (or from mitral cells to olfactory cortex). An optimal code in these projection neurons (PNs) should minimize potential errors by the mushroom bodies in misidentifying the quality of an odor across a range of concentrations while maximizing the ability of the mushroom bodies to resolve odors of different quality. Simulation studies demonstrate that the network is able to produce codes independent or virtually independent of concentration over a given range. The extent of this range is moderately dependent on a parameter that characterizes how long it takes for the voltage in an activated neuron to decay back to its resting potential, strongly dependent on the strength of excitatory feedback by the PNs onto antennal lobe intrinsic neurons (INs), and overwhelmingly dependent on the slope of the activation function that transforms the voltage of depolarized neurons into the rate at which spikes are produced. Although the code in the PNs is degraded by large variations in the concentration of odor stimuli, good performance levels are maintained when the complexity of stimuli, as measured by the number of component odorants, is doubled. When excitatory feedback from the PNs to the INs is strong, the activity in the PNs undergoes transitions from initial

  1. In-vivo two-photon imaging of the honey bee antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Albrecht; Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Antolini, Renzo; Vinegoni, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Due to the honey bee's importance as a simple neural model, there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities. Herein we report on the use of two-photon microscopy for in-vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honey bee's olfactory system focusing on its primary centers, the antennal lobes (ALs). Our imaging platform allows for simultaneously obtaining both morphological measurements of the AL and in-vivo calcium recording of neural activities. By applying external odor stimuli to the bee's antennas, we were able to record the characteristic odor response maps. Compared to previous works where conventional fluorescence microscopy is used, our approach offers all the typical advantages of multi-photon imaging, providing substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions while minimizing photo-damages and autofluorescence contribution with a four-fold improvement in the functional signal. Moreover, the multi-photon associated extended penetration depth allows for functional ima...

  2. Fast dynamics of odor rate coding in the insect antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrot, Martin Paul; Farkhooi, Farzad; Menzel, Randolf

    2011-01-01

    Insects identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants in complex natural scenes where odor concentrations and mixture composition can change rapidly. In the honeybee, a combinatorial code of activated and inactivated projection neurons (PNs) develops rapidly within tens of milliseconds at the first level of neural integration, the antennal lobe (AL). The phasic-tonic stimulus-response dynamics observed in the neural population code and in the firing rate profiles of single neurons is faithfully captured by two alternative models which rely either on short-term synaptic depression, or on spike frequency adaptation. Both mechanisms work independently and possibly in parallel to lateral inhibition. Short response latencies in local interneurons indicate that local processing within the AL network relies on fast lateral inhibition that can suppress effectively and specifically odor responses in single PNs. Reviewing recent findings obtained in different insect species, we conclude that the insect olfactory...

  3. Data-driven honeybee antennal lobe model suggests how stimulus-onset asynchrony can aid odour segregation.

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    Nowotny, Thomas; Stierle, Jacob S; Galizia, C Giovanni; Szyszka, Paul

    2013-11-01

    Insects have a remarkable ability to identify and track odour sources in multi-odour backgrounds. Recent behavioural experiments show that this ability relies on detecting millisecond stimulus asynchronies between odourants that originate from different sources. Honeybees, Apis mellifera, are able to distinguish mixtures where both odourants arrive at the same time (synchronous mixtures) from those where odourant onsets are staggered (asynchronous mixtures) down to an onset delay of only 6ms. In this paper we explore this surprising ability in a model of the insects' primary olfactory brain area, the antennal lobe. We hypothesize that a winner-take-all inhibitory network of local neurons in the antennal lobe has a symmetry-breaking effect, such that the response pattern in projection neurons to an asynchronous mixture is different from the response pattern to the corresponding synchronous mixture for an extended period of time beyond the initial odourant onset where the two mixture conditions actually differ. The prolonged difference between response patterns to synchronous and asynchronous mixtures could facilitate odoursegregation in downstream circuits of the olfactory pathway. We present a detailed data-driven model of the bee antennal lobe that reproduces a large data set of experimentally observed physiological odour responses, successfully implements the hypothesised symmetry-breaking mechanism and so demonstrates that this mechanism is consistent with our current knowledge of the olfactory circuits in the bee brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neural Coding 2012.

  4. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

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    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  5. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference

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    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J.

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an ‘intelligent coincidence detector’, which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  6. Distributed representation of social odors indicates parallel processing in the antennal lobe of ants.

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    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2011-11-01

    In colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera cooperation is organized through social odors, and particularly ants rely on a sophisticated odor communication system. Neuronal information about odors is represented in spatial activity patterns in the primary olfactory neuropile of the insect brain, the antennal lobe (AL), which is analog to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. The olfactory system is characterized by neuroanatomical compartmentalization, yet the functional significance of this organization is unclear. Using two-photon calcium imaging, we investigated the neuronal representation of multicomponent colony odors, which the ants assess to discriminate friends (nestmates) from foes (nonnestmates). In the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus, colony odors elicited spatial activity patterns distributed across different AL compartments. Activity patterns in response to nestmate and nonnestmate colony odors were overlapping. This was expected since both consist of the same components at differing ratios. Colony odors change over time and the nervous system has to constantly adjust for this (template reformation). Measured activity patterns were variable, and variability was higher in response to repeated nestmate than to repeated nonnestmate colony odor stimulation. Variable activity patterns may indicate neuronal plasticity within the olfactory system, which is necessary for template reformation. Our results indicate that information about colony odors is processed in parallel in different neuroanatomical compartments, using the computational power of the whole AL network. Parallel processing might be advantageous, allowing reliable discrimination of highly complex social odors.

  7. Spiking patterns and their functional implications in the antennal lobe of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

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    Hong Lei

    Full Text Available Bursting as well as tonic firing patterns have been described in various sensory systems. In the olfactory system, spontaneous bursts have been observed in neurons distributed across several synaptic levels, from the periphery, to the olfactory bulb (OB and to the olfactory cortex. Several in vitro studies indicate that spontaneous firing patterns may be viewed as "fingerprints" of different types of neurons that exhibit distinct functions in the OB. It is still not known, however, if and how neuronal burstiness is correlated with the coding of natural olfactory stimuli. We thus conducted an in vivo study to probe this question in the OB equivalent structure of insects, the antennal lobe (AL of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. We found that in the moth's AL, both projection (output neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs are spontaneously active, but PNs tend to produce spike bursts while LNs fire more regularly. In addition, we found that the burstiness of PNs is correlated with the strength of their responses to odor stimulation--the more bursting the stronger their responses to odors. Moreover, the burstiness of PNs was also positively correlated with the spontaneous firing rate of these neurons, and pharmacological reduction of bursting resulted in a decrease of the neurons' responsiveness. These results suggest that neuronal burstiness reflects a physiological state of these neurons that is directly linked to their response characteristics.

  8. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

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    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  9. Olfactory habituation in Drosophila-odor encoding and its plasticity in the antennal lobe.

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    Twick, Isabell; Lee, John Anthony; Ramaswami, Mani

    2014-01-01

    A ubiquitous feature of an animal's response to an odorant is that it declines when the odorant is frequently or continuously encountered. This decline in olfactory response, termed olfactory habituation, can have temporally or mechanistically different forms. The neural circuitry of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster's olfactory system is well defined in terms of component cells, which are readily accessible to functional studies and genetic manipulation. This makes it a particularly useful preparation for the investigation of olfactory habituation. In addition, the insect olfactory system shares many architectural and functional similarities with mammalian olfactory systems, suggesting that olfactory mechanisms in insects may be broadly relevant. In this chapter, we discuss the likely mechanisms of olfactory habituation in context of the participating cell types, their connectivity, and their roles in sensory processing. We overview the structure and function of key cell types, the mechanisms that stimulate them, and how they transduce and process odor signals. We then consider how each stage of olfactory processing could potentially contribute to behavioral habituation. After this, we overview a variety of recent mechanistic studies that point to an important role for potentiation of inhibitory synapses in the primary olfactory processing center, the antennal lobe, in driving the reduced response to familiar odorants. Following the discussion of mechanisms for short- and long-term olfactory habituation, we end by considering how these mechanisms may be regulated by neuromodulators, which likely play key roles in the induction, gating, or suppression of habituated behavior, and speculate on the relevance of these processes for other forms of learning and memory.

  10. Developmental expression of cell recognition molecules in the mushroom body and antennal lobe of the locust Locusta migratoria.

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    Eickhoff, René; Bicker, Gerd

    2012-06-15

    We examined the development of olfactory neuropils in the hemimetabolous insect Locusta migratoria with an emphasis on the mushroom bodies, protocerebral integration centers implicated in memory formation. Using a marker of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling cascade and lipophilic dye labeling, we obtained new insights into mushroom body organization by resolving previously unrecognized accessory lobelets arising from Class III Kenyon cells. We utilized antibodies against axonal guidance cues, such as the cell surface glycoproteins Semaphorin 1a (Sema 1a) and Fasciclin I (Fas I), as embryonic markers to compile a comprehensive atlas of mushroom body development. During embryogenesis, all neuropils of the olfactory pathway transiently expressed Sema 1a. The immunoreactivity was particularly strong in developing mushroom bodies. During late embryonic stages, Sema 1a expression in the mushroom bodies became restricted to a subset of Kenyon cells in the core region of the peduncle. Sema 1a was differentially sorted to the Kenyon cell axons and absent in the dendrites. In contrast to Drosophila, locust mushroom bodies and antennal lobes expressed Fas I, but not Fas II. While Fas I immunoreactivity was widely distributed in the midbrain during embryogenesis, labeling persisted into adulthood only in the mushroom bodies and antennal lobes. Kenyon cells proliferated throughout the larval stages. Their neurites retained the embryonic expression pattern of Sema 1a and Fas I, suggesting a role for these molecules in developmental mushroom body plasticity. Our study serves as an initial step toward functional analyses of Sema 1a and Fas I expression during locust mushroom body formation.

  11. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

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    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  12. Plant odour processing in the antennal lobe of male and female grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

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    Masante-Roca, I; Gadenne, C; Anton, S

    2002-12-01

    Moths of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are confronted with different volatiles emitted from the host plant during the different seasons. To test the hypothesis of plasticity of central plant odour processing in moths of different generations in the future, we first investigated the responses of antennal lobe (AL) interneurons of laboratory-reared virgin and mated males and females. We used intracellular recording and staining techniques while stimulating the antenna with a range of host and non-host plant odours. The AL structure of L. botrana is similar to that found in other Lepidoptera species studied. The most frequent physiological responses for all types of moths were obtained with (E)-2-hexenal, and with thujyl alcohol and beta-thujone, components of tansy, a behaviourally attractive non-host plant. Some broadly responding neurons were capable of distinguishing between different compounds through different response patterns (excitation/inhibition) and/or different dose-response characteristics. Response characteristics (response spectra, threshold and specificity) of neurons were similar, independent of sex or mating status of the moths. Significant differences between the groups were, however, found in the proportion of responding neurons for a few tested components.

  13. Transformation of the sex pheromone signal in the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon: from peripheral input to antennal lobe output.

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    Jarriault, David; Gadenne, Christophe; Lucas, Philippe; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Anton, Sylvia

    2010-10-01

    How information is transformed along synaptic processing stages is critically important to understand the neural basis of behavior in any sensory system. In moths, males rely on sex pheromone to find their mating partner. It is essential for a male to recognize the components present in a pheromone blend, their ratio, and the temporal pattern of the signal. To examine pheromone processing mechanisms at different levels of the olfactory pathway, we performed single-cell recordings of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna and intracellular recordings of central neurons in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the antennal lobe of sexually mature Agrotis ipsilon male moths, using the same pheromone stimuli, stimulation protocol, and response analyses. Detailed characteristics of the ORN and MGC-neuron responses were compared to describe the transformation of the neuronal responses that takes place in the MGC. Although the excitatory period of the response is similar in both neuron populations, the addition of an inhibitory phase following the MGC neuron excitatory phase indicates participation of local interneurons (LN), which remodel the ORN input. Moreover, MGC neurons showed a wider tuning and a higher sensitivity to single pheromone components than ORNs.

  14. Data-driven inference of network connectivity for modeling the dynamics of neural codes in the insect antennal lobe

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    Eli eShlizerman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The antennal lobe (AL, olfactory processing center in insects, is able to process stimuli into distinct neural activity patterns, called olfactory neural codes. To model their dynamics we perform multichannel recordings from the projection neurons in the AL driven by different odorants. We then derive a dynamic neuronal network from the electrophysiological data. The network consists of lateral-inhibitory neurons and excitatory neurons (modeled as firing-rate units, and is capable of producing unique olfactory neural codes for the tested odorants. To construct the network, we (i design a projection, an odor space, for the neural recording from the AL, which discriminates between distinct odorants trajectories (ii characterize scent recognition, i.e., decision-making based on olfactory signals and (iii infer the wiring of the neural circuit, the connectome of the AL. We show that the constructed model is consistent with biological observations, such as contrast enhancement and robustness to noise. The study suggests a data-driven approach to answer a key biological question in identifying how lateral inhibitory neurons can be wired to excitatory neurons to permit robust activity patterns.

  15. Postsynaptic odorant concentration dependent inhibition controls temporal properties of spike responses of projection neurons in the moth antennal lobe.

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    Fujiwara, Terufumi; Kazawa, Tomoki; Haupt, Stephan Shuichi; Kanzaki, Ryohei

    2014-01-01

    Although odorant concentration-response characteristics of olfactory neurons have been widely investigated in a variety of animal species, the effect of odorant concentration on neural processing at circuit level is still poorly understood. Using calcium imaging in the silkmoth (Bombyx mori) pheromone processing circuit of the antennal lobe (AL), we studied the effect of odorant concentration on second-order projection neuron (PN) responses. While PN calcium responses of dendrites showed monotonic increases with odorant concentration, calcium responses of somata showed decreased responses at higher odorant concentrations due to postsynaptic inhibition. Simultaneous calcium imaging and electrophysiology revealed that calcium responses of PN somata but not dendrites reflect spiking activity. Inhibition shortened spike response duration rather than decreasing peak instantaneous spike frequency (ISF). Local interneurons (LNs) that were specifically activated at high odorant concentrations at which PN responses were suppressed are the putative source of inhibition. Our results imply the existence of an intraglomerular mechanism that preserves time resolution in olfactory processing over a wide odorant concentration range.

  16. Postsynaptic odorant concentration dependent inhibition controls temporal properties of spike responses of projection neurons in the moth antennal lobe.

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    Terufumi Fujiwara

    Full Text Available Although odorant concentration-response characteristics of olfactory neurons have been widely investigated in a variety of animal species, the effect of odorant concentration on neural processing at circuit level is still poorly understood. Using calcium imaging in the silkmoth (Bombyx mori pheromone processing circuit of the antennal lobe (AL, we studied the effect of odorant concentration on second-order projection neuron (PN responses. While PN calcium responses of dendrites showed monotonic increases with odorant concentration, calcium responses of somata showed decreased responses at higher odorant concentrations due to postsynaptic inhibition. Simultaneous calcium imaging and electrophysiology revealed that calcium responses of PN somata but not dendrites reflect spiking activity. Inhibition shortened spike response duration rather than decreasing peak instantaneous spike frequency (ISF. Local interneurons (LNs that were specifically activated at high odorant concentrations at which PN responses were suppressed are the putative source of inhibition. Our results imply the existence of an intraglomerular mechanism that preserves time resolution in olfactory processing over a wide odorant concentration range.

  17. Long-term enhancement of synaptic transmission between antennal lobe and mushroom body in cultured Drosophila brain.

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    Ueno, Kohei; Naganos, Shintaro; Hirano, Yukinori; Horiuchi, Junjiro; Saitoe, Minoru

    2013-01-01

    In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) is a critical brain structure for olfactory associative learning. During aversive conditioning, the MBs are thought to associate odour signals, conveyed by projection neurons (PNs) from the antennal lobe (AL), with shock signals conveyed through ascending fibres of the ventral nerve cord (AFV). Although synaptic transmission between AL and MB might play a crucial role for olfactory associative learning, its physiological properties have not been examined directly. Using a cultured Drosophila brain expressing a Ca(2+) indicator in the MBs, we investigated synaptic transmission and plasticity at the AL-MB synapse. Following stimulation with a glass micro-electrode, AL-induced Ca(2+) responses in the MBs were mediated through Drosophila nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (dnAChRs), while AFV-induced Ca(2+) responses were mediated through Drosophila NMDA receptors (dNRs). AL-MB synaptic transmission was enhanced more than 2 h after the simultaneous 'associative-stimulation' of AL and AFV, and such long-term enhancement (LTE) was specifically formed at the AL-MB synapses but not at the AFV-MB synapses. AL-MB LTE was not induced by intense stimulation of the AL alone, and the LTE decays within 60 min after subsequent repetitive AL stimulation. These phenotypes of associativity, input specificity and persistence of AL-MB LTE are highly reminiscent of olfactory memory. Furthermore, similar to olfactory aversive memory, AL-MB LTE formation required activation of the Drosophila D1 dopamine receptor, DopR, along with dnAChR and dNR during associative stimulations. These physiological and genetic analogies indicate that AL-MB LTE might be a relevant cellular model for olfactory memory.

  18. A combined perceptual, physico-chemical, and imaging approach to 'odour-distances' suggests a categorizing function of the Drosophila antennal lobe.

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    Thomas Niewalda

    Full Text Available How do physico-chemical stimulus features, perception, and physiology relate? Given the multi-layered and parallel architecture of brains, the question specifically is where physiological activity patterns correspond to stimulus features and/or perception. Perceived distances between six odour pairs are defined behaviourally from four independent odour recognition tasks. We find that, in register with the physico-chemical distances of these odours, perceived distances for 3-octanol and n-amylacetate are consistently smallest in all four tasks, while the other five odour pairs are about equally distinct. Optical imaging in the antennal lobe, using a calcium sensor transgenically expressed in only first-order sensory or only second-order olfactory projection neurons, reveals that 3-octanol and n-amylacetate are distinctly represented in sensory neurons, but appear merged in projection neurons. These results may suggest that within-antennal lobe processing funnels sensory signals into behaviourally meaningful categories, in register with the physico-chemical relatedness of the odours.

  19. Serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the antennal sensory system of the brain in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus.

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    Tsuji, Eriko; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2007-08-01

    Social Hymenoptera such as ants or honeybees are known for their extensive behavioral repertories and plasticity. Neurons containing biogenic amines appear to play a major role in controlling behavioral plasticity in these insects. Here we describe the morphology of prominent serotonin-immunoreactive neurons of the antennal sensory system in the brain of an ant, Camponotus japonicus. Immunoreactive fibers were distributed throughout the brain and the subesophageal ganglion (SOG). The complete profile of a calycal input neuron was identified. The soma and dendritic elements are contralaterally located in the lateral protocerebrum. The neuron supplies varicose axon terminals in the lip regions of the calyces of the mushroom body, axon collaterals in the basal ring but not in the collar region, and other axon terminals ipsilaterally in the lateral protocerebrum. A giant neuron innervating the antennal lobe has varicose axon terminals in most of 300 glomeruli in the ventral region of the antennal lobe (AL) and a thick neurite that spans the entire SOG and continues towards the thoracic ganglia. However, neither a soma nor a dendritic element of this neuron was found in the brain or the SOG. A deutocerebral projection neuron has a soma in the lateral cell-body group of the AL, neuronal branches at most of the 12 glomeruli in the dorsocentral region of the ipsilateral AL, and varicose terminal arborizations in both hemispheres of the protocerebrum. Based on the present results, tentative subdivisions in neuropils related to the antennal sensory system of the ant brain are discussed.

  20. Functional Specialization of Olfactory Glomeruli in a Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Bill S.; Ljungberg, Hakan; Hallberg, Eric; Lofstedt, Christer

    1992-05-01

    The specific function of the glomerular structures present in the antennal lobes or olfactory bulbs of organisms ranging from insects to humans has been obscure because of limitations in neuronal marking methods. By tracing individual neurons in the moth Agrotis segetum, it was determined that physiologically distinct types of pheromone receptor neurons project axons to different regions of the macroglomerular complex (MGC). Each glomerulus making up the MGC has a specific functional identity, initially processing information about one specific pheromone component. This indicates that, at least through the first stage of synapses, olfactory information moves through labeled lines.

  1. Distribution of nestin immunoreactive neurons exist in the antennal lobes of drosophila melanogaster pupa%果蝇触角神经叶巢蛋白免疫阳性神经元簇的分布和细胞学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈骏英; 顾怀宇

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the morphologic and distributive characteristics of nestin-immunoreactive (nestin-ir) neurons in the antennal lobes of Drosophila melanogaster pupas and the relationships among nestin-ir, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons. Methods Two kinds of transgenic experimental models were utilized in the study. They were genetically labeled with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) in cholinergic neurons and Red Fluorescent Protein (RFP) in GABAergic neurons respectively. And the third or fourth day pupas were selected as experimental animals and have their brains dissected. Subsequently, the brains of Drosophila pupas were taken for immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures. Anti-mouse nestin and goat anti-mouse monoclonal antibodies were used in the IHC experiments. Homologus analysis between nestin and all proteins of Drosophila had been done via Blast and ClustalX. Results The nestin-ir neurons were found distributing in the internal and external parts of antennal lobes of Drosophila pupas. These nestin-ir neurons were round and large and classified to the LNs. None of nestin-ir neurons were cross stained with cholinergic neurons and they intermingled with each other in the antennal lobe, while nestin-ir neurons were all GABAergic. Conclusion There is a new cluster of nestin-ir and GABAergic neurons exsited in antennal lobes of Drosophila pupas. The proteins lamin c and lamin of Drosophila respectively had a similarity of 25% and 22% with mouse nestin. The nestin-ir neurons may contain lamin c and lamin or one of the two proteins, which probably share the same antigenic epitopes with nestin, or may contain nestin that have not been discovered so far. The nestin-ir neurons function as inhibitive LNs via releasing GABA. However, further investigations should be made to clarify the definitive biological significances of the nestin-ir neurons.%目的 观察巢蛋白(nestin)免疫阳性神经元在果蝇蛹触角神经叶的分布和表达,并探讨其与胆碱能

  2. Local interneurons define functionally distinct regions within lobster olfactory glomeruli

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    Wachowiak; Diebel; Ache

    1997-01-01

    Whole-cell recording coupled with biocytin injection revealed four types of interneurons intrinsic to the olfactory lobe (OL) of the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. Each type of neuron had a distinct pattern of arborization within the three anatomically defined regions of OL glomeruli (cap, subcap and base). Type I interneurons innervated all three regions, while types II, III and IV branched only in the cap, subcap and base, respectively. Type I interneurons responded to electrical stimulation of the antennular (olfactory) nerve with a burst of 1­20 action potentials and a 1­10 s depolarization. Type II (cap) interneurons responded to the same input with a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a shorter hyperpolarization. Type III (subcap) interneurons responded with a burst of 1­6 action potentials followed by a delayed, 0.5­4 s depolarization. Type IV (base) interneurons responded with a brief depolarization or a burst of 1­3 action potentials followed by a 1 s hyperpolarization. The regionalized arborization and the different response properties of the type II, III and IV interneurons strongly imply that lobster olfactory glomeruli contain functionally distinct regions, a feature that should be useful in understanding the multiple synaptic pathways involved in processing olfactory input.

  3. Select Drosophila glomeruli mediate innate olfactory attraction and aversion.

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    Semmelhack, Julia L; Wang, Jing W

    2009-05-14

    Fruitflies show robust attraction to food odours, which usually excite several glomeruli. To understand how the representation of such odours leads to behaviour, we used genetic tools to dissect the contribution of each activated glomerulus. Apple cider vinegar triggers robust innate attraction at a relatively low concentration, which activates six glomeruli. By silencing individual glomeruli, here we show that the absence of activity in two glomeruli, DM1 and VA2, markedly reduces attraction. Conversely, when each of these two glomeruli was selectively activated, flies showed as robust an attraction to vinegar as wild-type flies. Notably, a higher concentration of vinegar excites an additional glomerulus and is less attractive to flies. We show that activation of the extra glomerulus is necessary and sufficient to mediate the behavioural switch. Together, these results indicate that individual glomeruli, rather than the entire pattern of active glomeruli, mediate innate behavioural output.

  4. Dimorphic olfactory lobes in the arthropoda.

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    Strausfeld, Nicholas; Reisenman, Carolina E

    2009-07-01

    Specialized olfactory lobe glomeruli relating to sexual or caste differences have been observed in at least five orders of insects, suggesting an early appearance of this trait in insect evolution. Dimorphism is not limited to nocturnal species, but occurs even in insects that are known to use vision for courtship. Other than a single description, there is no evidence for similar structures occurring in the Crustacea, suggesting that the evolution of dimorphic olfactory systems may typify terrestrial arthropods.

  5. [Asymmetry of antennal grooming in the cockroach (Periplaneta americana)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the key features of antennal grooming of male American cockroaches in neutral circumstances. It was shown for the first time that the right antenna was cleaned significantly more often than the left one, which indicates the presence of functional asymmetry of antennal grooming in this insect species. At the same time, no statistically significant asymmetry was found for grooming of antennal bases and legs. Morphological asymmetries of antennae and legs and/or brain lateralization are the plausible sources of observed behavioral asymmetry in antennal grooming.

  6. Gene expression profiling in glomeruli of diabetic nephropathy rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Xiao, Xinhua; Li, Ming; Li, Wenhui; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Huabing; Sun, Xiaofang; Mao, Lili; Xiang, Hongding

    2012-08-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains the most common cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as the burden of diabetes increases worldwide. To find improved intervention strategies for this disease, it is necessary to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved. To obtain more insight into processes that lead to DN, mRNA expression profiles of diabetic and normal glomeruli from rat kidneys were compared. Rats were divided into a control group and a DN group randomly. The DN group was injected with streptozotocin. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) and weight were measured monthly. On the 12th week, blood samples were collected and analyzed for plasma creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Glomeruli were isolated and Illumina Rat Ref-12 V1.0 Expression Beadchip gene array was performed. Quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction (Q-RT-PCR) was used to confirm the results of gene array for a selected number of genes. We found FBG, 24-h urinary albumin, serum creatinine and BUN were significantly increased, while urinary creatinine and body weight were significantly decreased in the DN group. Glomeruli from the DN group had 624 genes with differential expression. DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization and integrated Discovery) analysis showed that the three most enriched terms were 'cytosol' (GO:0005829), 'translational elongation' (GO:0006414) and 'mitochondion' (GO:0005739). Those genes could be mapped to eight pathways. The most common type of enriched pathway was related to 'extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction'. Other pathways included those for 'ribosome', 'focal adhesion', 'oxidative phosphorylation', 'transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling pathway', 'Parkinson's disease', 'Alzheimer's disease' and 'renin-angiotensin system'. Q-RT-PCR verified that Atp5b (F1-ATPase beta subunit), Col1a1 (collagen type 1 alpha 1), Cox6c (cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc), Ndufs3 (NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] Fe-S protein 3) and Tgfb1 (transforming

  7. The olfactory bulb and the number of its glomeruli in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya-Ito, Keiko; Tanaka, Ikuko; Umitsu, Yoshitomo; Ichikawa, Masumi; Tokuno, Hironobu

    2015-04-01

    The olfactory system has been well studied in mammals such as mice and rats. However, few studies have focused on characterizing this system in diurnal primates that rely on their sense of smell to a lesser extent due to their ecological environment. In the present study, we determined the histological organization of the olfactory bulb in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). We then constructed 3-dimensional models of the glomeruli of the olfactory bulb, and estimated the number of glomeruli. Olfactory glomeruli are the functional units of olfactory processing, and have been investigated in detail using mice. There are approximately 1800 glomeruli in a mouse hemibulb, and olfactory sensory neurons expressing one selected olfactory receptor converge onto one or two glomeruli. Because mice have about 1000 olfactory receptor genes, it is proposed that the number of glomeruli in mammals is nearly double that of olfactory receptor genes. The common marmoset carries only about 400 intact olfactory receptor genes. The present study revealed that the number of glomeruli in a marmoset hemibulb was approximately 1500-1800. This result suggests that the number of glomeruli is not positively correlated with the number of intact olfactory receptor genes in mammals.

  8. Antennular projections to the midbrain of the spiny lobster. II. Sensory innervation of the olfactory lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Ache, B W

    1992-04-15

    The projection pattern of antennular sensory afferents in the olfactory lobe (OL) of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, was examined by backfilling axons in the antennular nerve (AN) with biocytin. Thin, presumptive olfactory afferents from the lateral division of the AN form a tract in the brain that diverges into a dense plexus that completely envelops the glomerular cortex of the OL. Most of the thin (diameter less than or equal to 0.3-1 microns) afferents project to single glomeruli. About 10% of the thin afferents, however, branch in the plexus and project to multiple glomeruli. A smaller number of medium-sized to thick (diameter 2-10 microns), presumably mechanosensory, afferents also innervate the OL and co-project to multiple glomeruli with the thin afferents. Afferents arborize profusely within the columnar glomeruli into very fine processes that penetrate to the base of the columns, but selectively terminate in either the cap/subcap region or in the innermost part of the base of the columns, often with conspicuous terminal boutons, forming two distinct regions of presumptive synaptic output. These results suggest that 1) The majority of the OL innervation is provided by olfactory sensilla (aesthetascs), but that other types of sensilla provide additional, likely mechanosensory, input to the OL. 2) The projection of olfactory afferents is not strictly uniglomerular. 3) The columnar organization of crustacean olfactory glomeruli is functionally significant and may provide an evolutionary correlate of the recently proposed subdivision of the vertebrate olfactory bulb into "functional columns."

  9. Morphometric Analysis of Nonsclerosed Glomeruli Size and Connective Tissue Content during the Aging Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna R. Stojanović

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Number of sclerotic glomeruli increases during the aging process. Consequently, majority of remained nonsclerosed glomeruli become hypertrophic and some of them sclerotic, too. The aim of this study was to quantify the size and connective tissue content of nonsclerosed glomeruli and to evaluate the percentage of hypertrophic ones in examined human cases during the aging. Material was right kidney's tissue of 30 cadavers obtained during routine autopsies. Cadavers were without previously diagnosed kidney disease, diabetes, hypertension, or any other systemic disease. Tissue specimens were routinely prepared for histological and morphometric analysis. Images of the histological slices were analyzed and captured under 400x magnification with digital camera. Further they were morphometrically and statistically analyzed with ImageJ and NCSS-PASS software. Multiple and linear regression of obtained morphometric parameters showed significant increase of glomerular connective tissue area and percentage. Cluster analysis showed the presence of two types of glomeruli. Second type was characterized with significantly larger size, connective tissue content, and significantly lower cellularity, in relation to the first type. Such glomeruli might be considered as hypertrophic. First type of glomeruli was predominant in younger cases, while second type of glomeruli was predominant in cases older than 55 years.

  10. Analytical processing of binary mixture information by olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L Fletcher

    Full Text Available Odors are rarely composed of a single compound, but rather contain a large and complex variety of chemical components. Often, these mixtures are perceived as having unique qualities that can be quite different than the combination of their components. In many cases, a majority of the components of a mixture cannot be individually identified. This synthetic processing of odor information suggests that individual component representations of the mixture must interact somewhere along the olfactory pathway. The anatomical nature of sensory neuron input into segregated glomeruli with the bulb suggests that initial input of odor information into the bulb is analytic. However, a large network of interneurons within the olfactory bulb could allow for mixture interactions via mechanisms such as lateral inhibition. Currently in mammals, it is unclear if postsynaptic mitral/tufted cell glomerular mixture responses reflect the analytical mixture input, or provide the initial basis for synthetic processing with the olfactory system. To address this, olfactory bulb glomerular binary mixture representations were compared to representations of each component using transgenic mice expressing the calcium indicator G-CaMP2 in olfactory bulb mitral/tufted cells. Overall, dorsal surface mixture representations showed little mixture interaction and often appeared as a simple combination of the component representations. Based on this, it is concluded that dorsal surface glomerular mixture representations remain largely analytical with nearly all component information preserved.

  11. Serotonin increases synaptic activity in olfactory bulb glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Julia; Shao, Zuoyi; Puche, Adam C; Wachowiak, Matt; Shipley, Michael T

    2016-03-01

    Serotoninergic fibers densely innervate olfactory bulb glomeruli, the first sites of synaptic integration in the olfactory system. Acting through 5HT2A receptors, serotonin (5HT) directly excites external tufted cells (ETCs), key excitatory glomerular neurons, and depolarizes some mitral cells (MCs), the olfactory bulb's main output neurons. We further investigated 5HT action on MCs and determined its effects on the two major classes of glomerular interneurons: GABAergic/dopaminergic short axon cells (SACs) and GABAergic periglomerular cells (PGCs). In SACs, 5HT evoked a depolarizing current mediated by 5HT2C receptors but did not significantly impact spike rate. 5HT had no measurable direct effect in PGCs. Serotonin increased spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) in PGCs and SACs. Increased sEPSCs were mediated by 5HT2A receptors, suggesting that they are primarily due to enhanced excitatory drive from ETCs. Increased sIPSCs resulted from elevated excitatory drive onto GABAergic interneurons and augmented GABA release from SACs. Serotonin-mediated GABA release from SACs was action potential independent and significantly increased miniature IPSC frequency in glomerular neurons. When focally applied to a glomerulus, 5HT increased MC spontaneous firing greater than twofold but did not increase olfactory nerve-evoked responses. Taken together, 5HT modulates glomerular network activity in several ways: 1) it increases ETC-mediated feed-forward excitation onto MCs, SACs, and PGCs; 2) it increases inhibition of glomerular interneurons; 3) it directly triggers action potential-independent GABA release from SACs; and 4) these network actions increase spontaneous MC firing without enhancing responses to suprathreshold sensory input. This may enhance MC sensitivity while maintaining dynamic range.

  12. Projection neurons in Drosophila antennal lobes signal the acceleration of odor concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Anmo J; Lazar, Aurel A; Slutskiy, Yevgeniy B

    2015-05-14

    Temporal experience of odor gradients is important in spatial orientation of animals. The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster exhibits robust odor-guided behaviors in an odor gradient field. In order to investigate how early olfactory circuits process temporal variation of olfactory stimuli, we subjected flies to precisely defined odor concentration waveforms and examined spike patterns of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and projection neurons (PNs). We found a significant temporal transformation between OSN and PN spike patterns, manifested by the PN output strongly signaling the OSN spike rate and its rate of change. A simple two-dimensional model admitting the OSN spike rate and its rate of change as inputs closely predicted the PN output. When cascaded with the rate-of-change encoding by OSNs, PNs primarily signal the acceleration and the rate of change of dynamic odor stimuli to higher brain centers, thereby enabling animals to reliably respond to the onsets of odor concentrations.

  13. Study on the Ultrastructures of Antennal Sensilla in Helicoverpa armigera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-rong; GUO Yu-yuan; WU Kong-ming

    2002-01-01

    The morphology and structures of antennal sensilla of Helicoverpa armigera are observed under scanning and transmission electron microscopes. Antennae of Helicoverpa armigera are made up of scapus,pedicel and flagellum that the latter consists of 70 - 82 segments. The inner side surface of antenna is cataphracted and most of the antennal sensilla lie on its outer, upper and lower surfaces. Both the antennae of male and female contain five kinds of antennal sensilla, namely, sensillum trichodeum, sensillum basiconicum, sensillum chaeticum, ear-shaped sensillum and sensillum coeloconicum, and the kinds, number and distribution of antennal sensilla of both sexes are similar. There are a large number of serrate cuticular processes on antennal surface, especially on the middle and basic parts of antenna. Sensillum trichodeum and sensillum basiconicum, the main chemical odor receptors on antennae of Helicoverpa armigera, consist of cuticularwall, sheath cells, lymph and dendrites. There are significant differences between the internal structures of the two kinds of sensilla. In sensillum trichodeum, the cuticular-wall is thicker, less lipophilic pore channels and has one or a few dendrites, while in sensillum basiconicum, the cuticular-wall is thinner, abundant lipophilic pore channels and has much more dendrites.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensory organs of the cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Liu, X H; Ge, Y Q; Zhang, D

    2015-10-01

    Hypoderma lineatum (Villers, 1789) (Diptera: Oestridae) is a hypodermosis fly that has resulted in great economic losses worldwide. The antennae of cattle grub males and females were examined through stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to reveal the general morphology, combined with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. All of the three antennal segments (antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus) possess microtrichiae on their surface. Mechanoreceptors only exist on the antennal scape and pedicel. The antennal funiculus presents four types of antennal sensilla: trichoid, basiconic, coeloconic, and clavate sensilla. Three distinctive characters of H. lineatum are obvious: (1) the relatively slender, flexible, and equal-height mechanoreceptors; (2) the enlarged antennal pedicel, and numerous antennal sensory pits and pit sensilla on the antennal funiculus; and (3) all types of antennal sensilla clustered in sensory pits, respectively. Additionally, the enlarged antennal pedicel and abundant sensory pits and pit sensilla might facilitate odor detection, enhance olfactory sensitivity and accuracy, and also protect the fragile antennal sensilla from mechanical irritation or damage.

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  10. Supernumerary Formation of Olfactory Glomeruli Induced by Chronic Odorant Exposure: A Constructivist Expression of Neural Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Leija, Pablo; Blanco-Hernández, Eduardo; Drucker-Colín, Rene; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Vidaltamayo, Roman

    2012-01-01

    It is accepted that sensory experience instructs the remodelling of neuronal circuits during postnatal development, after their specification has occurred. The story is less clear with regard to the role of experience during the initial formation of neuronal circuits, whether prenatal or postnatal, since this process is now supposed to be primarily influenced by genetic determinants and spontaneous neuronal firing. Here we evaluated this last issue by examining the effect that postnatal chronic exposure to cognate odorants has on the formation of I7 and M72 glomeruli, iterated olfactory circuits that are formed before and after birth, respectively. We took advantage of double knock-in mice whose I7 and M72 primary afferents express green fluorescent protein and β-galactosidase, correspondingly. Our results revealed that postnatal odorant chronic exposure led to the formation of permanent supernumerary I7 and M72 glomeruli in a dose and time dependent manner. Glomeruli in exposed mice were formed within the same regions of olfactory bulb and occupy small space volumes compared to the corresponding single circuits in non-exposed mice. We suggest that local reorganization of the primary afferents could participate in the process of formation of supernumerary glomeruli. Overall, our results support that sensory experience indeed instructs the permanent formation of specific glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb by means of constructivist processes. PMID:22511987

  11. Organization and distribution of glomeruli in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takushi Kishida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although modern baleen whales (Mysticeti retain a functional olfactory system that includes olfactory bulbs, cranial nerve I and olfactory receptor genes, their olfactory capabilities have been reduced to a great degree. This reduction likely occurred as a selective response to their fully aquatic lifestyle. The glomeruli that occur in the olfactory bulb can be divided into two non-overlapping domains, a dorsal domain and a ventral domain. Recent molecular studies revealed that all modern whales have lost olfactory receptor genes and marker genes that are specific to the dorsal domain. Here we show that olfactory bulbs of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus lack glomeruli on the dorsal side, consistent with the molecular data. In addition, we estimate that there are more than 4,000 glomeruli elsewhere in the bowhead whale olfactory bulb, which is surprising given that bowhead whales possess only 80 intact olfactory receptor genes. Olfactory sensory neurons that express the same olfactory receptors in rodents generally project to two specific glomeruli in an olfactory bulb, implying an approximate 1:2 ratio of the number of olfactory receptors to the number of glomeruli. Here we show that this ratio does not apply to bowhead whales, reiterating the conceptual limits of using rodents as model organisms for understanding the initial coding of odor information among mammals.

  12. High salt intake in pregnancy alters maturation of glomeruli in the rat offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezda Koleganova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There is currently discussion on the optimal salt intake and uncertainty whether both high and low salt intake is associated with adverse effects. One aspect has so far not be considered, i.e. the potential impact of salt intake during pregnancy on kidney function and blood pressure in the offspring. Faulty fetal programming, amongst others by high or low salt intake, leads to alterations in kidney morphology and albuminuria in the offspring. A low number of glomeruli is known to cause high blood pressure later in life. It was the purpose of the present study to clarify whether very high (or low salt intakes in pregnancy affect kidney development in the offspring. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed normal (0.15%, medium (1.3%, or high (8.0% salt diet during pregnancy and weaning. The number of glomeruli (mature, immature, and S-shape bodies was assessed at 1 week postnatally. The expression of proteins of interest was assessed (by western blotting at 1 week postnatally and at term. There was no difference between the groups with respect to litter size, birth weight, and placenta size. At age 1 week the number of S-shaped bodies was significantly lower (405±308 and the number of mature glomeruli (818±405 and layers of developing glomeruli (7.1±0.6 was significantly higher in the offspring of mothers on high-salt compared to the medium or low salt groups (1044±490, 460±304, and 5.9±0.9 respectively. As a net result the total number of glomeruli was significantly lower in the offspring of mothers on high-salt (9476±1264 compared to the medium or low salt groups (11175±1920. At 1 week of age in the offspring of mothers on high salt the glomeruli were bigger compared to lower salt intake. The expression of Pax-2 (54±23% vs. 100±28% and FGF-2 (72±33% vs. 100±30% was significantly lower in the offspring of mothers on high-salt consistent with their causative role. We conclude that high maternal salt intake during pregnancy accelerates maturation

  13. 中华蜜蜂嗅叶胚后发育过程中的神经胶质%Glial patterning during the postembryonic development of the olfactory lobe of the honeybee (Apis cerana cerana)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆英

    2012-01-01

    Glial cells have several functions during the development of the nervous system. The characteristics of glial patterns during the postembryonic development of the olfactory lobes of Apis cerana cerana Fabricius were investigated using comparative anatomy and BrdU immunohistochemistry. The results show that a continuous layer of glial cell bodies defined the boundaries of all growing neuropiles in early larvae. Just before the olfactory receptor neuron axons entered the antennal lobe, they encountered the so - called sorting - zone glia. Here, axonal contact lead to a pause in the growth cone' s advance and a subsequent change in growth cone morphology. Finally this enabled the sorting of olfactory receptor neurons axons into discrete fascicles, which terminated in specific glomeruli. Proliferation of glial cells peaked from the end of the final larval instar stage to the prepupal stage.%本研究通过形态解剖、免疫组织化学等技术,对中华蜜蜂Apis cerana cerana Fabricius工蜂嗅叶胚后发育中神经胶质的模式进行了比较研究.结果表明:神经胶质在蜜蜂嗅叶的发育过程中起着重要的作用,它们在嗅叶发育早期就划定了神经纤维网的边界;在嗅觉神经轴突进入嗅叶之前,对神经轴突进行“分选”,并引导它们进入嗅叶特定的区域,形成神经纤维球;它们不仅规定了神经纤维网的边界和区域,还为神经纤维网提供内部的分隔.中华蜜蜂神经胶质增殖的高峰期集中在幼虫发育末期和预蛹期.

  14. 双斑蟋触角传入神经纤维在脑内投射分布研究%The Study on Projecting Distribution of Antennal Afferent Nerve Fibers in Cerebral Ganglion in Gryllus Bimaculatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武健文; 那杰; 于有良; 叶迪; 钟侣艳

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究昆虫触角感受器传入神经末梢在脑内投射的空间布局,揭示触角感觉信息传入的神经结构.方法:使用氯化镍神经元示踪标记技术,对双斑蟋触角感受嚣传入神经纤维进行可视化标记,观察研究触角传入神经末梢在脑内的走行形态及分布规律.结果:双斑蟋触角感受器传入神经纤维进入中脑后大量的神经末梢终止在同侧的触角叶和触角机械感觉运动中枢,部分神经纤维向前走行,其神经末梢终止在前脑,还有部分神经纤维向后下行,经同侧神经索,其神经末梢终止在食道下神经节.结论:双斑蟋触角感受器传入神经纤维进入脑后主要投射到触角叶和触角机械感觉运动中枢,少部分投射到前脑和食道下神经节.这种多重投射模式可能在双斑蟋嗅觉信息传递整合、触角运动调节、味觉和摄食活动等方面发挥重要作用.%Objective: Investigate the projective distribution of antennal receptor afferent nerve fibers in cerebral ganglion in insects, and reveal the neural structure on passing sensory information from the antennae through the brain. Methods: The nickel chloride neuronal tracing technique was used to mark afferent nerve fibers of antennal receptor in Gryllus Bimaculatus. The regularity on morphology and distribution of antennal afferent nerve terminals in the brain was observed. Results: Plenty of nerve endings of antennal receptor afferent nerve fibers, projecting into deutocerebrum in Gryllus Bimaculatus, terminated in the ipsilateral antennal lobe and the ipsilateral antennal mechanosensory and motor center. A part of fibers projected into protocerebrum extending forward. Also, a part of fibers projected into the suboesophageal ganglion extending downward through the ipsilateral nerve cord. Conclusion: Most of antennal afferent nerve fibers projected into the antennal lobe and the antennal mechanosensory and motor center, a few antennal afferent nerve

  15. Pathological interstitial vascular proliferation adjacent to glomeruli in immunoglobulin a nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honami Mori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We detected an increase in small arterioles around glomeruli, particularly adjacent to tuft adhesive lesions in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN, for the 1 st time, as far as we know. We labeled these as periglomerular microarterioles (PGMAs. This study aimed to clarify the pathological significance of PGMAs. Sixty-two patients with IgAN and 19 controls with minor glomerular abnormalities without proteinuria were evaluated in this study. The number of PGMAs located between the Bowman′s capsule and the adjoining tubules was counted for each glomerulus. The mean number of PGMAs per glomerulus in cases of IgAN was significantly higher than those of the controls (0.530 ± 0.477 vs. 0.240 ± 0.182, P <0.05. Serial sections showed that most of the PGMAs were in contact with adjacent glomeruli (71.8%, through tuft adhesive lesions (52.1%, or the vascular pole (19.7%. By single regression analysis, the number of PGMAs was found to be positively correlated with the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion, glomerular sclerosis, or the area of interstitial fibrosis in IgAN. By multiple regression analysis, the incidence of glomerular tuft adhesion was found to be the only independent pathological feature to correlate with the number of PGMAs (P = 0.0006. We have noticed the existence of PGMAs around glomeruli as a pathological finding of IgAN. Furthermore, the number of PGMAs was associated with the incidence of tuft adhesive lesion in glomeruli of IgAN although there was no relationship between the presence of PGMAs and clinical parameters including urinary protein excretion or creatinine clearance in the present study.

  16. Association Between the Proportion of Sclerotic Glomeruli and Serum Creatinine in Primary Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis

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    Ashraf FAKHRJOU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the possible correlation between the extent of sclerotic glomeruli and the level of serum creatinine and its clearance rate in patients with primary focal segmental glomerolusclerosis.Material and Method: In a cross-sectional study, 50 patients with biopsy-proven primary focal segmental glomerolusclerosis were recruited. The proportion of globally and segmentally sclerosed glomeruli was determined during the first histopathological examination of renal biopsy specimens. Correlations of these variables with on admission serum level of creatinine and its clearance rate were investigated.Results: Twenty-four males and 26 females with a mean age of 39.82±16.45 (range: 16-85 years were enrolled in the study. In a significant fashion, the proportions of segmental and global glomerulosclerosis were directly correlated with the serum level of creatinine and inversely with its clearance rate (r=-0.43 with p=0.002 and r=-0.45 with p=0.001, respectively.Conclusion: Apart from the degree of interstitial fibrosis, the serum level of creatinine and its clearance rate are well correlated with the proportions of both segmentally and globally sclerosed glomeruli in primary focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

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  5. Antennal sensory organs of Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Scathophagidae): ultramorphology and phylogenetic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xian-Hui; Liu, Jia-Jia; Li, Xin-Yu; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-21

    Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758) is a well-established insect model species involved in numerous investigations on behavior, biology, phylogeny, genetics and evolution. The antennal sensilla of S. stercoraria are examined via scanning electron microscopy in order to emphasize their importance on taxonomy and phylogeny. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtrichiae and several sharp-tipped mechanoreceptors are observed, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar button, are also detected on antennal pedicel. One type of sensory pit and four types of antennal sensilla, including trichoid sensilla, basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla, are observed on antennal funiculus. Similarity and disparity of setiferous plaques among different calyptrate groups are analyzed in terms of phylogeny. The phylogenetic results supported by morphology of setiferous plaques strongly accord with the cladistic relations based on known molecular tree, implying the potential taxonomic and phylogenetic implications of the plaques in Calyptratae.

  6. Hypersexuality after Temporal Lobe Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee D.; Wilson, Sarah J.; Bladin, Peter F.; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.

    2002-04-01

    Hypersexuality has occasionally been reported in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy following temporal lobe resection. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon is poorly understood. We describe seven patients who spontaneously reported dramatic postoperative changes in sexual behavior after unilateral temporal lobe resection. Five of the seven patients showed evidence of bilateral temporal lobe abnormalities. All of the patients had significant difficulties with postoperative psychosocial adjustment that preceded the onset of hypersexuality. Five of the patients were completely seizure-free and one reported postoperative auras. Recurrent complex partial seizures occurred at a reduced frequency in one patient after 6 months. In this patient, the period of seizure freedom did not directly correlate with the period of hypersexuality. These cases suggest that hypersexuality following unilateral temporal lobe resection is more likely to occur in the presence of psychosocial difficulties and contralateral temporal lobe abnormalities. Neurophysiological processes associated with seizure cessation alone do not appear to account for postoperative hypersexuality.

  7. Stereological Evaluation of Renal Glomeruli in Offspring of Diabetic Female Rats

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    Abdolrahman Dezfoolian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Although in vitro studies have shown that high concentrations of glucosecan induce dysmorphogenesis of the embryonic kidney, the possible adverse effectsof exposure to intrauterine hyperglycemia on kidney development, especially in regardto nephrogenesis, has not been evaluated.The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of maternal diabetes on glomerulistructures of the offspring, focusing on the following parameters: glomeruli volumeand number, mesangium volume, mesangial cell number and glomerular capillaryvolume.Materials and Methods: Before mating, fifteen female Sprague Dawley rats, dividedinto three groups, were diabetes induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of 65 mg/kg streptozotocyn (STZ. After 30 days of breast feeding, ten offsprings from eachgroup (two per mother were randomly selected for kidney removal. The kidneyswere weighed and their tissues were processed for light microscopy. Glomerular featureswere evaluated quantitatively using dissection as well as the Cavalieri methodand were then compared with sham and control groups.Results: At birth, the mean body weight of diabetic mothers’ offspring (DO was significantlylower than that of the control group’s offspring (CO and sham group’s offspring(SO (p=0.001, however, the mean body weight of the 30 day-old DO was notlower than that of CO and SO (p>0.05. The total renal volumes, cortical volumes,glomerular mean and total volumes, total mesangeal volumes, total capillary volumesand total glomerular numbers were significantly lower in the DO than in CO and SO(p<0.05. The numerical density of glomeruli and mesangial cells per glomeruli weresignificantly greater in DO than in CO and SO (p<0.05.Conclusion: We concluded that intrauterine hyperglycemia is accompanied by anephron deficit which may not be compensated within the first 30 days after birth.

  8. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

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    ShreeHari eGautam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose and also retronasally (exhalation, enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odorant concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odorant concentration increases. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience.

  9. Retronasal odor concentration coding in glomeruli of the rat olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Shree Hari; Short, Shaina M.; Verhagen, Justus V.

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian olfactory system processes odorants presented orthonasally (inhalation through the nose) and also retronasally (exhalation), enabling identification of both external as well as internal objects during food consumption. There are distinct differences between ortho- and retronasal air flow patterns, psychophysics, multimodal integration, and glomerular responses. Recent work indicates that rats can also detect odors retronasally, that rats can associate retronasal odors with tastes, and that their olfactory bulbs (OBs) can respond to retronasal odorants but differently than to orthonasal odors. To further characterize retronasal OB input activity patterns, experiments here focus on determining the effects of odor concentration on glomerular activity by monitoring calcium activity in the dorsal OB of rats using a dextran-conjugated calcium-sensitive dye in vivo. Results showed reliable concentration-response curves that differed between odorants, and recruitment of additional glomeruli, as odor concentration increased. We found evidence of different concentration-response functions between glomeruli, that in turn depended on odor. Further, the relation between dynamics and concentration differed remarkably among retronasal odorants. These dynamics are suggested to reduce the odor map ambiguity based on response amplitude. Elucidating the coding of retronasal odor intensity is fundamental to the understanding of feeding behavior and the neural basis of flavor. These data further establish and refine the rodent model of flavor neuroscience. PMID:25386123

  10. Massive Temporal Lobe Cholesteatoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasan Waidyasekara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intracranial extension of cholesteatoma is rare. This may occur de novo or recur some time later either contiguous with or separate to the site of the original cholesteatoma. Presentation of Case. A 63-year-old female presented to a tertiary referral hospital with a fluctuating level of consciousness, fever, headache, and right-sided otorrhoea, progressing over several days. Her past medical history included surgery for right ear cholesteatoma and drainage of intracranial abscess 23 years priorly. There had been no relevant symptoms in the interim until 6 weeks prior to this presentation. Imaging demonstrated a large right temporal lobe mass contiguous with the middle ear and mastoid cavity with features consistent with cholesteatoma. The patient underwent a combined transmastoid/middle fossa approach for removal of the cholesteatoma and repair of the tegmen dehiscence. The patient made an uneventful recovery and remains well over 12 months later. Conclusion. This case presentation details a large intracranial cholesteatoma which had extended through a tegmen tympani dehiscence from recurrent right ear cholesteatoma treated by modified radical mastoidectomy over two decades priorly. There was a completely asymptomatic progression of disease until several weeks prior to this presentation.

  11. Axogenesis in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria revisited: the base pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George

    2015-01-01

    The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria comprises two parallel pathways projecting to the brain, each pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of sibling cells located at the antennal tip. En route, the growth cones of pioneers from one pathway have been shown to contact a guidepost-like cell called the base pioneer. Its role in axon guidance remains unclear as do the cellular guidance cues regulating axogenesis in the other pathway supposedly without a base pioneer. Further, while the tip pioneers are known to delaminate from the antennal epithelium into the lumen, the origin of this base pioneer is unknown. Here, we use immunolabeling and immunoblocking methods to clarify these issues. Co-labeling against the neuron-specific marker horseradish peroxidase and the pioneer-specific cell surface glycoprotein Lazarillo identifies not only the tip pioneers but also a base pioneer associated with each of the developing antennal pathways. Both base pioneers co-express the mesodermal label Mes3, consistent with a lumenal origin, whereas the tip pioneers proved Mes3-negative confirming their affiliation with the ectodermal epithelium. Lazarillo antigen expression in the antennal pioneers followed a different temporal dynamic: continuous in the tip pioneers, but in the base pioneers, only at the time their filopodia and those of the tip pioneers first recognize one another. Immunoblocking of Lazarillo expression in cultured embryos disrupts this recognition resulting in misguided axogenesis in both antennal pathways.

  12. Ultrastructure of antennal sensory organs of horse nasal-myiasis fly, Rhinoestrus purpureus (Diptera: Oestridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Li, K; Zhang, D

    2015-07-01

    Rhinoestrus purpureus (Brauer, 1858) (Diptera: Oestridae) is an economically important parasite that can cause severe nasal myiasis in equids or even attacking humans. The antennae of R. purpureus were examined using stereoscopic microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The general morphology was provided detailedly, together with distribution, type, size, and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla. All the three antennal segments, antennal scape, pedicel, and funiculus, are interspersed by microtrichiae. Only mechanoreceptors are detected on antennal scape and pedicel. On antennal funiculus, three types of sensilla were observed, including basiconic sensilla, coeloconic sensilla and clavate sensilla. Two features are characterized of this host-specific bot fly: (1) numerous sensory pits with branched basiconic sensilla on antennal funiculus and (2) the absence of trichoid sensilla. The function of these distinctive traits are discussed in association with the life history. We suggest that more sensory pits with branched sensilla could increase the sensitivity of olfactory system for host orientation, while the capability of pheromone identification might be reduced due to the absence of trichoid sensilla. Besides, we support both thermo- and chemo-functions of coeloconic sensilla.

  13. Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2015-06-27

    Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels.

  14. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    OpenAIRE

    Naess, Halvor; Waje-Andreassen, Ulrikke; Thomassen, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Objectives We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults. Methods Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norway between 1988 and 1997. Results The following variables were more frequent among patients with occipital lobe infarction compared with patients with infarcti...

  15. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  16. Salivary conditioning with antennal gustatory unconditioned stimulus in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hidehiro; Sato, Chihiro; Kuramochi, Tomokazu; Nishino, Hiroshi; Mizunami, Makoto

    2008-07-01

    Classical conditioning of olfactory conditioning stimulus (CS) with gustatory unconditioned stimulus (US) in insects has been used as a pertinent model for elucidation of neural mechanisms underlying learning and memory. However, a conditioning system in which stable intracellular recordings from brain neurons are feasibly obtained while monitoring the conditioning effect has remained to be established. Recently, we found classical conditioning of salivation in cockroaches Periplaneta americana, in which an odor was associated with sucrose solution applied to the mouth, and this conditioning could be monitored by activities of salivary neurons. Application of gustatory US to the mouth, however, leads to feeding movement accompanying a movement of the brain that prevents stable recordings from brain neurons. Here we investigated whether a gustatory stimulus presented to an antenna could serve as an effective US for producing salivary conditioning. Presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution to an antenna induced salivation and also increased activities of salivary neurons. A single pairing trial of an odor with antennal presentation of sucrose or sodium chloride solution produced conditioning of salivation or of activities of salivary neurons. Five pairing trials led to a conditioning effect that lasted for one day. Water or tactile stimulus presented to an antenna was not effective for producing conditioning. The results demonstrate that gustatory US presented to an antenna is as effective as that presented to the mouth for producing salivary conditioning. This conditioning system provides a useful model for studying the neural basis of learning at the level of singly identifiable neurons.

  17. A Java Interface for Roche Lobe Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, D. A.; Leahy, J. C.

    2015-09-01

    A JAVA interface for calculating various properties of the Roche lobe has been created. The geometry of the Roche lobe is important for studying interacting binary stars, particularly those with compact objects which have a companion which fills the Roche lobe. There is no known analytic solution to the Roche lobe problem. Here the geometry of the Roche lobe is calculated numerically to high accuracy and made available to the user for arbitrary input mass ratio, q.

  18. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2015-11-01

    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain.

  19. Antennal sensilla of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in relation to food preferences and habits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hu-Hai Chen; Yun-Xian Zhao; L E Kang

    2003-12-01

    The external structure, i.e. number and distribution of sensillae on male and female antennae of 12 species of grasshoppers belonging to Pamphaginae, Catantopinae, Oedipodinae and Gomphocerinae in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Five major types of antennal sensillae were detected – trichoid, long basiconic, short basiconic, slender and short basiconic, and coeloconic sensillae. Total number of antennal sensillae varied among different sexes, subfamilies, feeding groups, life forms and eco-forms. Males showed significantly more sensillae than females, due to presence of more short basiconic and coeloconic sensillae. Species under Catantopinae showed more long basiconic sensillae than the others. The Oedipodinae had the highest number of slender and short basiconic sensillae and coeloconic sensillae, followed by Catantopinae and Gomphocerinae; while Pamphaginae had the fewest. The total number of sensillae showed the same trend for these two types amongst the subfamilies as well, species which prefer habits on the ground possessed fewer antennal sensillae than species which prefer to stay on plants. The maximal number of antennal sensillae were observed in hygrophytous species, Chorthippus albomarginatus, in the 12 grasshopper species investigated, although the data is not statistically significant. The general trend which emerged was that species feeding on grass possessed more antennal sensillae, particularly coeloconic sensillae, compared to other feeding group species.

  20. Caste- and sex-specific adaptations within the olfactory pathway in the brain of the ant Camponotus floridanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2008-11-01

    Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning.

  1. Sexual dimorphism in antennal receptors of Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-López, Angel; Morón, Miguel; Valdez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The external morphology of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard is described using scanning electron microscopy. Sexual dimorphism in body and antennal dimensions and in antennal receptor types was found. The female's body is slightly larger than the male's, although male antennal lamellae are longer than in females. Sixteen types of sensilla were identified on the proximal and distal surfaces of lamellae from both sexes, most of them in males: three types of placodea sensilla, four types of auricilica sensilla, five types of basiconica sensilla, and four types of coeloconica sensilla. Also, two types of mechanoreceptor sensilla were present on the lamellae periphery. Furthermore, males had larger placodea, auricilica and some types of basiconica sensilla.

  2. Rapid Identification of Potential Drugs for Diabetic Nephropathy Using Whole-Genome Expression Profiles of Glomeruli

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    Jingsong Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate potential drugs for diabetic nephropathy (DN using whole-genome expression profiles and the Connectivity Map (CMAP. Methodology. Eighteen Chinese Han DN patients and six normal controls were included in this study. Whole-genome expression profiles of microdissected glomeruli were measured using the Affymetrix human U133 plus 2.0 chip. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs between late stage and early stage DN samples and the CMAP database were used to identify potential drugs for DN using bioinformatics methods. Results. (1 A total of 1065 DEGs (FDR 1.5 were found in late stage DN patients compared with early stage DN patients. (2 Piperlongumine, 15d-PGJ2 (15-delta prostaglandin J2, vorinostat, and trichostatin A were predicted to be the most promising potential drugs for DN, acting as NF-κB inhibitors, histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, PI3K pathway inhibitors, or PPARγ agonists, respectively. Conclusion. Using whole-genome expression profiles and the CMAP database, we rapidly predicted potential DN drugs, and therapeutic potential was confirmed by previously published studies. Animal experiments and clinical trials are needed to confirm both the safety and efficacy of these drugs in the treatment of DN.

  3. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Naess

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Halvor Naess, Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen, Lars ThomassenDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayObjectives: We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults.Methods: Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norway between 1988 and 1997.Results: The following variables were more frequent among patients with occipital lobe infarction compared with patients with infarctions located elsewhere: younger age (P < 0.001, female sex (P = 0.016, prothrombotic state (P = 0.005 and lack of hypertension (P = 0.001. There was no difference as to long-term mortality or recurrence of cerebral infarction. Conclusion: Occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations among young adults. This may have important etiologic and therapeutical implications that need further studies.Keywords: cerebral infarction, occipital lobe, young adults

  4. Pharmacological characterization of the P2 receptors profile in the podocytes of the freshly isolated rat glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilatovskaya, Daria V; Palygin, Oleg; Levchenko, Vladislav; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2013-11-15

    Calcium flux in the podocytes is critical for normal and pathophysiological regulation of these types of cells, and excessive calcium signaling results in podocytes damage and improper glomeruli function. Purinergic activation of P2 receptors is a powerful and rapid signaling process; however, the exact physiological identity of P2 receptors subtypes in podocytes remains essentially unknown. The goal of this study was to determine the P2 receptor profile in podocytes of the intact Sprague-Dawley rat glomeruli using available pharmacological tools. Glomeruli were isolated by differential sieving and loaded with Fluo-4/Fura Red cell permeable calcium indicators, and the purinergic response in the podocytes was analyzed with ratiometric confocal fluorescence measurements. Various P2 receptors activators were tested and compared with the effect of ATP, specifically, UDP, MRS 2365, bzATP, αβ-methylene, 2-meSADP, MRS 4062, and MRS 2768, were analyzed. Antagonists (MRS 2500, 5-BDBD, A438079, and NF 449) were tested when 10 μM ATP was applied as the EC50 for ATP activation of the calcium influx in the podocytes was determined to be 10.7 ± 1.5 μM. Several agonists including MRS 2365 and 2-meSADP caused calcium flux. Importantly, only the P2Y1-specific antagonist MRS 2500 (1 nM) precluded the effects of ATP concentrations of the physiological range. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed that P2Y1 receptors are highly expressed in the podocytes. We conclude that P2Y1 receptor signaling is the predominant P2Y purinergic pathway in the glomeruli podocytes and P2Y1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of glomerular injury and could be a target for treatment of kidney diseases.

  5. Effects of Heparin on Transforming Growth Factor-β1 and Extracellular Matrix Components in the Glomeruli of Diabetic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元红; 彭荔薰; 张木勋; 欧阳金芝; 张建华

    2003-01-01

    The effects of heparin on the expression of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and two extracellular matrix components laminin (LN) and fibronectin (FN) in diabetic rat glomeruli were investigated. Twenty-six rats were randomly divided into control group (C, n= 8), diabetic group (D, n=9), and diabetes+heparin group (DH, n=9). After 8-week therapy of heparin (200 U once daily by abdominal injection), TGF-β1, LN and FN expression in glomeruli was detected by immunohistochemical method. The results showed that the expression levels of TGF-β1, LN and FN were higher in group D than in group C. It was found that heparin could reduce 24-h urinary albumin excretion and inhibit overexpression of TGF-β1, LN and FN in glomeruli of diabetic rats. It suggested that the inhibitory effect of heparin on diabetic glomerular sclerosis was at least partly related with the inhibition of TGF-β1 expression.

  6. Human kidney damage in fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever results of glomeruli injury mainly induced by IL17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliari, Carla; Simões Quaresma, Juarez Antônio; Kanashiro-Galo, Luciane; de Carvalho, Leda Viegas; Vitoria, Webster Oliveira; da Silva, Wellington Luiz Ferreira; Penny, Ricardo; Vasconcelos, Barbara Cristina Baldez; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro Fernando; Duarte, Maria Irma Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Acute kidney injury is an unusual complication during dengue infection. The objective of this study was to better identify the characteristics of glomerular changes focusing on in situ immune cells and cytokines. An immunohistochemical assay was performed on 20 kidney specimens from fatal human cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). It was observed a lymphomononuclear infiltrate, neutrophils and nuclear fragmentation in the glomeruli, hydropic degeneration, nuclear retraction, eosinophilic tubules and intense acute congestion. Sickle erythrocytes were frequent in glomeruli and inflammatory infiltrate. The glomeruli presented endothelial swelling and mesangial proliferation. Lymphocytes CD4+ predominated over CD8+ T cells, B cells and natural killer cells. There were also an expressive number of macrophagic CD68+ cells. S100, Foxp3 and CD123 cells were not identified. Cells expressing IL17 and IL18+ cytokines predominated in the renal tissues, while IL4, IL6, IL10, IL13, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were rarely visualized. The high number of cells expressing IL17 and IL18+ could reflect the acute inflammatory response and possibly contribute to the local lesion. CD8+ T cells could play a role in the cytotoxic response. DHF is a multifactorial disease of capillary leakage associated with a "Tsunami of cytokines expression". The large numbers of cells expressing IL17 seems to play a role favoring the increased permeability.

  7. Distally lobed integuments in some Angiosperm ovules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1970-01-01

    In this treatise ‘De l’Ovule’ Warming (1878) remarked that although the borders of the integuments grow uniformly, very rarely a division into lobes can be observed. He mentioned Symplocarpus foetida (inner integument four-lobed), Lagarosiphon schweinfurthii (outer integument four- or five-lobed) an

  8. Neural coding in antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, K.E; Noorman, N; Mastebroek, H.A K; van Schoot, N.E.G.; den Otter, C.J

    1998-01-01

    Spike trains from individual antennal olfactory cells of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) obtained during steady-state conditions (spontaneous as well as during stimulation with 1-octen-3-ol) and dynamic stimulation with repetitive pulses of 1-octen-3-ol were investigated by studying the spike frequency

  9. Differences in antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies in relation to hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Azza A; Mohamed, Hend O; Ali, Nashat A

    2015-01-01

    Antennal sensillae of male and female peach fruit flies, Bactrocera zonata (Saunders) (Diptera: Tephritidae), obtained from three different host fruit species (guava, Psidium guajava L. (Myrtales: Myrtaceae); peach, Prunus persica (L.) Stokes (Rosales: Rosaceae); and orange, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Sapindales: Rutaceae)), were studied with scanning electron microscopy. This study was carried out to describe the different types of sensillae present on the three antennal segments (scape, pedicel, and flagellum or funiculus) of both sexes of B. zonata on different host fruit. The antennal segments of females tended to be larger than those of males feeding on peach and guava fruit. On orange, both sexes were similar (no significant differences were found). The first two antennal segments, scape and pedicel, are reinforced by some bristles and have different types of sensillae, including trichoid I, II, S; basiconic II; and sensilla chaetica in different numbers on different host fruit species. Numerous microtrichia, as well as trichoid (I, II), basiconic (I), clavate, and coeloconic (I, II) sensillae were observed on the funiculus with a great variation in number and length. As a result of feeding on different hosts, differences were found between sexes and some plasticity in size, number, distribution, and position of some sensillae, including trichoid, basiconic, chaetica, and clavate on the antennae of the female B. zonata. These sensillae were significantly larger in females. Also, some morphological and morphemetric differences have been found according to their feeding on different host fruit.

  10. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  11. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  12. Occipital lobe infarctions are different

    OpenAIRE

    Halvor Naess; Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen; Lars Thomassen

    2007-01-01

    Halvor Naess, Ulrikke Waje-Andreassen, Lars ThomassenDepartment of Neurology, Haukeland University Hospital, University of Bergen, N-5021 Bergen, NorwayObjectives: We hypothesized that occipital lobe infarctions differ from infarctions in other locations as to etiology, risk factors and prognosis among young adults.Methods: Location, etiology, risk factors and long-term outcome were evaluated among all young adults 15–49 years suffering from cerebral infarction in Hordaland County, Norw...

  13. Higher brain centers for social tasks in worker ants, Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    Ants, eusocial insects, have highly elaborate chemical communication systems using a wide variety of pheromones. In the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, workers and queens have the female-specific basiconic sensilla on antennae. The antennal lobe, the primary processing center, in female carpenter ants contains about 480 glomeruli, which are divided into seven groups (T1–T7 glomeruli) based on sensory afferent tracts. The axons of sensory neurons in basiconic sensilla are thought to project to female-specific T6 glomeruli. Therefore, these sensilla and glomeruli are thought to relate to female-specific social tasks in the ants. By using dye filling into local neurons (LNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, we neuroanatomically revealed the existence of an isolated processing system for signals probably relating to social tasks in the worker ant. In the antennal lobe, two categories of glomeruli, T6 glomeruli and non-T6 glomeruli, are clearly segregated by LNs. Furthermore, axon terminals of uniglomerular PNs from the respective categories of glomeruli (T6 uni-PNs and non-T6 uni-PNs) are also segregated in the secondary olfactory centers, the calyces of the mushroom body and the lateral horn: T6 uni-PNs terminate in the outer layers of the basal ring and lip of mushroom body calyces and in the posterior region of the lateral horn, whereas non-T6 uni-PNs terminate in the middle and inner layers of the basal ring and lip and in the anterior region of the lateral horn. These findings suggest that information probably relating to social tasks might be isolated from other olfactory information and processed in a separate subsystem.

  14. The effects of simultaneous hyperlipemia-hyperglycemia on the resistance arteries, myocardium and kidney glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, G; Popov, D; Georgescu, A; Cenuse, M; Jinga, V V; Simionescu, M

    2000-01-01

    The experimental model of Golden Syrian hamster subjected to concomitant hyperlipemia (diet-induced) and diabetes (by streptozotocin injection) for 24 weeks is characterised by the prevalence of micro- and macroangiopathies. We have used the hyperlipemic-diabetic (HD) hamsters to investigate: a) whether there is an alteration in the reactivity of the resistance arteries (mean internal diameter: 210-250 microm), b) if present, which are the structural and biochemical changes that accompany the functional modifications, and c) to examine the pathomorphological changes induced by the association of hyperlipemia and diabetes on vital organs such as myocardium and kidney glomeruli. To these aims, biochemical assays of plasma components, light- and electronmicroscopy, myographic, morphometric and spectrofluorimetric techniques were used. The mesenteric resistance arteries of HD hamsters exhibited (as compared to similar arteries in normals) a decreased contractile response to noradrenaline (1.86+/-0.35 vs. 2.43+/-0.21), and an impeded endothelium dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (approximately 61.40% vs. approximately 79.80%). The association of hyperlipemia with diabetes induced changes in morphology of the resistance arteries consisting in approximately 10% increase of the intima plus media cross-sectional area, approximately 20% decrease of the vascular lumen area, and approximately 2.85 fold augmentation of the wall to lumen ratio. The resistance arteries exhibited structural modifications of the endothelium (up to 8 copies of Weibel-Palade bodies/endothelial cell), and smooth muscle cells (secretory phenotype), and in the vessels media small calcification cores appeared embedded in a hyperplasic extracellular matrix. The vascular mesenteric bed of the HD hamsters contained approximately 2.30 and approximately 1.30 fold increased concentrations of AGE-collagen and pentosidine, respectively, above the normal values. The HD hamsters displayed also modifications

  15. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae

    OpenAIRE

    Ingmar Weiss; Joachim Ruther; Johannes Stökl

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the invest...

  16. Hemolymph circulation in insect sensory appendages: functional mechanics of antennal accessory pulsatile organs (auxiliary hearts) in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boppana, Sushma; Hillyer, Julián F

    2014-09-01

    Mosquito antennae provide sensory input that modulates host-seeking, mating and oviposition behaviors. Thus, mosquitoes must ensure the efficient transport of molecules into and out of these appendages. To accomplish this, mosquitoes and other insects have evolved antennal accessory pulsatile organs (APOs) that drive hemolymph into the antennal space. This study characterizes the structural mechanics of hemolymph propulsion throughout the antennae of Anopheles gambiae. Using intravital video imaging, we show that mosquitoes possess paired antennal APOs that are located on each side of the head's dorsal midline. They are situated between the frons and the vertex in an area that is dorsal to the antenna but ventral to the medial-most region of the compound eyes. Antennal APOs contract in synchrony at 1 Hz, which is 45% slower than the heart. By means of histology and intravital imaging, we show that each antennal APO propels hemolymph into the antenna through an antennal vessel that traverses the length of the appendage and has an effective diameter of 1-2 μm. When hemolymph reaches the end of the appendage, it is discharged into the antennal hemocoel and returns to the head. Because a narrow vessel empties into a larger cavity, hemolymph travels up the antenna at 0.2 mm s(-1) but reduces its velocity by 75% as it returns to the head. Finally, treatment of mosquitoes with the anesthetic agent FlyNap (triethylamine) increases both antennal APO and heart contraction rates. In summary, this study presents a comprehensive functional characterization of circulatory physiology in the mosquito antennae.

  17. Antennal and behavioral responses of grapevine moth Lobesia botrana females to volatiles from grapevine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasin, Marco; Anfora, Gianfranco; Ioriatti, Claudio; Carlin, Silvia; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Schmidt, Silvia; Bengtsson, Marie; Versini, Giuseppe; Witzgall, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Grapevine moth Lobesia botrana is the economically most important insect of grapevine Vitis vinifera in Europe. Flower buds, flowers, and green berries of Chardonnay grapevine are known to attract L. botrana for oviposition. The volatile compounds collected from these phenological stages were studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the antennal response of L. botrana females to these headspace collections was recorded by gas chromatography-electroantennography. The compounds found in all phenological stages, which consistently elicited a strong antennal response, were pentadecane, nonanal, and alpha-farnesene. In a wind tunnel, gravid L. botrana females flew upwind to green grapes, as well as to headspace collections from these berries released by a piezoelectric sprayer release device. However, no females landed at the source of headspace volatiles, possibly due to inappropriate concentrations or biased ratios of compounds in the headspace extracts.

  18. Conception d'Antennes Lentilles par Algorithme Génétique

    OpenAIRE

    Godi, Gaël; Sauleau, Ronan; Thouroude, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Les antennes lentilles sont des dispositifs de focalisation adaptés à de nombreuses applications hyperfréquences. Notre étude porte sur la synthèse de forme de lentilles substrat diélectriques, avec un objectif de rayonnement en champ lointain imposé (gabarit de rayonnement). Nous présentons la méthodologie de conception de ces antennes, basée sur le couplage entre un algorithme génétique (AG) et une méthode d'analyse électromagnétique 3D de type optique géométrique – optique physique (OG–OP)...

  19. Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of four skipper butterflies in Parnara sp. and Pelopidas sp. (Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiangqun, Yuan; Ke, Gao; Feng, Yuan; Yalin, Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Most species of Parnara and Pelopidas (Hesperiidae) are important pests of rice. In this study, the antennal morphology, types of sensilla, and their distribution of four skipper butterflies, including Parnara guttata (Bremer & Grey), Pa. bada (Moore), Pelopidas mathias (Fabricius) and Pe. agna (Moore), were observed using a scanning electron microscope. Six distinct morphological types of sensilla were found on the antennae of all of these species: sensilla squamiformia, sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, and Böhm sensilla. The sensilla trichodea are the most abundant sensilla among the four skipper butterflies, and the sensilla auricillica are confirmed on the antennae of butterflies for the second time. In addition, the possible functions of these sensilla are discussed in the light of previously reported lepidopteran insects, which may provide useful information for further study of the function of these antennal sensilla and for related pests control by applying sex pheromones. PMID:24843250

  20. Anomalous Feeding of the Left Upper Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzard, Christopher; Itagaki, Shinobu; Lajam, Fouad; Flores, Raja M

    2016-09-01

    We report the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with massive hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiography revealed an anomalous vessel arising from the abdominal aorta, coursing anteriorly and through the diaphragm, and feeding the left upper lobe. At operation the vessel was found to anastomose to the left upper lobe lingula, which contained multiple vascular abnormalities and arteriovenous fistulas. The vessel was ligated, and the affected portion of the left upper lobe was resected. Anomalous systemic arterial supply of an upper lobe is an especially rare form of a Pryce type 1 abnormality. Recognition of these unusual anatomic variants is crucial to successful treatment and avoidance of adverse events.

  1. Antennal Transcriptome Analysis of Odorant Reception Genes in the Red Turpentine Beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Cui Gu

    Full Text Available The red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae, is a destructive invasive pest of conifers which has become the second most important forest pest nationwide in China. Dendroctonus valens is known to use host odors and aggregation pheromones, as well as non-host volatiles, in host location and mass-attack modulation, and thus antennal olfaction is of the utmost importance for the beetles' survival and fitness. However, information on the genes underlying olfaction has been lacking in D. valens. Here, we report the antennal transcriptome of D. valens from next-generation sequencing, with the goal of identifying the olfaction gene repertoire that is involved in D. valens odor-processing.We obtained 51 million reads that were assembled into 61,889 genes, including 39,831 contigs and 22,058 unigenes. In total, we identified 68 novel putative odorant reception genes, including 21 transcripts encoding for putative odorant binding proteins (OBP, six chemosensory proteins (CSP, four sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP, 22 odorant receptors (OR, four gustatory receptors (GR, three ionotropic receptors (IR, and eight ionotropic glutamate receptors. We also identified 155 odorant/xenobiotic degradation enzymes from the antennal transcriptome, putatively identified to be involved in olfaction processes including cytochrome P450s, glutathione-S-transferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenase. Predicted protein sequences were compared with counterparts in Tribolium castaneum, Megacyllene caryae, Ips typographus, Dendroctonus ponderosae, and Agrilus planipennis.The antennal transcriptome described here represents the first study of the repertoire of odor processing genes in D. valens. The genes reported here provide a significant addition to the pool of identified olfactory genes in Coleoptera, which might represent novel targets for insect management. The results from our study also will assist with evolutionary

  2. Identification of candidate olfactory genes in Leptinotarsa decemlineata by antennal transcriptome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eLiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sense of smell is critical for the survival of insects, by which insects detect the odor signals in the environment and make appropriate behavioral responses such as host preference, mate choice, and oviposition site selection. The antenna is the main olfactory organ in insects. Multiple antennal proteins have been suggested to be involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway such as odorant receptors (ORs, ionotropic receptors (IRs, odorant binding proteins (OBPs, chemosensory proteins (CSPs and sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs. In this study, we identified several olfactory gene subfamilies in the economically important Coleopteran agricultural pest, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, by assembling the adult male and female antennal transcriptomes. In the male and female antennal transcriptome, we identified a total of 37 OR genes, 10 IR genes, 26 OBP genes, 15 CSP genes and 3 SNMP genes. Further all candidate ORs were validated to be expressed in male or female antenna by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Most of the candidate OR genes have similar expression level in male and female. A few OR genes have been detected as male-specific (LdecOR6 or male-bias (LdecOR5, LdecOR12, LdecOR26 and LdecOR32 expression. As well as that, two OR genes (LdecOR3 and LdecOR29 were proved to be expressed higher in female. Our findings make it possible for future research of the olfactory system of L. decemlineata at the molecular level.

  3. An Artificial Olfaction System Formed by a Massive Sensors Array Dispersed in a Diffusion Media and an Automatically Formed Glomeruli Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, Corrado; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Filippini, Daniel; Lundström, Ingemar

    2009-05-01

    Optical imaging is a read-out technique for sensors that can easily provide advances in artificial olfaction implementing features such as the large number of receptors and the glomeruli layer. In this paper an artificial olfaction system based on the imaging of a continuous layer of chemical indicators is illustrated. The system results in an array of thousands of sensors, corresponding to the pixels of the image. The choice of Computer Screen Photoassisted Technology as a platform for optical interrogation of the sensing layer allows for the definition of a strategy for an automatic definition of the glomeruli layer based on the classification of the optical fingerprints of the image pixels. Chemical indicators are dissolved into a polymeric matrix mimicking the functions of the olfactory mucosa. The system is here illustrated with a simple experiment. Data are treated applying a lateral inhibition to the glomeruli layer resulting in a dynamic pattern resembling that observed in natural olfaction.

  4. Species Specificity of the Putative Male Antennal Aphrodisiac Pheromone in Leptopilina heterotoma, Leptopilina boulardi, and Leptopilina victoriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Ingmar; Ruther, Joachim; Stökl, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Male antennal aphrodisiac pheromones have been suggested to elicit female receptiveness in several parasitic Hymenoptera, including Leptopilina boulardi. None of the proposed pheromones, however, has been fully identified to date. It is also unknown whether these antennal pheromones are species specific, because the species specificity of mate recognition and courtship elicitation in Leptopilina prevented such experiments. In this study we present an experimental design that allows the investigation of the species specificity of the putative male aphrodisiac pheromone of L. heterotoma, L. boulardi, and L. victoriae. This is achieved by chemical manipulation of the odour profile of heterospecific females, so that males perceive them as conspecifics and show antennal courtship behaviour. Males courted the manipulated heterospecific females and antennal contact between the male and the female was observed. However, males elicited receptiveness only in conspecific females, never in the manipulated heterospecific females. Chemical analysis showed the presence of species specific unsaturated hydrocarbons on the antennae of males. Only trace amounts of these hydrocarbons are found on the antennae of females. Our results are an important step towards the understanding and identification of antennal pheromones of parasitic wasps.

  5. Phylogenetic relationship of seven Dendrolimus (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) species based on the ultrastructure of male moths' antennae and antennal sensilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Qiong; Yan, Xiong-Fei; Wen, Jun-Bao; Li, Zhen-Yu

    2012-12-01

    The morphology and ultrastructure of the antennae and antennal sensilla of seven male Dendrolimus species and a male Trabala vishnou gigantina (Yang) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae) were examined by light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Six morphological types of antennal sensilla were identified: Sensilla trichodea, Sensilla chaetica, Sensilla styloconica, Sensilla coeloconica, Böhm bristles, and foot-like sensilla. Six of the Dendrolimus moths and Trabala vishnou gigantina Yang share the same antennal sensilla type, as do various geographic populations of the same species. The exception, Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler, has foot-like sensilla. However, the antennal sensilla subtypes were significantly different among species and/or populations. There were no remarkable differences in the width of the scape, pedicel, subflagellum, and the side-branches between the eight male species studied. However, we observed significant differences in the number of flagellomere and the length of scape, pedicel, subflagellums, and side-branches. The length and basal diameter of various types of antennal sensilla did not vary significantly among Dendrolimus moths. Beyond that, there were no differences among populations of the same kind of species. Hierarchical cluster analysis found two clusters: the first contained D. punctata punctata (Walker), D. punctata wenshanensis (Tsai et Liu), D. tabulaeformis (Tsai et Liu), and D. spectabilis and D. superans (Butler), and the second contained D. grisea (Moore) and D. kikuchii kikuchii (Matsumura). Trabala vishnou gigantina was placed separately from the two clusters. We conclude that D. punctata wenshanensis,D. tabulaeformis, and D. spectabilis are geographic subspecies of D. punctata punctata.

  6. Fluvastatin inhibits activation of JAK and STAT proteins in diabetic rat glomeruli and mesangial cells under high glucose conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong SHI; Song ZHAO; Chen WANG; Ying LI; Hui-jun DUAN

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to further elucidate the mechanism of the protective role of fluvastatin on diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Streptozotocin- induced diabetic rats were treated daily with fluvastatin (4 mg/kg body weight) by gavage. The animals were killed 4 weeks later and urine and blood samples were collected. The kidney tissues were removed and subjected to the following experiments. Rat glomerular mesangial cells (GMC) were cultured under normal glucose (5.5 mmol/L), high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L), HG+AG490 (10 μmol/L), or HG with fluvastatin (1 pmol/L). Glomeruli or the GMC lysate was immunoprecipi- tated and/or immunoblotted with antibodies against Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), SH2- domain containing tyrosine phosphatase-1 (SHP-1), phosphospecific SHP-2, and signal transducer and activators of transcription (STAT), respectively. Trans- forming growth factor-β (TGF-β) mRNA was measured by RT-PCR. The protein synthesis of TGF-β1 and fibronectin in the culture medium of GMC was detected by ELISA. Results: The phosphorylation levels of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2 increased significantly, and SHP-1 phosphorylation was reduced in glom- eruli of diabetic rats. Treatment with fluvastatin reduced phosphorylation levels of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2 in glomeruli of diabetic rats, but it had no effect on the dephosphorylation of SHP-1. The exposure of GMC to 30 mmol/L glucose caused the activation of JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, and SHP-2. It upregulated TGF-β1 expression and increased protein synthesis of fibronectin. These high glucose-induced changes were suppressed by fluvastatin, as well as AG490, a JAK2 inhibitor. Conclusion: The regulation of the phosphorylation of JAK/STAT by fluvastatin may be responsible for its renal protective effects on diabetic nephropathy.

  7. The antennal sensilla of the praying mantis Tenodera aridifolia: a new flagellar partition based on the antennal macro-, micro- and ultrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Thomas; Toh, Yoshihiro; Yamawaki, Yoshifumi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2014-03-01

    In insects, the antenna consists of a scapus, a pedicellus, and a flagellum comprising many segments (flagellomeres). These segments possess many morphological types of sensory organs (sensilla) to process multimodal sensory information. We observed the sensilla on flagellomeres in praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia) with both scanning and transmission electron microscopes. We classified the sensilla into six types: chaetic, campaniform, coelocapitular, basiconic, trichoid and grooved peg sensilla, and inferred their presumptive functions on the basis of their external and internal structures. In addition, based on their distribution, we newly divided the flagellum into 6 distinct parts. This new division leads to a better understanding about the sexual dimorphism and the antennal development in the mantises. The sexual difference in distribution of the grooved peg sensilla suggests that this type of sensilla may play a role in sex-pheromone detection in mantis, which is a rare case of double-walled sensilla mediating this function.

  8. Optimisation des systèmes multi-antennes appliqués aux systèmes MC -CDMA

    OpenAIRE

    BENYAROU, MOURAD

    2014-01-01

    Aujourd’hui les systèmes MIMO sont devenus un des sujets les plus étudiés en recherche, car ils sont capables d’augmenter l’efficacité spectrale (capacité) sur une largeur de bande limitée. L’aptitude des systèmes multi-antennes à résister aux évanouissements et aux interférences constitue par ailleurs un avantage supplémentaire indéniable. Les avantages des systèmes MIMO vont cependant bien au-delà de ceux des antennes intelligentes. Le fait de placer des antennes des deux côt...

  9. Olfaction in the Colorado potato beetle: Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Leptinotarsa sp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sen; B K Mitchell

    2001-06-01

    Sensillae on the antennae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata are described using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and compared with SEM observations of antennal sensilla in L. haldemani and L. texana. In all the three species, 13 distinct sensillar types were identified with a higher density of sensilla in the more polyphagous species, L. decemlineata than in the moderately host specific L. haldemani and the highly host specific L. texana. Cuticular specializations and the predominance of olfactory sensilla are discussed in relation to host specificity in the three species.

  10. Release of glomerular heparan-/sup 35/SO/sub 4/ proteoglycan by heparin from glomeruli of streptozocin-induced diabetic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, D.J.; Oegema, T.R. Jr.; Brown, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Abnormalities in the incorporation of heparan sulfate proteoglycan into the glomerular basement membrane have been implicated in the pathogenesis of various proteinuric states, including diabetes mellitus. To understand further the interactions between proteoglycans and glomerular extracellular matrices, glomeruli were isolated from normal and streptozocin-induced diabetic rats after in vivo exposure to 35S-labeled sulfate and were treated with heparin in vitro. Heparin treatment released a unique heparan sulfate proteoglycan from glomerular cell surface or extracellular matrix proteoglycan receptors. Another, smaller heparan sulfate proteoglycan was the most abundant proteoglycan released into medium and was released constitutively in medium with or without added heparin. While the two heparin-extracted proteoglycans copurified on anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatographic columns, they were resolved by composite 0.6% agarose--1.8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Glomeruli from diabetic rats contained decreased proportions of the heparin-releasable heparan sulfate proteoglycan and more constitutively released heparan sulfate proteoglycan. The apparent molecular weight and intrinsic charge of the heparin-released proteoglycan mixture and the apparent molecular weight and sulfation pattern of their 35S-labeled glycosaminoglycan chains after nitrous acid deaminative cleavage were similar in the two groups. A brief trypsin digestion of heparin-treated glomeruli released proportionately less integral membrane and extracellular matrix 35S-labeled proteoglycans and 35S-labeled glycopeptides from diabetic glomeruli than form control glomeruli. Elution of these 35S-labeled macromolecules from anion-exchange columns and migration in agarose-polyacrylamide gels were similar in the two groups.

  11. Deployment Instabilities of Lobed-Pumpkin Balloon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashino, Kyoichi

    A lobed-pumpkin balloon, currently being developed in ISAS/JAXA as well as in NASA, is a promising vehicle for long duration scientific observations in the stratosphere. Recent ground and flight experiments, however, have revealed that the balloon has deployment instabilities under certain conditions. In order to overcome the instability problems, a next generation SPB called 'tawara' type balloon has been proposed, in which an additional cylindrical part is appended to the standard lobed-pumpkin balloon. The present study investigates the deployment stability of tawara type SPB in comparison to that of standard lobed-pumpkin SPB through eigenvalue analysis on the basis of finite element methods. Our numerical results show that tawara type SPB enjoys excellent deployment performance over the standard lobed-pumpkin SPBs.

  12. Cephalic Aura after Frontal Lobe Resection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate cephalic aura more extensive cortical areas need to be excited. Here we report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. MEG showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed on right frontal region, and the latter involved much m...

  13. Design principles of the sparse coding network and the role of “sister cells” in the olfactory system of Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems face the challenge to represent sensory inputs in a way to allow easy readout of sensory information by higher brain areas. In the olfactory system of the fly drosopohila melanogaster, projection neurons (PNs) of the antennal lobe (AL) convert a dense activation of glomeruli into a sparse, high-dimensional firing pattern of Kenyon cells (KCs) in the mushroom body (MB). Here we investigate the design principles of the olfactory system of drosophila in regard to the capabilities...

  14. Is the presence of abnormal prion protein in the renal glomeruli of feline species presenting with FSE authentic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bencsik Anna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a recent paper written by Hilbe et al (BMC vet res, 2009, the nature and specificity of the prion protein deposition in the kidney of feline species affected with feline spongiform encephalopathy (FSE were clearly considered doubtful. This article was brought to our attention because we published several years ago an immunodetection of abnormal prion protein in the kidney of a cheetah affected with FSE. At this time we were convinced of its specificity but without having all the possibilities to demonstrate it. As previously published by another group, the presence of abnormal prion protein in some renal glomeruli in domestic cats affected with FSE is indeed generally considered as doubtful mainly because of low intensity detected in this organ and because control kidneys from safe animals present also a weak prion immunolabelling. Here we come back on these studies and thought it would be helpful to relay our last data to the readers of BMC Vet res for future reference on this subject. Here we come back on our material as it is possible to study and demonstrate the specificity of prion immunodetection using the PET-Blot method (Paraffin Embedded Tissue - Blot. It is admitted that this method allows detecting the Proteinase K (PK resistant form of the abnormal prion protein (PrPres without any confusion with unspecific immunoreaction. We re-analysed the kidney tissue versus adrenal gland and brain samples from the same cheetah affected with TSE using this PET-Blot method. The PET-Blot analysis revealed specific PrPres detection within the brain, adrenal gland and some glomeruli of the kidney, with a complete identicalness compared to our previous detection using immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, these new data enable us to confirm with assurance the presence of specific abnormal prion protein in the adrenal gland and in the kidney of the cheetah affected with FSE. It also emphasizes the usefulness for the re-examination of any

  15. Relationship between antennal sensilla pattern and habitat in six species of Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carbajal de la Fuente AL

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine if habitat similarity is correlated with a similarity of sensilla pattern, we analyzed six species of Triatominae present in two biogeographic regions of Brazil: the "caatinga" and the "cerrado". In broad terms Triatoma infestans (cerrado and T. brasiliensis (caatinga are found in human domiciles, T. sordida (cerrado and T. pseudomaculata (caatinga colonize peridomestic habitats, and Rhodnius neglectus (cerrado and R. nasutus (caatinga inhabit palm tree crowns. The number and distribution of four sensilla types (bristles, thin and thick walled trichoidea, and basiconica were compared in these species. Sexual dimorphism of sensilla patterns was noted in T. sordida, T. brasiliensis and T. pseudomaculata. A principal component analysis showed three main groups: (i species that live in the palms, (ii domiciliated species and (iii those living in the peridomestic habitat. T. infestans almost exclusively domestic, was placed at the centre of the canonical map and some individuals of other species overlapped there. These results support the idea that the patterns of antennal sensilla are sensitive indicators of adaptive process in Triatominae. We propose that those species that inhabit less stable habitats possess more types of sensilla on the pedicel, and higher number of antennal sensilla.

  16. Fornax A's Western Radio Lobe Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jason J.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Kraft, R. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the western radio lobe of Fornax A based on an XMM-Newton observation. We find little evidence for the inverse-Compton scattering of the cosmic microwave background as reported previously. The spectra in the energy range of 0.5-5 keV are well fitted by a thermal plus power law model for every spectral region we extracted. With a fixed photon index of 1.68, the X-ray flux density at 1 keV from the power law fit was measured to be cool gas extends from the central galaxy in the direction of the radio lobe of Fornax A. Spectral fits give a temperature of kT=0.76 keV over the radio lobe and kT=0.32 keV for the cool filament. The thermal emission from the radio lobe region is best explained as emission from a thin shell of shocked gas swept up by the rapidly expanding lobe. This work is supported in part by the NSF REU and DOD ASSURE programs under NSF grant no. 0754568 and by the Smithsonian Institution.

  17. Effect of lobe profile on the load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw; STRZELECKI

    2001-01-01

    The rotors of turbogenerators operate in 2-lobe journal bearings. These bearings can bedesigned with the same or different profile of upper and bottom lobe, e.g. the upper lobe has cylin-drical and bottom one the offset profile. Shaping the bearing profile this way allows the variation ofstatic and dynamic characteristics of bearing. The static characteristics consist among others theload capacity of bearing which is very important parameter. The paper introduces the results ofcalculations of load capacity of 2-lobe journal bearing characterised by different profiles of upperand bottom lobe. The laminar, adiabatic oil flow in the bearing lubricating gap, parallel orientationof journal and bearing axis as well as the static equilibrium position of journal have been assumed.

  18. Dementia of Frontal Lobe Type and Amyotrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ferrer

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Dementia of frontal lobe type may precede motor signs in a number of adult patients with amyotrophy. Neuropathological studies have shown neuron loss, spongiosis and gliosis mainly in layers II and III of the frontal and temporal lobes, together with myelin pallor of the subcortical white matter. Golgi studies revealed loss of dendritic spines on the apical dendrite of layer III pyramidal neurons, decreased numbers of dendrites, amputation and tortuosities of dendrites, and distal and proximal dendritic swellings and enlargements. Calbindin D-28K immunocytochemistry revealed a marked decrease in the number of cortical immunoreactive neurons and loss of immunoreactivity in dendrites of the remaining cells. These features indicate that pyramidal and non-pyramidal neurons in layers II and III are severely damaged, and suggest that cortical processing is seriously impaired in patients with frontal lobe type dementia.

  19. Medical image of the week: azygous lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupinder Natt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 59 year old man underwent chest radiography for evaluation of fever and cough. Imaging showed an accessory azygous lobe. An azygos lobe is found in 1% of anatomic specimens and forms when the right posterior cardinal vein, one of the precursors of the azygos vein, fails to migrate over the apex of the lung (1. Instead, the vein penetrates the lung carrying along pleural layers that entrap a portion of the right upper lobe. The vein appears to run within the lung, but is actually surrounded by both parietal and visceral pleura. The azygos fissure therefore consists of four layers of pleura, two parietal layers and two visceral layers, which wrap around the vein giving the appearance of a tadpole. Apart from an interesting incidental radiological finding, it is of limited clinical importance except that its presence should be recognized during thoracoscopic procedures. This patient was found to have …

  20. Superoxide anion production and expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox) are increased in glomeruli and proximal tubules of cisplatin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Joyce; Molina-Jijón, Eduardo; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Rafael; Reyes, José Luis; Barrera, Diana; Pedraza-Chaverri, José

    2015-04-01

    The chemotherapeutic drug cisplatin has some side effects including nephrotoxicity that has been associated with reactive oxygen species production, particularly superoxide anion. The major source of superoxide anion is nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate hydrogen (NADPH) oxidase. However, the specific segment of the nephron in which superoxide anion is produced has not been identified. Rats were sacrificed 72 h after cisplatin injection (7.5 mg/kg), and kidneys were obtained to isolate glomeruli and proximal and distal tubules. Cisplatin induced superoxide anion production in glomeruli and proximal tubules but not in distal tubules. This enhanced superoxide anion production was prevented by diphenylene iodonium, an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Consistently, this effect was associated with the increased expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox), subunits of NADPH oxidase. The enhanced superoxide anion production in glomeruli and proximal tubules, associated with the increased expression of gp91(phox) and p47(phox), is involved in the oxidative stress in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  1. Enhanced expression of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor in glomeruli correlates with serum receptor antibodies in primary membranous nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Elion; Kneißler, Ursula; Stege, Gesa; Zahner, Gunther; Thiele, Ina; Panzer, Ulf; Harendza, Sigrid; Helmchen, Udo M; Stahl, Rolf A K

    2012-10-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is the major target antigen in idiopathic membranous nephropathy with detectable autoantibodies in the serum of up to 70% of patients. In retrospective studies, the PLA2R-autoantibody titer in the serum was sometimes negative indicating their measurement alone may be inconclusive. In order to better differentiate between primary and secondary membranous nephropathy, we conducted a prospective study that included 88 patients with a histologic diagnosis of membranous nephropathy. Immunohistochemical analysis for PLA2R was faintly positive in kidneys from normal individuals and patients with various other glomerular injuries. In 61 of the 88 patients, PLA2R expression was strongly positive in glomeruli, and in 60 of these patients PLA2R autoantibodies were also detected in the serum. The 27 patients negative for serum PLA2R autoantibodies were faintly positive for PLA2R staining in glomeruli and in 15 of these patients a secondary cause was found. The remaining 12 patients have a yet undetected secondary cause of membranous nephropathy or have different glomerular antigens other than PLA2R. Thus, increased staining for PLA2R in glomeruli of renal biopsies tightly correlates with the presence of PLA2R autoantibodies in the serum and this may help discriminate between primary and secondary membranous nephropathy.

  2. Role of on-site microscopic evaluation of kidney biopsy for adequacy and allocation of glomeruli: comparison of renal biopsies with and without on-site microscopic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, S M; Ockner, D; Qu, H

    2013-12-01

    Evaluation of kidney core biopsies ideally begins with on-site microscopic examination for adequacy and allocation of tissue for light microscopy (LM), immunofluorescence (IF) and electron microscopy (EM). However, some renal biopsies are not microscopically evaluated by a pathologist at the time of procedure, and are allocated without on-site evaluation. This study compares the actual outcome of these two techniques. We reviewed the reports of patients who underwent kidney biopsy for medical causes in the past two years. Eighty-eight biopsies had on-site microscopic evaluation by pathologists, and 70 biopsies did not undergo on-site evaluation. For biopsies without on-site evaluation, no glomeruli were seen in 5 (7.14%) cases for LM, 11 (15.71%) cases for IF and 6 (8.57%) cases for EM. In cases with on-site evaluation, the absence of glomeruli was identified in 1 (1.13%) case for LM, 3 (3.4%) for IF and 3 (3.4%) for EM. The biopsies with on-site microscopic evaluation had 5.68% of the cases considered as inadequate, while 22% of biopsies without on-site evaluation were considered inadequate. The biopsies with on-site evaluation tended to have more glomeruli obtained during the procedure (p < 0.0005). Without on-site evaluation, the likelihood of getting an inadequate specimen compared to on-site evaluation is nearly four times greater.

  3. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaud-Netto, J

    2000-02-01

    Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  4. Wireless stimulation of antennal muscles in freely flying hawkmoths leads to flight path changes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin J Hinterwirth

    Full Text Available Insect antennae are sensory organs involved in a variety of behaviors, sensing many different stimulus modalities. As mechanosensors, they are crucial for flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. One of their roles is to mediate compensatory reflexes of the abdomen in response to rotations of the body in the pitch axis. Abdominal motions, in turn, are a component of the steering mechanism for flying insects. Using a radio controlled, programmable, miniature stimulator, we show that ultra-low-current electrical stimulation of antennal muscles in freely-flying hawkmoths leads to repeatable, transient changes in the animals' pitch angle, as well as less predictable changes in flight speed and flight altitude. We postulate that by deflecting the antennae we indirectly stimulate mechanoreceptors at the base, which drive compensatory reflexes leading to changes in pitch attitude.

  5. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor.

  6. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  7. VATS right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianli

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to discuss video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) sleeve bronchial lobectomy when handling the locally advanced central lung cancer (involving the trachea and/or main bronchus). Methods A 2.5 cm × 1.0 cm mass was found in the right upper lobe. Bronchoscopy demonstrated the tumor obstructing the right upper lobe bronchus and involved the right main bronchus and bronchus intermedius. Interrupted sutures were chosen for bronchial anastomosis. Bronchial membrane was sutured first, and then circumference end-to-end anastomoses were carried out using 3-0 absorbable sutures. Results There were no complications and the patient was discharged 8 days postoperatively. Conclusions The third intercostal space of the anterior axillary line was suggested for right upper lobe bronchial sleeve resection. This incision can reduce the distance and angle between the anastomosis to the incision, and facilitate anastomosis. This approach can also prevent operator from fatigue for keeping one posture for a long time. Clearance of the mediastinal lymph nodes before cutting the bronchus was helpful for exposing the right main bronchus, the upper lobe bronchus and bronchus intermedius satisfied. And this option would avoid pulling bronchial anastomosis during mediastinal lymph nodes clearance. Interrupted suture was safe and effective for VATS bronchial anastomosis. PMID:27621889

  8. Centrifugal acceleration in the magnetotail lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Combined Cluster EFW and EDI measurements have shown that cold ion outflow in the magnetospheric lobes dominates the hydrogen ion outflow from the Earth's atmosphere. The ions have too low kinetic energy to be measurable with particle instruments, at least for the typical spacecraft potential of a sunlit spacecraft in the tenuous lobe plasmas outside a few RE. The measurement technique yields both density and bulk velocity, which can be combined with magnetic field measurements to estimate the centrifugal acceleration experienced by these particles. We present a quantitative estimate of the centrifugal acceleration, and the velocity change with distance which we would expect due to centrifugal acceleration. It is found that the centrifugal acceleration is on average outward with an average value of about of 5 m s−2. This is small, but acting during long transport times and over long distances the cumulative effect is significant, while still consistent with the relatively low velocities estimated using the combination of EFW and EDI data. The centrifugal acceleration should accelerate any oxygen ions in the lobes to energies observable by particle spectrometers. The data set also put constraints on the effectiveness of any other acceleration mechanisms acting in the lobes, where the total velocity increase between 5 and 19 RE geocentric distance is less than 5 km s−1.

  9. Ictal EEG modifications in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelliccia, Veronica; Mai, Roberto; Francione, Stefano; Gozzo, Francesca; Sartori, Ivana; Nobili, Lino; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Pizzanelli, Chiara; Tassi, Laura

    2013-12-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is the most common type of epilepsy in adults with medically intractable, localisation-related epilepsy, amenable to surgery. Together with clinical and neuroimaging data, presurgical ictal scalp-EEG findings are often sufficient to define the epileptogenic zone. It is widely believed that ictal scalp-EEG findings in temporal lobe epilepsy are represented by 5-9-Hz lateralised rhythmic theta activity or 2-5-Hz lateralised rhythmic delta activity. On the basis of experimental models and experience with intra-cerebral EEG recordings, the pattern of low-voltage fast activity is considered to be the electrophysiological hallmark of the epileptogenic zone. We reviewed the ictal scalp-EEG data relating to 111 seizures in 47 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent video-EEG recordings during presurgical work-up. We found that 35 patients (74.4%) showed flattening, low-voltage fast activity or fast activity as the initial EEG pattern. When visible, the rhythmic delta or theta activity followed the fast activity. Low-voltage fast activity, flattening or fast activity occurs in the majority of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and represents the main ictal EEG pattern. Low-voltage fast activity (or similar) is also identifiable as the initial ictal EEG pattern in scalp-EEG recordings.

  10. Aura in temporal lobe epilepsy: clinical and electroencephalographic correlation.

    OpenAIRE

    1983-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy were evaluated for their aura and the site of EEG abnormality. Autonomic and psychic auras were more frequently associated with right-sided temporal lobe lesions in 290 patients.

  11. Analysis of complications in hepatic right lobe living donors

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam, Ayman; Uryuhara, Kinji; Taka, Ito; Takada, Yasutsugu; Egawa, Hiroto; TANAKA, Koichi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been expanding to adult recipients by using right lobe grafts. However, the incidence of complications is more frequent than that involving left lobe grafts. Hence, we aimed to analyze postoperative complications in right lobe liver donors as a step to improve the results in the donors. METHODS: Three hundred and eleven right lobe liver donors were retrospectively reviewed between February 1998 and December 2003. RESULTS...

  12. Antennes co-localisées reconfigurables en fréquence pour systèmes MIMO

    OpenAIRE

    Sarrazin, Julien; Mahé, Yann; Avrillon, Stéphane; Toutain, Serge

    2007-01-01

    National audience; Ce papier présente trois antennes co-localisées dont les accès présentent un découplage de l'ordre de 30dB en simulation. La diversité entre chaque antenne est assurée par une combinaison de diversité de polarisation et de rayonnement. Le dispositif a été dimensionné pour fonctionner autour de 5.25GHz avec une largeur de bande d'environ 9.8%. Toutefois, afin de répondre aux besoins actuels concernant la multiplication de fonctions au sein d'un même dispositif, une agilité e...

  13. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  14. A functional genetic analysis in flour beetles (Tenebrionidae) reveals an antennal identity specification mechanism active during metamorphosis in Holometabola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frank W; Angelini, David R; Jockusch, Elizabeth L

    2014-05-01

    The antenna was the first arthropod ventral appendage to evolve non-leg identity. Models of antennal evolution have been based on comparisons of antennal and leg identity specification mechanisms in Drosophila melanogaster, a species in which appendages develop from highly derived imaginal discs during the larval period. We test for conservation of the Drosophila antennal identity specification mechanism at metamorphosis in Tribolium castaneum and three other flour beetle species (Tribolium confusum, Tribolium brevicornis and Latheticus oryzae) in the family Tenebrionidae. In Drosophila, loss of function of four transcription factors-homothorax, extradenticle, Distal-less, and spineless-causes large-scale transformations of the antenna to leg identity. Distal-less and spineless function similarly during metamorphosis in T. castaneum. RNA interference (RNAi) targeting homothorax (hth) or extradenticle (exd) caused transformation of the proximal antenna to distal leg identity in flour beetles, but did not affect the identity of the distal antenna. This differs from the functional domain of these genes in early instar Drosophila, where they are required for identity specification throughout the antenna, but matches their functional domain in late instar Drosophila. The similarities between antennal identity specification at metamorphosis in flour beetles and in late larval Drosophila likely reflect the conservation of an ancestral metamorphic developmental mechanism. There were two notable differences in hth/exd loss of function phenotypes between flies and beetles. Flour beetles retained all of their primary segments in both the antenna and legs, whereas flies undergo reduction and fusion of primary segments. This difference in ground state appendage morphology casts doubt on interpretations of developmental ground states as evolutionary atavisms. Additionally, adult Tribolium eyes were transformed to elytron-like structures; we provide a developmental hypothesis for

  15. Criminal Responsibility of the Frontal Lobe Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sener, Mustafa Talip; Ozcan, Halil; Sahingoz, Sadik; Ogul, Hayri

    2015-10-01

    Neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms might be detected due to damage of frontal lobes as detected in damages of many brain regions. Frontal lobe syndrome (FLS) occurs as a result of damage in prefrontal region due to various causes. Symptoms due to prefrontal region damage, varies according to the size and location of the lesion. In most of the cases; executive dysfunctions, attention deficits, inconsistencies in social life, impulse control problems, obsessive behaviors and violence behaviors are common clinical signs. Behavioral symptoms seen in FLS can be confused with personality disorders and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. FLS is a neuropsychiatric disorder rarely assessed in forensic psychiatry and in terms of detection of criminal responsibility. In this case report, criminal responsibility in FLS was assessed through a FLS case in which an offense of "threat" was committed and investigated in terms of criminal responsibility.

  16. Cephalic aura after frontal lobe resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Jehi, Lara; Alkawadri, Rafeed; Wang, Zhong I; Enatsu, Rei; Mosher, John C; Dubarry, Anne-Sophie; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; Burgess, Richard C

    2014-08-01

    A cephalic aura is a common sensory aura typically seen in frontal lobe epilepsy. The generation mechanism of cephalic aura is not fully understood. It is hypothesized that to generate a cephalic aura extensive cortical areas need to be excited. We report a patient who started to have cephalic aura after right frontal lobe resection. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) showed interictal spike and ictal change during cephalic aura, both of which were distributed in the right frontal region, and the latter involved much more widespread areas than the former on MEG sensors. The peculiar seizure onset pattern may indicate that surgical modification of the epileptic network was related to the appearance of cephalic aura. We hypothesize that generation of cephalic aura may be associated with more extensive cortical involvement of epileptic activity than that of interictal activity, in at least a subset of cases.

  17. Dynamic perfusion patterns in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupont, Patrick; Paesschen, Wim van [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); Zaknun, John J. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); University Hospital of Innsbruck, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Innsbruck (Austria); Maes, Alex [KU Leuven/UZ Gasthuisberg, Nuclear Medicine, Medical Imaging Center and Neurology, Leuven (Belgium); AZ Groeninge, Nuclear Medicine, Kortrijk (Belgium); Tepmongkol, Supatporn; Locharernkul, Chaichon [Chulalongkorn University, Nuclear Medicine and Neurology, Bangkok (Thailand); Vasquez, Silvia; Carpintiero, Silvina [Fleni Instituto de Investigaciones Neurologicas, Nuclear Medicine, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bal, C.S. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Dondi, Maurizio [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Nuclear Medicine Section, Division of Human Health, Wagramer Strasse 5, PO BOX 200, Vienna (Austria); Ospedale Maggiore, Nuclear Medicine, Bologna (Italy)

    2009-05-15

    To investigate dynamic ictal perfusion changes during temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We investigated 37 patients with TLE by ictal and interictal SPECT. All ictal injections were performed within 60 s of seizure onset. Statistical parametric mapping was used to analyse brain perfusion changes and temporal relationships with injection time and seizure duration as covariates. The analysis revealed significant ictal hyperperfusion in the ipsilateral temporal lobe extending to subcortical regions. Hypoperfusion was observed in large extratemporal areas. There were also significant dynamic changes in several extratemporal regions: ipsilateral orbitofrontal and bilateral superior frontal gyri and the contralateral cerebellum and ipsilateral striatum. The study demonstrated early dynamic perfusion changes in extratemporal regions probably involved in both propagation of epileptic activity and initiation of inhibitory mechanisms. (orig.)

  18. Galaxies with Supermassive Binary Black Holes: (III) The Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe in a Core System

    CERN Document Server

    Yeh, Li-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional equi-potential surfaces of a galactic system with supermassive binary black holes are discussed herein. The conditions of topological transitions for the important surfaces, i.e. Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe, are studied in this paper. In addition, the mathematical properties of the Jacobi surfaces are investigated analytically. Finally, a numerical procedure for determining the regions of the Roche Lobes and Jiang-Yeh Lobe is suggested.

  19. Executive Functioning and Dysfunctional Schema Modes in Individuals with Frontal Lobe Lesion and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Mega Case Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was to investigate the executive functioning like selective attention, cognitive flexibility, processing speed and executive processing abilities in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy by using a tool Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test [1]. The study also tried to explore emotional problems, cognitive state, specific behavioral responses and coping strategies of individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The present study was also designed to develop the reflective understanding of dysfunctional and healthy modes of individuals of frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy measure through Schema Mode Inventory Urdu version [2]. The sample of the present study consisted of 08 cases 04 cases related to frontal lobe lesion and 04 cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Our finding indicated that the individuals of frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy were found significantly engaged in dysfunctional modes, such as Child Modes, Maladaptive and Punitive Parents Modes. On Stroop Test the Standard Deviation of individuals with frontal lobe lesion (74.18 and temporal lobe epilepsy (59.25 both the values are below the standard value (98 which shows the significant level. The Stroop Test measure executive functioning like selective attention executive processing, cognitive flexibility and inhibition control all these qualities are low and poor in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy were engaged in dysfunctional modes such as Child Modes, Maladaptive and Punitive Parent Modes are positively associated with executive functioning. Individuals with dysfunctional schema modes are lower score on Stroop test.

  20. Executive Functioning and Dysfunctional Schema Modes in Individuals with Frontal Lobe Lesion and Temporal Lobe Epilepsy; Mega Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sabir Zaman

    2016-01-01

    The present study was to investigate the executive functioning like selective attention, cognitive flexibility, processing speed and executive processing abilities in individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy by using a tool Stroop Neuropsychological Screening Test [1]. The study also tried to explore emotional problems, cognitive state, specific behavioral responses and coping strategies of individuals with frontal lobe lesion and temporal lobe epilepsy. The present stu...

  1. Perirhinal cortex and temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe eBiagini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The perirhinal cortex – which is interconnected with several limbic structures and is intimately involved in learning and memory - plays major roles in pathological processes such as the kindling phenomenon of epileptogenesis and the spread of limbic seizures. Both features may be relevant to the pathophysiology of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy that represents the most refractory adult form of epilepsy with up to 30% of patients not achieving adequate seizure control. Compared to other limbic structures such as the hippocampus or the entorhinal cortex, the perirhinal area remains understudied and, in particular, detailed information on its dysfunctional characteristics remains scarce; this lack of information may be due to the fact that the perirhinal cortex is not grossly damaged in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in models mimicking this epileptic disorder. However, we have recently identified in pilocarpine-treated epileptic rats the presence of selective losses of interneuron subtypes along with increased synaptic excitability. In this review we: (i highlight the fundamental electrophysiological properties of perirhinal cortex neurons; (ii briefly stress the mechanisms underlying epileptiform synchronization in perirhinal cortex networks following epileptogenic pharmacological manipulations; and (iii focus on the changes in neuronal excitability and cytoarchitecture of the perirhinal cortex occurring in the pilocarpine model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Overall, these data indicate that perirhinal cortex networks are hyperexcitable in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy, and that this condition is associated with a selective cellular damage that is characterized by an age-dependent sensitivity of interneurons to precipitating injuries, such as status epilepticus.

  2. Sexual dimorphism in antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of a pupal endoparasitoid Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Zheng, Lixia; Liao, Yonglin; Wu, Weijian

    2016-05-01

    Tetrastichus howardi (Olliff) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a pupal parasitoid of a great number of Lepidoptera pests, has a great potential for biological control. To investigate the olfactory system of this parasitoid, we examined the morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of both male and female T. howardi using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques. Antennae of male and female T. howardi were geniculate in shape, which consisted of scape, pedicel and flagellum with 5 and 4 flagellomeres, respectively. The sexual differences were recorded in the types, structure, distribution and abundance of antennal sensilla of T. howardi. Fourteen morphologically distinct types of antennal sensilla were found on the female antennae, while seventeen on the male antennae. They were: multiporous plate sensilla (MPS1-4), chaetica sensilla (CH1-3), multiporous trichodea sensilla (MTS), aporous trichodea sensilla (ATS1-5), multiporous grooved peg sensilla (MGPS), coeloconic sensilla (COS), campaniform sensilla (CAS), terminal finger-like hairy sensilla (TFI), cuticular pore (CP), and ventral sensory plaque (VSP). MPS4, ATS (3-5), and VSP only occurred on the male antennae, while MPS2 and MPS3 only on the female antennae. The MPSs, MTS, MGPS, TFI, and CP may function as olfactory sensilla involving in detecting odor stimuli whereas the ATSs, CHs, and CAS may serve as mechanoreceptors. COS were presumed to play a role as chemo-, thermo- or hygro-receptor. The results could facilitate future studies on the biology of olfaction in T. howardi.

  3. Occipital lobe infarction and positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagawa, Koichi; Nagata, Ken; Shishido, Fumio (Research Inst. of Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan))

    1990-08-01

    Even though the PET study revealed a total infarct in the territory of the left PCA in our 3 cases of pure alesia, it is still obscure which part of the left occipital lobe is most closely associated with the occurrence of the pure alexia. In order to elucidate the intralobar localization of the pure alexia, it is needed to have an ideal case who shows an pure alexia due to the localized lesion within the left occipital lobe. Furthermore, high-resolution PET scanner will circumvent the problem in detecting the metabolism and blood flow in the corpus callosum which plays an important role in the pathogenesis. We have shown that the occlusion of the right PCA also produced a left unilateral agnosia which is one of the common neurological signs in the right MCA infarction. To tell whether the responsible lesion for the unilateral spatial agnosia differs between the PCA occlusion and the MCA occlusion, the correlation study should be carried out in a greater number of the subjects. Two distinctive neuropsychological manifestations, cerebral color blidness and prosopagnosia, have been considered to be produced by the bilateral occipital lesion. The PET studies disclosed reduction of blood flow and oxygen metabolism in both occipital lobes in our particular patient who exibited cerebral color blindness and posopagnosia. (author).

  4. Human frontal lobes are not relatively large.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Robert A; Venditti, Chris

    2013-05-28

    One of the most pervasive assumptions about human brain evolution is that it involved relative enlargement of the frontal lobes. We show that this assumption is without foundation. Analysis of five independent data sets using correctly scaled measures and phylogenetic methods reveals that the size of human frontal lobes, and of specific frontal regions, is as expected relative to the size of other brain structures. Recent claims for relative enlargement of human frontal white matter volume, and for relative enlargement shared by all great apes, seem to be mistaken. Furthermore, using a recently developed method for detecting shifts in evolutionary rates, we find that the rate of change in relative frontal cortex volume along the phylogenetic branch leading to humans was unremarkable and that other branches showed significantly faster rates of change. Although absolute and proportional frontal region size increased rapidly in humans, this change was tightly correlated with corresponding size increases in other areas and whole brain size, and with decreases in frontal neuron densities. The search for the neural basis of human cognitive uniqueness should therefore focus less on the frontal lobes in isolation and more on distributed neural networks.

  5. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Y.T.; Loon, van J.J.A.; Takken, W.; Meijerink, J.; Smid, H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in the antenna of insects serve to encode odors in action potential activity conducted to the olfactory lobe of the deuterocerebrum. We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito An

  6. Antennal and cephalic organelles in the social wasp Paravespula germanica (Hymenoptera, Vespinae): form and possible function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agmon, Ifaat; Plotkin, Marian; Ermakov, Natalya Y; Barkay, Zahava; Ishay, Jacob S

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with hairs and organelles present on the head and antennae of the German wasp, Paravespula germanica, and their possible role in sensing the physical and chemical ambience, as well as in intercommunicating both while in flight outside or in the nest. Via scanning electron microscope photography, we detected on the frons plate of the wasp's head, hairs that were about 300 microm long and comprised the longest hairs on the body of the wasps. Additionally, the two antennae bore along their entire length photoreceptors, placoids, campaniforms, trichoids, and agmons. These organelles are located at high but variable density along the antennal segments. The paper provides the dimensions of each of the mentioned organelles, and discusses the possible functions of the organelles as well as of the hairs on the frons. Photographs taken via atomic force microscope reveal that the epicuticle of the antenna is of two typical shapes; one, bearing both longitudinal stripes as well as transverse bands that are about 1 mum in width, and a second granulated form. Conceivably, the wasp uses the various organelles mentioned to communicate with its mates that are some distance away, somewhat like the use of radar by humans.

  7. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-04

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals.

  8. Antennal responses of an oligolectic bee and its cleptoparasite to plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dötterl, Stefan

    2008-05-01

    Cleptoparasitic or cuckoo bees lay their eggs in nests of other bees, and the parasitic larvae feed the food that had been provided for the host larvae. Nothing is known about the specific signals used by the cuckoo bees for host nest finding, but previous studies have shown that olfactory cues originating from the host bee alone, or the host bee and the larval provision are essential. Here, I compared by using gas chromatography coupled to electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) the antennal responses of the oligolectic oil-bee Macropis fulvipes and their cleptoparasite, Epeoloides coecutiens, to dynamic headspace scent samples of Lysimachia punctata, a pollen and oil host of Macropis. Both bee species respond to some scent compounds emitted by L. punctata, and two compounds, which were also found in scent samples collected from a Macropis nest entrance, elicited clear signals in the antennae of both species. These compounds may not only play a role for host plant detection by Macropis, but also for host nest detection by Epeoloides. I hypothesise that oligolectic bees and their cleptoparasites use the same compounds for host plant and host nest detection, respectively.

  9. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm' bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors.

  10. Antennal morphology and sensilla ultrastructure of the web-spinning sawfly Acantholyda posticalis Matsumura (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiujie; Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Kong, Xiangbo; Wang, Hongbin; Shen, Gengchen; Zhang, Haijun

    2013-07-01

    Acantholyda posticalis (Hymenoptera: Pamphiliidae) is an important pine pest with a world-wide distribution. To clarify the olfactory receptive mechanism of A. posticalis, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the morphology, ultrastructure, and distribution of antennal sensilla of adults from two sites in China. The antennae were filiform, and the flagella comprised 32-35 flagellomeres. Six sensillum types were found. Sensilla chaetica were straight setae with sharply pointed tips and without dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla trichodea were characterized by a parallel-grooved wall and one terminal pore and were innervated by four dendrites at the base. Sensilla basiconica I possessed longitudinally grooved surfaces and multiple terminal pores, with five dendrites in the lumen. Sensilla basiconica II not only had a distinct terminal pore but also had numerous tiny wall pores and many dendritic branches within the sensillum lymph. Sensilla coeloconica had deep longitudinal grooves, one terminal pore and six dendrites, while sensilla campaniformia were thick-walled with a terminal opening and sensory nerve bundles in the lumen. Sensilla chaetica and s. trichodea were most abundant and distributed over the entire antennae, while s. basiconica I and II, s. coeloconica, and s. campaniformia were restricted to the ventral flagellar surfaces. Although the shape and structure of antennae were similar in males and females, females had significantly longer antennae than males, and males had significantly more s. basiconica I than females. We compared the morphology and structure of these sensilla to other Hymenoptera and discussed their possible functions.

  11. Morphology, Ultrastructure and Possible Functions of Antennal Sensilla of Sitodiplosis mosellana Géhin (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Li, Dan; Liu, Yang; Li, Xue-Jiao; Cheng, Wei-Ning; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the olfactory receptive mechanisms involved in host selection and courtship behavior of Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), one of the most important pests of wheat, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to examine the external morphology and ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla. The moniliform antennae exhibit obvious sexual dimorphism: antennae of the males are markedly longer than those of the females. Furthermore, each male flagellomere consists of two globular nodes, whereas each female flagellomere is cylindrical. Seven types of sensilla were identified in both sexes. Two types of s. chaetica have a lumen without dendrites and thick walls, suggesting that they are mechanoreceptors. S. trichodea and s. circumfila are typical chemoreceptors, possessing thin multiporous walls encircling a lumen with multiple dendrites. There are significantly more s. trichodea in female than in male, which may be related to host plant localization. In contrast, male s. circumfila are highly elongated compared to those of females, perhaps for pheromone detection. Peg-shaped s. coeloconica are innervated with unbranched dendrites extending from the base to the distal tip. Type 1 s. coeloconica, which have deep longitudinal grooves and finger-like projections on the surface, may serve as olfactory or humidity receptors, whereas type 2 s. coeloconica, smooth with a terminal pore, may be contact chemoreceptors. Also, this is the first report of Böhm’ bristles at proximal scape on antennae of Cecidomyiid species potentially functioning as mechanoreceptors. PMID:27623751

  12. Mapping and ultrastructure of antennal chemosensilla of the wheat bug Eurygaster maura

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto Romani; Marco Valerio Rossi Stacconi

    2009-01-01

    Antennae of the wheat stink bug Eurygaster maura L. (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae) were investigated to elucidate structure and distribution of antennal chemosensilla in females. Five type of sensilla were identified and characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Type 1 sensilla are mechanical and contact chemoreceptors with a single apical pore. Types 2 and 3 sensilla are multiporous chemoreceptors both with typical features of olfactory sensilla. Type 4 are multiporous peg-like sensilla, short and with a grooved surface. Type 5 are sensilla coeloconica with a smooth and aporous peg completely inserted in a sub-cuticular chamber. All types are distributed on the two flagellar segments, but we considered only the apical flagellomere in which the largest number of sensilla are located. The most abundant sensilla are type 3, while the less numerous are type 5. All types, except type 2, decreased in number from the tip to the base of the segment. The lower density of sensilla was recorded on the dorsal-internal part of the apical antennomere, while the higher density was recorded on the opposite side (extemal-ventral).

  13. Size determines antennal sensitivity and behavioral threshold to odors in bumblebee workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Halbig, Christine; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    The eusocial bumblebees exhibit pronounced size variation among workers of the same colony. Differently sized workers engage in different tasks (alloethism); large individuals are found to have a higher probability to leave the colony and search for food, whereas small workers tend to stay inside the nest and attend to nest duties. We investigated the effect of size variation on morphology and physiology of the peripheral olfactory system and the behavioral response thresholds to odors in workers of Bombus terrestris. Number and density of olfactory sensilla on the antennae correlate significantly with worker size. Consistent with these morphological changes, we found that antennal sensitivity to odors increases with body size. Antennae of large individuals show higher electroantennogram responses to a given odor concentration than those of smaller nestmates. This finding indicates that large antennae exhibit an increased capability to catch odor molecules and thus are more sensitive to odors than small antennae. We confirmed this prediction in a dual choice behavioral experiment showing that large workers indeed are able to respond correctly to much lower odor concentrations than small workers. Learning performance in these experiments did not differ between small and large bumblebees. Our results clearly show that, in the social bumblebees, variation in olfactory sensilla number due to size differences among workers strongly affects individual odor sensitivity. We speculate that superior odor sensitivity of large workers has favored size-related division of labor in bumblebee colonies.

  14. Antennal fine morphology of the threatened beetle Osmoderma eremita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), revealed by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauli, Agnese; Maurizi, Emanuela; Carpaneto, Giuseppe M; Chiari, Stefano; Svensson, Glenn P; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the antennal morphology of Osmoderma eremita, a threatened scarab beetle inhabiting tree hollows. O. eremita males produce a sex pheromone, (R)-(+)-γ-decalactone, responsible mainly for the attraction of females but also other males. Gross and fine morphology of microstructures including sensilla, microsculpture and pores were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The antenna of O. eremita showed the typical lamellicorn shape of scarab beetles, with a basal scape, a pedicel, a funicle composed of five antennomeres and a club composed of three lamellae. Six different subtypes of sensilla chaetica (Ch.1 - 6), Böhm sensilla (Bo), one subtype of sensilla basiconica (Ba.1), two subtypes of sensilla coeloconica (Co.1 - 2), two subtypes of sensilla placodea (Pl.1 - 2), pores and peculiar folds were described. The two sexes did not show any significant differences in the occurrence and number of the sensilla placodea, known to be responsible for the pheromone reception. Instead, some sexual differences were found on the occurrence and topology of three different microstructures: (1) one subtype of sensillum chaeticum (Ch.2) occurring on the pedicel only in males; (2) a characteristic pore occurring on the funicle only in males; (3) a peculiar fold occurring on different antennomeres of the funicle in the two sexes, on the fourth in males and on the fifth in females. A comparison between sensilla of O. eremita and those of other Scarabaeoidea is provided.

  15. Sustained lobe reconnection in Saturn's magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Jackman, C. M.; Mitchell, D. G.; Hospodarsky, G.; Kurth, W. S.; Hansen, K. C.

    2015-12-01

    The degree to which solar wind driving may affect Saturn's magnetosphere is not yet fully understood. We present observations that suggest that under some conditions the solar wind does govern the character of the plasma sheet in Saturn's outer magnetosphere. On 16 September 2006, the Cassini spacecraft, at a radial distance of 37 Rs near local midnight, observed a sunward flowing ion population for ~5 h, which was accompanied by enhanced Saturn Kilometric Radiation emissions. We interpret this beam as the outflow from a long-lasting episode of Dungey-type reconnection, i.e., reconnection of previously open flux containing magnetosheath material. The beam occurred in the middle of a several-day interval of SKR activity and enhanced lobe magnetic field strength, apparently caused by the arrival of a solar wind compression region with significantly higher than average dynamic pressure. The arrival of the high-pressure solar wind also marked a change in the composition of the plasma-sheet plasma, from water-group-dominated material clearly of inner-magnetosphere origin to material dominated by light-ion composition, consistent with captured magnetosheath plasma. This event suggests that under the influence of prolonged high solar wind dynamic pressure, the tail plasma sheet, which normally consists of inner-magnetospheric plasma, is eroded away by ongoing reconnection that then involves open lobe field lines. This process removes open magnetic flux from the lobes and creates a more Earth-like, Dungey-style outer plasma sheet dominantly of solar wind origin. This behavior is potentially a recurrent phenomenon driven by repeating high-pressure streams (corotating interaction regions) in the solar wind, which also drive geomagnetic storms at Earth.

  16. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango

    2000-06-01

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the antennal segments to bring phlebotomine more in line with other subfamilies and families while a description of antennal sensilla is provided for the first time in phlebotomine sandflies. Each flagellum consists of scape, pedicel, flagellomeres I to XIII and apiculus. The antennal segments contain scales and sensilla and the latter consist of sensilla trichodea, s. basiconica, s. auricillica, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica and their putative functions are discussed. The sensilla chaeticum hitherto known as antennal ascoid in the phlebotomine sandflies was used to differentiate within and between species. Differences in its relative size to the flagellomere between the populations of P. argentipes collected from the endemic and non-endemic areas in Tamil Nadu state, southern India were established. These differences are considered to be a character displacement as means of premating reproductive isolating mechanism among the populations/members of species complex.

  17. Status of and future research on thermosensory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eMizunami

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermosensation is critically important for survival of all animals. In the cockroach Periplaneta americana, thermoreceptor neurons on antennae and thermosensory interneurons in the antennal lobe have been characterized electrophysiologically, and recent studies using advanced transgenic technologies in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster have added much to the knowledge of these neurons, enabling us to discuss common principles of thermosensory processing systems in insects. Cockroaches and many other insects possess only one type of thermoreceptor neurons on antennae that are excited by cooling and inhibited by warming. In contrast, the antennae of fruit flies and other dipterans possess oppositely responding warm and cold receptor neurons. Despite differences in their thermoreceptive equipment, central processing of temperature information is much the same in flies and cockroaches. Axons of thermoreceptor neurons project to the margin of the antennal lobe and form glomeruli, from which cold, warm and cold-warm projection neurons originate, the last neurons being excited by both cooling and warming. Axons of antennal lobe thermosensory projection neurons of the antennal lobe terminate in three distinct areas of the protocerebrum, the mushroom body, lateral horn and posterior lateral protocerebrum, the last area also receiving termination of hygrosensory projection neurons. Such multiple thermosensory pathways may serve to control multiple forms of thermosensory behavior. Electrophysiological studies on cockroaches and transgenic approaches in flies are encouraged to complement each other for further elucidating general principles of thermosensory processing in the insect brain.

  18. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging.

  19. OCCIPITAL LOBE EPILEPSY OR MIGRAINE HEADACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrijelj Fadil E

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Occipital lobe epilepsies are rarely met in clinical practice, but when they occur, they can be misdiagnosed as migraine-like headache. Their prevalence ranges from 5%to 10% of all epilepsies. Seizures can occur at any age; etiologically speaking they can be symptomatic, cryptogenic and idiopathic (most often onsetis in childhood. Clinical symptomatology is manifested by partial epileptic seizures in the sense of visual elementary and/or complex manifestations, palinopsia, amaurosis, tonic head deviation, bulbus, nistagmus and headache. Propagation discharge to neighbour areas (temporal, parietal and frontal is a frequent occurrence appearing with complex partial seizures frequently finishing with secondary generalized tonic-clonic (GTC seizures. Case report: We are presenting a17-year-old male patient who has suffered from attacks of visual problemswith headache since 10 years of age. All the time it is treated as a migraine headache. During the last attack of headache the patient also had a loss of consciousness, EEG that was performed for the first time evidenced epileptic discharges of the occipital area. The therapy also included treatment with antiepileptic drug pregabalin resulting in seizure withdrawal. Conclusion: The appearance of visual symptoms followed by headache is most frequently qualified as migraine triggered headache. However, when antimigraine therapy does not give favorable results epileptic headache should be suspected, with obligatory performance of EEG recording. Occipital lobe epilepsy often presents diagnostic dilemmas due to clinical manifestations that are similar to that of non-migraine headache.

  20. Functional differences between global pre- and postsynaptic inhibition in the Drosophila olfactory circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi eOizumi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Drosophila antennal lobe is subdivided into multiple glomeruli, each of which represents a unique olfactory information processing channel. In each glomerulus, feedforward input from olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs is transformed into activity of projection neurons (PNs, which represent the output. Recent investigations have indicated that lateral pre-synaptic inhibitory input from other glomeruli controls the gain of this transformation. Here, we address why this gain control acts `pre'-synaptically rather than `post'-synaptically. Postsynaptic inhibition could work similarly to presynaptic inhibition with regard to regulating the firing rates of PNs depending on the stimulus intensity. We investigate the differences between pre- and postsynaptic gain control in terms of odor discriminability by simulating a network model of the Drosophila antennal lobe with experimental data. We first demonstrate that only presynaptic inhibition can reproduce the type of gain control observed in experiments. We next show that presynaptic inhibition decorrelates PN responses whereas postsynaptic inhibition does not. Due to this effect, presynaptic gain control enhances the accuracy of odor discrimination by a linear decoder while its postsynaptic counterpart only diminishes it. Our results provide the reason gain control operates `pre'-synaptically but not `post'-synaptically in the Drosophila antennal lobe.

  1. Differential combinatorial coding of pheromones in two olfactory subsystems of the honey bee brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcaud, Julie; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-03-11

    Neural coding of pheromones has been intensively studied in insects with a particular focus on sex pheromones. These studies favored the view that pheromone compounds are processed within specific antennal lobe glomeruli following a specialized labeled-line system. However, pheromones play crucial roles in an insect's life beyond sexual attraction, and some species use many different pheromones making such a labeled-line organization unrealistic. A combinatorial coding scheme, in which each component activates a set of broadly tuned units, appears more adapted in this case. However, this idea has not been tested thoroughly. We focused here on the honey bee Apis mellifera, a social insect that relies on a wide range of pheromones to ensure colony cohesion. Interestingly, the honey bee olfactory system harbors two central parallel pathways, whose functions remain largely unknown. Using optophysiological recordings of projection neurons, we compared the responses of these two pathways to 27 known honey bee pheromonal compounds emitted by the brood, the workers, and the queen. We show that while queen mandibular pheromone is processed by l-ALT (lateral antennal lobe tract) neurons and brood pheromone is mainly processed by m-ALT (median antennal lobe tract) neurons, worker pheromones induce redundant activity in both pathways. Moreover, all tested pheromonal compounds induce combinatorial activity from several AL glomeruli. These findings support the combinatorial coding scheme and suggest that higher-order brain centers reading out these combinatorial activity patterns may eventually classify olfactory signals according to their biological meaning.

  2. Neuropsychological profile in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Daniela; Ferreira, Naide; Horácio, Góis; Reis, Alexandra; Jacinto, Gonçalo

    2013-01-01

    The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common type of refractory epilepsy in adults. There is a wide consensus regarding the commitment of memory in temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis. However, the consensus is not as widespread with respect to the other functions such as attention, executive functions, language and intellectual performance. For this study we analyzed retrospectively a group of 76 patients with refractory epilepsy, 48 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy ...

  3. ACCESSORY LOBE OF RIGHT LUNG: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Manicka Vasuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomical variations of lungs in the form of Accessory lobe and abnormality in the fissures are important for the surgeons to avoid possible injuries to the neighbouring structures. We report a case of Accessory lobe of right lung between middle and lower lobe in a male cadaver which was found during routine dissection in the Anatomy department, PSG IMS & R. Fissure and lobes of left lung was normal. Anatomical knowledge of such variations are helpful for Cardiothoracic surgeons in lobectomies, surgical resections involving individual segments and for Radiologists for interpreting X – rays,CT & MRI scans.

  4. Planck revealed bulk motion of Centaurus A lobes

    CERN Document Server

    De Paolis, F; Nucita, A A; Ingrosso, G; Kashin, A L; Khachatryan, H G; Mirzoyan, S; Yegorian, G; Jetzer, Ph; Qadir, A; Vetrugno, D

    2015-01-01

    Planck data towards the active galaxy Centaurus A are analyzed in the 70, 100 and 143 GHz bands. We find a temperature asymmetry of the northern radio lobe with respect to the southern one that clearly extends at least up to 5 degrees from the Cen A center and diminishes towards the outer regions of the lobes. That transparent parameter - the temperature asymmetry - thus has to carry a principal information, i.e. indication on the line-of-sight bulk motion of the lobes, while the increase of that asymmetry at smaller radii reveals the differential dynamics of the lobes as expected at ejections from the center.

  5. Analysis of the Antennal Transcriptome and Insights into Olfactory Genes in Hyphantria cunea (Drury)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian-Tian; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Long; Yang, Yun-Qiu; Huang, Chang-Chun; Jiang, Li-Ya; Ding, De-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Hyphantria cunea (Drury) (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) is an invasive insect pest which, in China, causes unprecedented damage and economic losses due to its extreme fecundity and wide host range, including forest and shade trees, and even crops. Compared to the better known lepidopteran species which use Type-I pheromones, little is known at the molecular level about the olfactory mechanisms of host location and mate choice in H. cunea, a species using Type-II lepidopteran pheromones. In the present study, the H. cunea antennal transcriptome was constructed by Illumina Hiseq 2500TM sequencing, with the aim of discovering olfaction-related genes. We obtained 64,020,776 clean reads, and 59,243 unigenes from the analysis of the transcriptome, and the putative gene functions were annotated using gene ontology (GO) annotation. We further identified 124 putative chemosensory unigenes based on homology searches and phylogenetic analysis, including 30 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 52 odorant receptors (ORs), 14 ionotropic receptors (IRs), nine gustatory receptors (GRs) and two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). We also found many conserved motif patterns of OBPs and CSPs using a MEME system. Moreover, we systematically analyzed expression patterns of OBPs and CSPs based on reverse transcription PCR and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) with RNA extracted from different tissues and life stages of both sexes in H. cunea. The antennae-biased expression may provide a deeper further understanding of olfactory processing in H. cunea. The first ever identification of olfactory genes in H. cunea may provide new leads for control of this major pest. PMID:27741298

  6. Characterization of an antennal carboxylesterase from the pest moth Spodoptera littoralis degrading a host plant odorant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Durand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carboxyl/cholinesterases (CCEs are highly diversified in insects. These enzymes have a broad range of proposed functions, in neuro/developmental processes, dietary detoxification, insecticide resistance or hormone/pheromone degradation. As few functional data are available on purified or recombinant CCEs, the physiological role of most of these enzymes is unknown. Concerning their role in olfaction, only two CCEs able to metabolize sex pheromones have been functionally characterized in insects. These enzymes are only expressed in the male antennae, and secreted into the lumen of the pheromone-sensitive sensilla. CCEs able to hydrolyze other odorants than sex pheromones, such as plant volatiles, have not been identified. METHODOLOGY: In Spodoptera littoralis, a major crop pest, a diversity of antennal CCEs has been previously identified. We have employed here a combination of molecular biology, biochemistry and electrophysiology approaches to functionally characterize an intracellular CCE, SlCXE10, whose predominant expression in the olfactory sensilla suggested a role in olfaction. A recombinant protein was produced using the baculovirus system and we tested its catabolic properties towards a plant volatile and the sex pheromone components. CONCLUSION: We showed that SlCXE10 could efficiently hydrolyze a green leaf volatile and to a lesser extent the sex pheromone components. The transcript level in male antennae was also strongly induced by exposure to this plant odorant. In antennae, SlCXE10 expression was associated with sensilla responding to the sex pheromones and to plant odours. These results suggest that a CCE-based intracellular metabolism of odorants could occur in insect antennae, in addition to the extracellular metabolism occurring within the sensillar lumen. This is the first functional characterization of an Odorant-Degrading Enzyme active towards a host plant volatile.

  7. Frontal Lobe Function in Chess Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Nejati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chess is considered as a cognitive game because of severe engagement of the mental resources during playing. The purpose of this study is evaluation of frontal lobe function of chess players with matched non-players. Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST data showed no difference between the player and non-player groups in preservation error and completed categories but surprisingly showed significantly lower grade of the player group in correct response. Our data reveal that chess players dont have any preference in any stage of Stroop test. Chess players dont have any preference in selective attention, inhibition and executive cognitive function. Chess players' have lower shifting abilities than non-players.

  8. Computational Studies of Lobed Forced Mixer Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.Hu; S.C.M.Yu; 等

    1998-01-01

    Full Navier-Stokes Analyses have been conducted for the flows behind the trailing edge of a lobed forced mixer,The governing equations are derived from the time-dependent compressible Navier-Stokes equations and discretized in the finite-difference form.A simple two-layer eddy viscosity model has also been used to account for the turbulence.Computed results are compared with some of the velocity measurements using a laser-Doppler anemomter(Yu and Yip (1997),In General,good agreement can be obtained in the streamwise mean velocity distribution but the decay of the streamwise circulation is underpredicted.Some suggestions to the discrepancy are proposed.

  9. Linear correlation between the number of olfactory sensory neurons expressing a given mouse odorant receptor gene and the total volume of the corresponding glomeruli in the olfactory bulb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressel, Olaf Christian; Khan, Mona

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chemosensory specificity in the main olfactory system of the mouse relies on the expression of ∼1,100 odorant receptor (OR) genes across millions of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE), and on the coalescence of OSN axons into ∼3,600 glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. A traditional approach for visualizing OSNs and their axons consists of tagging an OR gene genetically with an axonal marker that is cotranslated with the OR by virtue of an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we report full cell counts for 15 gene‐targeted strains of the OR‐IRES‐marker design coexpressing a fluorescent protein. These strains represent 11 targeted OR genes, a 1% sample of the OR gene repertoire. We took an empirical, “count every cell” strategy: we counted all fluorescent cell profiles with a nuclear profile within the cytoplasm, on all serial coronal sections under a confocal microscope, a total of 685,673 cells in 56 mice at postnatal day 21. We then applied a strain‐specific Abercrombie correction to these OSN counts in order to obtain a closer approximation of the true OSN numbers. We found a 17‐fold range in the average (corrected) OSN number across these 11 OR genes. In the same series of coronal sections, we then determined the total volume of the glomeruli (TGV) formed by coalescence of the fluorescent axons. We found a strong linear correlation between OSN number and TGV, suggesting that TGV can be used as a surrogate measurement for estimating OSN numbers in these gene‐targeted strains. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:199–209, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26100963

  10. Fras1, a basement membrane-associated protein mutated in Fraser syndrome, mediates both the initiation of the mammalian kidney and the integrity of renal glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitera, Jolanta E; Scambler, Peter J; Woolf, Adrian S

    2008-12-15

    FRAS1 is mutated in some individuals with Fraser syndrome (FS) and the encoded protein is expressed in embryonic epidermal cells, localizing in their basement membrane (BM). Syndactyly and cryptophthalmos in FS are sequelae of skin fragility but the bases for associated kidney malformations are unclear. We demonstrate that Fras1 is expressed in the branching ureteric bud (UB), and that renal agenesis occurs in homozygous Fras1 null mutant blebbed (bl) mice on a C57BL6J background. In vivo, the bl/bl bud fails to invade metanephric mesenchyme which undergoes involution, events replicated in organ culture. The expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and growth-differentiation factor 11 was defective in bl/bl renal primordia in vivo, whereas, in culture, the addition of either growth factor restored bud invasion into the mesenchyme. Mutant primordia also showed deficient expression of Hoxd11 and Six2 transcription factors, whereas the activity of bone morphogenetic protein 4, an anti-branching molecule, was upregulated. In wild types, Fras1 was also expressed by nascent nephrons. Foetal glomerular podocytes expressed Fras1 transcripts and Fras1 immunolocalized in a glomerular BM-like pattern. On a mixed background, bl mutants, and also compound mutants for bl and my, another bleb strain, sometimes survive into adulthood. These mice have two kidneys, which contain subsets of glomeruli with perturbed nephrin, podocin, integrin alpha3 and fibronectin expression. Thus, Fras1 protein coats branching UB epithelia and is strikingly upregulated in the nephron lineage after mesenchymal/epithelial transition. Fras1 deficiency causes defective interactions between the bud and mesenchyme, correlating with disturbed expression of key nephrogenic molecules. Furthermore, Fras1 may also be required for the formation of normal glomeruli.

  11. Rotating superconductor magnet for producing rotating lobed magnetic field lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Sadek K.; Sampson, William B.; Leonard, Edward F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention provides a rotating superconductor magnet for producing a rotating lobed magnetic field, comprising a cryostat; a superconducting magnet in the cryostat having a collar for producing a lobed magnetic field having oppositely directed adjacent field lines; rotatable support means for selectively rotating the superconductor magnet; and means for energizing the superconductor magnet.

  12. Lung lobe segmentation based on statistical atlas and graph cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimura, Yukitaka; Kitasaka, Takayuki; Honma, Hirotoshi; Takabatake, Hirotsugu; Mori, Masaki; Natori, Hiroshi; Mori, Kensaku

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a novel method that can extract lung lobes by utilizing probability atlas and multilabel graph cuts. Information about pulmonary structures plays very important role for decision of the treatment strategy and surgical planning. The human lungs are divided into five anatomical regions, the lung lobes. Precise segmentation and recognition of lung lobes are indispensable tasks in computer aided diagnosis systems and computer aided surgery systems. A lot of methods for lung lobe segmentation are proposed. However, these methods only target the normal cases. Therefore, these methods cannot extract the lung lobes in abnormal cases, such as COPD cases. To extract lung lobes in abnormal cases, this paper propose a lung lobe segmentation method based on probability atlas of lobe location and multilabel graph cuts. The process consists of three components; normalization based on the patient's physique, probability atlas generation, and segmentation based on graph cuts. We apply this method to six cases of chest CT images including COPD cases. Jaccard index was 79.1%.

  13. Effects of Various Degrees of Antennal Ablation on Mating and Oviposition Preferences of the Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Xi-zhong; DENG Cai-ping; SUN Xue-jun; HAO Chi

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy, we investigated the distribution of the trichoid, basiconic, and coeloconic sensilla on the antennae of the diamondback moth (DBM;Plutella xylostella). The trichoid sensilla were the most abundant sensory organ, and the male moth antennae host signiifcantly more trichoid sensilla than female moth antennae. Conversely, basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were found more frequently on female than on male antennae. We performed experiments with various degrees of antennal ablation and demonstrated that DBM antennae played a key role in the control of mating and oviposition. We found that neither oviposition preference nor mating behaviors changed signiifcantly when less than 1/4 of both antennae were removed. However, there was a signiifcant behavioral change when the antennae were ablated by more than half. As the length of the antenna was shortened, the successful mating rate decreased and mating peak was delayed. An otherwise consistent host preference for oviposition was eliminated when both antennae were completely removed. Furthermore, we found that the number of trichoid sensilla was positively correlated with mating rate and oviposition preference. However, the numbers of basiconic and coeloconic sensilla were not correlated with mating rate and mating peak, but highly correlated with oviposition preference. Taken together, our results indicate that antennal sensory information plays a critical role in the mating and oviposition behaviors of this economically important pest.

  14. Antennal sensilla of female Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a nymphal parasitoid of the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Wei-Jian; Niu, Li-Ming; Fu, Yue-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Encarsia guadeloupae Viggiani (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a minute, obligate endoparasitoid against the spiraling whitefly Aleurodicus dispersus nymph. The external morphology and distribution of the antennal sensilla of female E. guadeloupae were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Antennae of female E. guadeloupae were geniculate in shape, which consist of scape with a radicula, pedicel, and flagellum. Eight morphological sensilla types were recorded in the females: nonporous sensilla chaetica (CH-NP) and nonporous sensilla trichodea (ST-NP); uniporous sensilla chaetica (CH-UP) and uniporous sensilla trichodea (ST-UP) with a tip pore, basiconic capitate peg sensilla with numerous pores open at the bottom of the grooves; multiporous sensilla placoid (MSP) with the multiporous cuticular structure; uniporous rod-like sensilla (RO-UP) with robust grooved surfaces and the tremendous apical hole; nonporous finger-like sensilla (FI-NP) with abundant pimples at the bulgy, mortar-shaped short stalk. In order to further explore the host location mechanisms and courtship behavior of E. guadeloupae, the possible roles of the antennal sensilla of this species were discussed.

  15. An Efficient Approach for Identifying Stable Lobes with Discretization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baohai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach for quick identification of chatter stability lobes with discretization method. Firstly, three different kinds of stability regions are defined: absolute stable region, valid region, and invalid region. Secondly, while identifying the chatter stability lobes, three different regions within the chatter stability lobes are identified with relatively large time intervals. Thirdly, stability boundary within the valid regions is finely calculated to get exact chatter stability lobes. The proposed method only needs to test a small portion of spindle speed and cutting depth set; about 89% computation time is savedcompared with full discretization method. It spends only about10 minutes to get exact chatter stability lobes. Since, based on discretization method, the proposed method can be used for different immersion cutting including low immersion cutting process, the proposed method can be directly implemented in the workshop to promote machining parameters selection efficiency.

  16. Modeling and regression analysis of semiochemical dose-response curves of insect antennal reception and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, John A

    2013-08-01

    Dose-response curves of the effects of semiochemicals on neurophysiology and behavior are reported in many articles in insect chemical ecology. Most curves are shown in figures representing points connected by straight lines, in which the x-axis has order of magnitude increases in dosage vs. responses on the y-axis. The lack of regression curves indicates that the nature of the dose-response relationship is not well understood. Thus, a computer model was developed to simulate a flux of various numbers of pheromone molecules (10(3) to 5 × 10(6)) passing by 10(4) receptors distributed among 10(6) positions along an insect antenna. Each receptor was depolarized by at least one strike by a molecule, and subsequent strikes had no additional effect. The simulations showed that with an increase in pheromone release rate, the antennal response would increase in a convex fashion and not in a logarithmic relation as suggested previously. Non-linear regression showed that a family of kinetic formation functions fit the simulated data nearly perfectly (R(2) >0.999). This is reasonable because olfactory receptors have proteins that bind to the pheromone molecule and are expected to exhibit enzyme kinetics. Over 90 dose-response relationships reported in the literature of electroantennographic and behavioral bioassays in the laboratory and field were analyzed by the logarithmic and kinetic formation functions. This analysis showed that in 95% of the cases, the kinetic functions explained the relationships better than the logarithmic (mean of about 20% better). The kinetic curves become sigmoid when graphed on a log scale on the x-axis. Dose-catch relationships in the field are similar to dose-EAR (effective attraction radius, in which a spherical radius indicates the trapping effect of a lure) and the circular EARc in two dimensions used in mass trapping models. The use of kinetic formation functions for dose-response curves of attractants, and kinetic decay curves for

  17. Visual inputs to the mushroom body calyces of the whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus: modality switching in an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chan; Strausfeld, Nicholas J

    2012-08-15

    The mushroom bodies are prominent lobed centers in the forebrain, or protocerebrum, of most insects. Previous studies on mushroom bodies have focused on higher olfactory processing, including olfactory-based learning and memory. Anatomical studies provide strong support that in terrestrial insects with mushroom bodies, the primary input region, or calyces, are predominantly supplied by olfactory projection neurons from the antennal lobe glomeruli. In aquatic species that generally lack antennal lobes, the calyces are vestigial or absent. Here we report an exception to this in the whirligig beetle Dineutus sublineatus (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). This aquatic species lives on water and is equipped with two separate pairs of compound eyes, one pair viewing above and one viewing below the water surface. As in other aquatic insects, the whirligig beetle lacks antennal lobes, but unlike other aquatic insects its mushroom bodies possess robust calyces. Golgi impregnations and fluorescent tracer injections revealed that the calyces are exclusively supplied by visual neurons from the medulla of the dorsal eye optic lobes. No other sensory inputs reach the calyces, thereby showing a complete switch of calyx modality from olfaction to vision. Potential functions of the mushroom bodies of D. sublineatus are discussed in the context of the behavioral ecology of whirligig beetles.

  18. Extrahippocampal Desynchronization in Nonlesional Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is traditionally associated with both hypersynchronous activity in the form of interictal epileptic discharges and hippocampal sclerosis, recent findings suggest that desynchronization also plays a central role in the dynamics of this pathology. The objective of this work is to show the imbalance existing between mesial activities in patients suffering from mesial TLE, with normal mesial structures. Foramen ovale recordings from six patients with mesial TLE and one with lateral TLE were analyzed through a cluster analysis and synchronization matrices. None of the patients present findings in the MRI presurgical evaluation. Numerical analysis was carried out in three different situations: awake and sleep interictal and also during the preictal stage. High levels of desynchronization ipsilateral to the epileptic side were present in mesial TLE patients. Low levels of desynchronization were present in the lateral TLE patient during the interictal stage and almost zero in the preictal stage. Implications of these findings in relation with seizure spreading are discussed.

  19. Papillary Carcinoma Arising from the Pyramidal Lobe of the Thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Gi; Lee, Sarah; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young [Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    The authors present a rare case of papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 54-year-old woman, who presented with a right submental palpable mass. An ultrasound evaluation depicted a 3 cm mixed echoic mass from the thyroid cartilage level without a focal lesion in the thyroid gland. Surgical specimens obtained during bilateral thyroidectomy confirmed papillary carcinoma of the pyramidal lobe. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case report to describe papillary carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland

  20. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  1. Decreased frontal lobe function in people with Internet addiction disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Liu; Shunke Zhou; Fatema Esmail; Lingjiang Li; Zhifeng Kou; Weihui Li; Xueping Gao; Zhiyuan Wang; Changlian Tan; Yan Zhang

    2013-01-01

    In our previous studies, we showed that frontal lobe and brainstem functions were abnormal in on-line game addicts. In this study, 14 students with Internet addiction disorder and 14 matched healthy controls underwent proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure cerebral function. Results demonstrated that the ratio of N-acetylaspartate to creatine decreased, but the ratio of cho-line-containing compounds to creatine increased in the bilateral frontal lobe white matter in people with Internet addiction disorder. However, these ratios were mostly unaltered in the brainstem, suggesting that frontal lobe function decreases in people with Internet addiction disorder.

  2. New insights into an ancient insect nose: the olfactory pathway of Lepismachilis y-signata (Archaeognatha: Machilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missbach, Christine; Harzsch, Steffen; Hansson, Bill S

    2011-07-01

    Hexapods most likely derived from an aquatic ancestor, which they shared with crustaceans. During the transition from water to land, their sensory systems had to face the new physiological demands that terrestrial conditions impose. This process also concerns the sense of smell and, more specifically, detection of volatile, air-borne chemicals. In insects, olfaction plays an important role in orientation, mating choice, and food and host finding behavior. The first integration center of odor information in the insect brain is the antennal lobe, which is targeted by the afferents from olfactory sensory neurons on the antennae. Within the antennal lobe of most pterygote insects, spherical substructures called olfactory glomeruli are present. In order to gain insights into the evolution of the structure of the central olfactory pathway in insects, we analyzed a representative of the wingless Archaeognatha or jumping bristletails, using immunocytochemistry, antennal backfills and histological section series combined with 3D reconstruction. In the deutocerebrum of Lepismachilis y-signata, we found three different neuropil regions. Two of them show a glomerular organization, but these glomeruli differ in their shape from those in all other insect groups. The connection of the glomerular neuropils to higher brain centers remains unclear and mushroom bodies are absent as reported from other archaeognathan species. We discuss the evolutionary implications of these findings.

  3. Cognitive impairments in patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahgol Tavakoli

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions: These findings indicated that WMS-III and WAIS-R can differentiate patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy from normal subjects. However, the obtained cognitive profile could not differentiate between the right and the left TLE.

  4. Impact of Modal Parameters on Milling Process Chatter Stability Lobes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhongqun; LIU Qiang

    2006-01-01

    Modals of the machine/tool and machine/part system are the principal factors affecting the stability of a milling process. Based on the modeling of chatter stability of milling process, the influence of modal parameters on chatter stability lobes independently or jointly has been analyzed by simulation. Peak-to-valley specific value, lobe coefficient and the corresponding calculation formula have been put forward. General laws and steps of modal simplification for multimodality system have been summarized.

  5. Topographic and Stochastic Influences on Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards, and interpreting the significance of lava morphology on Earth and other planetary surfaces. Active pahoehoe lobes on Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, were examined on 21-26 February 2006 using oblique time-series stereo-photogrammetry and differential global positioning system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the local discharge rate for peripheral lava lobes was generally constant at 0.0061 +/- 0.0019 m3/s, but the areal coverage rate of the lobes exhibited a periodic increase every 4.13 +/- 0.64 minutes. This periodicity is attributed to the time required for the pressure within the liquid lava core to exceed the cooling induced strength of its margins. The pahoehoe flow advanced through a series of down slope and cross-slope breakouts, which began as approximately 0.2 m-thick units (i.e., toes) that coalesced and inflated to become approximately meter-thick lobes. The lobes were thickest above the lowest points of the initial topography and above shallow to reverse facing slopes, defined relative to the local flow direction. The flow path was typically controlled by high-standing topography, with the zone directly adjacent to the final lobe margin having an average relief that was a few centimeters higher than the lava inundated region. This suggests that toe-scale topography can, at least temporarily, exert strong controls on pahoehoe flow paths by impeding the lateral spreading of the lobe. Observed cycles of enhanced areal spreading and inflated lobe morphology are also explored using a model that considers the statistical likelihood of sequential breakouts from active flow margins and the effects of topographic barriers.

  6. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: structure and distribution of sensilla on the flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2009-10-01

    The antennae are a critically important component of the ant's highly elaborated chemical communication systems. However, our understanding of the organization of the sensory systems on the antennae of ants, from peripheral receptors to central and output systems, is poorly understood. Consequently, we have used scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy to create virtually complete maps of the structure, numbers of sensory neurons, and distribution patterns of all types of external sensilla on the antennal flagellum of all types of colony members of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Based on the outer cuticular structures, the sensilla have been classified into seven types: coelocapitular, coeloconic, ampullaceal, basiconic, trichoid-I, trichoid-II, and chaetic sensilla. Retrograde staining of antennal nerves has enabled us to count the number of sensory neurons housed in the different types of sensilla: three in a coelocapitular sensillum, three in a coeloconic sensillum, one in an ampullaceal sensillum, over 130 in a basiconic sensillum, 50-60 in a trichoid-I sensillum, and 8-9 in a trichoid-II sensillum. The basiconic sensilla, which are cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive in the ant, are present in workers and unmated queens but absent in males. Coelocapitular sensilla (putatively hygro- and thermoreceptive) have been newly identified in this study. Coelocapitular, coeloconic, and ampullaceal sensilla form clusters and show biased distributions on flagellar segments of antennae in all colony members. The total numbers of sensilla per flagellum are about 9000 in unmated queens, 7500 in workers, and 6000 in males. This is the first report presenting comprehensive sensillar maps of antennae in ants.

  7. Medical image of the week: right middle lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristan EA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 73 year-old woman, a lifetime non-smoker, presented to the pulmonary clinic with chronic dyspnea on exertion and cough. Physical exam was unremarkable and pulmonary function testing showed normal spirometry. A chest radiograph revealed calcified mediastinal adenopathy and increased density in the right middle lobe region (Figure 1. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed significant narrowing of the right middle lobe bronchus with partial atelectasis and prominent calcified mediastinal lymphadenopathy (Figure 2. Bronchoscopy showed no endobronchial lesions but there was evidence of extrinsic compression surrounding the right middle lobe orifice. An endobronchial biopsy revealed noncaseating granulomas. Bronchoscopy cultures and cytology were negative and this was presumed to be from a previous infection with histoplasmosis given the patient’s long-term residence in an endemic area. Given chronic narrowing of right middle lobe bronchus with persistent atelectasis of the right middle lobe, the patient was diagnosed with right middle lobe syndrome. ...

  8. On The Depolarization Asymmetry Seen in Giant Radio Lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, M B

    2012-01-01

    The depolarization asymmetry seen in double-lobed radio sources, referred to as the Laing-Garrington (L-G) effect where more rapid depolarization is seen in the lobe with no visible jet as the wavelength increases, can be explained either by internal differences between the two lobes, or by an external Faraday screen that lies in front of only the depolarized lobe. If the jet one-sidedness is due to relativistic beaming the depolarization asymmetry must be due to an intervening Faraday screen. If it is intrinsic the depolarization asymmetry must be related to internal differences in the lobes. We assume in this paper that the speed in the outer jet of several Fanaroff-Riley Class 1 (FRI) sources exhibiting the L-G effect is close to the 0.1c reported by several other investigators. For these sources we find that the jet one-sidedness cannot be explained by beaming and therefore must be intrinsic. In these FRI sources the L-G effect must be due to differences that originate inside the lobes themselves. Althoug...

  9. Identifying the magnetotail lobes with Cluster magnetometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, J. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Freeman, M. P.; Forsyth, C.; Rae, I. J.

    2016-02-01

    We describe a novel method for identifying times when a spacecraft is in Earth's magnetotail lobes solely using magnetometer data. We propose that lobe intervals can be well identified as times when the magnetic field is strong and relatively invariant, defined using thresholds in the magnitude of BX and the standard deviation σ of the magnetic field magnitude. Using data from the Cluster spacecraft at downtail distances greater than 8 RE during 2001-2009, we find that thresholds of 30 nT and 3.5 nT, respectively, optimize agreement with a previous, independently derived lobe identification method that used both magnetic and plasma data over the same interval. Specifically, our method has a moderately high accuracy (66%) and a low probability of false detection (11%) in comparison to the other method. Furthermore, our method identifies the lobe on many other occasions when the previous method was unable to make any identification and yields longer continuous intervals in the lobe than the previous method, with intervals at the 90th percentile being triple the length. Our method also allows for analyses of the lobes outside the time span of the previous method.

  10. Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Willoughby B; Bootzin, Richard R

    2004-04-01

    Many studies in humans suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning, especially functioning in the right temporal lobe, is involved in mystical and religious experiences. We investigated temporal lobe functioning in individuals who reported having transcendental "near-death experiences" during life-threatening events. These individuals were found to have more temporal lobe epileptiform electroencephalographic activity than control subjects and also reported significantly more temporal lobe epileptic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, epileptiform activity was nearly completely lateralized to the left hemisphere. The near-death experience was not associated with dysfunctional stress reactions such as dissociation, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance abuse, but rather was associated with positive coping styles. Additional analyses revealed that near-death experiencers had altered sleep patterns, specifically, a shorter duration of sleep and delayed REM sleep relative to the control group. These results suggest that altered temporal lobe functioning may be involved in the near-death experience and that individuals who have had such experiences are physiologically distinct from the general population.

  11. Prevalence of Enhanced Granular Expression of Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A in the Glomeruli of Japanese Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakura, Takamasa; Ohashi, Naro; Kato, Akihiko; Baba, Satoshi; Yasuda, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Autoantibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A), which mainly belong to the IgG4 subclass, were reported as associated antibodies for the development of MN. Although PLA2R is a major target antigen for idiopathic MN, the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for PLA2R in Japan is lower than that in other countries. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of THSD7A and PLA2R in renal specimens of MN patients to estimate the prevalence of THSD7A/PLA2R-related idiopathic MN in Japan. Enhanced granular expression of THSD7A and PLA2R was detected in 9.1% and 52.7%, respectively, of the patients with idiopathic MN. Although none of patients with secondary MN displayed enhanced granular expression of THSD7A, 5.4% of them had enhanced granular expression of PLA2R. In conclusion, the prevalence of enhanced granular expression of THSD7A in the glomeruli of Japanese patients with idiopathic MN was higher than the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for THSD7A in USA and Europe.

  12. Prevalence of Enhanced Granular Expression of Thrombospondin Type-1 Domain-Containing 7A in the Glomeruli of Japanese Patients with Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Iwakura

    Full Text Available Membranous nephropathy (MN is a leading cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. Autoantibodies against M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R and thrombospondin type-1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A, which mainly belong to the IgG4 subclass, were reported as associated antibodies for the development of MN. Although PLA2R is a major target antigen for idiopathic MN, the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for PLA2R in Japan is lower than that in other countries. In this study, we conducted immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of THSD7A and PLA2R in renal specimens of MN patients to estimate the prevalence of THSD7A/PLA2R-related idiopathic MN in Japan. Enhanced granular expression of THSD7A and PLA2R was detected in 9.1% and 52.7%, respectively, of the patients with idiopathic MN. Although none of patients with secondary MN displayed enhanced granular expression of THSD7A, 5.4% of them had enhanced granular expression of PLA2R. In conclusion, the prevalence of enhanced granular expression of THSD7A in the glomeruli of Japanese patients with idiopathic MN was higher than the prevalence of MN patients seropositive for THSD7A in USA and Europe.

  13. Treatment with a Ca(2+) channel blocker, barnidipine, reduces platelet-derived growth factor B-chain mRNA in glomeruli of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, M; Yamauchi, T; Ogura, T; Oishi, T; Mimura, Y; Otsuka, F; Kashihara, N; Makino, H

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the effect of barnidipine hydrochloride, a Ca(2+) channel blocker, on the glomerular level of mRNA expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) B-chain and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta(1) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen-week-old SHR were provided with food containing barnidipine (0.6 mg/g of food, average dose during treatment: 53 mg/kg of body mass/day) for 3 weeks. A stable reduction in systolic blood pressure relative to that of age-matched control SHR was recorded after week 1 of therapy. Although no renal histological changes were observed after 3 weeks of treatment with barnidipine, the level of expression of PDGF B-chain mRNA in glomeruli was significantly reduced relative to that in control SHR. The glomerular level of TGF-beta(1) mRNA expression was not affected by the treatment. Treatment with barnidipine significantly reduced the excretion of urinary protein. Thus, the stable reduction in systemic blood pressure by barnidipine is associated with a reduction in PDGF B-chain mRNA expression in the glomerulus and reduction in urinary protein excretion in SHR.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy of the antennal sensilla in female Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Microscopia eletrônica de varredura das sensilas antenais em fêmeas de Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    OpenAIRE

    M. L. Felippe-Bauer; P. G. Bauer; F. C. Silva Filho

    1989-01-01

    We studied by sanning electron microscopy the number, types, structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of the medical important ceratopogonid Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi). There are about 174 sense organs on the antenmal flagellum which are classified as sensilla chaetica; sharp-tipped and blunt-tipped (type I and II) sensilla trichodea; sensilla basiconica; sensilla coeloconica; sensilla ampullacea and styloconic-type sensilla. The role of antennal sensory organs are discussed reg...

  15. Successive Torsion of the Right Middle and Left Cranial Lung Lobes in a Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, Luc; DiFruscia, Rocky; Olivieri, Michel

    1986-01-01

    This case report describes the torsion of two lung lobes in a dog. The animal was first presented for a torsion of the right middle lung lobe. Following the surgical resection of that lobe, the dog suffered another torsion of the left cranial lung lobe (cranial and caudal segments).

  16. A CLINICORADIOLOGICAL STUDY OF MIDDLE LOBE SYNDROME DUE TO TUBERCULOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Karmakar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Although pulmonary tuberculosis is a common disease in India, tuberculosis of right middle lobe is infrequent. Tuberculosis of the right middle lobe leading to chronic collapse is a cause of Right Middle Lobe syndrome. METHODS The patients attended Pulmonary Medicine Outdoor at Era’s Lucknow Medical College, Lucknow from April 2015 to March 2016. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinicoradiological features of patients of middle lobe syndrome due to tuberculosis. All patients presented with cough with or without expectoration, fever, chest pain, haemoptysis and constitutional symptoms like loss of appetite and weight. Chest X-ray PA view revealed ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border. HRCT thorax was done in each case. The diagnosis of tuberculous aetiology was based on (1 History of chronic cough and fever, not responding to antibiotic therapy and constitutional symptoms, (2 A positive tuberculin test using 2 TU of PPD RT 23 and (3 Detection of acid fast bacilli by direct smear or Mycobacterium tuberculosis by polymerase chain reaction in bronchoalveolar lavage. RESULTS Out of 10 patients, 4 (40% were males and 6 (60% were females. The mean ages of the males were 55.8 years and females were 60.8 years and overall mean age was 59 years. Most of the patients were females and belonged to the middle age and old age group. ATT was started in all the patients. CONCLUSIONS Right middle lobe syndrome predominantly affects the older population and the female gender. Although tuberculosis is a common disease in India, Middle Lobe Syndrome is a very rare presentation of the disease. Due to non-specific symptoms and usually normal chest X-ray PA view in Right Middle Lobe Syndrome, we should keep a high index of suspicion to diagnose the condition.

  17. Intracranial pressure monitoring for special patterns of frontal lobe contusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Ji-rong; CAI Xue-jian; WANG Biao; WANG Yu-hai; SHI Zhong-hua; LIU Bing; CAI Sang; XU Qin-yi

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect and indications of intracranial pressure(ICP)monitoring for frontal lobe contusion patients.Methods:During January 2005-December 2008,34 cases of frontal lobe contusion received ICP monitoring in our department(monitoring group).Different treatment protocols were adopted according to the results of ICP.Meanwhile 46 cases of same type of head-injured patients who did not undergo ICP monitoring served as control group.Results:We found that ICP elevated dramatically within 24 hours after head injury if the contusions were located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or dispersed in bilateral lobe.After half a year follow-up and on the basis of Glasgow Coma Scale assessment,the monitoring group showed better outcome than the control group with good recovery in 24 cases(70.6%),moderate disability in 7 cases(20.6%),severe disability in 2(5.88%)and death in 1(2.94%).The outcome of control group displayed good condition in 25 cases(54.3%),moderate disabilities in 8(17.4%),severe disability in 7(15.2%),and death in 6(13.0%).Conclusions:Frontal lobe contusions are vulnerable and complex head injuries,especially when the contusions are located in frontal longitudinal dehiscence,bilateral undersurface of frontal lobe or diffused in bilateral lobes.These patients should undergo ICP monitoring regardless of their consciousness status.If ICP elevates over 25 mm Hg,the craniotomy is mandatory and will markedly reduce the mortality and disability of these patients.

  18. Proposte di Antenne generatrici di Fasci Non-diffrattivi per micro-onde (Proposal of apertures generating Nondiffracting Beams of microwaves)

    CERN Document Server

    Rached, Michel Zamboni; Balma, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    We propose in detail Antennas for generating Nondiffracting Beams of Microwaves, for instance with frequencies of the order of few GHz, obtaining fair results even when having recourse to realistic apertures, with a quite reasonable diameter. The present proposal refers to sets of suitable annular slits. The possible applications are various, including remote sensing. The paper is in Italian. [Si propongono in dettaglio Antenne per la generazione di fasci non-diffrattivi di microonde, per frequenze ad esempio dell'ordine della decina di GHz, ottenendo discreti risultati pur ricorrendo ad antenne realistiche di diametro ridotto. La proposta e' quella di usare un set di opportuni Annular Slits. Le applicazioni possibili sono varie, includendo il remore sensing.

  19. Mapping of potential neurogenic niche in the human temporal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Barreto Nogueira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus and the subventricular zone (SVZ are known neurogenic niches in adult mammals. Nonetheless, the existence of neurogenic niches in adult humans is controversial. We hypothesized that mapping neurogenic niches in the human temporal lobe could clarify this issue. Neurogenic niches and neurogenesis were investigated in 28 temporal lobes via immunostaining for nestin and doublecortin (DCX, respectively. Nestin was observed in a continuous layer formed by the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ, terminating in the subiculum. In the subiculum, remarkable DCX expression was observed through the principal efferent pathway of the hippocampus to the fimbria. A possible explanation for the results is that the SVZ, the subpial zone of the medial temporal lobe and the SGZ form a unit containing neural stem cells that differentiate into neurons in the subiculum. Curiously, the area previously identified as the human rostral migratory stream may in truth be the fornix, which contains axons that originate in the subiculum. This study suggests that neurogenesis may occur in an orchestrated manner in a broad area of the human temporal lobe.

  20. Attentional inhibition in patients with focal frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Carrie R; Bauer, Russell M; Filoteo, J Vincent; Grande, Laura; Roper, Steven N; Gilmore, Robin

    2005-05-01

    Patients with unilateral, frontal lobe damage and matched controls performed an identity negative priming task as a measure of inhibition in selective attention. Control participants demonstrated a normal negative priming effect, as evidenced by slower reaction times when a previously to-be-ignored item became the target on a subsequent trial (distractor suppression). On the other hand, patients with left medial frontal lobe damage showed positive priming in the distractor suppression condition suggesting facilitation of distractor information. Patients with right frontal lobe damage showed an unreliable pattern of negative priming, some demonstrating an absence of negative priming and others demonstrating enhanced negative priming in the distractor suppression condition. Neither patient group nor controls demonstrated slower responses on a target-to-distractor condition included to evaluate a noninhibitory (i.e., episodic retrieval) account of negative priming. Taken together, our results suggest that (a) the negative priming effect represents active inhibition of a distractor representation, rather than a noninhibitory mismatch between retrieval episodes, and (b) that the frontal lobes, especially the left frontal lobes, contribute to this active inhibition.

  1. Late bilateral temporal lobe necrosis after conventional radiotherapy. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Michio; Hayashi, Toshiyuki; Kagami, Hiroshi; Murase, Ikurou; Nakatsukasa, Masashi [Saiseikai Utsunomiya Hospital (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    A 63-year-old woman presented with radionecrosis in the bilateral temporal lobes manifesting as dementia about 30 years after undergoing conventional radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging showed edema and cystic lesions in both temporal lobes. The mass in the left temporal lobe was excised. MR imaging 12 days after surgery showed reduced edema. Her dementia had improved. Radionecrosis usually occurs between several months and a few years after radiotherapy. The incidence of radionecrosis is estimated as 5%, but may be higher with longer follow-up periods. Clinical reports have suggested that larger total doses of radiation are associated with earlier onset of delayed necrosis and the fractional dose is the most significant factor causing cerebral radionecrosis. Radionecrosis can occur long after conventional radiotherapy or stereotactic radiosurgery using a linac-based system or a gamma knife unit. (author)

  2. On the psychopathology of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddersen, B; Herzer, R; Hartmann, U; Gaab, M R; Runge, U

    2005-02-01

    Personality adjustment of patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was investigated in the light of special characteristics of the epilepsy process, psychosocial stressors, and the cognitive status of the patients. Thirty-seven patients with medically intractable unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (16-55 years of age; 20 right temporal and 17 left temporal foci) were examined with standardized personality inventories (FPI, STAI, IPC, TSK) supplemented by a rating scale evaluated by the neuropsychologist (GEWLE). Patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy were characterized by increased emotional dependency, less externally judged composedness, increased depressive drive and mood, increased nervousness, increased search for information and exchange of disease experience, and greater tendency to persevere (P psychotherapeutic strategies.

  3. Unusual ictal foreign language automatisms in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soe, Naing Ko; Lee, Sang Kun

    2014-12-01

    The distinct brain regions could be specifically involved in different languages and the differences in brain activation depending on the language proficiency and on the age of language acquisition. Speech disturbances are observed in the majority of temporal lobe complex motor seizures. Ictal verbalization had significant lateralization value: 90% of patients with this manifestation had seizure focus in the non-dominant temporal lobe. Although, ictal speech automatisms are usually uttered in the patient's native language, ictal speech foreign language automatisms are unusual presentations of non-dominent temporal lobe epilepsy. The release of isolated foreign language area could be possible depending on the pattern of ictal spreading of non-dominant hemisphere. Most of the case reports in ictal speech foreign language automatisms were men. In this case report, we observed ictal foreign language automatisms in middle age Korean woman.

  4. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  5. Isolated Hyperreligiosity in a Patient with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Garcia-Santibanez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man with history of temporal lobe epilepsy presented to the emergency department with hyperreligiosity after medication noncompliance. After medications were resumed, he returned to baseline. Many famous prophets are believed to have suffered epilepsy. Waxman and Geschwind described a group of traits in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy consisting of hyperreligiosity, hypergraphia, altered sexual behavior, aggressiveness, preoccupation with details, and circumstantiality. The incidence of religious experiences ranges from 0.3 to 3.1 percent in patients with epilepsy. Religious experiences can be ictal, interictal, or postictal. Treatment is aimed at the underlying seizure etiology.

  6. Non‑Azygos Accessory Fissure in Right Upper Lobe Associated with Superior and Inferior Accessory Fissures in Right Lower Lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jose Eluvathingal Muttikkal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory fissures in the lungs are common congenital variations, usually detected as incidental findings in radiographs or CT scan. Accessory fissures can act as an anatomic barrier to the spread of inflammatory or neoplastic disease, as well as due to the variant anatomy, mimic lesions. It is important to recognize the presence of accessory fissures, as they affect surgical planning of pulmonary lobectomy and segmentectomy. Accessory fissure in the right upper lobe other than due to the anomalous course of azygos vein is very rare. We report a case of non-azygos accessory fissure, between the apical and the anterior segments of right upper lobe, along with superior and inferior accessory fissures in the right lower lobe.

  7. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  8. Antennal RNA-sequencing analysis reveals evolutionary aspects of chemosensory proteins in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojo, Masaru K; Ishii, Kenichi; Sakura, Midori; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Shigenobu, Shuji; Ozaki, Mamiko

    2015-08-27

    Chemical communication is essential for the coordination of complex organisation in ant societies. Recent comparative genomic approaches have revealed that chemosensory genes are diversified in ant lineages, and suggest that this diversification is crucial for social organisation. However, how such diversified genes shape the peripheral chemosensory systems remains unknown. In this study, we annotated and analysed the gene expression profiles of chemosensory proteins (CSPs), which transport lipophilic compounds toward chemosensory receptors in the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus. Transcriptome analysis revealed 12 CSP genes and phylogenetic analysis showed that 3 of these are lineage-specifically expanded in the clade of ants. RNA sequencing and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that, among the ant specific CSP genes, two of them (CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13) were specifically expressed in the chemosensory organs and differentially expressed amongst ant castes. Furthermore, CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 had a ratio of divergence at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dN/dS) greater than 1, and they were co-expressed with CjapCSP1, which is known to bind cuticular hydrocarbons. Our results suggested that CjapCSP12 and CjapCSP13 were functionally differentiated for ant-specific chemosensory events, and that CjapCSP1, CjapCSP12, and CjapCSP13 work cooperatively in the antennal chemosensilla of worker ants.

  9. Reversible antisocial behavior in ventromedial prefrontal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon, Agnès; Bartolomei, Fabrice; McGonigal, Aileen; Laguitton, Virginie; Chauvel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Frontal lobe dysfunction is known to be associated with impairment in social behavior. We investigated the link between severe pharmacoresistant frontal lobe epilepsy and antisocial trait. We studied four patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving the prefrontal cortex, presenting abnormal interictal social behavior. Noninvasive investigations (video-EEG, PET, MRI) and intracerebral recording (stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)) were performed as part of a presurgical assessment. Comprehensive psychiatric and cognitive evaluation was performed pre- and postoperatively for frontal lobe epilepsy, with at least 7years of follow-up. All patients shared a characteristic epilepsy pattern: (1) chronic severe prefrontal epilepsy with daily seizures and (2) an epileptogenic zone as defined by intracerebral recording involving the anterior cingulate cortex, ventromedial PFC, and the posterior part of the orbitofrontal cortex, with early propagation to contralateral prefrontal and ipsilateral medial temporal structures. All patients fulfilled the diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV) of antisocial personality disorder, which proved to be reversible following seizure control. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy involving a prefrontal network is associated with antisocial personality. We hypothesize that the occurrence of frequent seizures in this region over a prolonged period produces functional damage leading to impaired prefrontal control of social behavior. This functional damage is reversible since successful epilepsy surgery markedly improved antisocial behavior in these patients. The results are in line with previous reports of impairment of social and moral behavior following ventromedial frontal lobe injury.

  10. [Kumagusu Minakata with temporal lobe epilepsy: a pathographic study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengoku, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Kumagusu Minakata (1867-1941), a Japanese genius devoted to natural history and folklore, is famous for his immense range of works (including 50 monographs in 'Nature') and his discovery of several varieties of mycetozoa. His diary and the observations of other persons reveal that he was affected by several grand mal epileptic seizures, and he complained himself of frequent déjà vu experiences which he called promnesia according to Myers. Promnesia means, for example, "I have lived through all this before, and I know what will happen this next minute." Minakata also had this rare type of aural sign. MRI analysis of his postmortem brain found evidence of right hippocampal atrophy. This result showed that he had temporal lobe epilepsy with focus of the right side, and this coincides with his déjà vu experiences which were the aura of the loss of consciousness. However, he did not notice that these were aural signs, and he also complained of memory disturbances due to frequent déjà vu. His behavioral characteristics were peculiar, and those of Dostoyevsky who also had temporal lobe epilepsy were similar. Temporal lobe epilepsies may influence behavioral patterns which control the emotions. As a positive point, some patients with temporal lobe epilepsy can exhibit their primordial mental actions and perform persistent works.

  11. Metabolic changes in occipital lobe epilepsy with automatisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong H Wong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Some studies suggest that the pattern of glucose hypometabolism relates not only to the ictal-onset zone, but also reflects seizure propagation. We investigated metabolic changes in patients with occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE that may reflect propagation of ictal discharge during seizures with automatisms.Methods: Fifteen patients who had undergone epilepsy surgery for intractable OLE and had undergone interictal Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET between 1994 and 2004 were divided into two groups (with and without automatisms during seizure. Significant regions of hypometabolism were identified by comparing 18F-FDG-PET results from each group with 16 healthy controls by using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM 2.Key Findings: Significant hypometabolism was confined largely to the epileptogenic occipital lobe in the patient group without automatisms. In patients with automatisms, glucose hypometabolism extended from the epileptogenic occipital lobe into the ipsilateral temporal lobe.Significance: We identified a distinctive hypometabolic pattern that was specific for OLE patients with automatisms during a seizure. This finding supports the postulate that seizure propagation is a cause of glucose hypometabolism beyond the region of seizure onset.

  12. Memory, Metamemory and Their Dissociation in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Charlotte E.; Andres, Pilar; Broks, Paul; Noad, Rupert; Sadler, Martin; Coker, Debbie; Mazzoni, Giuliana

    2010-01-01

    Patients with temporal-lobe epilepsy (TLE) present with memory difficulties. The aim of the current study was to determine to what extent these difficulties could be related to a metamemory impairment. Fifteen patients with TLE and 15 matched healthy controls carried out a paired-associates learning task. Memory recall was measured at intervals of…

  13. Brain Regions Underlying Word Finding Difficulties in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebuchon-Da Fonseca, Agnes; Guedj, Eric; Alario, F-Xavier; Laguitton, Virginie; Mundler, Olivier; Chauvel, Patrick; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Word finding difficulties are often reported by epileptic patients with seizures originating from the language dominant cerebral hemisphere, for example, in temporal lobe epilepsy. Evidence regarding the brain regions underlying this deficit comes from studies of peri-operative electro-cortical stimulation, as well as post-surgical performance.…

  14. Treatment of Superior Lobe Central Lung Cancer with Lung Replantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulun YANG

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Patients suffering from lung cancer often have poor quality of life after pneumonectomy. It has clinical significances to preserve maximum lobes of the “healthy” lung. The aim of this study is to report the applications of lung replantation in treatment of superior lobe central lung cancer. Methods Three lung cancer cases were included and analysed. The bronchus and margin of lower lung lobe were encroached by cancer. Pulmonary artery was invaded and surrounded by metastatic lymph node. Complete pneumonectomy, antegrade perfusion and retroperfusion with low-potassium dextran (LPD solution in vitro were performed. The retainable lower pulmonary lobe was selected from the isolated lung and superior pulmonary vein was replaced with inferior pulmonary veins. The bronchus and pulmonary artery were inosculated by turns. Results The operative cumulative time ranged from 220 min to 250 min. The isolated time of lobus inferior pulmonary ranged from 120 min to 150 min. The chest tube was pulled out after chest X-ray confirmed the reimplant lung full re-expansion. The patients were followed up for 4 months to 8 months and accomplished adjuvant chemotherapy for 3 or 4 periodicities. The patients had a sound quality of life. Conclusion Lung replantation removing the extensive tumor tissue and retaining the maximum pulmonary normal tissue is an useful method for treatment of lung cancer.

  15. Torsion of right middle lobe after a right upper lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Tung-Ying

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lobar torsion after lung resection is a quite rare complication. A 50-year-old woman presented typical features on chest radiographs and CT(computed tomography scan of lobar torsion after a right upper lobectomy. After emergency lobectomy of right middle lobe, the patient recovered well and discharged 10 days after the second operation.

  16. Vortex structures downstream a lobed nozzle/mixer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Hu; Toshio Kobayashi

    2008-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the evolutions of unsteady vortex structures downstream a lobed mixer/nozzle. A novel dual-plane stereoscopic PIV system was used to measure all 3-components of vorticity distributions to revealed both the large-scale streamwise vortices produced by the lobed mixer/nozzle and the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex structures generated due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities simultaneously and quantitatively for the first time. The instantaneous and the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions displayed quite different aspects about the evolutions of the unsteady vortex structures. While the ensemble-averaged vorticity distributions indicated the overall effect of the special geometry of the lobed nozzle/mixer on the enhanced mixing process, the instantaneous vorticity distributions elucidated many details about how the enhanced mixing process was conducted. In addition to quantitatively confirming conjectures of previous studies, further insight about the formation, evolution and interaction characteristics of the unsteady vortex structures downstream of the lobed mixer/nozzle were also uncovered quantitatively in the present study.

  17. Surgical treatment of right middle lobe syndrome in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sehitogullari

    2012-01-01

    Results: The mean age of the patients was 10.5 years (range, 5 to 15 years. Twelve patients were boys and eight were girls. The most frequent symptom was chronic cough (75%. Hemoptysis was present in two (10% patients. One patient was being treated for asthma. 25% positive cultures were identified among the patients. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequently identified agent in sputum. All patients underwent chest computed tomography. There were bronchiectasis in 11 (55% patients, atelectasis and bronchiectasis in five (25% patients, and destroyed lung in four (20% patients. A narrowed middle lobe bronchus was shown in 15 (75% patients. Bronchoscopy was performed in 18 (90% patients. Stenosis due to external compression was seen in 12 (60% patients, hyperemia and bronchitis in two (10% patients, granulation tissue in two (10% patients, and dense secretions in two (10% patients. A history of doctor-diagnosed tuberculosis was present in two (10% patients. These patients had completed antituberculous treatment. The patients had been symptomatic for the last 1 to 10 years (mean, 4 years and had received several medical treatments. All patients (totally 20 patients underwent right middle lobe resection. In one patient, a bronchial abnormality was found intraoperatively. One patient died on postoperative day 10 due to a brain abscess. Three other patients had postoperative complications (15%. Mean duration of follow-up of the patients was 4.5 years (range, 2 months to 12 years. Seventeen patients were asymptomatic, and two patients had improved. Conclusions: Children with right middle lobe syndrome unresponsive to medical treatment should undergo early lobe resection to avoid serious complications and the progression of the disease to other segments or lobes.

  18. Ultra-structure of antennal sensilla from Stilpnotia salicis Linnaeus%柳毒蛾的触角结构与感受器扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志雄; 刘红霞; 张金桐; 陈旭鹏

    2015-01-01

    Ultra⁃structure of Antennal sensilla from Stilpnotia salicis Linnaeus was observed by scanning electron microscope. Six kinds of antennal sensilla were distributed on the antennal and they were named sensilla trichodea, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla squamiformia, sensillum styloconica. Sensilla trichodea was the most of sensilla, and sensillum styloconica was the least. The results indicated that there was no significance difference of the structure of antennal between female and male moth, but the kinds and distribution of antennal sensilla varied significantly.%本文利用扫描电镜对柳毒蛾成虫触角的结构进行观察,结果表明,柳毒蛾成虫触角存在6种感受器,即毛形感器、腔锥形感器、刺形感器、锥形感器、鳞形感器、栓锥形感器。其中,以毛形感器最多,栓锥形感器最少。经观察,柳毒蛾雌雄成虫的触角一般形态结构无明显差异,其感器类型及分布具有性二型性。

  19. Excitatory amino acid transporters EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in temporal lobe and hippocampus in intractable temporal lobe epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarac, Sinan; Afzal, Shoaib; Broholm, Helle;

    2009-01-01

    extra-cellular clearance of glutamate by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAAT-1 to EAAT-5). EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 are mainly expressed on astroglial cells for the reuptake of glutamate from the extra-cellular space. We have studied the expression of EAAT-1 and EAAT-2 in the hippocampus and temporal lobe...

  20. A functional magnetic resonance imaging study mapping the episodic memory encoding network in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Bonelli, Silvia; Centeno, Maria; Vollmar, Christian; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated reorganization of memory encoding networks within the temporal lobe in temporal lobe epilepsy, but little is known of the extra-temporal networks in these patients. We investigated the temporal and extra-temporal reorganization of memory encoding networks in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy and the neural correlates of successful subsequent memory formation. We studied 44 patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sc...

  1. Working memory network plasticity after anterior temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Stretton, Jason; Sidhu, Meneka K; Winston, Gavin P.; Bartlett, Philippa; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J; Thompson, Pamela J; Duncan, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50–80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investiga...

  2. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 All antigens Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,S...RX1096824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  3. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 All antigens Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,S...RX1096824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  4. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 Histone Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,SRX109...6824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 Histone Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,SRX109...6824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Neu.05.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  6. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe hg19 All antigens Neural Occipital Lobe SRX998279,S...RX1096824,SRX998277 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Occipital_Lobe.bed ...

  7. The Structural Plasticity of White Matter Networks Following Anterior Temporal Lobe Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogarajah, Mahinda; Focke, Niels K.; Bonelli, Silvia B.; Thompson, Pamela; Vollmar, Christian; McEvoy, Andrew W.; Alexander, Daniel C.; Symms, Mark R.; Koepp, Matthias J.; Duncan, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. The structural consequences of such surgery in the white matter, and how these relate to language function after surgery remain unknown. We carried out a longitudinal study with diffusion tensor imaging in 26 left and 20 right temporal lobe epilepsy…

  8. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá SS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in

  9. Ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla of Holotrichia parallela%暗黑鳃金龟触角超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费仁雷; 李克斌; 肖春; 尹姣; 曹雅忠

    2012-01-01

    The antennal morphology and sensilla of Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae) were studied using scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the antenna consists of the scape, pedicel and flagellomere that is composed of funicle and lamellae. Funicle has five joints and lamellae three joints terminally. The antennae of H. Parallela contain seven kinds of sensilla, namely sensilla placodea, sensilla cocloconica, sensilla cavitica, sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and Bohm bristles. No difference was found in the type and distribution of the sensilla between the male and female adults. The quantity and distribution of each sensillum, however, were different in different segments of the antennae.%利用扫描电镜对暗黑鳃金龟(Holotrichia parallela)雌、雄成虫的触角形态和感器进行了观察.结果表明:暗黑鳃金龟触角分为4部分,即柄节、梗节、鞭节棒状部和鳃状部,其中鞭节棒状部由5节组成,鳃状部由鞭节末端3节扩展构成.暗黑鳃金龟触角感器共7种,分别为板形感器、腔锥感器、腔形感器、刺形感器、毛形感器、锥形感器和B(o)hm氏鬃毛.雌、雄个体之间触角感器的类型、分布均没有明显差异.不同感器在触角各节上的数量与分布各不同.

  10. Visual interhemispheric communication and callosal connections of the occipital lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlucchi, Giovanni

    2014-07-01

    Callosal connections of the occipital lobes, coursing in the splenium of the corpus callosum, have long been thought to be crucial for interactions between the cerebral hemispheres in vision in both experimental animals and humans. Yet the callosal connections of the temporal and parietal lobes appear to have more important roles than those of the occipital callosal connections in at least some high-order interhemispheric visual functions. The partial intermixing and overlap of temporal, parietal and occipital callosal connections within the splenium has made it difficult to attribute the effects of splenial pathological lesions or experimental sections to splenial components specifically related to select cortical areas. The present review describes some current contributions from the modern techniques for the tracking of commissural fibers within the living human brain to the tentative assignation of specific visual functions to specific callosal tracts, either occipital or extraoccipital.

  11. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-22

    Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  12. Somnambulism Due to Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Somnambulism (sleep walking is a disorder of arousal that falls under the parasomnia group. It is more common in children than in adults. (1. The onset of sleep walking in adult life is most unusual and suggests the presence of secondary causes rather than a primary sleep disorder (1. We report a 30-year-old male who presented with repeated episodes of sleep waling possibly due to nocturnal temporal lobe epilepsy.

  13. Grating Lobe Characteristics of Arrays with Uniformly Illuminated Contiguous Subarrays,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    TR-S3-290 Own smbsr 1963 q~mGRA TING L OBE CHA RA CTER/S T/CS OF SARRA YS WITH UNIFORMLY ILL UMINA TED SCONTIGUOUS SUBA RRA YS Robert J. Mailloux...given by Eq. (10) with u s = u 0 and Af = 0. For arrays with more than 4 subarrays, the grating lobe is so narrow that the sine in the numerator of 10 is

  14. Terrestrial ice streams-a view from the lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The glacial landforms of Minnesota are interpreted as the products of the lobate extensions of ice streams that issued from various ice sheds within the Laurentide Ice Sheet. Low-relief till plains, trough-shaped lowlands, boulder pavements, and streamlined forms make up the subglacial landsystem in Minnesota that is interpreted as having been formed by streaming ice. Extremely uniform tills are created subglacially in a way that remains somewhat mysterious. At the ice margins, thrust moraines and hummocky stagnation topography are more common than single-crested, simple moraines if the ice lobes had repeated advances. Subglacial drainage features are obscure up-ice but are present down-ice in the form of tunnel valleys, eskers, Spooner hills, and associated ice-marginal fans. Ice streaming may occur when basal shear stress is lowered as a result of high subglacial water pressure. Subglacial conditions that allow the retention of water will allow an ice lobe to extend far beyond the ice sheet as long as the ice shed also supports the advance by supplying adequate ice. Even with adequate ice flux, however, the advance of an ice lobe may be terminated, at least temporarily, if the subglacial water is drained, through tunnel valleys or perhaps a permeable substrate. Thrust moraines, and ice stagnation topography will result from sudden drainage. Although climate change is ultimately responsible for the accumulation of ice in the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the asynchronous advances and retreats of the ice lobes in the mid-continent are strongly overprinted by the internal dynamics of individual ice streams as well as the interaction of ice sheds, which obscure the climate signal. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral vie...

  16. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2009-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matche...

  17. The evolution of Sf. Gheorghe (Danube asymmetric deltaic lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred VESPREMEANU-STROE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The wave asymmetric Sf. Gheorghe lobe is the only active in the Danube delta where river mouth bar (and the associated barrier islands and spits continuously deployed a cyclic development for almost two millennia. During first stage, the Sf. Gheorghe distributary had a small discharge (with an order of magnitude lower than present which after that experienced a rapid increase in consequence of the successive avulsions of Împuţita (southern distributary of Sulina arm and Dunavăţ distributaries. Our morphological analyses together with the newly obtained chronology, revealed the multiple ridgesets structure of Sf. Gheorghe deltaic lobe. In fact, all ridgesets (10 follow a common morphodynamic pattern characterized by the cyclic succession of three stages: i subaqueous mouth bar development, ii barrier island emergence, iii barrier spit phase with several secondary spits derived from an updrift trunk ridge. The size of each ridgeset increased exponentially with every new cycle due to the constant lengthening of the coastline as the downdrift side of the lobe advances seaward through a series of progressively larger similar quadrilaterals, yielding to a constant enlargment of the delta front size. 

  18. FISSURES AND LOBES OF LUNGS: A MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY

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    Radha K

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The fissures of the lungs serve as boundaries for the lobes of the lungs. They also acts as barriers to avoid the spread of pathologies .The proposed aim of the study was to study the fissures and lobes of the lungs and their variations and to compare them with previous studies and to find their clinical implications. Methods: Thirty pairs of lungs were used for the study, obtained from formalin-fixed cadavers of south-indian origin. The lung specimens were observed for the patterns of lobes and fissures, variations were noted and specimens were photographed. Results: Five right lungs showed absence of horizontal fissure. Out of thirty, twelve right sided lungs showed incomplete fissures.On the left side, seven specimens showed incomplete oblique fissure. In addition, two right-sided specimens and four left sided specimens showed presence accessory fissure. Conclusion: The results and their comparison with the previous works show that there is a wide range of difference in occurrence of major, minor and accessory fissures between and among different populations. Knowledge of such variations is mandatory for surgeons in pre-operative planning for performing pulmonary lobectomies and for radiologists for interpreting X-rays and CT scans

  19. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific 'executive functions' show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage.

  20. Executive function and fluid intelligence after frontal lobe lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, María; Parr, Alice; Thompson, Russell; Woolgar, Alexandra; Torralva, Teresa; Antoun, Nagui; Manes, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    Many tests of specific ‘executive functions’ show deficits after frontal lobe lesions. These deficits appear on a background of reduced fluid intelligence, best measured with tests of novel problem solving. For a range of specific executive tests, we ask how far frontal deficits can be explained by a general fluid intelligence loss. For some widely used tests, e.g. Wisconsin Card Sorting, we find that fluid intelligence entirely explains frontal deficits. When patients and controls are matched on fluid intelligence, no further frontal deficit remains. For these tasks too, deficits are unrelated to lesion location within the frontal lobe. A second group of tasks, including tests of both cognitive (e.g. Hotel, Proverbs) and social (Faux Pas) function, shows a different pattern. Deficits are not fully explained by fluid intelligence and the data suggest association with lesions in the right anterior frontal cortex. Understanding of frontal lobe deficits may be clarified by separating reduced fluid intelligence, important in most or all tasks, from other more specific impairments and their associated regions of damage. PMID:19903732

  1. Precautions in caudate lobe resection: Report of 11 cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng-Qing Wen; Yi-Qun Yan; Jia-Mei Yang; Meng-Chao Wu

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To find the precautions against the safety in caudate lobe resection.METHODS:The clinical data obtained from 11 cases of primary liver cancer in caudate lobe who received hepatectomy successfully were retrospectively analyzed.Four safe procedures were used in resection of primary liver cancer in caudate lobe:(1) selection of appropriate skin incision to obtain excellent exposure of operative field;(2) adequate mobilization of the liver to allow the liver to be displaced upwards to the left or to the right;(3) preparatory placement of tapes for total hepatic vascular exclusion,so that this procedure could be used to control the fatal bleeding of the liver when necessary;(4) selection of the ideal route for hepatectomy based on the condition of the tumor and the combined removal of multiple lobes if necessary.Among the 11 cases,simple occlusion of vessels of porta hepatis was used in caudate Iobectomy for 6 cases,while in the other cases,the vessels were intermittently occluded several times or total hepatic vascular isolation was used in the caudate Iobectomy.Combined partial right hepatectomy was done for 3 cases,combined left lateral Iobectomy for 2 cases and caudate Iobectomy alone for 6 cases.RESULTS:Operation was successful for all the 11 cases.Intermittent inflow occlusion was performed for all patients for 15 min at 5-min intervals.Blockade was performed twice in 3 patients and total hepatic vascular exclusion was performed in one of the three patients.Blockade was performed three times in one patient,including a total hepatic vascular exclusion.Total hepatic vascular exclusion was performed only in one patient.The mean blood loss was 300 mL.Ascites and pleural effusion occurred in 4 patients,jaundice in 1 patient.Six patients died of tumor recurrence in 6,11,12,13,15,19 mo after operation,respectively.The other 5 patients have survived more than 16 mo since the operation.CONCLUSION:Caudate Iobectomy for liver cancer in candate lobe can be safely

  2. The timing of associative memory formation: frontal lobe and anterior medial temporal lobe activity at associative binding predicts memory.

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    Hales, J B; Brewer, J B

    2011-04-01

    The process of associating items encountered over time and across variable time delays is fundamental for creating memories in daily life, such as for stories and episodes. Forming associative memory for temporally discontiguous items involves medial temporal lobe structures and additional neocortical processing regions, including prefrontal cortex, parietal lobe, and lateral occipital regions. However, most prior memory studies, using concurrently presented stimuli, have failed to examine the temporal aspect of successful associative memory formation to identify when activity in these brain regions is predictive of associative memory formation. In the current study, functional MRI data were acquired while subjects were shown pairs of sequentially presented visual images with a fixed interitem delay within pairs. This design allowed the entire time course of the trial to be analyzed, starting from onset of the first item, across the 5.5-s delay period, and through offset of the second item. Subjects then completed a postscan recognition test for the items and associations they encoded during the scan and their confidence for each. After controlling for item-memory strength, we isolated brain regions selectively involved in associative encoding. Consistent with prior findings, increased regional activity predicting subsequent associative memory success was found in anterior medial temporal lobe regions of left perirhinal and entorhinal cortices and in left prefrontal cortex and lateral occipital regions. The temporal separation within each pair, however, allowed extension of these findings by isolating the timing of regional involvement, showing that increased response in these regions occurs during binding but not during maintenance.

  3. Behavioural responses to human skin extracts and antennal phenotypes of sylvatic first filial generation and long rearing laboratory colony Rhodnius prolixus

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    Mario Iván Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1 and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.

  4. Emotional reactions in patients after frontal lobe stroke

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    Stojanović Zlatan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Emotional reactions have been documented after tumor lesions and the other damages of the brain. The aim of this paper was to examine the correlation between frontal lobe lesions and emotional reactions in patients with stroke. Methods. The research included 118 patients after stroke. Lesion localization was defined on computed axial tomography records, whereas the area and perimeter of lesion were measured by AutoCAD 2004 software. Examinations by means of the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety and Depression (HRSA and HRSD were carried out 11-40 days after stroke. Statistic data were processed by simple linear/nonlinear regression, Cox's and the generalized linear model. Results. A higher frequency of emotional reactions, i.e. anxiety, was determined in women after stroke (p = 0.024. A negative correlation between the lesion size and the intensity of anxiety manifestations was determined (Spearman’s r = -0.297; p = 0.001. Anxiety was more frequent in patients with frontal lobe lesions in the dominant hemisphere (interaction: frontal lesion * hand dominant hemisphere, p = 0.017. Also, HRSD score values showed the tendency for lesser decline in case of greater frontal lobe lesions in relation to lesions of other regions of prosencephalon (interaction: frontal lesion * lesion area, p = 0.001. Conclusion. The results of this study indicate the correlation between evolutionary younger structures of the central nervous system and emotional reactions of man. Therefore, it is necessary to undertake proper early psychopharmacotherapy in the vulnerable group of patients.

  5. Morgagni hernia presenting as a right middle lobe compression.

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    Vassileva, Christina M; Shabosky, John; Boley, Theresa; Hazelrigg, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    A 25-year-old woman with a history of chronic bronchitis since age 12 and 3-4 previous episodes of pneumonia presented to the emergency room with cough and shortness of breath. A CT scan of her chest revealed findings consistent with Morgagni hernia with herniation of omental fat, causing near complete compressive atelectasis of the right middle lobe. The diaphragmatic defect was successfully treated with a laparoscopic repair. The patient was discharged home on the first postoperative day after tolerating regular diet.

  6. Clinical insights into pragmatic theory: frontal lobe deficits and sarcasm.

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    McDonald, S; Pearce, S

    1996-04-01

    The validity of psycholinguistic theories of sarcasm was explored by examining subjects with mainly frontal lobe (FL) damage and concomitant concreteness of thought. The majority of FL subjects could interpret consistent verbal exchanges but not literally contradictory (sarcastic) verbal exchanges which implied that the literal meaning of a sarcastic comment needs to be rejected in order for the inference to be detected. Subsidiary analyses confirmed that failure on sarcasm tasks was associated with poor conceptual skills. Ability to process attitude was not associated with success at recognizing sarcasm. This suggested that attitude is not pivotal to the detection of sarcastic inference.

  7. Lithium therapy in comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and cycloid psychosis

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    Brown, Paul; Kashiviswanath, Sridhar; Huynh, Alison; Allha, Naveen; Piaggio, Ken; Sahoo, Saddichha; Gupta, Ankur

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of post-ictal psychosis has foundered on uncertainty in diagnosis of psychotic phenotypes, and equivocal efficacy of first and second generation antipsychotics. This article presents a case history of comorbid temporal lobe epilepsy and psychosis, suggests the applicability of the continental, cycloid psychosis diagnostic conceptualization to post-ictal psychoses, and demonstrates the efficacy of lithium in their treatment. Clinical studies of comorbidity of epilepsy and psychosis offer great potential as a basis for modelling brain–mind relationships, and neuropsychiatric nosology, pathophysiology and treatment. PMID:28031853

  8. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Tomohiko Murai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  9. Clinical characteristics of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe

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    Yoon, Sang Gab; Yi, Jin Wook; Seong, Chan-Yong; Kim, Jong-Kyu; Kim, Su-Jin; Chai, Young Jun; Choi, June Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) arising from the pyramidal lobe is rare; therefore, clinicopathologic evaluation is lacking. In addition, the rate of occult malignancy in the pyramidal lobe after thyroid surgery is unclear. This study is to evaluate the clinical characteristics of PTCs that involve the pyramidal lobe. Methods The study enrolled 1,107 patients who underwent thyroid surgery for PTC at Seoul National University Hospital from 2006 to 2015. Pyramidal lobe status in pathologic reports was clear in all cases. “Pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC” was defined as single pyramidal lobe cancer or multifocal cancer with larger pyramidal lobe tumor. “Incidental pyramidal lobe PTC” was defined as occult cancer identified after thyroidectomy or as multifocal cancer with smaller pyramidal lobe tumor. Results Ten patients were included in the pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC group. The mean age was 58 ± 12.5 years, and the mean tumor size was 0.7 ± 0.7 cm. Cervical lymph node metastasis was found in 5 patients (50%). Three patients had microscopic lymphatic invasion, and 7 had advanced American Joint Comitee on Cancer (AJCC) stage disease (5 with stage III and 2 with stage IV). Compared with conventional PTC (n = 1,058), pyramidal lobe-dominant PTC was significantly associated with lymphatic invasion (P = 0.031) and advanced AJCC stage (P = 0.022). The prevalence of incidental pyramidal lobe PTC was 3.56%. Conclusion Pyramidal lobe PTC is relatively small in size; however, the rate of extrathyroidal extension and lymph node metastasis is high. Preoperative evaluation of nodal status is important, and the extent of surgery should be determined in accordance with the preoperative diagnosis. PMID:28289665

  10. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianying Li; Cheng Xu; Xiaohua Cao; Qiang Gao; Yan Wang; Yanfang Wang; Juyi Peng; Kerang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  11. Abnormal activation of the occipital lobes during emotion picture processing in major depressive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Xu, Cheng; Cao, Xiaohua; Gao, Qiang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yanfang; Peng, Juyi; Zhang, Kerang

    2013-06-25

    A large number of studies have demonstrated that depression patients have cognitive dysfunction. With recently developed brain functional imaging, studies have focused on changes in brain function to investigate cognitive changes. However, there is still controversy regarding abnormalities in brain functions or correlation between cognitive impairment and brain function changes. Thus, it is important to design an emotion-related task for research into brain function changes. We selected positive, neutral, and negative pictures from the International Affective Picture System. Patients with major depressive disorder were asked to judge emotion pictures. In addition, functional MRI was performed to synchronously record behavior data and imaging data. Results showed that the total correct rate for recognizing pictures was lower in patients compared with normal controls. Moreover, the consistency for recognizing pictures for depressed patients was worse than normal controls, and they frequently recognized positive pictures as negative pictures. The consistency for recognizing pictures was negatively correlated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Functional MRI suggested that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, limbic lobe, and cerebellum was enhanced, but that the activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, parietal lobe and occipital lobe was weakened while the patients were watching positive and neutral pictures compared with normal controls. The activation of some areas in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, parietal lobe, and limbic lobe was enhanced, but the activation of some areas in the occipital lobe were weakened while the patients were watching the negative pictures compared with normal controls. These findings indicate that patients with major depressive disorder have negative cognitive disorder and extensive brain dysfunction. Thus, reduced activation of the occipital lobe may be an initiating factor for

  12. Are the dimensions of submarine lobe systems independent of allogenic factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prélat, A.; Covault, J. A.; Hodgson, D. M.; Fildani, A.; Flint, S. S.

    2010-05-01

    Submarine lobe dimensions from six different systems are compared: 1) the exhumed Permian Fan 3 lobe complex of the Tanqua Karoo, South Africa; 2) the modern Amazon fan channel-mouth lobe complex, offshore Brazil; 3) a portion of the modern distal Zaïre fan, offshore Angola / Congo; 4) a Pleistocene fan of the Kutai Basin, subsurface offshore Indonesia; 5) the modern Golo system, offshore east Corsica, France; and 6) a lobe complex deposited in the shallow subsurface, offshore Nigeria. These six systems have significantly different source-to-sink configurations (shelf dimension and slope topography), sediment supply characteristics (calibre and rate), tectonic settings, (palaeo) latitude, and delivery systems. Despite these differences, the lobe deposits share similar geometric and dimensional characteristics. Lobes are grouped into two distinct populations of geometries that can be related to basin-floor topography. The first population corresponds to areally extensive but thin lobes (average width 14 km × length 35 km × thickness 12 m) that were deposited onto low relief basin floor areas, like the Tanqua Karoo, the Amazon and the Zaïre systems. The second population corresponds to areally smaller but thicker lobes (average width 5 km × length 8 km × thickness 30 m) that were deposited into settings with higher amplitude of relief, like in the Corsican trough, the Kutai basin, and offshore Nigeria. Basin floor topography confining the lobes can be very subtle, and only occur on one side of the system. The two populations of lobe types, however, share similar volumes, in the order of 1 or 2 km3. The largest lobes are observed in the Zaïre fan, where the average lobe volume reaches 3.3 km3 and the smallest lobes are observed in the Corsican trough where the average lobe volume is 0.4 km3. This variation in lobe volume is minor when compared to the variation observed in present-day up-dip drainage systems, which provide sediment to the deep-water depositional

  13. An additional manifestation in acrocallosal syndrome: temporal lobe hypoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykut, A; Cogulu, O; Ekmekci, A Y; Ozkinay, F

    2008-01-01

    Acrocallosal Syndrome is a rare genetic disorder which is characterized by moderate to severe mental retardation, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and polydactyly of fingers and toes. The spectrum of this syndrome is very variable. Prominent forehead, broad nasal bridge, short nose and mandible, hypertelorism, epicanthic folds, large anterior fontanelle and tapered fingers, omphalocele and inguinal hernia are some other common findings in this syndrome. Twenty percent of the patients have associated brain abnormalities such as cerebral atrophy, hypothalamic dysfunction, small cerebrum, micropolygyria, hypoplasia of pons, hypoplasia of cerebellar hemispheres, hypoplasia of medulla oblongata, agenesis or hypoplasia of cerebellar vermis and corpus callosum abnormalities. Here we present a 10-month-old female infant with clinical and radiological findings indicative of acrocallosal syndrome. She was noted to have craniofacial abnormalities suggestive of acrocallosal syndrome, optic atrophy and polydactyly. MRI revealed cerebral atrophy, corpus callosum agenesis, dilated lateral ventricules and unilateral right temporal lobe hypoplasia, the latter not previously reported in the spectrum of this syndrome. Based on this observation we conclude the importance of screening brain abnormalities and present temporal lobe hypoplasia as a new additional anomaly in this syndrome.

  14. Childhood allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis presenting as a middle lobe syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ashok; Gera, Kamal; Panjabi, Chandramani

    2016-01-01

    Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is infrequently documented in children with asthma. Although collapse is not uncommon, middle lobe syndrome (MLS) as a presentation of ABPA is rather a rarity. A 9-year-old female child with asthma presented with increase in intensity of symptoms along with a right midzone patchy consolidation on a chest radiograph. In addition, an ill-defined opacity abutting the right cardiac border with loss of cardiac silhouette was noted. A right lateral view confirmed a MLS, which was further corroborated by high resolution computed tomography. Central bronchiectasis was also observed, which prompted a work-up for ABPA. The child met 7/8 major diagnostic criteria for ABPA. She was then initiated on oral prednisolone that resulted in a marked clinical improvement within a fortnight. Radiological clearance occurred at 3 months with inflation of the middle lobe. ABPA presenting with MLS in a child is yet to be reported. A high index of suspicion is required to establish the diagnosis of ABPA in a child presenting with MLS. This would obviate the invasive investigations usually done to ascertain the cause of MLS.

  15. Subregional Mesiotemporal Network Topology Is Altered in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Boris C; Bernasconi, Neda; Hong, Seok-Jun; Dery, Sebastian; Bernasconi, Andrea

    2016-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most frequent drug-resistant epilepsy in adults and commonly associated with variable degrees of mesiotemporal atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Analyses of inter-regional connectivity have unveiled disruptions in large-scale cortico-cortical networks; little is known about the topological organization of the mesiotemporal lobe, the limbic subnetwork central to the disorder. We generated covariance networks based on high-resolution MRI surface-shape descriptors of the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and amygdala in 134 TLE patients and 45 age- and sex-matched controls. Graph-theoretical analysis revealed increased path length and clustering in patients, suggesting a shift toward a more regularized arrangement; findings were reproducible after split-half assessment and across 2 parcellation schemes. Analysis of inter-regional correlations and module participation showed increased within-structure covariance, but decreases between structures, particularly with regards to the hippocampus and amygdala. While higher clustering possibly reflects topological consequences of axonal sprouting, decreases in interstructure covariance may be a consequence of disconnection within limbic circuitry. Preoperative network parameters, specifically the segregation of the ipsilateral hippocampus, predicted long-term seizure freedom after surgery.

  16. Organization and control of epileptic circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, A; Maroso, M; Soltesz, I

    2016-01-01

    When studying the pathological mechanisms of epilepsy, there are a seemingly endless number of approaches from the ultrastructural level-receptor expression by EM-to the behavioral level-comorbid depression in behaving animals. Epilepsy is characterized as a disorder of recurrent seizures, which are defined as "a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain" (Fisher et al., 2005). Such abnormal activity typically does not occur in a single isolated neuron; rather, it results from pathological activity in large groups-or circuits-of neurons. Here we choose to focus on two aspects of aberrant circuits in temporal lobe epilepsy: their organization and potential mechanisms to control these pathological circuits. We also look at two scales: microcircuits, ie, the relationship between individual neurons or small groups of similar neurons, and macrocircuits, ie, the organization of large-scale brain regions. We begin by summarizing the large body of literature that describes the stereotypical anatomical changes in the temporal lobe-ie, the anatomical basis of alterations in microcircuitry. We then offer a brief introduction to graph theory and describe how this type of mathematical analysis, in combination with computational neuroscience techniques and using parameters obtained from experimental data, can be used to postulate how microcircuit alterations may lead to seizures. We then zoom out and look at the changes which are seen over large whole-brain networks in patients and animal models, and finally we look to the future.

  17. Emotion recognition in temporal lobe epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Giulia; Meletti, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing interest in the understanding of emotion recognition deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common form of focal epilepsies. There are conflicting reports about impairments for different emotions in right and left temporal lobe epilepsy patients. A systematic review and a narrative synthesis was conducted for studies investigating emotion recognition (ER) in TLE. Embase, MEDLINE, PsychINFO and Pubmed were searched from 1990 to March 2015 and reference lists were reviewed. 996 citations were identified and 43 studies were finally included. ER deficits are consistently observed across studies. A fear recognition deficit is always reported, followed by deficits in sadness and disgust recognition. Deficits are observed across visual and auditory domains. Conflicting evidence is present concerning the severity of ER deficits in right and left TLE. Studies on anterior temporal lobectomy report data similar to that observed in pre-surgical patients. Current evidence supports the conclusion that recognition of negative emotions is commonly impaired in TLE, particularly for fear, and in the visual domain. Future work should focus on more ecologically valid test, on longitudinal studies to assess the role of anterior temporal lobectomy, and to correlate ER measures to social functioning in everyday life.

  18. Natural History of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: Antecedents and Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garima Shukla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy represents the largest group of patients with treatment resistant/medically intractable epilepsy undergoing epilepsy surgery. The underpinnings of common forms of TLE in many instances begin in early life with the occurrence of an initial precipitating event. The first epileptic seizure often occurs after a variable latency period following this event. The precise natural history and progression following the first seizure to the development of TLE, its subsequent resolution through spontaneous remission or the development of treatment resistant epilepsy remain poorly understood. Our present understanding of the role played by these initial events, the subsequent latency to development of temporal lobe epilepsy, and the emergence of treatment resistance remains incomplete. A critical analysis of published data suggest that TLE is a heterogeneous condition, where the age of onset, presence or absence of a lesion on neuroimaging, the initial precipitating event, association with febrile seizures, febrile status epilepticus, and neurotropic viral infections influence the natural history and outcome. The pathways and processes through which these variables coalesce into a framework will provide the basis for an understanding of the natural history of TLE. The questions raised need to be addressed in future prospective and longitudinal observational studies.

  19. Episodic and Semantic Autobiographical Memory in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Claudia P. Múnera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM is understood as the retrieval of personal experiences that occurred in specific time and space. To date, there is no consensus on the role of medial temporal lobe structures in AM. Therefore, we investigated AM in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE patients. Twenty TLE patients candidates for surgical treatment, 10 right (RTLE and 10 left (LTLE, and 20 healthy controls were examined with a version of the Autobiographical Interview adapted to Spanish language. Episodic and semantic AM were analyzed during five life periods through two conditions: recall and specific probe. AM scores were compared with clinical and cognitive data. TLE patients showed lower performance in episodic AM than healthy controls, being significantly worst in RTLE group and after specific probe. In relation to semantic AM, LTLE retrieved higher amount of total semantic details compared to controls during recall, but not after specific probe. No significant differences were found between RTLE and LTLE, but a trend towards poorer performance in RTLE group was found. TLE patients obtained lower scores for adolescence period memories after specific probe. Our findings support the idea that the right hippocampus would play a more important role in episodic retrieval than the left, regardless of a temporal gradient.

  20. Widespread temporo-occipital lobe dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewe, Kristian; Machts, Judith; Kaufmann, Jörn; Petri, Susanne; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Borgelt, Christian; Harris, Joseph Allen; Vielhaber, Stefan; Schoenfeld, Mircea Ariel

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) lie on a single clinical continuum. However, previous neuroimaging studies have found only limited involvement of temporal lobe regions in ALS. To better delineate possible temporal lobe involvement in ALS, the present study aimed to examine changes in functional connectivity across the whole brain, particularly with regard to extra-motor regions, in a group of 64 non-demented ALS patients and 38 healthy controls. To assess between-group differences in connectivity, we computed edge-level statistics across subject-specific graphs derived from resting-state functional MRI data. In addition to expected ALS-related decreases in functional connectivity in motor-related areas, we observed extensive changes in connectivity across the temporo-occipital cortex. Although ALS patients with comorbid FTD were deliberately excluded from this study, the pattern of connectivity alterations closely resembles patterns of cerebral degeneration typically seen in FTD. This evidence for subclinical temporal dysfunction supports the idea of a common pathology in ALS and FTD.

  1. High-frequency oscillations and mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Maxime; Shiri, Zahra; Chen, Li-Yuan; Avoli, Massimo

    2017-01-20

    The interest of epileptologists has recently shifted from the macroscopic analysis of interictal spikes and seizures to the microscopic analysis of short events in the EEG that are not visible to the naked eye but are observed once the signal has been filtered in specific frequency bands. With the use of new technologies that allow multichannel recordings at high sampling rates and the development of computer algorithms that permit the automated analysis of extensive amounts of data, it is now possible to extract high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) between 80 and 500Hz from the EEG; HFOs have been further categorised as ripples (80-200Hz) and fast ripples (250-500Hz). Within the context of epileptic disorders, HFOs should reflect the pathological activity of neural networks that sustain seizure generation, and could serve as biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. We review here the presumptive cellular mechanisms of ripples and fast ripples in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. We also focus on recent findings regarding the occurrence of HFOs during epileptiform activity observed in in vitro models of epileptiform synchronization, in in vivo models of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy and in epileptic patients. Finally, we address the effects of anti-epileptic drugs on HFOs and raise some questions and issues related to the definition of HFOs.

  2. Memory Rehabilitation Strategies in Nonsurgical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Felice, Alessandra; Alderighi, Marzia; Martinato, Matteo; Grisafi, Davide; Bosco, Anna; Thompson, Pamela J; Sander, Josemir W; Masiero, Stefano

    2017-02-15

    People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions. A comprehensive literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, Scholars Portal/PSYCHinfo, Proceedings First, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses identified articles published in English before February 2016. The search retrieved 372 abstracts. Of 25 eligible studies, six were included in the final review. None included pediatric populations. Strategies included cognitive training, external memory aids, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. Selection criteria tended to be general. Overall, there was insufficient evidence to make definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of traditional memory rehabilitation strategies, brain training, and noninvasive brain stimulation. The review suggests that cognitive rehabilitation in nonsurgical TLE is underresearched and that there is a need for a systematic evaluation in this population.

  3. Executive Functions in Chronic Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zamarian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no consensus as to whether mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE leads to executive function deficits. In this study, we adopted an extensive neuropsychological test battery and assessed different executive functions in chronic, unilateral MTLE. Performance of MTLE patients was compared with that of healthy peers and with normative data. Several MTLE patients had scores below cut-off or below the 10th percentile of normative data. Scores of the whole patient group were overall in the average range of normative data. Relative to controls, MTLE patients performed poorly in tests of working memory, cognitive flexibility, categorical verbal fluency, set-shifting, categorization, and planning. These findings raise an important methodological issue as they suggest that executive function deficits in chronic MTLE may be individually variable and that their assessment should include different tests. Deficits in chronic MTLE are not limited to temporal lobe functions, such as memory, but may extend to extra temporal cognitive domains, such as executive functions.

  4. False positives to confusable objects predict medial temporal lobe atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2013-09-01

    Animal models agree that the perirhinal cortex plays a critical role in object recognition memory, but qualitative aspects of this mnemonic function are still debated. A recent model claims that the perirhinal cortex is required to recognize the novelty of confusable distractor stimuli, and that damage here results in an increased propensity to judge confusable novel objects as familiar (i.e., false positives). We tested this model in healthy participants and patients with varying degrees of perirhinal cortex damage, i.e., amnestic mild cognitive impairment and very early Alzheimer's disease (AD), with a recognition memory task with confusable and less confusable realistic object pictures, and from whom we acquired high-resolution anatomic MRI scans. Logistic mixed-model behavioral analyses revealed that both patient groups committed more false positives with confusable than less confusable distractors, whereas healthy participants performed comparably in both conditions. A voxel-based morphometry analysis demonstrated that this effect was associated with atrophy of the anteromedial temporal lobe, including the perirhinal cortex. These findings suggest that also the human perirhinal cortex recognizes the novelty of confusable objects, consistent with its border position between the hierarchical visual object processing and medial temporal lobe memory systems, and explains why AD patients exhibit a heightened propensity to commit false positive responses with inherently confusable stimuli.

  5. C-Lobe of Lactoferrin: The Whole Story of the Half-Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sujata; Sinha, Mau; Kaushik, Sanket; Kaur, Punit; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    Lactoferrin is an iron-binding diferric glycoprotein present in most of the exocrine secretions. The major role of lactoferrin, which is found abundantly in colostrum, is antimicrobial action for the defense of mammary gland and the neonates. Lactoferrin consists of two equal halves, designated as N-lobe and C-lobe, each of which contains one iron-binding site. While the N-lobe of lactoferrin has been extensively studied and is known for its enhanced antimicrobial effect, the C-lobe of lactoferrin mediates various therapeutic functions which are still being discovered. The potential of the C-lobe in the treatment of gastropathy, diabetes, and corneal wounds and injuries has been indicated. This review provides the details of the proteolytic preparation of C-lobe, and interspecies comparisons of its sequence and structure, as well as the scope of its therapeutic applications. PMID:23762557

  6. C-Lobe of Lactoferrin: The Whole Story of the Half-Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is an iron-binding diferric glycoprotein present in most of the exocrine secretions. The major role of lactoferrin, which is found abundantly in colostrum, is antimicrobial action for the defense of mammary gland and the neonates. Lactoferrin consists of two equal halves, designated as N-lobe and C-lobe, each of which contains one iron-binding site. While the N-lobe of lactoferrin has been extensively studied and is known for its enhanced antimicrobial effect, the C-lobe of lactoferrin mediates various therapeutic functions which are still being discovered. The potential of the C-lobe in the treatment of gastropathy, diabetes, and corneal wounds and injuries has been indicated. This review provides the details of the proteolytic preparation of C-lobe, and interspecies comparisons of its sequence and structure, as well as the scope of its therapeutic applications.

  7. A comparative proteomic analysis reveals a new bi-lobe protein required for bi-lobe duplication and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhou

    Full Text Available A Golgi-associated bi-lobed structure was previously found to be important for Golgi duplication and cell division in Trypanosoma brucei. To further understand its functions, comparative proteomics was performed on extracted flagellar complexes (including the flagellum and flagellum-associated structures such as the basal bodies and the bi-lobe and purified flagella to identify new bi-lobe proteins. A leucine-rich repeats containing protein, TbLRRP1, was characterized as a new bi-lobe component. The anterior part of the TbLRRP1-labeled bi-lobe is adjacent to the single Golgi apparatus, and the posterior side is tightly associated with the flagellar pocket collar marked by TbBILBO1. Inducible depletion of TbLRRP1 by RNA interference inhibited duplication of the bi-lobe as well as the adjacent Golgi apparatus and flagellar pocket collar. Formation of a new flagellum attachment zone and subsequent cell division were also inhibited, suggesting a central role of bi-lobe in Golgi, flagellar pocket collar and flagellum attachment zone biogenesis.

  8. Antennal sensilla of the tea weevil Myllocerinus aurolineatus%茶丽纹象甲触角感器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高宇; 陈宗懋; 孙晓玲

    2013-01-01

    利用扫描电镜对茶丽纹象甲(Myllocerinus aurolineatus Voss)(鞘翅目:象甲科)成虫的触角及感器进行了观察,比较研究了雌、雄成虫触角形态、感器分布和数量上的差异.结果表明,茶丽纹象甲雌、雄成虫触角均呈膝状,由柄节、梗节和7个鞭亚节组成,触角上均着生有5种感器,即毛形感器、刺形感器、棒形感器、叉形感器、鳞形感器以及少量表皮孔.其中,鳞形感器和刺形感器的数量最多,叉形感器在已有的象甲科资料中尚未见报道.毛形感器和叉形感器的数量和分布存在着明显的性别差异,主要表现为雄虫触角上毛形感器和叉形感器的数量显著多于雌虫.%The antennal sensilla of the tea weevil Myllocerinus aurolineatus Voss (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) were observed with scanning electron microscope.The antenna consists of a scape,a pedicel,and a flagellum with 7 segments.Five types of antennal sensilla were identified,including sensilla rod-like,sensilla furcatea,sensilla chaetica,sensilla trichoid,sensiila squamiformia,and some cuticular pores.Sensilla furcatea represents a unique sensillum type in the antenna of Curculionidae,and named here after their furcate shape.The number of sensilla squamiformia and sensilla furcatea on male antennae was significantly more than that on female antennae.The antennal shape,distribution and number of these sensilla and their differences between sexes were described and compared.

  9. Antennal Sensilla of Diadromus collaris Observed with Scanning Electron Microscope%颈双缘姬蜂触角感受器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郦卫弟; 黄芳; 贝亚维

    2013-01-01

    为了明确颈双缘姬蜂Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst)触角感受器的种类及分布,本试验对雌、雄蜂触角及感受器进行了扫描电镜观察。结果表明,颈双缘姬蜂触角具有毛形感受器、刺形感受器、锥形感受器、板形感受器和腔锥形感受器等5种感受器,其中毛形感受器分2种类型,锥形感受器分6种类型。毛形感器在雌蜂的触角上分布多于雄蜂,锥形感受器Ⅱ只分布于雄蜂的触角上,而锥形感受器Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ和Ⅵ及腔锥形感受器仅分布在雌蜂上,板形感器在雄蜂的触角上分布多于雌蜂。本文对5类感受器的形态进行了详尽描述,并与其它寄生蜂的感受器进行了比较,同时对各类型感受器的功能进行了探讨。%Antennas of female and male Diadromus collaris (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera:Ichneumonidae) were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to specify the distribution and morphology of antennal sensilla. Five distinct types of sense receptor on the antenna of D. collaris, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla placodea and sensilla coeleoconica were found. Among them, sensilla trichodea was divided into two morphological sub-types which existed on the antennas of male and female D. collaris. More sensilla trichodea were observed on the antenna of female than male. Six sub-types of sensilla basiconica were identified, among which the typesⅡwas only found on the antenna of male, while typeⅢ,Ⅳ,ⅤandⅥwere only found on the female antenna. More sensilla placodea were found on male antenna, in contrast, sensilla coeleoconica was only found with fewer amounts on female antenna. We did detailed descriptions on the five types of antennal sensilla and compared them with antennal sensilla of other parasitoids.

  10. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy after Refractory Status Epilepticus: An Illustrative Case and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Boyd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New onset refractory status epilepticus (NORSE is a relatively newly defined disease entity, where otherwise healthy individuals develop unrelenting seizures that do not respond to conventional anticonvulsant therapy and may require months of therapy with anesthetic drugs. We have described a case of NORSE who subsequently developed mesial temporal lobe sclerosis (MTS and recurrent temporal lobe seizures. We discuss the possible pathophysiological mechanisms by which refractory seizures may contribute to the development of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE.

  11. Focal cortical dysplasia of the temporal lobe with late-onset partial epilepsy: serial quantitative MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rademacher, J.; Seitz, R.J. [Department of Neurology, Heinrich-Heine University Duesseldorf (Germany); Aulich, A. [Department of Radiology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Reifenberger, G. [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Kiwit, J.C.W. [Department of Neurosurgery, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany); Langen, K.J.; Schmidt, D. [Institute of Medicine, Research Center Juelich, Heinrich-Heine University, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2000-06-01

    We describe serial studies of focal cortical dysplasia causing temporal lobe seizures and progressive aphasia in a 54-year-old woman. Initially, MRI volumetry of the temporal lobes showed significant left cortical thickening corresponding to an elevated aminoacid uptake in the left temporoparietal and inferior frontal cortex on SPECT using 3-[{sup 123}I]iodo-{alpha}-methyl-l-tyrosine (IMT). After 1 year there was severe shrinkage of the left temporal lobe, possibly the result of recurrent complex partial seizures. (orig.)

  12. Progressive white matter changes following anterior temporal lobe resection for epilepsy ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, Gavin P.; Jason Stretton; Sidhu, Meneka K; Symms, Mark R.; Duncan, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) is an effective treatment for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Widespread abnormalities in diffusion parameters involving the ipsilateral temporal lobe white matter and extending into extratemporal white matter have been shown in cross-sectional studies in TLE. However longitudinal changes following surgery have been less well addressed. We systematically assess diffusion changes in white matter in patients with TLE in comparison to controls bef...

  13. Memory network plasticity after temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional imaging study

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection can control seizures in up to 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Memory decrements are the main neurocognitive complication. Preoperative functional reorganization has been described in memory networks, but less is known of postoperative reorganization. We investigated reorganization of memory-encoding networks preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after surgery. We studied 36 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (19 right) before and ...

  14. DUAL POLARIZATION ANTENNA ARRAY WITH VERY LOW CROSS POLARIZATION AND LOW SIDE LOBES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to an antenna array adapted to radiate or receive electromagnetic waves of one or two polarizations with very low cross polarization and low side lobes. An antenna array comprising many antenna elements, e.g. more than ten antenna elements, is provided in which...... formation of grating lobes are inhibited in selected directions of the radiation and cross polarization within the main lobe is suppressed at least 30 dB below the main lobe peak value. According to a preferred embodiment of the invention, the antenna elements of the antenna array comprise probe-fed patches...

  15. Cassini observations of ionospheric plasma in Saturn's magnetotail lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felici, M.; Arridge, C. S.; Coates, A. J.; Badman, S. V.; Dougherty, M. K.; Jackman, C. M.; Kurth, W. S.; Melin, H.; Mitchell, D. G.; Reisenfeld, D. B.; Sergis, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of Saturn's magnetosphere with the Cassini mission have established the importance of Enceladus as the dominant mass source for Saturn's magnetosphere. It is well known that the ionosphere is an important mass source at Earth during periods of intense geomagnetic activity, but lesser attention has been dedicated to study the ionospheric mass source at Saturn. In this paper we describe a case study of data from Saturn's magnetotail, when Cassini was located at ≃ 2200 h Saturn local time at 36 RS from Saturn. During several entries into the magnetotail lobe, tailward flowing cold electrons and a cold ion beam were observed directly adjacent to the plasma sheet and extending deeper into the lobe. The electrons and ions appear to be dispersed, dropping to lower energies with time. The composition of both the plasma sheet and lobe ions show very low fluxes (sometimes zero within measurement error) of water group ions. The magnetic field has a swept-forward configuration which is atypical for this region, and the total magnetic field strength is larger than expected at this distance from the planet. Ultraviolet auroral observations show a dawn brightening, and upstream heliospheric models suggest that the magnetosphere is being compressed by a region of high solar wind ram pressure. We interpret this event as the observation of ionospheric outflow in Saturn's magnetotail. We estimate a number flux between (2.95 ± 0.43) × 109 and (1.43 ± 0.21) × 1010 cm-2 s-1, 1 or about 2 orders of magnitude larger than suggested by steady state MHD models, with a mass source between 1.4 ×102 and 1.1 ×103 kg/s. After considering several configurations for the active atmospheric regions, we consider as most probable the main auroral oval, with associated mass source between 49.7 ±13.4 and 239.8 ±64.8 kg/s for an average auroral oval, and 10 ±4 and 49 ±23 kg/s for the specific auroral oval morphology found during this event. It is not clear how much of this mass is

  16. Clinical characteristics of patients with benign nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim J

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiyeon Kim,1 Seong Hoon Kim,2 Sung Chul Lim,2 Woojun Kim,2 Young-Min Shon3 1Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 2Department of Neurology, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seocho-gu, 3Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea Purpose: To evaluate the evolution of nonlesional temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE-NL in patients treated exclusively with antiepileptic drugs and to elucidate clinical phenotypes related to the prognosis of these patients.Methods: Clinical, radiological, and electroencephalographic (EEG findings in 84 patients with TLE-NL were reviewed. A good response group (GRG and a poor response group (PRG were defined if the duration of their seizure-free period was >1 year, or <1 year, respectively.Results: There were 46 (54.8% patients in the GRG and 38 (45.2% patients in the PRG. The number of antiepileptic drugs administered was significantly lower in the GRG than that in the PRG (1.3±0.8 vs 2.8±1.0, respectively; P<0.05. The GRG had a significantly older age of onset than the PRG and a lower occurrence of initial precipitating events, such as febrile seizures, central nervous system infection, and head trauma (P<0.05. The prevalence of EEG abnormality, presence of aura, generalized seizures, and automatism was less frequently observed in the GRG (P<0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were significantly associated with a poor prognosis (P<0.05.Conclusion: In contrast to the commonly assumed intractability of TLE, we found that more than 54% of patients with TLE-NL achieved a long seizure-free period. Older age at onset of TLE-NL was associated with a better prognosis. However, the presence of automatism and initial precipitating events were related to a poor prognosis. Future prospective

  17. Antennal electrophysiological responses of three parasitic wasps to caterpillar-induced volatiles from maize (Zea mays mays), cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouinguené, Sandrine; Pickett, John A; Wadhams, Lester J; Birkett, Michael A; Turlings, Ted C J

    2005-05-01

    Many parasitic wasps are attracted to volatiles that are released by plants when attacked by potential hosts. The attractiveness of these semiochemicals from damaged plants has been demonstrated in many tritrophic systems, but the physiological mechanisms underlying the insect responses are poorly understood. We recorded the antennal perception by three parasitoids (Cotesia marginiventris, Microplitis rufiventris, and Campoletis sonorensis) to volatiles emitted by maize, cowpea, and cotton plants after attack by the common caterpillar pest Spodoptera littoralis. Gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG) recordings showed that wasps responded to many, but not all, of the compounds present at the physiologically relevant levels tested. Interestingly, some minor compounds, still unidentified, elicited strong responses from the wasps. These results indicate that wasps are able to detect many odorant compounds released by the plants. It remains to be determined how this information is processed and leads to the specific behavior of the parasitoids.

  18. Antennal sensilla of Clostera anastomosis observed with scanning electron microscope%分月扇舟蛾触角感觉器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付盈盈; 汤方; 赵文亮; 巨云为

    2012-01-01

    The antennal sensilla of Clostera anastomosis ( L. ) were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the antennae of C. Anastomosis are made up of scapus, pedicle and flagella. The outside surface of the antenna is covered with cataphylla, and most of the antennal sensilla lie on its upper and lower surfaces. Eight distinct types of sense receptors were observed in adult males and females; including sensilla trichodea, sensillum chaeticum, sensilla cavity, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla styloconica, sensilla basiconica, sensillum column and sensilla squamiformia. The type and distribution of antenna senaillum are basically the same in adult males and females but there are some differences in the number of sensilla.%利用扫描电镜对分月扇舟蛾Clostera anastomosis(L.)成虫触角感觉器的形态、结构进行了观察.扫描电镜观察结果表明,分月扇舟蛾触角由柄节、梗节和鞭节组成,触角外侧面覆盖有鳞片,绝大部分触角感觉器位于触角的腹面和外侧面.雌、雄蛾触角上均存在以下8种感觉器,即毛形感器、刺形感器、腔形感器、腔锥形感器、栓锥形感器、锥形感器、柱形感器和鳞形感器.各种感觉器在雌、雄蛾触角上的分布大体相同,但数量有明显的区别.

  19. Ultrastructure in Antennal Sensilla of Curculio dentipes%柞栎象成虫触角感受器超微结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王重舒; 李燕; 陈玉宝; 高文韬; 孟庆繁

    2016-01-01

    为研究柞栎象( Curculio dentipes)寄主定位机制,利用环境扫描电镜对柞栎象触角形态、感受器的类型及分布特点等进行了观察。结果表明:柞栎象触角上有感受器5种类型10个亚型,分别为:刺形感受器2个亚型、毛形感受器4个亚型、锥形感受器、齿形感受器2个亚型和腔形感受器。柞栎象雌雄成虫触角性二型不明显,很难作为形态上性别鉴定的可靠依据。雄虫触角感受器数量多于雌虫,但差异不显著。柞栎象触角感受器从基部至端部(柄节至棒节第4亚节)有明显的分化趋势。%For the biological characteristics of Curculio dentipes, we used environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) to observe and describe the morphology of antennal sensilla on adults of both sexes .We observed ten different types of sen-silla, two types of sensillachaetica , four types of sensillatrichodea , one type of sensillabasiconica ,two types of sensilladen -tiform and one type of sensilla cavity .The differentiation trend of antennal sensilla was not obvious , and it tended to more refined from the base to the end of antennas .Antennae of males had more sensilla than those of females , but it is not signif-icantly.There were obvious differentiation from base to top of sensilla .

  20. Occipital lobe epilepsy presenting as Charles Bonnet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Vargas, Damaris; Cienki, John J

    2012-11-01

    Charles Bonnet syndrome describes visual field or acuity loss with complex hallucinations. This typically occurs in the elderly with preexisting visual impairment. We describe a patient who presented to the emergency department with acute hemianopsia and intermittent complex hallucinations. A 57-year-old man was referred for visual field loss and hallucinations. Chief complaint was “seeing little heads of people” and a right-sided visual loss. The patient was alert, oriented, and able to repeat and name and had fluent speech. On cranial nerve examination, he had 20/20 visual acuity and right homonymous hemianopsia. The patient had normal laboratory examination and electrocardiogram results. Results of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the head with contrast were negative. Standard 30-minute electroencephalography revealed near-continuous epileptiform discharges in the left occipital lobe. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of new-onset seizure presenting as Charles Bonnet syndrome.

  1. Changes in social emotion recognition following traumatic frontal lobe injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ana Teresa Martins; Luis Faísca; Francisco Esteves; Cláudia Sim(a)o; Mariline Gomes Justo; Angélica Muresan; Alexandra Reis

    2012-01-01

    Changes in social and emotional behaviour have been consistently observed in patients with traumatic brain injury. These changes are associated with emotion recognition deficits which represent one of the major barriers to a successful familiar and social reintegration. In the present study, 32 patients with traumatic brain injury, involving the frontal lobe, and 41 age- and education-matched healthy controls were analyzed. A Go/No-Go task was designed, where each participant had to recognize faces representing three social emotions (arrogance, guilt and jealousy). Results suggested that ability to recognize two social emotions (arrogance and jealousy) was significantly reduced in patients with traumatic brain injury, indicating frontal lesion can reduce emotion recognition ability. In addition, the analysis of the results for hemispheric lesion location (right, left or bilateral) suggested the bilateral lesion sub-group showed a lower accuracy on all social emotions.

  2. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R. Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W.; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-01-01

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient’s first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified. PMID:27774355

  3. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  4. Neurobehavioral Management of Behavioral Anomalies in Frontal Lobe Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Shahzadi; Rajender, Gaurav; Sharma, Vibha; Singh, Tej Bahadur

    2009-01-01

    Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver) over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up. PMID:21938104

  5. Neurobehavioral management of behavioral anomalies in frontal lobe syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Shahzadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurobehavioral approach uses behavioral paradigm towards comprehensive rehabilitation by identifying the neurological or neuropsychological constraints that can interfere with learning and behavior of an individual. The present case study highlights the role of functional skills approach in neurobehavioral management towards cognitive rehabilitation to manage behavioral deficits in a 55-year-old man with nicotine dependence having frontal lobe lesions owing to gliosis of fronto-temporal brain regions. Based on detailed neuropsychological and behavioral assessment, a behavioral package was made involving techniques like behavioral counseling, chaining, shaping and operant methods and was carried out with the patient daily (with the help of primary caregiver over a period of 2 months. Results showed improvement in his self-care and decrease in behavioral problems, on 12-month follow-up.

  6. Depression in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Borges Gonçalves

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the comorbidity of depressive disorders in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. METHOD: We evaluated 25 consecutive patients with refractory TLE (16 women and 9 men, using semi-structured psychiatric interviews, according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10, and the Beck Depression Inventory. RESULTS: Seventeen of 25 patients (68% had depressive disorder: 6 with dysthymia, three with major depressive episodes and 8 with recurrent depressive disorders. Two (8% were diagnosed with mixed anxiety and depression. Only 5 of 17 patients (29.4% were previously diagnosed with depressive disorder and received prior antidepressant treatment. Duration of epilepsy was significantly higher in patients with depressive disorder (p=0.016, but there was no relationship between depression and seizure frequency. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed that depressive disorders are common and underdiagnosed in patients with TLE refractory to AEDs. Patients with longer duration of epilepsy are at higher risk of having depression.

  7. Impaired executive functions in experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiane Ochai Ramos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective The present study aimed to investigate cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD -like behavior in male Wistar rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Method Male Wistar rats at 25 day of age were submitted to animal model of TLE by pilocarpine injection (350 mg/kg, ip and a control group received saline 0.9%. The animals were continuously video monitored up to the end of experiments. The behavioural tests (open field, elevated plus maze and operant conditioning box started from 60 days postnatal. Results Animals with TLE exhibited elevated locomotor activity, reduced level of anxiety-related behavior, impulsivity and impaired visuospatial working memory. Conclusion Taken as a whole, we concluded that animals with TLE exhibited some cognitive and behavioural changes consistent with ADHD-like behavior.

  8. Coherent concepts are computed in the anterior temporal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Sage, Karen; Jones, Roy W; Mayberry, Emily J

    2010-02-09

    In his Philosophical Investigations, Wittgenstein famously noted that the formation of semantic representations requires more than a simple combination of verbal and nonverbal features to generate conceptually based similarities and differences. Classical and contemporary neuroscience has tended to focus upon how different neocortical regions contribute to conceptualization through the summation of modality-specific information. The additional yet critical step of computing coherent concepts has received little attention. Some computational models of semantic memory are able to generate such concepts by the addition of modality-invariant information coded in a multidimensional semantic space. By studying patients with semantic dementia, we demonstrate that this aspect of semantic memory becomes compromised following atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes and, as a result, the patients become increasingly influenced by superficial rather than conceptual similarities.

  9. Double Lobed Radio Quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Vries, W H; Becker, R H; White, R L

    2005-11-10

    We have combined a sample of 44 984 quasars, selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3, with the FIRST radio survey. Using a novel technique where the optical quasar position is matched to the complete radio environment within 450'', we are able to characterize the radio morphological make-up of what is essentially an optically selected quasar sample, regardless of whether the quasar (nucleus) itself has been detected in the radio. About 10% of the quasar population have radio cores brighter than 0.75 mJy at 1.4 GHz, and 1.7% have double lobed FR2-like radio morphologies. About 75% of the FR2 sources have a radio core (> 0.75mJy). A significant fraction ({approx}40%) of the FR2 quasars are bent by more than 10 degrees, indicating either interactions of the radio plasma with the ICM or IGM. We found no evidence for correlations with redshift among our FR2 quasars: radio lobe flux densities and radio source diameters of the quasars have similar distributions at low (mean 0.77) and high (mean 2.09) redshifts. Using a smaller high reliability FR2 sample of 422 quasars and two comparison samples of radio-quiet and non-FR2 radio-loud quasars, matched in their redshift distributions, we constructed composite optical spectra from the SDSS spectroscopic data. Based on these spectra we can conclude that the FR2 quasars have stronger high-ionization emission lines compared to both the radio quiet and non-FR2 radio loud sources. This is consistent with the notion that the emission lines are brightened by ongoing shock ionization of ambient gas in the quasar host as the radio source expands.

  10. Perfusion network shift during seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen M Sequeira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE is associated with limbic atrophy involving the hippocampus, peri-hippocampal and extra-temporal structures. While MTLE is related to static structural limbic compromise, it is unknown whether the limbic system undergoes dynamic regional perfusion network alterations during seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate state specific (i.e. ictal versus interictal perfusional limbic networks in patients with MTLE. METHODS: We studied clinical information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT images obtained with intravenous infusion of the radioactive tracer Technetium- Tc 99 m Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime (Tc-99 m HMPAO during ictal and interictal state confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG in 20 patients with unilateral MTLE (12 left and 8 right MTLE. Pair-wise voxel-based analyses were used to define global changes in tracer between states. Regional tracer uptake was calculated and state specific adjacency matrices were constructed based on regional correlation of uptake across subjects. Graph theoretical measures were applied to investigate global and regional state specific network reconfigurations. RESULTS: A significant increase in tracer uptake was observed during the ictal state in the medial temporal region, cerebellum, thalamus, insula and putamen. From network analyses, we observed a relative decreased correlation between the epileptogenic temporal region and remaining cortex during the interictal state, followed by a surge of cross-correlated perfusion in epileptogenic temporal-limbic structures during a seizure, corresponding to local network integration. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MTLE is associated with a state specific perfusion and possibly functional organization consisting of a surge of limbic cross-correlated tracer uptake during a seizure, with a relative disconnection of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in the interictal period. This

  11. [Microtumor presenting with temporal lobe epilepsy--a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, M; Jimbo, M; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, N; Takeyama, E; Kubo, O

    1988-04-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to our clinic on July 16, 1985 with the epilepsy which had been resistant to various anticonvulsant therapies. At the age of 10 years automatism seizure, characterized by purposeless movement of arms and head of which the patient was unaware, began to occur and became as frequent as two to three times each day. From the age of 13 years, there were also grand mal seizures several times a year in spite of medical treatment. She had normal delivery and no history of febrile convulsion. There was no family history of epilepsy or mental disease. When examined on admission, she had normal personality and intelligence. There was no neurological abnormality. She complained of sleepiness and hirsutiness. Fit of automatism occurred two to three times a day during admission, though the blood levels of anticonvulsant drugs such as phenobarbital, phenytoin and carbamazepine reached to therapeutic concentration. EEG examination including infratemporal lead recording showed right temporal spike focus. But all the neuroradiological studies such as skull X-rays, CT, cerebral angiography and magnetic resonance imaging failed to show abnormal finding. Right temporal lobectomy was carried out under general anesthesia on Aug 22, 1985, and anterior two-thirds of the middle and the inferior temporal gyri were resected deeply to anterior hippocampus. To the naked eye, no abnormal finding was noted during the operation. In the surgical specimen, macroscopically nothing abnormal was found. Microscopically, serial sections of the lobe revealed clusters of oligodendroglial cells in cortical to subcortical region of the medial basal part of the temporal lobe.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Multimodality medical image database for temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Mohammad-Reza; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Fotouhi, Farshad A.; Elisevich, Kost

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents the development of a human brain multi-modality database for surgical candidacy determination in temporal lobe epilepsy. The focus of the paper is on content-based image management, navigation and retrieval. Several medical image-processing methods including our newly developed segmentation method are utilized for information extraction/correlation and indexing. The input data includes T1-, T2-Weighted and FLAIR MRI and ictal/interictal SPECT modalities with associated clinical data and EEG data analysis. The database can answer queries regarding issues such as the correlation between the attribute X of the entity Y and the outcome of a temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. The entity Y can be a brain anatomical structure such as the hippocampus. The attribute X can be either a functionality feature of the anatomical structure Y, calculated with SPECT modalities, such as signal average, or a volumetric/morphological feature of the entity Y such as volume or average curvature. The outcome of the surgery can be any surgery assessment such as non-verbal Wechsler memory quotient. A determination is made regarding surgical candidacy by analysis of both textual and image data. The current database system suggests a surgical determination for the cases with relatively small hippocampus and high signal intensity average on FLAIR images within the hippocampus. This indication matches the neurosurgeons expectations/observations. Moreover, as the database gets more populated with patient profiles and individual surgical outcomes, using data mining methods one may discover partially invisible correlations between the contents of different modalities of data and the outcome of the surgery.

  13. [Diagnosis, treatment and progress after frontal lobe injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quester, R; Klug, N

    2003-06-01

    The comprehensive assessment of a frontal lobe injury is one of the most complex problems in diagnosis and treatment due to the variability of nature, extent and effect of various disorders of higher cerebral functions, i. e. impairment of the ability to act systematically, attention, motivation and emotionality. This brings about considerable differences in assessing and judging the effects of frontal lobe syndromes. Impairments of initiation, planning and carrying out of actions, of impulse control, attention, memory and self-perception often manifest in disorganised and dissocial behaviour which brings about serious effects in many fields of social adaptability. Deeper neurological insights in nature and effects of these deficiencies and improved diagnostical methods and concepts of intensive-care treatment as well as the improved understanding in the necessity of a longterm rehabilitation program have led to the development of specific strategies concerning the dealing with the patient, the counseling of the social environment, especially of the relatives, and the treatment of the patient's symptoms. In the course of acute and rehabilitative treatment the patient normally has to develop strategies of habituation and adaptation to his social environment, furthermore techniques of compensation as well as an improvement of personal resources including attention, memory and planning of actions. The ability of self-control ought to be improved by training of behavioural strategies leading to an increased independence. The success of treatment varies distinctly from individual to individual. As a rule, basic capabilities in the scope of higher brain functions as well as executive and behavioural abilities can be improved. However, a restitutio ad integrum of all dysfunctions is very rare.

  14. 蒙古寒蝉成、若虫触角形态及若虫龄期判别研究(半翅目:蝉科)%Antennal morphology of the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), with a deduction of its nymphal instars and discussion of the antennal morphological variations in relation to niche changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆龙; 魏琮

    2013-01-01

    The morphology of antennal sensilla of both nymphs and adults in the cicada Meimuna mongolica (Distant) were studied.Four instars ofM.mongolica (Distant) were preliminarily determined using Dyar's rule and a regression analysis of the head width of nymphs,combined with the comparative morphology of antennae of different stage nymphs and adults.The antennae of nymphs in different instars and adults show great morphological variations.The numbers,types and distribution of antennal sensilla in nymphs and adults of M.mongolica are significantly different,which should be closely related to the niche changes of the nymphs and adults,and provide implications for the development stages of this cicada.%对蒙古寒蝉若虫与成虫的触角感器进行了研究,并结合不同龄期若虫触角的形态特征,采用Dyar 法则与“头宽—龄期”的回归曲线验证,初步断定蒙古寒蝉若虫具有4个龄期.不同龄期若虫与成虫的触角形态差异显著,触角感器的种类、数量和分布也明显不同,其差异或与若虫和成虫的生态位不同密切相关.

  15. On the vorticity characteristics of lobe-forced mixer at different configurations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    mao, R.; Yu, S.C.M.; Zhou, T.; Chua, L.P.

    2009-01-01

    Lobe-forced mixer is one typical example of the passive flow controllers owing to its corrugated trailing edge. Besides the spanwise Kelvin–Helmholtz vortex shedding, streamwise vortices are also generated within its mixing layer. The geometrical configuration of the lobe significantly affects these

  16. Floating of the lobes of mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva for respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-01-01

    Mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva has to float its siphon on the water surface to breathe air. To elucidate the floating mechanism of the siphon, morphological structures, especially the flap-like lobes and spiracle of the siphon, were observed. Wettability and dynamic behavior of the lobes on the water surface were also experimentally examined. The lobes formed a hollow cone shape under water and expanded on the water surface. The spiracle was located at the base of the cone. The lobes exhibited hydrophobic wettability. During floating process, the lobes were spread into a triangular shape in apical view, and the spiracle was exposed to air. When they were submerged in water, the lobes were folded into a cone shape to seal the spiracle and protect it from water penetration. These dynamic processes occurred at the water surface. In this study, the floating mechanism of the lobes for respiration was described based on the cross-sectional morphology of the lobes with the pressure induced by surface tension and the hydrostatic pressure proportional to depth. This study would be helpful in elucidating the behavior of mosquito larvae near the water surface and may facilitate the formulation of methods to control mosquito larvae. PMID:28216635

  17. Long term changes in the visual fields of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using vigabatrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardus, P; Verduin, WM; Postma, G; Stilma, JS; Berendschot, TTJM; van Veelen, CWM

    2000-01-01

    Aim-To study the long term changes in the concentric contraction of the visual field in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy on vigabatrin medication. Methods-Repeated Goldmann visual field examinations were compared in 27 patients with drug resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and concentric contractio

  18. Floating of the lobes of mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva for respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Chul; Kim, Jun Ho; Lee, Sang Joon

    2017-02-20

    Mosquito (Aedes togoi) larva has to float its siphon on the water surface to breathe air. To elucidate the floating mechanism of the siphon, morphological structures, especially the flap-like lobes and spiracle of the siphon, were observed. Wettability and dynamic behavior of the lobes on the water surface were also experimentally examined. The lobes formed a hollow cone shape under water and expanded on the water surface. The spiracle was located at the base of the cone. The lobes exhibited hydrophobic wettability. During floating process, the lobes were spread into a triangular shape in apical view, and the spiracle was exposed to air. When they were submerged in water, the lobes were folded into a cone shape to seal the spiracle and protect it from water penetration. These dynamic processes occurred at the water surface. In this study, the floating mechanism of the lobes for respiration was described based on the cross-sectional morphology of the lobes with the pressure induced by surface tension and the hydrostatic pressure proportional to depth. This study would be helpful in elucidating the behavior of mosquito larvae near the water surface and may facilitate the formulation of methods to control mosquito larvae.

  19. Noise Reduction with Lobed Mixers: Nozzle-Length and Free-Jet Speed Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengle, Vinod G.; Dalton, William N.; Bridges, James C.; Boyd, Kathy C.

    1997-01-01

    Acoustic test results are presented for 1/4th-scaled nozzles with internal lobed mixers used for reduction of subsonic jet noise of turbofan engines with bypass ratio above 5 and jet speeds up to 830 ft/s. One coaxial and three forced lobe mixers were tested with variations in lobe penetration, cut-outs in lobe-sidewall, lobe number and nozzle-length. Measured exit flow profiles and thrusts are used to assist the inferences from acoustic data. It is observed that lobed mixers reduce the low-frequency noise due to more uniformly mixed exit flow; but they may also increase the high-frequency noise at peak perceived noise (PNL) angle and angles upstream of it due to enhanced mixing inside the nozzle. Cut-outs and low lobe penetration reduce the annoying portion of the spectrum but lead to less uniform exit flow. Due to the dominance of internal duct noise in unscalloped, high-penetration mixers their noise is not reduced as much with increase in free-jet speed as that of coaxial or cut-out lobed mixers. The latter two mixers also show no change in PNL over the wide range of nozzle-lengths tested because most of their noise sources are outside the nozzle; whereas, the former show an increase in noise with decrease in nozzle-length.

  20. Detection of X-ray Emission from the Eastern Radio Lobe of PICTOR A

    CERN Document Server

    Grandi, P; Maraschi, L; Morganti, R; Fusco-Femiano, R; Fiocchi, M; Ballo, L; Tavecchio, F; Grandi, Paola; Guainazzi, Matteo; Maraschi, Laura; Morganti, Raffaella; Fusco-Femiano, Roberto; Fiocchi, Mariateresa; Ballo, Lucia; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    The XMM-Newton satellite has revealed extended X-ray emission from the eastern radio lobe of the Fanaroff-Riley II Radio Galaxy Pictor A. The X-ray spectrum, accumulated on a region covering about half the entire radio lobe, is well described by both a thermal model and a power law. The X-ray emission could be thermal and produced by circum-galactic gas shocked by the expanding radio lobe or, alternatively, by Inverse Compton (IC) of cosmic microwave background photons by relativistic electrons in the lobe. The latter possibility seems to be supported by the good agreement between the lobe-average synchrotron radio index and the X-ray energy slope. However, if this is the case, the magnetic field, as deduced from the comparison of the IC X-ray and radio fluxes, is more than a factor 2 below the equipartition value estimated in the same X-ray region.

  1. A Flight Sensory-Motor to Olfactory Processing Circuit in the Moth Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Samual P; Chapman, Phillip D; Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Daly, Kevin C; Dacks, Andrew M

    2016-01-01

    Neural circuits projecting information from motor to sensory pathways are common across sensory domains. These circuits typically modify sensory function as a result of motor pattern activation; this is particularly so in cases where the resultant behavior affects the sensory experience or its processing. However, such circuits have not been observed projecting to an olfactory pathway in any species despite well characterized active sampling behaviors that produce reafferent mechanical stimuli, such as sniffing in mammals and wing beating in the moth Manduca sexta. In this study we characterize a circuit that connects a flight sensory-motor center to an olfactory center in Manduca. This circuit consists of a single pair of histamine immunoreactive (HA-ir) neurons that project from the mesothoracic ganglion to innervate a subset of ventral antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli. Furthermore, within the AL we show that the M. sexta histamine B receptor (MsHisClB) is exclusively expressed by a subset of GABAergic and peptidergic LNs, which broadly project to all olfactory glomeruli. Finally, the HA-ir cell pair is present in fifth stage instar larvae; however, the absence of MsHisClB-ir in the larval antennal center indicates that the circuit is incomplete prior to metamorphosis and importantly prior to the expression of flight behavior. Although the functional consequences of this circuit remain unknown, these results provide the first detailed description of a circuit that interconnects an olfactory system with motor centers driving flight behaviors including odor-guided flight.

  2. Developmental trajectories of the fronto-temporal lobes from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Chiaki; Matsui, Mie; Uematsu, Akiko; Noguchi, Kyo; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    Brain development during early life in healthy individuals is rapid and dynamic, indicating that this period plays a very important role in neural and functional development. The frontal and temporal lobes are known to play a particularly important role in cognition. The study of healthy frontal and temporal lobe development in children is therefore of considerable importance. A better understanding of how these brain regions develop could also aid in the diagnosis and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. Some developmental studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to examine infant brains, but it remains the case that relatively little is known about cortical brain development in the first few years of life. In the present study we examined whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe developmental trajectories from infancy to early adulthood in healthy individuals, considering gender and brain hemisphere differences. We performed a cross-sectional, longitudinal morphometric MRI study of 114 healthy individuals (54 females and 60 males) aged 1 month to 25 years old (mean age ± SD 8.8 ± 6.9). We measured whole brain, temporal and frontal lobe gray matter (GM)/white matter (WM) volumes, following previously used protocols. There were significant non-linear age-related volume changes in all regions. Peak ages of whole brain, temporal lobe and frontal lobe development occurred around pre-adolescence (9-12 years old). GM volumes for all regions increased significantly as a function of age. Peak age was nevertheless lobe specific, with a pattern of earlier peak ages for females in both temporal and frontal lobes. Growth change in whole brain GM volume was larger in males than in females. However, GM volume growth changes for the temporal and frontal lobes showed a somewhat different pattern. GM volume for both temporal and frontal lobes showed a greater increase in females until around 5-6 years old, at which point this tendency reversed (GM volume

  3. Revisiting the anatomy of the central nervous system of a hemimetabolous model insect species: the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Minoli, Sebastian; Bonhomme, Joël; Homberg, Uwe; Schachtner, Joachim; Tagu, Denis; Anton, Sylvia

    2011-02-01

    Aphids show a marked phenotypic plasticity, producing asexual or sexual and winged or wingless morphs depending on environmental conditions and season. We describe here the general structure of the brain of various morphs of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This is the first detailed anatomical study of the central nervous system of an aphid by immunocytochemistry (synapsin, serotonin, and several neuropeptides), ethyl-gallate staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The study has revealed well-developed optic lobes composed of lamina, medulla, and lobula complex. Ocelli are only present in males and winged parthenogenetic females. The central complex is well-defined, with a central body divided into two parts, a protocerebral bridge, and affiliated lateral accessory lobes. The mushroom bodies are ill-defined, lacking calyces, and only being visualized by using an antiserum against the neuropeptide orcokinin. The antennal lobes contain poorly delineated glomeruli but can be clearly visualized by performing antennal backfills. On the basis of our detailed description of the brain of winged and wingless parthenogenetic A. pisum females, an anatomical map is now available that should improve our knowledge of the way that these structures are involved in the regulation of phenotypic plasticity.

  4. 3D standard brain of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum: a tool to study metamorphic development and adult plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dreyer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is emerging as a further standard insect model beside Drosophila. Its genome is fully sequenced and it is susceptible for genetic manipulations including RNA-interference. We use this beetle to study adult brain development and plasticity primarily with respect to the olfactory system. In the current study, we provide 3D standard brain atlases of freshly eclosed adult female and male beetles (A0. The atlases include eight paired and three unpaired neuropils including antennal lobes, optic lobe neuropils, mushroom body calyces and pedunculi, and central complex. For each of the two standard brains, we averaged brain areas of 20 individual brains. Additionally, we characterized eight selected olfactory glomeruli from 10 A0 female and male beetles respectively, which we could unequivocally recognize from individual to individual owing to their size and typical position in the antennal lobes. In summary, comparison of the averaged neuropil volumes revealed no sexual dimorphism in any of the reconstructed neuropils in A0 Tribolium brains. Both, the female and male 3D standard brain are also used for interspecies comparisons, and, very importantly, will serve as future volumetric references after genetical manipulation especially regarding metamorphic development and adult plasticity.

  5. Psychoses in drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, I; Larsen, J K

    1979-10-01

    In the survey of 74 Danish patients with temporal lobe epilepsy who underwent temporal lobectomy, a total of 20 patients were psychotic. Nine of these became psychotic during the follow-up period, six of them after cessation of their epileptic seizures. There were 13 schizophrenia-like psychoses, six paranoid delusional and depressive psychoses, and one childhood psychosis. Operation was on the right side in 39 and on the left side in 35 patients. When the various psychotic groups were compared with each other or with the nonpsychotic patients, the side of operation was not found to be statistically important. The patients with psychoses were older at operation and showed a higher rate of focal lesions in the resected specimens. Although more psychotic patients were bright or normally gifted, and had achieved a higher standard of schooling than nonpsychotic patients, their social status after operation was inferior. Surgery had no effect on psychosis present preoperatively nor on its possible postoperative onset. The diagnosis of psychosis was not considered to be contraindication to temporal lobectomy.

  6. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naohide Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  7. Alcoholism, Korsakoff’s Syndrome and the Frontal Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. R. Jacobson

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available A subset of the diffuse cerebral changes and psychometric deficits found in chronic alcoholics is similar to that seen in the frontal lobe syndrome. Certain features of alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome (AKS also point to cortical involvement, and this may have a basis in alcohol neurotoxicity. Twenty-five patients with AKS and 24 non-Korsakoff alcoholic controls were compared using an automated CT brain scan program. In addition to evidence of their diencephalic lesions (wide third ventricles, AKS patients revealed widespread cerebral damage with greater Sylvian and interhemispheric fissure (IHF size than alcoholics. Korsakoffs were also inferior to alcoholics in performance on a category sorting test, in which non-perseverative error scores correlated significantly with IHF size. The principle of distinguishing between selective memory decline and global intellectual decline (GID was applied to 38 patients with AKS. Indices were developed for each type of deficit and much variation found in their distributions. The degree of GID correlated significantly with IHF size, showing similar trends with other cortical measures. These results suggest a cortical substrate for the degree of GID and a frontal substrate for category sorting deficits; with a probable basis in alcohol neurotoxicity rather than thiamine deficiency, which is not known to impair cortical structure. A new model is proposed of the pathophysiology of alcoholic brain damage and AKS which includes recent work on neurotransmitter sources and thalamo-frontal connections.

  8. Hemichorea and dystonia due to frontal lobe meningioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Qayyum Rana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors originating from the meninges, also known as meningiomas, have rarely been known to cause parkinsonian symptoms and other movement disorders. Although some cases of AV malformations causing movement disorders have been described in the literature, not much has been reported about meningiomas in this regard. The aim of this case report is to further highlight the importance of brain imaging in patients with movement disorders for even a benign tumor; and also emphasize the need for a careful movement disorder examination because more than one phenomenology of movement disorders may result from the mechanical pressure caused by a tumor. We present a case report of a patient with a heavily calcified right frontal lobe meningioma. Our patient had irregular, involuntary, brief, fleeting and unpredictable movements of her left upper and lower extremities, consistent with chorea. The patient also had abnormal dystonic posturing of her left arm while walking. This case report highlights the importance of brain imaging as well as careful neurological examinations of patients with benign meningiomas. Moreover, it illustrates the remarkable specificity yet clinical diversity of meningiomas in presentation through movement disorders.

  9. Hsp60 response in experimental and human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Colangeli, Roberto; Orban, Gergely; Pierucci, Massimo; Di Gennaro, Giancarlo; Lo Bello, Margherita; D'Aniello, Alfredo; Bucchieri, Fabio; Pomara, Cristoforo; Valentino, Mario; Muscat, Richard; Benigno, Arcangelo; Zummo, Giovanni; de Macario, Everly Conway; Cappello, Francesco; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Macario, Alberto J L

    2015-03-24

    The mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 is a ubiquitous molecule with multiple roles, constitutively expressed and inducible by oxidative stress. In the brain, Hsp60 is widely distributed and has been implicated in neurological disorders, including epilepsy. A role for mitochondria and oxidative stress has been proposed in epileptogenesis of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Here, we investigated the involvement of Hsp60 in TLE using animal and human samples. Hsp60 immunoreactivity in the hippocampus, measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, was increased in a rat model of TLE. Hsp60 was also increased in the hippocampal dentate gyrus neurons somata and neuropil and hippocampus proper (CA3, CA1) of the epileptic rats. We also determined the circulating levels of Hsp60 in epileptic animals and TLE patients using ELISA. The epileptic rats showed circulating levels of Hsp60 higher than controls. Likewise, plasma post-seizure Hsp60 levels in patients were higher than before the seizure and those of controls. These results demonstrate that Hsp60 is increased in both animals and patients with TLE in affected tissues, and in plasma in response to epileptic seizures, and point to it as biomarker of hippocampal stress potentially useful for diagnosis and patient management.

  10. Human temporal lobe activation by speech and nonspeech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, J R; Frost, J A; Hammeke, T A; Bellgowan, P S; Springer, J A; Kaufman, J N; Possing, E T

    2000-05-01

    Functional organization of the lateral temporal cortex in humans is not well understood. We recorded blood oxygenation signals from the temporal lobes of normal volunteers using functional magnetic resonance imaging during stimulation with unstructured noise, frequency-modulated (FM) tones, reversed speech, pseudowords and words. For all conditions, subjects performed a material-nonspecific detection response when a train of stimuli began or ceased. Dorsal areas surrounding Heschl's gyrus bilaterally, particularly the planum temporale and dorsolateral superior temporal gyrus, were more strongly activated by FM tones than by noise, suggesting a role in processing simple temporally encoded auditory information. Distinct from these dorsolateral areas, regions centered in the superior temporal sulcus bilaterally were more activated by speech stimuli than by FM tones. Identical results were obtained in this region using words, pseudowords and reversed speech, suggesting that the speech-tones activation difference is due to acoustic rather than linguistic factors. In contrast, previous comparisons between word and nonword speech sounds showed left-lateralized activation differences in more ventral temporal and temporoparietal regions that are likely involved in processing lexical-semantic or syntactic information associated with words. The results indicate functional subdivision of the human lateral temporal cortex and provide a preliminary framework for understanding the cortical processing of speech sounds.

  11. Memory for emotional material in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Múnera, Claudia P; Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Terpiluk, Verónica; Medel, Nancy; Solís, Patricia; Kochen, Silvia

    2015-11-01

    Several studies suggest that highly emotional information could facilitate long-term memory encoding and consolidation processes via an amygdala-hippocampal network. Our aim was to assess emotional perception and episodic memory for emotionally arousing material in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who are candidates for surgical treatment. We did this by using an audiovisual paradigm. Forty-six patients with medically resistant TLE (26 with left TLE and 20 with right TLE) and 19 healthy controls were assessed with a standard narrative test of emotional memory. The experimental task consisted of sequential picture slides with an accompanying narrative depicting a story that has an emotional central section. Subjects were asked to rate their emotional arousal reaction to each stimulus after the story was shown, while emotional memory (EM) was assessed a week later with a multiple choice questionnaire and a visual recognition task. Our results showed that ratings for emotional stimuli for the patients with TLE were significantly higher than for neutral stimuli (p=0.000). It was also observed that patients with TLE recalled significantly less information from each slide compared with controls, with a trend to lower scores on the questionnaire task for the group with LTLE, as well as poorer performance on the visual recognition task for the group with RLTE. Emotional memory was preserved in patients with RTLE despite having generally poorer memory performance compared with controls, while it was found to be impaired in patients with LTLE.

  12. Semantic Processing Impairment in Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Amanda G. Jaimes-Bautista

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The impairment in episodic memory system is the best-known cognitive deficit in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Recent studies have shown evidence of semantic disorders, but they have been less studied than episodic memory. The semantic dysfunction in TLE has various cognitive manifestations, such as the presence of language disorders characterized by defects in naming, verbal fluency, or remote semantic information retrieval, which affects the ability of patients to interact with their surroundings. This paper is a review of recent research about the consequences of TLE on semantic processing, considering neuropsychological, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging findings, as well as the functional role of the hippocampus in semantic processing. The evidence from these studies shows disturbance of semantic memory in patients with TLE and supports the theory of declarative memory of the hippocampus. Functional neuroimaging studies show an inefficient compensatory functional reorganization of semantic networks and electrophysiological studies show a lack of N400 effect that could indicate that the deficit in semantic processing in patients with TLE could be due to a failure in the mechanisms of automatic access to lexicon.

  13. Hot-Jupiter Core Mass from Roche-lobe Overflow

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, Sivan

    2016-01-01

    The orbits of many observed hot Jupiters are decaying rapidly due to tidal interaction, eventually reaching the Roche limit. We analytically study the ensuing coupled mass loss and orbital evolution during the Roche-lobe overflow and find two possible scenarios. Planets with light cores $M_c\\lesssim 6M_\\oplus$ (assuming a nominal tidal dissipation factor $Q\\sim 10^6$ for the host star) are transformed into Neptune-mass gas planets, orbiting at a separation (relative to the stellar radius) $a/R_\\star\\approx 3.5$. Planets with heavier cores $M_c\\gtrsim 6M_\\oplus$ plunge rapidly until they are destroyed at the stellar surface. Remnant gas-Neptunes, which are stable to photo-evaporation, are absent from the observations, despite their unique transit radius ($5-10R_\\oplus$). This result suggests that $M_c\\gtrsim 6M_\\oplus$, providing a useful constraint on the poorly-known core mass that may distinguish between different formation theories of gas giants. Alternatively, given a prior estimate of $M_c\\approx 6 M_\\op...

  14. Nontraumatic frontal lobe hemorrhages: Clinical-computed tomographic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weisberg, L.A.; Stazio, A.

    1988-12-01

    Correlation of lesion location and appearance with clinical sequelae in 25 patients with CT-proven frontal lobe hematomas reveals 10 of 25 hematomas were located above the frontal horns of the lateral ventricles. Nine of the 10 patients were normotensive. All presented with contralateral motor and sensory deficits. Four of 25 hematomas were situated inferior to the frontal horns. All these patients were hypertensive, rapidly became comatose and exhibited hemiplegia, hemianestesia and gaze preference contralateral to the hemiplegia. Five patients had frontal hematomas which extended inward from the interhemispheric fissure or caval-septal region. All were normotensive. All had anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysms on angiography. Four patients had hematomas involving both the frontal and temporal region. All were normotensive with no known cause for hemorrhage. Two patients had bifrontal hematomas; one had butterfly appearance extending across the interhemispheric fissure and the other was midline but had no interhemispheric blood. Both were normotensive. One had an anterior cerebral-anterior communicating artery aneurysm.

  15. Corpora amylacea in temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis

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    Ribeiro Marlise de Castro

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocampal sclerosis (HS is the commonest pathology in epileptic patients undergoing temporal lobe epilepsy surgery. Beside, there are an increased density of corpora amylacea (CA founded in 6 to 63% of those cases. OBJECTIVE: verify the presence of CA and the clinical correlates of their occurrence in a consective series of patients undergoing temporal surgery with diagnosis of HS. METHOD: We reviewed 72 hippocampus specimens from January 1997 to July 2000. Student's t test for independent, samples, ANOVA and Tukey test were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: CA were found in 35 patients (49%, whose mean epilepsy duration (28.7 years was significantly longer than that group of patients without CA (19.5 years, p= 0.001. Besides, when CA were found, duration was also significantly correlated with distribution within hippocampus: 28.7 years with diffuse distribution of CA, 15.4 with exclusively subpial and 17.4 years with distribution subpial plus perivascular (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: Our findings corroborate the presence of CA in patients with HS and suggest that a longer duration of epilepsy correlate with a more distribution of CA in hippocampus.

  16. Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Patients with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Qin; Ren, Bo-Xu; Tang, Feng-Ru

    2016-02-01

    The mobilization of endogenous neural stem cells in order to substitute lost neurons in the adult brain may reduce the negative effects of patients with chronic neurodegenerative diseases. However, abnormal neurogenesis may be harmful and could lead to the worsening of patients' symptoms. In the brains of patients and animal models with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), increased newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (SGZ) at early stages after brain insults have been speculated to be involved in epileptogenesis. However, this argument is unsupported by evidence showing that (1) hippocampal neurogenesis is reduced at chronic stages of intractable TLE, (2) decreased neurogenesis is involved in epileptogenesis, and (3) spontaneous recurrent seizures occur before newly generated neurons are integrated into hippocampal neural pathways. Therefore, the hypothesis of increased neurogenesis in epileptogenesis may need to be re-evaluated. In this paper, we systemically reviewed brain neurogenesis and relevant molecules in the regulation of neurogenesis in SGZ. We aimed to update researchers and epileptologists on current progresses on pathophysiological changes of neurogenesis at different stages of TLE in patients and animal models of TLE. The interactions among neurogenesis, epileptogenesis and cognitive impairment, and molecules' mechanism involved in neurogenesis would also be discussed. Future research directions are proposed at the end of this paper.

  17. Benign occipital lobe seizures: Natural progression and atypical evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prithika Chary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Benign occipital seizure syndromes are benign childhood epilepsy syndromes and are mainly of two types, Panayiotopoulos syndrome, an autonomic epilepsy and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOE-G including the idiopathic photosensitive occipital lobe epilepsy. Although both these types are categorized as occipital seizures, they are distinct in presentation and management. They can also be tricky to diagnose as visual symptoms may not always be the presenting feature and it is also not very easy to elicit visual hallucinations during history taking. These seizures have a good response to treatment; however, there could be atypical evolution and refractoriness to treatment especially with ICOE-G. We describe three children who presented with visual and non-visual symptoms and the electroencephalography (EEG in all the three cases showed occipital paroxysms. We have emphasized the clues in the clinical history and EEG leading to the diagnosis of these distinct epilepsy syndromes. We have also discussed the natural course of these epilepsy syndromes with some atypical evolution, which clinicians need to be aware of during treatment of these children.

  18. Somatosensory and pharyngolaryngeal auras in temporal lobe epilepsy surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Alexander G; Surbeck, Werner; Rahme, Ralph; Bouthillier, Alain; Harroud, Adil; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Somatosensory (SSA) and pharyngolaryngeal auras (PLA) may suggest an extratemporal onset (e.g., insula, second somatosensory area). We sought to determine the prognostic significance of SSA and PLA in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients undergoing epilepsy surgery. Methods. Retrospective review of all patients operated for refractory TLE at our institution between January 1980 and July 2007 comparing outcome between patients with SSA/PLA to those without. Results. 158 patients underwent surgery for pharmacoresistant TLE in our institution. Eleven (7%) experienced SSA/PLA as part of their seizures. All but one had lesional (including hippocampal atrophy/sclerosis) TLE. Compared to patients without SSA or PLA, these patients were older (P = 0.049), had a higher prevalence of early ictal motor symptoms (P = 0.022) and prior CNS infection (P = 0.022), and were less likely to have a localizing SPECT study (P = 0.025). A favorable outcome was achieved in 81.8% of patients with SSA and/or PLA and 90.4% of those without SSA or PLA (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Most patients with pharmacoresistant lesional TLE appear to have a favorable outcome following temporal lobectomy, even in the presence of SSA and PLA.

  19. Body and movement: consciousness in the parietal lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daprati, Elena; Sirigu, Angela; Nico, Daniele

    2010-02-01

    A critical issue related to the notion of identity concerns our ability to discriminate between internally and externally generated stimuli. This basic mechanism likely relies on perceptual and motor information, and requires that both motor plans and the resulting activity be continuously mapped on a reliable body representation. It has been widely demonstrated that the parietal cortices of the two hemispheres play a crucial role, albeit differently specialized, in both monitoring internal representation of our own actions and sustaining body representation. Ample neuropsychological evidence indicates that while damage to the left parietal cortex affects the ability to generate and/or monitor an internal model of one's own movement, lesions of the right parietal lobe are largely responsible for severe perturbations of the internal representation of one's own body. In the present paper, we discuss the processes involved in body perception and self-recognition and propose a tentative model describing how the right and left parietal cortices contribute in integrating various sources of information to produce the unique, elementary experience of one's own body in motion. The ecological value of this process in constructing identity and autobiographical experience will be discussed.

  20. Comparative Lateralizing Ability of Multimodality MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Karabekir Ercan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to compare lateralizing ability of three quantitative MR (qMRI modalities to depict changes of hippocampal architecture with clinical entities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We evaluated 14 patients with clinical and EEG proven diagnosis of unilateral TLE and 15 healthy volunteers. T1-weighted 3D dataset for volumetry, single-voxel 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI were performed for bilateral hippocampi of all subjects. Results. Individual volumetric measurements provided accurate lateralization in 85% of the patients, spectroscopy in 57%, and DTI in 57%. Higher lateralization ratios were acquired combining volumetry-spectroscopy (85%, spectroscopy-DTI (85%, and volumetry-DTI (100%. Significantly decreased NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.002 and increased FA (p=0.001 values were obtained in ipsilateral to epileptogenic hippocampus. Duration of epilepsy and FA values showed a significant negative correlation (p=0.016, r=-0.847. The history of febrile convulsion associated with ipsilateral increased ADC values (p=0.015, r=0.851 and reduced NAA/(Cho+Cr ratios (p=0.047, r=-761. Conclusion. Volumetry, MRS, and DTI studies provide complementary information of hippocampal pathology. For lateralization of epileptogenic focus and preoperative examination, volumetry-DTI combination may be indicative of diagnostic accuracy.

  1. Comparative Lateralizing Ability of Multimodality MRI in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Karabekir; Bilir, Erhan; Zan, Elcin; Arslan, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The objective is to compare lateralizing ability of three quantitative MR (qMRI) modalities to depict changes of hippocampal architecture with clinical entities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods. We evaluated 14 patients with clinical and EEG proven diagnosis of unilateral TLE and 15 healthy volunteers. T1-weighted 3D dataset for volumetry, single-voxel 1H MR spectroscopy (MRS), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed for bilateral hippocampi of all subjects. Results. Individual volumetric measurements provided accurate lateralization in 85% of the patients, spectroscopy in 57%, and DTI in 57%. Higher lateralization ratios were acquired combining volumetry-spectroscopy (85%), spectroscopy-DTI (85%), and volumetry-DTI (100%). Significantly decreased NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios (p = 0.002) and increased FA (p = 0.001) values were obtained in ipsilateral to epileptogenic hippocampus. Duration of epilepsy and FA values showed a significant negative correlation (p = 0.016, r = −0.847). The history of febrile convulsion associated with ipsilateral increased ADC values (p = 0.015, r = 0.851) and reduced NAA/(Cho+Cr) ratios (p = 0.047, r = −761). Conclusion. Volumetry, MRS, and DTI studies provide complementary information of hippocampal pathology. For lateralization of epileptogenic focus and preoperative examination, volumetry-DTI combination may be indicative of diagnostic accuracy. PMID:27974864

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-hong; LI Kun-cheng; YU Chun-shui; WANG Yu-ping; XUE Su-fang

    2006-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive imaging technique for the assessment of theintegrity of cerebral tissues. This study was undertaken to assess the changes of diffusion indices of hippocampalformation (HF) in patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).Methods Fourteen patients with MTLE and 14 healthy subjects were evaluated. Mean diffusivity (MD) andfractional anisotropy (FA) from the symmetrical-voxel sampling regions of the anterior HF were calculated in allsubjects. The MD and FA values were compared across the groups.Results No significant differences of MD and FA values were noted between right and left HF in the controls.In the patient group, MD significantly increased in the HF ipsilateral to the lesioned side [(9.27±1.09)×10-4mm2/s], compared with the values in the contralateral HF [(8.20±0.59)×10-4 mm2/s] (t = 4.479, P = 0.001) andhealthy subjects [(7.58±0.51)×10-4 mm2/s] (P<0.001), but no significant differences were found in FA. Whencompared with the controls, patients had a significantly higher MD inthe contralateral HF (P<0.05), but thedifference in FA was not statistically significant.Conclusions DTI could detect hippocampal abnormality in patients with MTLE. This technique may be helpfulfor preoperative evaluation of such patients.

  3. Hush sign: a new clinical sign in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Gulnihal; Bilir, Erhan; Erdem, Atilla; Gomceli, Yasemin B; Kurt, G Semiha; Serdaroglu, Ayse

    2005-05-01

    Neurologists have been analyzing the clinical behaviors that occur during seizures for many years. Several ictal behaviors have been defined in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Ictal behaviors are especially important in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates. We propose a new lateralizing sign in TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere-the "hush" sign. Our patients were 30- and 21-year old women (Cases 1 and 2, respectively). Their epileptogenic foci were localized to the right mesial temporal region after noninvasive presurgical investigations. Case 1 had no cranial MRI abnormality, whereas cranial MRI revealed right hippocampal atrophy in Case 2. These women repeatedly moved their right index fingers to their mouth while puckering their lips during complex partial seizures. We have named this ictal behavior the "hush" sign. Anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy was performed in both patients, and pathological examinations revealed hippocampal sclerosis. The "hush" sign no longer occurred after seizures were controlled. They were seizure free as of 30 and 31 months of follow-up, respectively. We believe that the "hush" sign may be supportive of a diagnosis of TLE originating from the nondominant hemisphere. This sign may occur as a result of ictal activation of a specific brain region in this hemisphere.

  4. Tidal Decay and Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian; Jensen, Emily; Peacock, Sarah; Arras, Phil; Penev, Kaloyan

    2016-10-01

    Many gaseous exoplanets in short-period orbits are on the verge or are in the process of Roche-lobe overflow (RLO). Moreover, orbital stability analysis shows tides can drive many hot Jupiters to spiral inevitably toward their host stars, and the distributions of orbital periods and semi-major axes point to non-negligible orbital decay during the main sequence lifetimes of the host stars. Thus, the coupled processes of orbital evolution and RLO likely shape the observed distribution of close-in exoplanets. However, the exact outcome for an overflowing planet depends on its internal response to mass loss, and the accompanying orbital evolution can act to enhance or inhibit RLO. Applying the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite to model RLO, we find that, although the detailed evolution may depend on several properties of the planetary system, it is largely determined by the core mass of the overflowing gas giant. In particular, we find that the orbital expansion that accompanies RLO often stops and reverses at a specific maximum period that depends on the core mass. We suggest that RLO may often strand the remnant of a gas giant near or interior to this orbital period, providing an observational prediction that can corroborate the RLO hypothesis. We conduct a preliminary comparison of this prediction to the observed population of small, short-period planets and find some planets in orbits that may be consistent with this picture.

  5. Hippocampography Guides Consistent Mesial Resections in Neocortical Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

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    Marcus C. Ng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The optimal surgery in lesional neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy is unknown. Hippocampal electrocorticography maximizes seizure freedom by identifying normal-appearing epileptogenic tissue for resection and minimizes neuropsychological deficit by limiting resection to demonstrably epileptogenic tissue. We examined whether standardized hippocampal electrocorticography (hippocampography guides resection for more consistent hippocampectomy than unguided resection in conventional electrocorticography focused on the lesion. Methods. Retrospective chart reviews any kind of electrocorticography (including hippocampography as part of combined lesionectomy, anterolateral temporal lobectomy, and hippocampectomy over 8 years . Patients were divided into mesial (i.e., hippocampography and lateral electrocorticography groups. Primary outcome was deviation from mean hippocampectomy length. Results. Of 26 patients, fourteen underwent hippocampography-guided mesial temporal resection. Hippocampography was associated with 2.6 times more consistent resection. The range of hippocampal resection was 0.7 cm in the mesial group and 1.8 cm in the lateral group (p=0.01. 86% of mesial group versus 42% of lateral group patients achieved seizure freedom (p=0.02. Conclusions. By rationally tailoring excision to demonstrably epileptogenic tissue, hippocampography significantly reduces resection variability for more consistent hippocampectomy than unguided resection in conventional electrocorticography. More consistent hippocampal resection may avoid overresection, which poses greater neuropsychological risk, and underresection, which jeopardizes postoperative seizure freedom.

  6. On the origin of Fanaroff-Riley classification of radio galaxies: Deceleration of supersonic radio lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We argue that the origin of "FRI/FRI{-.1em}I dichotomy" -- the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class I{-.1em}I (FRI{-.1em}I) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram) -- can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram-pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between "the hot spot radius" and "the linear size of radio sources" obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power $L_{\\rm j}$ to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy $\\bar{n}_{\\rm a}$. It is also found that there exists the maximal ratio of $(L_{\\...

  7. On the Origin of Fanaroff-Riley Classification of Radio Galaxies: Deceleration of Supersonic Radio Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatu, Nozomu; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2009-06-01

    We argue that the origin of "FRI/FRII dichotomy"—the division between Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) with subsonic lobes and class II (FRII) radio sources with supersonic lobes is sharp in the radio-optical luminosity plane (Owen-White diagram)—can be explained by the deceleration of advancing radio lobes. The deceleration is caused by the growth of the effective cross-sectional area of radio lobes. We derive the condition in which an initially supersonic lobe turns into a subsonic lobe, combining the ram pressure equilibrium between the hot spots and the ambient medium with the relation between "the hot spot radius" and "the linear size of radio sources" obtained from the radio observations. We find that the dividing line between the supersonic lobes and subsonic ones is determined by the ratio of the jet power L j to the number density of the ambient matter at the core radius of the host galaxy \\bar{n}_a. It is also found that the maximal ratio of (L_j/\\bar{n}_a) exists and its value resides in (L_j/\\bar{n}_a)_max≈ 10^{44-47} erg s^{-1} cm^{3}, taking into account considerable uncertainties. This suggests that the maximal value (L_j/\\bar{n}_a)_max separates between FRIs and FRIIs.

  8. 米象成虫触角感器及其取食偏好性%Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla and host preference of adult rice weevil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林喜建; 黄蓬英; 刘馨怡; 陈伟军; 陈思涵; 蔡立君

    2016-01-01

    米象Sitophilus oryzae (L.)是重要的储粮害虫,如何有效防控仍是世界性的研究难题.应用扫描电镜研究了米象成虫触角感器的超微结构,证实了米象触角上仅分布3种感器,分别为毛形感器、刺形感器及锥形感器;采用嗅觉行为仪测定了米象对5种粮食的取食偏好性,结果表明:粮食对米象的引诱由强至弱依次为:燕麦>湖北丁优大米>黑米>莲子>薏米;同时观察了5种粮食对米象F1代种群生长发育的影响,发现在莲子中米象F1代发育历期最长,米象F1代种群数量在供试粮食中由多到少依次为:黑米>燕麦>薏米>湖北丁优大米>莲子.研究其触角感器与取食偏好可为探索米象防治新途径提供理论依据.%Rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae ( L.) is one of the most destructive pests to stored products. To develop an effective S.oryzae management, ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of adult rice weevil was investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), and followed by observation on behavioral responses of adult S.oryzae to five common types of grain by Y-tube olfactometer and influences of feed on population development. Antennal sensilla observations were in accordance with previous study that there were only three types of antennal sensilla, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla chaetica in S.oryzae. Oat was significantly more attractive to adult S.oryzae than other types of grain, which was followed by Hubei Dingyou rice, black rice, lotus seed and pearl barley in a descending order. S.oryzae F1 generation needed the longest time for developmental period in lotus seed. Furthermore, population of F1 generation varied among different types of grain, with the largest population in black rice, followed by in oat, pearl barley, Hubei Dingyou rice and lotus seed in a descending order. The findings were attributed to the development of comprehensive pest prevention and management.

  9. Antennal sensilla of Micromelalopha troglodyta (Graeser) observed by scanning electron microscope%杨小舟蛾触角感觉器的电镜扫描观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付盈盈; 汤方; 赵文亮

    2012-01-01

    The morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla were studied using scanning electron microscopy in Micromelalopha troglodyta( Graeser) . The results showed that eleven distinct kinds of antennal sensilla, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla cavity, sensilla cylindric, sensilla styloconica, sensilla auri-cillica, sensilla furcatea, sensilla gemmiformia, Bohm bristle and sensilla squamiformia, were observed. Furthermore, four types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla styloconica or Bohm bristle, two types of sensilla coeloconica, sensilla furcatea or sensilla squamiformia, and one type of the others were researched, and most of them lie on the upper and lower surfaces of the antenna. In addition, antennal sensilla were quite similar except some slight differences between the female and male individual adult. Sensilla furcatea and the second type of sensilla coeloconica weren't found in the female adult antenna, while sensilla gemmifonraa the first and the second type of B6hm bristle (BB2) weren't found in the male adult antenna. Moreover, there were differences in the length and quantity of sensilla trichodea between the sexes.%利用扫描电镜对杨小舟蛾(Micromelalopha troglodyta (Graeser))成虫触角感觉器的形态、分布进行了观察.结果表明:杨小舟蛾触角上存在11种感觉器,分别为毛形感器、刺形感器、腔锥形感器、腔形感器、柱形感器、栓锥感器、耳形感器、叉形感器、芽形感器、Bǒhm氏鬃毛和鳞形感器.其中,毛形感器有4种类型,栓锥感器、Bǒhm氏鬃毛各有3种类型,腔锥形感器、叉形感器、鳞形感器各有2种类型,其余各有1种类型.绝大部分触角感觉器位于触角的腹面和侧面.雌、雄娥触角上的感器种类大体相同,但也存在差异.雌蛾触角上没有叉形感器及腔锥形感器的第2种类型,雄蛾触角上没有发现芽形感器以及Bǒhm氏鬃毛的第1种和第2种

  10. Antennal Sensilla of the Click Beetle, Melanotus cribricollis (Coleoptera: Elateridae)%筛胸梳爪叩甲触角感器的电镜扫描观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭观地; 舒金平; 张爱良; 王井田; 徐天森; 王浩杰

    2012-01-01

    The typology, number, morphology and placement of antennal sensilla of click beetle (Melanotus cribricollis Faldermann) were studied using a scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the antennae on both the males and females were composed of the scape, pedicel and nine flagellomeres. There were eight types of antennal sensilla on the antennae of the females, that is, sensilla trichodea ( including two subtypes; TⅠ and TⅡ), sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica (including three subtypes; BⅠ- BⅢ ) , sensilla knee-bend shaped, sensilla hook-shaped, sensilla screw cap, sensilla campaniformia and B(o)hm sensilla. The antennae of the male had one more type of grooved pegs besides the above-mentioned eight types. By vital statistics, the most sensilla numbers on the adult antennae in turn belonged to T Ⅱ , Ch and B, respectively. There were no significant differences in the total number and placement of antennal sensilla (except grooved pegs) on the female and male. The possible functions of the above sensilla types were discussed in light of the morphology, number and distribution of sensilla.%利用扫描电镜观测筛胸梳爪叩甲成虫触角的感器类型、数量、形态及分布特征,比较雌雄之间的差异.结果表明:筛胸梳爪叩甲雌、雄成虫触角由1节柄节、1节梗节和9节鞭节3部分构成.雌成虫包括8类触角感器,即毛形感器、刺形感器、锥形感器、弯膝形感器、鱼钩形感器、钉帽形感器、圆形感器和B(o)hm氏鬃毛,其中毛形感器又分2种亚型,锥形感器分3种亚型.雄成虫除上述8类感器以外还分布有1类凹槽钉形感器.在筛胸梳爪叩甲成虫触角上分布较多的前3种感器依次是毛形感器Ⅱ、刺形感器、锥形感器;除凹槽钉形感器外,其他同类感器在雌、雄成虫触角上的数量及分布差异不显著.基于各感器的形态、数量及分布,对筛胸梳爪叩甲各触角感器功能进行了探讨.

  11. 孟氏隐唇瓢虫的触角感受器%Antennal sensilla of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘平; 张宇宏; 吴红胜; 谢佳沁; 邓从双; 庞虹

    2013-01-01

    The antennal morphology,sensillar types,quantity and distribution of both sexes of Adult Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) was investigated with Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM).The results show that antenna of adult C.montrouzieri consists of scape,pedicel,and eight flagellomeres.Seven sensillar types are observed:four types of sensilla basiconicae (s.ba),four types of sensilla chaetica,four types of sensilla trichodea (s.tr),and one type sensilla coeloconica (s.co),one sensilla auriciliica (s.au),cavity-like sensilla (s.cs),and B?hm bristle (s.bm).Sensilla trichodea are the most numerous; sensilla chaetica are the next most abundant.The number of other sensilla types is greatly reduced.On the tip of the 8th flagellomere,various types of sensilla are densely packed,except for s.bm.No remarkable differences are foundin the antennal size,shape,and sensilla types between the male and female of C.montrouzieri.According to the distribution of sensilla and sensilla functions reported in the past,s.tr are presumed to be pheromone receptors in C.montrouzieri,s.ch may function as mechanoreceptors and chemoreceptors,s.ba and s.co are postulated as plant volatiles receptors and chemo-,thermo-,or hygroreceptions,respectively,and s.bm may be related to perceiving the antennal position and movement.%本文使用场发射扫描电子显微镜对孟氏隐唇瓢虫Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant雌雄成虫的触角和触角感受器进行了观察和研究,并对触角形态,感受器形态、类型、数量及分布进行了统计和分析.孟氏隐唇瓢虫雌雄成虫触角均由柄节,梗节及8个鞭小节组成.观察到7种触角感受器:四种锥形感受器(s.ba),四种刺形感受器(s.ch),四种毛形感受器(s.tr),一种腔锥形感受器(s.co),一种耳形感受器(s.au),一种腔形感受器(s.cl),一种B?hm氏鬃毛(s.bm).毛形感受器和刺形感受器数量最多,其他类型感受器数量都较少.B?hm氏鬃

  12. Seizures accelerate forgetting in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokeit, H; Daamen, M; Zang, H; Janszky, J; Ebner, A

    2001-07-10

    Ten patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy performed a word-position association learning task every 24 hours during video EEG monitoring. On 55 occasions recall performance was tested 30 minutes and 24 hours after the initial learning phase. Patients with left- but not right-sided temporal lobe epilepsy exhibited impaired retention of word position if a seizure had occurred during the preceding 24-hour interval. Seizures may impair the consolidation of memory in patients with left-sided temporal lobe epilepsy beyond the chronic memory deficits caused by the underlying pathology.

  13. A case of atypical caudate lobe hemangioma mimicking hepatocellular carcinoma:CT and angiographic manifestations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsin-Chi Chen; Chi-Ming Lee; Ching-Shyang Chen; Chih-Hsiung Wu

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of caudate lobe hemangioma with an atypical CT enhancement pattern. In the present case,hemangioma exhibited a very subtle discontinuous peripheral rim enhancement at the post-enhanced arterial phase, and the peripheral enhanced zone had a moderately increased enhancement degree and with widened enhancement thickness during the portal-phase and delayed-phase. The slow enhancement rate for this caudate lobe hemangioma was due to sluggish perfusion by the small feeding arteries of caudate lobe branches as demonstrated by angiography.

  14. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeshima, S.; Matsumoto, T.; Ueyoshi, A. [Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama (Japan); Toshiro, H.; Sekiguchi, E.; Okita, R.; Yamaga, H.; Ozaki, F.; Moriwaki, H. [Department of Neurological Surgery, Hidaka General Hospital, Wakayama (Japan); Roger, P. [School of Communication Sciences and Disorders, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas. (orig.)

  15. 暗黑鳃金龟成虫触角感器的超微结构特征%The ultrastructure of antennal sensilla of Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋月芹; 董钧锋; 孙会忠; 段爱菊

    2013-01-01

    运用扫描电子显微镜对暗黑鳃金龟雌、雄成虫触角感器类型及其分布特征进行了观察.结果表明:暗黑鳃金龟成虫的触角由1节柄节、1节梗节和7节鞭节组成,其中,鞭节的端3节特化形成鳃片.共发现5种类型的感器,即毛形感器、刺形感器、板形感器、腔锥感器和耳形感器,每种感器均包括2个亚类.感器主要分布于鞭节的鳃状部,其中,毛形感器仅分布在触角的外表面,其他类型的感器则分布在鳃片的内侧面.雌、雄成虫触角上的感器类型一致,但数量存在显著差异.%The ultrastructures of antennal sensilla of male and female Holotrichia parallela adults were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM). It was revealed that the antennae were made up of one scape, one pedicel and seven flagellums. The last three segments of flagellum were specially evolved into lamellae. There were five types of antennal sensilla on the male and female adults, including trichodea sensilla, chaetica sensilla, placodea sensilla, coeloconica sensilla, and auricillica sensilla. Each one was further classified into two subtypes. The sensillas concentrated on surface of antennal lamellae, and the trichodea sensilla only distributed on the outer surface of antennae, the other types of sensilla located in the inner side of antennal lamellae. No difference was found in the types of antennal sensilla between the male and female adults, but the number of sensillas existed significant differences.

  16. Unstable Roche-Lobe Overflow of Gaseous Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian

    The discoveries of more than 100 roughly Earth-sized bodies with orbital periods less than 1 day, ultra-short-period planets or candidates (USPs), have challenged planet formation theories, and evidence suggests USPs may be the remnants of gaseous planets that shed their atmospheres. Indeed, many hot Jupiters are near Roche-Lobe overflow (RLO), and tidal decay can push them the rest of the way in. Recent work has shown stable RLO (atmospheres lost via a steady outflow and thin accretion disk) probably cannot produce USPs on its own but suggested unstable RLO (atmospheres quickly shed on dynamical timescales) may. In fact, stable RLO may drive overflowing hot Jupiters into unstable RLO, and by analogy with the common-envelope binaries, the core that remains can drive off the gaseous envelope at the cost of its orbital energy. Wellestablished mass-radius relations for gaseous planets, coupled to simple energy and angular momentum considerations, provide a connection between the observed masses and periods for USPs and their putative progenitor gaseous planets, with few free parameters. We propose to investigate the hypothesis that USPs originate through tidal decay and a combination of stable and unstable Roche-lobe overflow of short-period gaseous planets through the following studies: -We will explore the planetary masses, orbital periods, etc. that produce unstable RLO using the Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) suite. -We will relate the observed periods and masses of USPs to their putative progenitor masses and periods to see whether they are consistent with the unstable RLO hypothesis. This proposal is directly relevant to the Exoplanets Research Program since it seeks to "understand the ... physical processes of exoplanets" and "improve understanding of [their] origins" through "theoretical studies ... and modeling'". We also expect that it will have broad impacts on a variety of astrophysical topics: -Ultra-short period planets could

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity Predicts Successful Relational Memory Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuropsychological findings have implicated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures in retaining object-location relations over the course of short delays, but MTL effects have not always been reported in neuroimaging investigations with similar short-term memory requirements. Here, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to test the hypothesis that the hippocampus and related MTL structures support accurate retention of relational memory representations, even across short delays. On every trial, four objects were presented, each in one of nine possible locations of a three-dimensional grid. Participants were to mentally rotate the grid and then maintain the rotated representation in anticipation of a test stimulus: a rendering of the grid, rotated 90° from the original viewpoint. The test stimulus was either a “match” display, in which object-location relations were intact, or a “mismatch” display, in which one object occupied a new, previously unfilled location (mismatch position), or two objects had swapped locations (mismatch swap). Encoding phase activation in anterior and posterior regions of the left hippocampus, and in bilateral perirhinal cortex, predicted subsequent accuracy on the short-term memory decision, as did bilateral posterior hippocampal activity after the test stimulus. Notably, activation in these posterior hippocampal regions was also sensitive to the degree to which object-location bindings were preserved in the test stimulus; activation was greatest for match displays, followed by mismatch-position displays, and finally mismatch-swap displays. These results indicate that the hippocampus and related MTL structures contribute to successful encoding and retrieval of relational information in visual short-term memory. PMID:18171929

  18. Loss of cholecystokinin-containing terminals in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chengsan; Sun, Jianli; Erisir, Alev; Kapur, Jaideep

    2014-02-01

    Altered GABA-mediated inhibition is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated a loss of somatostatin-containing GABAergic interneurons innervating granule cells in epileptic animals. However, the reorganization of synapses between interneurons and granule cells has not been investigated. We studied synapse organization in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using continuous hippocampal stimulation. The distribution of axon terminals and inhibitory synapses on granule cell dendrites was studied using a combination of immunohistochemistry and pre-embedding electron microscopy techniques. A whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to study the functional changes in GABAergic input from different interneurons. In epileptic animals, the density of cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and α2 subunit containing GABAA receptors in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was reduced. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy study revealed that the ratio of CCK-containing symmetric synapses to the total symmetric synapses was reduced. The frequency of GABAergic synaptic currents (sIPSC) was decreased and their amplitude was increased. The inhibitory effect of the activation of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors was also reduced in epileptic animals. Isolation of CCK- and parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic inputs by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel blockers respectively suggested that GABA release from CCK-containing interneurons was selectively reduced in epileptic rats. This study found that there was a loss of CCK-containing GABAergic synapses to granule cells both morphologically and functionally. These studies add to our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to altering GABAergic inhibition of granule cells in TLE.

  19. Temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai-Yoshida, Emi; Ogihara, Masaaki; Ozawa, Miwa; Nozaki, Taiki; Morino, Michiharu; Manabe, Atsushi; Hosoya, Ryota

    2013-07-01

    Of 71 acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors at our hospital over the past 10 years, 2 children developed mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS). This is the first report to describe the clinical course of MTLE-HS observed longitudinally by EEG and MRI. Patient 1 experienced a seizure during chemotherapy involving intrathecal methotrexate. Postseizure MRI suggested methotrexate encephalopathy or leukemic invasion. Anticonvulsant therapy was initiated; subsequent EEGs and MRIs revealed normal results. Three years after chemotherapy, a diffuse, irregular spike-and-wave pattern was observed on interictal EEG. Five years after chemotherapy, the patient developed MTLE-HS comprising complex partial seizures, typical temporal spikes on EEG, and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). Patient 2 did not experience seizures during chemotherapy. Four years later, the patient started experiencing complex partial seizures, and a diffuse, irregular spike-and-wave pattern was observed on interictal EEG. A clinical picture of MTLE-HS developed 2 years later. In both patients, nonspecific EEG abnormalities (ie, diffuse, irregular spike-and-wave activity) preceded the appearance of HS on MRI by 2 years, suggesting an insidious advance of HS during the latent period. Such atypical EEG findings may indicate MTLE-HS during follow-up of leukemia patients. MTLE-HS develops several years after an initial precipitating incident such as prolonged seizures, central nervous system infection, and brain trauma. In our cases, the initial precipitating incident may have been chemotherapy and/or prolonged seizures. Thus, MTLE-HS associated with leukemia may not be as rare as generally believed. A large cohort study of late neurologic complications is warranted.

  20. Functional connectivity based parcellation of the human medial temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Fang; Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2016-10-01

    Regional differences in large-scale connectivity have been proposed to underlie functional specialization along the anterior-posterior axis of the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus (HC) and the parahippocampal gyrus (PHG). However, it is unknown whether functional connectivity (FC) can be used reliably to parcellate the human MTL. The current study aimed to differentiate subregions of the HC and the PHG based on patterns of whole-brain intrinsic FC. FC maps were calculated for each slice along the longitudinal axis of the PHG and the HC. A hierarchical clustering algorithm was then applied to these data in order to group slices according to the similarity of their connectivity patterns. Surprisingly, three discrete clusters were identified in the PHG. Two clusters corresponded to the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and the perirhinal cortex (PRC), and these regions showed preferential connectivity with previously described posterior-medial and anterior-temporal networks, respectively. The third cluster corresponded to an anterior PRC region previously described as area 36d, and this region exhibited preferential connectivity with auditory cortical areas and with a network involved in visceral processing. The three PHG clusters showed different profiles of activation during a memory-encoding task, demonstrating that the FC-based parcellation identified functionally dissociable sub-regions of the PHG. In the hippocampus, no sub-regions were identified via the parcellation procedure. These results indicate that connectivity-based methods can be used to parcellate functional regions within the MTL, and they suggest that studies of memory and high-level cognition need to differentiate between PHC, posterior PRC, and anterior PRC.

  1. [Flash-pattern visual evoked potentials and limited lesions of the occipital lobe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parain, D; Hannequin, D; Samson-Dollfus, D; Nehili, F; Layet, A; Verdure-Poussin, A

    1985-12-01

    Four patients with restricted lobe lesions and one patient with large occipital lesions were selected for VEP studies to full-field and half-field flash pattern stimuli. The abnormalities of the responses were more important with full-field stimuli. In three patients with inner side occipital lobe damage, the P100 component disappeared ipsilaterally to the lesion, but N140 remained normal on bilateral occipital leads. In one patient with outer side occipital lobe damage, P100 was normal on bilateral occipital leads, but N140 disappeared ipsilaterally to the lesion. In one patient with large occipital lesion, P100 and N140 both disappeared ipsilaterally to the lesion. It appears that the P100 component is related to the inner and that N140 is related to the outer area of the occipital lobe.

  2. Surgical treatment and radiation therapy of frontal lobe meningiomas in 7 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte, Ane; Moissonnier, Pierre; Thibaud, Jean-Laurent; Reyes-Gomez, Edouard; Devauchelle, Patrick; Blot, Stéphane

    2011-07-01

    The cases of 7 adult dogs with generalized seizures managed by surgical excision and radiation therapy for frontal lobe meningiomas were reviewed. The neurological examination was unremarkable in 6 of the 7 dogs. Five dogs were operated on using a bilateral transfrontal sinus approach and 2 using a unilateral sinotemporal approach to the frontal lobe. One dog was euthanized 14 d after surgery; radiation therapy was initiated 3 wk after surgery in the remaining 6 dogs. Long-term follow-up consisted of neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) scan after radiation therapy. The mean survival time for dogs that had surgery and radiation therapy was 18 mo after surgery. Frontal lobe meningiomas have been associated with poor prognosis. However, the surgical approaches used in these cases, combined with radiation therapy, allow a survival rate for frontal lobe meningiomas similar to that for meningiomas located over the cerebral convexities.

  3. Micropolar Lubricant Effects on the Performance of a Two- Lobe Bearing with Pressure Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANYAM SHARMA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Two lobe bearings are commonly used in the high speed rotating machineries industries. The use of two lobe bearings, considered to be more stable than ordinary plain cylindrical bearings. In the upper half the dam is provided and relief track in the lower half. Performance of two lobe pressure dam bearings under micropolarfluid is evaluated. Finite element method is used to solve the modified Reynolds equation. . Fluid film pressures are obtained by solving modified Reynolds equation, thus pressure obtained is used to find performance characteristics of this bearing. Results are obtained for various micropolar parameter like coupling number andnon-dimensional characteristics length. The results show that Two-lobe Pressure dam bearing is superior to twolobe bearing,

  4. Pulmonary lobe segmentation based on ridge surface sampling and shape model fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, James C., E-mail: jross@bwh.harvard.edu [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States); Kindlmann, Gordon L. [Computer Science Department and Computation Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Okajima, Yuka; Hatabu, Hiroto [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Díaz, Alejandro A. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Silverman, Edwin K. [Channing Laboratory, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 and Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Washko, George R. [Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Dy, Jennifer [ECE Department, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Estépar, Raúl San José [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Surgical Planning Lab, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Laboratory of Mathematics in Imaging, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02126 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Performing lobe-based quantitative analysis of the lung in computed tomography (CT) scans can assist in efforts to better characterize complex diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). While airways and vessels can help to indicate the location of lobe boundaries, segmentations of these structures are not always available, so methods to define the lobes in the absence of these structures are desirable. Methods: The authors present a fully automatic lung lobe segmentation algorithm that is effective in volumetric inspiratory and expiratory computed tomography (CT) datasets. The authors rely on ridge surface image features indicating fissure locations and a novel approach to modeling shape variation in the surfaces defining the lobe boundaries. The authors employ a particle system that efficiently samples ridge surfaces in the image domain and provides a set of candidate fissure locations based on the Hessian matrix. Following this, lobe boundary shape models generated from principal component analysis (PCA) are fit to the particles data to discriminate between fissure and nonfissure candidates. The resulting set of particle points are used to fit thin plate spline (TPS) interpolating surfaces to form the final boundaries between the lung lobes. Results: The authors tested algorithm performance on 50 inspiratory and 50 expiratory CT scans taken from the COPDGene study. Results indicate that the authors' algorithm performs comparably to pulmonologist-generated lung lobe segmentations and can produce good results in cases with accessory fissures, incomplete fissures, advanced emphysema, and low dose acquisition protocols. Dice scores indicate that only 29 out of 500 (5.85%) lobes showed Dice scores lower than 0.9. Two different approaches for evaluating lobe boundary surface discrepancies were applied and indicate that algorithm boundary identification is most accurate in the vicinity of fissures detectable on CT. Conclusions: The

  5. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF CAUDATE LOBE OF THE LIVER AND THEIR CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarala HS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of the caudate lobe of the liver is a prerequisite for better surgical outcome. Morphology of the caudate lobe has significance in diagnostic imaging and also minimally invasive surgical approaches. So we have taken up this study to know the detailed morphology of the caudate lobe. Materials and methods: The morphology of caudate lobe was studied in 100 formalin fixed adult livers obtained from the department of anatomy, Kempegowda institute of medical sciences and Bangalore medical college, Bangalore. The livers were studied for the morphological variations of the caudate lobe. Results: Various shapes of the caudate lobe were noticed. Vertical fissure extending upwards from lower border was seen in 30%. Prominent papillary process was seen in 21%. Prominent caudate process was seen in 9%. Discussion: Various shapes of the caudate lobe were encountered in the present study. Sahni et al and Joshi SD et al also reported a variety of shapes of the caudate lobe. Vertical fissure extending upwards from the inferior border was seen in 30% of the livers. Kogure et al noticed the notch in approximately half of the patients undergoing hepatectomy. Kogure et al also noted that the external notch may be a vestige of the portal segmentation of the caudate lobe. Prominent papillary process was observed in 21% of the livers. Joshi SD et al have also found prominent papillary process in 33% of the livers in their study. Auh et al observed that on CT (Computed Tomography, a normal or small papillary process may be mistaken for enlarged porta hepatis lymph nodes. When enlarged papillary process extends on to left side it can mimic pancreatic body mass. Conclusion: The incidence of morphological variations of caudate lobe is very high in this study. The papillary process of caudate lobe is a potential source of pitfalls in interpretation of CT images at and just below the porta hepatis. Knowledge of these

  6. Accessory hepatic lobe simulating a left hemidiaphragmatic tumor. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Hirata, Hitoshi; Iwashita, Akinori; Yasumori, Kotaro; Mogami, Hiroshi; Teraoka, Hiroaki (Matsuyama Red Cross Hospital (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    A 72-year-old woman with a 20-year history of neuralgia was confirmed at surgery to have a tumor in the left hemidiaphragmatic region which was connected with the left lobe of the liver. Reassessment of radiological diagnosis after surgery revealed that hepatobiliary scintigraphy and computed tomography using left anterior oblique scanning are useful in differentiating the accessory hepatic lobe of the liver from a tumor and in confirming the diagnosis, respectively.

  7. Spatial memory deficits in juvenile rats with pilocarpine induced temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orbán-Kis K

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent forms of epilepsy in humans is temporal lobe epilepsy. Characteristic to this form of the disease is the frequent pharmacoresistance and the association with behavioural disorders and cognitive impairment. The objective of our study was to establish the degree of cognitive impairment in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy after an initial epileptogenic exposure but before of the onset of the effect of long-duration epilepsy.

  8. Adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation using extended right lobe grafts

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, CM; Fan, ST; Wei, WI; Lai, CL; Ng, IOL; Wong, J.; Uu, CL; Lo, RJW; Chan, JKF; Fung, A

    1997-01-01

    Objective: The authors report their experience with living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using extended right lobe grafts for adult patients under high-urgency situations. Summary Background Data: The efficacy of LDLT in the treatment of children has been established. The major limitation of adult-to-adult LDLT is the adequacy of the graft size. A left lobe graft from a relatively small volunteer donor will not meet the metabolic demand of a larger recipient. Methods: From May 1996 to No...

  9. Memory fMRI predicts verbal memory decline after anterior temporal lobe resection

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P.; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To develop a clinically applicable memory functional MRI (fMRI) method of predicting postsurgical memory outcome in individual patients. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 50 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (23 left) and 26 controls underwent an fMRI memory encoding paradigm of words with a subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessment. Neuropsychological assessment was performed preoperatively and 4 months after anterior temporal lobe resection, and at equal time i...

  10. Sequential memory: a developmental perspective on its relation to frontal lobe functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Cassandra Burns; Reynolds, Cecil R

    2004-03-01

    The multidimensional nature of the frontal lobes serves to organize and coordinate brain functionings playing a central and pervasive role in human cognition. The executive processes implicated in complex cognition such as novel problem solving, modifying behavior as appropriate in response to changes in the environment, inhibiting prepotent or previous responses, and the implementation of schemas that organize behavior over time are believed to be mediated by the frontal regions of the brain. Overall, the functioning of the frontal lobes assists individuals in goal directed and self-regulatory behavior. Additional theories of frontal lobe functioning have focused on its involvement in temporal, or time-related domains. The organizational and strategic nature of frontal lobe functioning affects memory processes by enhancing the organization of to-be-remembered information. Among the specific memory systems presumed to be based on anterior cerebral structures is the temporal organization of memory. An essential component of memory that involves temporal organization is sequential ordering entailing the ability to judge which stimuli were seen most recently and the temporal ordering of events in memory. Focal lesion studies have demonstrated the importance of the frontal lobes on retrieval tasks in which monitoring, verification, and placement of information in temporal and spatial contexts of critical importance. Similarly, frontal lobe damage has been associated with deficits in memory for the temporal ordering, or sequencing, of events. The acquisition of abilities thought to be mediated by the frontal lobes, including sequential memory, unfolds throughout childhood, serving to condition patterns of behavior for the rest of the brain. Development of the frontal regions of the brain is known to continue through late adolescence and into early adulthood, in contrast to the earlier maturation of other cortical regions. The developmental patterns of the frontal lobes

  11. Exercise-induced seizures and lateral asymmetry in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

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    Jordan T. Kamel

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Exercise may be an underrecognized form of reflex epilepsy, which tended to be refractory to both medical and surgical interventions in our patients. Almost all patients in our cohort had seizures localizing to the left temporal lobe. We discuss potential mechanisms by which exercise may precipitate seizures, and its relevance regarding our understanding of temporal lobe epilepsy and lateralization of seizures. Recognition of, as well as advice regarding avoidance of, known triggers forms an important part of management of these patients.

  12. Feasibility of the Medial Temporal lobe Atrophy index (MTAi and derived methods for measuring atrophy of the medial temporal lobe

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    Francisco eConejo Bayón

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the Medial Temporal-lobe Atrophy index (MTAi, 2D-Medial Temporal Atrophy (2D-MTA, yearly rate of MTA (yrRMTA and yearly rate of relative MTA (yrRMTA are simple protocols for measuring the relative extent of atrophy in the MTL in relation to the global brain atrophy. Albeit preliminary studies showed interest of these methods in the diagnosis of AD, FTLD and correlation with cognitive impairment in PD, formal feasibility and validity studies remained pending. As a first step, we aimed to assess the feasibility. Mainly, we aimed to assess the reproducibility of measuring the areas needed to compute these indices. We also aimed to assess the efforts needed to start using these methods correctly. Methods: a series of 290 1.5T-MRI studies from 230 subjects ranging 65-85 years old who had been studied for cognitive impairment were used in this study. Six inexperienced tracers (IT plus one experienced tracer (ET traced the three areas needed to compute the indices. Finally, tracers underwent a short survey on their experience learning to compute the MTAi and experience of usage, including items relative to training time needed to understand and apply the MTAi, time to perform a study after training and overall satisfaction. Results: learning to trace the areas needed to compute the MTAi and derived methods is quick and easy. Results indicate very good intrarater ICC for the MTAi, good intrarater ICC for the 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA and also good interrater ICC for the MTAi, 2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRMTA.Conclusion: our data support that MTAi and derived methods (2D-MTA, yrMTA and yrRTMA have good to very good intrarater and interrater reproducibility and may be easily implemented in clinical practice even if new users have no experience tracing the area of regions of interest.

  13. Sco X-1 The Evolution and Nature of the Twin Compact Radio Lobes

    CERN Document Server

    Fomalont, E B; Bradshaw, C F

    2001-01-01

    The radio components associated with the LMXB Sco X-1 have been monitored with extensive VLBI imaging at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz over four years, including a 56-hour continuous VLBI observation in 1999 June. We often detected one strong and one weak compact radio component, moving in opposite directions from the radio core. We suggest that the moving components are radio lobes generated by the disruption of energy flow in a twin-beam from the binary system. The average lifetime of a lobe-pair, the space motion of the lobes and the measured energy flow in the beam are discussed in Astro-ph/0104325. The lobe has a flux density that is variable over a time-scale of one hour, a measured minimum size of 1 mas (2.8 au), and is extended perpendicular to its motion. This short electron radiative lifetime may be caused by synchrotron losses if the lobe magnetic field is 300 G, or by adiabatic expansion of the electrons as soon as they are produced at the working surface. The lobes also show periods of slow expansion and a ste...

  14. Morphological and immunohistochemical comparison of three rat prostate lobes (lateral, dorsal and ventral in experimental hyperprolactinemia.

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    Dariusz Gącarzewicz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The prolactin plays an important role in the regulation of growth and differentiation of prostate gland besides androgens. The goal of this study was to reveal the influence of elevated prolactin concentration on epithelial cells of prostate. We compared the morphology of epithelial cells of prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes and expression of androgen receptors in these cells in rats with hyperprolactinemia and in control rats. We used sexually mature male Wistar rats. The experimental rats received metoclopramide; the control group received saline in the same way. The prostate dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes were collected routinely for light and electron microscopy. The intensity of immunohistochemical reaction of androgen receptor in epithelial cells of dorsal, lateral and ventral lobes was evaluated by measure of optical density with computer image analysis. The light and electron (transmission and scanning microscopes were used for morphological observations. Results: In experimental rats twofold increase in prolactin and twofold decrease in testosterone found. In experimental group the expression of androgen receptor was lower in columnar epithelial cells of dorsal and ventral lobes but higher in lateral one. We observed morphological abnormalities in columnar epithelial cells of lateral and dorsal lobes. The columnar epithelial cells of ventral lobes didn't show any morphological changes in hyperprolactinemia.

  15. Combined effects of electroacupuncture and anti-depression drugs on the hippocampus and frontal lobe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongmei Duan; Ya Tu; Shuang Jiao; Liping Chen

    2010-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) has been clinically used to treat depression and has resulted in favorable effects in China. However, results from animal studies and pathology do not reflect the influence of electroacupuncture treatment on in vivo physiological functions. To thoroughly and dynamically observe pathological changes during depression, the present study established EA + fluoxetine and fluoxetine groups to observe depression in patients. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy was utilized to determine the correlation between hippocampal frontal lobe metabolite changes and mental disorder scale. Results revealed significantly increased N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr) in the bilateral hippocampus and right frontal lobe of depression patients treated with EA compared with fluoxetine. Changes in NAA/Cr in bilateral hippocampus and right frontal lobe in both groups, before and after treatment, negatively correlated with severity and curative effects. Choline/Cr changes in the bilateral frontal lobes of both groups were significant before and after treatment, but negatively correlated with curative effects. Choline/Cr changes in the bilateral hippocampus were significant in the EA + fluoxetine group before and after treatment, but negatively correlated with severity and the curative effects of depression. These results demonstrate abnormal biochemical metabolism in bilateral frontal lobes and hippocampus of depression patients, and show that EA significantly altered biochemical indices in the frontal lobes and hippocampus compared with fluoxetine.

  16. Decreased left temporal lobe volume of panic patients measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, R.R.; Del-Ben, C.M.; Araujo, D.; Crippa, J.A.; Graeff, F.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Neurologia e Psicologia Medica]. E-mail: fgraeff@keynet.com.br; Santos, A.C. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Medica; Guimaraes, F.S. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia

    2003-07-01

    Reported neuroimaging studies have shown functional and morphological changes of temporal lobe structures in panic patients, but only one used a volumetric method. The aim of the present study was to determine the volume of temporal lobe structures in patients with panic disorder, measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Eleven panic patients and eleven controls matched for age, sex, handedness, socioeconomic status and years of education participated in the study. The mean volume of the left temporal lobe of panic patients was 9% smaller than that of controls (t{sub 21} = 2.37, P = 0.028). In addition, there was a trend (P values between 0.05 and 0.10) to smaller volumes of the right temporal lobe (7%, t{sub 21} = 1.99, P = 0.06), right amygdala (8%, t{sub 21} = 1.83, P = 0.08), left amygdala (5%, t{sub 21} = 1.78, P 0.09) and left hippocampus (9%, t{sub 21} = 1.93, P = 0.07) in panic patients compared to controls. There was a positive correlation between left hippocampal volume and duration of panic disorder (r = 0.67, P = 0.025), with recent cases showing more reduction than older cases. The present results show that panic patients have a decreased volume of the left temporal lobe and indicate the presence of volumetric abnormalities of temporal lobe structures. (author)

  17. Lobe Overflow as the Likely Cause of Pericenter Outburst in an SMBH Orbiter

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, R E

    2015-01-01

    A very large lobe overflow event is suggested to explain the $0.^m4$ brightening observed in K band at pericenter passage of the star known as S2 that orbits the Galaxy's supermassive black hole (SMBH). Known observed properties of S2 that contribute to lobe filling are 1) the enormous mass ratio, $M_{SMBH}/M_{S2}$, 2) S2's fast rotation, and 3) S2's large orbital eccentricity. Published estimates have given limiting lobe sizes of order 100 to 300 $R_\\odot$ but, with S2's fast rotation taken into account, the computed lobe size is much smaller, being compatible with either a main sequence OB star or a stripped evolved star. An important evolutionary consideration that predicts very large pericenter overflows is envelope expansion following mass loss that is characteristic of highly evolved stars. Material removed by lobe overflow at pericenter is replenished by envelope expansion as an evolved star awaits its next pericenter passage. An observational signature of lobe overflow for upcoming pericenter passages...

  18. Simultaneous resection of colorectal cancer and liver metastases in the right lobe using pure laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Koji; Oki, Eiji; Ikeda, Tetsuo; Saeki, Hiroshi; Ida, Satoshi; Kimura, Yasue; Soejima, Yuuji; Morita, Masaru; Shirabe, Ken; Kusumoto, Tetuya; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2014-08-01

    It is now common to resect colorectal cancer by laparoscopic surgery. Hepatectomy has become a standard treatment for patients with colorectal cancer with resectable liver metastases. The resection of liver tumors can now be done partly by laparoscopic surgery. However, metastatic tumors in the right lobe are often difficult to resect laparoscopically. Furthermore, simultaneous resection of the colorectum and liver may also be difficult. In this study, we evaluated a new method to resect both colorectal cancer and liver metastases in the right lobe by laparoscopic surgery. Two cases are presented that underwent total laparoscopic resection of a right lobe tumor, associated with laparoscopic colorectal resection. The metastatic tumor in the right lobe was first resected in the left hemi-prone position. Then, the colorectal cancer was resected in the lithotomy position. The method for resecting the right lobe liver tumor and colorectal cancer was safe and feasible. The mean duration of surgery was 443.5 min, and the mean blood loss was 158 mL. The postoperative course was uneventful. In selected patients, laparoscopic hepatectomy for right lobe synchronous metastatic tumors can be safely performed simultaneously with colorectal surgery.

  19. Disrupted Ipsilateral Network Connectivity in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

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    Lorena Vega-Zelaya

    Full Text Available The current practice under which patients with refractory epilepsy are surgically treated is based mainly on the identification of specific cortical areas, mainly the epileptogenic zone, which is believed to be responsible for generation of seizures. A better understanding of the whole epileptic network and its components and properties is required before more effective and less invasive therapies can be developed. The aim of the present study was to partially characterize the evolution of the functional network during the preictal-ictal transition in partial seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE.Scalp and foramen ovale (FOE recordings from twenty-two TLE patients were analyzed under the complex network perspective. The density of links, average path length, average clustering coefficient, and modularity were calculated during the preictal and the ictal stages. Both linear-Pearson correlation-and non-linear-phase synchronization-measures were used as proxies of functional connectivity between the electrode locations areas. The transition from one stage to the other was evaluated in the whole network and in the mesial sub-networks. The results were compared with a voltage-dependent measure, namely, the spectral entropy.Changes in the global functional network during the transition from the preictal to the ictal stage show, in the linear case, that in sixteen cases (72.7% the density of the links increased during the seizure, with a decrease in the average path length in fifteen cases (68.1%. There was also a preictal and ictal imbalance in functional connectivity during both stages (77.2% to 86.3%. The SE dropped during the seizure in 95.4% of the cases, but did not show any tendency towards lateralization. When using the nonlinear measure of functional connectivity, the phase synchronization, similar results were obtained.In TLE patients, the transition to the ictal stage is accompanied by increasing global synchronization and a

  20. Acoustic and Laser Doppler Anemometer Results for Confluent, 22-Lobed, and Unique-Lobed Mixer Exhaust Systems for Subsonic Jet Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salikuddin, M.; Martens, S.; Shin, H.; Majjigi, R. K.; Krejsa, Gene (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this task was to develop a design methodology and noise reduction concepts for high bypass exhaust systems which could be applied to both existing production and new advanced engine designs. Special emphasis was given to engine cycles with bypass ratios in the range of 4:1 to 7:1, where jet mixing noise was a primary noise source at full power takeoff conditions. The goal of this effort was to develop the design methodology for mixed-flow exhaust systems and other novel noise reduction concepts that would yield 3 EPNdB noise reduction relative to 1992 baseline technology. Two multi-lobed mixers, a 22-lobed axisymmetric and a 21-lobed with a unique lobe, were designed. These mixers along with a confluent mixer were tested with several fan nozzles of different lengths with and without acoustic treatment in GEAE's Cell 41 under the current subtask (Subtask C). In addition to the acoustic and LDA tests for the model mixer exhaust systems, a semi-empirical noise prediction method for mixer exhaust system is developed. Effort was also made to implement flowfield data for noise prediction by utilizing MGB code. In general, this study established an aero and acoustic diagnostic database to calibrate and refine current aero and acoustic prediction tools.

  1. Mutagenesis of the aspartic acid ligands in human serum transferrin: lobe-lobe interaction and conformation as revealed by antibody, receptor-binding and iron-release studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, A; He, Q Y; Tam, B; MacGillivray, R A; Woodworth, R

    1998-01-01

    Recombinant non-glycosylated human serum transferrin and mutants in which the liganding aspartic acid (D) in one or both lobes was changed to a serine residue (S) were produced in a mammalian cell system and purified from the tissue culture media. Significant downfield shifts of 20, 30, and 45 nm in the absorption maxima were found for the D63S-hTF, D392S-hTF and the double mutant, D63S/D392S-hTF when compared to wild-type hTF. A monoclonal antibody to a sequential epitope in the C-lobe of hTF reported affinity differences between the apo- and iron-forms of each mutant and the control. Cell-binding studies performed under the same buffer conditions used for the antibody work clearly showed that the mutated lobe(s) had an open cleft. It is not clear whether the receptor itself may play a role in promoting the open conformation or whether the iron remains in the cleft. PMID:9461487

  2. Longer epilepsy duration and multiple lobe involvement predict worse seizure outcomes for patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy associated with neurocysticercosis

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    Lucas Crociati Meguins

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the surgical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy associated with hippocampal sclerosis (TLE-HS and neurocysticercosis (NCC. Methods A retrospective investigation of patients with TLE-HS was conducted in a tertiary center. Results Seventy-nine (62.2%, 37 (29.1%, 6 (4.7%, and 5 (3.9% patients were Engel class I, II, III, and IV, respectively. Fifty-two (71.2% patients with epilepsy durations ≤ 10 years prior to surgery were seizure-free 1 year after the operation compared to 27 (50.0% patients with epilepsy durations > 10 years (p = 0.0121. Forty-three (72.9% patients with three or fewer lobes affected by NCC were seizure-free one year after the operation, and 36 (52.9% patients with more than three involved lobes were seizure-free after surgery (p = 0.0163. Conclusions Longer epilepsy durations and multiple lobe involvement predicted worse seizure outcomes in TLE-HS plus NCC patients.

  3. 黑翅土白蚁触角感器的扫描电镜观察%Scanning electron microscopy studies of the antennal sensilla of Odontotermes fomosanus (Shiraki)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新慰; 嵇保中; 刘曙雯; 杨锦锦; 赵正萍; 王丽平; 王亚召; 丁芳

    2015-01-01

    Objectives] To determine the types, number and distribution of antennal sensilla in larvae, workers and soldiers of Odontotermes fomosanus (Shiraki), and to analyze the characteristics of antennal sensilla in order to provide a reference for studying the developmental characteristics of antennal sensilla and the mechanism underlying behavior differentiation among different castes. [Methods] The morphological characteristics of antennae were observed using scanning electron microscopy, and the type, number, and distribution of antennal sensilla, and the antennal segment number, noted. [Results] There were significant differences in antennal length among larvae, workers and soldiers which can be ranked in descending order as follows; worker>solider>3rd instar larva>2nd instar larva>1st instar larva. A total of nine types of antennal sensilla were found. These were: short sensillatrichodea, long sensillatrichodea, short sensillachaetica, long sensillachaetica, Böhm bristle, sensilla campaniformia, furcella-shape sensillacampaniformia, the intermedius type sensillacampaniformia (something similar to the sensillacampaniformia and furcella-shape sensilla), long sensillatrichodea with a bubble at the terminal. Workers and soldiers did not have the long sensillatrichodea with the bubble at the terminal. The number and types of sensilla on larval antennae increased with instar. For example, there were seven types of sensilla in 1st instar larvae except sensillacampaniformia and the intermedius type sensillacampaniformia (something similar to the sensillacampaniformia and furcella-shape sensilla), eight types in 2nd instar larvae except sensillacampaniformia, and all nine types in 3rd instar larvae. [Conclusion] The presence of significant difference in antennal segment number and antennal sensilla among larvae, workers and soldiers means that antennal sensilla can be used to identify these castes.%【目的】通过黑翅土白蚁Odontotermes fomosanus (Shiraki)幼蚁、

  4. Differential interactions of sex pheromone and plant odour in the olfactory pathway of a male moth.

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    Nina Deisig

    Full Text Available Most animals rely on olfaction to find sexual partners, food or a habitat. The olfactory system faces the challenge of extracting meaningful information from a noisy odorous environment. In most moth species, males respond to sex pheromone emitted by females in an environment with abundant plant volatiles. Plant odours could either facilitate the localization of females (females calling on host plants, mask the female pheromone or they could be neutral without any effect on the pheromone. Here we studied how mixtures of a behaviourally-attractive floral odour, heptanal, and the sex pheromone are encoded at different levels of the olfactory pathway in males of the noctuid moth Agrotis ipsilon. In addition, we asked how interactions between the two odorants change as a function of the males' mating status. We investigated mixture detection in both the pheromone-specific and in the general odorant pathway. We used a recordings from individual sensilla to study responses of olfactory receptor neurons, b in vivo calcium imaging with a bath-applied dye to characterize the global input response in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe and c intracellular recordings of antennal lobe output neurons, projection neurons, in virgin and newly-mated males. Our results show that heptanal reduces pheromone sensitivity at the peripheral and central olfactory level independently of the mating status. Contrarily, heptanal-responding olfactory receptor neurons are not influenced by pheromone in a mixture, although some post-mating modulation occurs at the input of the sexually isomorphic ordinary glomeruli, where general odours are processed within the antennal lobe. The results are discussed in the context of mate localization.

  5. Pitch angle distributions of energetic ions in the lobes of the distant geomagnetic tail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, C.J.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Richardson, I.G.; Balogh, A. (Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (UK). Blackett Lab.)

    1990-07-01

    Analysis of energetic (> 35 keV) ion data from the ISEE-3 spacecraft obtained during 1982-1983, when the spacecraft made a series of traversals of the distant geomagnetic tail (X{sub GSE} > - 230 R{sub E}), indicates that the pitch angle distribution of energetic ions in the distant tail lobes is usually highly anisotropic, being peaked closely perpendicular to the magnetic field direction, but with a small net flow in the antisunward direction. In this paper we present a model, based on the motion of single particles into and within the tail lobes, which accounts for these observed distributions. This model assumes that the lobe ions originate in the magnetosheath, where the energetic ion population consists of two components; a spatially uniform ''solar'' population, and a population of ''terrestrial'' origin, which decreases in strength with downtail distance. The pitch angle distribution at any point within the lobe may be constructed, assuming that the value of the distribution function along the particle trajectory is conserved. In general, those ions with a large field-aligned component to their motion enter the lobes in the deep tail, where the ''terrestrial'' source is weak, whilst those moving closely perpendicular to the field enter the lobes at positions much closer to the Earth, where the source is strong. The fluxes of these latter ions are therefore much enhanced above the rest of the pitch angle distribution, and are shown to account for the form of the observed distributions. The model also accounts for the more isotropic ion population observed in the lobe during solar particle events, when the ''terrestrial'' component of the magnetosheath source may be considered negligible in comparison to the enhanced ''solar'' component. (author).

  6. Fatal stroke after completion pneumonectomy for torsion of left upper lobe following left lower lobectomy

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    Apostolakis Efstratios

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lobar torsion after lung surgery is a rare complication with an incidence of 0.09 to 0.4 %. It may occur after twisting of the bronchovascular pedicle of the remaining lobe after lobectomy, usually on the right side. The 180-degree rotation of the pedicle produces an acute obstruction of the lobar bronchus (atelectasis and of the lobar vessels as well. Without prompt treatment it progresses to lobar ischemia, pulmonary infarction and finally fatal gangrene. Case Presentation A 62 years old female patient was admitted for surgical treatment of lung cancer. She underwent elective left lower lobectomy for squamous cell carcinoma (pT2 N0. The operation was unremarkable, and the patient was extubated in the operating room. After eight hours the patient established decrease of pO2 and chest x-ray showed atelectasis of the lower lobe. To establish diagnosis, bronchoscopy was performed, demonstrating obstructed left lobar bronchus. The patient was re-intubated, and admitted to the operating room where reopening of the thoracotomy was performed. Lobar torsion was diagnosed, with the diaphragmatic surface of the upper lobe facing in an anterosuperior orientation. A completion pneumonectomy was performed. At the end of the procedure the patient developed a right pupil dilatation, presumably due to a cerebral embolism. A subsequent brain angio-CT scan established the diagnosis. She died at the intensive care unit 26 days later. Conclusion The thoracic surgeon should suspect this rare early postoperative complication after any thoracic operation in every patient with atelectasis of the neighboring lobe. High index of suspicion and prompt diagnosis may prevent catastrophic consequences, such as, infarction or gangrene of the pulmonary lobe. During thoracic operations, especially whenever the lung or lobe hilum is full mobilized, fixation of the remaining lobe may prevent this life threatening complication.

  7. The gyri of the octopus vertical lobe have distinct neurochemical identities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeno, Shuichi; Ragsdale, Clifton W

    2015-06-15

    The cephalopod vertical lobe is the largest learning and memory structure known in invertebrate nervous systems. It is part of the visual learning circuit of the central brain, which also includes the superior frontal and subvertical lobes. Despite the well-established functional importance of this system, little is known about neuropil organization of these structures and there is to date no evidence that the five longitudinal gyri of the vertical lobe, perhaps the most distinctive morphological feature of the octopus brain, differ in their connections or molecular identities. We studied the histochemical organization of these structures in hatchling and adult Octopus bimaculoides brains with immunostaining for serotonin, octopus gonadotropin-releasing hormone (oGNRH), and octopressin-neurophysin (OP-NP). Our major finding is that the five lobules forming the vertical lobe gyri have distinct neurochemical signatures. This is most prominent in the hatchling brain, where the median and mediolateral lobules are enriched in OP-NP fibers, the lateral lobule is marked by oGNRH innervation, and serotonin immunostaining heavily labels the median and lateral lobules. A major source of input to the vertical lobe is the superior frontal lobe, which is dominated by a neuropil of interweaving fiber bundles. We have found that this neuropil also has an intrinsic neurochemical organization: it is partitioned into territories alternately enriched or impoverished in oGNRH-containing fascicles. Our findings establish that the constituent lobes of the octopus superior frontal-vertical system have an intricate internal anatomy, one likely to reflect the presence of functional subsystems within cephalopod learning circuitry.

  8. Single liver lobe repopulation with wildtype hepatocytes using regional hepatic irradiation cures jaundice in Gunn rats.

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    Hongchao Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Preparative hepatic irradiation (HIR, together with mitotic stimulation of hepatocytes, permits extensive hepatic repopulation by transplanted hepatocytes in rats and mice. However, whole liver HIR is associated with radiation-induced liver disease (RILD, which limits its potential therapeutic application. In clinical experience, restricting HIR to a fraction of the liver reduces the susceptibility to RILD. Here we test the hypothesis that repopulation of selected liver lobes by regional HIR should be sufficient to correct some inherited metabolic disorders. METHODS: Hepatocytes (10(7 isolated from wildtype F344 rats or Wistar-RHA rats were engrafted into the livers of congeneic dipeptidylpeptidase IV deficient (DPPIV(- rats or uridinediphosphoglucuronateglucuronosyltransferase-1A1-deficient jaundiced Gunn rats respectively by intrasplenic injection 24 hr after HIR (50 Gy targeted to the median lobe, or median plus left liver lobes. An adenovector expressing hepatocyte growth factor (10(11 particles was injected intravenously 24 hr after transplantation. RESULTS: Three months after hepatocyte transplantation in DPPIV(- rats, 30-60% of the recipient hepatocytes were replaced by donor cells in the irradiated lobe, but not in the nonirradiated lobes. In Gunn rats receiving median lobe HIR, serum bilirubin declined from pretreatment levels of 5.17 ± 0.78 mg/dl to 0.96 ± 0.30 mg/dl in 8 weeks and remained at this level throughout the 16 week observation period. A similar effect was observed in the group, receiving median plus left lobe irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: As little as 20% repopulation of 30% of the liver volume was sufficient to correct hyperbilirubinemia in Gunn rats, highlighting the potential of regiospecific HIR in hepatocyte transplantation-based therapy of inherited metabolic liver diseases.

  9. Dose–Volume Relationships Associated With Temporal Lobe Radiation Necrosis After Skull Base Proton Beam Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Mark W., E-mail: markmcdonaldmd@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Indiana University Health Proton Therapy Center, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Linton, Okechukwu R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Calley, Cynthia S.J. [Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: We evaluated patient and treatment parameters correlated with development of temporal lobe radiation necrosis. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 66 patients treated for skull base chordoma, chondrosarcoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, or sinonasal malignancies between 2005 and 2012, who had at least 6 months of clinical and radiographic follow-up. The median radiation dose was 75.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness [RBE]). Analyzed factors included gender, age, hypertension, diabetes, smoking status, use of chemotherapy, and the absolute dose:volume data for both the right and left temporal lobes, considered separately. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression analysis evaluated potential predictors of radiation necrosis, and the median effective concentration (EC50) model estimated dose–volume parameters associated with radiation necrosis. Results: Median follow-up time was 31 months (range 6-96 months) and was 34 months in patients who were alive. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of overall survival at 3 years was 84.9%. The 3-year estimate of any grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis was 12.4%, and for grade 2 or higher radiation necrosis was 5.7%. On multivariate GEE, only dose–volume relationships were associated with the risk of radiation necrosis. In the EC50 model, all dose levels from 10 to 70 Gy (RBE) were highly correlated with radiation necrosis, with a 15% 3-year risk of any-grade temporal lobe radiation necrosis when the absolute volume of a temporal lobe receiving 60 Gy (RBE) (aV60) exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3}, or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Conclusions: Dose–volume parameters are highly correlated with the risk of developing temporal lobe radiation necrosis. In this study the risk of radiation necrosis increased sharply when the temporal lobe aV60 exceeded 5.5 cm{sup 3} or aV70 > 1.7 cm{sup 3}. Treatment planning goals should include constraints on the volume of temporal lobes receiving

  10. Antennal Sensilla of Two Oedipodidae Species ( Orthoptera:Acridoidea) : A Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopy Study%沼泽蝗属2种蝗虫触角感器的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春雨; 袁海滨; 张健; 任炳忠

    2011-01-01

    利用扫描电镜(SEM)技术对直翅目斑翅蝗科沼泽蝗属2种蝗虫触角感器的数量、类型和分布进行了观察.研究结果表明:沼泽蝗和白城沼泽蝗均有12种相同的感受器类型,即毛形感受器、刺形感受器(Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型)、锥形感受器(Ⅰ型、Ⅱ型、Ⅲ型、Ⅳ型和V型)、腔锥形感受器、腔形感受器、B(o)hm氏鬃毛、芽孢形感受器.文中对2种蝗虫触角不同种类感器的形态、分布以及雌雄感器在数量和分布上的差别进行了描述和比较.%The types, numbers and distributions of antennal sensilla were studied in both female and male adults of two Acrididae species (Mecostethus baichengensis Ren and Mecostethus grossus L.) using scanning electron microscope (SEM) . Female and male antennae of both species have the same 12 types of sensilla. They were identified as trichoid sensilla, chaetic sensilla ( I , II ), basiconic sensilla ( I , II , HI , IV , V ) , coeloconic sensilla, cavity sensilla, B(o)hm's bristles and paddle-shaped sensilla. We described the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of these two species and demonstrated the differences of the number and distribution of antennal sensilla occurring in female and male species.

  11. 德国小蠊触角感器的扫描电镜观察%Observation on the antennal sensilla of Blattella germanica with scanning electron microscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迅; 农向群; 张泽华; 李照会

    2009-01-01

    Antennal sensilla of adult and nymph Blattella germanica (L.) were observed by scanning electron microscope. It was found that there were a large number of sensilla on the antennas; they are sensilla chaetica (type I and II), sensilla basiconica, trichoid sensilla, cambered sensilla, campaniformia sensilla, marginal sensillum, and elliptical sensilla. Among of them, six sensilla, I.e. Chaetic sensillum Ⅰ and Ⅱ, sensilla basiconica, trichoid sensilla, cambered sensilla and marginal sensillum, were found in the insect in all stages. Hat block sensillum was only found on adults. Male and female adults have all types of sensilla. The antenna of mature nymph beared most segments, while young nymph's sensilla had minimum length and base diameter.%用电子显微镜观察德国小蠊Blattella germanica(L.)雌成虫、雄成虫、老熟若虫和低龄若虫的触角,发现其上分布有大量感器,为刺形感器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ型)、锥形感器、毛形感器、弧形感器、帽形感器、边缘感器和椭圆感器.其中刺形感器(Ⅰ、Ⅱ型)、锥形感器、毛形感器、弧形感器和边缘感器在各种虫态均有分布,帽形感器仅见于成虫触角鞭节上.在各种不同虫态中,雌雄成虫含有所有种类的感器,老熟若虫触角亚节数最多,低龄若虫的各类感器的感毛长度和基部横径普遍较小.

  12. Evidence of non-thermal X-ray emission from radio lobes of Cygnus A

    CERN Document Server

    Yaji, Y; Isobe, N; Kino, M; Asada, K; Nagai, H; Koyama, S; Kusunose, M

    2010-01-01

    Using deep Chandra ACIS observation data for Cygnus A, we report evidence of non-thermal X-ray emission from radio lobes surrounded by a rich intra-cluster medium (ICM). The diffuse X-ray emission, which are associated with the eastern and western radio lobes, were observed in a 0.7--7 keV Chandra$ ACIS image. The lobe spectra are reproduced with not only a single-temperature Mekal model, such as that of the surrounding ICM component, but also an additional power-law (PL) model. The X-ray flux densities of PL components for the eastern and western lobes at 1 keV are derived as 77.7^{+28.9}_{-31.9} nJy and 52.4^{+42.9}_{-42.4} nJy, respectively, and the photon indices are 1.69^{+0.07}_{-0.13} and 1.84^{+2.90}_{-0.12}, respectively. The non-thermal component is considered to be produced via the inverse Compton (IC) process, as is often seen in the X-ray emission from radio lobes. From a re-analysis of radio observation data, the multiwavelength spectra strongly suggest that the seed photon source of the IC X-ra...

  13. The Ruff Figural Fluency Test: heightened right frontal lobe delta activity as a function of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Paul S; Williamson, John B; Harrison, David W

    2005-06-01

    Research has indicated that the Ruff Figural Fluency Test [RFFT; Ruff, R. M., Light, R. H., & Evans, R. W. (1987). The Ruff Figural Fluency Test: A normative study with adults. Developmental Neuropsychology, 3, 37-51] is sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning. Indeed, research has differentiated between patients with left or right frontal lobe lesions using performance on the RFFT [Ruff, R. M., Allen, C. C., Farrow, C. E., Niemann, H., & Wylie, T. (1994). Figural fluency: Differential impairment in patients with left versus right frontal lobe lesions. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 9, 41-55]. The present investigation used quantitative electroencephalography to test further whether the RFFT was sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning among a group of individuals with no history of head injury. To meet this objective, the RFFT was administered to a group of 45 right-handed men with no history of significant head injury or cerebral dysfunction. Delta magnitude (muV) at three right frontal electrode sites (FP2, F4, F8) was then used to compare those who performed the best (High Fluency) with those who performed the worst (Low Fluency) on the RFFT. The findings indicated heightened right frontal delta magnitude for the Low Fluency group relative to the High Fluency group at the F2 and F8 right frontal electrode sites. Thus, the present findings provide further support for the contention that the RFFT is sensitive to right frontal lobe functioning, even among those with no history of head injury.

  14. MRI and brain spect findings in patients with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy and normal CT scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carrilho

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available 26 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy clinically documented by several abnormal interictal surface EEGs with typical unitemporal epileptiform activity and a normal CT scan were studied. Interictal99mTC HMPAO brain SPECT and MRI were performed in all subjects. Abnormalities were shown in 61.5% of MRI (n=16 and 65.4% of SPECT (n=17. Hippocampal atrophy associated to a high signal on T2-weighted MRI slices suggesting mesial temporal sclerosis was the main finding (n=12; 75% of abnormal MRI. MRI correlated well to surface EEG in 50% (n=13. There was also a good correlation between MRI and SPECT in 30.7% (n=8. SPECT and EEG were in agreement in 57.7% (n=l5. MRI, SPECT and EEG were congruent in 26.9% (n=7. These results support the usefulness of interictal brain SPECT and MRI in detecting lateralized abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy. On the other hand, in two cases, interictal SPECT correlated poorly with surface EEG. This functional method should not be used isolately in the detection of temporal lobe foci. MRI is more useful than CT as a neuroimaging technique in temporal lobe epilepsy. It may detect small structural lesions and mesial temporal lobe sclerosis which are not easily seen with traditional CT scanning.

  15. Frontal Lobe Contusion in Mice Chronically Impairs Prefrontal-Dependent Behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin Chou

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a major cause of chronic disability in the world. Moderate to severe TBI often results in damage to the frontal lobe region and leads to cognitive, emotional, and social behavioral sequelae that negatively affect quality of life. More specifically, TBI patients often develop persistent deficits in social behavior, anxiety, and executive functions such as attention, mental flexibility, and task switching. These deficits are intrinsically associated with prefrontal cortex (PFC functionality. Currently, there is a lack of analogous, behaviorally characterized TBI models for investigating frontal lobe injuries despite the prevalence of focal contusions to the frontal lobe in TBI patients. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI model in mice to generate a frontal lobe contusion and studied behavioral changes associated with PFC function. We found that unilateral frontal lobe contusion in mice produced long-term impairments to social recognition and reversal learning while having only a minor effect on anxiety and completely sparing rule shifting and hippocampal-dependent behavior.

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD): comparative data of right and left hepatic lobe approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Hyeong; Oh, Joo Hyeong; Yoon, Yup [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-15

    To evaluate the difference in each procedure time and complication rates related to percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage(PTBD) via the right and the left hepatic lobe. We performed PTBD in 120 patients with biliary obstruction below both main hepatic ducts. Of the 120 catheters, 54 were introduced via a left lobe approach and 66 through the right lobe. All procedures were performed under fluoroscopic guidance by the same operator. For each patient, procedure time was recorded prospectively. PTBD related complications were classified as either early(up to 30 days after procedure) or late(after 30 days), and each complication graded as major, or minor according to its intensity. The difference in the mean procedure time(28.8 min, versus 36.2 min, left versus right approach group) and that in complication rates (37% versus 58%) were statistically significant({rho} < 0.05). Concerning major complication(bile peritonitis, sepsis, massive hemobilia, liver abscess, pyothorax), the percentages related to left and right lobe approach were 1.8% and 10.6%, and concerning minor complications(catheter obstruction or dislodgement, transient hemobilia, persistent fever or pain), the percentages were 36% and 51% respectively. PTBD via the left lobe approach was superior with short procedure time and low complication rates than the right approach.

  17. Image processing analysis of vortex dynamics of lobed jets from three-dimensional diffusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastase, Ilinca [Technical University of Civil Engineering in Bucharest, Building Services Department, 66 Avenue Pache Protopopescu, 020396, Bucharest (Romania); Meslem, Amina; El Hassan, Mouhammad, E-mail: inastase@instal.utcb.ro, E-mail: ameslem@univ-lr.fr [LEPTIAB, University of La Rochelle, Pole Sciences et Technologie, avenue Michel Crepeau, 17042 La Rochelle (France)

    2011-12-01

    The passive control of jet flows with the aim to enhance mixing and entrainment is of wide practical interest. Our purpose here is to develop new air diffusers for heating ventilating air conditioning systems by using lobed geometry nozzles, in order to ameliorate the users' thermal comfort. Two turbulent six-lobed air jets, issued from a lobed tubular nozzle and an innovative hemispherical lobed nozzle, were studied experimentally. It was shown that the proposed innovative concept of a lobed jet, which can be easily integrated in air diffusion devices, is very efficient regarding induction capability. A vortical dynamics analysis for the two jets is performed using a new method of image processing, namely dynamic mode decomposition. A validation of this method is also proposed suggesting that the dynamical mode decomposition (DMD) image processing method succeeds in capturing the most dominant frequencies of the flow dynamics, which in our case are related to the quite special dynamics of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices.

  18. Characteristics of X-point Lobe Structures in Single-Null Discharges on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, J R; Chapman, I T; Cahyna, P; Liu, Yueqiang; Nardon, E; Thornton, A J

    2013-01-01

    Lobe structures due to the application of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) have been observed using wide-angle imaging of light from He1+ ions in the vicinity of the lower X-point in MAST. The data presented are from lower single-null discharges where RMPs of toroidal mode number, n, of 4 and 6 were applied. It has been found that, above a threshold value, the lobe structures extend radially, linearly with the coil current, both in L-mode and H-mode. It is observed that after the application of the RMP, as the toroidal rotation in the confined plasma decreases, the lobes extend radially, suggesting the plasma is less effectively screening the RMP field. Comparing the imaging data with results from vacuum modelling shows that this technique can accurately predict the number and poloidal location of the lobes, but over-estimates their radial extent. More accurate estimates of the extent of the lobes can be made by accounting for plasma screening of the RMP field. Qualitative agreement between simulation a...

  19. Increased expression of Notch1 in temporal lobe epilepsy:animal models and clinical evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijin Liu; Zhiyong Yang; Yaping Yin; Xuejun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is associated with astrogliosis. Notch1 signaling can induce astrogliosis in glioma. However, it remains unknown whether Notch1 signaling is involved in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. This study investigated the presence of Notch1, hairy and enhancer of split-1, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus of lithium-pilocar-pine-treated rats. The presence of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split-1 was also explored in brain tissues of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Quantitative electroencephalo-gram analysis and behavioral observations were used as auxiliary measures. Results revealed that the presence of Notch1, hairy and enhancer of split-1, and glial ifbrillary acidic protein were en-hanced in status epilepticus and vehicle-treated spontaneous recurrent seizures rats, but remain unchanged in the following groups:control, absence of either status epilepticus or spontaneous recurrent seizures, and zileuton-treated spontaneous recurrent seizures. Compared with patient control cases, the presences of Notch1 and hairy and enhancer of split-1 were upregulated in the temporal neocortex of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy. Therefore, these results suggest that Notch1 signaling may play an important role in the onset of temporal lobe epilepsy via astrogliosis. Furthermore, zileuton may be a potential therapeutic strategy for temporal lobe epilepsy by blocking Notch1 signaling.

  20. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Carlsson

    Full Text Available Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+ activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  1. Expression and function of the empty spiracles gene in olfactory sense organ development of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sonia; Hartmann, Beate; Reichert, Heinrich; Rodrigues, Veronica

    2010-11-01

    In Drosophila, the cephalic gap gene empty spiracles plays key roles in embryonic patterning of the peripheral and central nervous system. During postembryonic development, it is involved in the development of central olfactory circuitry in the antennal lobe of the adult. However, its possible role in the postembryonic development of peripheral olfactory sense organs has not been investigated. Here, we show that empty spiracles acts in a subset of precursors that generate the olfactory sense organs of the adult antenna. All empty spiracles-expressing precursor cells co-express the proneural gene amos and the early patterning gene lozenge. Moreover, the expression of empty spiracles in these precursor cells is dependent on both amos and lozenge. Functional analysis reveals two distinct roles of empty spiracles in the development of olfactory sense organs. Genetic interaction studies in a lozenge-sensitized background uncover a requirement of empty spiracles in the formation of trichoid and basiconic olfactory sensilla. MARCM-based clonal mutant analysis reveals an additional role during axonal targeting of olfactory sensory neurons to glomeruli within the antennal lobe. Our findings on empty spiracles action in olfactory sense organ development complement previous studies that demonstrate its requirement in olfactory interneurons and, taken together with studies on the murine homologs of empty spiracles, suggest that conserved molecular genetic programs might be responsible for the formation of both peripheral and central olfactory circuitry in insects and mammals.

  2. Sensory reception of the primer pheromone ethyl oleate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenz, Thomas S.; Maisonnasse, Alban; Plettner, Erika; Le Conte, Yves; Rössler, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Social work force distribution in honeybee colonies critically depends on subtle adjustments of an age-related polyethism. Pheromones play a crucial role in adjusting physiological and behavioral maturation of nurse bees to foragers. In addition to primer effects of brood pheromone and queen mandibular pheromone—both were shown to influence onset of foraging—direct worker-worker interactions influence adult behavioral maturation. These interactions were narrowed down to the primer pheromone ethyl oleate, which is present at high concentrations in foragers, almost absent in young bees and was shown to delay the onset of foraging. Based on chemical analyses, physiological recordings from the antenna (electroantennograms) and the antennal lobe (calcium imaging), and behavioral assays (associative conditioning of the proboscis extension response), we present evidence that ethyl oleate is most abundant on the cuticle, received by olfactory receptors on the antenna, processed in glomeruli of the antennal lobe, and learned in olfactory centers of the brain. The results are highly suggestive that the primer pheromone ethyl oleate is transmitted and perceived between individuals via olfaction at close range.

  3. Calcium imaging in the ant Camponotus fellah reveals a conserved odour-similarity space in insects and mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giurfa Martin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory systems create representations of the chemical world in the animal brain. Recordings of odour-evoked activity in the primary olfactory centres of vertebrates and insects have suggested similar rules for odour processing, in particular through spatial organization of chemical information in their functional units, the glomeruli. Similarity between odour representations can be extracted from across-glomerulus patterns in a wide range of species, from insects to vertebrates, but comparison of odour similarity in such diverse taxa has not been addressed. In the present study, we asked how 11 aliphatic odorants previously tested in honeybees and rats are represented in the antennal lobe of the ant Camponotus fellah, a social insect that relies on olfaction for food search and social communication. Results Using calcium imaging of specifically-stained second-order neurons, we show that these odours induce specific activity patterns in the ant antennal lobe. Using multidimensional analysis, we show that clustering of odours is similar in ants, bees and rats. Moreover, odour similarity is highly correlated in all three species. Conclusion This suggests the existence of similar coding rules in the neural olfactory spaces of species among which evolutionary divergence happened hundreds of million years ago.

  4. Odour maps in the brain of butterflies with divergent host-plant preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Mikael A; Bisch-Knaden, Sonja; Schäpers, Alexander; Mozuraitis, Raimondas; Hansson, Bill S; Janz, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    Butterflies are believed to use mainly visual cues when searching for food and oviposition sites despite that their olfactory system is morphologically similar to their nocturnal relatives, the moths. The olfactory ability in butterflies has, however, not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, we performed the first study of odour representation in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobes, of butterflies. Host plant range is highly variable within the butterfly family Nymphalidae, with extreme specialists and wide generalists found even among closely related species. Here we measured odour evoked Ca(2+) activity in the antennal lobes of two nymphalid species with diverging host plant preferences, the specialist Aglais urticae and the generalist Polygonia c-album. The butterflies responded with stimulus-specific combinations of activated glomeruli to single plant-related compounds and to extracts of host and non-host plants. In general, responses were similar between the species. However, the specialist A. urticae responded more specifically to its preferred host plant, stinging nettle, than P. c-album. In addition, we found a species-specific difference both in correlation between responses to two common green leaf volatiles and the sensitivity to these compounds. Our results indicate that these butterflies have the ability to detect and to discriminate between different plant-related odorants.

  5. Frontal Lobe Morphometry with MRI in a Normal Age Group of 6-17 Year-Olds

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Morphometric data of the frontal lobe are important for surgical planning of lesions in the frontal lobe and its surroundings. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques provide suitable data for this purpose. Objectives In our study, the morphometric data of mid-sagittal MRI of the frontal lobe in certain age and gender groups of children have been presented. Patients and Methods In a normal age group of 6-17-year-old participants, the length of the line passing through predeterm...

  6. Organization of olfactory centres in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riabinina, Olena; Task, Darya; Marr, Elizabeth; Lin, Chun-Chieh; Alford, Robert; O'Brochta, David A.; Potter, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes are vectors for multiple infectious human diseases and use a variety of sensory cues (olfactory, temperature, humidity and visual) to locate a human host. A comprehensive understanding of the circuitry underlying sensory signalling in the mosquito brain is lacking. Here we used the Q-system of binary gene expression to develop transgenic lines of Anopheles gambiae in which olfactory receptor neurons expressing the odorant receptor co-receptor (Orco) gene are labelled with GFP. These neurons project from the antennae and maxillary palps to the antennal lobe (AL) and from the labella on the proboscis to the suboesophageal zone (SEZ), suggesting integration of olfactory and gustatory signals occurs in this brain region. We present detailed anatomical maps of olfactory innervations in the AL and the SEZ, identifying glomeruli that may respond to human body odours or carbon dioxide. Our results pave the way for anatomical and functional neurogenetic studies of sensory processing in mosquitoes. PMID:27694947

  7. Continuous lobe reconnection in the mid-tail and its relationship to substorms: Cluster observations of continuous lobe reconnection in the mid-magneto tail

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xin; Q. G. Zong; H. Reme; K. H. Glassmeier; PU Zuyin; ZHANG Hui; FU Suiyan; XIAO Chijie; LIU Zhenxing; J. B. Cao; A. Korth; M. Frazen

    2005-01-01

    When the IMF turns southward, a great amount of magnetic energy is stored in the magnetotail, and the electric field across the magnetotail substantially enhances. As long as magnetic reconnection (MR) in the magnetotail initiates and continues, the magnetic field and plasma in the central plasma sheet are carried away to the near-Earth and down to the tail, the magnetic field and plasma in the lobe region enter the CPS and are involved in MR. We call this process "Continuous Lobe Reconnection (CLR)". In this paper a detailed analysis of Cluster observation of MR through 2001―2003 is made. Plenty of CLR events are found that led to considerable changes of tail configuration, appearance of BBF, as well as large-scale bubbles in which both plasma temperature and number density substantially decrease. It is shown that in general CLR events last for dozens of minutes and have good correspondence to substorm initiation under the condition of continuous southward IMF.

  8. Isolated right pulmonary artery agenesis with agenesis of right upper lobe and bronchiectasis of right lower lobe with anomalous arterial supply from celiac axis with normal venous drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, A; Rathore, M; Banavaliker, J N

    2014-01-01

    Isolated unilateral absence of pulmonary artery (UAPA) is a rare congenital anomaly. When detected in infancy, the condition is commonly associated with cardiovascular defects which are more frequently associated with left pulmonary artery agenesis. Patients with isolated right pulmonary artery agenesis survive into adulthood with minimal or no symptoms and are diagnosed incidentally on the chest radiographs. We report a case of a 19-year-old female patient who presented to us with recurrent haemoptysis. She was symptomatic since the age of four years. We report the rare occurrence of UAPA on right side, agenesis of right upper lobe and bronchiectasis of right lower lobe with anomalous arterial supply of right lung from coeliac axis in this patient.

  9. Photogrammetric and Global Positioning System Measurements of Active Pahoehoe Lava Lobe Emplacement on Kilauea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher W.; Glaze, Lori S.; James, Mike R.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.

    2012-01-01

    Basalt is the most common rock type on the surface of terrestrial bodies throughout the solar system and -- by total volume and areal coverage -- pahoehoe flows are the most abundant form of basaltic lava in subaerial and submarine environments on Earth. A detailed understanding of pahoehoe emplacement processes is necessary for developing accurate models of flow field development, assessing hazards associated with active lava flows, and interpreting the significance of lava flow morphology on Earth and other planetary bodies. Here, we examine the active emplacement of pahoehoe lobes along the margins of the Hook Flow from Pu'u 'O'o on Kilauea, Hawaii. Topographic data were acquired between 21 and 23 February 2006 using stereo-imaging and differential global positing system (DGPS) measurements. During this time, the average discharge rate for the Hook Flow was 0.01-0.05 cubic m/s. Using stereogrammetric point clouds and interpolated digital terrain models (DTMs), active flow fronts were digitized at 1 minute intervals. These areal spreading maps show that the lava lobe grew by a series of breakouts tha t broadly fit into two categories: narrow (0.2-0.6 m-wide) toes that grew preferentially down-slope, and broad (1.4-3.5 m-wide) breakouts that formed along the sides of the lobe, nearly perpendicular to the down-flow axis. These lobes inflated to half of their final thickness within approx 5 minutes, with a rate of inflation that generally deceased with time. Through a combination of down-slope and cross-slope breakouts, lobes developed a parabolic cross-sectional shape within tens of minutes. We also observed that while the average local discharge rate for the lobe was generally constant at 0.0064 +/- 0.0019 cubic m/s, there was a 2 to 6 fold increase in the areal coverage rate every 4.1 +/- 0.6 minutes. We attribute this periodicity to the time required for the dynamic pressurization of the liquid core of the lava lobe to exceed the cooling-induced strength of the

  10. Arterial supply of the thoracic lobes of the thymus in dogs of the Great Dane race.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marques Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The origins, numbers and type of arterial branches responsible for the blood supply of thoracic lobes of the thymus were studied in 28 stillborn dogs of the Great Dane, of which 18 were males and 10 were females. The arterial systems of these animals were filled with aqueous solution of Neoprene Latex “450”, 50%. After, the specimens were fixed in 10% formaldehyde aqueous solution. The lobes of the thymus were supplied by direct or indirect arterial branches coming from the right and left internal thoracic arteries, pericardiacophrenicas arteries, right and left costocervicais trunks, and left subclavian artery. The left subclavian artery and brachiocephalic trunk emitted direct branches towards the left thoracic lobe of the thymus.

  11. Centaurus A: constraints on the nature of the giant lobe filaments from XMM-Newton observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wykes, Sarka; Croston, Judith H

    2015-01-01

    We report on deep XMM-Newton observations of the vertex filament in the southern giant lobe of the Fanaroff-Riley class I radio galaxy Centaurus A. We find no X-ray excess from the filament region and place a 3 sigma upper limit on the 1 keV flux density of the filament of 9.6 nJy. This directly constrains the electron density and magnetic field strength in the filament. For the first time in an individual filament, we show that the excess in synchrotron emissivity cannot be produced purely by excess electrons: the filament magnetic field strength must be higher than in the giant lobes as a whole, and close to or above the equipartition value for the filament. The filaments are not significantly overpressured with respect to the surrounding lobe with a pressure provided by relativistic electrons.

  12. A Force-Based Grid Manipulator for ALE Calculations in a Lobe Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Vande Voorde; Jan Vierendeels; Erik Dick

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a time-dependant calculation of flow in a lobe pump is presented. Calculations are performed using the arbitrary Lagrangean Eulerean (ALE) method. A grid manipulator is needed to move the nodes between time steps. The used grid manipulator is based on the pseudo-force idea. This means that each node is fictitiously connected with its 8 neighbours via fictitious springs. The equilibrium of the resulting pseudo spring forces defines the altered position of the nodes. The grid manipulator was coupled with a commercial flow solver and the whole was tested on the flow through a three-lobe lobe pump. Results were obtained for a rotational speed of 460 rpm and incompressible silicon oil as fluid.

  13. The Lobe Fissure Tracking by the Modified Ant Colony Optimization Framework in CT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Jen Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chest computed tomography (CT is the most commonly used technique for the inspection of lung lesions. However, the lobe fissures in lung CT is still difficult to observe owing to its imaging structure. Therefore, in this paper, we aimed to develop an efficient tracking framework to extract the lobe fissures by the proposed modified ant colony optimization (ACO algorithm. We used the method of increasing the consistency of pheromone on lobe fissure to improve the accuracy of path tracking. In order to validate the proposed system, we had tested our method in a database from 15 lung patients. In the experiment, the quantitative assessment shows that the proposed ACO method achieved the average F-measures of 80.9% and 82.84% in left and right lungs, respectively. The experiments indicate our method results more satisfied performance, and can help investigators detect lung lesion for further examination.

  14. Whole-brain voxel-based morphometry of white matter in medial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Aihong [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China); Li Kuncheng [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053 (China)], E-mail: Likuncheng@vip.sina.com; Li Lin; Shan Baoci [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Wang Yuping; Xue Sufang [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences (China)

    2008-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze whole-brain white matter changes in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). Materials and methods: We studied 23 patients with MTLE and 13 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) on T1-weighted 3D datasets. The seizure focus was right sided in 11 patients and left sided in 12. The data were collected on a 1.5 T MR system and analyzed by SPM 99 to generate white matter density maps. Results: Voxel-based morphometry revealed diffusively reduced white matter in MTLE prominently including bilateral frontal lobes, bilateral temporal lobes and corpus callosum. White matter reduction was also found in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in the left MTLE group. Conclusion: VBM is a simple and automated approach that is able to identify diffuse whole-brain white matter reduction in MTLE.

  15. Use of statistical parametric mapping of {sup 18}F-FDG-PET in frontal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.; Amthauer, H.; Luedemann, L.; Hartkop, E.; Ruf, J.; Gutberlet, M.; Bertram, H.; Felix, R.; Venz, St. [Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Med. Fakultaet der Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Merschhemke, M.; Meencke, H.-J. [Epilepsie-Zentrum Berlin-Brandenburg am Ev. Krkh. Koenigin Elisabeth Herzberge, Berlin (Germany)

    2003-10-01

    Aim: Evaluation of the use of statistical parametrical mapping (SPM) of FDG-PET for seizure lateralization in frontal lobe epilepsy. Patients: 38 patients with suspected frontal lobe epilepsy supported by clinical findings and video-EEG monitoring. Method: Statistical parametrical maps were generated by subtraction of individual scans from a control group, formed by 16 patients with negative neurological/psychiatric history and no abnormalities in the MR scan. The scans were also analyzed visually as well as semiquantitatively by manually drawn ROIs. Results: SPM showed a better accordance to the results of surface EEG monitoring compared with visual scan analysis and ROI quantification. In comparison with intracranial EEG recordings, the best performance was achieved by combining the ROI based quantification with SPM analysis. Conclusion: These findings suggest that SPM analysis of FDG-PET data could be a useful as complementary tool in the evaluation of seizure focus lateralization in patients with supposed frontal lobe epilepsy. (orig.)

  16. Distant (200-238 Rsub(e)) magnetotail lobe characteristics during quiet solar wind conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsurutani, B.T.; Burton, M.E.; Smith, E.J.; Jones, D.E.; Lepping, R.P.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1987-03-01

    The distance (X = 200-238 Rsub(e)) tail lobe average properties under quiet solar wind conditions have been determined using simultaneous ISEE-3 magnetic field and IMP-8 magnetic field and plasma observations. Under external solar wind pressures of Psub(ext) B/sup 2/8..pi.. + Nk(Tsub(e) + Tsub(i) <5x10/sup -10/ dynes cm/sup -2/, an average tail lobe field strength of 7.1 + - 1.2 nT and average plasma beta (8..pi.. nk T/B/sup 2/) of 0.3 are determined. It is concluded that under quiet solar wind conditions, the distant tail lobes are typically dominated by the magnetic field pressure.

  17. Temporal lobe epilepsy and social behavior: an animal model for autism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Joao Carlos M; Moura, Paula J; Cysneiros, Roberta M; Colugnati, Diego B; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Scorza, Fulvio A; Xavier, Gilberto F; Zilbovicius, Monica; Mercadante, Marcos T

    2008-07-01

    Social behavior depends on the integrity of social brain circuitry. The temporal lobe is an important part of the social brain, and manifests morphological and functional alterations in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Rats with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), induced with pilocarpine, were subjected to a social discrimination test that has been used to investigate potential animal models of ASD, and the results were compared with those for the control group. Rats with TLE exhibited fewer social behaviors than controls. No differences were observed in nonsocial behavior between groups. The results suggest an important role for the temporal lobe in regulating social behaviors. This animal model might be used to explore some questions about ASD pathophysiology.

  18. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  19. Geodynamical processes in the channel connecting the two lobes of the Large Aral Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Roget

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Reasons for the existence of the channel connecting the two lobes of the present Large Aral Sea are discussed. In situ measurements show that differences between the measured depths and those contained in the available digital bathymetry of the lake are considerably different at the channel (7.5±0.9 m, at nine measurement stations along it and at the northern part of the eastern lobe (1.6±0.3 m, at six stations from the western to the eastern shore. Differences in the misfits observed in the two zones are discussed and thought to be a consequence of the variation of the transversal area of the channel as it enters the eastern lobe, which would affect the flow velocity and thus the strength of the erosion process at the bottom. Field data together with satellite images have been used to modify an original digital bathymetry of the lake and have been implemented into a 3-D hydrodynamical model. A numerical simulation shows that a wind of 12 m/s blowing from the east (112° generates velocities of up to 45 cm/s in the channel, allowing denser water from the eastern lobe (salinity: 132 g/kg to flow about 38 km towards the fresher western lobe (salinity: 98 g/kg in one day. The effect of the inflow on the vertical structure of the western lobe is also illustrated. All in all, the Aral Sea is presented as an example where geomorphologic and geophysical processes, along with hydrological and atmospheric processes, must be taken into account for short-term predictions.

  20. [INCIDENCE AND SURGICAL IMPORTANCE OF PYRAMIDAL LOBE AND TUBERCLE OF THE THYROID GLAND: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacić, Marijan; Kovadcić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The pyramidal lobe and tubercles are common anatomic variations of the thyroid gland, and their frequency is highly represented. While pyramidal lobe requires additional seriousness in identifying and its removal, especially in patients with hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer, the presence of tubercles is desirable. Tubercle is covered by recurrent laryngeal nerve and directs the surgeon in his search and besides this, serves to facilitate detection of the upper parathyroid glands. In this prospective study we analysed 342 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy in the period from January 2009 to March 2015. We looked at the incidence and anatomic characteristics of pyramidal lobe and tubercles of the thyroid gland. The pyramidal lobe was present in 52.3% of the patients with more frequent central and left placement. Bilateral tubercles were present in 14.9%, while position right-sided phenomenon was represented in 39.5% and 18.5% in lower left (64.3% patients). Their prevalence by gender showed no significant difference (p = 0.59; p = 0.2). Associated presence of pyramidal lobe and tubercles on one or both sides is highly represented in our group of patients (34%), also with no differences by gender (p = 0.29). Length of the pyramidal lobe ranged from 1.3 to 4.7 cm (average 2.3 cm), and the size of tubercles in 36% of patients was over 1 cm. Recurrent laryngeal nerve was only in 1.8% placed laterally of tubercles, and the upper parathyroid gland in 95.4% was located above tubercle. Considering that only 16.5% of our patients did not have any of these anatomical variations, their presence during surgery is the rule, not the exception.

  1. Detailed anatomy of a deep-water carbonate breccia lobe (Upper Jurassic, French subalpine basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courjault, Thomas; Grosheny, Danièle; Ferry, Serge; Sausse, Judith

    2011-06-01

    Detailed correlations across Tithonian carbonate breccia deposits in the Drôme River area (northern part of the so-called "Vocontian Through") suggest the depositional system was that of an elongated deep-water lobe, up to 70 km long and 20 to 30 km wide, for a thickness reaching 200 m. The Drôme lobe, as it is now called, is mainly made of slope to basinal mudstones breccias with minor platform components, interpreted as debris flow and mud flow deposits, associated with slump deposits. It is basically a base-of-slope system, whose elongated depositional area implies it was a "point-sourced" gravity system, thus perhaps connected to a small canyon cut onto the western slope of the basin. But the mostly mudstone material of the breccias also suggests that the walls of this inferred canyon were the main supplier of the lobe, not the carbonate platform proper. The updip part of the lobe has a complex internal geometry as the deposition of breccia bed packages is interrupted by scourings locally 50 m-deep, indicating maybe a canyon mouth environment. The middle part of the lobe is dominated by pure vertical aggradation of breccia beds with minor intervening erosion. In the downdip part of the system a morphological compensation mechanism occurs as breccia beds tend to spread laterally. A huge slump carrying large mudstone olistoliths ends the breccia deposition at the beginning of the Berriasian. This megaslump deposit was mostly emplaced on the right side of the breccia lobe supporting the idea of a depositional relief. Our observations thus show that previous interpretations as a submarine canyon infilling or as shallow-water breccias formed in-situ by cyclic loading under attenuating hurricane waves approaching the platform are not consistent with our observations. The internal geometry of the system studied brings new data about a poorly-studied kind of "turbidite" systems that of deep-water carbonate breccias.

  2. Delineation of right and left lobe of the liver accessed by 3-dimensional CT images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teleuhan, Nadira [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

    2003-02-01

    Adequate delineation of right and left liver lobes is very important especially in partial hepatectomy. We analyzed the sub-volumes of middle hepatic vein (MHV) draining area divided by the Cantlie's plane and MHV plane using CT 3-dimensional images. We examined 10 donor candidates for liver transplantation with multi-detector-row CT. Three-dimensional rendering images of the liver parenchyma and the hepatic vein were created. After identifying hepatic vein draining area, liver volume was divided into three hepatic vein-draining areas. The MHV draining area was divided by two different planes, Cant lie's plane and MHV plane, and draining volumes from right and left lobes were calculated. Total liver volume and right, middle, left hepatic vein-draining volume (ratio of total liver volume) were 1472{+-}259 ml, 708{+-}150 ml (48{+-}10%), 414{+-}175 ml (28{+-}12%), 350{+-}110 ml (24{+-}7%) divided by Cant lie's plane, draining volumes from right and left lobes were 306{+-}200 ml (21{+-}14%) and 108{+-}69 ml (7{+-}5%). Divided by MHV plane, draining volumes from right and left lobes were 198{+-}123 ml (13{+-}8%) and 216{+-}73 ml (15{+-}5%). Volume difference of two sub-volumes was 108{+-}92 ml (7{+-}6%, 0-270 ml). The proportion of MHV draining volume had a considerable dispersion among 10 persons. In most of cases the draining volumes from the left lobe were bigger than those from right lobes. (author)

  3. Brain metabolite changes in alcoholism: Localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of the occipital lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modi, Shilpi; Bhattacharya, Manisha; Kumar, Pawan [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Deshpande, Smita N. [Department of Psychiatry, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital, New Delhi (India); Tripathi, Rajendra Prasad [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India); Khushu, Subash, E-mail: skhushu@yahoo.com [NMR Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (DRDO), Lucknow Road, Timarpur, Delhi 110054 (India)

    2011-07-15

    Chronic alcoholism is associated with altered brain metabolism, morphology and cognitive abilities. Besides deficits in higher order cognitive functions, alcoholics also show a deficit in the processing of basic sensory information viz. visual stimulation. To assess the metabolic changes associated with this deficit, {sup 1}H MRS was carried out in the occipital lobe of alcohol dependents. A significant increase in Cho/Cr ratio (p < 0.015) was observed in occipital lobe in the alcoholic group indicating altered cell membrane metabolism, which may probably be associated with the alterations in the cognitive abilities associated with vision.

  4. Three patients with mood disorders showing catatonia and frontotemporal lobes atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utumi, Yushi; Iseki, Eizo; Arai, Heii

    2013-12-01

    Here we report the cases of three patients with mood disorders showing catatonia and frontotemporal lobe atrophy. Catatonia is a syndrome linked to frontal dysfunction that most frequently occurs in patients with mood disorders. The diagnostic criteria of catatonia and frontotemporal dementia partly overlap. In the present patients, catatonia might be closely related to frontal dysfunction caused by frontotemporal lobe atrophy. With regard to therapeutics for catatonia, we found that administering a low dose of lorazepam alone or after electroconvulsive therapy may be useful for treating and preventing catatonia. We also found that administering glutaminate antagonists such as memantine may be useful for treating lorazepam-resistant catatonia.

  5. Memory network plasticity after temporal lobe resection: a longitudinal functional imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Meneka K; Stretton, Jason; Winston, Gavin P; McEvoy, Andrew W; Symms, Mark; Thompson, Pamela J; Koepp, Matthias J; Duncan, John S

    2016-02-01

    Anterior temporal lobe resection can control seizures in up to 80% of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Memory decrements are the main neurocognitive complication. Preoperative functional reorganization has been described in memory networks, but less is known of postoperative reorganization. We investigated reorganization of memory-encoding networks preoperatively and 3 and 12 months after surgery. We studied 36 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (19 right) before and 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were studied at three equivalent time points. All subjects had neuropsychological testing at each of the three time points. A functional magnetic resonance imaging memory-encoding paradigm of words and faces was performed with subsequent out-of-scanner recognition assessments. Changes in activations across the time points in each patient group were compared to changes in the control group in a single flexible factorial analysis. Postoperative change in memory across the time points was correlated with postoperative activations to investigate the efficiency of reorganized networks. Left temporal lobe epilepsy patients showed increased right anterior hippocampal and frontal activation at both 3 and 12 months after surgery relative to preoperatively, for word and face encoding, with a concomitant reduction in left frontal activation 12 months postoperatively. Right anterior hippocampal activation 12 months postoperatively correlated significantly with improved verbal learning in patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy from preoperatively to 12 months postoperatively. Preoperatively, there was significant left posterior hippocampal activation that was sustained 3 months postoperatively at word encoding, and increased at face encoding. For both word and face encoding this was significantly reduced from 3 to 12 months postoperatively. Patients with right temporal lobe epilepsy showed increased

  6. GINGIVAL ENLARGEMENT ASSOCIATED WITH NOCTURNAL FRONTAL LOBE EPILEPSY. A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma ANAMIKA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available „Epilepsy” refers to a group of neurological disorders characterized by chronic, recurrent, paroxysmal seizure activity. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by brief, recurring seizures produ‑ ced in the frontal lobes of the brain, often while the patient is sleeping, and also by clusters of brief motor seizures. Seizure disorders may affect the dental status and oral health of patients. Epileptic drugs lead to gingival hyper‑ plasia, namely tissue enlargement, caused by an increased number of cells.

  7. Balint′s Syndrome As a Manifestation of Solitary Right Occipital Lobe Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarat Chandra P

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Balint′s syndrome is a rare clinical condition characterized by a triad of occulomotor apraxia (psychic paralysis of gaze, optic ataxia and visual inattention and usually follows bilateral parieto-occipital lesions. We report this syndrome occurring in a patient with a solitary metastasis in right occipital lobe. To the best of our knowledge it has not been previously described in English literature. Pressure over the opposite occipital lobe due to mass effect, diaschisis and extension of edema along the corpus callosum involvement may contribute to this exceptional phenomenon.

  8. Frontal gray matter abnormalities predict seizure outcome in refractory temporal lobe epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaelle E. Doucet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing more reliable predictors of seizure outcome following temporal lobe surgery for intractable epilepsy is an important clinical goal. In this context, we investigated patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE before and after temporal resection. In detail, we explored gray matter (GM volume change in relation with seizure outcome, using a voxel-based morphometry (VBM approach. To do so, this study was divided into two parts. The first one involved group analysis of differences in regional GM volume between the groups (good outcome (GO, e.g., no seizures after surgery; poor outcome (PO, e.g., persistent postoperative seizures; and controls, N = 24 in each group, pre- and post-surgery. The second part of the study focused on pre-surgical data only (N = 61, determining whether the degree of GM abnormalities can predict surgical outcomes. For this second step, GM abnormalities were identified, within each lobe, in each patient when compared with an ad hoc sample of age-matched controls. For the first analysis, the results showed larger GM atrophy, mostly in the frontal lobe, in PO patients, relative to both GO patients and controls, pre-surgery. When comparing pre-to-post changes, we found relative GM gains in the GO but not in the PO patients, mostly in the non-resected hemisphere. For the second analysis, only the frontal lobe displayed reliable prediction of seizure outcome. 81% of the patients showing pre-surgical increased GM volume in the frontal lobe became seizure free, post-surgery; while 77% of the patients with pre-surgical reduced frontal GM volume had refractory seizures, post-surgery. A regression analysis revealed that the proportion of voxels with reduced frontal GM volume was a significant predictor of seizure outcome (p = 0.014. Importantly, having less than 1% of the frontal voxels with GM atrophy increased the likelihood of being seizure-free, post-surgery, by seven times. Overall, our results suggest

  9. Scanning electron microscopy of the antennal sensilla in female Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae Microscopia eletrônica de varredura das sensilas antenais em fêmeas de Culicoides paraensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Felippe-Bauer

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied by sanning electron microscopy the number, types, structure and distribution of the antennal sensilla of the medical important ceratopogonid Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi. There are about 174 sense organs on the antenmal flagellum which are classified as sensilla chaetica; sharp-tipped and blunt-tipped (type I and II sensilla trichodea; sensilla basiconica; sensilla coeloconica; sensilla ampullacea and styloconic-type sensilla. The role of antennal sensory organs are discussed regarding the host preference of the biting midges.Estudos sobre o número, tipo, estrutura e distribuição das sensilas antenais do ceratopogonídeo de importância médica, Culicoides paraensis (Goeldi, são realizados com microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Encontram-se aproximadamente 174 órgãos sensoriais no flagelo, os quais são classificados em sensila caética; sensila trichoidea, de ápice afilado e de ápice curvo (tipoI e II; sensila basicônica; sensila ampulácea e sensila do tipo estilocônica. É discutido o papel dos órgãos sensoriais da antena na relação Culicoides/hospedeiro.

  10. Antennal sensilla of adult Dacne picta observed with scanning electron microscope%二纹蕈甲成虫触角的感器类型与分布特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 任国栋; 董建臻; 王圆圆

    2012-01-01

    The antennal sensilla of Dacne picta Crotch (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea) were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Six distinct types of sense receptors were observed, including sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla styloconica, sensilla campaniform, and Bohm bristles. Four types of sensilla basiconica,three types of sensilla chaetica and one type of other antennal sensilla were found. The quantity and distribution of sensilla were different in each segment of the antenna.%利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对二纹蕈甲Dacne picta Crotch的触角感器进行了观察.发现该虫的触角感器有6种类型,分别为毛形感器、刺形感器、锥形感器、栓锥形感器、钟形感器和B(o)hm氏鬃毛.其中,锥形感器有4种形态,刺形感器具有3种形态,毛形感器、栓锥形感器和钟形感器各有1种形态.感器的数量和分布在触角的每一节上差异较大.

  11. Plasma convection in the magnetotail lobes: statistical results from Cluster EDI measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Haaland

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A major part of the plasma in the Earth's magnetotail is populated through transport of plasma from the solar wind via the magnetotail lobes. In this paper, we present a statistical study of plasma convection in the lobes for different directions of the interplanetary magnetic field and for different geomagnetic disturbance levels. The data set used in this study consists of roughly 340 000 one-minute vector measurements of the plasma convection from the Cluster Electron Drift Instrument (EDI obtained during the period February 2001 to June 2007. The results show that both convection magnitude and direction are largely controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. For a southward IMF, there is a strong convection towards the central plasma sheet with convection velocities around 10 km s−1. During periods of northward IMF, the lobe convection is almost stagnant. A By dominated IMF causes a rotation of the convection patterns in the tail with an oppositely directed dawn-dusk component of the convection for the northern and southern lobe. Our results also show that there is an overall persistent duskward component, which is most likely a result of conductivity gradients in the footpoints of the magnetic field lines in the ionosphere.

  12. Peninsula Effects on Birds in a Coastal Landscape: Are Coves More Species Rich than Lobes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Riffell

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peninsula effects - decreasing richness with increasing distance along peninsula lobes - have been identified for many taxa on large peninsulas. Peninsula effects are caused by differences in colonization and extinction predicted by island biogeography or by environmental gradients along the peninsula. We compared species-area regressions for cove patches (i.e., mainland to regressions for lobe patches (i.e., on peninsula tips for wet meadow birds along a highly interdigitated shoreline (northern Lake Huron, USA. We conducted analysis both with and without accounting for variation in habitat and landscape characteristics (i.e., environmental gradients of wet meadows. Species-area regressions for coves did not differ from lobes, nor did these results differ when we accounted for gradients. Similarly, few species were more abundant in coves. Peninsula effects may have been lacking because lobe patches were located ≈ 800 m on average from the mainland, and birds are highly mobile and can easily sample patches over these distances. One important caveat was that wet meadow patches > 5 ha were located in coves, so coves would still be important considerations in conservation plans because of the contribution of large patches to reproductive success, dispersal and population dynamics.

  13. The distally lobed inner integument of Hernandia peltata Meissn. in DC. (Hernandiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1971-01-01

    A peculiar structural detail, occurring during the development of ovules, seems to have passed almost unnoticed till the present day. It concerns the distal rim of either the outer or the inner integument, which appears to be slightly lobed in the ovules of several unrelated plants. In a recent note

  14. BULLOUS DEGENERATION OF THE LEFT LOWER LOBE IN A HEROIN-ADDICT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SMEENK, FWJM; SERLIE, J; VANDERJAGT, EJ; POSTMUS, PE

    1990-01-01

    A 34 yr old heroin addict was referred because of chest pain caused by air-trapping in a bulla in the left lower lobe. There was a marked difference between the functional residual capacity measured by body-plethysmography and helium dilution. A slow wash-in and wash-out were demonstrated by ventila

  15. Frontal lobe oxygenation is maintained during hypotension following propofol-fentanyl anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Nissen; J.J. van Lieshout; H.B. Nielsen; N.H. Secher

    2009-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) assesses cerebral oxygen saturation (Sco2) as a balance between cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption. In 71 patients, we evaluated whether marked reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during propofol-fentanyl anesthesia induction affects frontal lobe Sco2. T

  16. Healthy aging attenuates task-related specialization in the human medial temporal lobe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Liptrot, Matthew George; Skimminge, Arnold Jesper Møller

    2012-01-01

    Recent research on aging has established important links between the neurobiology of normal aging and age-related decline in episodic memory, yet the exact nature of this relationship is still unknown. Functional neuroimaging of regions such as the medial temporal lobe (MTL) have produced conflic...

  17. Brief Report: Neuropsychological Testing of Autistic Children through an Exploration with Frontal Lobe Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Margot; Hoffmann, Wendy

    1990-01-01

    Compared to children matched for mental or chronological age, 12 autistic children (ages 10-17) showed frontal lobe processing problems on neuropsychological tests. Subjects made more errors on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Milner Maze and took longer to complete the maze but copied a complex figure as accurately and speedily as…

  18. Inverse-Compton emission from the lobes of 3C 353

    CERN Document Server

    Goodger, J L; Croston, J H; Kassim, N E; Perley, R A

    2008-01-01

    X-ray emission due to inverse-Compton scattering of microwave background photons by electrons in the lobes of powerful radio galaxies has now been seen in a large number of objects. Combining an inverse-Compton model for the lobe X-ray emission with information obtained from radio synchrotron emission provides a method of constraining the electron population and magnetic field energy density, which cannot be accomplished using the radio data alone. Using six frequencies of new and archival radio data and new XMM-Newton observations of the Fanaroff & Riley class II radio galaxy 3C353, we show that inverse-Compton emission is detected in the radio lobes of this source at a level consistent with what is seen in other objects. We argue that variations in the X-ray/radio ratio in the brighter eastern lobe require positionally varying magnetic field strength. We also examine the X-ray nucleus and the cluster, Zw 1819.1-0108, spatially and spectrally.

  19. Hippocampal subregion-specific microRNA expression during epileptogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, J.A.; Iyer, A.; White, I.; Colzi, A.; van Vliet, E.A.; Sisodiya, S.; Aronica, E.

    2014-01-01

    Since aberrant miRNA expression has been implicated in numerous brain diseases, we studied miRNA expression and miRNA regulation of important signaling pathways during temporal lobe epileptogenesis in order to identify possible targets for epilepsy therapy. The temporal profile of miRNA expression w

  20. Atorvastatin treatment during epileptogenesis in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, E.A.; Holtman, L.; Aronica, E.; Schmitz, L.J.M.; Wadman, W.J.; Gorter, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It has been shown that blood-brain barrier leakage together with inflammation could contribute to epileptogenesis and seizure progression in a rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy. Because statins have been shown to reduce blood-brain barrier permeability and inflammation in neurological di

  1. Fluoxetine Restores Spatial Learning but Not Accelerated Forgetting in Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkas, Lisa; Redhead, Edward; Taylor, Matthew; Shtaya, Anan; Hamilton, Derek A.; Gray, William P.

    2012-01-01

    Learning and memory dysfunction is the most common neuropsychological effect of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy, and because the underlying neurobiology is poorly understood, there are no pharmacological strategies to help restore memory function in these patients. We have demonstrated impairments in the acquisition of an allocentric spatial task,…

  2. Hippocampal GABA transporter distribution in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and hippocampal sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijns, O.; Karaca, U.; Andrade, P.; Nijs, L. de; Kusters, B.; Peeters, A.; Dings, J.; Pannek, H.; Ebner, A.; Rijkers, K.; Hoogland, G.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine hippocampal expression of neuronal GABA-transporter (GAT-1) and glial GABA-transporter (GAT-3) in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and hippocampal sclerosis (HS). METHODS: Hippocampal sections were immunohistochemically stained for GABA-transporter 1 and GABA-transpor

  3. Carbamazepine reduces memory induced activation of mesial temporal lobe structures: a pharmacological fMRI-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okujava Michael

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Purpose It is not known whether carbamazepine (CBZ; a drug widely used in neurology and psychiatry influences the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD contrast changes induced by neuronal activation and measured by functional MRI (fMRI. We aimed to investigate the influence of CBZ on memory induced activation of the mesial temporal lobes in patients with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE. Material and Methods Twenty-one individual patients with refractory symptomatic TLE with different CBZ serum levels and 20 healthy controls were studied using BOLD fMRI. Mesial temporal lobe (MTL activation was induced by a task that is based on the retrieval of individually familiar visuo-spatial knowledge. The extent of significant MTL fMRI activation was measured and correlated with the CBZ serum level. Results In TLE patients, the extent of significant fMRI activation over both MTL was negatively correlated to the CBZ serum level (Spearman r = -0.654, P Conclusions In TLE patients, carbamazepine reduces the fMRI-detectable changes within the mesial temporal lobes as induced by effortful memory retrieval. FMRI appears to be suitable to study the effects of chronic drug treatment in patients with epilepsy.

  4. Radio lobes and X-ray hot spots in the microquasar S26

    CERN Document Server

    Soria, Roberto; Broderick, Jess W; Corbel, Stephane; Motch, Christian

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the structure and energetics of the powerful microquasar/shock-ionized nebula S26 in NGC 7793, with particular focus on its radio and X-ray properties. Using the Australia Telescope Compact Array, we have resolved for the first time the radio lobe structure and mapped the spectral index of the radio cocoon. The steep spectral index of the radio lobes is consistent with optically-thin synchrotron emission; outside the lobes, the spectral index is flatter, suggesting an additional contribution from free-free emission, and perhaps ongoing ejections near the core. The radio core is not detected, while the X-ray core has a 0.3-8 keV luminosity ~6 x 10^{36} erg/s. The size of the radio cocoon matches that seen in the optical emission lines and diffuse soft X-ray emission. The total 5.5-GHz flux of cocoon and lobes is ~2.1 mJy, which at the assumed distance of 3.9 Mpc corresponds to about 3 times the luminosity of Cas A. The total 9.0-GHz flux is ~1.6 mJy. The X-ray hot spots (combined 0.3-8 keV lumi...

  5. Cross-Stream PIV Measurements of Jets With Internal Lobed Mixers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, James; Wernet, Mark P.

    2004-01-01

    With emphasis being placed on enhanced mixing of jet plumes for noise reduction and on predictions of jet noise based upon turbulent kinetic energy, unsteady measurements of jet plumes are a very important part of jet noise studies. Given that hot flows are of most practical interest, optical techniques such as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) are applicable. When the flow has strong azimuthal features, such as those generated by chevrons or lobed mixers, traditional PIV, which aligns the measurement plane parallel to the dominant flow direction is very inefficient, requiring many planes of data to be acquired and stacked up to produce the desired flow cross-sections. This paper presents PIV data acquired in a plane normal to the jet axis, directly measuring the cross-stream gradients and features of an internally mixed nozzle operating at aircraft engine flow conditions. These nozzle systems included variations in lobed mixer penetration, lobe count, lobe scalloping, and nozzle length. Several cases validating the accuracy of the PIV data are examined along with examples of its use in answering questions about the jet noise generation processes in these nozzles. Of most interest is the relationship of low frequency aft-directed noise with turbulence kinetic energy and mean velocity.

  6. Selective Familiarity Deficits after Left Anterior Temporal-Lobe Removal with Hippocampal Sparing Are Material Specific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Chris B.; Bowles, Ben; Mirsattari, Seyed M.; Kohler, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Research has firmly established a link between recognition memory and the functional integrity of the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Dual-process models of MTL organization maintain that there is a division of labour within the MTL, with the hippocampus (HC) supporting recollective processes and perirhinal cortex (PRc) supporting familiarity…

  7. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity during Source Retrieval Reflects Information Type, Not Memory Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Rachel A.; Yonelinas, Andrew P.; Ranganath, Charan

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTLs) are critical for episodic memory but the functions of MTL subregions are controversial. According to memory strength theory, MTL subregions collectively support declarative memory in a graded manner. In contrast, other theories assert that MTL subregions support functionally distinct processes. For instance, one…

  8. Social inference deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy: risk factors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; St-Laurent, Marie; Barnett, Alexander; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2015-05-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy, deficits in emotion identification have been found consistently, but there is limited evidence for complex social inference skills such as theory of mind. Furthermore, risk factors and the specific neural underpinnings of these deficits in this population are unclear. We investigated these issues using a comprehensive range of social inference tasks (emotion identification and comprehension of sincere, deceitful and sarcastic social exchanges) in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy or lobectomy (n = 87). We observed deficits across patient groups which were partly related to the presence of mesial temporal lobe sclerosis, early age of seizure onset and left lobectomy. A voxel-based morphometry analysis conducted in the pre-operative group confirmed the importance of the temporal lobe by showing a relationship between left hippocampal atrophy and overall social inference abilities, and between left anterior neocortex atrophy and sarcasm comprehension. These findings are in keeping with theoretical proposals that the hippocampus is critical for binding diverse elements in cognitive domains beyond canonical episodic memory operations, and that the anterior temporal cortex is a convergence zone of higher-order perceptual and emotional processes, and of stored representations. As impairments were frequent, we require further investigation of this behavioural domain and its impact on the lives of people with epilepsy.

  9. Working Memory, Long-Term Memory, and Medial Temporal Lobe Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeneson, Annette; Squire, Larry R.

    2012-01-01

    Early studies of memory-impaired patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage led to the view that the hippocampus and related MTL structures are involved in the formation of long-term memory and that immediate memory and working memory are independent of these structures. This traditional idea has recently been revisited. Impaired performance…

  10. The Consolidation of Object and Context Recognition Memory Involve Different Regions of the Temporal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderas, Israela; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Salgado-Tonda, Paloma; Chavez-Hurtado, Julio; McGaugh, James L.; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2008-01-01

    These experiments investigated the involvement of several temporal lobe regions in consolidation of recognition memory. Anisomycin, a protein synthesis inhibitor, was infused into the hippocampus, perirhinal cortex, insular cortex, or basolateral amygdala of rats immediately after the sample phase of object or object-in-context recognition memory…

  11. External carotid artery flow maintains near infrared spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation during ephedrine administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H; Rasmussen, P; Sato, K;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phenylephrine and ephedrine affect frontal lobe oxygenation ([Formula: see text]) differently when assessed by spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy. We evaluated the effect of phenylephrine and ephedrine on extra- vs intra-cerebral blood flow and on [Formula: see text]. METHODS...

  12. Differential involvement of the anterior temporal lobes in famous people semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Chedid

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize a famous person occurs through semantic memory. Previous neuroimaging studies have shown that the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs are involved in the recognition of famous people. However, it is still a matter of debate whether the semantic processing of names or pictures of famous people has an impact on the activation of ATLs. The aim of this study was to explore the pattern of activation associated with a semantic processing of famous people based on face and written name stimuli. Fifteen healthy young individuals participated in our fMRI study, in which they were asked to perform a semantic categorization judgement task, based on profession, of visually presented pictures and names of famous people. Neuroimaging findings showed a common pattern of activation for faces and names mainly involving the inferior frontal regions, the posterior temporal lobe, the visual cortex and the anterior temporal lobes. We found that the comparison names vs. pictures lead to significant activation in the anterior superior temporal gyrus. On the other hand, faces vs. names seemed associated with increased activation in the medial ATL. Moreover, our results demonstrated that the functional connectivity network anchored to the medial ATL, compared to the anterior STG, is more connected to the bilateral occipital lobe and fusiform gyrus that are regions implicated in the visual system and visual processing of faces. This study provides critical evidence of the differential involvement of ATL regions in semantics of famous people.

  13. Pivoting between calmodulin lobes triggered by calcium in the Kv7.2/calmodulin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Alessandro; Alberdi, Araitz; Gomis-Perez, Carolina; Fernández-Orth, Juncal; Bernardo-Seisdedos, Ganeko; Malo, Covadonga; Millet, Oscar; Areso, Pilar; Villarroel, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) is the principal molecular component of the slow voltage gated M-channel, which strongly influences neuronal excitability. Calmodulin (CaM) binds to two intracellular C-terminal segments of Kv7.2 channels, helices A and B, and it is required for exit from the endoplasmic reticulum. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CaM controls channel trafficking are currently unknown. Here we used two complementary approaches to explore the molecular events underlying the association between CaM and Kv7.2 and their regulation by Ca(2+). First, we performed a fluorometric assay using dansylated calmodulin (D-CaM) to characterize the interaction of its individual lobes to the Kv7.2 CaM binding site (Q2AB). Second, we explored the association of Q2AB with CaM by NMR spectroscopy, using (15)N-labeled CaM as a reporter. The combined data highlight the interdependency of the N- and C-lobes of CaM in the interaction with Q2AB, suggesting that when CaM binds Ca(2+) the binding interface pivots between the N-lobe whose interactions are dominated by helix B and the C-lobe where the predominant interaction is with helix A. In addition, Ca(2+) makes CaM binding to Q2AB more difficult and, reciprocally, the channel weakens the association of CaM with Ca(2+).

  14. Treatment of Proper Name Retrieval Deficits in an Individual with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Grabowski, Thomas J.; Silkes, JoAnn P.; Phatak, Vaishali; Kendall, Diane L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Studies investigating language deficits in individuals with left temporal-lobe epilepsy have consistently demonstrated impairments in proper name retrieval. The aim of this Phase I rehabilitation study was to investigate the effects of a linguistically distributed word retrieval treatment on proper name retrieval in an individual with…

  15. Images of the Respiratory System in Ancient Egypt: Trachea, Bronchi and Pulmonary Lobes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Kwiecinski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Examination of ancient Egyptians’ depictions of the respiratory tract, dating back to the 30th century BC, reveals their awareness of the pulmonary anatomy: reinforced with cartilaginous rings, the trachea is split into two main bronchi, which then enter the lungs (lungs being divided into pulmonary lobes.

  16. Hard X-Ray Spectrum from West Lobe of Radio Galaxy Fornax A Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Tashiro, Makoto S; Seta, Hiromi; Matsuta, Keiko; Yaji, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    An observation of the West lobe of radio galaxy Fornax A (NGC 1316) with Suzaku is reported. Since Feigelson et al. (1995) and Kaneda et al. (1995) discovered the cosmic microwave background boosted inverse-Comptonized (IC) X-rays from the radio lobe, the magnetic field and electron energy density in the lobes have been estimated under the assumption that a single component of the relativistic electrons generates both the IC X-rays and the synchrotron radio emission. However, electrons generating the observed IC X-rays in the 1 -- 10 keV band do not possess sufficient energy to radiate the observed synchrotron radio emission under the estimated magnetic field of a few micro-G. On the basis of observations made with Suzaku, we show in the present paper that a 0.7 -- 20 keV spectrum is well described by a single power-law model with an energy index of 0.68 and a flux density of 0.12+/-0.01 nJy at 1 keV from the West lobe. The derived multiwavelength spectrum strongly suggests that a single electron energy distr...

  17. Variation of the major sulci of the occipital lobe - A morphological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopamudra Mandal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The occipital lobe of cerebrum is intimately related with visual function. The detailed anatomy of this lobe is essential for the surgeons and radiologists. The aim of the present study was to identify the variation of different sulci of the occipital lobe and find the relations between them. So, this study was done to evaluate the different parameters of these sulci by studying cerebral hemispheres morphologically. Methods: Total 106 formalin fixed cadaveric brains were studied. The locations and the length (cm of the calcarine, lunate and parieto-occipital sulcus were studied in detail. Microsoft excel software was utilized to analyze the data. Results: The calcarine sulcus in 59.43% had terminated by dividing into two rami. In only 31.13% cases calcarine sulcus met lunate sulcus after reaching the superolateral surface of the hemisphere. Lunate sulcus was of myriad shapes. Though in 49.05% of cases it was convex, in majority of brains it was “f” or “S” shaped. Different hemispheres of the same brain revealed significant variation. Conclusion: The study revealed wide variability of the sulci of the occipital lobe. For proper planning of neurosurgical procedures and radiological representation of visual functional areas, detailed knowledge on the variation of these sulci are essential. So, parameters of occipital sulci can permit safer access to deep structures and reduce operative complications.

  18. Performance & stability analysis of a three lobe journal bearing with varying parameters: Experiments and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Nabarun; Chakraborti, Prasun; Saha, Ankuran; Biswas, Srijit

    2016-07-01

    3-lobe Hydrodynamic oil journal bearings are widely used in heavy industries as a part of different rotating machinery due to their high level of performances. 3-lobe hydrodynamic oil journal bearing allows the transmission of large amounts of loads at a mean speed of rotation. In this present work, an attempt has been made to investigate the pressure domain and subsequent effects in a 3 lobe journal bearing under different static loads in a stable operating speed. Analytical calculations were carried out with codes generated using Matlab software. Experiments were performed in Journal Bearing test rig incorporating 3-lobe under different loads with stable operating speed of 1000 RPM. It has been observed that an increase in load resulted rise in pressure profile, maximum pressure angle and temperature. A further attempt has been made to see the effect of eccentricity ratio and dynamic viscosity considering no change in the RPM. It has also been observed that dynamic viscosity has a significant effect on the stable operating speed. With the reduction in static load, the stability of operating speed attained at higher values.

  19. Memory Outcomes Following Selective versus Nonselective Temporal Lobe Removal: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgis, Fady

    2012-01-01

    The surgical removal of brain tissue for the treatment of temporal lobe epilepsy can be either nonselective, as with an anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), or selective, as with a selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). Although seizure outcomes are similar with both procedures, cognitive and memory outcomes remain a matter of debate. This study…

  20. Heterotopias, cortical dysplasias and glioneural tumors participate in cognitive processing in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschstein, T.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Grunwald, T.; Pezer, N.; Urbach, H.; Blumcke, I.; Roost, D. van; Lehnertz, K.; Elger, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    Focal brain lesions such as cortical dysplasia and glioneural tumors generate epileptic activity and thus may be synaptically connected with normal cortex. To test this hypothesis, we compared event-related potentials recorded directly from the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and a dysplastic lesion in e

  1. Dissecting medial temporal lobe contributions to item and associative memory formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Tendolkar, I.; Piekema, C.; Hermans, E.J.; Binder, M.; Petersson, K.M.; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental and intensively discussed question is whether medial temporal lobe (MTL) processes that lead to non-associative item memories differ in their anatomical substrate from processes underlying associative memory formation. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we imple

  2. White matter lesions are associated with progression of medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, F.E. de; Korf, E.; Barkhof, F.; Scheltens, P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Its progression is often seen during the course of AD, but its frequency and risk factors remain unclear. METHODS: We investigated MTA in 35 patients with AD from whom sequential magnetic resonance im

  3. [Towards an integrated approach to infantile autism: the superior temporal lobe between neurosciences and psychoanalysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golse, Bernard; Robel, Laurence

    2009-02-01

    The superior temporal lobe is currently at the focus of intensive research in infantile autism, a psychopathologic disorder apparently representing the severest failure of access to intersubjectivity, i.e. the ability to accept that others exist independently of oneself. Access to intersubjectivity seems to involve the superior temporal lobe, which is the seat of several relevant functions such as face and voice recognition and perception of others' movements, and coordinates the different sensory inputs that identify an object as being "external". The psychoanalytic approach to infantile autism and recent cognitive data are now converging, and intersubjectivity is considered to result from "mantling" or comodalization of sensory inputs from external objects. Recent brain neuroimaging studies point to anatomic and functional abnormalities of the superior temporal lobe in autistic children. Dialogue is therefore possible between these different disciplines, opening the way to an integrated view of infantile autism in which the superior temporal lobe holds a central place--not necessarily as a primary cause of autism but rather as an intermediary or a reflection of autistic functioning

  4. Widespread changes in network activity allow non-invasive detection of mesial temporal lobe seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Alice D; Zepeda, Rodrigo; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S

    2016-10-01

    Decades of experience with intracranial recordings in patients with epilepsy have demonstrated that seizures can occur in deep cortical regions such as the mesial temporal lobes without showing any obvious signs of seizure activity on scalp electroencephalogram. Predicated on the idea that these seizures are purely focal, currently, the only way to detect these 'scalp-negative seizures' is with intracranial recordings. However, intracranial recordings are only rarely performed in patients with epilepsy, and are almost never performed outside of the context of epilepsy. As such, little is known about scalp-negative seizures and their role in the natural history of epilepsy, their effect on cognitive function, and their association with other neurological diseases. Here, we developed a novel approach to non-invasively identify scalp-negative seizures arising from the mesial temporal lobe based on scalp electroencephalogram network connectivity measures. We identified 25 scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures in 10 patients and obtained control records from an additional 13 patients, all of whom underwent recordings with foramen ovale electrodes and scalp electroencephalogram. Scalp data from these records were used to train a scalp-negative seizure detector, which consisted of a pair of logistic regression classifiers that used scalp electroencephalogram coherence properties as input features. On cross-validation performance, this detector correctly identified scalp-negative seizures in 40% of patients, and correctly identified the side of seizure onset for each seizure detected. In comparison, routine clinical interpretation of these scalp electroencephalograms failed to identify any of the scalp-negative seizures. Among the patients in whom the detector raised seizure alarms, 80% had scalp-negative mesial temporal lobe seizures. The detector had a false alarm rate of only 0.31 per day and a positive predictive value of 75%. Of the 13 control patients, false

  5. Helix A Stabilization Precedes Amino-terminal Lobe Activation upon Calcium Binding to Calmodulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Baowei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lowry, David [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mayer, M. Uljana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Squier, Thomas C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2008-08-09

    The structural coupling between opposing domains of CaM was investigated using the conformationally sensitive biarsenical probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH), which upon binding to an engineered tetracysteine binding motif near the end of helix A (Thr-5 to Phe-19) becomes highly fluorescent. Changes in conformation and dynamics are reflective of the native CaM structure, as there is no change in the 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectrum in comparison to wild-type CaM. We find evidence of a conformational intermediate associated with CaM activation, where calcium occupancy of sites in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal lobes of CaM differentially affect the fluorescence intensity of bound ReAsH. Insight into the structure of the conformational intermediate is possible from a consideration of calcium-dependent changes in rates of ReAsH binding and helix A mobility, which respectively distinguish secondary structural changes associated with helix A stabilization from the tertiary structural reorganization of the amino-terminal lobe of CaM necessary for high-affinity binding to target proteins. Helix A stabilization is associated with calcium occupancy of sites in the carboxyl-terminal lobe (Kd = 0.36 ± 0.04 μM), which results in a reduction in the rate of ReAsH binding from 4900 M-1 sec-1 to 370 M-1 sec-1. In comparison, tertiary structural changes involving helix A and other structural elements in the amino-terminal lobe requires calcium-occupancy of amino-terminal sites (Kd = 18 ± 3 μM). Observed secondary and tertiary structural changes involving helix A in response to the sequential calcium occupancy of carboxyl- and amino-terminal lobe calcium binding sites suggest an important involvement of helix A in mediating the structural coupling between the opposing domains of CaM. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which carboxyl-terminal lobe calcium activation induces

  6. Management of the middle hepatic vein and its tributaries in right lobe living donor liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-Fei Yu; Jian Wu; Shu-Sen Zheng

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Left liver graft from a small donor will not meet the metabolic demands of a larger adult recipient. To overcome the problem of graft size insufifciency, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) using the right lobe has become a standard method for adult patients. As the drainage of the median sector (segmentsⅤ, Ⅷ andⅣ) is mainly by the middle hepatic vein (MHV), the issue of whether the MHV should or should not be taken with the graft or whether the MHV tributaries (Ⅴ5,Ⅴ8) should be reconstructed in the recipient remains to be settled. DATA SOURCES:An English-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1985-2006) on right lobe living donor liver transplantation, middle hepatic vein, vein graft, hepatic venoplasty and other related subjects. RESULTS: Some institutions had proposed their policy for the management of the MHV and its tributaries. Dominancy of the hepatic vein, graft-to-recipient weight ratio, and remnant liver volume as well as the donor-to-recipient body weight ratio, the volume of the donor's right lobe to the recipient's standard liver volume and the size of MHV tributaries are the major elements for the criteria of inclusion of the MHV, while for the policy of MHV tributaries reconstruction, the proportion of congestive area and the diameter of the tributaries are the critical elements. Optimal vein grafts such as recipient's portal vein and hepatic venoplasty technique have been used to obviate hepatic congestion and venous drainage disturbance. CONCLUSIONS:Taking right liver grafts with the MHV trunk (extended right lobe grafts) or performing the MHV tributaries reconstruction in modiifed right lobe grafts, according to the criteria proposed by the institutions with rich experience, can solve the congestion problem of the right paramedian sector and help to improve the outcomes of the patients. The additional use of optimal vein grafts and hepatic venoplasty also can guarantee excellent venous drainage.

  7. Measures for increasing the safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation using right lobe grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Fu Wen; Ming-Qing Xu; Jiang-Wen Liu; Zhi-Gang Deng; Hong Wu; Zhe-Yu Chen; Lu-Nan Yan; Bo Li; Yong Zeng; Ji-Chun Zhao; Wen-Tao Wang; Jia-Yin Yang; Yu-Kui Ma

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The safety of donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) should be the primary consideration. The aim of this study was to report our experience in increasing the safety of donors in LDLTs using right lobe grafts. METHODS:We retrospectively studied 37 living donors of right lobe grafts from January 2002 to March 2006. The measures for increasing the safety of donors in LDLT included carefully selected donors, preoperative evaluation by ultrasonography, angiography and computed tomography; and necessary intraoperative cholangiography and ultrasonography. Right lobe grafts were obtained using an ultrasonic dissector without inlfow vascular occlusion on the right side of the middle hepatic vein. The standard liver volume and the ratio of left lobe volume to standard liver volume were calculated. RESULTS:There was no donor mortality in our group. Postoperative complications only included bile leakage (1 donor), biliary stricture (1) and portal vein thrombosis (1). All donors recovered well and resumed their previous occupations. In recipients, complications included acute rejection (2 patients), hepatic artery thrombosis (1), bile leakage (1), intestinal bleeding (1), left subphrenic abscess (1) and pulmonary infection (1). The mortality rate of recipients was 5.4% (2/37); one recipient with pulmonary infection died from multiple organ failure and another from occurrence of primary disease. CONCLUSIONS:The ifrst consideration in adult-to-adult LDLT is the safety of donors. The donation of a right lobe graft is safe for adults if the remnant hepatic vasculature and bile duct are ensured, and the volume of the remnant liver exceeds 35% of the total liver volume.

  8. A consensus network of gene regulatory factors in the human frontal lobe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano eBerto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID or autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies.

  9. A Consensus Network of Gene Regulatory Factors in the Human Frontal Lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Stefano; Perdomo-Sabogal, Alvaro; Gerighausen, Daniel; Qin, Jing; Nowick, Katja

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive abilities, such as memory, learning, language, problem solving, and planning, involve the frontal lobe and other brain areas. Not much is known yet about the molecular basis of cognitive abilities, but it seems clear that cognitive abilities are determined by the interplay of many genes. One approach for analyzing the genetic networks involved in cognitive functions is to study the coexpression networks of genes with known importance for proper cognitive functions, such as genes that have been associated with cognitive disorders like intellectual disability (ID) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Because many of these genes are gene regulatory factors (GRFs) we aimed to provide insights into the gene regulatory networks active in the human frontal lobe. Using genome wide human frontal lobe expression data from 10 independent data sets, we first derived 10 individual coexpression networks for all GRFs including their potential target genes. We observed a high level of variability among these 10 independently derived networks, pointing out that relying on results from a single study can only provide limited biological insights. To instead focus on the most confident information from these 10 networks we developed a method for integrating such independently derived networks into a consensus network. This consensus network revealed robust GRF interactions that are conserved across the frontal lobes of different healthy human individuals. Within this network, we detected a strong central module that is enriched for 166 GRFs known to be involved in brain development and/or cognitive disorders. Interestingly, several hubs of the consensus network encode for GRFs that have not yet been associated with brain functions. Their central role in the network suggests them as excellent new candidates for playing an essential role in the regulatory network of the human frontal lobe, which should be investigated in future studies.

  10. Origin of washboard moraines of the Des Moines Lobe: Spatial analyses with LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Mitchell D.; Iverson, Neal R.; Harding, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The Des Moines Lobe (DML)-the largest lobe along the southern margin of the Laurentide ice sheet-deposited low-relief (1-5 m) transverse moraine ridges, herein called washboard moraines, that are most prominent in central Iowa. Their origin as either subglacial or ice-marginal features bears on the dynamics of the lobe, geomorphic reconstructions of it, and interpretations of similar ridges elsewhere. Data from airborne laser swath mapping provide the first digital elevation models with sufficient spatial resolution to study in detail the geometric attributes of these topographically subtle features. Spectral analysis of profiles perpendicular to ridge crests indicates that most of them are spaced with statistically significant periodicities, with dominant wavelengths of 70-150 m. Normalizing and stacking these profiles indicate that, on average, they display no systematic asymmetry. Locally, washboard moraines are intersected by discontinuous longitudinal ridge segments. Trends of the crests of moraines are scalloped, with cusps that point upglacier and are coincident with outwash trains, which were overridden by the lobe. Our interpretation of these data is that the moraines formed subglacially as crevasse-squeeze ridges. Overridden outwash trains likely supported low basal water pressures and resulted in anomalously slow basal slip, causing upglacier deflection of crevasses that extended to the bed. This crevasse-squeeze interpretation reinforces evidence that the DML surged to its maximum position. Bering Glacier, as a temperate, surge-type glacier that deposited crevasse-squeeze ridges similar to the washboard moraines of the DML, may be a good analog for the lobe.

  11. Disruption of Aedes aegypti olfactory system development through chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle targeting of semaphorin-1a.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshava Mysore

    Full Text Available Despite the devastating impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, surprisingly little is known about mosquito developmental biology, including development of the olfactory system, a tissue of vector importance. Analysis of mosquito olfactory developmental genetics has been hindered by a lack of means to target specific genes during the development of this sensory system. In this investigation, chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were used to target semaphorin-1a (sema1a during olfactory system development in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Immunohistochemical analyses and anterograde tracing of antennal sensory neurons, which were used to track the progression of olfactory development in this species, revealed antennal lobe defects in sema1a knockdown fourth instar larvae. These findings, which correlated with a larval odorant tracking behavioral phenotype, identified previously unreported roles for Sema1a in the developing insect larval olfactory system. Analysis of sema1a knockdown pupae also revealed a number of olfactory phenotypes, including olfactory receptor neuron targeting and projection neuron defects coincident with a collapse in the structure and shape of the antennal lobe and individual glomeruli. This study, which is to our knowledge the first functional genetic analysis of insect olfactory development outside of D. melanogaster, identified critical roles for Sema1a during Ae. aegypti larval and pupal olfactory development and advocates the use of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles as an effective means of targeting genes during post-embryonic Ae. aegypti development. Use of siRNA nanoparticle methodology to understand sensory developmental genetics in mosquitoes will provide insight into the evolutionary conservation and divergence of key developmental genes which could be exploited in the development of both common and species-specific means for intervention.

  12. Disruption of Aedes aegypti olfactory system development through chitosan/siRNA nanoparticle targeting of semaphorin-1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen M; Tomchaney, Michael; Severson, David W; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Despite the devastating impact of mosquito-borne illnesses on human health, surprisingly little is known about mosquito developmental biology, including development of the olfactory system, a tissue of vector importance. Analysis of mosquito olfactory developmental genetics has been hindered by a lack of means to target specific genes during the development of this sensory system. In this investigation, chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles were used to target semaphorin-1a (sema1a) during olfactory system development in the dengue and yellow fever vector mosquito Aedes aegypti. Immunohistochemical analyses and anterograde tracing of antennal sensory neurons, which were used to track the progression of olfactory development in this species, revealed antennal lobe defects in sema1a knockdown fourth instar larvae. These findings, which correlated with a larval odorant tracking behavioral phenotype, identified previously unreported roles for Sema1a in the developing insect larval olfactory system. Analysis of sema1a knockdown pupae also revealed a number of olfactory phenotypes, including olfactory receptor neuron targeting and projection neuron defects coincident with a collapse in the structure and shape of the antennal lobe and individual glomeruli. This study, which is to our knowledge the first functional genetic analysis of insect olfactory development outside of D. melanogaster, identified critical roles for Sema1a during Ae. aegypti larval and pupal olfactory development and advocates the use of chitosan/siRNA nanoparticles as an effective means of targeting genes during post-embryonic Ae. aegypti development. Use of siRNA nanoparticle methodology to understand sensory developmental genetics in mosquitoes will provide insight into the evolutionary conservation and divergence of key developmental genes which could be exploited in the development of both common and species-specific means for intervention.

  13. Genetic dissection of sexual orientation: behavioral, cellular, and molecular approaches in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, D; Ito, H; Fujitani, K

    1996-10-01

    Insertional mutagenesis using P-element vectors yielded several independent mutations that cause male homosexuality in Drosophila melanogaster. Subsequent analyses revealed that all of these insertions were located at the same chromosomal division, 91B, where one of the inversion breakpoints responsible for the bisexual phenotype of the fruitless (fru) mutant has been mapped. In addition to the altered sexual orientation, the fru mutants displayed a range of defects in the formation of a male-specific muscle, the muscle of Lawrence. Since the male-specific formation of this muscle was dependent solely on the sex of the innervating nerve and not on the sex of the muscle itself, the primary site of action of the fru gene should be in the neural cells. satori, one of the P-insertion alleles of fru which we isolated, carried the lacZ gene of E. coli as a reporter, and beta-galactosidase expression was found in a subset of brain cells including those in the antennal lobe in the satori mutant. Targeted expression of a sex determination gene, transformer (tra), was used to produce chromosomally male flies with certain feminized glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Such sexually mosaic flies courted not only females but also males when the DM2, DA3 and DA4 glomeruli were feminized, indicating that these substructures in the antennal lobe may be involved in the determination of the sexual orientation of flies. Molecular cloning and analyses of the genomic and complementary DNAs indicated that transcription of the fru locus yields several different transcripts, one of which encodes a putative transcription regulator with a BTB domain and two zinc finger motifs. In the 5' non-coding region, three putative Transformer binding sites were identified. It appears plausible therefore that the fru gene is one of the elements in the sex determination cascade that controls sexual fates of certain neuronal cells. Improper sex determination in these neural cells may lead to altered sexual

  14. Antennal Ultrastructure of Aphidius gifuensis and the Effect of Cold Storage on Antennae%烟蚜茧蜂触角的超微结构与冷藏对触角的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志娟; 陈丹; 范秀娟; 刘莉; 程云吉; 张长华; 任广伟; 刘向东

    2014-01-01

    虫态低温保存蜂种,且应缩短冷藏时间。%[Objective] The objectives of this study are to describe the external morphology of the antennae and antennal sensilla of Aphidius gifuensis, examine the effects of cold storage on the antennal sensilla, and to provide the basis for effective use of A. gifuensis .[Method]Scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the morphological characteristics of the antennae and sensilla of A. gifuensis adults that emerged under normal conditions, and to compare the sensilla of males and females. Mature larvae of A. gifuensis were stored at 4℃ for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, and then following cold storage, samples were prepared by ethanol dehydration. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the effects of cold storage on the external form of the antennae and antennal sensilla.[Result]The antennae of males and females were both filiform and had similar morphologies. The average length of the male antenna (19 segments) was slightly longer than that of the female (17 segments). Six types of antennal sensilla were identified, namely, trichodea, chaetica, placodea, Böhm’s bristles, coeleoconica, and basiconica sensilla. Sensilla trichodea type I, which were the most widely distributed and most numerous of the antennal sensilla, were found mainly on the flagella. Sensilla placodea were also distributed on the flagella, occurring from the first flagellum in males and from the second flagellum in females. Sensilla coeleoconica type II were found only on the antennae of adult males. There were differences in the number of different sensilla on male and female antennae. The number of sensilla chaetica type I in females was greater than that in males, whereas the converse was true for the number of sensilla chaetica type II and sensilla placodea. Abnormal placodea and coeleoconica were observed when larvae were stored at 4℃ for 14, 21, and 28 days, with the low temperature influencing the segmentation of the last two antennal subsegments. Fifty

  15. Temporal lobe contribution to perceptual function: A tale of three patient groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrmann, M; Lee, A C H; Geskin, J Z; Graham, K S; Barense, M D

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing recognition of the contribution of medial and anterior temporal lobe structures to non-mnemonic functions, such as perception. To evaluate the nature of this contribution, we contrast the perceptual performance of three patient groups, all of whom have a perturbation of these temporal lobe structures. Specifically, we compare the profile of patients with focal hippocampal (HC) lesions, those with more extensive lesions to the medial temporal lobe (MTL) that include HC and perirhinal cortex (PrC), and those with congenital prosopagnosia (CP), whose deficit has been attributed to the disconnection of the anterior temporal lobe from more posterior structures. All participants completed a range of'oddity' tasks in which, on each trial, they determined which of four visual stimuli in a display was the'odd-one-out'. There were five stimulus categories including faces, scenes, objects (high and low ambiguity) and squares of different sizes. Comparisons were conducted separately for the HC, MTL and CP groups against their matched control groups and then the group data were compared to each other directly. The group profiles were easily differentiable. Whereas the HC group stood out for its difficulty in discriminating scenes and the CP group stood out for its disproportionate difficulty in discriminating faces with milder effects for scenes and high ambiguity objects, the MTL group evinced a more general discrimination deficit for faces, scenes and high ambiguity objects. The group differences highlight distinct profiles for each of the three groups and distinguish the signature perceptual impairments following more extended temporal lobe alterations. In the recent reconsideration of the role of the hippocampus and neocortex, Moscovitch and colleagues (Moscovitch et al., 2016) note that the medial temporal lobe structures play a role in non-mnemonic functions, such as perception, problem solving, decision-making and language. Here, we address this

  16. Numerical modelling of the lobes of radio galaxies in cluster environments - III. Powerful relativistic and non-relativistic jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, W.; Hardcastle, M. J.; Krause, M. G. H.

    2016-09-01

    We present results from two suites of simulations of powerful radio galaxies in poor cluster environments, with a focus on the formation and evolution of the radio lobes. One suite of models uses relativistic hydrodynamics and the other relativistic magnetohydrodynamics; both are set up to cover a range of jet powers and velocities. The dynamics of the lobes are shown to be in good agreement with analytical models and with previous numerical models, confirming in the relativistic regime that the observed widths of radio lobes may be explained if they are driven by very light jets. The ratio of energy stored in the radio lobes to that put into the intracluster gas is seen to be the same regardless of jet power, jet velocity or simulation type, suggesting that we have a robust understanding of the work done on the ambient gas by this type of radio source. For the most powerful jets, we at times find magnetic field amplification by up to a factor of 2 in energy, but mostly the magnetic energy in the lobes is consistent with the magnetic energy injected. We confirm our earlier result that for jets with a toroidally injected magnetic field, the field in the lobes is predominantly aligned with the jet axis once the lobes are well developed, and that this leads to radio flux anisotropies of up to a factor of about two for mature sources. We reproduce the relationship between 151 MHz luminosity and jet power determined analytically in the literature.

  17. A time-sequential autostereoscopic 3D display using a vertical line dithering for utilizing the side lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee-Jin; Park, Minyoung

    2014-11-01

    In spite of the developments of various autostereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) technologies, the inferior resolution of the realized 3D image is a severe problem that should be resolved. For that purpose, a time-sequential 3D display is developed to provide 3D images with higher resolution and attracts much attention. Among them, a method using a directional backlight unit (DBLU) is an effective way to be adopted in liquid crystal display (LCD) with higher frame rate such as 120Hz. However, in the conventional time-sequential system, the insufficient frame rate results a flicker problem which means a recognizable fluctuation of image brightness. A dot dithering method can be a good solution for reducing that problem but it was impossible to observe the 3D image in side lobes because the image data and the directivity of light rays from the DBLU do not match in side lobes. In this paper, we propose a new vertical line dithering method to expand the area for 3D image observation by utilizing the side lobes. Since the side lobes locate in the left and right position of the center lobe, it is needed to arrange the image data in LCD panel and directivity of the light rays from the DBLU to have continuity in horizontal direction. Although the observed 3D images in side lobes are flipped ones, the utilization of the side lobes can increase the number of observers in horizontal direction.

  18. Feedbacks between vegetation and solifluction processes on hillslopes: a case study of an alpine turf-banked solifluction lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Jana; Draebing, Daniel; Wieland, Markus; Eling, Christian; Klingbeil, Lasse; Dikau, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Solifluction is one of the most widespread processes transporting soil on hillslopes in periglacial environments. While periglacial geomorphologists identified climatic and soil parameters as most important factors influencing solifluction, ecologist have long recognized the importance of vegetation and the co-occurrence of certain species and vegetation communities with solifluction processes and landforms. However, the mechanism of vegetation influences on solifluction, as well as feedbacks between solifluction processes and vegetation, which result in specific vegetation organization and specific landforms, e.g., turf-banked solifluction lobes, is only partly understood. The aim of our study is to improve the understanding of feedbacks between vegetation and solifluction processes and landforms by using established and up-to-date methods in a detailed small-scale study on a turf-banked solifluction lobe in the Turtmann glacier forefield (Switzerland). Our objectives are (i) to examine the effects of species composition and vegetation organization on landform properties; (ii) to investigate the effects of landform properties on species composition and vegetation organization and (iii) to evaluate if feedbacks create turf-banked solifluction lobes as biogeomorphic structures. To assess solifluction lobe and vegetation properties, we employed a detailed geomorphic and vegetation mapping (1:50), complemented by an UAV derived high-resolution orthophoto and DEM, and 2D and 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) measurements in combination with soil moisture measurements. Vegetation mapping shows that (i) dwarf shrubs, which through their plant functional traits can act as engineer species, are the main species covering the solifluction lobe. Geomorphic mapping, DEM terrain analyses and 3D ERT indicate that (ii) lobe geomorphometry and material properties (grain size, moisture) strongly influence species distribution and diversity. 2D ERT shows permafrost

  19. An unusual case of Hashimoto′s thyroiditis with four lobed thyroid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayees Ahmad Dar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT, an autoimmune disorder, is the most prevalent cause of subclinical or overt hypothyroidism in areas with sufficient iodine intake. The gland is often diffusely enlarged, and the parenchyma is coarsened, hypoechoic, and often hypervascular on ultrasonograpy. Histopathologic appearance of HT includes lymphocyte aggregates with germinal centers, small thyroid follicles, presence of Hurthle cells, and variable fibrosis. We present a case of a 40-year-old female with suspected follicular neoplasm on fine-needle aspiration cytology of neck swelling. Intraoperatively, thyroid gland was found having four lobes separated from each other. Total thyroidectomy was done and histopathology from all four lobes revealed HT. At present, there is no literature to support the fact that such distorted thyroid anatomy may be due to the underlying disease. If we consider it as thyroid gland anomaly, no such anomaly has been mentioned in the literature till date.

  20. Intergyre transport in a wind-driven, quasigeostrophic double gyre: An application of lobe dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coulliette

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the flow obtained from a three-layer, eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model subject to an applied wind stress curl. For this model we will consider transport between the northern and southern gyres separated by an eastward jet. We will focus on the use of techniques from dynamical systems theory, particularly lobe dynamics, in the forming of geometric structures that govern transport. By "govern", we mean they can be used to compute Lagrangian transport quantities, such as the flux across the jet. We will consider periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic velocity fields, and thus assess the effectiveness of dynamical systems techniques in flows with progressively more spatio-temporal complexity. The numerical methods necessary to implement the dynamical systems techniques and the significance of lobe dynamics as a signature of specific "events", such as rings pinching off from a meandering jet, are also discussed.

  1. Intergyre transport in a wind-driven, quasigeostrophic double gyre: An application of lobe dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Coulliette

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the flow obtained from a three-layer, eddy-resolving quasigeostrophic ocean circulation model subject to an applied wind stress curl. For this model we will consider transport between the northern and southern gyres separated by an eastward jet. We will focus on the use of techniques from dynamical systems theory, particularly lobe dynamics, in the forming of geometric structures that govern transport. By "govern", we mean they can be used to compute Lagrangian transport quantities, such as the flux across the jet. We will consider periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic velocity fields, and thus assess the effectiveness of dynamical systems techniques in flows with progressively more spatio-temporal complexity. The numerical methods necessary to implement the dynamical systems techniques and the significance of lobe dynamics as a signature of specific "events", such as rings pinching off from a meandering jet, are also discussed.

  2. Scorpius X-1: The Evolution and Nature of the Twin Compact Radio Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomalont, E. B.; Geldzahler, B. J.; Bradshaw, C. F.

    2001-09-01

    The motion and variability of the radio components in the low-mass X-ray binary system Sco X-1 have been monitored with extensive VLBI imaging at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz over 4 yr, including a 56 hr continuous VLBI observation in 1999 June. We detect one strong and one weak compact radio component, moving in opposite directions from the radio core. Their relative motion and flux densities are consistent with relativistic effects, from which we derive an average component speed of v/c=0.45+/-0.03 at an angle of 44deg+/-6deg to the line of sight. This inclination of the binary orbit suggests a mass of the secondary star that is less than 0.9 Msolar, assuming a neutron star mass of 1.4 Msolar. We suggest that the two moving radio components consist of ultrarelativistic plasma that is produced at a working surface where the energy in dual-opposing beams disrupt. The radio lobe advance velocity is constant over many hours, but differs among lobe-pairs: 0.32c, 0.46c, 0.48c, and 0.57c. A lobe-pair lifetime is less than 2 days, with a new pair formed near the core within a day. The lobe flux has flux density that is variable over a timescale of 1 hr, has a measured minimum size of 1 mas (4×108 km), and is extended perpendicular to its motion. This timescale and size are consistent with an electron radiative lifetime of less than 1 hr. Such a short lifetime can be caused by synchrotron losses if the lobe magnetic field is 300 G or by adiabatic expansion of the electrons as soon as they are produced at the working surface. The lobes also show periods of slow expansion and a steepening radio spectrum. Two of the core flares are correlated with the lobe flares under the assumption that the flares are produced by an energy burst traveling down the beams with a speed greater than 0.95. The radio morphology for Sco X-1 differs from most other Galactic jet sources. Possible reasons for the morphology difference are that Sco X-1 is associated with a neutron star, it is a persistent X

  3. Nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy caused by a mutation in the GATOR1 complex gene NPRL3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenke, Georg-Christoph; Eggert, Marlene; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Peter; Sander, Thomas; Steinlein, Ortrud K

    2016-03-01

    Mutations in NPRL3, one of three genes that encode proteins of the mTORC1-regulating GATOR1 complex, have recently been reported to cause cortical dysplasia with focal epilepsy. We have now analyzed a multiplex epilepsy family by whole exome sequencing and identified a frameshift mutation (NM_001077350.2; c.1522delG; p.E508Rfs*46) within exon 13 of NPRL3. This truncating mutation causes an epilepsy phenotype characterized by early childhood onset of mainly nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The penetrance in our family was low (three affected out of six mutation carriers), compared to families with either ion channel- or DEPDC5-associated familial nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy. The absence of apparent structural brain abnormalities suggests that mutations in NPRL3 are not necessarily associated with focal cortical dysplasia but might be able to cause epilepsy by different, yet unknown pathomechanisms.

  4. Verbal Learning Processes in Patients with Glioma of the Left and Right Temporal Lobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Kyle R.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Ziu, Mateo; Wefel, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research supports the utility of process variables in understanding mechanisms underlying memory impairments. The Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R) was administered to 84 patients with left (LTL, n = 58) or right temporal lobe glioma (RTL, n = 26) prior to surgical resection. Primary HVLT-R measures of learning and memory and numerous learning process indices were computed. Both groups exhibited frequent memory impairment (>30%), with greater severity in the LTL group. Patients with LTL glioma also exhibited lower semantic clustering scores than RTL patients, which were highly associated with Total Recall (ρ = 0.83) and Delayed Recall (ρ = 0.68). Learning slope and a novel measure of learning efficiency were also significantly associated with primary memory measures, though scores were similar across the LTL and RTL groups. While lesions to either temporal lobe impact verbal memory, semantic encoding appears to depend upon the integrity of LTL structures in particular. PMID:26537777

  5. LEFT LOBE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION FROM AB0-INCOMPATIBLE LIVING DONOR WITH SITUS INVERSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus is a rare congenital abnormality that affects approximately 0.005% of all live births. Traditionally, this condition is considered as a contraindication for liver donation, primarily due to the peculiarities of the vascular anatomy and the diffi culties in graft placement in the abdominal cavity. Review of the world literature testifi es to fi ve cases of use of the whole liver from deceased donor with situs inversus in adult recipients, and to just one case of inverted right lobe transplantation from living donor to 53-year-old man. Thus, transplantation of an inverted left liver lobe from a living related donor in pediatric patients was performed for the fi rst time. The article presents a successful experience of liver transplantation in child with tyrosinemia type 1 from AB0-incompatible living donor with situs inversus.

  6. Exaltation in temporal lobe epilepsy: neuropsychiatric symptom or portal to the divine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Niall; Whitley, Rob

    2014-09-01

    Religiosity is a prominent feature of the Geschwind syndrome, a behavioural pattern found in some cases of temporal lobe epilepsy. Since the 1950s, when Wilder Penfield induced spiritual feelings by experimental manipulation of the temporal lobes, development of brain imaging technology has revealed neural correlates of intense emotional states, spurring the growth of neurotheology. In their secular empiricism, psychiatry, neurology and psychology are inclined to pathologise deviant religious expression, thereby reinforcing the dualism of objective and phenomenal worlds. Considering theological perspectives and the idea of cosmic consciousness, the authors urge a holistic approach to the spiritual events of epileptic aura, potentially leading to a deeper understanding of the mind and its transcendent potential.

  7. Effect of frontal lobe lesions on the recollection and familiarity components of recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Sarah E; Bozzali, Marco; Cipolotti, Lisa; Dolan, Raymond J; Rees, Jeremy H; Shallice, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Single-process theories assume that familiarity is the sole influence on recognition memory with decisions being made as a continuous process. Dual-process theories claim that recognition involves both recollection and familiarity processes with recollection as a threshold process. Although, the frontal lobes of the brain play an important role in recognition memory, few studies have examined the effect of frontal lobe lesions on recollection and familiarity. In the current study, the nonverbal recognition memory of 24 patients with focal frontal lesions due to tumour or stroke was examined. Recollection and familiarity were estimated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. A secondary analysis was also conducted using standard signal detection theory methodology. Both analyses led to similar conclusions where only the familiarity component of recognition memory was impaired in frontal patients compared to healthy controls whilst the recollection-type (or variance ratio) processes remained intact.

  8. Zinc-induced collapse of augmented inhibition by GABA in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, E H; Otis, T S; Mody, I

    1996-01-19

    In the kindling model of temporal lobe epilepsy, several physiological indicators of inhibition by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the hippocampal dentate gyrus are consistent with an augmented, rather than a diminished, inhibition. In brain slices obtained from epileptic (kindled) rats, the excitatory drive onto inhibitory interneurons was increased and was paralleled by a reduction in the presynaptic autoinhibition of GABA release. This augmented inhibition was sensitive to zinc most likely after a molecular reorganization of GABAA receptor subunits. Consequently, during seizures, inhibition by GABA may be diminished by the zinc released from aberrantly sprouted mossy fiber terminals of granule cells, which are found in many experimental models of epilepsy and in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

  9. Convex objective function-based design method developed for minimizing side lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Chenguang

    2008-08-01

    The existence of multiple local solutions makes it very difficult to search for filter parameters to achieve a desired side lobe level during the design of superresolution pupil filters. To deal with the difficult issue of side lobe control in the designing process, a convex objective function-based design method is developed through phase rotation and variable replacement to transform the complicated solving process with multiextreme subintervals into a simple optimization process with a convex interval. A group of constant annular complex superresolving filters are designed using the developed method. The comparison of the superresolving filters designed in this way with the well-known continuous phase filter and 3-zone multiphase diffractive superresolution filters proves the validity of the developed method.

  10. Sub-wavelength sized transversely polarized optical needle with exceptionally suppressed side-lobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Zhongsheng; Min, Changjun; Du, Luping; Zhang, Yuquan; Zhu, Siwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-01-25

    It is well known that radially polarized beam could produce an ultra-long longitudinally polarized focus, referred to as "optical needle". In this work, we reveal that the counterpart transversely polarized optical needle (~5.83λ) with exceptionally suppressed sidelobes (9.9% of the maximum of the principal lobe) can be generated by tightly focusing a hybridly polarized beam through a multibelt binary phase filter. A universal analytical model is built up for investigating the depth, uniformity and polarization properties of the needle. We find that there is a trade-off between needle length and intensity uniformity, and the main lobe keeps almost transverse polarization at each observation plane. Such a nondiffraction transversely polarized optical needle has potential applications in ultrahigh density magnetic storage as well as atomic trap and switches.

  11. Temporal lobe and hypothalmic-pituitary dysfunctions after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a distinct clinical syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, E.; Lam, K.; Yu, Y.L.; Ma, J.; Wang, C.; Yeung, R.T.T.

    1988-10-01

    Eleven patients with combined neurological and endocrine complications after external radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma are described. Memory disturbance, complex partial seizures and hypodense areas in one or both temporal lobes on CT were typical features. Endocrinologically, hypopituitarism was the prominent manifestation. This constellation of clinical features in a patient with previous radiotherapy to the nasopharynx characterises radiation injury to the inferomedial aspects of the temporal lobes and the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. While parenchymal brain lesions may mimic metastases or glioma on CT, associated endocrine disturbance would betray the correct diagnosis. The importance of recognising hypo-pituitarism which may be clinically asymptomatic and which is amenable to therapy is emphasised, as is the need for a proper fractionation of radiation dose to minimise the incidence of these disabling complications.

  12. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibelli, Emily S.; Leonard, Matthew K.; Johnson, Keith; Chang, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Neural representations of words are thought to have a complex spatio-temporal cortical basis. It has been suggested that spoken word recognition is not a process of feed-forward computations from phonetic to lexical forms, but rather involves the online integration of bottom-up input with stored lexical knowledge. Using direct neural recordings from the temporal lobe, we examined cortical responses to words and pseudowords. We found that neural populations were not only sensitive to lexical status (real vs. pseudo), but also to cohort size (number of words matching the phonetic input at each time point) and cohort frequency (lexical frequency of those words). These lexical variables modulated neural activity from the posterior to anterior temporal lobe, and also dynamically as the stimuli unfolded on a millisecond time scale. Our findings indicate that word recognition is not purely modular, but relies on rapid and online integration of multiple sources of lexical knowledge. PMID:26072003

  13. A Search for double-lobed radio emission from Galactic Stars and Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Abiel Felipe Ortiz

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic search for two types of very unusual astronomical objects: Galactic stars and spiral galaxies with double radio lobes, i.e. radio emission on opposite sides of the optical object, suggesting the ejection of jets from them. We designed an algorithm to search for pairs of radio sources straddling objects from two unprecedented samples of 878,031 Galactic stars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 675,874 spiral galaxy candidates drawn from the recent literature. We found three new examples of double-lobed radio stars, while for the spiral galaxies we only rediscovered one known such double source, confirming that the latter objects are extremely rare.

  14. Ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy involving a bihemispheric network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Kang, Joong Koo; Park, Ga Young; Oh, Jung Su; Kim, Jae Seung

    2013-01-01

    Singing is a rare ictal symptom of focal epilepsy. Here, we report a case of a right-handed patient who demonstrated ictal singing due to right mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. Subtraction ictal SPECT coregistered to MRI (SISCOM) performed during ictal singing demonstrated areas of hyperperfusion in the bilateral frontal regions (more prominent in the left frontal lobe), bilateral subcortical regions, insular cortices, and bilateral cerebellum in addition to the right temporal area. An intracranial EEG revealed that an ictal singing episode commenced after an ictal rhythm from the right temporal area was propagated to the contralateral side of the left hemisphere. These findings suggest that the symptomatogenic zone for ictal singing includes neural networks from the frontal and temporal regions of both hemispheres rather than specific cortical areas even when the epileptogenic zone is located in the right mesial temporal area, as evidenced in this patient.

  15. Choking at Night: A Case of Opercular Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal lobe seizures have a tendency to occur in sleep and in most cases occur exclusively insleep; these individuals are said to have nocturnal frontal lobe (NFLE. NFLE can be difficult to distinguish clinically from various other sleep disorders, particularly parasomnias, which also present with paroxysmal motor activity in sleep. Interictal and ictal EEG findings are frequently unremarkable or nonspecific in both parasomnias and NFLE making the diagnosis even more difficult. Nocturnal epilepsy should be suspected in patients with paroxysmal events at night characterized by high frequency, repetition, extrapyramidal features, and marked stereotypy of attacks. Here we present a 13-year-old female who was extensively worked up for choking episodes at night. On repeat video EEG she was found to have frontal opercular seizures. Once on Carbamazepine, her seizures completely resolved.

  16. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension and medial temporal lobe atrophy: the LADIS study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korf, E S C; van Straaten, E C W; de Leeuw, F-E;

    2007-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Based on recent findings on the association between vascular risk factors and hippocampal atrophy, we hypothesized that hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) are associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) in subjects without disability, independent of the severity of white...... matter hyperintensities. METHODS: In the Leukoaraiosis And DISability in the elderly (LADIS) study, we investigated the relationships between DM, hypertension, blood pressure and MTA in 582 subjects, stratified by white matter hyperintensity severity, using multinomial logistic regression. MTA...... was visually scored for the left and right medial temporal lobe (score 0-4), and meaned. RESULTS: Mean age was 73.5 years (sd 5.1), 54% was female. Of the subjects, 15% had DM, and 70% had a history of hypertension. The likelihood of having MTA score 3 was significantly higher in subjects with DM (OR 2.9; 95...

  17. Anomia for people's names after left anterior temporal lobe resection--case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurimoto, Masanori; Takaiwa, Akiko; Nagai, Shoichi; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Endo, Shunro

    2010-01-01

    A 47-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with an intrinsic brain tumor in the left anterior temporal lobe. Preoperative sodium thiopental test demonstrated left hemispheric dominance. Awake craniotomy was performed for dominant-hemispheric tumor resection using language mapping to identify the stimulation-induced positive language area. The tasks of object naming and repetition were used, along with specific tests for famous people's names. The language area was detected on the superior temporal gyrus and preserved. Following surgery, this patient was unable to retrieve the names of famous individuals (i.e. anomia for people's name) despite preservation of semantic knowledge for those individuals. This anomia for people's names showed no improvement at all for a period of 15 months. This case report and other sporadic cases with this type of deficit reveal the left anterior temporal lobe is an important brain area for retrieving people's names.

  18. Anterior pituitary lobe atrophy as late complication of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Dragan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is acute infective multisystemic disease followed by febrility, hemorrhages and acute renal insufficiency. Bleeding in the anterior pituitary lobe leading to tissue necrosis occurs in acute stage of severe clinical forms of HFRS, while atrophy of the anterior pituitary lobe with diminution of the gland function occurs after recovery stage. Case report. We presented a patient with the development of chronic renal insufficiency and hypopituitarism as complication that had been diagnosed six years after Hantavirus infection. Magnetic resonance of the pituitary gland revealed atrophy and empty sella turcica. Conclusion. Regarding frequency of this viral infection and its endemic character in some parts of our country partial and/or complete loss of pituitary function should be considered during the late stage of HFRS.

  19. Acute parietal lobe infarction presenting as Gerstmann's syndrome and cognitive decline mimicking senile dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Yu; Chen, Chun-Yen; Yen, Che-Hung; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Chang, Serena; Huang, San-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Gerstmann's syndrome encompasses the tetrad of finger agnosia, agraphia, acalculia, and right-left confusion. An elderly man with a history of several cardiovascular diseases was initially brought to the psychiatric outpatient department by his family because of worsening of recent memory, executive function, and mixed anxious-depressive mood. Gerstmann's syndrome without obvious motor function impairment and dementia-like features could be observed at first. Emergent brain computed tomography scan revealed new left-middle cerebral artery infarction over the left posterior parietal lobe. This case reminds us that acute cerebral infarction involving the parietal lobe may present as Gerstmann's syndrome accompanied by cognitive decline mimicking dementia. As a result, emergent organic workups should be arranged, especially for elderly patients at high risk for cerebral vascular accident.

  20. Last glacial dynamics of the Vale of York and North Sea lobes of the British and Irish Ice Sheet.

    OpenAIRE

    Bateman, M.D.; Evans, D.J.A.; Buckland, P. C.; Connell, E.R.; Friend, R. J.; Hartmann, D. (Dominic); Moxon, H.; Fairburn, W.A.; Panagiotakopulu, E.; Ashurst, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum, the Vale of York and North Sea lobes of the British and Irish Ice Sheet extended to within 10 km of each other, impounding a series of pro-glacial lakes. Such an interplay of ice lobes provides a useful analogue for elsewhere in the North Sea basin. This paper focusses on reconstructing the Vale of York and North Sea Ice lobes using a regional suite of 25 luminescence ages in combination with stratigraphical and geomorphic evidence. Results extend and revise t...