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Sample records for antennal chemosensory protein

  1. Identification and Expression Analysis of Candidate Odorant-Binding Protein and Chemosensory Protein Genes by Antennal Transcriptome of Sitobion avenae.

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    Xue, Wenxin; Fan, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Qingxuan; Han, Zongli; Sun, Jingrui; Chen, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of aphids are thought to be responsible for the initial molecular interactions during olfaction that mediate detection of chemical signals. Analysis of the diversity of proteins involved comprises critical basic research work that will facilitate the development of sustainable pest control strategies. To help us better understand differences in the olfactory system between winged and wingless grain aphids, we constructed an antennal transcriptome from winged and wingless Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), one of the most serious pests of cereal fields worldwide. Among the 133,331 unigenes in the antennal assembly, 13 OBP and 5 CSP putative transcripts were identified with 6 OBP and 3 CSP sequences representing new S. avenae annotations. We used qPCR to examine the expression profile of these genes sets across S. avenae development and in various tissues. We found 7 SaveOBPs and 1 SaveCSP were specifically or significantly elevated in antennae compared with other tissues, and that some transcripts (SaveOBP8, SaveCSP2 and SaveCSP5) were abundantly expressed in the legs of winged or wingless aphids. The expression levels of the SaveOBPs and SaveCSPs varied depending on the developmental stage. Possible physiological functions of these genes are discussed. Further molecular and functional studies of these olfactory related genes will explore their potential as novel targets for controlling S. avenae. PMID:27561107

  2. Antennal and Abdominal Transcriptomes Reveal Chemosensory Genes in the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri.

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    Zhongzhen Wu

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri is the principal vector of the highly destructive citrus disease called Huanglongbing (HLB or citrus greening, which is a major threat to citrus cultivation worldwide. More effective pest control strategies against this pest entail the identification of potential chemosensory proteins that could be used in the development of attractants or repellents. However, the molecular basis of olfaction in the Asian citrus psyllid is not completely understood. Therefore, we performed this study to analyze the antennal and abdominal transcriptome of the Asian citrus psyllid. We identified a large number of transcripts belonging to nine chemoreception-related gene families and compared their expression in male and female adult antennae and terminal abdomen. In total, 9 odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 46 odorant receptors (ORs, 20 gustatory receptors (GRs, 35 ionotropic receptors (IRs, 4 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs and 4 different gene families encoding odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs: 80 cytochrome P450s (CYPs, 12 esterase (ESTs, and 5 aldehyde dehydrogenases (ADE were annotated in the D. citri antennal and abdominal transcriptomes. Our results revealed that a large proportion of chemosensory genes exhibited no distinct differences in their expression patterns in the antennae and terminal abdominal tissues. Notably, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq data and quantitative real time-PCR (qPCR analyses showed that 4 DictOBPs, 4 DictCSPs, 4 DictIRs, 1 DictSNMP, and 2 DictCYPs were upregulated in the antennae relative to that in terminal abdominal tissues. Furthermore, 2 DictOBPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP9, 2 DictCSPs (DictOBP8 and DictOBP12, 4 DictIRs (DictIR3, DictIR6, DictIR10, and DictIR35, and 1 DictCYP (DictCYP57 were expressed at higher levels in the male antennae than in the female antennae. Our study provides the first insights into the molecular basis of chemoreception in this

  3. Identification of candidate chemosensory genes in the antennal transcriptome of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

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    Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang

    2015-03-01

    We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor. PMID:25665775

  4. Functional Characteristics of a Novel Chemosensory Protein in the Cotton Bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Tian-tao; WANG Wei-xuan; ZHANG Zi-ding; ZHANG Yong-jun; GUO Yu-yuan

    2013-01-01

    A chemosensory protein named HarmCSP5 in cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) was obtained from antennal cDNA libraries and expressed in Escherichia coli. The real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results indicated that HarmCSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae but also expressed in female legs and wings. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant HarmCSP5 to 60 odor molecules including some cotton volatiles. The resules showed that HarmCSP5 showed strong binding abilities to 4-ehtylbenzaldehyde and 3,4-dimethlbenz aldehyde, whereas methyl phenylacetate, 2-decanone, 1-pentanol, carvenol, isoborneol, nerolidol, 2-nonanone and ethyl heptanoate have relatively weak binding affinity. Moreover, the predicted 3D model of HarmCSP5 consists of sixα-helices located among residues 33-38 (α1), 40-48 (α2), 62-72 (α3), 80-96 (α4), 98-108 (α5), and 116-119 (α6), two pairs of disulfide bridges Cys49-Cys55, Cys75-Cys78. The two amino acid residues, Ile94 and Trp101, may play crucial roles in HarmCSP5 binding with ligands and need further study for confirmation.

  5. Transcriptome based identification and tissue expression profiles of chemosensory genes in Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattidae).

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    Niu, Dong-Juan; Liu, Yan; Dong, Xiao-Tong; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2016-06-01

    Blattalla germanica is one of the most notorious household insect pests, and evolutionally more primitive than those well studied moths and flies, regarding the molecular mechanisms of chemosensation. In this study, we sequenced, for the first time, the antennal transcriptome of B. germanica using the Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 platform and then conducted the bioinformatic analysis of the data. In total, we identified 73 putative chemosensory genes, with 62 genes being novel in this species. These chemosensory genes included 48 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 9 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 6 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 5 odorant receptors (ORs) and 5 ionotropic receptors (IRs). Notably, Plus-C OBPs account for an exceptionally high proportion (39.58%) of the total 48 OBPs in this primitive insect. To predict the chemosensory functions of the genes, a detailed global tissue expression profiling was investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Most OBP genes showed a chemosensory tissue biased profile, while CSP transcripts were widely and evenly expressed in different tissues. Furthermore, we found that more than half the chemosensory genes were expressed in the cerci, implying the important chemosensory functions of the organ in B. germanica. Taken together, our study provides important bases for elucidation of the molecular mechanisms and evolution of insect chemosensation, and for development of the chemosensation based techniques to control B. germanica. PMID:26994445

  6. Ultrastructural Characterization of Olfactory Sensilla and Immunolocalization of Odorant Binding and Chemosensory Proteins from an Ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae

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    Xiangrui Li, Daguang Lu, Xiaoxia Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Xuguo Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional structures of two odorant binding proteins (OBPs and one chemosensory protein (CSP from a polyphagous ectoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae were resolved bioinformatically. The results show that both SguaOBP1 and OBP2 are classic OBPs, whereas SguaCSP1 belongs to non-classic CSPs which are considered as the “Plus-C” CSP in this report. The structural differences between the two OBPs and between OBP and CSP are thoroughly described, and the structural and functional significance of the divergent C-terminal regions (e.g., the prolonged C-terminal region in SguaOBP2 and the additional pair of cysteines in SguaCSP1 are discussed. The immunoblot analyses with antisera raised against recombinant SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively, indicate that two SguaOBPs are specific to antennae, whereas SguaCSP1, which are more abundant than OBPs and detected in both male and female wasps, expresses ubiquitously across different tissues.We also describe the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla types in S. guani and compare them to 19 species of parasitic Hymenoptera. There are 11 types of sensilla in the flagellum and pedicel segments of antennae in both male and female wasps. Seven of them, including sensilla placodea (SP, long sensilla basiconica (LSB, sensilla coeloconica (SC, two types of double-walled wall pore sensilla (DWPS-I and DWPS-II, and two types of sensilla trichodea (ST-I and ST-II, are multiporous chemosensilla. The ultralsturctures of these sensilla are morphologically characterized. In comparison to monophagous specialists, the highly polyphagous generalist ectoparasitoids such as S. guani possess more diverse sensilla types which are likely related to their broad host ranges and complex life styles. Our immunocytochemistry study demonstrated that each of the seven sensilla immunoreacts with at least one antiserum against SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively. Anti-OBP2 is specifically labeled

  7. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Yong-Jun; Dong Shuang-Lin; Fang Shao-Qing; Zhang Lan; He Peng; Xu Ya-Long; Li Fei

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined ...

  8. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of Chemosensory Proteins in African Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengxi Li; Zuorui Shen; Jingjiang Zhou; Lin Field

    2003-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are identifiable by four spatially conserved Cysteine residues in their primary structure or by two disulfide bridges in their tertiary structure according to the previously identified olfactory specific-D related proteins. A genomics- and bioinformatics-based approach is taken in the present study to identify the putative CSPs in the malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. The results show that five out of the nine annotated candidates are the most possible Anopheles CSPs of A. gambiae. This study lays the foundation for further functional identification of Anopheles CSPs, though all of these candidates need additional experimental verification.

  9. Identification of chemosensory proteins for trichloroethylene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    OpenAIRE

    Shitashiro, Maiko; Tanaka, Hirohide; Hong, Chang Soo; Kuroda, Akio; Takiguchi, Noboru; Ohtake, Hisao; Kato, Junichi

    2005-01-01

    The involvement of the chemotaxis gene cluster 1 (cheYZABW) and cheR in repellent responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to trichloroethylene (TCE) is described and three methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs) for TCE are identified. TCE chemotaxis assays of a number of deletion-insertion mutants of P. aeruginosa PAO1 revealed that the chemotaxis gene cluster 1 and cheR are required for negative chemotaxis to TCE. Mutant strains which contained deletions in pctA, pctB and pctC showed decrea...

  10. Chemosensory proteins of the eastern honeybee, Apis cerana: Identification, tissue distribution and olfactory related functional characterization.

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    Li, Hong-Liang; Ni, Cui-Xia; Tan, Jing; Zhang, Lin-Ya; Hu, Fu-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs), a class of small soluble proteins, are thought to be involved in insect chemoreceptive behavior. Here, six CSP genes, AcerCSP1-6 from Apis cerana, were cloned and characterized from worker bees' antennae. Results revealed that the AcerCSPs' amino acid sequences shared high similarity with the homologous genes of Apis mellifera, but low similarity with other insect species. Compared with corresponding CSPs of A. mellifera, AcerCSPs (1, 3, 4, and 6) exhibit quite similar gene expression profiling. On the contrary, AcerCSP2 showed a higher expression level in the forager antennae and legs than CSP2 of A. mellifera. Furthermore, AcerCSP5 was not specifically expressed in larvae, unlike CSP5 of A. mellifera. In a ligand-binding assay, AcerCSP1 and AcerCSP2, which exhibited the highest expression in antennae of A. cerana, had a stronger affinity with candidate floral chemicals and pheromones than AcerCSP4, the results of which was supported by docking analysis, suggesting that the relevance of them with A. cerana olfactory functions. Taken together, these results suggest that despite the quasi-similarity of protein sequences between A. cerana and A. mellifera, differences in tissue expression and functional characteristics between the two species still exist, indicating that homologous proteins potentially perform different tasks even in related species. PMID:26773657

  11. The extracellular matrix protein artichoke is required for integrity of ciliated mechanosensory and chemosensory organs in Drosophila embryos.

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    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-04-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conserved leucine-rich repeat ECM protein that is required for normal morphogenesis and function of ciliated sensilla in Drosophila. atk is transiently expressed in accessory cells in all ciliated sensory organs during their late embryonic development. Antibody stainings show ATK protein in the ECM that surrounds sensory cilia. Loss of ATK protein in atk null mutants leads to cilium deformation and disorientation in chordotonal organs, apparently without uncoupling the cilia from the ECM, and consequently to locomotion defects. Moreover, impaired chemotaxis in atk mutant larvae suggests that, based on ATK protein localization, the ECM is also crucial for the correct assembly of chemosensory receptors. In addition to defining a novel ECM component, our findings show the importance of ECM integrity for the proper morphogenesis of ciliated organs in different sensory modalities. PMID:24496014

  12. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

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    Guoxia Liu

    Full Text Available Chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1 was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde. This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity.

  13. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense

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    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  14. Biotype Characterization, Developmental Profiling, Insecticide Response and Binding Property of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Proteins: Role of CSP in Insect Defense.

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    Liu, Guoxia; Ma, Hongmei; Xie, Hongyan; Xuan, Ning; Guo, Xia; Fan, Zhongxue; Rajashekar, Balaji; Arnaud, Philippe; Offmann, Bernard; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are believed to play a key role in the chemosensory process in insects. Sequencing genomic DNA and RNA encoding CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 in the sweet potato whitefly Bemisia tabaci showed strong variation between B and Q biotypes. Analyzing CSP-RNA levels showed not only biotype, but also age and developmental stage-specific expression. Interestingly, applying neonicotinoid thiamethoxam insecticide using twenty-five different dose/time treatments in B and Q young adults showed that Bemisia CSP1, CSP2 and CSP3 were also differentially regulated over insecticide exposure. In our study one of the adult-specific gene (CSP1) was shown to be significantly up-regulated by the insecticide in Q, the most highly resistant form of B. tabaci. Correlatively, competitive binding assays using tryptophan fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular docking demonstrated that CSP1 protein preferentially bound to linoleic acid, while CSP2 and CSP3 proteins rather associated to another completely different type of chemical, i.e. α-pentyl-cinnamaldehyde (jasminaldehyde). This might indicate that some CSPs in whiteflies are crucial to facilitate the transport of fatty acids thus regulating some metabolic pathways of the insect immune response, while some others are tuned to much more volatile chemicals known not only for their pleasant odor scent, but also for their potent toxic insecticide activity. PMID:27167733

  15. Large-scale identification of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins from expressed sequence tags in insects

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    Zhang Yong-Jun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs play an important role in chemical communication of insects. Gene discovery of these proteins is a time-consuming task. In recent years, expressed sequence tags (ESTs of many insect species have accumulated, thus providing a useful resource for gene discovery. Results We have developed a computational pipeline to identify OBP and CSP genes from insect ESTs. In total, 752,841 insect ESTs were examined from 54 species covering eight Orders of Insecta. From these ESTs, 142 OBPs and 177 CSPs were identified, of which 117 OBPs and 129 CSPs are new. The complete open reading frames (ORFs of 88 OBPs and 123 CSPs were obtained by electronic elongation. We randomly chose 26 OBPs from eight species of insects, and 21 CSPs from four species for RT-PCR validation. Twenty two OBPs and 16 CSPs were confirmed by RT-PCR, proving the efficiency and reliability of the algorithm. Together with all family members obtained from the NCBI (OBPs or the UniProtKB (CSPs, 850 OBPs and 237 CSPs were analyzed for their structural characteristics and evolutionary relationship. Conclusions A large number of new OBPs and CSPs were found, providing the basis for deeper understanding of these proteins. In addition, the conserved motif and evolutionary analysis provide some new insights into the evolution of insect OBPs and CSPs. Motif pattern fine-tune the functions of OBPs and CSPs, leading to the minor difference in binding sex pheromone or plant volatiles in different insect Orders.

  16. The chemosensory protein of Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana: Molecular cloning of cDNA, immunocytochemical localization and expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI HongLiang; LOU BingGan; CHENG Jia'An; GAO QiKang

    2007-01-01

    Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are ubiquitous soluble small proteins isolated from sensory organs thought to be involved in chemical communication.Here we report the first cDNA of CSPs,called Ac-ASP3,cloned and characterized from antennas of adult worker bees in Chinese honeybee,Apis cerana cerana.The Ac-ASP3 cDNA comprises 2 exons,with an ORF of 393-bp encoding 130 aa.Protein signature analyses show that the protein consists of four conserved cysteines and a signal peptide with 19 aa in the N-terminal sequence.The deduced protein sequence shares high homology with Am-ASP3 of Apis mellifera and low similarity with other species of insects.Immunocytochemical localization shows that Ac-ASP3 is only specifically expressed on the antenna contact chemosensilla such as sensilla trichodea B and sensilla basiconica,whereas Ac-ASP3 is scarcely expressed on olfactory chemosensilla such as sensilla placodea.Real-time PCR of Ac-ASP3 transcripts shows that Ac-ASP3 is highly expressed on wings and legs,but expression is lower on antenna.Temporal expression patterns suggest that Ac-ASP3 is expressed during the period of pupa and adults from 1-d to 6-d stages when bees act as house bees,cleaning the comb and taking care of the queen and larvae in comb.The above evidence suggests that Ac-ASP3 is unique in species and is generally not involved in olfaction during searching for honey and pollen.Rather,the protein seems to function in recognition of chemosensory substances on bees' cuticle and mechanical movement of antenna.

  17. Sequence variation of Bemisia tabaci Chemosensory Protein 2 in cryptic species B and Q: New DNA markers for whitefly recognition.

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    Liu, Guo-Xia; Ma, Hong-Mei; Xie, Hong-Yan; Xuan, Ning; Picimbon, Jean-François

    2016-01-15

    Bemisia tabaci Gennadius biotypes B and Q are two of the most important worldwide agricultural insect pests. Genomic sequences of Type-2 B. tabaci chemosensory protein (BtabCSP2) were cloned and sequenced in B and Q biotypes, revealing key biotype-specific variations in the intron sequence. A Q260 sequence was found specifically in Q-BtabCSP2 and Cucumis melo LN692399, suggesting ancestral horizontal transfer of gene between the insect and the plant through bacteria. A cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences (CAPS) method was then developed to differentiate B and Q based on the sequence variation in exon of BtabCSP2 gene. The performances of CSP2-based CAPS for whitefly recognition were assessed using B. tabaci field collections from Shandong Province (P.R. China). Our SacII based CAPS method led to the same result compared to mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase-based CAPS method in the field collections. We therefore propose an explanation for CSP origin and a new rapid simple molecular method based on genomic DNA and chemosensory gene to differentiate accurately the B and Q whiteflies of the Bemisia complex around the world. PMID:26481237

  18. Differential expression patterns in chemosensory and non-chemosensory tissues of putative chemosensory genes identified by transcriptome analysis of insect pest the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker.

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    Ya-Nan Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A large number of insect chemosensory genes from different gene subfamilies have been identified and annotated, but their functional diversity and complexity are largely unknown. A systemic examination of expression patterns in chemosensory organs could provide important information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 92 putative chemosensory genes by analysing the transcriptome of the antennae and female sex pheromone gland of the purple stem borer Sesamia inferens, among them 87 are novel in this species, including 24 transcripts encoding for odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 24 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 39 for odorant receptors (ORs and 3 for ionotropic receptors (IRs. The transcriptome analyses were validated and quantified with a detailed global expression profiling by Reverse Transcription-PCR for all 92 transcripts and by Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR for selected 16 ones. Among the chemosensory gene subfamilies, CSP transcripts are most widely and evenly expressed in different tissues and stages, OBP transcripts showed a clear antenna bias and most of OR transcripts are only detected in adult antennae. Our results also revealed that some OR transcripts, such as the transcripts of SNMP2 and 2 IRs were expressed in non-chemosensory tissues, and some CSP transcripts were antenna-biased expression. Furthermore, no chemosensory transcript is specific to female sex pheromone gland and very few are found in the heads. CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that there are a large number of chemosensory genes expressed in S. inferens, and some of them displayed unusual expression profile in non-chemosensory tissues. The identification of a large set of putative chemosensory genes of each subfamily from a single insect species, together with their different expression profiles provide further information in understanding the functions of these chemosensory genes in S. inferens as

  19. The Extracellular Matrix Protein Artichoke Is Required for Integrity of Ciliated Mechanosensory and Chemosensory Organs in Drosophila Embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés, Marta; Turiégano, Enrique; Göpfert, Martin C.; Canal, Inmaculada; Torroja, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Sensory cilia are often encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). In Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and vertebrates, this ECM is thought to be directly involved in ciliary mechanosensing by coupling external forces to the ciliary membrane. Drosophila mechano- and chemosensory cilia are both associated with an ECM, indicating that the ECM may have additional roles that go beyond mechanosensory cilium function. Here, we identify Artichoke (ATK), an evolutionarily conse...

  20. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-22

    Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  1. Identification and expression profiling of odorant binding proteins and chemosensory proteins between two wingless morphs and a winged morph of the cotton aphid Aphis gossypii glover.

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    Shao-Hua Gu

    Full Text Available Insects interact with their environment and respond to the changes in host plant conditions using semiochemicals. Such ecological interactions are facilitated by the olfactory sensilla and the use of olfactory recognition proteins. The cotton aphid Aphis gossypii can change its phenotype in response to ecological conditions. They reproduce mainly as wingless asexual morphs but develop wings to find mates or new plant hosts under the influence of environmental factors such as temperature, plant nutrition and population density. Two groups of small soluble proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are believed to be involved in the initial biochemical recognition steps in semiochemical perception. However, the exact molecular roles that these proteins play in insect olfaction remain to be discovered. In this study, we compared the transcriptomes of three asexual developmental stages (wingless spring and summer morphs and winged adults and characterised 9 OBP and 9 CSP genes. The gene structure analysis showed that the number and length of introns in these genes are much higher and this appears to be unique feature of aphid OBP and CSP genes in general. Another unique feature in aphids is a higher abundance of CSP transcripts than OBP transcripts, suggesting an important role of CSPs in aphid physiology and ecology. We showed that some of the transcripts are overexpressed in the antennae in comparison to the bodies and highly expressed in the winged aphids compared to wingless morphs, suggesting a role in host location. We examined the differential expression of these olfactory genes in ten aphid species and compared the expression profile with the RNA-seq analyses of 25 pea aphid transcriptome libraries hosted on AphidBase.

  2. Gene set of chemosensory receptors in the polyembryonic endoparasitoid Macrocentrus cingulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tofael; Zhang, Tiantao; Wang, Zhenying; He, Kanglai; Bai, Shuxiong

    2016-01-01

    Insects are extremely successful animals whose odor perception is very prominent due to their sophisticated olfactory system. The main chemosensory organ, antennae play a critical role in detecting odor in ambient environment before initiating appropriate behavioral responses. The antennal chemosensory receptor genes families have been suggested to be involved in olfactory signal transduction pathway as a sensory neuron response. The Macrocentrus cingulum is deployed successfully as a biological control agent for corn pest insects from the Lepidopteran genus Ostrinia. In this research, we assembled antennal transcriptomes of M. cingulum by using next generation sequencing to identify the major chemosensory receptors gene families. In total, 112 olfactory receptors candidates (79 odorant receptors, 20 gustatory receptors, and 13 ionotropic receptors) have been identified from the male and female antennal transcriptome. The sequences of all of these transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR, and direct DNA sequencing. Expression profiles of gustatory receptors in olfactory and non-olfactory tissues were measured by RT-qPCR. The sex-specific and sex-biased chemoreceptors expression patterns suggested that they may have important functions in sense detection which behaviorally relevant to odor molecules. This reported result provides a comprehensive resource of the foundation in semiochemicals driven behaviors at molecular level in polyembryonic endoparasitoid. PMID:27090020

  3. RNAi-induced phenotypes suggest a novel role for a chemosensory protein CSP5 in the development of embryonic integument in the honeybee (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleszka, J; Forêt, S; Saint, R; Maleszka, R

    2007-03-01

    Small chemosensory proteins (CSPs) belong to a conserved, but poorly understood, protein family found in insects and other arthropods. They exhibit both broad and restricted expression patterns during development. In this paper, we used a combination of genome annotation, transcriptional profiling and RNA interference to unravel the functional significance of a honeybee gene (csp5) belonging to the CSP family. We show that csp5 expression resembles the maternal-zygotic pattern that is characterized by the initiation of transcription in the ovary and the replacement of maternal mRNA with embryonic mRNA. Blocking the embryonic expression of csp5 with double-stranded RNA causes abnormalities in all body parts where csp5 is highly expressed. The treated embryos show a "diffuse", often grotesque morphology, and the head skeleton appears to be severely affected. They are 'unable-to-hatch' and cannot progress to the larval stages. Our findings reveal a novel, essential role for this gene family and suggest that csp5 (unable-to-hatch) is an ectodermal gene involved in embryonic integument formation. Our study confirms the utility of an RNAi approach to functional characterization of novel developmental genes uncovered by the honeybee genome project and provides a starting point for further studies on embryonic integument formation in this insect. PMID:17216269

  4. Antennal transcriptome analysis and comparison of olfactory genes in two sympatric defoliators, Dendrolimus houi and Dendrolimus kikuchii (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sufang; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Hongbin; Kong, Xiangbo

    2014-09-01

    The Yunnan pine and Simao pine caterpillar moths, Dendrolimus houi Lajonquière and Dendrolimus kikuchii Matsumura (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), are two closely related and sympatric pests of coniferous forests in southwestern China, and olfactory communication systems of these two insects have received considerable attention because of their economic importance. However, there is little information on the molecular aspect of odor detection about these insects. Furthermore, although lepidopteran species have been widely used in studies of insect olfaction, few work made comparison between sister moths on the olfactory recognition mechanisms. In this study, next-generation sequencing of the antennal transcriptome of these two moths were performed to identify the major olfactory genes. After comparing the antennal transcriptome of these two moths, we found that they exhibit highly similar transcripts-associated GO terms. Chemosensory gene families were further analyzed in both species. We identified 23 putative odorant binding proteins (OBP), 17 chemosensory proteins (CSP), two sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMP), 33 odorant receptors (OR), and 10 ionotropic receptors (IR) in D. houi; and 27 putative OBPs, 17 CSPs, two SNMPs, 33 ORs, and nine IRs in D. kikuchii. All these transcripts were full-length or almost full-length. The predicted protein sequences were compared with orthologs in other species of Lepidoptera and model insects, including Bombyx mori, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Danaus plexippus, Sesamia inferens, Cydia pomonella, and Drosophila melanogaster. The sequence homologies of the orthologous genes in D. houi and D. kikuchii are very high. Furthermore, the olfactory genes were classed according to their expression level, and the highly expressed genes are our target for further function investigation. Interestingly, many highly expressed genes are ortholog gene of D. houi and D. kikuchii. We also found that the Classic OBPs were

  5. Central Projection of Antennal Sensory Neurons in the Central Nervous System of the Mirid Bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Xin-Cheng; Ma, Bai-Wei; Guo, Pei; Li, Guo-Ping; Feng, Hong-Qiang; Wu, Guo-Liang

    2016-01-01

    The mirid bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), a polyphagous pest, is dependent on olfactory cues to locate various host plant species and mates. In this study, we traced the projection pathway of the antennal sensory neurons and visualized their projection patterns in the central nervous system of A. lucorum through confocal microscopy and digital reconstructions. We also examined the glomerular organization of the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, and created a three-dimensional model of the glomeruli. We found that the axons of the sensory neurons project into the brain via the ipsilateral antennal nerve, and descend further into the gnathal ganglion, prothoracic ganglion, mesothoracic ganglion, and metathoracic ganglion, and reach as far as to the abdominal ganglion. Such a projection pattern indicates that antennal sensory neurons of A. lucorum may be potentially directly connected to motor neurons. The antennal lobe, however, is the major target area of antennal sensory neurons. The antennal lobe is composed of a large number of glomeruli, i.e. 70–80 glomeruli in one AL of A. lucorum. The results of this study which provide information about the basic anatomical arrangement of the brain olfactory center of A. lucorum, are important for further investigations of chemosensory encoding mechanisms of the mirid bug. PMID:27478892

  6. Maxillary palp glomeruli and ipsilateral projections in the antennal lobe of Drosophila melanogaster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Rajashekhar; V R Shamprasad

    2004-12-01

    The antennal lobe was examined by Golgi-silver impregnation to differentiate the glomeruli depending on the source and types of inputs. Thirty-five of the 43 ‘identified’ olfactory glomeruli were Golgi-silver impregnated in the present study. Seven glomeruli compared to three, reported previously, were found to be targets of maxillary palp chemosensory neurons. These include glomeruli VA3, VC2, VM5, VA7m/VA7l of the ventral antennal lobe and DC2, DC3, DM5 of the dorsal antennal lobe. The number of glomeruli receiving the maxillary palp sensory projections tallies with the number of Drosophila olfactory receptors (seven) reported to be expressed exclusively in the maxillary palp. Twenty-eight Golgi-impregnated glomeruli were found to receive input from the antennal nerve. The ratio of glomeruli serving the maxillary palp to those serving the antenna (∼ 1 : 5) matches with the ratio of Drosophila olfactory receptors expressed in these two olfactory organs respectively. In addition to glomerulus V, glomeruli VP1-3, VL1, VL2a/2p and VC3m/3l were found to receive ipsilateral projections. Thus, additional ipsilateral glomeruli have been identified.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Sex Distribution of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Family Based on Transcriptome Analysis of Scaeva pyrastri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Xiu-Yun; He, Peng; Xu, Lu; Sun, Liang; Chen, Li; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Deng, Dao-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors play key roles in insect behavior. Thus, genes encoding these receptors have great potential for use in integrated pest management. The hover fly Scaeva pyrastri (L.) is an important pollinating insect and a natural enemy of aphids, mainly distributed in the Palearctic and Nearctic regions. However, a systematic identification of their chemosensory receptor genes in the antennae has not been reported. In the present study, we assembled the antennal transcriptome of S. pyrastri by using Illumina sequencing technology. Analysis of the transcriptome data identified 60 candidate chemosensory genes, including 38 for odorant receptors (ORs), 16 for ionotropic receptors (IRs), and 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs). The numbers are similar to those of other Diptera species, suggesting that we were able to successfully identify S. pyrastri chemosensory genes. We analyzed the expression patterns of all genes by using reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), and found that some genes exhibited sex-biased or sex-specific expression. These candidate chemosensory genes and their tissue expression profiles provide information for further studies aimed at fully understanding the molecular basis behind chemoreception-related behaviors in S. pyrastri. PMID:27171401

  8. Examination of Human Chemosensory Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smutzer, Gregory; Sayed, Samir; Sayed, Nabil

    2006-01-01

    An increased understanding of olfaction and gustation has underlined the critical importance of these two chemical senses in determining how humans respond to their environment. In this article, recent advances in chemosensory research are summarized. The use of a smell identification test, an odor discrimination test, and a test for anosmia to a…

  9. Gender differences in chemosensory function

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Jonas

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of two studies, in which gender differences in nasal chemosensory function are investigated. The first study assesses odor identification ability in a populationbased sample, varying from 45 to 90 yrs, screened for cognitive impairment and severe olfactory dysfunction. Results show that women are generally better than men at identifying odors, but there is no significant interaction of gender by age. Although odoridentification is influenced by semantic memory and cogniti...

  10. Occurrence of antennal glands in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renthal, Robert; Velasquez, Daniel; Olmos, David; Vinson, S Bradleigh

    2008-11-01

    A previous report of the discovery of exocrine glands in the antennal club of queens and workers of Solenopsis invicta Buren, 1972 left open the question of the extent to which similar glands occur in the Formicidae family. We wanted to know if these antennal glands are unique to Solenopsis, or they are found in a wider taxonomic group. Using scanning electron microscopy, we examined the antennae of 41 ant species. Presence of the antennal glands was indicated by a characteristic circumferential ring of pores in a distal antennal segment of workers. Pores were found in the 9th antennal segment of all 26 species of Solenopsis examined. Pores were absent in the following: Monomorium minimum, M. pharaonis, Pheidole sp., Crematogaster sp., Linepithema humile, Forelius sp., Dorymyrmex sp., Paratrechina sp., Oecophylla smaragdina, Campanotus sp., Ectatomma ruidum, E. tuberlatum, and Pseudomyrmex ferruginea. However, pores were found in the antennal club of Tetramorium bicarinatum workers and queens. After KOH digestion of T. bicarinatum antennae, internal canals were observed in both workers and queens, and the canals are connected to spherical reservoirs in queens. T. bicarinatum was the only non-Solenopsis species examined, which showed evidence for antennal glands in the distal funiculus. PMID:18655135

  11. Identification and Characterization of Candidate Chemosensory Gene Families from Spodoptera exigua Developmental Transcriptomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Yong; Zhang, Ting; Ye, Zhan-Feng; Li, Fei; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Insect chemosensory genes have been considered as potential molecular targets to develop alternative strategies for pest control. However, in Spodoptera exigua, a seriously polyphagous agricultural pest, only a small part of such genes have been identified and characterized to date. Here, using a bioinformatics screen a total of 79 chemosensory genes were identified from a public transcriptomic data of different developmental stages (eggs, 1st to 5th instar larvae, pupae, female and male adults), including 34 odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 20 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 22 chemosensory receptors (10 odorant receptors (ORs), six gustatory receptors (GRs) and six ionotropic receptors (IRs)) and three sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs). Notably, a new group of lepidopteran SNMPs (SNMP3 group) was found for the first time in S. exigua, and confirmed in four other moth species. Further, reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) were employed respectively to validate the sequences and determine the expression patterns of 69 identified chemosensory genes regarding to sexes, tissues and stages. Results showed that 67 of these genes could be detected and reconstructed in at least one tissue tested. Further, 60 chemosensory genes were expressed in adult antennae and 52 in larval heads with the antennae, whereas over half of the genes were also detected in non-olfactory tissues like egg and thorax. Particularly, S. exigua OBP2 showed a predominantly larval head-biased expression, and functional studies further indicated its potentially olfactory roles in guiding food searching of larvae. This work suggests functional diversities of S. exigua chemosensory genes and could greatly facilitate the understanding of olfactory system in S. exigua and other lepidopteran species. PMID:26221071

  12. Antennal transcriptome analysis of the Asian longhorned beetle Anoplophora glabripennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Wang, Jingzhen; Cui, Mingming; Tao, Jing; Luo, Youqing

    2016-01-01

    Olfactory proteins form the basis of insect olfactory recognition, which is crucial for host identification, mating, and oviposition. Using transcriptome analysis of Anoplophora glabripennis antenna, we identified 42 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 12 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 14 pheromone-degrading enzymes (PDEs), 1 odorant-degrading enzymes (ODE), 37 odorant receptors (ORs), 11 gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), and 4 ionotropic receptor (IR). All CSPs and PBPs were expressed in antennae, confirming the authenticity of the transcriptome data. CSP expression profiles showed that AglaCSP3, AglaCSP6, and AglaCSP12 were expressed preferentially in maxillary palps and AglaCSP7 and AglaCSP9 were strongly expressed in antennae. The vast majority of CSPs were highly expressed in multiple chemosensory tissues, suggesting their participation in olfactory recognition in almost all olfactory tissues. Intriguingly, the PBP AglaPBP2 was preferentially expressed in antenna, indicating that it is the main protein involved in efficient and sensitive pheromone recognition. Phylogenetic analysis of olfactory proteins indicated AglaGR1 may detect CO2. This study establishes a foundation for determining the chemoreception molecular mechanisms of A. glabripennis, which would provide a new perspective for controlling pest populations, especially those of borers. PMID:27222053

  13. Functional anatomy and ion regulatory mechanisms of the antennal gland in a semi-terrestrial crab, Ocypode stimpsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyuan-Ru Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Brachyuran crabs from diverse habitats show great differences in their osmoregulatory processes, especially in terms of the structural and physiological characteristics of the osmoregulatory organs. In crustaceans, the antennal glands are known to be important in osmoregulation, and they play a functional role analogous to that of the vertebrate kidney. Nevertheless, the detailed structure and function of the antennal glands in different species have rarely been described. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the antennal gland in ion regulation by examining the ultrastructure of the cells and the distribution of the ion regulatory proteins in each cell type in the antennal gland of a semi-terrestrial crab. The results showed that Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly increased in the antennal gland after a 4-day acclimation in dilute seawater and returned to its original (day 0 level after 7 days. Three major types of cells were identified in the antennal gland, including coelomic cells (COEs, labyrinthine cells (LBRs and end-labyrinthine cells (ELBRs. The proximal tubular region (PT and distal tubular region (DT of the antennal gland consist of LBRs and COEs, whereas the end tubular region (ET consists of all three types of cells, with fewer COEs and more ELBRs. We found a non-uniform distribution of NKA immunoreactivity, with increasing intensity from the proximal to the distal regions of the antennal gland. We summarise our study with a proposed model for the urine reprocessing pathway and the role of each cell type or segment of the antennal gland.

  14. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiq Hussain

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR, and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides, which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny.

  15. Neuropeptides Modulate Female Chemosensory Processing upon Mating in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ashiq; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Zhang, Mo; Loschek, Laura F; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    A female's reproductive state influences her perception of odors and tastes along with her changed behavioral state and physiological needs. The mechanism that modulates chemosensory processing, however, remains largely elusive. Using Drosophila, we have identified a behavioral, neuronal, and genetic mechanism that adapts the senses of smell and taste, the major modalities for food quality perception, to the physiological needs of a gravid female. Pungent smelling polyamines, such as putrescine and spermidine, are essential for cell proliferation, reproduction, and embryonic development in all animals. A polyamine-rich diet increases reproductive success in many species, including flies. Using a combination of behavioral analysis and in vivo physiology, we show that polyamine attraction is modulated in gravid females through a G-protein coupled receptor, the sex peptide receptor (SPR), and its neuropeptide ligands, MIPs (myoinhibitory peptides), which act directly in the polyamine-detecting olfactory and taste neurons. This modulation is triggered by an increase of SPR expression in chemosensory neurons, which is sufficient to convert virgin to mated female olfactory choice behavior. Together, our data show that neuropeptide-mediated modulation of peripheral chemosensory neurons increases a gravid female's preference for important nutrients, thereby ensuring optimal conditions for her growing progeny. PMID:27145127

  16. Olfactory receptors in non-chemosensory tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NaNa Kang & JaeHyung Koo*

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptors (ORs detect volatile chemicals that lead tothe initial perception of smell in the brain. The olfactory receptor(OR is the first protein that recognizes odorants in theolfactory signal pathway and it is present in over 1,000 genesin mice. It is also the largest member of the G protein-coupledreceptors (GPCRs. Most ORs are extensively expressed in thenasal olfactory epithelium where they perform the appropriatephysiological functions that fit their location. However, recentwhole-genome sequencing shows that ORs have been foundoutside of the olfactory system, suggesting that ORs may playan important role in the ectopic expression of non-chemosensorytissues. The ectopic expressions of ORs and their physiologicalfunctions have attracted more attention recently sinceMOR23 and testicular hOR17-4 have been found to be involvedin skeletal muscle development, regeneration, and humansperm chemotaxis, respectively. When identifying additionalexpression profiles and functions of ORs in non-olfactorytissues, there are limitations posed by the small number ofantibodies available for similar OR genes. This review presentsthe results of a research series that identifies ectopic expressionsand functions of ORs in non-chemosensory tissues toprovide insight into future research directions.

  17. Expression pattern and binding specificity of chemosensory protein BmCSP4 in the silkworm, Bombyx mori%家蚕化学感受蛋白BmCSP4表达谱及结合特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓培渊; 乔惠丽; 李丹丹; 鲁云风; 李生才; 阚云超

    2011-01-01

    化学感受蛋白(chemosensory proteins,CSPs)是昆虫体内存在的一类主要识别和运载非挥发性的气味分子和化学刺激物的可溶性蛋白.本研究运用半定量RT-PCR方法分析了BmCSP4的时空及组织表达谱.结果表明:BmCSP4在家蚕Bombyx mori各发育阶段均表达,但表达量从4龄到蛹期逐渐减少,且在雌成虫头部、胸部和腹部表达量较少.用1-NPN作为荧光探针,测定了15种外源配基与BmCSP4蛋白的结合特性,结果显示:仅芳香醛类和芳香酮类化合物在浓度10 μmol/L能将1-NPN从BmCSP4中替换50%,苯甲醛解离常数为3.20 μmol/L,对甲氧基苯甲醛解离常数为2.24 μmol/L,2-戊基-3-苯丙基-烯醛解离常数为2.88μmol/L,1-苯基-1-丁酮解离常数为2.04 μmol/L,苯乙酮解离常数为2.52 μmol/L.据此推测,BmCSP4在不同的发育阶段执行不同的生理功能,并可能参与对芳香醛、芳香酮类气味识别过程.%Chemosensory proteins ( CSPs) are a class of small soluble proteins in insects, which are supposed to recognize and transport non-volatility odour molecules and chemical stimuli. In this study, we investigated the expression pattern of BmCSP4 using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that BmCSP4 was expressed across various developmental stages, with gradual decrease from 4th larva to pupa. The tissue expression profile in males and females at adult stage was further studied, and the results showed that the expression level of BmCSP4 was lower in female head ( with antennae removed) , throax and abdomen than in other female tissues. The binding specificity of BmCSP4 to 15 compounds was tested using N-phenyl-1 -naphthylamine (1 -NPN ) as fluorescent probe, and the results showed that only benzaldehyde, p-methoxy benzaldehy, 2-pentyl-3-phenylpropenoic, 1-phenyl-l-butanol and acetophenone at the concentration of 10 junol/L replaced 1-NPN from BmCSP4 by 50% , with the dissociation constants of 3.20, 2.24, 2.88, 2.04 and 2. 52

  18. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Zhao

    Full Text Available Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury, an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions.

  19. Transcriptome and Expression Patterns of Chemosensory Genes in Antennae of the Parasitoid Wasp Chouioia cunea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanni; Wang, Fengzhu; Zhang, Xinyue; Zhang, Suhua; Guo, Shilong; Zhu, Gengping; Liu, Qiang; Li, Min

    2016-01-01

    Chouioia cunea Yang is an endoparasitic wasp that attacks pupae of Hyphantria cunea (Drury), an invasive moth species that severely damages forests in China. Chemosensory systems of insects are used to detect volatile chemical odors such as female sex pheromones and host plant volatiles. The antennae of parasite wasps are important for host detection and other sensory-mediated behaviors. We identified and documented differential expression profiles of chemoreception genes in C. cunea antennae. A total of 25 OBPs, 80 ORs, 10 IRs, 11 CSP, 1 SNMPs, and 17 GRs were annotated from adult male and female C. cunea antennal transcriptomes. The expression profiles of 25 OBPs, 16 ORs, and 17 GRs, 5 CSP, 5 IRs and 1 SNMP were determined by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR for the antenna, head, thorax, and abdomen of male and female C. cunea. A total of 8 OBPs, 14 ORs, and 8 GRs, 1 CSP, 4 IRs and 1 SNMPs were exclusively or primarily expressed in female antennae. These female antennal-specific or dominant expression profiles may assist in locating suitable host and oviposition sites. These genes will provide useful targets for advanced study of their biological functions. PMID:26841106

  20. Antennal Mechanosensory Neurons Mediate Wing Motor Reflexes in Flying Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mamiya, Akira; Dickinson, Michael H

    2015-01-01

    Although many behavioral studies have shown the importance of antennal mechanosensation in various aspects of insect flight control, the identities of the mechanosensory neurons responsible for these functions are still unknown. One candidate is the Johnston's organ (JO) neurons that are located in the second antennal segment and detect phasic and tonic rotations of the third antennal segment relative to the second segment. To investigate how different classes of JO neurons respond to differe...

  1. Antennal phenotype of Mexican haplogroups of the Triatoma dimidiata complex, vectors of Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Concha, Irving; Guerenstein, Pablo G; Ramsey, Janine M; Rojas, Julio C; Catalá, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is a species complex that spans North, Central, and South America and which is a key vector of all known discrete typing units (DTU) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Morphological and genetic studies indicate that T. dimidiata is a species complex with three principal haplogroups (hg) in Mexico. Different markers and traits are still inconclusive regarding if other morphological differentiation may indicate probable behavioral and vectorial divergences within this complex. In this paper we compared the antennae of three Mexican haplogroups (previously verified by molecular markers ND4 and ITS-2) and discussed possible relationships with their capacity to disperse and colonized new habitats. The abundance of each type of sensillum (bristles, basiconics, thick- and thin-walled trichoids) on the antennae of the three haplogroups, were measured under light microscopy and compared using Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric and multivariate non-parametric analyses. Discriminant analyses indicate significant differences among the antennal phenotype of haplogroups either for adults and some nymphal stages, indicating consistency of the character to analyze intraspecific variability within the complex. The present study shows that the adult antennal pedicel of the T. dimidiata complex have abundant chemosensory sensilla, according with good capacity for dispersal and invasion of different habitats also related to their high capacity to adapt to conserved as well as modified habitats. However, the numerical differences among the haplogroups are suggesting variations in that capacity. The results here presented support the evidence of T. dimidiata as a species complex but show females and males in a different way. Given the close link between the bug's sensory system and its habitat and host-seeking behavior, AP characterization could be useful to complement genetic, neurological and ethological studies of the closely

  2. Evolution of herbivory in Drosophilidae linked to loss of behaviors, antennal responses, odorant receptors, and ancestral diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Huertas, Benjamin; Mitchell, Robert F; Lapoint, Richard T; Faucher, Cécile P; Hildebrand, John G; Whiteman, Noah K

    2015-03-10

    Herbivory is a key innovation in insects, yet has only evolved in one-third of living orders. The evolution of herbivory likely involves major behavioral changes mediated by remodeling of canonical chemosensory modules. Herbivorous flies in the genus Scaptomyza (Drosophilidae) are compelling species in which to study the genomic architecture linked to the transition to herbivory because they recently evolved from microbe-feeding ancestors and are closely related to Drosophila melanogaster. We found that Scaptomyza flava, a leaf-mining specialist on plants in the family (Brassicaceae), was not attracted to yeast volatiles in a four-field olfactometer assay, whereas D. melanogaster was strongly attracted to these volatiles. Yeast-associated volatiles, especially short-chain aliphatic esters, elicited strong antennal responses in D. melanogaster, but weak antennal responses in electroantennographic recordings from S. flava. We sequenced the genome of S. flava and characterized this species' odorant receptor repertoire. Orthologs of odorant receptors, which detect yeast volatiles in D. melanogaster and mediate critical host-choice behavior, were deleted or pseudogenized in the genome of S. flava. These genes were lost step-wise during the evolution of Scaptomyza. Additionally, Scaptomyza has experienced gene duplication and likely positive selection in paralogs of Or67b in D. melanogaster. Olfactory sensory neurons expressing Or67b are sensitive to green-leaf volatiles. Major trophic shifts in insects are associated with chemoreceptor gene loss as recently evolved ecologies shape sensory repertoires. PMID:25624509

  3. Antennal proteome comparison of sexually mature drone and forager honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mao; Song, Feifei; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Li, Jianke

    2011-07-01

    Honeybees have evolved an intricate system of chemical communication to regulate their complex social interactions. Specific proteins involved in odorant detection most likely supported this chemical communication. Odorant reception takes place mainly in the antennae within hairlike structures called olfactory sensilla. Antennal proteomes of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees (an age group of bees assigned to perform field tasks) were compared using two-dimensional electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and bioinformatics. Sixty-one differentially expressed proteins were identified in which 67% were highly upregulated in the drones' antennae whereas only 33% upregulated in the worker bees' antennae. The antennae of the worker bees strongly expressed carbohydrate and energy metabolism and molecular transporters signifying a strong demand for metabolic energy and odorant binding proteins for their foraging activities and other olfactory responses, while proteins related to fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, and protein folding were strongly upregulated in the drones' antennae as an indication of the importance for the detection and degradation of sex pheromones during queen identification for mating. On the basis of both groups of altered antenna proteins, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production and molecular transporters comprised more than 80% of the functional enrichment analysis and 45% of the constructed biological interaction networks (BIN), respectively. This suggests these two protein families play crucial roles in the antennal olfactory function of sexually mature drone and forager worker bees. Several key node proteins in the BIN were validated at the transcript level. This first global proteomic comparative analysis of antennae reveals sex-biased protein expression in both bees, indicating that odorant response mechanisms are sex-specific because of natural selection for different olfactory

  4. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14449.001 PMID:27097104

  5. Airflow and optic flow mediate antennal positioning in flying honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy Khurana, Taruni; Sane, Sanjay P

    2016-01-01

    To maintain their speeds during navigation, insects rely on feedback from their visual and mechanosensory modalities. Although optic flow plays an essential role in speed determination, it is less reliable under conditions of low light or sparse landmarks. Under such conditions, insects rely on feedback from antennal mechanosensors but it is not clear how these inputs combine to elicit flight-related antennal behaviours. We here show that antennal movements of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, are governed by combined visual and antennal mechanosensory inputs. Frontal airflow, as experienced during forward flight, causes antennae to actively move forward as a sigmoidal function of absolute airspeed values. However, corresponding front-to-back optic flow causes antennae to move backward, as a linear function of relative optic flow, opposite the airspeed response. When combined, these inputs maintain antennal position in a state of dynamic equilibrium. PMID:27097104

  6. Antennes lecteurs RFID à polarisation circulaire pour application robotique

    OpenAIRE

    Hebib, Sami; Bouaziz, Sofiene; Aubert, Hervé; Lerasle, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    National audience Dans ce papier, une nouvelle antenne lecteur RFID à polarisation circulaire a été développée pour la chaine de radiolocalisation du robot Rackham du LAAS-CNRS. Cette antenne (20 cm x 20 cm) permet de couvrir la totalité de bande RFID UHF (860-960 MHz) et présente un gain simulé de 4dBi. Deux exemplaires de cette antenne ont été fabriqués et mesurés. Les tests en radiolocalisation de ces antennes montrent leur conformité aux exigences de l'application robotique considérée....

  7. Expression Divergence of Chemosensory Genes between Drosophila sechellia and Its Sibling Species and Its Implications for Host Shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiao, Meng-Shin; Chang, Jia-Ming; Fan, Wen-Lang; Lu, Mei-Yeh Jade; Notredame, Cedric; Fang, Shu; Kondo, Rumi; Li, Wen-Hsiung

    2015-10-01

    Drosophila sechellia relies exclusively on the fruits of Morinda citrifolia, which are toxic to most insects, including its sibling species Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila simulans. Although several odorant binding protein (Obp) genes and olfactory receptor (Or) genes have been suggested to be associated with the D. sechellia host shift, a broad view of how chemosensory genes have contributed to this shift is still lacking. We therefore studied the transcriptomes of antennae, the main organ responsible for detecting food resource and oviposition, of D. sechellia and its two sibling species. We wanted to know whether gene expression, particularly chemosensory genes, has diverged between D. sechellia and its two sibling species. Using a very stringent definition of differential gene expression, we found a higher percentage of chemosensory genes differentially expressed in the D. sechellia lineage (7.8%) than in the D. simulans lineage (5.4%); for upregulated chemosensory genes, the percentages were 8.8% in D. sechellia and 5.2% in D. simulans. Interestingly, Obp50a exhibited the highest upregulation, an approximately 100-fold increase, and Or85c--previously reported to be a larva-specific gene--showed approximately 20-fold upregulation in D. sechellia. Furthermore, Ir84a (ionotropic receptor 84a), which has been proposed to be associated with male courtship behavior, was significantly upregulated in D. sechellia. We also found expression divergence in most of the chemosensory gene families between D. sechellia and the two sibling species. Our observations suggest that the host shift of D. sechellia was associated with the enrichment of differentially expressed, particularly upregulated, chemosensory genes. PMID:26430061

  8. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Eleanor J; Shah, Nirao M

    2014-01-01

    Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse. PMID:24587340

  9. Complex chemosensory control of female reproductive behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor J Fraser

    Full Text Available Olfaction exerts a profound influence on reproductive physiology and behavior in many animals, including rodents. Odors are recognized by sensory neurons residing in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE and the vomeronasal organ (VNO in mice and many other vertebrates. The relative contributions of the MOE and VNO in the display of female behaviors are not well understood. Mice null for Cnga2 or Trpc2 essentially lack odor-evoked activity in the MOE and VNO, respectively. Using females mutant for one or both of Cnga2 and Trpc2, we find that maternal care is differentially regulated by the MOE and VNO: retrieval of wandering pups requires the MOE and is regulated redundantly by the VNO whereas maternal aggression requires both sensory epithelia to be functional. Female sexual receptivity appears to be regulated by both the MOE and VNO. Trpc2 null females have previously been shown to display male-type mounting towards other males. Remarkably, we find that females double mutant for Cnga2 and Trpc2 continue to mount other males, indicating that the disinhibition of male-type sexual displays observed in Trpc2 null females does not require chemosensory input from a functional MOE. Taken together, our findings reveal a previously unappreciated complexity in the chemosensory control of reproductive behaviors in the female mouse.

  10. Mapping the expression of soluble olfactory proteins in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, Francesca Romana; Iovinella, Immacolata; Felicioli, Antonio; Niccolini, Alberto; Calvello, Maria Antonietta; Carucci, Maria Giovanna; Qiao, Huili; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Turillazzi, Stefano; Moneti, Gloriano; Pelosi, Paolo

    2010-04-01

    Chemical communication in insects is mediated by soluble binding proteins, belonging to two large families, Odorant-binding Proteins (OBPs) and Chemosensory Proteins (CSPs). Recently, evidence has been provided that OBPs are involved in recognition of chemical stimuli. We therefore decided to investigate the expression of OBPs and CSPs in the honeybee at the protein level, using a proteomic approach. Our results are in agreement with previous reports of expression at the RNA level and show that 12 of the 21 OBPs predicted in the genome of the honeybee Apis mellifera and 2 of the 6 CSPs are present in the foragers' antennae, while the larvae express only three OBPs and a single CSP. MALDI mass spectrometry on crude antennal extracts and MALDI profiling on sections of antennae demonstrated that these techniques can be applied to investigate individual differences in the expression of abundant proteins, such as OBPs and CSPs, as well as to detect the presence of proteins in different regions of the antenna. Finally, as part of a project aimed at the characterization of all OBPs and CSPs of the honeybee, we expressed 5 OBPs and 4 CSPs in a bacterial system and measured their affinity to a number of ligands. Clear differences in their binding spectra have been observed between OBPs, as well as CSPs. PMID:20155982

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  6. Olfactory and solitary chemosensory cells: two different chemosensory systems in the nasal cavity of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Anne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nasal cavity of all vertebrates houses multiple chemosensors, either innervated by the Ist (olfactory or the Vth (trigeminal cranial nerve. Various types of receptor cells are present, either segregated in different compartments (e.g. in rodents or mingled in one epithelium (e.g. fish. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells have been reported for several species. Alligators which seek their prey both above and under water have only one nasal compartment. Information about their olfactory epithelium is limited. Since alligators seem to detect both volatile and water-soluble odour cues, I tested whether different sensory cell types are present in the olfactory epithelium. Results Electron microscopy and immunocytochemistry were used to examine the sensory epithelium of the nasal cavity of the American alligator. Almost the entire nasal cavity is lined with olfactory (sensory epithelium. Two types of olfactory sensory neurons are present. Both types bear cilia as well as microvilli at their apical endings and express the typical markers for olfactory neurons. The density of these olfactory neurons varies along the nasal cavity. In addition, solitary chemosensory cells innervated by trigeminal nerve fibres, are intermingled with olfactory sensory neurons. Solitary chemosensory cells express components of the PLC-transduction cascade found in solitary chemosensory cells in rodents. Conclusion The nasal cavity of the American alligator contains two different chemosensory systems incorporated in the same sensory epithelium: the olfactory system proper and solitary chemosensory cells. The olfactory system contains two morphological distinct types of ciliated olfactory receptor neurons.

  7. Calcium Imaging of Pheromone Responses in the Insect Antennal Lobe

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Susy M.; Wang, Jing W.

    2013-01-01

    Calcium imaging is a powerful technique that permits the visual monitoring of neural responses to pheromones and other odors in large ensembles of neurons. Here, we describe a method that permits the monitoring of Drosophila antennal lobe responses to odors using the genetically encoded calcium monitor GCaMP.

  8. Expression of taste receptors in Solitary Chemosensory Cells of rodent airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbarbati Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemical irritation of airway mucosa elicits a variety of reflex responses such as coughing, apnea, and laryngeal closure. Inhaled irritants can activate either chemosensitive free nerve endings, laryngeal taste buds or solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs. The SCC population lies in the nasal respiratory epithelium, vomeronasal organ, and larynx, as well as deeper in the airway. The objective of this study is to map the distribution of SCCs within the airways and to determine the elements of the chemosensory transduction cascade expressed in these SCCs. Methods We utilized a combination of immunohistochemistry and molecular techniques (rtPCR and in situ hybridization on rats and transgenic mice where the Tas1R3 or TRPM5 promoter drives expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP. Results Epithelial SCCs specialized for chemoreception are distributed throughout much of the respiratory tree of rodents. These cells express elements of the taste transduction cascade, including Tas1R and Tas2R receptor molecules, α-gustducin, PLCβ2 and TrpM5. The Tas2R bitter taste receptors are present throughout the entire respiratory tract. In contrast, the Tas1R sweet/umami taste receptors are expressed by numerous SCCs in the nasal cavity, but decrease in prevalence in the trachea, and are absent in the lower airways. Conclusions Elements of the taste transduction cascade including taste receptors are expressed by SCCs distributed throughout the airways. In the nasal cavity, SCCs, expressing Tas1R and Tas2R taste receptors, mediate detection of irritants and foreign substances which trigger trigeminally-mediated protective airway reflexes. Lower in the respiratory tract, similar chemosensory cells are not related to the trigeminal nerve but may still trigger local epithelial responses to irritants. In total, SCCs should be considered chemoreceptor cells that help in preventing damage to the respiratory tract caused by inhaled irritants and

  9. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eVergara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research effort performed on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors, environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks, and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents, simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro/nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change.The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to adapt in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the

  10. Sensor selection and chemo-sensory optimization: toward an adaptable chemo-sensory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Alexander; Llobet, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    Over the past two decades, despite the tremendous research on chemical sensors and machine olfaction to develop micro-sensory systems that will accomplish the growing existent needs in personal health (implantable sensors), environment monitoring (widely distributed sensor networks), and security/threat detection (chemo/bio warfare agents), simple, low-cost molecular sensing platforms capable of long-term autonomous operation remain beyond the current state-of-the-art of chemical sensing. A fundamental issue within this context is that most of the chemical sensors depend on interactions between the targeted species and the surfaces functionalized with receptors that bind the target species selectively, and that these binding events are coupled with transduction processes that begin to change when they are exposed to the messy world of real samples. With the advent of fundamental breakthroughs at the intersection of materials science, micro- and nano-technology, and signal processing, hybrid chemo-sensory systems have incorporated tunable, optimizable operating parameters, through which changes in the response characteristics can be modeled and compensated as the environmental conditions or application needs change. The objective of this article, in this context, is to bring together the key advances at the device, data processing, and system levels that enable chemo-sensory systems to "adapt" in response to their environments. Accordingly, in this review we will feature the research effort made by selected experts on chemical sensing and information theory, whose work has been devoted to develop strategies that provide tunability and adaptability to single sensor devices or sensory array systems. Particularly, we consider sensor-array selection, modulation of internal sensing parameters, and active sensing. The article ends with some conclusions drawn from the results presented and a visionary look toward the future in terms of how the field may evolve. PMID

  11. Family size evolution in Drosophila chemosensory gene families: a comparative analysis with a critical appraisal of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Francisca C; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Campos, Jose Luis; Rozas, Julio

    2014-07-01

    Gene turnover rates and the evolution of gene family sizes are important aspects of genome evolution. Here, we use curated sequence data of the major chemosensory gene families from Drosophila-the gustatory receptor, odorant receptor, ionotropic receptor, and odorant-binding protein families-to conduct a comparative analysis among families, exploring different methods to estimate gene birth and death rates, including an ad hoc simulation study. Remarkably, we found that the state-of-the-art methods may produce very different rate estimates, which may lead to disparate conclusions regarding the evolution of chemosensory gene family sizes in Drosophila. Among biological factors, we found that a peculiarity of D. sechellia's gene turnover rates was a major source of bias in global estimates, whereas gene conversion had negligible effects for the families analyzed herein. Turnover rates vary considerably among families, subfamilies, and ortholog groups although all analyzed families were quite dynamic in terms of gene turnover. Computer simulations showed that the methods that use ortholog group information appear to be the most accurate for the Drosophila chemosensory families. Most importantly, these results reveal the potential of rate heterogeneity among lineages to severely bias some turnover rate estimation methods and the need of further evaluating the performance of these methods in a more diverse sampling of gene families and phylogenetic contexts. Using branch-specific codon substitution models, we find further evidence of positive selection in recently duplicated genes, which attests to a nonneutral aspect of the gene birth-and-death process. PMID:24951565

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  20. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health...

  1. Genetic Analysis of Chemosensory Traits in Human Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Knaapila, Antti; Hwang, Liang-Dar; Lysenko, Anna; Duke, Fujiko F.; Fesi, Brad; Khoshnevisan, Amin; James, Rebecca S.; Wysocki, Charles J.; Rhyu, MeeRa; Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Mura, Emi; Nagai, Hajime; Danielle R Reed

    2012-01-01

    We explored genetic influences on the perception of taste and smell stimuli. Adult twins rated the chemosensory aspects of water, sucrose, sodium chloride, citric acid, ethanol, quinine hydrochloride, phenylthiocarbamide (PTC), potassium chloride, calcium chloride, cinnamon, androstenone, Galaxolide™, cilantro, and basil. For most traits, individual differences were stable over time and some traits were heritable (h2 from 0.41 to 0.71). Subjects were genotyped for 44 single nucleotide polymor...

  2. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Linda M Bartoshuk; Mennella, Julie A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches inc...

  3. Chemosensory Cues to Conspecific Emotional Stress Activate Amygdala in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R.; Strey, Helmut H.; Botanov, Yevgeny; Tolkunov, Denis; Rubin, Denis; Weber, Jochen; Frederick, Blaise DeBonneval; Savoy, Robert L.; Cox, David

    2009-01-01

    Alarm substances are airborne chemical signals, released by an individual into the environment, which communicate emotional stress between conspecifics. Here we tested whether humans, like other mammals, are able to detect emotional stress in others by chemosensory cues. Sweat samples collected from individuals undergoing an acute emotional stressor, with exercise as a control, were pooled and presented to a separate group of participants (blind to condition) during four experiments. In an fM...

  4. Mutations Affecting the Chemosensory Neurons of Caenorhabditis Elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Starich, T. A.; Herman, R. K.; Kari, C. K.; Yeh, W. H.; Schackwitz, W. S.; Schuyler, M. W.; Collet, J.; Thomas, J. H.; Riddle, D L

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditio...

  5. CRDB: Database of Chemosensory Receptor Gene Families in Vertebrate

    OpenAIRE

    Dong Dong; Ke Jin; Xiaoli Wu; Yang Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously u...

  6. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabirot, Marianne; Picerno, Pablo; Valencia, Jorge; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, José

    2012-12-01

    Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals) that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates), although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species. PMID:23342514

  7. Characteristics of chemosensory disorders--results from a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkonidis, Christos; Grosse, Franz; Ninh, Timomi; Hummel, Cornelia; Haehner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    This survey was undertaken to investigate the nature of chemosensory dysfunction in relation to the underlying cause, severity, and course of the disease and to elucidate their clinical significance. A total of 269 patients (116 men and 149 women) with chemosensory disorders participated in the survey. Approximately 89 % had olfactory loss, either alone or in combination with taste loss and 2 % had gustatory loss alone; 7.4 % had chemosensory distortions. Dysosmia was significantly higher in those on more than four medicines per day (p eating followed by a decrease in general quality of life (QoL). Patients with gradual onset of symptoms or long-standing disease complained the least (p sexual behavior and 35.9 % suffered depression. 60.4 % did not cope well with the changes in their lives. Women reported more problems than men, particularly relating to interpersonal communication (64.5 vs. 57.6 %) and mood (47.9 vs. 40.9 %). Women also had more frequent spontaneous recollections of smells (p disorders have a significant impact on QoL. Reduced pleasure from eating is the predominant complaint of patients seeking medical attention. The steeper the onset of symptoms, the worse the ability to cope with changes in daily life. Older patients value the visual appeal, whereas younger patients value the haptic feedback of foods. PMID:25086864

  8. Differential antennal proteome comparison of adult honeybee drone, worker and queen (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yu; Song, Feifei; Zhang, Lan; Aleku, Dereje Woltedji; Han, Bin; Feng, Mao; Li, Jianke

    2012-01-01

    To understand the olfactory mechanism of honeybee antennae in detecting specific volatile compounds in the atmosphere, antennal proteome differences of drone, worker and queen were compared using 2-DE, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Therefore, 107 proteins were altered their expressions in the antennae of drone, worker and queen bees. There were 54, 21 and 32 up-regulated proteins in the antennae of drone, worker and queen, respectively. Proteins upregulated in the drone antennae were involved in fatty acid metabolism, antioxidation, carbohydrate metabolism and energy production, protein folding and cytoskeleton. Proteins upregulated in the antennae of worker and queen bees were related to carbohydrate metabolism and energy production while molecular transporters were upregulated in the queen antennae. Our results explain the role played by the antennae of drone is to aid in perceiving the queen sexual pheromones, in the worker antennae to assist for food search and social communication and in the queen antennae to help pheromone communication with the worker and the drone during the mating flight. This first proteomic study significantly extends our understanding of honeybee olfactory activities and the possible mechanisms played by the antennae in response to various environmental, social, biological and biochemical signals. PMID:21982827

  9. Rapid odor processing in the honeybee antennal lobe network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolf Menzel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In their natural environment, many insects need to identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants on a rich and dynamic olfactory background. Behavioral studies have demonstrated that bees recognize learned odors within less than 200ms, indicating a rapid processing of olfactory input in the sensory pathway. We studied the role of the honeybee antennal lobe network in constructing a fast and reliable code of odor identity using in vivo intracellular recordings of individual projection neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs. We found a complementary ensemble code where odor identity is encoded in the spatio-temporal pattern of response latencies as well as in the pattern of activated and inactivated PN firing. This coding scheme rapidly reaches a stable representation within 50-150ms after stimulus onset. Testing an odor mixture versus its individual compounds revealed different representations in the two morphologically distinct types of lateral and median (l- and m- PNs. Individual m-PNs mixture responses were dominated by the most effective compound (elemental representation whereas l-PNs showed suppressed responses to the mixture but not to its individual compounds (synthetic representation. The onset of inhibition in the membrane potential of l-PNs coincided with the responses of putative inhibitory interneurons that responded significantly faster than PNs. Taken together, our results suggest that processing within the local interneuron network of the AL is an essential component of constructing the antennal lobe population code.

  10. Genetic Analysis of the Regulation of Type IV Pilus Function by the Chp Chemosensory System of Pseudomonas aeruginosa▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Jacob J.; West, Joyce T.; Engel, Joanne N.

    2009-01-01

    The virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa involves the coordinate expression of many virulence factors, including type IV pili, which are required for colonization of host tissues and for twitching motility. Type IV pilus function is controlled in part by the Chp chemosensory system, which includes a histidine kinase, ChpA, and two CheY-like response regulators, PilG and PilH. How the Chp components interface with the type IV pilus motor proteins PilB, PilT, and PilU ...

  11. Antennal transcriptome and differential expression of olfactory genes in the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Jian; Wang, Hai-Xiang; Yan, Zeng-Guang; Zhang, Min-Zhao; Wei, Chun-Hua; Qin, Xiao-Chun; Ji, Wei-Rong; Falabella, Patrizia; Du, Yan-Li

    2016-01-01

    The yellow peach moth (YPM), Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), is a multivoltine insect pest of crops and fruits. Antennal-expressed receptors are important for insects to detect olfactory cues for host finding, mate attraction and oviposition site selection. However, few olfactory related genes were reported in YPM until now. In the present study, we sequenced and characterized the antennal transcriptomes of male and female YPM. In total, 15 putative odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 46 putative odorant receptors (ORs) and 7 putative ionotropic receptors (IRs) were annotated and identified as olfactory-related genes of C. punctiferalis. Further analysis of RT-qPCR revealed that all these olfactory genes are primarily or uniquely expressed in male and female antennae. Among which, 3 OBPs (OBP4, OBP8 and PBP2) and 4 ORs (OR22, OR26, OR44 and OR46) were specially expressed in male antennae, whereas 4 ORs (OR5, OR16, OR25 and OR42) were primarily expressed in female antennae. The predicted protein sequences were compared with homologs in other lepidopteran species and model insects, which showed high sequence homologies between C. punctiferalis and O. furnacalis. Our work allows for further functional studies of pheromone and general odorant detection genes, which might be meaningful targets for pest management. PMID:27364081

  12. Chemosensory signals of competition increase the skin conductance response in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Dirk; Schlösser, Sabine; Hawighorst, Maren; Pause, Bettina M

    2010-12-01

    In vertebrates, chemosensory signals of competition are communicated between conspecifics, eliciting behavioral and physiological adaptations in the perceiving animal. The current study investigates, whether chemosensory signals of competition are also communicated between humans, and whether they elicit physiological changes in the perceiver. It is further investigated whether personality traits alter this physiological responding. Axillary sweat was collected from six male donors during a competition (badminton match) and a sport control condition (running). The donors' testosterone rose stronger during the competition as compared to the sport control condition. The chemosensory stimuli were presented to 18 (9 male) participants through a constant-flow olfactometer, while the skin conductance response (SCR) was measured. Results reveal that the SCR was larger in response to chemosensory signals collected during the competition condition as compared to those collected during the sport control condition. Furthermore, regression analyses showed, that higher scores on trait social anxiety were related to larger SCRs towards the chemosensory signals of competition. The current result suggests that chemosensory signals of competition can be communicated between humans, and that they elicit orienting in the perceiving individual. These data are consistent with current research, suggesting that high socially anxious individuals process threatening social information preferentially. The current results add to the growing body of research into human chemosensory communication of social information, and extend previous research on the chemosensory communication of anxiety. PMID:20708023

  13. Representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe of leaf-cutting ants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eRuchty

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects are equipped with various types of antennal sensilla, which house thermosensitive neurons adapted to receive different parameters of the thermal environment for a variety of temperature-guided behaviors. In the leaf-cutting ant Atta vollenweideri, the physiology and the morphology of the thermosensitive sensillum coeloconicum (Sc has been thoroughly investigated. However, the central projections of its receptor neurons are unknown. Here we selectively stained the three neurons found in single Sc and tracked their axons into the brain of Atta vollenweideri workers. Each of the three axons terminates in a single glomerulus of the antennal lobe (Sc-glomeruli. Two of the innervated glomeruli are adjacent to each other and are located laterally, while the third one is clearly separated and located medially in the antennal lobe. Using two-photon Ca2+ imaging of antennal lobe projection neurons, we studied where in the antennal lobe thermal information is represented. In the 11 investigated antennal lobes, we found up to 10 different glomeruli in a single specimen responding to temperature stimulation. Both, warm- and cold-sensitive glomeruli could be identified. The thermosensitive glomeruli were mainly located in the medial part of the antennal lobe. Based on the general representation of thermal information in the antennal lobe and functional data on the Sc-glomeruli we conclude that temperature stimuli received by Sc are processed in the medial of the three target glomeruli. The present study reveals an important role of the antennal lobe in temperature processing and links a specific thermosensitive neuron to its central target glomerulus.

  14. Age-related trends in gene expression in the chemosensory-nasal mucosae of senescence-accelerated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getchell, Thomas V; Peng, Xuejun; Stromberg, Arnold J; Chen, Kuey-Chu; Paul Green, C; Subhedar, Nishikant K; Shah, Dharmen S; Mattson, Mark P; Getchell, Marilyn L

    2003-04-01

    We have utilized high-density GeneChip oligonucleotide arrays to investigate the use of the senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) as a biogerontological resource to identify patterns of gene expression in the chemosensory-nasal mucosa. Gene profiling in chronologically young and old mice of the senescence-resistant (SAMR) and senescence-prone (SAMP) strains revealed 133 known genes that were modulated by a three-fold or greater change either in one strain or the other or in both strains during aging. We also identified known genes in our study which based on their encoded proteins were identified as aging-related genes in the aging neocortex and cerebellum of mice as reported by Lee et al. (2000) [Nat. Genet. 25 (2000) 294]. Changes in gene profiles for chemosensory-related genes including olfactory and vomeronasal receptors, sensory transduction-associated proteins, and odor and pheromone transport molecules in the young SAMR and SAMP were compared with age-matched C57BL/6J mice. An analysis of known gene expression profiles suggests that changes in the expression of immune factor genes and genes associated with cell cycle progression and cell death were particularly prominent in the old SAM strains. A preliminary cellular validation study supported the dysregulation of cell cycle-related genes in the old SAM strains. The results of our initial study indicated that the use of the SAM models of aging could provide substantive information leading to a more fundamental understanding of the aging process in the chemosensory-nasal mucosa at the genomic, molecular, and cellular levels. PMID:12605961

  15. Conception d'antennes spirales large bande à alimentation coplanaire pour des applications radar sur dirigeable

    OpenAIRE

    Louertani, Karim

    2010-01-01

    Un dirigeable haute altitude (HAA: High Altitude Airship) évoluant à plus de 20 km au-dessus du sol est envisagé en tant que plate-forme d'accueil pour un réseau d'antennes spirales pour des applications radar. L'antenne spirale d'Archimède est un excellent élément rayonnant pour des applications nécessitant une large bande de fréquences ainsi qu'une polarisation circulaire. Dans la plupart des cas, l'alimentation se fait au centre de l'antenne spirale. Cependant, certains environnements inte...

  16. 中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3的配基结合功能分析%Molecular binding characterization with chemical ligands of a chemosensory protein AcerCSP3 in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana Fabricius ( Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 张林雅; 倪翠侠; 商晗武

    2011-01-01

    为研究中华蜜蜂和Apis cerana cerana化学感受蛋白AcerCSP3在化学感受系统中的生理功能,本实验通过对AcerCSP3进行原核表达、分离纯化后,利用荧光法研究了体外重组AcerCSP3与1-NPN以及候选化学配基的结合特征.Scatchard方程显示AcerCSP3与1-NPN的解离常数KD为8.29 μmol/L,结合位点数约等于1.在候选配基竞争1-NPN与AcerCSP3结合的实验中,5种配基均能在200 μmol/L浓度下使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至50%以下.其中β-紫罗兰酮其至能使1-NPN的相对荧光强度下降至10%左右,表明候选配基均与AcerCSP3有较强的结合能力,而3,4-二甲基苯甲醛与中蜂AcerCSP3的结合能力最强,KD达到18.77 μmol/L.本研究所用化学配基均为植物花与叶片的挥发性的次生代谢产物,表明AcerCSP3可能作为中蜂化学感受系统的一部分,在其搜寻某些植物花粉蜜源时作为气味分子运载体发挥一定的作用.%In order to clarify the physiological function of AcerCSP3, a chemosensory protein (CSP) in Apis cerana cerana, the recombinant protein AcerCSP3 was successfully expressed in a optimized prokaryotic expression system, and the binding properties of the purified AcerCSP3 with 1-NPN was then investigated.Scatchard plot analysis indicated that the dissociation constant between 1-NPN and AcerCSP3 was 8.29 μmol/L and the binding site number was about one. In the competitive binding assays, all the five candidate ligands at the concentration of 200 μmol/L reduced the relative fluorescence intensity of 1-NPN by more than 50% , with β-ionone causing 90% reduction in the relative fluorescence intensity, suggesting that all the tested ligands have strong binding capability with AcerCSP3. 3, 4-Dimethylbenzaldehyde had the strongest binding capability with a dissociation constant as high as 18.77 μmol/L. All the candidate chemical ligands are plant volatile secondary metabolites, indicating that AcerCSP3 may act as a carier for

  17. Chemosensory Dysfunction in Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Joint Exploration of Olfaction and Taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Mélanie; de Timary, Philippe; Vander Stappen, Caroline; Guettat, Lamia; Lecomte, Benoît; Rombaux, Philippe; Maurage, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Chemosensory (olfaction-taste) dysfunctions are considered as reliable biomarkers in many neurological and psychiatric states. However, experimental measures of chemosensory abilities are lacking in alcohol-dependence (AD) and Korsakoff Syndrome (KS, a neurological complication of AD), despite the role played by alcohol-related odors and taste in the emergence and maintenance of AD. This study thus investigated chemosensory impairments in AD and KS. Olfactory-gustatory measures were taken among 20 KS, 20 AD, and 20 control participants. Olfaction (odor detection-discrimination-identification) was assessed using the "Sniffin Sticks" battery and taste was measured using the "Taste Strips" task. Impairments were found for high-level olfaction in AD (odor discrimination) and KS (odor discrimination-identification), even after controlling for psychopathological comorbidities. Gustatory deficits were also observed in both groups, indexing a global deficit for chemosensory perception. Finally, the gradient of impairment between the successive disease stages for odor identification suggests that the hypothesis of a continuum between AD and KS regarding cognitive deficits can be generalized to chemosensory perception. AD and KS are thus characterized by deficits in chemosensory abilities, which could constitute a marker of the AD-KS transition. In view of its deleterious influence on everyday life, chemosensory dysfunction should also be taken into account in clinical settings. PMID:26354933

  18. GABAergic mechanisms contributing to categorical amygdala responses to chemosensory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westberry, Jenne M; Meredith, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Chemosensory stimuli from conspecific and heterospecific animals, elicit categorically different immediate-early gene response-patterns in medial amygdala in male hamsters and mice. We previously showed that conspecific signals activate posterior (MeP) as well as anterior medial amygdala (MeA), and especially relevant heterospecific signals such as chemosensory stimuli from potential predators also activate MeP in mice. Other heterospecific chemosignals activate MeA, but not MeP. Here we show that male hamster amygdala responds significantly differentially to different conspecific signals, by activating different proportions of cells of different phenotype, possibly leading to differential activation of downstream circuits. Heterospecific signals that fail to activate MeP do activate GABA-immunoreactive cells in the adjacent caudal main intercalated nucleus (mICNc) and elicit selective suppression of MeP cells bearing GABA-Receptors, suggesting GABA inhibition in MeP by GABAergic cells in mICNc. Overall, work presented here suggests that medial amygdala may discriminate between important conspecific social signals, distinguish them from the social signals of other species and convey that information to brain circuits eliciting appropriate social behavior. PMID:27329335

  19. The anatomical pathways for antennal sensory information in the central nervous system of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Yoritsune, Atsushi; Aonuma, Hitoshi

    2012-01-01

    Antennae are one of the major organs to detect chemo- and mechanosensory cue in crickets. Little is known how crickets process and integrate different modality of information in the brain. We thus used a number of different anatomical techniques to gain an understanding of the neural pathways extending from the antennal sensory neurons up to centers in the brain. We identified seven antennal sensory tracts (assigned as T1–7) utilizing anterograde dye filling from the antennal nerve. Tracts T1...

  20. Mutations affecting the chemosensory neurons of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starich, T A; Herman, R K; Kari, C K; Yeh, W H; Schackwitz, W S; Schuyler, M W; Collet, J; Thomas, J H; Riddle, D L

    1995-01-01

    We have identified and characterized 95 mutations that reduce or abolish dye filling of amphid and phasmid neurons and that have little effect on viability, fertility or movement. Twenty-seven mutations occurred spontaneously in strains with a high frequency of transposon insertion. Sixty-eight were isolated after treatment with EMS. All of the mutations result in defects in one or more chemosensory responses, such as chemotaxis to ammonium chloride or formation of dauer larvae under conditions of starvation and overcrowding. Seventy-five of the mutations are alleles of 12 previously defined genes, mutations which were previously shown to lead to defects in amphid ultrastructure. We have assigned 20 mutations to 13 new genes, called dyf-1 through dyf-13. We expect that the genes represented by dye-filing defective mutants are important for the differentiation of amphid and phasmid chemosensilla. PMID:7705621

  1. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 h...

  2. The forkhead domain gene unc-130 generates chemosensory neuron diversity in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Sarafi-Reinach, Trina R.; Sengupta, Piali

    2000-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans responds to its complex chemical environment using a small number of chemosensory neurons. Each of these neurons exhibits a unique sensory response repertoire. The developmental mechanisms that generate this diversity of function are largely unknown. Many C. elegans chemosensory neurons, including the AWA and ASG neurons, arise as lineal sisters of an asymmetric division. Here we describe the gene unc-130, which plays a role in the generation of the AWA and ASG neurons....

  3. Male Syrian Hamsters Demonstrate a Conditioned Place Preference for Sexual Behavior and Female Chemosensory Stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Margaret R.; Meerts, Sarah H.; Sisk, Cheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Sexual behavior is a natural reward for many rodent species, and it often includes chemosensory-directed components. Chemosensory stimuli themselves may also be rewarding. Conditioned place preference (CPP) is one paradigm frequently used to test the rewarding properties of a range of stimuli. Males and females of several rodent species show a CPP for sexual behavior, however, it is currently unknown whether sexual behavior can induce a CPP in male Syrian hamsters. As male Syrian hamsters are...

  4. Bitter triggers acetylcholine release from polymodal urethral chemosensory cells and bladder reflexes

    OpenAIRE

    Deckmann, Klaus; Filipski, Katharina; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Fronius, Martin; Althaus, Mike; Rafiq, Amir; Papadakis, Tamara; Renno, Liane; Jurastow, Innokentij; Wessels, Lars; Wolff, Miriam; Schütz, Burkhard; Weihe, Eberhard; Chubanov, Vladimir; Gudermann, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We report the presence of a previously unidentified cholinergic, polymodal chemosensory cell in the mammalian urethra, the potential portal of entry for bacteria and harmful substances into the urogenital system. These cells exhibit structural markers of respiratory chemosensory cells (“brush cells”). They use the classical taste transduction cascade to detect potential hazardous compounds (bitter, umami, uropathogenic bacteria) and release acetylcholine in response. They lie next to sensory ...

  5. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100μl (pCapsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  6. Enhanced carotid body chemosensory activity and the cardiovascular alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eIturriaga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The carotid body (CB plays a main role in the maintenance of the oxygen homeostasis. The hypoxic stimulation of the CB increases the chemosensory discharge, which in turn elicits reflex sympathetic, cardiovascular and ventilatory adjustments. An exacerbate carotid chemosensory activity has been associated with human sympathetic-mediated diseases such as hypertension, insulin resistance, heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Indeed, the CB chemosensory discharge becomes tonically hypereactive in experimental models of OSA and heart failure. Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH, a main feature of OSA, enhances CB chemosensory baseline discharges in normoxia and in response to hypoxia, inducing sympathetic overactivity and hypertension. Oxidative stress, increased levels of ET-1, Angiotensin II and pro-inflammatory cytokines, along with a reduced production of NO in the CB, have been associated with the enhanced carotid chemosensory activity. In this review, we will discuss new evidence supporting a main role for the CB chemoreceptor in the autonomic and cardiorespiratory alterations induced by intermittent hypoxia, as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in the CB chemosensory potentiation.

  7. Antennal sensilla of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata (Meigen) (Diptera: Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D; Liu, X H; Li, X Y; Zhang, M; Li, K

    2013-11-01

    Lucilia sericata (Meigen) is a cosmopolitan synanthropic fly of forensic and medical importance, which can work as a mechanic vector of pathogens or cause myiasis of both human and sheep. As essential olfactory organs, antennae of adult L. sericata were examined with stereoscopic microscope, scanning electron microscope, and laser scanning confocal microscope. On antennal scape and pedicel, both microtirchiae and several bristles are detected, while another two structures, setiferous plaques and pedicellar buttons, are also found on the antennal pedicel. Seven subtypes of antennal sensilla are observed on antennal funiculus including one subtype of trichoid sensilla, two subtypes of basiconic sensilla, two subtypes of coeloconic sensilla, and two subtypes of sensory pits. Size and density of the former four types of sensilla on antennal funiculus are measured. Three distinctive sensillar characters of L. sericata are detected, which may contribute to greater olfactory sensitivity of this species and their wide distribution throughout the world. Unlike the common poreless pedicellar button with mechanoreceptor function, every pedicellar button in L. sericata is perforated by three pores, which might indicate potential chemoreceptor function of this structure. Besides, another unique feature is greater number of setiferous plaques in genus Lucilia than calliphorids of other genera. Expect for the common sensory pits with basiconic or basiconic-like sensilla in them, sensory pits filled with rarely described coeloconic-like sensilla are founded in L. sericata as well. After comparison with previous equivalent findings, the functions of these specific structures are discussed according to the life history of this calliphorid. PMID:23955594

  8. Antennal sensilla of grasshoppers (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in relation to food preferences and habits

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hu-Hai Chen; Yun-Xian Zhao; L E Kang

    2003-12-01

    The external structure, i.e. number and distribution of sensillae on male and female antennae of 12 species of grasshoppers belonging to Pamphaginae, Catantopinae, Oedipodinae and Gomphocerinae in the grasslands of Inner Mongolia was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Five major types of antennal sensillae were detected – trichoid, long basiconic, short basiconic, slender and short basiconic, and coeloconic sensillae. Total number of antennal sensillae varied among different sexes, subfamilies, feeding groups, life forms and eco-forms. Males showed significantly more sensillae than females, due to presence of more short basiconic and coeloconic sensillae. Species under Catantopinae showed more long basiconic sensillae than the others. The Oedipodinae had the highest number of slender and short basiconic sensillae and coeloconic sensillae, followed by Catantopinae and Gomphocerinae; while Pamphaginae had the fewest. The total number of sensillae showed the same trend for these two types amongst the subfamilies as well, species which prefer habits on the ground possessed fewer antennal sensillae than species which prefer to stay on plants. The maximal number of antennal sensillae were observed in hygrophytous species, Chorthippus albomarginatus, in the 12 grasshopper species investigated, although the data is not statistically significant. The general trend which emerged was that species feeding on grass possessed more antennal sensillae, particularly coeloconic sensillae, compared to other feeding group species.

  9. Post-embryonic development of the antennal sensilla in Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides (Hymenoptera: Meliponini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Dihego de Oliveira; Matiello-Guss, Cirlei Pereira; Rönnau, Milton; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2008-03-01

    The sensilla are sensory organs formed by cuticular and cellular structures specialized in reception of chemical and physical stimuli from the environment and transmission to the insect's central nervous system. In function of the great concentration of sensilla, the antennae are the main organs for interaction between bees and with the environment. This work studied the presence of antennal sensilla in the different phases of pupal development of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata anthidioides by means of scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The results showed that antennal sensilla begin their development in the transition of the prepupae to the white-eyed pupae and finish it in the pigmented-body pupae phase. The antennal sensilla were exposed to the environment in the black-eyed pupae when the old cuticle is completely digested, suggesting that only in the final pupal phases can these bees perceive the environmental stimuli. PMID:17992691

  10. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarczyk, Olga A; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion-Cyberball-to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation. PMID:26500572

  11. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E; Feeney, Emma L; Allen, Alissa L

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  12. Do polymorphisms in chemosensory genes matter for human ingestive behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, John E.; Feeney, Emma L.; Allen, Alissa L.

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, basic research in chemoreceptor genetics and neurobiology have revolutionized our understanding of individual differences in chemosensation. From an evolutionary perspective, chemosensory variations appear to have arisen in response to different living environments, generally in the avoidance of toxins and to better detect vital food sources. Today, it is often assumed that these differences may drive variable food preferences and choices, with downstream effects on health and wellness. A growing body of evidence indicates chemosensory variation is far more complex than previously believed. However, just because a genetic polymorphism results in altered receptor function in cultured cells or even behavioral phenotypes in the laboratory, this variation may not be sufficient to influence food choice in free living humans. Still, there is ample evidence to indicate allelic variation in TAS2R38 predicts variation in bitterness of synthetic pharmaceuticals (e.g., propylthiouracil) and natural plant compounds (e.g., goitrin), and this variation associates with differential intake of alcohol and vegetables. Further, this is only one of 25 unique bitter taste genes (TAS2Rs) in humans, and emerging evidence suggests other TAS2Rs may also contain polymorphisms that a functional with respect to ingestive behavior. For example, TAS2R16 polymorphisms are linked to the bitterness of naturally occurring plant compounds and alcoholic beverage intake, a TAS2R19 polymorphism predicts differences in quinine bitterness and grapefruit bitterness and liking, and TAS2R31 polymorphisms associate with differential bitterness of plant compounds like aristolochic acid and the sulfonyl amide sweeteners saccharin and acesulfame-K. More critically with respect to food choices, these polymorphisms may vary independently from each other within and across individuals, meaning a monolithic one-size-fits-all approach to bitterness needs to be abandoned. Nor are genetic

  13. Chemosensory cues from the lacrimal and preputial glands stimulate production of IP3 in the vomeronasal organ and aggression in male mice

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Roger N.; Napier, Audrey; Wekesa, Kennedy S.

    2007-01-01

    The social and reproductive behaviors of most mammals are modulated by chemosensory cues. The perception of some of these cues is mediated by the vomeronasal organ, which is a cartilage-encased elongated organ associated with the vomer bone in the rostral nasal cavity. Several studies have shown that chemosensory cues are present in urine, seminal fluid or vaginal secretions but only a few studies have focused on exocrine glands as a source of chemosensory cues. Here we show that chemosensory...

  14. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Dong

    Full Text Available Chemosensory receptors (CR are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates.

  15. CRDB: database of chemosensory receptor gene families in vertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Dong; Jin, Ke; Wu, Xiaoli; Zhong, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Chemosensory receptors (CR) are crucial for animals to sense the environmental changes and survive on earth. The emergence of whole-genome sequences provides us an opportunity to identify the entire CR gene repertoires. To completely gain more insight into the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates, we identified the nearly all CR genes in 25 vertebrates using homology-based approaches. Among these CR gene repertoires, nearly half of them were identified for the first time in those previously uncharacterized species, such as the guinea pig, giant panda and elephant, etc. Consistent with previous findings, we found that the numbers of CR genes vary extensively among different species, suggesting an extreme form of 'birth-and-death' evolution. For the purpose of facilitating CR gene analysis, we constructed a database with the goals to provide a resource for CR genes annotation and a web tool for exploring their evolutionary patterns. Besides a search engine for the gene extraction from a specific chromosome region, an easy-to-use phylogenetic analysis tool was also provided to facilitate online phylogeny study of CR genes. Our work can provide a rigorous platform for further study on the evolution of CR genes in vertebrates. PMID:22393364

  16. Sexual dimorphism and phenotypic plasticity in the antennal lobe of a stingless bee, Melipona scutellaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselino, Ana Carolina; Hrncir, Michael; da Cruz Landim, Carminda; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Among social insects, the stingless bees (Apidae, Meliponini), a mainly tropical group of highly eusocial bees, present an intriguing variety of well-described olfactory-dependent behaviors showing both caste- and sex-specific adaptations. By contrast, little is known about the neural structures underlying such behavioral richness or the olfactory detection and processing abilities of this insect group. This study therefore aimed to provide the first detailed description and comparison of the brains and primary olfactory centers, the antennal lobes, of the different members of a colony of the stingless bee Melipona scutellaris. Global neutral red staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstructions were used to compare the brain structures of males, workers, and virgin queens with a special emphasis on the antennal lobe. We found significant differences between both sexes and castes with regard to the relative volumes of olfactory and visual neuropils in the brain and also in the number and volume of the olfactory glomeruli. In addition, we identified one (workers, queens) and three or four (males) macroglomeruli in the antennal lobe. In both sexes and all castes, the largest glomerulus (G1) was located at a similar position relative to four identified landmark glomeruli, close to the entrance of the antennal nerve. This similarity in position suggests that G1s of workers, virgin queens, and males of M. scutellaris may correspond to the same glomerular entity, possibly tuned to queen-emitted volatiles since all colony members need this information. PMID:25597397

  17. New Approach to Evaluate the Antennal Response of an Adult Predator Insect to Different Volatile Chemical Compounds by using Electroantennogram Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonouda, Mourad L.

    The antennal response of adult syrphid flies to selected plant volatile chemical compounds was investigated in the present study. The main chemical classes and their chemical compounds were aldehydes (nonanal and benzaldehyde), monoterpene-alcohols (linalool and alpha-terpineol), ketones (6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and 2-undecanone), hydrocarbons (tetradecane) and benzoids (methyl salicylate). Electroantennogram (EAG) records showed that the syrphid antennae were strongly responded to linalool, 6-methyl-5-heptene-2-one and methyl salicylate even at low concentrations, in addition to the high dose concentration of nonanal comparably to the other chemical compounds. The antennae of old syrphid adults were more responsive and elicited higher levels of responses to all compounds rather than young syrphid adults. The antennal sensitivity may differ from one compound to another according to the sex. The difference in responses could be attributed to the sensitivity of olfactory receptors and/or the characterization of binding protein(s). The quality of biocontrol agent could be improved if the chemical interaction between beneficial natural enemies and the surrounding environment is intensively studied and we clearly understand the chemical ecology of each natural enemy.

  18. Context counts! Social anxiety modulates the processing of fearful faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk eAdolph

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available During emotion perception, context is an important source of information. Whether contextual cues from modalities other than vision or audition influence the perception of social emotional information has not been investigated.Thus, the present study aimed at testing emotion perception and regulation in response to fearful facial expressions presented in the context of chemosensory stimuli derived from sweat of anxious individuals. In groups of high (HSA and low socially anxious (LSA participants we recorded the startle reflex (Experiment I, and analysed event-related potentials (ERPs; Experiment II while they viewed anxious facial expressions in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals and chemosensory control stimuli. Results revealed that N1/P1 and N170 amplitudes were larger while Late Positive Potential (LPP activity was smaller for facial expressions presented in the context of the anxiety and the chemosensory control stimulus as compared to facial expressions without a chemosensory context. Furthermore, HSA participants were highly sensitive to the contextual anxiety signals. They showed enhanced motivated attention allocation (LPP, Study II, as well as larger startle responses towards faces in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals than did LSA participants (Study I. Chemosensory context had no effect on emotion regulation, and both LSA and HSA participants showed effective emotion regulation (Study I and II. In conclusion, both anxiety and chemosensory sport context stimuli enhanced early attention allocation and structural encoding, but diminished motivated attention allocation to the facial expressions. The current results show that visual and chemosensory information is integrated on virtually all levels of stimulus processing and that socially anxious individuals might be especially sensitive to chemosensory contextual social information.

  19. Chemical coding and chemosensory properties of cholinergic brush cells in the mouse gastrointestinal and biliary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard eSchütz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mouse gastro-intestinal and biliary tract mucosal epithelia harbor choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-positive brush cells with taste cell-like traits. With the aid of two transgenic mouse lines that express green fluorescent protein (EGFP under the control of the ChAT promoter (EGFPChAT and by using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry we found that EGFPChAT cells were clustered in the epithelium lining the gastric groove. EGFPChAT cells were numerous in the gall bladder and bile duct, and found scattered as solitary cells along the small and large intestine. While all EGFPChAT cells were also ChAT-positive, expression of the high-affinity choline transporter (ChT1 was never detected. Except for the proximal colon, EGFPChAT cells also lacked detectable expression of the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT. EGFPChAT cells were found to be separate from enteroendocrine cells, however they were all immunoreactive for cytokeratin 18 (CK18, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel (TRPM5, and for cyclooxygenases 1 (COX1 and 2 (COX2. The ex vivo stimulation of colonic EGFPChAT cells with the bitter substance denatonium resulted in a strong increase in intracellular calcium, while in other epithelial cells such an increase was significantly weaker and also timely delayed. Subsequent stimulation with cycloheximide was ineffective in both cell populations. Given their chemical coding and chemosensory properties, EGFPChAT brush cells thus may have integrative functions and participate in induction of protective reflexes and inflammatory events by utilizing ACh and prostaglandins for paracrine signaling.

  20. Expression of SNMP1 and SNMP2 genes in antennal sensilla of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengcheng; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Yang; Wang, Guirong; Dong, Shuanglin

    2014-02-01

    Sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs) are olfactory-specific, two-transmembrane proteins. Previous publications reported that SNMP1 is expressed on the dendrite membrane of pheromone-sensitive neurons in Heliothis virescens and is an essential cofactor for pheromone detection in Drosophila. In this study, we cloned two SNMP genes (GenBank accession nos. JX469106 and JX469107) from the antenna of the beet armyworm moth Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Hübner). These SNMP genes are classified into two highly conserved subclades, indicating their importance in physiological activity of lepidopteran insects. SexiSNMP1 is antenna-specific in male and female adults, while SexiSNMP2 is antenna-abundant but also expressed in other chemosensory tissues, particularly proboscises and maxillary palps of adults both sexes. In situ hybridization revealed that both SNMPs are broadly expressed in long and short trichoid and basiconic sensilla. We infer that SNMP1 and SNMP2 act in the detection of the sex pheromone and general odorants. PMID:24436214

  1. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion - an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudarczyk, O.A.; Kohn, N.; Bergs, R.; Gur, R.E.; Turetsky, B.; Schneider, F.; Habel, U.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely

  2. Conception d'Antenne Spirale intégrée sur SOI à 60 GHz

    OpenAIRE

    Barakat, Moussa; Delaveaud, Christophe; Dussopt, Laurent; Ndagijimana, Fabien

    2009-01-01

    La conception d'une antenne spirale intégrée sur SOI est décrite. L'impact de la structure d'alimentation de l'antenne spirale à double brin sur le coefficient de réflexion et le rapport axial est analysé. Un bon coefficient de réflexion avec une bande passante de 35 GHz à -10 dB et une bonne polarisation circulaire couvrant une intervalle d'angle élévation de 120° indépendamment de l'angle d'azimut sont obtenus. L'efficacité de rayonnement simulée est de 80 % avec un gain simulé de 4.3 dBi....

  3. Gravity Perception in a Cladoceran-zooplankter: Anatomy of Antennal Socket Setae of Daphnia Magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1985-01-01

    Night orientation in Daphnia magna was recently associated with setae on the basal socket of the swimming antennae. Daphnids are suspected of maintaining nocturnal equilibrium by monitoring the gravity vector through upward setal deflections caused by sinking between antennal swimming strokes. Setae appear to be hydrodynamic rheoceptors that sense the gravity vector indirectly by mechanoreceptivity to the direction and velocity of water currents. Neuroanatomical stains have revealed cell bodies at the base of the setal shafts, dendritic connections through to the distal ends of the shafts, and axonal tracts around the antennal socket connecting with an additional cell body and continuing toward the brain. These anatomical observations combined with previous scanning electron microscopy studies suggest that the setae are similar to mechanoreceptors and propreceptors used by higher crustaceans to sense water currents and gravity, and maintained balance.

  4. Identification of candidate aldehyde oxidases from the silkworm Bombyx mori potentially involved in antennal pheromone degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Julien; Bozzolan, Françoise; Solvar, Marthe; François, Marie-Christine; Jacquin-Joly, Emmanuelle; Maïbèche-Coisne, Martine

    2007-12-01

    Signal inactivation is a crucial step in the dynamic of olfactory process and involves various Odorant-Degrading Enzymes. In the silkworm Bombyx mori, one of the best models for studying olfaction in insects, the involvement of an antennal-specific aldehyde oxidase in the degradation of the sex pheromone component bombykal has been demonstrated over the three past decades by biochemical studies. However, the corresponding enzyme has never been characterized at the molecular level. Bioinformatic screening of B. mori genome and molecular approaches have been used to isolate several candidate sequences of aldehyde oxidases. Two interesting antennal-expressed genes have been further characterized and their putative functions are discussed in regard to their respective expression pattern and to our knowledge on aldehyde oxidase properties. Interestingly, one gene appeared as specifically expressed in the antennae of B. mori and associated in males with the bombykal-sensitive sensilla, strongly suggesting that it could encode for the previously biochemically characterized enzyme. PMID:17904312

  5. Electrophysiological and behavioural characterization of gustatory responses to antennal 'bitter' taste in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito Sanchez, Maria Gabriela; Giurfa, Martin; de Paula Mota, Theo Rolla; Gauthier, Monique

    2005-12-01

    We combined behavioural and electrophysiological experiments to study whether bitter taste is perceived at the antennal level in honeybees, Apis mellifera. Our behavioural studies showed that neither quinine nor salicin delivered at one antenna at different concentrations induced a retraction of the proboscis once it was extended in response to 1 M sucrose solution delivered to the opposite antenna. Bees that extended massively their proboscis to 1 M sucrose responded only partially when stimulated with a mixture of 1 M sucrose and 100 mM quinine. The mixture of 1 m sucrose and 100 mM salicin had no such suppressive effect. No behavioural suppression was found for mixtures of salt solution and either bitter substance. Electrophysiological recordings of taste sensillae at the antennal tip revealed sensillae that responded specifically either to sucrose or salt solutions, but none responded to the bitter substances quinine and salicin at the different concentrations tested. The electrophysiological responses of sensillae to 15 mM sucrose solution were inhibited by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM quinine, but not by a mixture of 15 mM sucrose and 0.1 mM salicin. The responses of sensillae to 50 mM NaCl were reduced by a mixture of 50 mm NaCl and 1 mM quinine but not by a mixture of 50 mM NaCl and 1 mM salicin. We concluded that no receptor cells for the bitter substances tested, exist at the level of the antennal tip of the honeybee and that antennal bitter taste is not represented as a separate perceptual quality. PMID:16367782

  6. Population coding is essential for rapid information processing in the moth antennal lobe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kobayashi, R.; Namiki, S.; Kanzaki, R.; Kitano, K.; Nishikawa, I.; Lánský, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 1536, NOV 6 (2013), s. 88-96. ISSN 0006-8993 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP103/11/0282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : olfactory information processing * antennal lobe * population coding * decoding analysis Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 2.828, year: 2013

  7. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies#

    OpenAIRE

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal ...

  8. Physiological organization and topographic mapping of the antennal olfactory sensory neurons in female hawkmoths, Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaninia, Majid; Olsson, Shannon B; Hansson, Bill S

    2014-10-01

    The hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has been a keystone system for developmental, neurobiological, and ecological studies for several decades. Because many of its behaviors are driven by olfactory cues, a thorough understanding of the Manduca olfactory system is essential to studying its biology. With the aim of functionally characterizing single antennal olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and determining their detailed topographic location, we performed systematic single-sensillum recordings on 4 morphological types of olfactory sensilla: trichoid-A and -B and basiconic-A and -B. We were able to unambiguously differentiate the colocalized cells associated with single sensilla based on their spike amplitudes. Using a panel of 61 biologically relevant compounds established in behavioral and gas chromatography-electrophysiology experiments, we made 223 recordings from these sensilla. Based on the response spectra of 187 responding OSNs, the sensilla fell into 12 distinct functional classes encompassing 29 OSNs. Selectivity of the 25 responding OSNs varied from narrowly tuned (responding to only one or a subset of compounds), to very broadly tuned (responding to multiple compounds), in a concentration-dependent manner. Four OSNs, however, did not respond to the tested components. Topographic mapping of the sensilla revealed that some physiological sensillum types are confined to particular locations on the antennal surface while other classes are more or less irregularly scattered all over the antennal annuli. Such information will prove beneficial for future receptor deorphanization, in situ hybridization, and molecular manipulation experiments. PMID:25092901

  9. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Anna Wudarczyk; Nils eKohn; Rene eBergs; Raquel eGur; Bruce eTuretsky; Frank eSchneider; Ute eHabel

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signalling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 ...

  10. Tuft cells, taste-chemosensory cells, orchestrate parasite type 2 immunity in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howitt, Michael R; Lavoie, Sydney; Michaud, Monia; Blum, Arthur M; Tran, Sara V; Weinstock, Joel V; Gallini, Carey Ann; Redding, Kevin; Margolskee, Robert F; Osborne, Lisa C; Artis, David; Garrett, Wendy S

    2016-03-18

    The intestinal epithelium forms an essential barrier between a host and its microbiota. Protozoa and helminths are members of the gut microbiota of mammals, including humans, yet the many ways that gut epithelial cells orchestrate responses to these eukaryotes remain unclear. Here we show that tuft cells, which are taste-chemosensory epithelial cells, accumulate during parasite colonization and infection. Disruption of chemosensory signaling through the loss of TRMP5 abrogates the expansion of tuft cells, goblet cells, eosinophils, and type 2 innate lymphoid cells during parasite colonization. Tuft cells are the primary source of the parasite-induced cytokine interleukin-25, which indirectly induces tuft cell expansion by promoting interleukin-13 production by innate lymphoid cells. Our results identify intestinal tuft cells as critical sentinels in the gut epithelium that promote type 2 immunity in response to intestinal parasites. PMID:26847546

  11. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Li, Zhao-Qun; Bian, Lei; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Zhang, Yong-Jun; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs), 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs), 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 3 gustatory receptors (GRs) and 4 odorant receptors (ORs). Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests. PMID:26930056

  12. Identification and Comparative Study of Chemosensory Genes Related to Host Selection by Legs Transcriptome Analysis in the Tea Geometrid Ectropis obliqua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Ma

    Full Text Available Host selection by female moths is fundamental to the survival of their larvae. Detecting and perceiving the non-volatile chemicals of the plant surface involved in gustatory detection determine the host preference. In many lepidopteran species, tarsal chemosensilla are sensitive to non-volatile chemicals and responsible for taste detection. The tea geometrid Ectropis obliqua is one devastating chewing pest selectively feeding on limited plants, requiring the specialized sensors to forage certain host for oviposition. In present study, we revealed the distribution of chemosensilla in the ventral side of female fifth tarsomere in E. obliqua. To investigate its molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, we performed HiSeq 2500 sequencing of the male- and female- legs transcriptome and identified 24 candidate odorant binding proteins (OBPs, 21 chemosensory proteins (CSPs, 2 sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs, 3 gustatory receptors (GRs and 4 odorant receptors (ORs. Several leg-specific or enriched chemosensory genes were screened by tissue expression analysis, and clustered with functionally validated genes from other moths, suggesting the potential involvement in taste sensation or other physiological processes. The RPKM value analysis revealed that 9 EoblOBPs showed sex discrepancy in the leg expression, 8 being up-regulated in female and only 1 being over expressed in male. These female-biased EoblOBPs indicated an ecological adaption related with host-seeking and oviposition behaviors. Our work will provide basic knowledge for further studies on the molecular mechanism of gustatory perception, and enlighten a host-selection-based control strategy of insect pests.

  13. Use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey: Potential directions for population management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, I.; Brown, G.E.; Bergstedt, R.A.; McDonald, R.

    2010-01-01

    Sea lamprey invaded the Great Lakes in the early 20th century and caused an abrupt decline in the population densities of several native fish species. The integrated management of this invasive species is composed of chemical (lampricide) applications, low-head barrier dams, adult trapping and sterile male release. Recently, there has been an increased emphasis on the development of control methods alternative to lampricide applications. We propose as an alternative-control method the use of chemosensory cues as repellents for sea lamprey population management. Based on the available evidence at this time, we suggest that injury-released chemical alarm cues show promise as repellents for sea lamprey and further research should be directed at determining whether sea lamprey show an avoidance response to these types of chemosensory cues. From a management perspective, these chemosensory cues could be used to restrict sea lamprey access to spawning grounds. Repellents could also be used together with attractants like sex pheromones to manipulate sea lamprey behavior, similar to the "push-pull" strategies utilized with insect pests. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  14. Human gender differences in the perception of conspecific alarm chemosensory cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca R Radulescu

    Full Text Available It has previously been established that, in threatening situations, animals use alarm pheromones to communicate danger. There is emerging evidence of analogous chemosensory "stress" cues in humans. For this study, we collected alarm and exercise sweat from "donors," extracted it, pooled it and presented it to 16 unrelated "detector" subjects undergoing fMRI. The fMRI protocol consisted of four stimulus runs, with each combination of stimulus condition and donor gender represented four times. Because olfactory stimuli do not follow the canonical hemodynamic response, we used a model-free approach. We performed minimal preprocessing and worked directly with block-average time series and step-function estimates. We found that, while male stress sweat produced a comparably strong emotional response in both detector genders, female stress sweat produced a markedly stronger arousal in female than in male detectors. Our statistical tests pinpointed this gender-specificity to the right amygdala (strongest in the superficial nuclei. When comparing the olfactory bulb responses to the corresponding stimuli, we found no significant differences between male and female detectors. These imaging results complement existing behavioral evidence, by identifying whether gender differences in response to alarm chemosignals are initiated at the perceptual versus emotional level. Since we found no significant differences in the olfactory bulb (primary processing site for chemosensory signals in mammals, we infer that the specificity in responding to female fear is likely based on processing meaning, rather than strength, of chemosensory cues from each gender.

  15. Effects of Ginkgo biloba on alertness and chemosensory function in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattes, Richard D; Pawlik, M Kate

    2004-03-01

    Ginkgo biloba is reported to enhance cognitive function in patients with selected neural disorders. Its effects in healthy, young adults are less well characterized. This work explored whether Ginkgo biloba could ameliorate decrements in alertness post-prandially and/or enhance chemosensory function. Both are functions that could be influenced by enhanced cerebral blood flow and neuronal metabolism, reported properties of the compound. A double-blind placebo-controlled study was conducted with 19 males and 20 females with a mean age of 23.6 +/- 5.4 years and mean weight of 70.0 +/- 1.9 kg. Participants were supplemented for 13 weeks with either Ginkgo biloba (mean dose 184.5 mg/d (range 130-234 mg/d)) or placebo and administered various alertness, performance, affective state and chemosensory tests at weeks 1, 5, 9 and 13. Participants did experience the post-prandial affective state decrement (i.e. post-lunch dip), but not the performance decrement. Performance on the chemosensory tests improved over the 13-week study. However, Ginkgo biloba was ineffective at alleviating the symptoms of the post-lunch dip or at enhancing taste and smell function. PMID:14994317

  16. Strong links between genomic and anatomical diversity in both mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Eva C; Steiper, Michael E

    2014-05-22

    Mammalian olfaction comprises two chemosensory systems: the odorant-detecting main olfactory system (MOS) and the pheromone-detecting vomeronasal system (VNS). Mammals are diverse in their anatomical and genomic emphases on olfactory chemosensation, including the loss or reduction of these systems in some orders. Despite qualitative evidence linking the genomic evolution of the olfactory systems to specific functions and phenotypes, little work has quantitatively tested whether the genomic aspects of the mammalian olfactory chemosensory systems are correlated to anatomical diversity. We show that the genomic and anatomical variation in these systems is tightly linked in both the VNS and the MOS, though the signature of selection is different in each system. Specifically, the MOS appears to vary based on absolute organ and gene family size while the VNS appears to vary according to the relative proportion of functional genes and relative anatomical size and complexity. Furthermore, there is little evidence that these two systems are evolving in a linked fashion. The relationships between genomic and anatomical diversity strongly support a role for natural selection in shaping both the anatomical and genomic evolution of the olfactory chemosensory systems in mammals. PMID:24718758

  17. Behavioral and Antennal Responses of Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) to Volatiles From Fruit Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, John; Zhang, Aijun; Angeli, Sergio; Abubeker, Sitra; Michel, Caryn; Feng, Yan; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2015-04-01

    Native to Southeast Asia, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), has become a serious pest of soft-skinned fruit crops since its introduction into North America and Europe in 2008. Current monitoring strategies use baits based on fermentation products; however, to date, no fruit-based volatile blends attractive to this fly have been identified. This is particularly important because females are able to cut into the epicarp of ripening fruit for oviposition. Thus, we conducted studies to: 1) investigate the behavioral responses of adult D. suzukii to volatiles from blueberry, cherry, raspberry, and strawberry fruit extracts; 2) identify the antennally active compounds from the most attractive among the tested extracts (raspberry) using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry and coupled gas chromatography -electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD); and 3) test a synthetic blend containing the EAD-active compounds identified from raspberry extract on adult attraction. In olfactometer studies, both female and male D. suzukii were attracted to all four fruit extracts. The attractiveness of the fruit extracts ranks as: raspberry ≥ strawberry > blueberry ≥ cherry. GC analyses showed that the fruit extracts emit distinct volatile compounds. In GC-EAD experiments, 11 raspberry extract volatiles consistently elicited antennal responses in D. suzukii. In choice test bioassays, a synthetic EAD-active blend attracted more D. suzukii than a blank control, but was not as attractive as the raspberry extract. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a behaviorally and antennally active blend of host fruit volatiles attractive to D. suzukii, offering promising opportunities for the development of improved monitoring and behaviourally based management tools. PMID:26313190

  18. Olfaction in the Colorado potato beetle: Ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in Leptinotarsa sp

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Sen; B K Mitchell

    2001-06-01

    Sensillae on the antennae of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata are described using scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopy and compared with SEM observations of antennal sensilla in L. haldemani and L. texana. In all the three species, 13 distinct sensillar types were identified with a higher density of sensilla in the more polyphagous species, L. decemlineata than in the moderately host specific L. haldemani and the highly host specific L. texana. Cuticular specializations and the predominance of olfactory sensilla are discussed in relation to host specificity in the three species.

  19. Intensified neuronal investment in the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals in non-socially anxious and socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina M Pause

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to communicate anxiety through chemosensory signals has been documented in humans by behavioral, perceptual and brain imaging studies. Here, we investigate in a time-sensitive manner how chemosensory anxiety signals, donated by humans awaiting an academic examination, are processed by the human brain, by analyzing chemosensory event-related potentials (CSERPs, 64-channel recording with current source density analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the first study cerebral stimulus processing was recorded from 28 non-socially anxious participants and in the second study from 16 socially anxious individuals. Each individual participated in two sessions, smelling sweat samples donated from either female or male donors (88 sessions; balanced session order. Most of the participants of both studies were unable to detect the stimuli olfactorily. In non-socially anxious females, CSERPs demonstrate an increased magnitude of the P3 component in response to chemosensory anxiety signals. The source of this P3 activity was allocated to medial frontal brain areas. In socially anxious females chemosensory anxiety signals require more neuronal resources during early pre-attentive stimulus processing (N1. The neocortical sources of this activity were located within medial and lateral frontal brain areas. In general, the event-related neuronal brain activity in males was much weaker than in females. However, socially anxious males processed chemosensory anxiety signals earlier (N1 latency than the control stimuli collected during an ergometer training. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: It is concluded that the processing of chemosensory anxiety signals requires enhanced neuronal energy. Socially anxious individuals show an early processing bias towards social fear signals, resulting in a repression of late attentional stimulus processing.

  20. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Anna Wudarczyk

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signalling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus, social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation.

  1. Chemosensory anxiety cues moderate the experience of social exclusion – an fMRI investigation with Cyberball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarczyk, Olga A.; Kohn, Nils; Bergs, Rene; Gur, Raquel E.; Turetsky, Bruce; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that the experience of stress can be communicated between individuals via chemosensory cues. Little is known, however, about the impact of these cues on neurophysiological responses during a socially threatening situation. In the current investigation we implemented a widely used paradigm to study social exclusion—Cyberball—to examine whether chemosensory cues signaling anxiety modulate the neuronal effects of ostracism. In a double-blind, within-subjects design, 24 healthy, normosmic participants were presented with chemosensory cues of anxiety (or control samples) and completed the Cyberball task while in a 3T fMRI scanner. Axillary sweat collected from male students awaiting an oral examination served as the anxiety cues while the chemosensory control stimuli consisted of sweat collected from the same individuals participating in an ergometer training session. The neuroimaging data revealed that under the control chemosensory condition, exclusion from Cyberball was associated with significantly higher orbitofrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex activity, which is consistent with previous studies in the field. However, when participants were primed with the anxiety sweat, the activity in these regions was not observed. Further, under exposure to anxiety cues during ostracism the participants showed deactivations in brain regions involved in memory (hippocampus), social cognition (middle temporal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus) and processing of salience (inferior frontal gyrus). These results suggest that successful communication of anxiety via the chemosensory domain may moderate the experience of social exclusion. It is possible that the anxiety signals make it easier for the individuals to detach from the group, pointing to the communicative role of chemosensory anxiety cues in enhancing adjustment mechanisms in light of a distressing situation. PMID:26500572

  2. Neuronal organization of a fast-mediating cephalothoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information in the cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus DeGeer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöneich, Stefan; Schildberger, Klaus; Stevenson, Paul A

    2011-06-15

    Crickets use their long antennae as tactile sensors. Confronted with obstacles, conspecifics, or predators, antennal contacts trigger short-latency motor responses. To reveal the neuronal pathway underlying these antennal-guided locomotory reactions we identified descending interneurons that rapidly transmit antennal-tactile information from the head to the thorax in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Antennae were stimulated with forces approximating those of naturally occurring antennal contacts. Responding interneurons were individually identified by intracellular axon recordings in the pro-mesothoracic connective and subsequent tracer injection. Simultaneous with the intracellular recordings, the overall spike response in the neck connectives was recorded extracellularly to reveal the precise response-timing of each individual neuron within the collective multiunit response. Here we describe four descending brain neurons and two with the soma in the subesophageal ganglion. All antennal-touch elicited action potentials apparent in the neck connective recordings within 10 ms after antennal-contact are generated by these six interneurons. Their dendrites ramify in primary antennal-mechanosensory neuropils of the head ganglia. Each of them consistently generated action potentials in response to antennal touching and three of them responded also to different visual stimulation (light-off, movement). Their descending axons conduct action potentials with 3-5 m/s to the thoracic ganglia where they send off side branches in dorsal neuropils. Their physiological and anatomical properties qualify them as descending giant fibers in the cricket and suggest an involvement in evoking fast locomotory reactions. They form a fast-mediating cephalo-thoracic pathway for antennal-tactile information, whereas all other antennal-tactile interneurons had response latencies exceeding 40 ms. PMID:21452239

  3. Conception d'antennes miniatures intégrées pour solutions RF SiP

    OpenAIRE

    Jeangeorges, Mickaël

    2010-01-01

    Ce mémoire présente la conception et l'optimisation d'antennes miniatures intégrées en modules de type System in Package. L'objectif est de répondre à un besoin croissant en modules intégrés complets, comprenant tous les composants nécessaires pour apporter des fonctionnalités sans-fil aux objets communicants. Afin de remplir cet objectif, les antennes doivent satisfaire de nombreux critères, autant au niveau des performances (adaptation, bande passante, efficacité, diagramme de rayonnement) ...

  4. Antennal development in the praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia highlights multitudinous processes in hemimetabolous insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Carle

    Full Text Available Insects possess antennae equipped with a large number of segments (flagellomeres on which sensory organs (sensilla are located. Hemimetabolous insects grow by molting until they reach adulthood. In these species, the sensory structures develop and mature during each stage of development; new flagellomeres are generated at each molt elongating the antennae, and new sensilla appear. The praying mantis (Tenodera aridifolia is a hemimetabolous insect with 7 different instars before it reaches adulthood. Because their antennae are provided with an atypical sensillar distribution, we previously suggested that their antennae develop with a different mechanism to other hemimetaboulous insect species. In the present study, we measured the number, length and width of flagellomeres along the antennae in nymph and adult mantis Tenodera aridifolia. For this study, we developed a new and innovative methodology to reconstruct the antennal development based on the length of flagellomeres. We observed and confirmed that the antennae of mantises develop with the addition of new segments at two distinct sites. In addition, we constructed a complete database of the features of the flagellum for each stage of development. From our data, we found that sexual dimorphism appears from the 6 instar (larger number and wider flagellomeres in males in accordance with the appearance of their genital apparatus. The antennal sexual dimorphism completes at adulthood with longer flagellomeres and the emergence of a huge number of grooved peg sensilla in males during the last molting, which suggests once again their function as sex-pheromone receptive sensilla.

  5. Behavioral response to antennal tactile stimulation in the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Jiro; Akamine, Seiryo

    2012-07-01

    We examined behavioral responses of the field cricket Gryllus bimaculatus to tactile stimuli to the antennae. Three stimulants of similar shape and size but different textures were used: a tibia from the hunting spider Heteropoda venatoria (potential predator), a tibia from the orb-web spider Argiope bruennichi (less likely predator), and a glass rod. Each stimulus session comprised a first gentle contact and a second strong contact. The evoked behavioral responses were classified into four categories: aversion, aggression, antennal search, and no response. Regardless of the stimulants, the crickets exhibited antennal search and aversion most frequently in response to the first and second stimuli, respectively. The frequency of aversion was significantly higher to the tibia of H. venatoria than to other stimulants. The most striking observation was that aggressive responses were exclusive to the H. venatoria tibia. To specify the hair type that induced aggression, we manipulated two types of common hairs (bristle and fine) on the tibia of the predatory spider. When bristle hairs were removed from the H. venatoria tibia, aggression was significantly reduced. These results suggest that antennae can discriminate the tactile texture of external objects and elicit adaptive behavioral responses. PMID:22534774

  6. The antennal sensilla of Melipona quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Meliponini): a study of different sexes and castes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaiano, Samira Veiga; Ferreira, Ríudo de Paiva; Campos, Lucio Antonio de Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-08-01

    The sensilla of insects are integumental units that play a role as sensory structures and are crucial for the perception of stimuli and for communication. In this study, we compared the antennal sensilla of females (workers and queens), males (haploid (n) and diploid (2n)), and queen-like males (QLMs, resulting from 2n males after juvenile hormone (JH) treatment) in the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata. Images of the dorsal antenna surfaces were acquired using a scanning electron microscope. As reported for other hymenopterans, this species exhibits a heterogeneous sensillar distribution along the antennae. Thirteen different types of sensilla were found in the antennae of M. quadrifasciata: trichodea (subtypes I to VI), chaetica (subtypes I and II), placodea, basiconica, ampullacea, coeloconica, and coelocapitula. Sensilla trichodea I were the most abundant, followed by sensilla placodea, which might function in olfactory perception. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica I, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla ampullacea were found exclusively in females. In terms of the composition and size of the sensilla, the antennae of QLMs most closely resemble those of the 2n male, although QLMs exhibit a queen phenotype. This study represents the first comparative analysis of the antennal sensilla of M. quadrifasciata. The differences found in the type and amount of sensilla between the castes and sexes are discussed based on the presumed sensillary functions.

  7. Immunohistochemical characterization of the chemosensory pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies in the naked mole-rat reveals a unique adaptive phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Pan

    Full Text Available The pulmonary neuroepithelial bodies (NEBs constitute polymodal airway chemosensors for monitoring and signaling ambient gas concentrations (pO2, pCO2/H+ via complex innervation to the brain stem controlling breathing. NEBs produce the bioactive amine, serotonin (5-HT, and a variety of peptides with multiple effects on lung physiology and other organ systems. NEBs in mammals appear prominent and numerous during fetal and neonatal periods, and decline in the post-natal period suggesting an important role during perinatal adaptation. The naked mole-rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber, has adapted to the extreme environmental conditions of living in subterranean burrows in large colonies (up to 300 colony mates. The crowded, unventilated burrows are environments of severe hypoxia and hypercapnia. However, NMRs adjust readily to above ground conditions. The chemosensory NEBs of this species were characterized and compared to those of the conventional Wistar rat (WR to identify similarities and differences that could explain the NMR's adaptability to environments. A multilabel immunohistochemical analysis combined with confocal microscopy revealed that the expression patterns of amine, peptide, neuroendocrine, innervation markers and chemosensor component proteins in NEBs of NMR were similar to that of WR. However, we found the following differences: 1 NEBs in both neonatal and adult NMR lungs were significantly larger and more numerous as compared to WR; 2 NEBs in NMR had a more variable compact cell organization and exhibited significant differences in the expression of adhesion proteins; 3 NMR NEBs showed a significantly greater ratio of 5-HT positive cells with an abundance of 5-HT; 4 NEBs in NMR expressed the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and the neurogenic gene (MASH1 indicating active proliferation and a state of persistent differentiation. Taken together our findings suggest that NEBs in lungs of NMR are in a hyperactive, functional

  8. Intrinsic intranasal chemosensory brain networks shown by resting-state functional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobia, Michael J; Yang, Qing X; Karunanayaka, Prasanna

    2016-05-01

    The human brain is organized into functional networks for sensory-motor and cognitive processing. Intrinsic networks are detectable in the absence of stimulation or task demands, whereas extrinsic networks are detectable when stimulated by sensory or cognitive demands. Intranasal chemosensory processing relies on two dissociable networks for processing incoming trigeminal and olfactory stimulation, but it is not known whether these networks are intrinsically organized. The aim of this study was to identify whether brain networks for intranasal chemosensory processing are detectable in functional connectivity resting-state functional MRI (fMRI). Sixteen healthy adults participated in a 5-min resting-state fMRI study. Functional connectivity seeds were defined from coordinates that anchor olfactory (i.e. bilateral piriform and orbitofrontal cortex) and trigeminal (bilateral anterior insula and cingulate cortex) networks in published task activation studies, and the resulting networks were thresholded at P less than 0.001. The olfactory network showed extended functional connectivity to the thalamus, medial prefrontal cortex, caudate, nucleus accumbens, parahippocampal gyrus, and hippocampus. The trigeminal network showed extended functional connectivity to the precuneus, thalamus, caudate, brainstem, and cerebellum. Both networks overlapped in the thalamus, caudate, medial prefrontal cortex, and insula. These results show that brain networks for intranasal chemosensory processing are intrinsically organized, not just extrinsically instantiated in response to task demands, and resemble networks for processing olfactory and trigeminal stimulation. As such, it may be possible to study the functional organization and dynamics of the olfactory network in resting-state fMRI as well as its implications for aging and disease. PMID:27031873

  9. Chemosensory effects during acute exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thriel, Christoph; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Schäper, Michael; Juran, Stephanie A; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Wrbitzky, Renate; Stache, Jürgen; Golka, Klaus; Bader, Michael

    2007-12-10

    Organic solvents are still essential in many industrial applications. To improve safety and health in the working environment lower occupational thresholds limits have been established and less toxic substitutes were introduced. N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) is a versatile solvent that is used as a substitute for dichloromethane in paint strippers. Due to conflicting results, there is a debate whether NMP causes irritations of the upper airways/eyes or not. In a human experimental study we examined the chemosensory effects of NMP under controlled conditions. Fifteen healthy males were investigated in a cross-over study. NMP vapor concentrations were 10, 40 and 80 mg/m(3) for 2 x 4h with an exposure-free lunch break of 30 min. To maximize chemosensory effects a peak exposure scenario (25mg/m(3) baseline, 160 mg/m(3) peaks 4 x 15 min, time-weighted average: 72 mg/m(3)) was tested. The four different conditions were conducted with and without moderate physical workload. Chemosensory effects were measured physiologically by anterior rhinomanometry, eye blink rate and breathing frequency. Subjectively, ratings of acute health symptoms and intensity of olfactory and trigeminal sensations were collected repeatedly throughout the exposures. All physiological variables were unaffected by the different NMP concentrations and even the peak exposures were non-effective on these measures. Olfactory mediated health symptoms increased dose-dependently. For these symptoms a strong adaptation was observable, especially during the first 4h of the exposures. Other acute symptoms were not significantly affected. Comparable to the symptoms, only olfactory sensations increased dose-dependently. Trigeminal sensations (e.g. eye and nose irritations) were evaluated as being barely detectable during the different exposures, only during 160 mg/m(3) exposure peak weak and transient eye irritation were reported. The results clearly suggest that NMP concentrations of up to 160 mg/m(3) caused no

  10. Antenne réseau cylindrique pour station sol GPS différentiel

    OpenAIRE

    Souny, Bernard; Poret, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Les multitrajets dû à la présence d'obstacles au voisinage du sol restent une source d'erreurs difficile à supprimer dans les techniques différentielles de localisation par satellite. Nous proposons une antenne constituée d'un réseau cylindrique vertical à forte coupure au voisinage du sol permettant de réduire l'influence de ces multitrajets. La synthèse de ce réseau pose des problèmes spécifiques liés à un pas d'échantillonnage plus faible que la demi longueur d'onde et à la nécessité d'avo...

  11. In-vivo two-photon imaging of the honey bee antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Albrecht; Trona, Federica; Anfora, Gianfranco; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Antolini, Renzo; Vinegoni, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Due to the honey bee's importance as a simple neural model, there is a great need for new functional imaging modalities. Herein we report on the use of two-photon microscopy for in-vivo functional and morphological imaging of the honey bee's olfactory system focusing on its primary centers, the antennal lobes (ALs). Our imaging platform allows for simultaneously obtaining both morphological measurements of the AL and in-vivo calcium recording of neural activities. By applying external odor stimuli to the bee's antennas, we were able to record the characteristic odor response maps. Compared to previous works where conventional fluorescence microscopy is used, our approach offers all the typical advantages of multi-photon imaging, providing substantial enhancement in both spatial and temporal resolutions while minimizing photo-damages and autofluorescence contribution with a four-fold improvement in the functional signal. Moreover, the multi-photon associated extended penetration depth allows for functional ima...

  12. Gravity receptors in a microcrustacean water flea - Sensitivity of antennal-socket setae in Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.; Farmer, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    Gravity receptors of Dephnia magna were discovered on the basal segment of the swimming antennae and were shown to respond to upward water currents that pass the animal as it sinks between swimming strokes. Sensitivity of the gravity perceiving mechanism was tested by subjecting daphnids to a series of five decreasingly dense aqueous solutions (neutral density to water) in darkness (to avoid visual cues). Three-dimensional, video analysis of body position (pitch, yaw and roll) and swimming path (hop and sink, vertical and horizontal patterns) revealed a gradual threshold that occurred near a density difference between the animal and its environment of less than 0.25%. Because daphnids do not sink but continue to slide after stroking in the increased density solutions, gravity perception appears to occur during a vertical swing of the longitudinal body axis to the vertical plane, about their center of gravity, and, thereby, implies a multidirectional sensitivity for the antennal-socket setae.

  13. Antennal circadian clocks coordinate sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christine; Gegear, Robert J; Reppert, Steven M

    2009-09-25

    During their fall migration, Eastern North American monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) use a time-compensated Sun compass to aid navigation to their overwintering grounds in central Mexico. It has been assumed that the circadian clock that provides time compensation resides in the brain, although this assumption has never been examined directly. Here, we show that the antennae are necessary for proper time-compensated Sun compass orientation in migratory monarch butterflies, that antennal clocks exist in monarchs, and that they likely provide the primary timing mechanism for Sun compass orientation. These unexpected findings pose a novel function for the antennae and open a new line of investigation into clock-compass connections that may extend widely to other insects that use this orientation mechanism. PMID:19779201

  14. Fast dynamics of odor rate coding in the insect antennal lobe

    CERN Document Server

    Nawrot, Martin Paul; Farkhooi, Farzad; Menzel, Randolf

    2011-01-01

    Insects identify and evaluate behaviorally relevant odorants in complex natural scenes where odor concentrations and mixture composition can change rapidly. In the honeybee, a combinatorial code of activated and inactivated projection neurons (PNs) develops rapidly within tens of milliseconds at the first level of neural integration, the antennal lobe (AL). The phasic-tonic stimulus-response dynamics observed in the neural population code and in the firing rate profiles of single neurons is faithfully captured by two alternative models which rely either on short-term synaptic depression, or on spike frequency adaptation. Both mechanisms work independently and possibly in parallel to lateral inhibition. Short response latencies in local interneurons indicate that local processing within the AL network relies on fast lateral inhibition that can suppress effectively and specifically odor responses in single PNs. Reviewing recent findings obtained in different insect species, we conclude that the insect olfactory...

  15. Antennal malformations in light ocelli drones of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAUD-NETTO J.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Malformed antennae of Apis mellifera light ocelli drones were drawn, dissected and mounted permanently on slides containing Canada balsam, in order to count the olfactory discs present in each segment, in comparison with the number of those structures in normal antennae of their brothers. Some drones presented morphological abnormalities in a single segment of the right or left antenna, but others had two or more malformed segments in a same antenna. Drones with malformations in both antennae were also observed. The 4th and 5th flagellum segments were the most frequently affected. In a low number of cases the frequency of olfactory discs in malformed segments did not differ from that one recorded for normal segments. However, in most cases studied, the antennal malformations brought about a significant reduction in the number of olfactory discs from malformed segments.

  16. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp eHohenbrink

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The vomeronasal organ (VNO is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus, the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83% – 97% of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29% to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information.

  17. The sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus genome reveals the early origin of several chemosensory receptor families in the vertebrate lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ziping

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gnathostomes, chemosensory receptors (CR expressed in olfactory epithelia are encoded by evolutionarily dynamic gene families encoding odorant receptors (OR, trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR, V1Rs and V2Rs. A limited number of OR-like sequences have been found in invertebrate chordate genomes. Whether these gene families arose in basal or advanced vertebrates has not been resolved because these families have not been examined systematically in agnathan genomes. Results Petromyzon is the only extant jawless vertebrate whose genome has been sequenced. Known to be exquisitely sensitive to several classes of odorants, lampreys detect fewer amino acids and steroids than teleosts. This reduced number of detectable odorants is indicative of reduced numbers of CR gene families or a reduced number of genes within CR families, or both, in the sea lamprey. In the lamprey genome we identified a repertoire of 59 intact single-exon CR genes, including 27 OR, 28 TAAR, and four V1R-like genes. These three CR families were expressed in the olfactory organ of both parasitic and adult life stages. Conclusion An extensive search in the lamprey genome failed to identify potential orthologs or pseudogenes of the multi-exon V2R family that is greatly expanded in teleost genomes, but did find intact calcium-sensing receptors (CASR and intact metabotropic glutamate receptors (MGR. We conclude that OR and V1R arose in chordates after the cephalochordate-urochordate split, but before the diversification of jawed and jawless vertebrates. The advent and diversification of V2R genes from glutamate receptor-family G protein-coupled receptors, most likely the CASR, occurred after the agnathan-gnathostome divergence.

  18. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expression of these genes outside of rodents. To explore the function of VR genes in mammalian evolution, we analyzed and compared the expression of 64 V1R and 2 V2R genes in the VNO and the MOE of the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), the primate with the largest known VR repertoire. We furthermore compared expression patterns in adults of both sexes and seasons, and in an infant. A large proportion (83-97%) of the VR loci was expressed in the VNO of all individuals. The repertoire in the infant was as rich as in adults, indicating reliance on olfactory communication from early postnatal development onwards. In concordance with mice, we also detected extensive expression of VRs in the MOE, with proportions of expressed loci in individuals ranging from 29 to 45%. TRPC2, which encodes a channel protein crucial for signal transduction via VRs, was co-expressed in the MOE in all individuals indicating likely functionality of expressed VR genes in the MOE. In summary, the large VR repertoire in mouse lemurs seems to be highly functional. Given the differences in the neural pathways of MOE and VNO signals, which project to higher cortical brain centers or the limbic system, respectively, this raises the intriguing possibility that the evolution of MOE-expression of VRs enabled mouse lemurs to adaptively diversify the processing of VR-encoded olfactory information. PMID:25309343

  19. Nonconsumptive Effects of Predation and Impaired Chemosensory Risk Assessment on an Aquatic Prey Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris K. Elvidge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Weak levels of acidity impair chemosensory risk assessment by aquatic species which may result in increased predator mortalities in the absence of compensatory avoidance mechanisms. Using replicate populations of wild juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar in neutral and acidic streams, we conducted a series of observational studies and experiments to identify differences in behaviours that may compensate for the loss of chemosensory information on predation risk. Comparing the behavioural strategies of fish between neutral and acidic streams may elucidate the influence of environmental degradation on nonconsumptive effects (NCEs of predation. Salmon in acidic streams are more active during the day than their counterparts in neutral streams, and are more likely to avoid occupying territories offering fewer physical refugia from predators. Captive cross-population transplant experiments indicate that at equal densities, salmon in acidic streams do not demonstrate relative decreases in growth rate as a result of their different behavioural strategies. Instead, altering diel activity patterns to maximize visual information use and occupying relatively safer territories appear sufficient to offset increased predation risk in acidic streams. Additional strategies such as elevated foraging rates during active periods or adopting riskier foraging tactics are necessary to account for the observed similarities in growth rates.

  20. Yolk hormones influence in ovo chemosensory learning, growth, and feeding behavior in domestic chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, Aline; Meurisse, Maryse; Arnould, Cécile; Leterrier, Christine; Constantin, Paul; Cornilleau, Fabien; Vaudin, Pascal; Burlot, Thierry; Delaveau, Joel; Rat, Christophe; Calandreau, Ludovic

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we assessed whether prenatal exposure to elevated yolk steroid hormones can influence in ovo chemosensory learning and the behavior of domestic chicks. We simulated a maternal environmental challenge by experimentally enhancing yolk progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations in hen eggs prior to incubation. The embryos from these hormones-treated eggs (HO) as well as sham embryos (O) that had received the vehicle-only were exposed to the odor of fish oil (menhaden) between embryonic Days 11 and 20. An additional group of control embryos (C) was not exposed to the odor. All chicks were tested following hatching for their feeding preferences between foods that were or were not odorized with the menhaden odor. In the 3-min choice tests, the behavior of O chicks differed significantly according to the type of food whereas C and HO chicks showed no preference between odorized and non-odorized food. Our result suggests weaker response in HO chicks. In addition, HO chicks showed impaired growth and reduced intake of an unfamiliar food on the 24-h time scale compared to controls. Our data suggest that embryonic exposure to increased yolk hormone levels can alter growth, chemosensory learning, and the development of feeding behaviors. PMID:26419601

  1. Analyse électromagnétique rigoureuse et rapide d'un problème multi-échelle et variable de transmission entre deux antennes ULB

    OpenAIRE

    Guelilia, Zakaria; Loison, Renaud; Gillard, Raphaël

    2015-01-01

    National audience Dans ce papier, une méthode rapide et rigoureuse (MM-DG-FDTD) est proposée, validée et exploitée pour analyser électromagnétiquement des problèmes multi-échelles de transmission entre deux antennes ULB dans lesquels la position de l'antenne de réception varie.

  2. Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression pattern of chemosensory protein 1 gene (Acer-CSP1) in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)%中华蜜蜂化学感受蛋白基因Acer-CSP1克隆与表达特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红亮; 倪翠侠; 姚瑞; 高其康; 商晗武

    2010-01-01

    化学感受蛋白(ehemosensory proteins,CSPs)是昆虫化学感受系统中重要的组成部分之一.本研究克隆了中华蜜蜂Apis cerazm cerana化学感受蛋白基因Acer-CSP1,其核苷酸全长351 bp(GenBank登录号为FJ157352),编码116个氨基酸残基,预测蛋白分子量为13.85 kD,等电点为4.89,且含有4个保守的半胱氨酸残基,均符合昆虫CSPs的一般特征,且与意蜂CSP1基因具有99.1%的相似性,与其他昆虫也有45.3%~68.0%的相似性.利用2-△△C1法及绝对定昔法的real-time PCR技术对Acer-CSP1在中蜂不同器官表达特征进行了研究,得出的一致结论为Acer-CSP1显著水平地高丰度表达于中华蜜蜂触角,其次大量表达于头部.由于触角为中华蜜蜂最主要的嗅觉器官,而头部则具有发达的感觉神经系统和味觉系统,这也提示Acer-CSP1极有可能参与中华蜜蜂的嗅觉以及其他化学感受功能.

  3. Rheoceptive mediators of graviperception in a water flea: Morphological implications of antennal-socket setae in daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    Aquatic microcrustaceans of the genus Daphnia are known to orient to light during the day. At night, in the absence of visual cues, daphnids were suspected of maintaining equilibrium by monitoring the direction of gravity through their swimming antennae. Recent investigations using simulated, weightlessness conditions coupled with absence of illumination revealed hair like structures or setae on the basal, articulating socket of the antennae that, when surgically removed, resulted in disorientation. Given the simulated weightlessness or neutrally buoyant condition that eliminated sinking of the normally negatively buoyant Daphnia, it was proposed that the antennal socket setae function as rheoceptors stimulated by the upward rush of water currents during gravity induced, sinking phase of daphnid swimming movements. This rheoceptively mediated, gravity perception hypothesis is further supported by morphological investigations. Scanning electron micrographs indicate that antennal socket setae are anatomically similar to proprioceptors used by higher crustaceans to monitor gravitational direction.

  4. CONCEPTION ET OPTIMISATION DE RESEAUX D’ANTENNES IMPRIMEES A FAISCEAUX MULTIPLES APPLICATION DES RESEAUX DE NEURONES

    OpenAIRE

    Chaker, Hichem,

    2012-01-01

    Cette thèse développe d’une part des techniques d’optimisation de réseaux d’antennes imprimées multifaisceaux, basées sur les méthodes méta-heuristiques, telles que l’essaim de particule adaptative et leur modèle hybride avec les algorithmes génétiques. D’autre part, elle exploite la notion d’intelligence artificielle en utilisant les réseaux de neurones pour la modélisation du problème de synthèse de réseaux d’antennes imprimées à faisceaux multiples. Le problème de synthèse c...

  5. Inter-specific and developmental differences on the array of antennal chemoreceptors in four species of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Gracco

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the pattern of chemoreceptor sensilla in adults and fifth stage nymphs of Rhodnius prolixus, R. neglectus, Triatoma infestans and T. sordida in order to study differences and similarities between genera and species. Three types of sensilla were analyzed by light microscopy: thin-walled trichoidea, thick-walled trichoidea and basiconica. The number of sensilla of each three types were counted. The length of the antennal segments were also used as a variable for the analysis. The statistical analysis showed that the number of these antennal chemoreceptors had significant differences between species and between adults and nymphs of each species. Discriminant analysis separates incompletely the fifth stage nymphs of the four species and showed similarity between them. Discriminant analysis performed with 12 variables of the antennae, allowed a complete separation of the adults of the four species.

  6. Olfactory pathway of the hornet Vespa velutina: New insights into the evolution of the hymenopteran antennal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Antoine; Lapeyre, Benoit; Thiéry, Denis; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2016-08-01

    In the course of evolution, eusociality has appeared several times independently in Hymenoptera, within different families such as Apidae (bees), Formicidae (ants), and Vespidae (wasps and hornets), among others. The complex social organization of eusocial Hymenoptera relies on sophisticated olfactory communication systems. Whereas the olfactory systems of several bee and ant species have been well characterized, very little information is as yet available in Vespidae, although this family represents a highly successful insect group, displaying a wide range of life styles from solitary to eusocial. Using fluorescent labeling, confocal microscopy, and 3D reconstructions, we investigated the organization of the olfactory pathway in queens, workers, and males of the eusocial hornet Vespa velutina. First, we found that caste and sex dimorphism is weakly pronounced in hornets, with regard to both whole-brain morphology and antennal lobe organization, although several male-specific macroglomeruli are present. The V. velutina antennal lobe contains approximately 265 glomeruli (in females), grouped in nine conspicuous clusters formed by afferent tract subdivisions. As in bees and ants, hornets display a dual olfactory pathway, with two major efferent tracts, the medial and the lateral antennal lobe tracts (m- and l-ALT), separately arborizing two antennal lobe hemilobes and projecting to partially different regions of higher order olfactory centers. Finally, we found remarkable anatomical similarities in the glomerular cluster organizations among hornets, ants, and bees, suggesting the possible existence of homologies in the olfactory pathways of these eusocial Hymenoptera. We propose a common framework for describing AL compartmentalization across Hymenoptera and discuss possible evolutionary scenarios. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2335-2359, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850231

  7. Diverse filters to sense: great variability of antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in gall-wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Polidori

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on antennal sensillar equipment in insects are largely lacking, despite their potential to provide insights into both ecological and phylogenetic relationships. Here we present the first comparative study on antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in female Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera, a large and diverse group of wasps, with special reference to the so-called gall-wasps (Cynipidae. A SEM analysis was conducted on 51 species from all extant cynipoid families and all cynipid tribes, and spanning all known life-histories in the superfamily (gall-inducers, gall-inquilines, and non-gall associated parasitoids. The generally filiform, rarely clavate, antennal flagellum of Cynipoidea harbours overall 12 types of sensilla: s. placoidea (SP, two types of s. coeloconica (SCo-A, SCo-B, s. campaniformia (SCa, s. basiconica (SB, five types of s. trichoidea (ST-A, B, C, D, E, large disc sensilla (LDS and large volcano sensilla (LVS. We found a great variability in sensillar equipment both among and within lineages. However, few traits seem to be unique to specific cynipid tribes. Paraulacini are, for example, distinctive in having apical LVS; Pediaspidini are unique in having ≥3 rows of SP, each including 6-8 sensilla per flagellomere, and up to 7 SCo-A in a single flagellomere; Eschatocerini have by far the largest SCo-A. Overall, our data preliminarily suggest a tendency to decreased numbers of SP rows per flagellomere and increased relative size of SCo-A during cynipoid evolution. Furthermore, SCo-A size seems to be higher in species inducing galls in trees than in those inducing galls in herbs. On the other hand, ST seem to be more abundant on the antennae of herb-gallers than wood-gallers. The antennal morphology and sensillar equipment in Cynipoidea are the complex results of different interacting pressures that need further investigations to be clarified.

  8. Chemosensory neurons in the mouthparts of the spiny lobsters Panulirus argus and Panulirus interruptus (Crustacea : Decapoda)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Shabani, Shkelzen; Høeg, Jens Thorvald; Derby, Charles D.

    2005-01-01

    most potent single compounds being ammonium, adenosine-5'-monophosphate, taurine, glutamate, and aspartate. Cluster analysis indicated that the neurons constitute a heterogeneous population that could be placed into seven groups linked according to their most excitatory compound. These neurons in the...... mouthparts had concentration-dependent responses, with thresholds between 10-7 and 10-4 M and without saturation even at 10-3 or 10-2 M. They also quickly adapted when exposed to their best compounds at 10-4 and 10-3 M. A comparison of the response properties of these neurons in the mouthparts with those of...... chemosensory neurons in other crustacean appendages shows that neurons in the mouthparts have relatively broad tuning biased toward detecting and resolving high concentrations. Based on these comparisons, we suggest a functional distinction among the chemosensors on the different appendages: long distance...

  9. Mutations in chemosensory cilia cause resistance to paraquat in nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Michihiko; Matsumoto, Yuki; Tanaka, Nanae; Miki, Kensuke; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Ishii, Naoaki; Ayusawa, Dai

    2004-05-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and longevity is a matter of concern in various organisms. We isolated mutants resistant to paraquat from nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. One mutant named mev-4 was long-lived and showed cross-resistance to heat and Dyf phenotype (defective in dye filling). Genetic and sequence analysis revealed that mev-4 had a nonsense mutation on the che-11 gene, homologues of which are involved in formation of cilia and flagella in other organisms. The paraquat resistance was commonly observed in various Dyf mutants and did not depend on the daf-16 gene, whereas the extension of life span did depend on it. Expression of antioxidant enzyme genes seemed normal. These results suggest that chemosensory neurons are a target of oxidative stress and influence longevity dependent on the daf-16 signaling in C. elegans. PMID:14982934

  10. Chemosensory perception, symptoms and autonomic responses during chemical exposure in multiple chemical sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Linus; Claeson, Anna Sara; Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a prevalent medically unexplained symptom characterized by symptom reactions to everyday chemical exposure below hygienic thresholds. The aim of this study was to investigate the expressions of hyper-reactivity in MCS during whole-body exposure to l...... found for breathing rate or tonic electrodermal activity responses. Conclusions: We conclude that MCS sufferers differ from healthy controls in terms of autonomic responses, symptoms and chemosensory perception during chemical exposure......./m3. Results: MCS participants, compared with controls, reported greater perceived odor intensities, more unpleasantness to the exposure and increasing symptoms over time. MCS participants also expressed higher pulse rate and lower pulse rate variability than controls did. No group differences were...

  11. Pou2f3/Skn-1a Is Necessary for the Generation or Differentiation of Solitary Chemosensory Cells in the Anterior Nasal Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Ohmoto, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; YAMASHITA, Junpei; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Hirota, Junji; Matsumoto, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    Solitary chemosensory cells in the non-neuronal epithelium of the anterior nasal cavity have bitter taste cell-like molecular characteristics and are involved in the detection of noxious substances. Here, we demonstrate that Pou2f3/Skn-1a, which is necessary for generation of sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells, is also necessary for the generation or differentiation of solitary chemosensory cells.

  12. Neurobehavioral effects during exposures to propionic acid--an indicator of chemosensory distraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Kathrin; Juran, Stephanie; Schäper, Michael; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Brüning, Thomas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2009-11-01

    The chemosensory effects of propionic acid (PA) in humans have not been conclusively studied and there is no established occupational exposure limit (OEL) in Germany. In addition to sensory irritation caused by PA, it was hypothesized that the annoying odor of PA might interfere with the performance results. There were 23 consenting healthy participants (12 female, 11 male) in the group studied. They were exposed for 4 h to PA in concentrations of 0.3, 5 and 10 ppm in a cross-over design. During these exposures, performance was recorded with four cognitive tests measuring response-inhibition, working memory, set-shifting, and divided attention. Odor annoyance, other chemosensory sensations, and acute symptoms were assessed before, during, and after exposure with standardized rating scales. Moderate odor annoyance and weak sensory irritation were reported during 5 and 10 ppm exposure conditions. The different levels of exposure to PA had no impact upon the results of three out of the four behavioral tests. The difficulties of the task were reflected in the results. However in the fourth, which was the response-inhibition task, there was significant increase in the error rates which corresponded to the exposure levels. Results from previous experiments suggested high odor annoyance at the investigated concentrations. Our findings showed that odor annoyance and reported sensory irritations were low. In conclusion, the hypothesis of a distractive effect due to the malodor of PA could not be confirmed. Only in concentrations as high as 10 ppm acute PA exposure affected the response accuracy of one of the four neurobehavioral task. For other more annoying substances, a neurobehavioral effect influenced by an indirect mechanism of resources competition is still conceivable. PMID:19733590

  13. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Rivera, Dario; Bitzer, Sebastian; Kiebel, Stefan J

    2015-10-01

    The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena. PMID:26451888

  14. Modelling Odor Decoding in the Antennal Lobe by Combining Sequential Firing Rate Models with Bayesian Inference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Cuevas Rivera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The olfactory information that is received by the insect brain is encoded in the form of spatiotemporal patterns in the projection neurons of the antennal lobe. These dense and overlapping patterns are transformed into a sparse code in Kenyon cells in the mushroom body. Although it is clear that this sparse code is the basis for rapid categorization of odors, it is yet unclear how the sparse code in Kenyon cells is computed and what information it represents. Here we show that this computation can be modeled by sequential firing rate patterns using Lotka-Volterra equations and Bayesian online inference. This new model can be understood as an 'intelligent coincidence detector', which robustly and dynamically encodes the presence of specific odor features. We found that the model is able to qualitatively reproduce experimentally observed activity in both the projection neurons and the Kenyon cells. In particular, the model explains mechanistically how sparse activity in the Kenyon cells arises from the dense code in the projection neurons. The odor classification performance of the model proved to be robust against noise and time jitter in the observed input sequences. As in recent experimental results, we found that recognition of an odor happened very early during stimulus presentation in the model. Critically, by using the model, we found surprising but simple computational explanations for several experimental phenomena.

  15. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L J; Frasnelli, E; Versace, E

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species' natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  16. Lateralized antennal control of aggression and sex differences in red mason bees, Osmia bicornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, L. J.; Frasnelli, E.; Versace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Comparison of lateralization in social and non-social bees tests the hypothesis that population-level, directional asymmetry has evolved as an adjunct to social behaviour. Previous research has supported this hypothesis: directional bias of antennal use in responding to odours and learning to associate odours with a food reward is absent in species that feed individually, such as mason bees, whereas it is clearly present in eusocial honeybees and stingless bees. Here we report that, when mason bees engage in agonistic interactions, a species-typical interactive behaviour, they do exhibit a directional bias according to which antenna is available to be used. Aggression was significantly higher in dyads using only their left antennae (LL) than it was in those using only their right antennae (RR). This asymmetry was found in both males and females but it was stronger in females. LL dyads of a male and a female spent significantly more time together than did other dyadic combinations. No asymmetry was present in non-aggressive contacts, latency to first contact or body wiping. Hence, population-level lateralization is present only for social interactions common and frequent in the species’ natural behaviour. This leads to a refinement of the hypothesis linking directional lateralization to social behaviour. PMID:27388686

  17. Size determines antennal sensitivity and behavioral threshold to odors in bumblebee workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaethe, Johannes; Brockmann, Axel; Halbig, Christine; Tautz, Jürgen

    2007-09-01

    The eusocial bumblebees exhibit pronounced size variation among workers of the same colony. Differently sized workers engage in different tasks (alloethism); large individuals are found to have a higher probability to leave the colony and search for food, whereas small workers tend to stay inside the nest and attend to nest duties. We investigated the effect of size variation on morphology and physiology of the peripheral olfactory system and the behavioral response thresholds to odors in workers of Bombus terrestris. Number and density of olfactory sensilla on the antennae correlate significantly with worker size. Consistent with these morphological changes, we found that antennal sensitivity to odors increases with body size. Antennae of large individuals show higher electroantennogram responses to a given odor concentration than those of smaller nestmates. This finding indicates that large antennae exhibit an increased capability to catch odor molecules and thus are more sensitive to odors than small antennae. We confirmed this prediction in a dual choice behavioral experiment showing that large workers indeed are able to respond correctly to much lower odor concentrations than small workers. Learning performance in these experiments did not differ between small and large bumblebees. Our results clearly show that, in the social bumblebees, variation in olfactory sensilla number due to size differences among workers strongly affects individual odor sensitivity. We speculate that superior odor sensitivity of large workers has favored size-related division of labor in bumblebee colonies.

  18. Novel antennal lobe substructures revealed in the small hive beetle Aethina tumida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, Martin; Rupenthal, Anna Lena; Neumann, Peter; Huetteroth, Wolf; Schachtner, Joachim

    2016-03-01

    The small hive beetle, Aethina tumida, is an emerging pest of social bee colonies. A. tumida shows a specialized life style for which olfaction seems to play a crucial role. To better understand the olfactory system of the beetle, we used immunohistochemistry and 3-D reconstruction to analyze brain structures, especially the paired antennal lobes (AL), which represent the first integration centers for odor information in the insect brain. The basic neuroarchitecture of the A. tumida brain compares well to the typical beetle and insect brain. In comparison to other insects, the AL are relatively large in relationship to other brain areas, suggesting that olfaction is of major importance for the beetle. The AL of both sexes contain about 70 olfactory glomeruli with no obvious size differences of the glomeruli between sexes. Similar to all other insects including beetles, immunostaining with an antiserum against serotonin revealed a large cell that projects from one AL to the contralateral AL to densely innervate all glomeruli. Immunostaining with an antiserum against tachykinin-related peptides (TKRP) revealed hitherto unknown structures in the AL. Small TKRP-immunoreactive spherical substructures are in both sexes evenly distributed within all glomeruli. The source for these immunoreactive islets is very likely a group of about 80 local AL interneurons. We offer two hypotheses on the function of such structures. PMID:26496732

  19. Spiking patterns and their functional implications in the antennal lobe of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lei

    Full Text Available Bursting as well as tonic firing patterns have been described in various sensory systems. In the olfactory system, spontaneous bursts have been observed in neurons distributed across several synaptic levels, from the periphery, to the olfactory bulb (OB and to the olfactory cortex. Several in vitro studies indicate that spontaneous firing patterns may be viewed as "fingerprints" of different types of neurons that exhibit distinct functions in the OB. It is still not known, however, if and how neuronal burstiness is correlated with the coding of natural olfactory stimuli. We thus conducted an in vivo study to probe this question in the OB equivalent structure of insects, the antennal lobe (AL of the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta. We found that in the moth's AL, both projection (output neurons (PNs and local interneurons (LNs are spontaneously active, but PNs tend to produce spike bursts while LNs fire more regularly. In addition, we found that the burstiness of PNs is correlated with the strength of their responses to odor stimulation--the more bursting the stronger their responses to odors. Moreover, the burstiness of PNs was also positively correlated with the spontaneous firing rate of these neurons, and pharmacological reduction of bursting resulted in a decrease of the neurons' responsiveness. These results suggest that neuronal burstiness reflects a physiological state of these neurons that is directly linked to their response characteristics.

  20. Morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla chaetica with character displacement in the sandfly Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Ilango

    2000-06-01

    Using light microscope and scanning electron microscope, the external morphological characteristics of the antennal flagellum and its sensilla are described in the sandfly, Phlebotomus argentipes Annandale and Brunetti sensu lato, a well known vector of visceral leishmaniasis in India. A revised terminology is given for the antennal segments to bring phlebotomine more in line with other subfamilies and families while a description of antennal sensilla is provided for the first time in phlebotomine sandflies. Each flagellum consists of scape, pedicel, flagellomeres I to XIII and apiculus. The antennal segments contain scales and sensilla and the latter consist of sensilla trichodea, s. basiconica, s. auricillica, s. coeloconica and s. chaetica and their putative functions are discussed. The sensilla chaeticum hitherto known as antennal ascoid in the phlebotomine sandflies was used to differentiate within and between species. Differences in its relative size to the flagellomere between the populations of P. argentipes collected from the endemic and non-endemic areas in Tamil Nadu state, southern India were established. These differences are considered to be a character displacement as means of premating reproductive isolating mechanism among the populations/members of species complex.

  1. From neurotoxic to chemosensory effects: new insights on acute solvent neurotoxicity exemplified by acute effects of 2-ethylhexanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Thriel, Christoph; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Golka, Klaus; Juran, Stephanie; Kleinbeck, Stefan; Seeber, Andreas

    2007-03-01

    Historically, acute solvent neurotoxicity was strongly related to reversible narcotic states that could be detected by neurobehavioral tests (e.g., simple reaction time). Nowadays, the occupational exposure to chemicals is markedly reduced and the avoidance of chemosensory effects is more important for the regulation of solvents. Exemplarily, this study examines if the chemosensory perception of 2-ethylhexanol is capable to distract performance in demanding neurobehavioral tasks. In two experiments three time-weighted average concentrations of 2-ethylhexanol (C(TWA): 1.5, 10, and 20 ppm) were investigated. In experiment A (n=24) variable concentrations over time (4h) were used, experiment B (n=22) investigated constant concentrations. The experiments were conducted in a 29 m3 exposure laboratory. Cross-over designs with randomized sequences of exposures were used. Among the 46 male participants 19 subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 27 subjects did not show this personality feature. During the exposure periods neurobehavioral tests were presented twice (beginning; end), the intensity of chemosensory perceptions were rated thrice. The intensity of chemosensory perceptions showed a clear dose-dependency. Subjects' performance in the vigilance test was not affected by the different exposures. Moreover, the results of neurobehavioral tests measuring executive function were neither affected by the C(TWA) concentration nor by the exposure peaks. With increasing C(TWA), a subgroup of the chemically sensitive subjects showed deteriorated accuracy in a divided attention task. Especially the 20 ppm conditions were very annoying. Only during the constant 10 ppm condition the time courses of the annoyance and nasal irritation ratings indicated some adaptation. In general, with the applied neurobehavioral tests distractive effects of acute 2-ethylhexanol exposures up to 20 ppm could not be confirmed. In sensitive groups such distractive effects of

  2. Functional promiscuity in a mammalian chemosensory system: extensive expression of vomeronasal receptors in the main olfactory epithelium of mouse lemurs

    OpenAIRE

    Hohenbrink, Philipp; Dempewolf, Silke; Zimmermann, Elke; Mundy, Nicholas I.; Radespiel, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is functional in most terrestrial mammals, though progressively reduced in the primate lineage, and is used for intraspecific communication and predator recognition. Vomeronasal receptor (VR) genes comprise two families of chemosensory genes (V1R and V2R) that have been considered to be specific for the VNO. However, recently a large number of VRs were reported to be expressed in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) of mice, but there is little knowledge of the expr...

  3. Chemosensory Communication of Gender Information: Masculinity Bias in Body Odor Perception and Femininity Bias Introduced by Chemosignals During Social Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Mutic, Smiljana; Moellers, Eileen M.; Wiesmann, Martin; Freiherr, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Human body odor is a source of important social information. In this study, we explore whether the sex of an individual can be established based on smelling axillary odor and whether exposure to male and female odors biases chemosensory and social perception. In a double-blind, pseudo-randomized application, 31 healthy normosmic heterosexual male and female raters were exposed to male and female chemosignals (odor samples of 27 heterosexual donors collected during a cardio workout) and a no o...

  4. A review of chemosensory perceptions, food preferences and food-related behaviours in subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Haqq, Andrea M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2016-04-01

    Hyperphagia and obsessive preoccupation with food are hallmark characteristics of Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). Although hyperphagia in PWS is linked to hypothalamic dysfunction, the underlying mechanisms behind this problem are poorly understood. Moreover, our understanding of how chemosensory perceptions and food choice/preferences relate to hyperphagia in individuals with PWS is very limited. This narrative review synthesizes studies that assessed chemosensory perceptions, food choices and food-related behaviours in PWS individuals and highlights knowledge gaps in research for further exploration. Twenty seven publications from relevant databases met inclusion criteria and were organized thematically by study technique in the review. Results suggested that PWS individuals have consistent preferences for sweet tastes and in most studies have exhibited a preference for calorie-dense foods over lower calorie foods. No firm conclusions were drawn concerning the chemosensory perceptions of PWS individuals and their influence on food preferences or choices; chemosensation among PWS individuals is an understudied topic. Current evidence suggests that eating behaviour in PWS is a complex phenomenon that involves a dysfunctional satiation and not excessive hunger. Food preferences, choices, and related behaviours and the impact of these on obesity management in those with PWS remain poorly understood and require further study using validated tools and methodologies. PMID:26713776

  5. Antennal structure of male and female Aphidius rhopalosiphi DeStefani-Peres (Hymenoptera:Braconidae): description and morphological alterations after cold storage or heat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdais, Delphine; Vernon, Philippe; Krespi, Liliane; Le Lannic, Jo; Van Baaren, Joan

    2006-12-01

    Several species of the genus Aphidius are used in biological control programs against aphid pests throughout the world and their behavior and physiology are well studied. But despite knowing the importance of sensory organs in their behavior, their antennal structure has never been described. We describe here the types and distribution of antennal sensilla in Aphidius rhopalosiphi, a larval parasitoid of several aphid species and observe how this antennal structure is modified after cold storage or heat exposure. Six types of sensilla were found on both male and female antennae. Male and female antennae differed in the total number of antennomeres (16 in males, 14 in females) and in the number and distribution of three of the six types of sensilla. After cold storage or heat exposure, we observed the appearance of a small number of abnormal sensilla. PMID:17019677

  6. Innate recognition of pheromone and food odors in moths: a common mechanism in the antennal lobe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua P Martin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an animal often depends on an innate response to a particular sensory stimulus. For an adult male moth, two categories of odors are innately attractive: pheromone released by conspecific females, and the floral scents of certain, often co-evolved, plants. These odors consist of multiple volatiles in characteristic mixtures. Here, we review evidence that both categories of odors are processed as sensory objects, and we suggest a mechanism in the primary olfactory center, the antennal lobe (AL, that encodes the configuration of these mixtures and may underlie recognition of innately attractive odors. In the pheromone system, mixtures of two or three volatiles elicit upwind flight. Peripheral changes are associated with behavioral changes in speciation, and suggest the existence of a pattern recognition mechanism for pheromone mixtures in the AL. Moths are similarly innately attracted to certain floral scents. Though floral scents consist of multiple volatiles that activate a broad array of receptor neurons, only a smaller subset, numerically comparable to pheromone mixtures, is necessary and sufficient to elicit behavior. Both pheromone and floral scent mixtures that produce attraction to the odor source elicit synchronous action potentials in particular populations of output (projection neurons (PNs in the AL. We propose a model in which the synchronous output of a population of PNs encodes the configuration of an innately attractive mixture, and thus comprises an innate mechanism for releasing odor-tracking behavior. The particular example of olfaction in moths may inform the general question of how sensory objects trigger innate responses.

  7. The anatomical basis for modulatory convergence in the antennal lobe of Manduca sexta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizbinski, Kristyn M; Metheny, Jackie D; Bradley, Samual P; Kesari, Aditya; Dacks, Andrew M

    2016-06-15

    The release of neuromodulators by widely projecting neurons often allows sensory systems to alter how they process information based on the physiological state of an animal. Neuromodulators alter network function by changing the biophysical properties of individual neurons and the synaptic efficacy with which individual neurons communicate. However, most, if not all, sensory networks receive multiple neuromodulatory inputs, and the mechanisms by which sensory networks integrate multiple modulatory inputs are not well understood. Here we characterized the relative glomerular distribution of two extrinsic neuromodulators associated with distinct physiological states, serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA), in the antennal lobe (AL) of the moth Manduca sexta. By using immunocytochemistry and mass dye fills, we characterized the innervation patterns of both 5-HT- and tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive processes relative to each other, to olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), to projection neurons (PNs), and to several subsets of local interneurons (LNs). 5-HT immunoreactivity had nearly complete overlap with PNs and LNs, yet no overlap with ORNs, suggesting that 5-HT may modulate PNs and LNs directly but not ORNs. TH immunoreactivity overlapped with PNs, LNs, and ORNs, suggesting that dopamine has the potential to modulate all three cell types. Furthermore, the branching density of each neuromodulator differed, with 5-HT exhibiting denser arborizations and TH-ir processes being sparser. Our results suggest that 5-HT and DA extrinsic neurons target partially overlapping glomerular regions, yet DA extends further into the region occupied by ORNs. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1859-1875, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26560074

  8. Antennal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases in a pest insect: diversity and putative function in odorant and xenobiotics clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzolan, F; Siaussat, D; Maria, A; Durand, N; Pottier, M-A; Chertemps, T; Maïbèche-Coisne, M

    2014-10-01

    Uridine diphosphate UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are detoxification enzymes widely distributed within living organisms. They are involved in the biotransformation of various lipophilic endogenous compounds and xenobiotics, including odorants. Several UGTs have been reported in the olfactory organs of mammals and involved in olfactory processing and detoxification within the olfactory mucosa but, in insects, this enzyme family is still poorly studied. Despite recent transcriptomic analyses, the diversity of antennal UGTs in insects has not been investigated. To date, only three UGT cDNAs have been shown to be expressed in insect olfactory organs. In the present study, we report the identification of eleven putative UGTs expressed in the antennae of the model pest insect Spodoptera littoralis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these UGTs belong to five different families, highlighting their structural diversity. In addition, two genes, UGT40R3 and UGT46A6, were either specifically expressed or overexpressed in the antennae, suggesting specific roles in this sensory organ. Exposure of male moths to the sex pheromone and to a plant odorant differentially downregulated the transcription levels of these two genes, revealing for the first time the regulation of insect UGTs by odorant exposure. Moreover, the specific antennal gene UGT46A6 was upregulated by insecticide topical application on antennae, suggesting its role in the protection of the olfactory organ towards xenobiotics. This work highlights the structural and functional diversity of UGTs within this highly specialized tissue. PMID:24698447

  9. Variation of chemosensory receptor content of Campylobacter jejuni strains and modulation of receptor gene expression under different in vivo and in vitro growth conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Christopher J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chemotaxis is crucial for the colonisation/infection of hosts with Campylobacter jejuni. Central to chemotaxis are the group A chemotaxis genes that are responsible for sensing the external environment. The distribution of group A chemoreceptor genes, as found in the C. jejuni sequenced strains, tlp1-4, 7, 10 and 11 were determined in 33 clinical human and avian isolates. Results Group A tlp gene content varied among the strains with genes encoding tlp1 (aspartate receptor, ccaA and tlp7 present in all strains tested, where as tlp11 was present in only one of our international collection clinical isolates, C. jejuni 520, but was more prevalent (9/13 in the freshly isolated clinical stains from patients who required hospitalisation due to C. jejuni infection (GCH1-17. Relative expression levels of the group A tlp genes were also determined in C. jejuni reference strains NCTC 11168-GS, 11168-O and 81116 using cells grown in vitro at 37°C, 42°C and maintained at room temperature and with cells isolated directly from murine and avian hosts by immune magnetic separation without subsequent culture. Gene expression of tlp genes was varied based on strain, growth conditions and in vivo isolation source. Tlp1, although the most conserved, showed the lowest and most varied mRNA expression and protein production under laboratory conditions. Tlp7 was highly expressed at most conditions tested, and gene expression was not influenced by the tlp7 gene encoding a full length protein or one expressed as separate periplasmic and cytoplasmic domains. Conclusion We have shown that chemosensory receptor set variation exists among C. jejuni strains, but is not dependent on the isolation source.

  10. Dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti salivary gland and chemosensory apparatus induces genes that modulate infection and blood-feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Sim

    Full Text Available The female Aedes aegypti salivary gland plays a pivotal role in bloodmeal acquisition and reproduction, and thereby dengue virus (DENV transmission. It produces numerous immune factors, as well as immune-modulatory, vasodilatory, and anti-coagulant molecules that facilitate blood-feeding. To assess the impact of DENV infection on salivary gland physiology and function, we performed a comparative genome-wide microarray analysis of the naïve and DENV infection-responsive A. aegypti salivary gland transcriptomes. DENV infection resulted in the regulation of 147 transcripts that represented a variety of functional classes, including several that are essential for virus transmission, such as immunity, blood-feeding, and host-seeking. RNAi-mediated gene silencing of three DENV infection-responsive genes--a cathepsin B, a putative cystatin, and a hypothetical ankyrin repeat-containing protein--significantly modulated DENV replication in the salivary gland. Furthermore, silencing of two DENV infection-responsive odorant-binding protein genes (OBPs resulted in an overall compromise in blood acquisition from a single host by increasing the time for initiation of probing and the probing time before a successful bloodmeal. We also show that DENV established an extensive infection in the mosquito's main olfactory organs, the antennae, which resulted in changes of the transcript abundance of key host-seeking genes. DENV infection, however, did not significantly impact probing initiation or probing times in our laboratory infection system. Here we show for the first time that the mosquito salivary gland mounts responses to suppress DENV which, in turn, modulates the expression of chemosensory-related genes that regulate feeding behavior. These reciprocal interactions may have the potential to affect DENV transmission between humans.

  11. Chemoreception regulates chemical access to mouse vomeronasal organ: role of solitary chemosensory cells.

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    Tatsuya Ogura

    Full Text Available Controlling stimulus access to sensory organs allows animals to optimize sensory reception and prevent damage. The vomeronasal organ (VNO detects pheromones and other semiochemicals to regulate innate social and sexual behaviors. This semiochemical detection generally requires the VNO to draw in chemical fluids, such as bodily secretions, which are complex in composition and can be contaminated. Little is known about whether and how chemical constituents are monitored to regulate the fluid access to the VNO. Using transgenic mice and immunolabeling, we found that solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs reside densely at the entrance duct of the VNO. In this region, most of the intraepithelial trigeminal fibers innervate the SCCs, indicating that SCCs relay sensory information onto the trigeminal fibers. These SCCs express transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5 and the phospholipase C (PLC beta2 signaling pathway. Additionally, the SCCs express choline acetyltransferase (ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT for synthesizing and packaging acetylcholine, a potential transmitter. In intracellular Ca2+ imaging, the SCCs responded to various chemical stimuli including high concentrations of odorants and bitter compounds. The responses were suppressed significantly by a PLC inhibitor, suggesting involvement of the PLC pathway. Further, we developed a quantitative dye assay to show that the amount of stimulus fluid that entered the VNOs of behaving mice is inversely correlated to the concentration of odorous and bitter substances in the fluid. Genetic knockout and pharmacological inhibition of TRPM5 resulted in larger amounts of bitter compounds entering the VNOs. Our data uncovered that chemoreception of fluid constituents regulates chemical access to the VNO and plays an important role in limiting the access of non-specific irritating and harmful substances. Our results also provide new insight into the emerging role of SCCs in

  12. Sex-specific antennal sensory system in the ant Camponotus japonicus: structure and distribution of sensilla on the flagellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Aki; Nishino, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio; Nishikawa, Michiko

    2009-10-01

    The antennae are a critically important component of the ant's highly elaborated chemical communication systems. However, our understanding of the organization of the sensory systems on the antennae of ants, from peripheral receptors to central and output systems, is poorly understood. Consequently, we have used scanning electron and confocal laser microscopy to create virtually complete maps of the structure, numbers of sensory neurons, and distribution patterns of all types of external sensilla on the antennal flagellum of all types of colony members of the carpenter ant Camponotus japonicus. Based on the outer cuticular structures, the sensilla have been classified into seven types: coelocapitular, coeloconic, ampullaceal, basiconic, trichoid-I, trichoid-II, and chaetic sensilla. Retrograde staining of antennal nerves has enabled us to count the number of sensory neurons housed in the different types of sensilla: three in a coelocapitular sensillum, three in a coeloconic sensillum, one in an ampullaceal sensillum, over 130 in a basiconic sensillum, 50-60 in a trichoid-I sensillum, and 8-9 in a trichoid-II sensillum. The basiconic sensilla, which are cuticular hydrocarbon-receptive in the ant, are present in workers and unmated queens but absent in males. Coelocapitular sensilla (putatively hygro- and thermoreceptive) have been newly identified in this study. Coelocapitular, coeloconic, and ampullaceal sensilla form clusters and show biased distributions on flagellar segments of antennae in all colony members. The total numbers of sensilla per flagellum are about 9000 in unmated queens, 7500 in workers, and 6000 in males. This is the first report presenting comprehensive sensillar maps of antennae in ants. PMID:19763622

  13. TRPM5, a taste-signaling transient receptor potential ion-channel, is a ubiquitous signaling component in chemosensory cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofmann Thomas

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing number of TRP channels have been identified as key players in the sensation of smell, temperature, mechanical forces and taste. TRPM5 is known to be abundantly expressed in taste receptor cells where it participates in sweet, amino acid and bitter perception. A role of TRPM5 in other sensory systems, however, has not been studied so far. Results Here, we systematically investigated the expression of TRPM5 in rat and mouse tissues. Apart from taste buds, where we found TRPM5 to be predominantly localized on the basolateral surface of taste receptor cells, TRPM5 immunoreactivity was seen in other chemosensory organs – the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ. Most strikingly, we found solitary TRPM5-enriched epithelial cells in all parts of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. Based on their tissue distribution, the low cell density, morphological features and co-immunostaining with different epithelial markers, we identified these cells as brush cells (also known as tuft, fibrillovesicular, multivesicular or caveolated cells. In terms of morphological characteristics, brush cells resemble taste receptor cells, while their origin and biological role are still under intensive debate. Conclusion We consider TRPM5 to be an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs, and provide evidence for brush cells being an important cellular correlate in the periphery.

  14. Evaluation of ethyl acetate on three dimensions: investigation of behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinbeck, Stefan; Juran, Stephanie A; Kiesswetter, Ernst; Schäper, Michael; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Brüning, Thomas; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-11-10

    A variety of national occupational exposure limits for ethyl acetate exist based on different studies, mostly relying on subjective evaluations of ethyl acetate as an irritant. Only one study also used physiological methods with inconsistent results in subjective and objective data. The present study was designed to investigate ethyl acetate on three different dimensions: behavioral, physiological and psychological indicators of adverse chemosensory effects were investigated during acute exposures to different concentrations of ethyl acetate. Twenty-four subjects were challenged with ethyl acetate in three exposure patterns (2 ppm, 400 ppm, 400 ppm including peaks of 800 ppm). While the odor intensity is rated "strong", trigeminal perceptions were rated less than "moderate". The absence of substantial trigeminal ratings was supported by physiological data. There was neither an effect of concentration on blinking frequency nor on nasal resistance which both are indicators of irritation. Furthermore, there are no effects of ethyl acetate concentration on behavioral measures indicating no olfactory or trigeminally mediated disturbance of cognitive processing. In conclusion, the results of this multilevel approach revealed no adverse chemosensory effects at ethyl acetate concentrations as recommended by the German MAK-value. PMID:18812215

  15. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Joseph M; Stockton, Dara; Meikle, William G; Sétamou, Mamoudou; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Adamczyk, John J

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid's host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid's primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal. PMID:26462949

  16. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae, Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Patt

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli from host and non-host-plant sources. Response was measured as the frequency of salivary sheaths, the residue of psyllid probing activity, in a line of emulsified wax on the surface of a test arena. The psyllids displayed both appetitive and aversive conditioning to two different chemosensory stimuli. They could also be conditioned to recognize a blue-colored probing substrate and their response to neutral visual cues was enhanced by chemosensory stimuli. Conditioned psyllids were sensitive to the proportion of chemosensory components present in binary mixtures. Naïve psyllids displayed strong to moderate innate biases to several of the test compounds. While innate responses are probably the psyllid’s primary behavioral mechanism for selecting host-plants, conditioning may enhance its ability to select host-plants during seasonal transitions and dispersal.

  17. Genomic analysis of a sexually-selected character: EST sequencing and microarray analysis of eye-antennal imaginal discs in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni (Diopsidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xianhui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many species of stalk-eyed flies (Diopsidae possess highly-exaggerated, sexually dimorphic eye-stalks that play an important role in the mating system of these flies. Eye-stalks are increasingly being used as a model system for studying sexual selection, but little is known about the genetic mechanisms producing variation in these ornamental traits. Therefore, we constructed an EST database of genes expressed in the developing eye-antennal imaginal disc of the highly dimorphic species Teleopsis dalmanni. We used this set of genes to construct microarray slides and compare patterns of gene expression between lines of flies with divergent eyespan. Results We generated 33,229 high-quality ESTs from three non-normalized libraries made from the developing eye-stalk tissue at different developmental stages. EST assembly and annotation produced a total of 7,066 clusters comprising 3,424 unique genes with significant sequence similarity to a protein in either Drosophila melanogaster or Anopheles gambiae. Comparisons of the transcript profiles at different stages reveal a developmental shift in relative expression from genes involved in anatomical structure formation, transcription, and cell proliferation at the larval stage to genes involved in neurological processes and cuticle production during the pupal stages. Based on alignments of the EST fragments to homologous sequences in Drosophila and Anopheles, we identified 20 putative gene duplication events in T. dalmanni and numerous genes undergoing significantly faster rates of evolution in T. dalmanni relative to the other Dipteran species. Microarray experiments identified over 350 genes with significant differential expression between flies from lines selected for high and low relative eyespan but did not reveal any primary biological process or pathway that is driving the expression differences. Conclusion The catalogue of genes identified in the EST database provides a valuable

  18. Is TrpM5 a reliable marker for chemosensory cells? Multiple types of microvillous cells in the main olfactory epithelium of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finger Thomas E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, ciliated receptor neurons, basal cells, and supporting cells were considered the principal components of the main olfactory epithelium. Several studies reported the presence of microvillous cells but their function is unknown. A recent report showed cells in the main olfactory epithelium that express the transient receptor potential channel TrpM5 claiming that these cells are chemosensory and that TrpM5 is an intrinsic signaling component of mammalian chemosensory organs. We asked whether the TrpM5-positive cells in the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and whether they belong to a chemosensory system, i.e. are olfactory neurons or trigeminally-innervated solitary chemosensory cells. Results We investigated the main olfactory epithelium of mice at the light and electron microscopic level and describe several subpopulations of microvillous cells. The ultrastructure of the microvillous cells reveals at least three morphologically different types two of which express the TrpM5 channel. None of these cells have an axon that projects to the olfactory bulb. Tests with a large panel of cell markers indicate that the TrpM5-positive cells are not sensory since they express neither neuronal markers nor are contacted by trigeminal nerve fibers. Conclusion We conclude that TrpM5 is not a reliable marker for chemosensory cells. The TrpM5-positive cells of the olfactory epithelium are microvillous and may be chemoresponsive albeit not part of the sensory apparatus. Activity of these microvillous cells may however influence functionality of local elements of the olfactory system.

  19. Searching for learning-dependent changes in the antennal lobe: simultaneous recording of neural activity and aversive olfactory learning in honeybees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Roussel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity in the honeybee brain has been studied using the appetitive olfactory conditioning of the proboscis extension reflex, in which a bee learns the association between an odor and a sucrose reward. In this framework, coupling behavioral measurements of proboscis extension and invasive recordings of neural activity has been difficult because proboscis movements usually introduce brain movements that affect physiological preparations. Here we took advantage of a new conditioning protocol, the aversive olfactory conditioning of the sting extension reflex, which does not generate this problem. We achieved the first simultaneous recordings of conditioned sting extension responses and calcium imaging of antennal lobe activity, thus revealing on-line processing of olfactory information during conditioning trials. Based on behavioral output we distinguished learners and non-learners and analyzed possible learning-dependent changes in antennal lobe activity. We did not find differences between glomerular responses to the CS+ and the CS- in learners. Unexpectedly, we found that during conditioning trials non-learners exhibited a progressive decrease in physiological responses to odors, irrespective of their valence. This effect could neither be attributed to a fitness problem nor to abnormal dye bleaching. We discuss the absence of learning-induced changes in the antennal lobe of learners and the decrease in calcium responses found in non-learners. Further studies will have to extend the search for functional plasticity related to aversive learning to other brain areas and to look on a broader range of temporal scales

  20. Odour-evoked responses to queen pheromone components and to plant odours using optical imaging in the antennal lobe of the honey bee drone Apis mellifera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2006-09-01

    The primordial functional role of honey bee males (drones) is to mate with virgin queens, a behaviour relying heavily on the olfactory detection of queen pheromone. In the present work I studied olfactory processing in the drone antennal lobe (AL), the primary olfactory centre of the insect brain. In drones, the AL consists of about 103 ordinary glomeruli and four enlarged glomeruli, the macroglomeruli (MG). Two macroglomeruli (MG1 and MG2) and approximately 20 ordinary glomeruli occupy the anterior surface of the antennal lobe and are thus accessible to optical recordings. Calcium imaging was used to measure odour-evoked responses to queen pheromonal components and plant odours. MG2 responded specifically to the main component of the queen mandibular pheromone, 9-ODA. The secondary components HOB and HVA each triggered activity in one, but not the same, ordinary glomerulus. MG1 did not respond to any of the tested stimuli. Plant odours induced signals only in ordinary glomeruli in a combinatorial manner, as in workers. This study thus shows that the major queen pheromonal component is processed in the most voluminous macroglomerulus of the drone antennal lobe, and that plant odours, as well as some queen pheromonal components, are processed in ordinary glomeruli. PMID:16943499

  1. Central projections of antennular chemosensory and mechanosensory afferents in the brain of the terrestrial hermit crab (Coenobita clypeatus; Coenobitidae, Anomura

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    Oksana Tuchina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Coenobitidae (Decapoda, Anomura, Paguroidea is a taxon of hermit crabs that includes two genera with a fully terrestrial life style as adults. Previous studies have shown that Coenobitidae have evolved a sense of spatial odor localization that is behaviorally highly relevant. Here, we examined the central olfactory pathway of these animals by analyzing central projections of the antennular nerve of Coenobita clypeatus, combining backfilling of the nerve with dextran-coupled dye, Golgi impregnations and three-dimensional reconstruction of the primary olfactory center, the antennular lobe. The principal pattern of putative olfactory sensory afferents in C. clypeatus is in many aspects similar to what have been established for aquatic decapod crustaceans, such as the spiny lobster Panulirus argus. However, there are also obvious differences that may, or may not represent adaptations related to a terrestrial lifestyle. In C. clypeatus, the antennular lobe dominates the deutocerebrum, having more than one thousand allantoid-shaped subunits. We observed two distinct patterns of sensory neuron innervation: putative olfactory afferents from the aesthetascs either supply the cap/subcap region of the subunits or they extend through its full depth. Our data also demonstrate that any one sensory axon can supply input to several subunits. Putative chemosensory (non-aesthetasc and mechanosensory axons represent a different pathway and innervate the lateral and median antennular neuropils. Hence, we suggest that the chemosensory input in C. clypeatus might be represented via a dual pathway: aesthetascs target the antennular lobe, and bimodal sensilla target the lateral antennular neuropil and median antennular neuropil. The present data is compared to related findings in other decapod crustaceans.

  2. Evolution of noctuid pheromone binding proteins: identification of PBP in the black cutworm moth, Agrotis ipsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picimbon, J F; Gadenne, C

    2002-08-01

    Male black cutworm moths (Agrotis ipsilon, Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Noctuidae), which are attracted by a three-component pheromone blend ((Z)-7-dodecenyl acetate, Z7-12:Ac; (Z)-9-tetradecenyl acetate, Z9-14:Ac; (Z)-11-hexadecenyl acetate, Z11-16:Ac), express diverse antennal pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Two PBP isoforms (Aips-1 and Aips-2) that show 46% identity were cloned from antennal cDNA of male A. ipsilon. The protein Aips-1 displays a high degree of identity (70-95%) with PBPs of other noctuiids, but shows only 42-65% identity with the PBPs of more phylogenetically distant species. The other protein, Aips-2, represents a distinct group of PBP that includes proteins from Sphingidae and Yponomeutidae. These differences observed suggest that each of the two PBPs may be tuned to a specific pheromone ligand. PMID:12110291

  3. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  4. Innate and Conditioned Responses to Chemosensory and Visual Cues in Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), Vector of Huanglongbing Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph M. Patt; Dara Stockton; Meikle, William G; Mamoudou Sétamou; Agenor Mafra-Neto; Adamczyk, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) transmits Huanglongbing, a devastating disease that threatens citrus trees worldwide. A better understanding of the psyllid’s host-plant selection process may lead to the development of more efficient means of monitoring it and predicting its movements. Since behavioral adaptations, such as associative learning, may facilitate recognition of suitable host-plants, we examined whether adult D. citri could be conditioned to visual and chemosensory stimuli ...

  5. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalá SS

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles. Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in

  6. Fine Structure of Antennal Sensilla of Paysandisia archon and Electrophysiological Responses to Volatile Compounds Associated with Host Palms.

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    Sara Ruschioni

    Full Text Available Paysandisia archon (Lepidoptera: Castniidae is a serious pest of palm trees. A comprehensive knowledge of the insect olfactory system is essential for the development of efficient semiochemical-based control methods. The olfactory sensilla are located particularly on the antennae, and these can detect plant volatiles that provide important cues for the insects in the search for their host plants. To date, the fine structure of P. archon antennal sensilla studies and their role in host-plant perception have not been investigated in great detail. Using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy, the antennae of both sexes of P. archon are described here in detail, according to the different types, quantities and distributions of the sensilla. Six types of sensilla were identified. The most widespread are sensilla trichoidea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricilica, which are associated with olfactory function. These have cuticular shafts characterised by numerous pores, and they are innervated by two or three sensory neurons. Sensilla coeloconica, sensilla chaetica and sensilla ampullacea are associated with olfactory or olfactory-thermoreception, mechano-gustatory, and thermo-hygroreception functions, respectively. Moreover, the role of P. archon antennae in locating of the host palms was evaluated using electroantennograms, to monitor responses to ester and terpene compounds previously identified as volatiles of damaged/fermenting palm tissues. P. archon showed responses to all of the synthetic chemicals tested, with greater responses in the females, providing a significant sex*dose effect. Among the compounds tested, ethyl isobutyrate elicited the strongest antenna responses. The fine structure of the cuticular and cellular components of the P. archon antenna sensory equipment is described for the first time. The results of this study form an important starting point and complement physiological and behavioural

  7. Chemosensory processing in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster: Generalization of a feeding response reveals overlapping odour representations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sathees B C Chandra; Sandeep Singh

    2005-12-01

    Insects are capable of detecting, and discriminating between, a very large number of odours. The biological relevance of many of those odours, particularly those related to food, must first be learned. Given that the number of sensory receptors and antennal lobe (AL) glomeruli is limited relative to the number of odours that must be detectable, this ability implies that the olfactory system makes use of a combinatorial coding scheme whereby each sensory cell or AL projection neuron can participate in coding for several different odours. An important step in understanding this coding scheme is to behaviourally quantify the degree to which sets of odours are discriminable. Here we evaluate odour discriminability in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, by first conditioning individual flies to not respond to any of several odourants using a nonassociative conditioning protocol (habituation). We show that flies habituate unconditioned leg movement responses to both mechanosensory and olfactory stimulation over 25 unreinforceed trials. Habituation is retained for at least 2 h and is subject to dishabituation. Finally, we test the degree to which the conditioned response generalizes to other odourants based on molecular features of the odourants (e.g. carbon chain length and the presence of a target functional group). These tests reveal predictable generalization gradients across these molecular features. These data substantiate the claim that these features are relevant coding dimensions in the fruit fly olfactory system, as has been shown for other insect and vertebrate species.

  8. Behavioural responses to human skin extracts and antennal phenotypes of sylvatic first filial generation and long rearing laboratory colony Rhodnius prolixus

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    Mario Iván Ortiz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is a major public health issue and is mainly spread by Triatominae insects (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Rhodnius prolixus is the main vector species in Northern South America. Host-seeking behaviour in R. prolixus is mediated by different compounds that are produced by and emanate from the host or microbiota on the host's skin. We tested the behavioural responses of sylvatic first filial generation (F1 and colony insects to extracts of human skin with a dual choice olfactometer. In addition, we compared the antennal phenotypes in both populations. No statistical differences were found between the two populations at the behavioural level. Both showed a preference for face and feet extracts and this effect was abolished for face extracts after treatment with an antibacterial gel. The observation of the antennal phenotype showed that there were differences between both groups in the total length, total surface area and number and density of bristles. However, the number and density of chemoreceptive sensilla (basiconic and thin and thick-walled trichoids and the total density of sensilla did not show statistically significant differences. These results demonstrate that colony insects, which have only been fed with living hens for the last 30 years, are attracted by human skin extracts in a similar way as F1 sylvatic insects.

  9. Insights into the Origin of Nematode Chemosensory GPCRs : Putative Orthologs of the Srw Family Are Found across Several Phyla of Protostomes

    OpenAIRE

    Arunkumar Krishnan; Markus Sällman Almén; Robert Fredriksson; Helgi B Schiöth

    2014-01-01

    Nematode chemosensory GPCRs in Caenorhabditis elegans (NemChRs) are classified into 19 gene families, and are initially thought to have split from the ancestral Rhodopsin family of GPCRs. However, earlier studies have shown that among all 19 NemChR gene families, only the srw family has a clear sequence relationship to the ancestral Rhodopsin GPCR family. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between the srw family of NemChRs and the Rhodopsin subfamilies are not fully understood. Also, a wides...

  10. Optimisation Multi-Objectif par Orientation Angulaire d’Antennes Imprimées Implantées sur des Surfaces Conformées

    OpenAIRE

    DJENNAS, Sidi Mohammed

    2007-01-01

    Cette thèse présente une brève revue des concepts et méthodes d’optimisation et détaille en outre l’implémentation d’un « Algorithme Génétique Multi-Objectif » (AGMO) associé à un module d’analyse pour résoudre le problème de synthèse de réseaux conformés d’antennes imprimées. Le problème de synthèse consiste à estimer les orientations locales en azimut et en élévation des éléments rayonnants qui permettent de fournir un diagramme de rayonnement aussi proche que possible des...

  11. Conception et réalisation du système de déploiement des antennes du nanosatellite OUFTI-1

    OpenAIRE

    Wertz, Jérôme; Lenaerts, Vincent; Bruls, Olivier; Denis, Amandine

    2010-01-01

    Le satellite OUFTI-1 est un CubeSat (par définition, satellite cubique de 10 cm d'arête et de maximum 1 kg) développé à l'Université de Liège. Le sujet du travail de fin d'études porte sur la conception et la fabrication de ses antennes, ainsi que de leur système de déploiement. Le résultat du TFE est un prototype possédant toutes les fonctions du système et ayant subi des tests sous vide. The OUFTI-1 satellite is a CubeSat (a standard cubic satellite of 10cm edge and 1 kg mass maximum)...

  12. Chemosensory properties of murine nasal and cutaneous trigeminal neurons identified by viral tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mettenleiter Thomas C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Somatosensation of the mammalian head is mainly mediated by the trigeminal nerve that provides innervation of diverse tissues like the face skin, the conjunctiva of the eyes, blood vessels and the mucouse membranes of the oral and nasal cavities. Trigeminal perception encompasses thermosensation, touch, and pain. Trigeminal chemosensation from the nasal epithelia mainly evokes stinging, burning, or pungent sensations. In vitro characterization of trigeminal primary sensory neurons derives largely from analysis of complete neuronal populations prepared from sensory ganglia. Thus, functional properties of primary trigeminal afferents depending on the area of innervation remain largely unclear. Results We established a PrV based tracing technique to identify nasal and cutaneous trigeminal neurons in vitro. This approach allowed analysis and comparison of identified primary afferents by means of electrophysiological and imaging measurement techniques. Neurons were challenged with several agonists that were reported to exhibit specificity for known receptors, including TRP channels and purinergic receptors. In addition, TTX sensitivity of sodium currents and IB4 binding was investigated. Compared with cutaneous neurons, a larger fraction of nasal trigeminal neurons showed sensitivity for menthol and capsaicin. These findings pointed to TRPM8 and TRPV1 receptor protein expression largely in nasal neurons whereas for cutaneous neurons these receptors are present only in a smaller fraction. The majority of nasal neurons lacked P2X3 receptor-mediated currents but showed P2X2-mediated responses when stimulated with ATP. Interestingly, cutaneous neurons revealed largely TTX resistant sodium currents. A significantly higher fraction of nasal and cutaneous afferents showed IB4 binding when compared to randomly chosen trigeminal neurons. Conclusion In conclusion, the usability of PrV mediated tracing of primary afferents was demonstrated

  13. Insights into the origin of nematode chemosensory GPCRs: putative orthologs of the Srw family are found across several phyla of protostomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Krishnan

    Full Text Available Nematode chemosensory GPCRs in Caenorhabditis elegans (NemChRs are classified into 19 gene families, and are initially thought to have split from the ancestral Rhodopsin family of GPCRs. However, earlier studies have shown that among all 19 NemChR gene families, only the srw family has a clear sequence relationship to the ancestral Rhodopsin GPCR family. Yet, the phylogenetic relationships between the srw family of NemChRs and the Rhodopsin subfamilies are not fully understood. Also, a widespread search was not previously performed to check for the presence of putative srw family-like sequences or the other 18 NemChR families in several new protostome species outside the nematode lineage. In this study, we have investigated for the presence of 19 NemChR families across 26 eukaryotic species, covering basal eukaryotic branches and provide the first evidence that the srw family of NemChRs is indeed present across several phyla of protostomes. We could identify 29 putative orthologs of the srw family in insects (15 genes, molluscs (11 genes and Schistosoma mansoni (3 genes. Furthermore, using HMM-HMM profile based comparisons and phylogenetic analysis we show that among all Rhodopsin subfamilies, the peptide and SOG (somatostatin/opioid/galanin subfamilies are phylogenetically the closest relatives to the srw family of NemChRs. Taken together, we demonstrate that the srw family split from the large Rhodopsin family, possibly from the peptide and/or SOG subfamilies, well before the split of the nematode lineage, somewhere close to the divergence of the common ancestor of protostomes. Our analysis also suggests that the srsx family of NemChRs shares a clear sequence homology with the Rhodopsin subfamilies, as well as with few of the vertebrate olfactory receptors. Overall, this study provides further insights into the evolutionary events that shaped the GPCR chemosensory system in protostome species.

  14. Ensemble response in mushroom body output neurons of the honey bee outpaces spatiotemporal odor processing two synapses earlier in the antennal lobe.

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    Martin F Strube-Bloss

    Full Text Available Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile - the antennal lobe (AL - and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center - the mushroom body (MB - in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84-120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback.

  15. Ensemble Response in Mushroom Body Output Neurons of the Honey Bee Outpaces Spatiotemporal Odor Processing Two Synapses Earlier in the Antennal Lobe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strube-Bloss, Martin F.; Herrera-Valdez, Marco A.; Smith, Brian H.

    2012-01-01

    Neural representations of odors are subject to computations that involve sequentially convergent and divergent anatomical connections across different areas of the brains in both mammals and insects. Furthermore, in both mammals and insects higher order brain areas are connected via feedback connections. In order to understand the transformations and interactions that this connectivity make possible, an ideal experiment would compare neural responses across different, sequential processing levels. Here we present results of recordings from a first order olfactory neuropile – the antennal lobe (AL) – and a higher order multimodal integration and learning center – the mushroom body (MB) – in the honey bee brain. We recorded projection neurons (PN) of the AL and extrinsic neurons (EN) of the MB, which provide the outputs from the two neuropils. Recordings at each level were made in different animals in some experiments and simultaneously in the same animal in others. We presented two odors and their mixture to compare odor response dynamics as well as classification speed and accuracy at each neural processing level. Surprisingly, the EN ensemble significantly starts separating odor stimuli rapidly and before the PN ensemble has reached significant separation. Furthermore the EN ensemble at the MB output reaches a maximum separation of odors between 84–120 ms after odor onset, which is 26 to 133 ms faster than the maximum separation at the AL output ensemble two synapses earlier in processing. It is likely that a subset of very fast PNs, which respond before the ENs, may initiate the rapid EN ensemble response. We suggest therefore that the timing of the EN ensemble activity would allow retroactive integration of its signal into the ongoing computation of the AL via centrifugal feedback. PMID:23209711

  16. Homomeric RDL and heteromeric RDL/LCCH3 GABA receptors in the honeybee antennal lobes: two candidates for inhibitory transmission in olfactory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis, Julien Pierre; Bazelot, Michaël; Barbara, Guillaume Stéphane; Paute, Sandrine; Gauthier, Monique; Raymond-Delpech, Valérie

    2010-01-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel receptors are abundant in the CNS, where their physiological role is to mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission. In insects, this inhibitory transmission plays a crucial role in olfactory information processing. In an effort to understand the nature and properties of the ionotropic receptors involved in these processes in the honeybee Apis mellifera, we performed a pharmacological and molecular characterization of GABA-gated channels in the primary olfactory neuropile of the honeybee brain-the antennal lobe (AL)-using whole cell patch-clamp recordings coupled with single-cell RT-PCR. Application of GABA onto AL cells at -110 mV elicited fast inward currents, demonstrating the existence of ionotropic GABA-gated chloride channels. Molecular analysis of the GABA-responding cells revealed that both subunits RDL and LCCH3 were expressed out of the three orthologs of Drosophila melanogaster GABA-receptor subunits encoded within the honeybee genome (RDL, resistant to dieldrin; GRD, GABA/glycine-like receptor of Drosophila; LCCH3, ligand-gated chloride channel homologue 3), opening the door to possible homo- and/or heteromeric associations. The resulting receptors were activated by insect GABA-receptor agonists muscimol and CACA and blocked by antagonists fipronil, dieldrin, and picrotoxin, but not bicuculline, displaying a typical RDL-like pharmacology. Interestingly, increasing the intracellular calcium concentration potentiated GABA-elicited currents, suggesting a modulating effect of calcium on GABA receptors possibly through phosphorylation processes that remain to be determined. These results indicate that adult honeybee AL cells express typical RDL-like GABA receptors whose properties support a major role in synaptic inhibitory transmission during olfactory information processing. PMID:19906878

  17. β2 integrins (CD11/18) are essential for the chemosensory adhesion and migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes on bacterial cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Dong; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Hana; Park, Hye Rim; Son, Gun Woo; Park, Cheung-Seog; Park, Yong Seek

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) has been studied widely for applications in biomedical materials such as prosthetic artificial blood vessels owing to its unique characteristics, which include nontoxicity and nonimmunogenicity as compared with synthetic biopolymers such as expanded polytetrafluorethylene (ePTFE). However, to date, studies on the relative effect of leukocytes on BC as a prosthetic vascular graft are insufficient. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) play a pivotal role in early-phase immune response to bacterial or periprosthetic infection. PMN recruitment at sites of infection or inflammation mediated by various integrins such as β2 integrin family (CD11/CD18 family). Therefore, we discuss our investigations into the mechanisms by which β2 integrins-mediated chemosensory adhesion and migration of PMN on the vascular graft surface, BC. Our results show that CD11b/CD18 components mainly mediate PMN adherence on BC. CD11b/CD18 displays weak coordination with the other two α subunits (CD11a and CD11c). Furthermore, it was found that the β subunit (CD18) plays a critical role in both the adhesion and migration of N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP)-stimulated PMN on BC. The activity of CD18 contrasts with that of the individual α subunits. Among these, only CD11b displayed inhibition of PMN migration on BC surfaces. PMID:25231265

  18. The structure of the nasal chemosensory system in squamate reptiles. 1. The olfactory organ, with special reference to olfaction in geckos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susan J Rehorek; Bruce T Firth; Mark N Hutchinson

    2000-06-01

    The luminal surface of the chemosensory epithelia of the main olfactory organ of terrestrial vertebrates is covered by a layer of fluid. The source of this fluid layer varies among vertebrates. Little is known regarding the relative development of the sources of fluid (sustentacular cells and Bowman’s glands) in reptiles, especially in gekkotan lizards (despite recent assertions of olfactory speciality). This study examined the extent and morphology of the main olfactory organ in several Australian squamate reptiles, including three species of gekkotans, two species of skinks and one snake species. The olfactory mucosa of two gekkotan species (Christinus marmoratus and Strophurus intermedius) is spread over a large area of the nasal cavity. Additionally, the sustentacular cells of all three gekkotan species contained a comparatively reduced number of secretory granules, in relation to the skinks or snake examined. These observations imply that the gekkotan olfactory system may function differently from that of either skinks or snakes. Similar variation in secretory granule abundance was previously noted between mammalian and non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells. The observations in gekkotans suggests that the secretory capacity of the non-mammalian olfactory sustentacular cells show far more variation than initially thought.

  19. Cloning and expression of a queen pheromone-binding protein in the honeybee: an olfactory-specific, developmentally regulated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danty, E; Briand, L; Michard-Vanhée, C; Perez, V; Arnold, G; Gaudemer, O; Huet, D; Huet, J C; Ouali, C; Masson, C; Pernollet, J C

    1999-09-01

    Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are small abundant extracellular proteins thought to participate in perireceptor events of odor-pheromone detection by carrying, deactivating, and/or selecting odor stimuli. The honeybee queen pheromone is known to play a crucial role in colony organization, in addition to drone sex attraction. We identified, for the first time in a social insect, a binding protein called antennal-specific protein 1 (ASP1), which binds at least one of the major queen pheromone components. ASP1 was characterized by cDNA cloning, expression in Pichia pastoris, and pheromone binding. In situ hybridization showed that it is specifically expressed in the auxiliary cell layer of the antennal olfactory sensilla. The ASP1 sequence revealed it as a divergent member of the insect OBP family. The recombinant protein presented the exact characteristics of the native protein, as shown by mass spectrometry, and N-terminal sequencing and exclusion-diffusion chromatography showed that recombinant ASP1 is dimeric. ASP1 interacts with queen pheromone major components, opposite to another putative honeybee OBP, called ASP2. ASP1 biosynthetic accumulation, followed by nondenaturing electrophoresis during development, starts at day 1 before emergence, in concomitance with the functional maturation of olfactory neurons. The isobar ASP1b isoform appears simultaneously to ASP1a in workers, but only at approximately 2 weeks after emergence in drones. Comparison of in vivo and heterologous expressions suggests that the difference between ASP1 isoforms might be because of dimerization, which might play a physiological role in relation with mate attraction. PMID:10460253

  20. Phylogenetic and transcriptomic analysis of chemosensory receptors in a pair of divergent ant species reveals sex-specific signatures of odor coding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Zhou

    Full Text Available Ants are a highly successful family of insects that thrive in a variety of habitats across the world. Perhaps their best-known features are complex social organization and strict division of labor, separating reproduction from the day-to-day maintenance and care of the colony, as well as strict discrimination against foreign individuals. Since these social characteristics in ants are thought to be mediated by semiochemicals, a thorough analysis of these signals, and the receptors that detect them, is critical in revealing mechanisms that lead to stereotypic behaviors. To address these questions, we have defined and characterized the major chemoreceptor families in a pair of behaviorally and evolutionarily distinct ant species, Camponotus floridanus and Harpegnathos saltator. Through comprehensive re-annotation, we show that these ant species harbor some of the largest yet known repertoires of odorant receptors (Ors among insects, as well as a more modest number of gustatory receptors (Grs and variant ionotropic glutamate receptors (Irs. Our phylogenetic analyses further demonstrate remarkably rapid gains and losses of ant Ors, while Grs and Irs have also experienced birth-and-death evolution to different degrees. In addition, comparisons of antennal transcriptomes between sexes identify many chemoreceptors that are differentially expressed between males and females and between species. We have also revealed an agonist for a worker-enriched OR from C. floridanus, representing the first case of a heterologously characterized ant tuning Or. Collectively, our analysis reveals a large number of ant chemoreceptors exhibiting patterns of differential expression and evolution consistent with sex/species-specific functions. These differentially expressed genes are likely associated with sex-based differences, as well as the radically different social lifestyles observed between C. floridanus and H. saltator, and thus are targets for further functional

  1. Conception d'un système d'antennes pour la localisation en temps réel avec réseau de capteurs sans fils.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa Nogueira, Evanaska Maria,

    2013-01-01

    Les systèmes de localisation en temps réel (Real-Time Locating System - RTLS) sont de plus en plus employés dans l'industrie. Ils permettent l'automatisation de diverses tâches telles que l'identification et le suivi des objets au long de la chaîne d'approvisionnement, la surveillance d'équipements dans les usines et la sécurisation des biens. Ces systèmes sont basés sur des capteurs électroniques sans fil à faible puissance et à faible coût avec des antennes intégrées. Dans notre contexte, d...

  2. Odorant-binding proteins and olfactory coding in the solitary bee Osmia cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xue-Wei; Iovinella, Immacolata; Marangoni, Roberto; Cattonaro, Federica; Flamini, Guido; Sagona, Simona; Zhang, Long; Pelosi, Paolo; Felicioli, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    Solitary bees are major pollinators but their chemical communication system has been poorly studied. We investigated olfactory coding in Osmia cornuta from two perspectives, chemical and biochemical. We identified (E)-geranyl acetone and 2-hexyl-1,3-dioxolane, specifically secreted by females and males, respectively. A transcriptome analysis of antennae revealed 48 ORs (olfactory receptors), six OBPs (odorant-binding proteins), five CSPs (chemosensory proteins), and a single SNMP (sensory neuron membrane protein). The numbers of ORs and OBPs are much lower than in the honeybee, in particular, C-minus OBPs are lacking in the antennae of O. cornuta. We have expressed all six OBPs of O. cornuta and studied their binding specificities. The best ligands are common terpene plant odorants and both volatiles produced by the bee and identified in this work. PMID:23512006

  3. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  4. Chemosensory Learning in the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eRolls

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a primary reinforcer. Olfactory-taste and visual-taste association learning takes place in the primate including human orbitofrontal cortex to build representations of flavour. Rapid reversal of this learning can occur using a rule-based learning system that can be reset when an expected taste or flavour reward is not obtained, that is by negative reward prediction error, to which a population of neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex responds. The representation in the orbitofrontal cortex but not the primary taste or olfactory cortex is of the reward value of the visual / olfactory / taste / input as shown by devaluation experiments in which food is fed to satiety, and by correlations with the activations with subjective pleasantness ratings in humans. Sensory-specific satiety for taste, olfactory, visual, and oral somatosensory inputs produced by feeding a particular food to satiety are implemented it is proposed by medium-term synaptic adaptation in the orbitofrontal cortex. Cognitive factors, including word-level descriptions, modulate the representation of the reward value of food in the orbitofrontal cortex, and this effect is learned it is proposed by associative modification of top-down synapses onto neurons activated by bottom-up taste and olfactory inputs when both are active in the orbitofrontal cortex. A similar associative synaptic learning process is proposed to be part of the mechanism for the top-down attentional control to the reward value vs the sensory properties such as intensity of taste and olfactory inputs in the orbitofrontal cortex, as part of a biased activation theory of selective attention.

  5. Thermal Motions of the E. Coli Glucose-Galactose Binding Protein Studied Using Well-Sampled Semi-Atomistic Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Cashman, Derek J; Bhatt, Divesh; Zuckerman, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    The E. coli glucose-galactose chemosensory receptor is a 309 residue, 32 kDa protein consisting of two distinct structural domains. In this computational study, we studied the protein's thermal fluctuations, including both the large scale interdomain movements that contribute to the receptor's mechanism of action, as well as smaller scale motions, using two different computational methods. We employ extremely fast, "semi-atomistic" Library-Based Monte Carlo (LBMC) simulations, which include all backbone atoms but "implicit" side chains. Our results were compared with previous experiments and an all-atom Langevin dynamics simulation. Both LBMC and Langevin dynamics simulations were performed using both the apo and glucose-bound form of the protein, with LBMC exhibiting significantly larger fluctuations. The LBMC simulations are also in general agreement with the disulfide trapping experiments of Careaga & Falke (JMB, 1992; Biophys. J., 1992), which indicate that distant residues in the crystal structure (i...

  6. Identification and Characterization of Two "Sensory Neuron Membrane Proteins" (SNMPs) of the Desert Locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingcong; Pregitzer, Pablo; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Pheromone-responsive neurons of insects not only require specific receptors but in addition several auxiliary components, including the "sensory neuron membrane protein," SNMP. Accordingly, SNMP is considered as a marker for neurons responding to pheromones. For the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria, it is known that the behavior, including aggregation behavior and courtship inhibition, is largely controlled by pheromones. However, little is known about pheromones, their receptors, and the pheromone-responsive cells in locusts. In this study, we have identified two SNMP subtypes, SNMP1 and SNMP2, and compared their phylogenetic relationship and primary structure motifs with SNMPs from other species. Both SNMPs were found in chemosensory tissues, especially the antennae. Employing double in situ hybridization, we identified and localized the SNMP-expressing cells in the antennae. Cells expressing SNMP1 were localized to sensilla trichodea but also to sensilla basiconica, which in locust respond to pheromones. One or a few cells express SNMP1 within the multineuron clusters from sensilla basiconica, whereas the SNMP2 subtype was expressed in cells surrounding the neuron clusters, possibly supporting cells. Based on the finding that SNMP1 is expressed in distinct neurons under chemosensory sensilla, it is conceivable that these cells may represent pheromone-responsive neurons of the desert locust. PMID:27012870

  7. A proteomic investigation of soluble olfactory proteins in Anopheles gambiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Mastrobuoni

    Full Text Available Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs and chemosensory proteins (CSPs are small soluble polypeptides that bind semiochemicals in the lymph of insect chemosensilla. In the genome of Anopheles gambiae, 66 genes encode OBPs and 8 encode CSPs. Here we monitored their expression through classical proteomics (2D gel-MS analysis and a shotgun approach. The latter method proved much more sensitive and therefore more suitable for tiny biological samples as mosquitoes antennae and eggs. Females express a larger number and higher quantities of OBPs in their antennae than males (24 vs 19. OBP9 is the most abundant in the antennae of both sexes, as well as in larvae, pupae and eggs. Of the 8 CSPs, 4 were detected in antennae, while SAP3 was the only one expressed in larvae. Our proteomic results are in fairly good agreement with data of RNA expression reported in the literature, except for OBP4 and OBP5, that we could not identify in our analysis, nor could we detect in Western Blot experiments. The relatively limited number of soluble olfactory proteins expressed at relatively high levels in mosquitoes makes further studies on the coding of chemical messages at the OBP level more accessible, providing for few specific targets. Identification of such proteins in Anopheles gambiae might facilitate future studies on host finding behavior in this important disease vector.

  8. Pheromone binding proteins of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are encoded at a single locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, R D; Sirey, T M; Rassam, M; Greenwood, D R

    2002-11-01

    The light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Tortricidae: Lepidoptera) uses a blend of (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate and (E,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate as its sex pheromone. Odorant binding proteins, abundant in the antennae of male and female E. postvittana, were separated by native PAGE to reveal four major proteins with distinct mobilities. Microsequencing of their N-terminal residues showed that two were general odorant binding proteins (GOBPs) while two were pheromone binding proteins (PBPs). Full length cDNAs encoding these proteins were amplified using a combination of PCR and RACE-PCR. Sequence of the GOBPs revealed two genes (EposGOBP1, EposGOBP2), similar to orthologues in other species of Lepidoptera. Eleven cDNAs of the PBP gene were amplified, cloned and sequenced revealing two major phylogenetic clusters of PBP sequences differing by six amino acid substitutions. The position of the six amino acid differences on the protein was predicted by mapping onto the three-dimensional structure of PBP of Bombyx mori. All six substitutions were predicted to fall on the outside of the protein away from the inner pheromone binding pocket. One substitution does fall close to the putative dimerisation region of the protein (Ser63Thr). Expression of three of the cDNAs in a baculovirus expression system revealed that one class encodes an electrophoretically slow form (EposPBP1-12) while the other encodes a fast form (EposPBP1-2, EposPBP1-3). A native Western of these expressed proteins compared with antennal protein extracts demonstrated that PBP is also expressed in female antennae and that PBP may be present as a dimer as well as a monomer in E. postvittana. The fast and slow forms of EposPBP1 are allelic. Westerns on single antennal pair protein extracts and allele-specific PCR from genomic DNA both show a segregating pattern of inheritance in laboratory and wild populations. Radio labelled (E)-11-tetradecenyl acetate binds to both fast and slow PBP forms in

  9. Biochemical characterization, molecular cloning and localization of a putative odorant-binding protein in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera : Apidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danty, E; Michard-Vanhée, C; Huet, J C; Genecque, E; Pernollet, J C; Masson, C

    1997-09-15

    A honey bee antennal water-soluble protein, APS2, was purified and characterized as the first Hymenoptera putative odorant-binding protein. Comparison of its measured Mr (13695.2+/-1.6) to that of the corresponding cDNA clone shows it does not undergo any post-translational modification other than a 19-residue signal peptide cleavage and formation of three disulfide bridges. These biochemical features are close to those of Lepidoptera odorant-binding proteins. In situ hybridization experiments demonstrated its specific expression in olfactory areas. Based on its higher expression in the worker than in the drone, ASP2 might be more involved in general odorant than in sex pheromone detection. PMID:9323043

  10. G-protein activation, identification and immunolocalization in pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laue, M; Maida, R; Redkozubov, A

    1997-04-01

    Electrophysiological in situ recordings from pheromone-sensitive sensilla trichodea of Bombyx mori males with a recording pipette which contained G-protein-activating fluoride, showed receptor cell activity similar to that evoked by pheromone stimulation. This suggests that G-proteins might be physiologically active in olfactory sensilla of insects in situ. Biochemical experiments using specific antibodies revealed the presence of G-protein, belonging to the Gq family, in antennal preparations. Similar G-protein was identified in sensory hair preparations of Antheraea pernyi which contained only cuticle, sensillum lymph and dendritic material. Moreover, the absence of this G-protein in pure sensillum lymph preparations indicates its association with the receptive dendrites. This particular association could be shown by immunolabelling studies at the ultrastructural level. Strong specific labelling of membranes of receptor-cell dendrites was found in all types of olfactory sensilla present on the antenna of the silkmoths. Additional specific labelling of apical membranes of auxiliary cells, epidermal cells and membranes forming the axon/glia interface demonstrated that this G-protein is not restricted to the sensory dendrites and that other signal-transduction pathways could be present at these membranes. In summary, the experiments imply a participation of G-protein of the Gq family in signal transduction of olfactory receptor cells in moths. PMID:9042782

  11. Twitching motility and cAMP levels: signal transduction through a single methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansari, Vibhuti H; Potharla, Vishwakanth Y; Riddell, Geoff T; Bardy, Sonia L

    2016-06-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates twitching motility, intracellular adenosine 3('') 5(')-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels and is postulated to be involved in directional twitching towards phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Because PilJ is the only methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) identified in the Chp system, we determined the role of PilJ in mediating signal transduction for the distinct outputs of this system. Mutants that lack the periplasmic domain of PilJ (pilJΔ74-273) showed lower levels of cAMP but retained directional twitching towards PE. While initial studies revealed reduced twitching motility by PilJΔ74-273, this was due to decreased cAMP levels. Our data illustrate the importance of the periplasmic domain of PilJ in regulating cAMP. This is the first time a defined domain within PilJ has been identified as having a distinct role in signal transduction. PMID:27190147

  12. Male pheromone protein components activate female vomeronasal neurons in the salamander Plethodon shermani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feldhoff Pamela W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mental gland pheromone of male Plethodon salamanders contains two main protein components: a 22 kDa protein named Plethodon Receptivity Factor (PRF and a 7 kDa protein named Plethodon Modulating Factor (PMF, respectively. Each protein component individually has opposing effects on female courtship behavior, with PRF shortening and PMF lengthening courtship. In this study, we test the hypothesis that PRF or PMF individually activate vomeronasal neurons. The agmatine-uptake technique was used to visualize chemosensory neurons that were activated by each protein component individually. Results Vomeronasal neurons exposed to agmatine in saline did not demonstrate significant labeling. However, a population of vomeronasal neurons was labeled following exposure to either PRF or PMF. When expressed as a percent of control level labeled cells, PRF labeled more neurons than did PMF. These percentages for PRF and PMF, added together, parallel the percentage of labeled vomeronasal neurons when females are exposed to the whole pheromone. Conclusion This study suggests that two specific populations of female vomeronasal neurons are responsible for responding to each of the two components of the male pheromone mixture. These two neural populations, therefore, could express different receptors which, in turn, transmit different information to the brain, thus accounting for the different female behavior elicited by each pheromone component.

  13. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Best Protein Choices The best choices are: Plant-based proteins ...

  14. Antennes relais et symptômes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, G.; Blettner, M.; Kowall, B.

    2009-01-01

    Continuing their investigation of the adverse effects of mobile phone base stations, the German team conducting this first large-scale field study looked for an association between residential exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields and different health scores....

  15. The dyf-3 gene encodes a novel protein required for sensory cilium formation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Toh, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Yasumi; Koga, Makoto

    2005-02-25

    Ciliated neurons in animals are important for the reception of environmental stimuli. To understand the mechanism of cilium morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, we analyzed dyf-3 mutants that are defective in uptake of a fluorescent dye and abnormal in sensory cilium structure. Expression of green fluorescent protein in sensory neurons of a dyf-3 mutant revealed that the mutant has stunted cilia and abnormal posterior projections in some sensory neurons. The dyf-3 gene encodes three proteins with different N-terminals. The largest DYF-3 protein has 404 amino acid residues that are 38% identical with those of a predicted human protein of unknown function. Expression of a functional dyf-3Colon, two colonsgfp fusion gene is detected in 26 chemosensory neurons, including six IL2 neurons, eight pairs of amphid neurons (ASE, ADF, ASG, ASH, ASI, ASJ, ASK and ADL) and two pairs of phasmid neurons (PHA and PHB). Expression of a dyf-3 cDNA in specific neurons of dyf-3 animals indicated that dyf-3 acts cell-autonomously for fluorescent dye uptake. Reduction of dyf-3Colon, two colonsgfp expression in a daf-19 mutant suggests that dyf-3 expression is regulated by DAF-19 transcription factor, and DYF-3 may be involved in the intraflagellar transport system. PMID:15713455

  16. Snail-type zinc finger proteins prevent neurogenesis in Scutoid and transgenic animals of Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, N; Matakatsu, H; Taniguchi, M; Hayashi, S

    1999-10-01

    Scutoid is a classical dominant gain-of-function mutation of Drosophila, causing a loss of bristles and roughening of the compound eye. Previous genetic and molecular analyses have shown that Scutoid is associated with a chromosomal transposition resulting in a fusion of no-oceli and snail genes. How this gene fusion event leads to the defects in neurogenesis was not known until now. Here have found that snail is ectopically expressed in the eye-antennal and wing imaginal discs in Scutoid larvae, and that this expression is reduced in Scutoid revertants. We have also shown that the expressivity of Scutoid is enhanced by zeste mutations. snail and escargot encode evolutionarily conserved zinc-finger proteins involved in the development of mesoderm and limbs. Snail and Escargot proteins share a common target DNA sequence with the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) type proneural gene products. When expressed in the developing external sense organ precursors of the thorax and the eye, these proteins cause a loss of mechanosensory bristles in the thorax and perturbed the development of the compound eye. Such phenotypes resemble those associated with Scutoid. Furthermore, the effect of ectopic Escargot on bristle development is antagonized by coexpression of the bHLH gene asense. Thus, our results suggest that the Scutoid phenotype is due to an ectopic snail expression under the control of no-oceli enhancer, antagonizing neurogenesis through its inhibitory interaction with bHLH proteins. PMID:10552298

  17. Protein-protein interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byron, Olwyn; Vestergaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    Responsive formation of protein:protein interaction (PPI) upon diverse stimuli is a fundament of cellular function. As a consequence, PPIs are complex, adaptive entities, and exist in structurally heterogeneous interplays defined by the energetic states of the free and complexed protomers. The...

  18. The repertoire of G-protein-coupled receptors in Xenopus tropicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Yinghe

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR superfamily represents the largest protein family in the human genome. These proteins have a variety of physiological functions that give them well recognized roles in clinical medicine. In Xenopus tropicalis, a widely used animal model for physiology research, the repertoire of GPCRs may help link the GPCR evolutionary history in vertebrates from teleost fish to mammals. Results We have identified 1452 GPCRs in the X. tropicalis genome. Phylogenetic analyses classified these receptors into the following seven families: Glutamate, Rhodopsin, Adhesion, Frizzled, Secretin, Taste 2 and Vomeronasal 1. Nearly 70% of X. tropicalis GPCRs are represented by the following three types of receptors thought to receive chemosensory information from the outside world: olfactory, vomeronasal 1 and vomeronasal 2 receptors. Conclusion X. tropicalis shares a more similar repertoire of GPCRs with mammals than it does with fish. An examination of the three major groups of receptors related to olfactory/pheromone detection shows that in X. tropicalis, these groups have undergone lineage specific expansion. A comparison of GPCRs in X. tropicalis, teleost fish and mammals reveals the GPCR evolutionary history in vertebrates.

  19. Age Differences in Behavioral Responses of Male Giant Pandas to Chemosensory Stimulation%雄性大熊猫对化学信息行为反应的年龄差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红; 魏荣平; 张贵权; 孙儒泳; 刘定震

    2007-01-01

    Chemical communication plays an important role in survival and reproductive success in mammalian species. In the present study, we examined the ontogenetic pattern of behavioral responses of male giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) to urine odors of conspecific individuals. Our data showed that exposure to the urine of adult females induced a significant increase in sniffing and environmental sniffing/licking behaviors, but a decrease in biting behavior, in males. Males of different ages displayed specific behaviors to female urine odors. Adult males spent more time licking than juvenile and sub-adult males. Further, sub-adult and adult males displayed high levels of environmental sniffing/licking, which was absent in the juvenile males. Juvenile males displayed scent rubbing behavior significantly more frequently than sub-adult and adult males, and also spent more time showing biting behavior than sub-adult males. Finally, juvenile and sub-adult males showed no difference in response to female and male urine odors. Together, these data suggest that chemosensory cues from conspecific urines induce age-specific responses in male giant pandas.%化学通讯对哺乳动物的生存和繁殖起着重要作用.研究了雄性大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)对同伴个体尿液气味行为反应的发育模式. 结果显示,在成年雌性个体的尿液气味刺激下,雄性个体表现显著多的嗅闻行为和嗅闻/舔舐环境行为,但是嘶咬气味刺激物的行为明显减少.在雌性个体的尿液气味刺激下,不同年龄段的雄性个体行为表现不同,成年雄性个体表现较亚成年和幼年个体显著多的舔舐行为.此外,成年个体和亚成年个体均表现较多的嗅闻/舔舐环境行为,而幼年个体则无该行为表现.幼年个体较成年和亚成年个体表现显著多的气味涂抹行为,而且嘶咬气味刺激物的时间较亚成年个体显著多.幼年个体和亚成年个体对雌性和雄性个体尿液气味

  20. On the variability of chemosensory information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonhoven, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    When the nerve impulse patterns induced by a natural stimulus, e.g. a plant sap, in the taste sensilla of some caterpillars of the same species are compared a discouraging great variability is usually observed. To explain such variabilities of complex impulse codes, it is essential to know (a) the d

  1. Heritable differences in chemosensory ability among humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newcomb Richard D

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The combined senses of taste, smell and the common chemical sense merge to form what we call ‘flavor.’ People show marked differences in their ability to detect many flavors, and in this paper, we review the role of genetics underlying these differences in perception. Most of the genes identified to date encode receptors responsible for detecting tastes or odorants. We list these genes and describe their characteristics, beginning with the best-studied case, that of differences in phenylthiocarbamide (PTC detection, encoded by variants of the bitter taste receptor gene TAS2R38. We then outline examples of genes involved in differences in sweet and umami taste, and discuss what is known about other taste qualities, including sour and salty, fat (termed pinguis, calcium, and the ‘burn’ of peppers. Although the repertoire of receptors involved in taste perception is relatively small, with 25 bitter and only a few sweet and umami receptors, the number of odorant receptors is much larger, with about 400 functional receptors and another 600 potential odorant receptors predicted to be non-functional. Despite this, to date, there are only a few cases of odorant receptor variants that encode differences in the perception of odors: receptors for androstenone (musky, isovaleric acid (cheesy, cis-3-hexen-1-ol (grassy, and the urinary metabolites of asparagus. A genome-wide study also implicates genes other than olfactory receptors for some individual differences in perception. Although there are only a small number of examples reported to date, there may be many more genetic variants in odor and taste genes yet to be discovered.

  2. : Protein flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bornot, Aurélie; Offmann, Bernard; De Brevern, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    Protein structures and protein structural models are great tools to reach protein function and provide very relevant information for drug design. Nevertheless, protein structures are not rigid entities. Cutting-edge bioinformatics methods tend to take into account the flexibility of these macromolecules. We present new approaches used to define protein structure flexibility.

  3. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins found in the fluid portion of your ... nutritional problems, kidney disease or liver disease . If total protein is abnormal, you will need to have more ...

  4. Differential expression of SNMP-1 and SNMP-2 proteins in pheromone-sensitive hairs of moths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forstner, Maike; Gohl, Thomas; Gondesen, Inga; Raming, Klaus; Breer, Heinz; Krieger, Jürgen

    2008-03-01

    In moths the detection of female-released sex pheromones involves hairlike structures on the male antenna. These long sensilla trichodea usually contain 2-3 chemosensory neurons accompanied by several supporting cells. Previous studies have shown that the pheromone-specific neurons are characterized by a "sensory neuron membrane protein" (SNMP) which is homologous to the CD36 family and localized in the dendrite membrane. By employing the SNMP-2 sequence from Manduca sexta we have isolated cDNAs that encode SNMP-2 proteins from Heliothis virescens (HvirSNMP-2) and Antheraea polyphemus (ApolSNMP-2). To elucidate the topographic and cell type-specific expression of these SNMP subtypes, 2-color in situ hybridization experiments were performed with tissue sections through the male antennae. For H. virescens, a specific probe for the pheromone receptor HR13 was used to identify pheromone-responsive neurons. It was found that HvirSNMP-1 and HR13 were coexpressed in the same cells; in contrast, HvirSNMP-2 was not expressed in HR13 cells but rather in cells that surrounded the HR13 neurons, apparently the supporting cells. A corresponding expression pattern was also found for ApolSNMP-1 and ApolSNMP-2 on the antenna of male A. polyphemus. Our results indicate that SNMP-1s and SNMP-2s are differentially expressed in cells of pheromone-sensitive sensilla and suggest distinct functions for the 2 SNMP subtypes in the olfactory system. PMID:18209018

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, J Joe; Wang, Meixian

    2014-01-01

    The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight). Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, and Gα12 subfamilies and five alternative splice variants of the Gαq subfamily. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the putative L. hesperus Gα subunits support initial classifications and are consistent with established evolutionary relationships. End-point PCR-based profiling of the transcripts indicated head specific expression for LhGαq4, and largely ubiquitous expression, albeit at varying levels, for the other LhGα transcripts. All subfamilies were amplified from L. hesperus chemosensory tissues, suggesting potential roles in olfaction and/or gustation. Immunohistochemical staining of cultured insect cells transiently expressing recombinant His-tagged LhGαi, LhGαs, and LhGαq1 revealed plasma membrane targeting, suggesting the respective sequences encode functional G protein subunits. PMID:26463065

  6. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of G Alpha Proteins from the Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joe Hull

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gα subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. However, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. To initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity Gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight. Among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the Gαi, Gαo, Gαs, and Gα12 subfamilies and five alternative splice variants of the Gαq subfamily. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses of the putative L. hesperus Gα subunits support initial classifications and are consistent with established evolutionary relationships. End-point PCR-based profiling of the transcripts indicated head specific expression for LhGαq4, and largely ubiquitous expression, albeit at varying levels, for the other LhGα transcripts. All subfamilies were amplified from L. hesperus chemosensory tissues, suggesting potential roles in olfaction and/or gustation. Immunohistochemical staining of cultured insect cells transiently expressing recombinant His-tagged LhGαi, LhGαs, and LhGαq1 revealed plasma membrane targeting, suggesting the respective sequences encode functional G protein subunits.

  7. Interfacial Protein-Protein Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, Blake B.; Kastantin, Mark; Walder, Robert; Schwartz, Daniel K.

    2013-01-01

    While traditional models of protein adsorption focus primarily on direct protein-surface interactions, recent findings suggest that protein-protein interactions may play a central role. Using high-throughput intermolecular resonance energy transfer (RET) tracking, we directly observed dynamic, protein-protein associations of bovine serum albumin on poly(ethylene glycol) modified surfaces. The associations were heterogeneous and reversible, and associating molecules resided on the surface for ...

  8. Functional analysis of general odorant binding protein 2 from the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Yin

    Full Text Available Odorant binding proteins play a crucial role in transporting semiochemicals across the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptors within the insect antennal sensilla. In this study, the general odorant binding protein 2 gene was cloned from the antennae of Loxostege sticticalis, using reverse transcription PCR and rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Recombinant LstiGOBP2 was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni ion affinity chromatography. Real-time PCR assays indicated that LstiGOBP2 mRNA is expressed mainly in adult antennae, with expression levels differing with developmental age. Ligand-binding experiments using N-phenyl-naphthylamine (1-NPN as a fluorescent probe demonstrated that the LstiGOBP2 protein has binding affinity to a broad range of odorants. Most importantly, trans-11-tetradecen-1-yl acetate, the pheromone component of Loxostege sticticalis, and trans-2-hexenal and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, the most abundant plant volatiles in essential oils extracted from host plants, had high binding affinities to LstiGOBP2 and elicited strong electrophysiological responses from the antennae of adults.

  9. Total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003483.htm Total protein To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The total protein test measures the total amount of two classes ...

  10. Protein Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmus, Elaine Garbarino

    2007-01-01

    Individual students model specific amino acids and then, through dehydration synthesis, a class of students models a protein. The students clearly learn amino acid structure, primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure in proteins and the nature of the bonds maintaining a protein's shape. This activity is fun, concrete, inexpensive and…

  11. The amphioxus (Branchiostoma floridae genome contains a highly diversified set of G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schiöth Helgi B

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs are one of the largest families of genes in mammals. Branchiostoma floridae (amphioxus is one of the species most closely related species to vertebrates. Results Mining and phylogenetic analysis of the amphioxus genome showed the presence of at least 664 distinct GPCRs distributed among all the main families of GPCRs; Glutamate (18, Rhodopsin (570, Adhesion (37, Frizzled (6 and Secretin (16. Surprisingly, the Adhesion GPCR repertoire in amphioxus includes receptors with many new domains not previously observed in this family. We found many Rhodopsin GPCRs from all main groups including many amine and peptide binding receptors and several previously uncharacterized expansions were also identified. This genome has however no genes coding for bitter taste receptors (TAS2, the sweet and umami (TAS1, pheromone (VR1 or VR2 or mammalian olfactory receptors. Conclusion The amphioxus genome is remarkably rich in various GPCR subtypes while the main GPCR groups known to sense exogenous substances (such as Taste 2, mammalian olfactory, nematode chemosensory, gustatory, vomeronasal and odorant receptors in other bilateral species are absent.

  12. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  13. Response of Anastrepha suspensa to liquid protein baits and synthetic lure formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epsky, Nancy D.; Kendra, Paul E.; Heath, Robert R., E-mail: Nancy.Epsky@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Paul.Kendra@ars.usda.go, E-mail: Bob.Heath@ars.usda.go [U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA/ARS/SHRS), Miami, FL (United States). Agricultural Research Service. Subtropical Horticulture Research Station

    2006-07-01

    Traps baited with AAPt captured more A. suspensa than traps baited with ABPt even when the ammonia release rates were similar. Reducing dosage of ammonia by 50% of the commercially available AA lure slightly increased female capture, but reducing dosage to 25% tended to decrease female capture. The 5% CPH/3% borax bait captured the same number of flies as TYB, and was more effective than 10% CPH/3% borax. Further decreasing the amount of borax added to CPH may improve its effectiveness. As has been observed in field tests, fresh TYB captures more A. suspensa than fresh Nulure/borax but this difference decreases as the bait solutions age. EAG analysis indicates that volatiles from fresh Nulure/ borax elicit a higher antennal response than TYB, but this difference decreases as the TYB solution ages. Chemical analysis will be needed to determine the nature of reduced capture by fresh Nulure/borax and to identify additional attractive chemicals emitted by these protein baits. (author)

  14. Tau protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup Battistini; Kristensen, Kim; Bahl, Jmc;

    2011-01-01

    Background: Tau protein has been proposed as biomarker of axonal damage leading to irreversible neurological impairment in MS. CSF concentrations may be useful when determining risk of progression from ON to MS. Objective: To investigate the association between tau protein concentration and 14...... the Department of Neurology of Glostrup Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, were included. CSF samples were analysed for tau protein and 14-3-3 protein, and clinical and paraclinical information was obtained from medical records. Results: The study shows a significantly increased...... concentration of tau protein in CSF from patients with relapsing-remitting MS and patients monosymptomatic at onset who progressed to MS, but interestingly no increased tau protein concentration in monosymptomatic ON. The concentration of tau protein was significantly correlated to Expanded Disability Status...

  15. Protein politics

    OpenAIRE

    Vijver, Marike

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of the program of the interdisciplinary research group Profetas (protein foods, environment, technology and society). Profetas consists of technological, environmental and socio-economic research projects on protein food systems which result in the development of scenarios and strategies for guiding a shift towards a more plant protein based diet. The different research projects focus on the goal of identifying viable options for a more sustainable food system. Profetas aro...

  16. Principles of protein-protein interactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, S; Thornton, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    This review examines protein complexes in the Brookhaven Protein Databank to gain a better understanding of the principles governing the interactions involved in protein-protein recognition. The factors that influence the formation of protein-protein complexes are explored in four different types of protein-protein complexes--homodimeric proteins, heterodimeric proteins, enzyme-inhibitor complexes, and antibody-protein complexes. The comparison between the complexes highlights differences tha...

  17. The Mouthparts Enriched Odorant Binding Protein 11 of the Alfalfa Plant Bug Adelphocoris lineolatus Displays a Preferential Binding Behavior to Host Plant Secondary Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Yong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Yang, Xian-Ming; Xiao, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are proposed to be directly required for odorant discrimination and represent potential interesting targets for pest control. In the notoriously agricultural pest Adelphocoris lineolatus, our previous functional investigation of highly expressed antennal OBPs clearly supported this viewpoint, whereas the findings of the current study by characterizing of AlinOBP11 rather indicated that OBP in hemipterous plant bugs might fulfill a different and tantalizing physiological role. The phylogenetic analysis uncovered that AlinOBP11 together with several homologous bug OBP proteins are potential orthologs, implying they could exhibit a conserved function. Next, the results of expression profiles solidly showed that AlinOBP11 was predominantly expressed at adult mouthparts, the most important gustatory organ of Hemiptera mirid bug. Finally, a rigorously selective binding profile was observed in the fluorescence competitive binding assay, in which recombinant AlinOBP11 displayed much stronger binding abilities to non-volatile secondary metabolite compounds than the volatile odorants. These results reflect that AlinOBP11, even its orthologous proteins across bug species, could be associated with a distinctively conserved physiological role such as a crucial carrier for non-volatiles host secondary metabolites in gustatory system. PMID:27313540

  18. The Mouthparts Enriched Odorant Binding Protein 11 of the Alfalfa Plant Bug Adelphocoris lineolatus Displays a Preferential Binding Behavior to Host Plant Secondary Metabolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liang; Wei, Yu; Zhang, Dan-Dan; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Xiao, Yong; Zhang, Ya-Nan; Yang, Xian-Ming; Xiao, Qiang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are proposed to be directly required for odorant discrimination and represent potential interesting targets for pest control. In the notoriously agricultural pest Adelphocoris lineolatus, our previous functional investigation of highly expressed antennal OBPs clearly supported this viewpoint, whereas the findings of the current study by characterizing of AlinOBP11 rather indicated that OBP in hemipterous plant bugs might fulfill a different and tantalizing physiological role. The phylogenetic analysis uncovered that AlinOBP11 together with several homologous bug OBP proteins are potential orthologs, implying they could exhibit a conserved function. Next, the results of expression profiles solidly showed that AlinOBP11 was predominantly expressed at adult mouthparts, the most important gustatory organ of Hemiptera mirid bug. Finally, a rigorously selective binding profile was observed in the fluorescence competitive binding assay, in which recombinant AlinOBP11 displayed much stronger binding abilities to non-volatile secondary metabolite compounds than the volatile odorants. These results reflect that AlinOBP11, even its orthologous proteins across bug species, could be associated with a distinctively conserved physiological role such as a crucial carrier for non-volatiles host secondary metabolites in gustatory system. PMID:27313540

  19. A possible role of DNA methylation in functional divergence of a fast evolving duplicate gene encoding odorant binding protein 11 in the honeybee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharski, R; Maleszka, J; Maleszka, R

    2016-06-29

    Although gene duplication is seen as the main path to evolution of new functions, molecular mechanisms by which selection favours the gain versus loss of newly duplicated genes and minimizes the fixation of pseudo-genes are not well understood. Here, we investigate in detail a duplicate honeybee gene obp11 belonging to a fast evolving insect gene family encoding odorant binding proteins (OBPs). We report that obp11 is expressed only in female bees in rare antennal sensilla basiconica in contrast to its tandem partner obp10 that is expressed in the brain in both females and males (drones). Unlike all other obp genes in the honeybee, obp11 is methylated suggesting that functional diversification of obp11 and obp10 may have been driven by an epigenetic mechanism. We also show that increased methylation in drones near one donor splice site that correlates with higher abundance of a transcript variant encoding a truncated OBP11 protein is one way of controlling its contrasting expression. Our data suggest that like in mammals and plants, DNA methylation in insects may contribute to functional diversification of proteins produced from duplicated genes, in particular to their subfunctionalization by generating complementary patterns of expression. PMID:27358363

  20. Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    of research are explored. Here we present an overview of the most widely used protein-protein interaction databases and the methods they employ to gather, combine, and predict interactions. We also point out the trade-off between comprehensiveness and accuracy and the main pitfall scientists have to be aware...

  1. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter S Leal

    Full Text Available The red imported fire ant (RIFA, Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species, accidentally introduced in the United States that can cause painful (sometimes life-threatening stings to human, pets, and livestock. Their colonies have two social forms: monogyne and polygyne that have a single and multiple functional queens, respectively. A major gene (Gp-9, identified as a putative pheromone-binding protein on the basis of a modest amino acid sequence identity, has been suggested to influence the expression of colony social organization. Monogyne queens are reported to possess only the GP-9B alleles, whereas polygyne queens possess both GP-9B and GP-9b. Thus, both social forms are reported to express GP-9B, with GP-9b being a marker expressed in polygynes but it is absent in monogynes. Here, we report two types of polygyne colonies, one that does not express GP-9b (monogyne-like and the other expressing both proteins, GP-9B and GP-9b. Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel. GP-9B existed in two forms, one of them is phosphorylated. The helical-rich content of the protein resembles the secondary structures of a beetle hemolymph protein and moth pheromone-binding proteins. An olfactory role is unlikely given the lack of specific expression in the sensillar lymph. In marked contrast to GP-9s, a chemosensory protein, SinvCSP, is demonstrated to be specifically expressed in the antennae. Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla.

  2. GP-9s are ubiquitous proteins unlikely involved in olfactory mediation of social organization in the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Walter S; Ishida, Yuko

    2008-01-01

    The red imported fire ant (RIFA), Solenopsis invicta, is an invasive species, accidentally introduced in the United States that can cause painful (sometimes life-threatening) stings to human, pets, and livestock. Their colonies have two social forms: monogyne and polygyne that have a single and multiple functional queens, respectively. A major gene (Gp-9), identified as a putative pheromone-binding protein on the basis of a modest amino acid sequence identity, has been suggested to influence the expression of colony social organization. Monogyne queens are reported to possess only the GP-9B alleles, whereas polygyne queens possess both GP-9B and GP-9b. Thus, both social forms are reported to express GP-9B, with GP-9b being a marker expressed in polygynes but it is absent in monogynes. Here, we report two types of polygyne colonies, one that does not express GP-9b (monogyne-like) and the other expressing both proteins, GP-9B and GP-9b. Given their expression pattern, GP-9s are hemolymph proteins, which are more likely to be involved in the transport of lipids and small ligands within the homocoel. GP-9B existed in two forms, one of them is phosphorylated. The helical-rich content of the protein resembles the secondary structures of a beetle hemolymph protein and moth pheromone-binding proteins. An olfactory role is unlikely given the lack of specific expression in the sensillar lymph. In marked contrast to GP-9s, a chemosensory protein, SinvCSP, is demonstrated to be specifically expressed in the antennae. Within the antennae, expression of SinvCSP is restricted to the last two segments, which are known to house olfactory sensilla. PMID:19018280

  3. Whey Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality of life in people with mitochondrial diseases. Ovarian cysts (Polycystic ovarian syndrome). Early research suggests that taking ... weight, fat mass, and cholesterol in people with ovarian cysts. However, whey protein does not improve blood sugar ...

  4. Protein Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation, growth and perfection of protein crystals will be overviewed along with crystal mechanical properties. The knowledge is based on experiments using optical and force crystals behave similar to inorganic crystals, though with a difference in orders of magnitude in growing parameters. For example, the low incorporation rate of large biomolecules requires up to 100 times larger supersaturation to grow protein, rather than inorganic crystals. Nucleation is often poorly reproducible, partly because of turbulence accompanying the mixing of precipitant with protein solution. Light scattering reveals fluctuations of molecular cluster size, its growth, surface energies and increased clustering as protein ages. Growth most often occurs layer-by-layer resulting in faceted crystals. New molecular layer on crystal face is terminated by a step where molecular incorporation occurs. Quantitative data on the incorporation rate will be discussed. Rounded crystals with molecularly disordered interfaces will be explained. Defects in crystals compromise the x-ray diffraction resolution crucially needed to find the 3D atomic structure of biomolecules. The defects are immobile so that birth defects stay forever. All lattice defects known for inorganics are revealed in protein crystals. Contribution of molecular conformations to lattice disorder is important, but not studied. This contribution may be enhanced by stress field from other defects. Homologous impurities (e.g., dimers, acetylated molecules) are trapped more willingly by a growing crystal than foreign protein impurities. The trapped impurities induce internal stress eliminated in crystals exceeding a critical size (part of mni for ferritin, lysozyme). Lesser impurities are trapped from stagnant, as compared to the flowing, solution. Freezing may induce much more defects unless quickly amorphysizing intracrystalline water.

  5. Arabinogalactan proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva; Dilokpimol, Adiphol; Geshi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are a highly diverse class of cell surface proteoglycans that are commonly found in most plant species. AGPs play important roles in many cellular processes during plant development, such as reproduction, cell proliferation, pattern formation and growth, and in plant...

  6. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Related to Protein Complexes Based on Protein Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Liu; Lei Yang; Daming Shi; Xianglong Tang

    2015-01-01

    A method for predicting protein-protein interactions based on detected protein complexes is proposed to repair deficient interactions derived from high-throughput biological experiments. Protein complexes are pruned and decomposed into small parts based on the adaptive k-cores method to predict protein-protein interactions associated with the complexes. The proposed method is adaptive to protein complexes with different structure, number, and size of nodes in a protein-protein interaction net...

  7. Cooperation of the BTB-Zinc finger protein, Abrupt, with cytoskeletal regulators in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezaket Turkel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The deregulation of cell polarity or cytoskeletal regulators is a common occurrence in human epithelial cancers. Moreover, there is accumulating evidence in human epithelial cancer that BTB-ZF genes, such as Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, are oncogenic. From our previous studies in the vinegar fly, Drosophila melanogaster, we have identified a cooperative interaction between a mutation in the apico-basal cell polarity regulator Scribble (Scrib and overexpression of the BTB-ZF protein Abrupt (Ab. Herein, we show that co-expression of ab with actin cytoskeletal regulators, RhoGEF2 or Src64B, in the developing eye-antennal epithelial tissue results in the formation of overgrown amorphous tumours, whereas ab and DRac1 co-expression leads to non-cell autonomous overgrowth. Together with ab, these genes affect the expression of differentiation genes, resulting in tumours locked in a progenitor cell fate. Finally, we show that the expression of two mammalian genes related to ab, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, which are oncogenes in mammalian epithelial cancers, significantly correlate with the upregulation of cytoskeletal genes or downregulation of apico-basal cell polarity neoplastic tumour suppressor genes in colorectal, lung and other human epithelial cancers. Altogether, this analysis has revealed that upregulation of cytoskeletal regulators cooperate with Abrupt in Drosophila epithelial tumorigenesis, and that high expression of human BTB-ZF genes, Bcl6 and ZBTB7A, shows significant correlations with cytoskeletal and cell polarity gene expression in specific epithelial tumour types. This highlights the need for further investigation of the cooperation between these genes in mammalian systems.

  8. Grafting of protein-protein binding sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A strategy for grafting protein-protein binding sites is described. Firstly, key interaction residues at the interface of ligand protein to be grafted are identified and suitable positions in scaffold protein for grafting these key residues are sought. Secondly, the scaffold proteins are superposed onto the ligand protein based on the corresponding Ca and Cb atoms. The complementarity between the scaffold protein and the receptor protein is evaluated and only matches with high score are accepted. The relative position between scaffold and receptor proteins is adjusted so that the interface has a reasonable packing density. Then the scaffold protein is mutated to corresponding residues in ligand protein at each candidate position. And the residues having bad steric contacts with the receptor proteins, or buried charged residues not involved in the formation of any salt bridge are mutated. Finally, the mutated scaffold protein in complex with receptor protein is co-minimized by Charmm. In addition, we deduce a scoring function to evaluate the affinity between mutated scaffold protein and receptor protein by statistical analysis of rigid binding data sets.

  9. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissink, A.; Jager-Wittenaar, H.; Visser, A.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Weissenbruch, R.; Nieuw Amerongen, A. van

    2013-01-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes of chemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the ne

  10. Detecting overlapping protein complexes in protein-protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nepusz, Tamás; Yu, Haiyuan; Paccanaro, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    We introduce clustering with overlapping neighborhood expansion (ClusterONE), a method for detecting potentially overlapping protein complexes from protein-protein interaction data. ClusterONE-derived complexes for several yeast data sets showed better correspondence with reference complexes in the Munich Information Center for Protein Sequence (MIPS) catalog and complexes derived from the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD) than the results of seven popular methods. The results also showed a...

  11. EDITORIAL: Precision proteins Precision proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-06-01

    Since the birth of modern day medicine, during the times of Hippocrates in ancient Greece, the profession has developed from the rudimentary classification of disease into a rigorous science with an inspiring capability to treat and cure. Scientific methodology has distilled clinical diagnostic tools from the early arts of prognosis, which used to rely as much on revelation and prophecy, as intuition and judgement [1]. Over the past decade, research into the interactions between proteins and nanosystems has provided some ingenious and apt techniques for delving into the intricacies of anatomical systems. In vivo biosensing has emerged as a vibrant field of research, as much of medical diagnosis relies on the detection of substances or an imbalance in the chemicals in the body. The inherent properties of nanoscale structures, such as cantilevers, make them well suited to biosensing applications that demand the detection of molecules at very low concentrations. Measurable deflections in cantilevers functionalised with antibodies provide quantitative indicators of the presence of specific antigens when the two react. Such developments have roused mounting interest in the interactions of proteins with nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes [3], which have demonstrated great potential as generic biomarkers. Plasmonic properties are also being exploited in sensing applications, such as the molecular sentinel recently devised by researchers in the US. The device uses the plasmonic properties of a silver nanoparticle linked to a Raman labelled hairpin DNA probe to signal changes in the probe geometry resulting from interactions with substances in the environment. Success stories so far include the detection of two specific genes associated with breast cancer [4]. A greater understanding of how RNA interference regulates gene expression has highlighted the potential of using this natural process as another agent for combating disease in personalized medicine. However, the

  12. Protein Crystal Based Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jeffrey A.; VanRoey, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report on a NASA Grant. It concerns a description of work done, which includes: (1) Protein crystals cross-linked to form fibers; (2) Engineering of protein to favor crystallization; (3) Better knowledge-based potentials for protein-protein contacts; (4) Simulation of protein crystallization.

  13. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  14. Protein-protein complexation in bioluminescence

    OpenAIRE

    Titushin, Maxim S.; Feng, Yingang; Lee, John; Vysotski, Eugene S.; Liu, Zhi-jie

    2011-01-01

    In this review we summarize the progress made towards understanding the role of protein-protein interactions in the function of various bioluminescence systems of marine organisms, including bacteria, jellyfish and soft corals, with particular focus on methodology used to detect and characterize these interactions. In some bioluminescence systems, protein-protein interactions involve an “accessory protein” whereby a stored substrate is efficiently delivered to the bioluminescent enzyme lucife...

  15. Protein folding, protein homeostasis, and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John H. Van Drie

    2011-01-01

    Proteins fold into their functional 3-dimensional structures from a linear amino acid sequence. In vitro this process is spontaneous; while in vivo it is orchestrated by a specialized set of proteins, called chaperones. Protein folding is an ongoing cellular process, as cellular proteins constantly undergo synthesis and degradation. Here emerging links between this process and cancer are reviewed. This perspective both yields insights into the current struggle to develop novel cancer chemotherapeutics and has implications for future chemotherapy discovery.

  16. Protein-Protein Interaction Analysis by Docking

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan Ederer; Florian Fink; Wolfram Gronwald

    2009-01-01

    Based on a protein-protein docking approach we have developed a procedure to verify or falsify protein-protein interactions that were proposed by other methods such as yeast-2-hybrid assays. Our method currently utilizes intermolecular energies but can be expanded to incorporate additional terms such as amino acid based pair-potentials. We show some early results that demonstrate the general applicability of our approach.

  17. Chemosensory burst coding by mouse vomeronasal sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Arnson, Hannah A.; Holy, Timothy E.

    2011-01-01

    The capabilities of any sensory system are ultimately constrained by the properties of the sensory neurons: the ability to detect and represent stimuli is limited by noise due to spontaneous activity, and optimal decoding in downstream circuitry must be matched to the nature of the encoding performed at the input. Here, we investigated the firing properties of sensory neurons in the accessory olfactory system, a distinct sensory system specialized for detection of socially relevant odors. Usi...

  18. Motile Cilia of Human Airway Epithelia Are Chemosensory

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Alok S.; Ben-Shahar, Yehuda; Moninger, Thomas O.; Kline, Joel N.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Cilia are microscopic projections that extend from eukaryotic cells. There are two general types of cilia; primary cilia serve as sensory organelles, whereas motile cilia exert mechanical force. The motile cilia emerging from human airway epithelial cells propel harmful inhaled material out of the lung. We found that these cells express sensory bitter taste receptors, which localized on motile cilia. Bitter compounds increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and stimulated ciliary beat f...

  19. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per;

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...... donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also...... better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness....

  20. Chemosensory discrimination of identity and familiarity in koalas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Benjamin D

    2015-10-01

    Despite numerous descriptive accounts of scent marking in marsupials, rigorous experimentation is rare, and relatively little evidence exists to show that conspecifics use chemical signals to distinguish between individuals or different social groups. In this study a series of olfactory discrimination tests sought to determine whether: (1) male koala sternal scent gland secretions are individually distinctive; and (2) male koalas can differentiate between the scent of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. In the first experiment a habituation-discrimination trial demonstrated that male koalas discriminate between the scent gland secretions of different unfamiliar individuals. In a second experiment male koalas spent significantly more time investigating scent from unfamiliar males than familiar males, supporting the hypothesis that they differentiate between conspecifics based on their familiarity. Taken together these results suggest that male koalas are able to discriminate the identity and familiarity of conspecifics using chemical cues, and provide a platform for further studies investigating the functional role of olfactory communication in this species. PMID:26216198

  1. Syntheses and Chemosensory of Anthracene and Phenanthrene Bisimide Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Zachary A.

    2004-01-01

    As the present technology of biochemical weapons advances, it is essential for science to attempt to prepare our nation for such an occurrence. Various areas of current research are devoted to precautionary measures and potential antidotes for national security. A practical application of these precautions would be the development of a chemical capable of detecting harmful gas. The benefits of being capable to synthesis a chemical compound that would warn and identify potentially deadly gases would ensure a higher level of safety. The chemicals in question can be generalized as bisimide anthracene derivatives. The idea behind these compounds is that in the presence of certain nerve gases, the compound will actually fluoresce, giving an indication that there is a strong likelihood of the presence of a nerve gas and ensure the proper precautionary measures are taken. The fluorescence is due to the quenching of an electric proton transfer within the structure of the molecule. The system proves to be very unique on account of the fact that the fluorescence can be "turned off" by reducing the system. By utilizing the synthesis designed by Dr. Faysal Ilhan, four distinct compounds can be synthesized through photochemical reactions involving para- and ortho- diketones. The photochemistry involved is very modem and much research is being devoted to fully understanding the possibilities and alternative applications of such materials. and meta-nitro anthracene bisimide (ABI-NO2), the amine of each (ABI-NH2), a para- and meta-nitro phenanthrene bisimjde (PBI-NO2), and the amine of each (PBI-NH2). Upon synthesizing these distinct compounds, I must then purify and analyze them in order to obtain any relevant trends, behaviors, and characteristics. The chemical composition analyses that will be conducted are the procedures taken by Dr. Daniel Tyson on previous experiments. The results generated from the data will point further research in the correct direction and hopefully provide enough information to possibly create a stepping-stone for a brand new area in an unexplored frontier of chemistry.

  2. A sexually conditioned switch of chemosensory behavior in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Sakai

    Full Text Available In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communication, but other mechanisms may also be used to optimize mate location. Here we describe associative learning whereby males use sodium chloride as a cue for hermaphrodite location. Both males and hermaphrodites normally avoid sodium chloride after associative conditioning with salt and starvation. However, we found that males become attracted to sodium chloride after conditioning with salt and starvation if hermaphrodites are present during conditioning. For this conditioning, which we call sexual conditioning, hermaphrodites are detected by males through pheromonal signaling and additional cue(s. Sex transformation experiments suggest that neuronal sex of males is essential for sexual conditioning. Altogether, these results suggest that C. elegans males integrate environmental, internal and social signals to determine the optimal strategy for mate location.

  3. Multimodal Chemosensory Integration through the Maxillary Palp in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Shiraiwa, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster has an olfactory organ called the maxillary palp. It is smaller and numerically simpler than the antenna, and its specific role in behavior has long been unclear. Because of its proximity to the mouthparts, I explored the possibility of a role in taste behavior. Maxillary palp was tuned to mediate odor-induced taste enhancement: a sucrose solution was more appealing when simultaneously presented with the odorant 4-methylphenol. The same result was observed with other o...

  4. Ionotropic Chemosensory Receptors Mediate the Taste and Smell of Polyamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Ashiq; Zhang, Mo; Üçpunar, Habibe K; Svensson, Thomas; Quillery, Elsa; Gompel, Nicolas; Ignell, Rickard; Grunwald Kadow, Ilona C

    2016-05-01

    The ability to find and consume nutrient-rich diets for successful reproduction and survival is fundamental to animal life. Among the nutrients important for all animals are polyamines, a class of pungent smelling compounds required in numerous cellular and organismic processes. Polyamine deficiency or excess has detrimental effects on health, cognitive function, reproduction, and lifespan. Here, we show that a diet high in polyamine is beneficial and increases reproductive success of flies, and we unravel the sensory mechanisms that attract Drosophila to polyamine-rich food and egg-laying substrates. Using a combination of behavioral genetics and in vivo calcium imaging, we demonstrate that Drosophila uses multisensory detection to find and evaluate polyamines present in overripe and fermenting fruit, their favored feeding and egg-laying substrate. In the olfactory system, two coexpressed ionotropic receptors (IRs), IR76b and IR41a, mediate the long-range attraction to the odor. In the gustatory system, multimodal taste sensation by IR76b receptor and GR66a bitter receptor neurons is used to evaluate quality and valence of the polyamine providing a mechanism for the fly's high attraction to polyamine-rich and sweet decaying fruit. Given their universal and highly conserved biological roles, we propose that the ability to evaluate food for polyamine content may impact health and reproductive success also of other animals including humans. PMID:27145030

  5. A distributed chemosensory circuit for oxygen preference in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy J Chang

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has complex, naturally variable behavioral responses to environmental oxygen, food, and other animals. C. elegans detects oxygen through soluble guanylate cyclase homologs (sGCs and responds to it differently depending on the activity of the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1: npr-1(lf and naturally isolated npr-1(215F animals avoid high oxygen and aggregate in the presence of food; npr-1(215V animals do not. We show here that hyperoxia avoidance integrates food with npr-1 activity through neuromodulation of a distributed oxygen-sensing network. Hyperoxia avoidance is stimulated by sGC-expressing oxygen-sensing neurons, nociceptive neurons, and ADF sensory neurons. In npr-1(215V animals, the switch from weak aerotaxis on food to strong aerotaxis in its absence requires close regulation of the neurotransmitter serotonin in the ADF neurons; high levels of ADF serotonin promote hyperoxia avoidance. In npr-1(lf animals, food regulation is masked by increased activity of the oxygen-sensing neurons. Hyperoxia avoidance is also regulated by the neuronal TGF-beta homolog DAF-7, a secreted mediator of crowding and stress responses. DAF-7 inhibits serotonin synthesis in ADF, suggesting that ADF serotonin is a convergence point for regulation of hyperoxia avoidance. Coalitions of neurons that promote and repress hyperoxia avoidance generate a subtle and flexible response to environmental oxygen.

  6. Neuropeptide signaling remodels chemosensory circuit composition in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinwand, Sarah G; Chalasani, Sreekanth H

    2013-10-01

    Neural circuits detect environmental changes and drive behavior. The routes of information flow through dense neural networks are dynamic, but the mechanisms underlying this circuit flexibility are poorly understood. Here, we define a sensory context-dependent and neuropeptide-regulated switch in the composition of a C. elegans salt sensory circuit. The primary salt detectors, ASE sensory neurons, used BLI-4 endoprotease-dependent cleavage to release the insulin-like peptide INS-6 in response to large, but not small, changes in external salt stimuli. Insulins, signaling through the insulin receptor DAF-2, functionally switched the AWC olfactory sensory neuron into an interneuron in the salt circuit. Worms with disrupted insulin signaling had deficits in salt attraction, suggesting that peptidergic signaling potentiates responses to high salt stimuli, which may promote ion homeostasis. Our results indicate that sensory context and neuropeptide signaling modify neural networks and suggest general mechanisms for generating flexible behavioral outputs by modulating neural circuit composition. PMID:24013594

  7. A Sexually Conditioned Switch of Chemosensory Behavior in C. elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Sakai, Naoko; Iwata, Ryo; Yokoi, Saori; Butcher, Rebecca A.; Clardy, Jon; Tomioka, Masahiro; Iino, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, mating is essential for transmitting genetic information to the next generation and therefore animals have evolved mechanisms for optimizing the chance of successful mate location. In the soil nematode C. elegans, males approach hermaphrodites via the ascaroside pheromones, recognize hermaphrodites when their tails contact the hermaphrodites' body, and eventually mate with them. These processes are mediated by sensory signals specialized for sexual communicati...

  8. Protein-losing enteropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007338.htm Protein-losing enteropathy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Protein-losing enteropathy is an abnormal loss of protein ...

  9. Protein and Heart Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Protein and Heart Health Updated:May 5,2015 Protein ... said. What’s the harm in getting too much protein? The main problem is that often the extra ...

  10. SPIDer: Saccharomyces protein-protein interaction database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhenbo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since proteins perform their functions by interacting with one another and with other biomolecules, reconstructing a map of the protein-protein interactions of a cell, experimentally or computationally, is an important first step toward understanding cellular function and machinery of a proteome. Solely derived from the Gene Ontology (GO, we have defined an effective method of reconstructing a yeast protein interaction network by measuring relative specificity similarity (RSS between two GO terms. Description Based on the RSS method, here, we introduce a predicted Saccharomyces protein-protein interaction database called SPIDer. It houses a gold standard positive dataset (GSP with high confidence level that covered 79.2% of the high-quality interaction dataset. Our predicted protein-protein interaction network reconstructed from the GSPs consists of 92 257 interactions among 3600 proteins, and forms 23 connected components. It also provides general links to connect predicted protein-protein interactions with three other databases, DIP, BIND and MIPS. An Internet-based interface provides users with fast and convenient access to protein-protein interactions based on various search features (searching by protein information, GO term information or sequence similarity. In addition, the RSS value of two GO terms in the same ontology, and the inter-member interactions in a list of proteins of interest or in a protein complex could be retrieved. Furthermore, the database presents a user-friendly graphical interface which is created dynamically for visualizing an interaction sub-network. The database is accessible at http://cmb.bnu.edu.cn/SPIDer/index.html. Conclusion SPIDer is a public database server for protein-protein interactions based on the yeast genome. It provides a variety of search options and graphical visualization of an interaction network. In particular, it will be very useful for the study of inter-member interactions

  11. PIC: Protein Interactions Calculator

    OpenAIRE

    Tina, KG; Bhadra, R.; Srinivasan, N.

    2007-01-01

    Interactions within a protein structure and interactions between proteins in an assembly are essential considerations in understanding molecular basis of stability and functions of proteins and their complexes. There are several weak and strong interactions that render stability to a protein structure or an assembly. Protein Interactions Calculator (PIC) is a server which, given the coordinate set of 3D structure of a protein or an assembly, computes various interactions such as disulphide bo...

  12. Drugging Membrane Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hang; Flynn, Aaron D

    2016-07-11

    The majority of therapeutics target membrane proteins, accessible on the surface of cells, to alter cellular signaling. Cells use membrane proteins to transduce signals into cells, transport ions and molecules, bind cells to a surface or substrate, and catalyze reactions. Newly devised technologies allow us to drug conventionally "undruggable" regions of membrane proteins, enabling modulation of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-nucleic acid interactions. In this review, we survey the state of the art of high-throughput screening and rational design in drug discovery, and we evaluate the advances in biological understanding and technological capacity that will drive pharmacotherapy forward against unorthodox membrane protein targets. PMID:26863923

  13. PREFACE: Protein protein interactions: principles and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinov, Ruth; Tsai, Chung-Jung

    2005-06-01

    Proteins are the `workhorses' of the cell. Their roles span functions as diverse as being molecular machines and signalling. They carry out catalytic reactions, transport, form viral capsids, traverse membranes and form regulated channels, transmit information from DNA to RNA, making possible the synthesis of new proteins, and they are responsible for the degradation of unnecessary proteins and nucleic acids. They are the vehicles of the immune response and are responsible for viral entry into the cell. Given their importance, considerable effort has been centered on the prediction of protein function. A prime way to do this is through identification of binding partners. If the function of at least one of the components with which the protein interacts is known, that should let us assign its function(s) and the pathway(s) in which it plays a role. This holds since the vast majority of their chores in the living cell involve protein-protein interactions. Hence, through the intricate network of these interactions we can map cellular pathways, their interconnectivities and their dynamic regulation. Their identification is at the heart of functional genomics; their prediction is crucial for drug discovery. Knowledge of the pathway, its topology, length, and dynamics may provide useful information for forecasting side effects. The goal of predicting protein-protein interactions is daunting. Some associations are obligatory, others are continuously forming and dissociating. In principle, from the physical standpoint, any two proteins can interact, but under what conditions and at which strength? The principles of protein-protein interactions are general: the non-covalent interactions of two proteins are largely the outcome of the hydrophobic effect, which drives the interactions. In addition, hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions play important roles. Thus, many of the interactions observed in vitro are the outcome of experimental overexpression. Protein disorder

  14. Protein sequence comparison and protein evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, W.R. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

    1995-12-31

    This tutorial was one of eight tutorials selected to be presented at the Third International Conference on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology which was held in the United Kingdom from July 16 to 19, 1995. This tutorial examines how the information conserved during the evolution of a protein molecule can be used to infer reliably homology, and thus a shared proteinfold and possibly a shared active site or function. The authors start by reviewing a geological/evolutionary time scale. Next they look at the evolution of several protein families. During the tutorial, these families will be used to demonstrate that homologous protein ancestry can be inferred with confidence. They also examine different modes of protein evolution and consider some hypotheses that have been presented to explain the very earliest events in protein evolution. The next part of the tutorial will examine the technical aspects of protein sequence comparison. Both optimal and heuristic algorithms and their associated parameters that are used to characterize protein sequence similarities are discussed. Perhaps more importantly, they survey the statistics of local similarity scores, and how these statistics can both be used to improve the selectivity of a search and to evaluate the significance of a match. They them examine distantly related members of three protein families, the serine proteases, the glutathione transferases, and the G-protein-coupled receptors (GCRs). Finally, the discuss how sequence similarity can be used to examine internal repeated or mosaic structures in proteins.

  15. Prediction of Protein-Protein Interactions Using Protein Signature Profiling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood; A.; Mahdavi; Yen-Han; Lin

    2007-01-01

    Protein domains are conserved and functionally independent structures that play an important role in interactions among related proteins. Domain-domain inter- actions have been recently used to predict protein-protein interactions (PPI). In general, the interaction probability of a pair of domains is scored using a trained scoring function. Satisfying a threshold, the protein pairs carrying those domains are regarded as "interacting". In this study, the signature contents of proteins were utilized to predict PPI pairs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Caenorhabditis ele- gans, and Homo sapiens. Similarity between protein signature patterns was scored and PPI predictions were drawn based on the binary similarity scoring function. Results show that the true positive rate of prediction by the proposed approach is approximately 32% higher than that using the maximum likelihood estimation method when compared with a test set, resulting in 22% increase in the area un- der the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. When proteins containing one or two signatures were removed, the sensitivity of the predicted PPI pairs in- creased significantly. The predicted PPI pairs are on average 11 times more likely to interact than the random selection at a confidence level of 0.95, and on aver- age 4 times better than those predicted by either phylogenetic profiling or gene expression profiling.

  16. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  17. Protein- protein interaction detection system using fluorescent protein microdomains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Cabantous, Stephanie

    2010-02-23

    The invention provides a protein labeling and interaction detection system based on engineered fragments of fluorescent and chromophoric proteins that require fused interacting polypeptides to drive the association of the fragments, and further are soluble and stable, and do not change the solubility of polypeptides to which they are fused. In one embodiment, a test protein X is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 10, amino acids 198-214), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. A second test protein Y is fused to a sixteen amino acid fragment of GFP (.beta.-strand 11, amino acids 215-230), engineered to not perturb fusion protein solubility. When X and Y interact, they bring the GFP strands into proximity, and are detected by complementation with a third GFP fragment consisting of GFP amino acids 1-198 (strands 1-9). When GFP strands 10 and 11 are held together by interaction of protein X and Y, they spontaneous association with GFP strands 1-9, resulting in structural complementation, folding, and concomitant GFP fluorescence.

  18. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, whereas vertebrates contain two to four genes. In cnidarians, the gene appears to encode a secreted protein, but transmembrane isoforms of the protein have also evolved, and in many species, alternative splicing facilitates the expression of both transmembrane and secreted isoforms. In most species, the...... longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...

  19. Surface Mediated Protein Disaggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Mithun; Kumar, Sanat K.

    2014-03-01

    Preventing protein aggregation is of both biological and industrial importance. Biologically these aggregates are known to cause amyloid type diseases like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Protein aggregation leads to reduced activity of the enzymes in industrial applications. Inter-protein interactions between the hydrophobic residues of the protein are known to be the major driving force for protein aggregation. In the current paper we show how surface chemistry and curvature can be tuned to mitigate these inter-protein interactions. Our results calculated in the framework of the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) lattice model show that, inter-protein interactions can be drastically reduced by increasing the surface hydrophobicity to a critical value corresponding to the adsorption transition of the protein. At this value of surface hydrophobicity, proteins lose inter-protein contacts to gain surface contacts and thus the surface helps in reducing the inter-protein interactions. Further, we show that the adsorption of the proteins inside hydrophobic pores of optimal sizes are most efficient both in reducing inter-protein contacts and simultaneously retaining most of the native-contacts due to strong protein-surface interactions coupled with stabilization due to the confinement. Department of Energy (Grant No DE-FG02-11ER46811).

  20. Discover protein sequence signatures from protein-protein interaction data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haasl Ryan J

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of high-throughput technologies such as yeast two-hybrid systems and mass spectrometry technologies has made it possible to generate large protein-protein interaction (PPI datasets. Mining these datasets for underlying biological knowledge has, however, remained a challenge. Results A total of 3108 sequence signatures were found, each of which was shared by a set of guest proteins interacting with one of 944 host proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Approximately 94% of these sequence signatures matched entries in InterPro member databases. We identified 84 distinct sequence signatures from the remaining 172 unknown signatures. The signature sharing information was then applied in predicting sub-cellular localization of yeast proteins and the novel signatures were used in identifying possible interacting sites. Conclusion We reported a method of PPI data mining that facilitated the discovery of novel sequence signatures using a large PPI dataset from S. cerevisiae genome as input. The fact that 94% of discovered signatures were known validated the ability of the approach to identify large numbers of signatures from PPI data. The significance of these discovered signatures was demonstrated by their application in predicting sub-cellular localizations and identifying potential interaction binding sites of yeast proteins.

  1. Effect of the spontaneous fermentation and the ageing on the chemo-sensory quality of Brazilian organic cachaça Efeito da fermentação natural e do envelhecimento sobre a qualidade química e sensorial de cachaça orgânica Brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afra Vital Matos Dias Gabriel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study verified the effect of the spontaneous fermentation/natural ferment (NF on the chemo-sensory quality of cachaça, comparing to the commercial ferment (CF. The effect of ageing (maturation was also analysed in the beverage. Microbiological analysis (plating on selective media for total/wild yeast and bacteria counting and physico-chemical analysis (pH, acidity and soluble solids were performed in the samples of the must and the ferment collected during three cycles of fermentation in a semi-industrial scale. Samples of cachaça were stored in 5-L oak containers for 45 days, subsequently analyzing the physico-chemical characteristics (pH, acidity, alcohol content, copper and secondary compounds and sensory acceptability (aroma, flavour, colour, body and global impression. The fermentation with NF showed higher number of wild yeasts; however there was no difference in the number of bacteria comparing to CF. An intense acidification occurred during the preparation of NF, which was also observed in the initial cycles of fermentation, but decreased afterwards. Greater alterations in cachaça composition were found to be more exclusively related to the maturation than to the type of ferment, except for the acidity. However, there was a significant loss of aroma, flavour and global impression after maturation but only in cachaça produced with the CF. The results revealed a strong interaction between ferment and maturation of the beverage, suggesting that substances produced by the microorganisms from different inocula during fermentation reacted differently with the wood components of the barrels influencing the sensory attributes.Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da fermentação espontânea/fermento natural (NF sobre a qualidade fisico-química e aceitabilidade da cachaça, comparando-se com o fermento comercial (CF. O efeito do envelhecimento (maturação da bebida foi também avaliado. Análises microbiol

  2. Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick van Rijn

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.

  3. Protein Dynamics in an RNA Binding Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Using ^15N NMR relaxation measurements, analyzed with the Lipari-Szabo formalism, we have found that the human U1A RNA binding protein has ps-ns motions in those loops that make contact with RNA. Specific mutations can alter the extent and pattern of motions, and those proteins inevitably lose RNA binding affinity. Proteins with enhanced mobility of loops and termini presumably lose affinity due to increased conformational sampling by those parts of the protein that interact directly with RNA. There is an entropic penalty associated with locking down those elements upon RNA binding, in addition to a loss of binding efficiency caused by the increased number of conformations adopted by the protein. However, in addition to local conformational heterogeneity, analysis of molecular dynamics trajectories by Reorientational Eigenmode Dynamics reveals that loops of the wild type protein undergo correlated motions that link distal sites across the binding surface. Mutations that disrupt correlated motions result in weaker RNA binding, implying that there is a network of interactions across the surface of the protein. (KBH was a Postdoctoral Fellow with Al Redfield from 1985-1990). This work was supported by the NIH (to KBH) and NSF (SAS).

  4. Anisotropic Contributions to Protein-Protein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quang, Leigh J; Sandler, Stanley I; Lenhoff, Abraham M

    2014-02-11

    The anisotropy of shape and functionality of proteins complicates the prediction of protein-protein interactions. We examine the distribution of electrostatic and nonelectrostatic contributions to these interactions for two globular proteins, lysozyme and chymosin B, which differ in molecular weight by about a factor of 2. The interaction trends for these proteins are computed in terms of contributions to the osmotic second virial coefficient that are evaluated using atomistic models of the proteins. Our emphasis is on identifying the orientational configurations that contribute most strongly to the overall interactions due to high-complementarity interactions, and on calculating the effect of ionic strength on such interactions. The results emphasize the quantitative importance of several features of protein interactions, notably that despite differences in their frequency of occurrence, configurations differing appreciably in interaction energy can contribute meaningfully to overall interactions. However, relatively small effects due to charge anisotropy or specific hydration can affect the overall interaction significantly only if they contribute to strongly attractive configurations. The results emphasize the necessity of accounting for detailed anisotropy to capture actual experimental trends, and the sensitivity of even very detailed atomistic models to subtle solution contributions. PMID:26580057

  5. Protein Data Bank (PDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Protein Data Bank (PDB) archive is the single worldwide repository of information about the 3D structures of large biological molecules, including proteins and...

  6. [Protein-losing enteropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiot, A

    2015-07-01

    Protein-losing enteropathy is a rare syndrome of gastrointestinal protein loss. The primary causes can be classified into lymphatic leakage due to increased interstitial pressure and increased leakage of protein-rich fluids due to erosive or non-erosive gastrointestinal disorders. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy should be considered in patients with chronic diarrhea and peripheral oedema. The diagnosis of protein-losing enteropathy is most commonly based on the determination of fecal alpha-1 antitrypsin clearance. Most protein-losing enteropathy cases are the result of either lymphatic obstruction or a variety of gastrointestinal disorders and cardiac diseases, while primary intestinal lymphangiectasia (Waldmann's disease) is less common. Treatment of protein-losing enteropathy targets the underlying disease but also includes dietary modification, such as high-protein and low-fat diet along with medium-chain triglyceride supplementation. PMID:25618488

  7. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 360792 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007146453.1 1117:17211 1161:2741 1162:3098 56106:1490 142864:1490 56107:1490 putative stress ... protein (general stress ... protein 26) Cylindrospermum stagnale PCC 7417 MTTS ...

  8. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins.

  9. Hydrodynamic effects in proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymczak, Piotr [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Cieplak, Marek, E-mail: piotr.szymczak@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Aleja Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-01-26

    Experimental and numerical results pertaining to flow-induced effects in proteins are reviewed. Special emphasis is placed on shear-induced unfolding and on the role of solvent mediated hydrodynamic interactions in the conformational transitions in proteins. (topical review)

  10. Protein electrophoresis - serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003540.htm Protein electrophoresis - serum To use the sharing features on ... JavaScript. This lab test measures the types of protein in the fluid (serum) part of a blood ...

  11. Protein: CAD [Trypanosomes Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CAD carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, aspartate transcarbamylase, and dihydroorotaseCAD trifunct ... ional protein carbamoylphosphate synthetase 2/aspartate transcarb ... amylase/dihydroorotasemultifunctional protein ... CAD H.sapiens 47458828 18105007 790 P27708 CAD_(ge ...

  12. Learning about Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need from peanuts alone, but if you have peanut butter on whole-grain bread, you're set. Likewise, ... protein in a day: 2 tablespoons (15 milliliters) peanut butter (7 grams protein) 1 cup (240 milliliters) low- ...

  13. Electrophoretic Separation of Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Chakavarti, Bulbul; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Electrophoresis is used to separate complex mixtures of proteins (e.g., from cells, subcellular fractions, column fractions, or immunoprecipitates), to investigate subunit compositions, and to verify homogeneity of protein samples. It can also serve to purify proteins for use in further applications. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, proteins migrate in response to an electrical field through pores in a polyacrylamide gel matrix; pore size decreases with increasing acrylamide concentrati...

  14. Simulations of protein folding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a simple, phenomenological, Monte-Carlo code that predicts the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins from the DNA sequences that define them. We have applied this code to two small proteins, the villin headpiece (1VII) and colel rop (1ROP). Our code folds both proteins to within 5 A rms of their native structures

  15. Destabilized bioluminescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Michael S.; Rakesh, Gupta; Gary, Sayler S.

    2007-07-31

    Purified nucleic acids, vectors and cells containing a gene cassette encoding at least one modified bioluminescent protein, wherein the modification includes the addition of a peptide sequence. The duration of bioluminescence emitted by the modified bioluminescent protein is shorter than the duration of bioluminescence emitted by an unmodified form of the bioluminescent protein.

  16. Protein domain prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingolfsson, Helgi; Yona, Golan

    2008-01-01

    Domains are considered to be the building blocks of protein structures. A protein can contain a single domain or multiple domains, each one typically associated with a specific function. The combination of domains determines the function of the protein, its subcellular localization and the interacti

  17. CSF total protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    CSF total protein is a test to determine the amount of protein in your spinal fluid, also called cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ... The normal protein range varies from lab to lab, but is typically about 15 to 60 mg/dL. Note: mg/dL = ...

  18. Modeling Protein Domain Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William P.; Jones, Carleton "Buck"; Hull, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    This simple but effective laboratory exercise helps students understand the concept of protein domain function. They use foam beads, Styrofoam craft balls, and pipe cleaners to explore how domains within protein active sites interact to form a functional protein. The activity allows students to gain content mastery and an understanding of the…

  19. Protein - Which is Best?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Falvo, Michael J

    2004-09-01

    Protein intake that exceeds the recommended daily allowance is widely accepted for both endurance and power athletes. However, considering the variety of proteins that are available much less is known concerning the benefits of consuming one protein versus another. The purpose of this paper is to identify and analyze key factors in order to make responsible recommendations to both the general and athletic populations. Evaluation of a protein is fundamental in determining its appropriateness in the human diet. Proteins that are of inferior content and digestibility are important to recognize and restrict or limit in the diet. Similarly, such knowledge will provide an ability to identify proteins that provide the greatest benefit and should be consumed. The various techniques utilized to rate protein will be discussed. Traditionally, sources of dietary protein are seen as either being of animal or vegetable origin. Animal sources provide a complete source of protein (i.e. containing all essential amino acids), whereas vegetable sources generally lack one or more of the essential amino acids. Animal sources of dietary protein, despite providing a complete protein and numerous vitamins and minerals, have some health professionals concerned about the amount of saturated fat common in these foods compared to vegetable sources. The advent of processing techniques has shifted some of this attention and ignited the sports supplement marketplace with derivative products such as whey, casein and soy. Individually, these products vary in quality and applicability to certain populations. The benefits that these particular proteins possess are discussed. In addition, the impact that elevated protein consumption has on health and safety issues (i.e. bone health, renal function) are also reviewed. Key PointsHigher protein needs are seen in athletic populations.Animal proteins is an important source of protein, however potential health concerns do exist from a diet of protein

  20. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  1. Protein hydration and dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic neutron scattering can measure the protein thermal fluctuations under the physiological aqueous environment, especially it is powerful to observe the low-energy protein dynamics in THz region, which are revealed theoretically to be coupled with solvations. Neutron enables the selective observation of protein and hydration water by deuteration. The complementary analysis with molecular dynamics simulation is also effective for the study of protein hydration. Some examples of the application toward the understanding of molecular basis of protein functions will be introduced. (author)

  2. Protein crystallization with paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Miki; Kakinouchi, Keisuke; Adachi, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Mihoko; Sugiyama, Shigeru; Sano, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi Y.; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Yoshimura, Masashi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Murakami, Satoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Takano, Kazufumi

    2016-05-01

    We developed a new protein crystallization method that incorporates paper. A small piece of paper, such as facial tissue or KimWipes, was added to a drop of protein solution in the traditional sitting drop vapor diffusion technique, and protein crystals grew by incorporating paper. By this method, we achieved the growth of protein crystals with reducing osmotic shock. Because the technique is very simple and the materials are easy to obtain, this method will come into wide use for protein crystallization. In the future, it could be applied to nanoliter-scale crystallization screening on a paper sheet such as in inkjet printing.

  3. Protein and vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Kate A; Munn, Elizabeth A; Baines, Surinder K

    2013-08-19

    A vegetarian diet can easily meet human dietary protein requirements as long as energy needs are met and a variety of foods are eaten. Vegetarians should obtain protein from a variety of plant sources, including legumes, soy products, grains, nuts and seeds. Eggs and dairy products also provide protein for those following a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. There is no need to consciously combine different plant proteins at each meal as long as a variety of foods are eaten from day to day, because the human body maintains a pool of amino acids which can be used to complement dietary protein. The consumption of plant proteins rather than animal proteins by vegetarians may contribute to their reduced risk of chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease. PMID:25369930

  4. Protein kinesis: The dynamics of protein trafficking and stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of this conference is to provide a multidisciplinary forum for exchange of state-of-the-art information on protein kinesis. This volume contains abstracts of papers in the following areas: protein folding and modification in the endoplasmic reticulum; protein trafficking; protein translocation and folding; protein degradation; polarity; nuclear trafficking; membrane dynamics; and protein import into organelles.

  5. Protein Electrophoresis/Immunofixation Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Protein Electrophoresis Immunofixation Electrophoresis Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Serum Protein Electrophoresis; Protein ELP; SPE; SPEP; Urine Protein Electrophoresis; ...

  6. Protein: FEB6 [TP Atlas

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FEB6 Photoresponse regulatory proteins HD1 SE1 Zinc finger protein HD1 Protein CONSTANS-like, Pr ... otein HEADING DATE 1, Protein PHOTOPERIOD SENSITIVITY ... 1 39947 Oryza sativa subsp. japonica 4340746 Q9FDX ...

  7. Identifying novel protein phenotype annotations by hybridizing protein-protein interactions and protein sequence similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Studies of protein phenotypes represent a central challenge of modern genetics in the post-genome era because effective and accurate investigation of protein phenotypes is one of the most critical procedures to identify functional biological processes in microscale, which involves the analysis of multifactorial traits and has greatly contributed to the development of modern biology in the post genome era. Therefore, we have developed a novel computational method that identifies novel proteins associated with certain phenotypes in yeast based on the protein-protein interaction network. Unlike some existing network-based computational methods that identify the phenotype of a query protein based on its direct neighbors in the local network, the proposed method identifies novel candidate proteins for a certain phenotype by considering all annotated proteins with this phenotype on the global network using a shortest path (SP) algorithm. The identified proteins are further filtered using both a permutation test and their interactions and sequence similarities to annotated proteins. We compared our method with another widely used method called random walk with restart (RWR). The biological functions of proteins for each phenotype identified by our SP method and the RWR method were analyzed and compared. The results confirmed a large proportion of our novel protein phenotype annotation, and the RWR method showed a higher false positive rate than the SP method. Our method is equally effective for the prediction of proteins involving in all the eleven clustered yeast phenotypes with a quite low false positive rate. Considering the universality and generalizability of our supporting materials and computing strategies, our method can further be applied to study other organisms and the new functions we predicted can provide pertinent instructions for the further experimental verifications. PMID:26728152

  8. Sensitizing properties of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Ladics, Gregory S; McClain, Scott;

    2014-01-01

    The scope of allergy risk is diverse considering the myriad ways in which protein allergenicity is affected by physiochemical characteristics of proteins. The complexity created by the matrices of foods and the variability of the human immune system add additional challenges to understanding the...... relationship between sensitization potential and allergy disease. To address these and other issues, an April 2012 international symposium was held in Prague, Czech Republic, to review and discuss the state-of-the-science of sensitizing properties of protein allergens. The symposium, organized by the Protein...... scientists from academia, government, and industry participated in the symposium. Experts provided overviews on known mechanisms by which proteins in food may cause sensitization, discussed experimental models to predict protein sensitizing potential, and explored whether such experimental techniques may be...

  9. NMR of unfolded proteins

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amarnath Chtterjee; Ashutosh Kumar; Jeetender Chugh; Sudha Srivastava; Neel S Bhavesh; Ramakrishna V Hosur

    2005-01-01

    In the post-genomic era, as more and more genome sequences are becoming known and hectic efforts are underway to decode the information content in them, it is becoming increasingly evident that flexibility in proteins plays a crucial role in many of the biological functions. Many proteins have intrinsic disorder either wholly or in specific regions. It appears that this disorder may be important for regulatory functions of the proteins, on the one hand, and may help in directing the folding process to reach the compact native state, on the other. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has over the last two decades emerged as the sole, most powerful technique to help characterize these disordered protein systems. In this review, we first discuss the significance of disorder in proteins and then describe the recent developments in NMR methods for their characterization. A brief description of the results obtained on several disordered proteins is presented at the end.

  10. Computational Protein Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Kristoffer Enøe

    to a central method that enables new developments. For example, novel enzymes with functions not found in natural proteins have been de novo designed to give enough activity for experimental optimization. This thesis presents the current state-of-the-art within computational design methods together......Proteins are the major functional group of molecules in biology. The impact of protein science on medicine and chemical productions is rapidly increasing. However, the greatest potential remains to be realized. The fi eld of protein design has advanced computational modeling from a tool of support...... with a novel method based on probability theory. With the aim of assembling a complete pipeline for protein design, this work touches upon several aspects of protein design. The presented work is the computational half of a design project where the other half is dedicated to the experimental part of...

  11. Protein Models Comparator

    CERN Document Server

    Widera, Paweł

    2011-01-01

    The process of comparison of computer generated protein structural models is an important element of protein structure prediction. It has many uses including model quality evaluation, selection of the final models from a large set of candidates or optimisation of parameters of energy functions used in template free modelling and refinement. Although many protein comparison methods are available online on numerous web servers, their ability to handle a large scale model comparison is often very limited. Most of the servers offer only a single pairwise structural comparison, and they usually do not provide a model-specific comparison with a fixed alignment between the models. To bridge the gap between the protein and model structure comparison we have developed the Protein Models Comparator (pm-cmp). To be able to deliver the scalability on demand and handle large comparison experiments the pm-cmp was implemented "in the cloud". Protein Models Comparator is a scalable web application for a fast distributed comp...

  12. Protein oxidation and peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Proteins are major targets for radicals and two-electron oxidants in biological systems due to their abundance and high rate constants for reaction. With highly reactive radicals damage occurs at multiple side-chain and backbone sites. Less reactive species show greater selectivity with regard to the residues targeted and their spatial location. Modification can result in increased side-chain hydrophilicity, side-chain and backbone fragmentation, aggregation via covalent cross-linking or hydrophobic interactions, protein unfolding and altered conformation, altered interactions with biological partners and modified turnover. In the presence of O2, high yields of peroxyl radicals and peroxides (protein peroxidation) are formed; the latter account for up to 70% of the initial oxidant flux. Protein peroxides can oxidize both proteins and other targets. One-electron reduction results in additional radicals and chain reactions with alcohols and carbonyls as major products; the latter are commonly used markers of protein damage. Direct oxidation of cysteine (and less commonly) methionine residues is a major reaction; this is typically faster than with H2O2, and results in altered protein activity and function. Unlike H2O2, which is rapidly removed by protective enzymes, protein peroxides are only slowly removed, and catabolism is a major fate. Although turnover of modified proteins by proteasomal and lysosomal enzymes, and other proteases (e.g. mitochondrial Lon), can be efficient, protein hydroperoxides inhibit these pathways and this may contribute to the accumulation of modified proteins in cells. Available evidence supports an association between protein oxidation and multiple human pathologies, but whether this link is causal remains to be established. PMID:27026395

  13. Proteins at interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Protein adsorption is a fundamental and ubiquitous phenomenon, which has severe implications in the fields of biomaterials as well as bio- and nanotechnology, e.g., in drug delivery, biofouling, the biocompatibility of implants, food chemistry, and biosensors. Therefore, the mechanisms of protein adsorption and controlling the interfacial affinity of proteins have become intriguing and interdisciplinary research topics. In this work, X-ray and neutron reflectometry are the main...

  14. Protein-surfactant interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Valstar, Ank

    2000-01-01

    Protein-surfactant interactions in aqueous media have been investigated. The globular proteins lysozyme and bovine serum albumin (BSA) served as model proteins. Several ionic and non-ionic surfactants were used. Fluorescence probe measurements showed that at low sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) concentration (< 0.1 M) one micelle-like SDS cluster is bound to lysozyme. From dynamic light scattering (DLS) results it was observed that lysozyme in the complex does not correspond to the fully unfol...

  15. Pressure cryocooling protein crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Un; Gruner, Sol M.

    2011-10-04

    Preparation of cryocooled protein crystal is provided by use of helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal allowing collection of high resolution data and by heavier noble gas (krypton or xenon) binding followed by helium pressurizing and cryocooling to obtain cryocooled protein crystal for collection of high resolution data and SAD phasing simultaneously. The helium pressurizing is carried out on crystal coated to prevent dehydration or on crystal grown in aqueous solution in a capillary.

  16. Biofilm Matrix Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Fong, Jiunn N. C.; Yildiz, Fitnat H.

    2015-01-01

    Proteinaceous components of the biofilm matrix include secreted extracellular proteins, cell surface adhesins and protein subunits of cell appendages such as flagella and pili. Biofilm matrix proteins play diverse roles in biofilm formation and dissolution. They are involved in attaching cells to surfaces, stabilizing the biofilm matrix via interactions with exopolysaccharide and nucleic acid components, developing three-dimensional biofilm architectures, and dissolving biofilm matrix via enz...

  17. Ribosome-inactivating proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Matthew J; Dodd, Jennifer E; Hautbergue, Guillaume M.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) were first isolated over a century ago and have been shown to be catalytic toxins that irreversibly inactivate protein synthesis. Elucidation of atomic structures and molecular mechanism has revealed these proteins to be a diverse group subdivided into two classes. RIPs have been shown to exhibit RNA N-glycosidase activity and depurinate the 28S rRNA of the eukaryotic 60S ribosomal subunit. In this review, we compare archetypal RIP family members with oth...

  18. Trisulfides in Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus W.; Tachibana, Christine; Hansen, Niels Erik;

    2011-01-01

    post-translational modification, and the number of proteins in which a trisulfide has been unambiguously identified is small. Nevertheless, we believe that its prevalence may be underestimated, particularly with the increasing evidence for significant pools of sulfides in living tissues and their...... possible roles in cellular metabolism. This review focuses on examples of proteins that are known to contain a trisulfide bridge, and gives an overview of the chemistry of trisulfide formation, and the methods by which it is detected in proteins....

  19. Staining Proteins in Gels

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Sean; Chakavarti, Deb

    2008-01-01

    Following separation by electrophoretic methods, proteins in a gel can be detected by several staining methods. This unit describes protocols for detecting proteins by four popular methods. Coomassie blue staining is an easy and rapid method. Silver staining, while more time consuming, is considerably more sensitive and can thus be used to detect smaller amounts of protein. Fluorescent staining is a popular alternative to traditional staining procedures, mainly because it is more sensitive th...

  20. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kicinska, Anna; Leluk, Jacek; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2014-01-01

    STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription) proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil), a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds) or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups. PMID:25338074

  1. Acanthamoeba castellanii STAT protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kicinska

    Full Text Available STAT (signal transducers and activators of transcription proteins are one of the important mediators of phosphotyrosine-regulated signaling in metazoan cells. We described the presence of STAT protein in a unicellular, free-living amoebae with a simple life cycle, Acanthamoeba castellanii. A. castellanii is the only, studied to date, Amoebozoan that does not belong to Mycetozoa but possesses STATs. A sequence of the A. castellanii STAT protein includes domains similar to those of the Dictyostelium STAT proteins: a coiled coil (characteristic for Dictyostelium STAT coiled coil, a STAT DNA-binding domain and a Src-homology domain. The search for protein sequences homologous to A. castellanii STAT revealed 17 additional sequences from lower eukaryotes. Interestingly, all of these sequences come from Amoebozoa organisms that belong to either Mycetozoa (slime molds or Centramoebida. We showed that there are four separated clades within the slime mold STAT proteins. The A. castellanii STAT protein branches next to a group of STATc proteins from Mycetozoa. We also demonstrate that Amoebozoa form a distinct monophyletic lineage within the STAT protein world that is well separated from the other groups.

  2. Consensus protein design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porebski, Benjamin T.; Buckle, Ashley M.

    2016-01-01

    A popular and successful strategy in semi-rational design of protein stability is the use of evolutionary information encapsulated in homologous protein sequences. Consensus design is based on the hypothesis that at a given position, the respective consensus amino acid contributes more than average to the stability of the protein than non-conserved amino acids. Here, we review the consensus design approach, its theoretical underpinnings, successes, limitations and challenges, as well as providing a detailed guide to its application in protein engineering. PMID:27274091

  3. Engineering therapeutic protein disaggregases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, James

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic agents are urgently required to cure several common and fatal neurodegenerative disorders caused by protein misfolding and aggregation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Protein disaggregases that reverse protein misfolding and restore proteins to native structure, function, and localization could mitigate neurodegeneration by simultaneously reversing 1) any toxic gain of function of the misfolded form and 2) any loss of function due to misfolding. Potentiated variants of Hsp104, a hexameric AAA+ ATPase and protein disaggregase from yeast, have been engineered to robustly disaggregate misfolded proteins connected with ALS (e.g., TDP-43 and FUS) and PD (e.g., α-synuclein). However, Hsp104 has no metazoan homologue. Metazoa possess protein disaggregase systems distinct from Hsp104, including Hsp110, Hsp70, and Hsp40, as well as HtrA1, which might be harnessed to reverse deleterious protein misfolding. Nevertheless, vicissitudes of aging, environment, or genetics conspire to negate these disaggregase systems in neurodegenerative disease. Thus, engineering potentiated human protein disaggregases or isolating small-molecule enhancers of their activity could yield transformative therapeutics for ALS, PD, and AD. PMID:27255695

  4. Simulations of Protein Folding

    CERN Document Server

    Cahill, M; Cahill, K E; Cahill, Michael; Fleharty, Mark; Cahill, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple, phenomenological, Monte-Carlo code that predicts the three-dimensional structure of globular proteins from the DNA sequences that define them. We have applied this code to two small proteins, the villin headpiece (1VII) and cole1 rop (1ROP). Our code folded the 36-residue villin headpiece to a mean rms distance of less than 5 A from its native structure as revealed by NMR; it folded a 56-residue fragment of the protein cole1 rop to within 11 A of its native structure. The denatured starting configurations of these two proteins were, respectively, 29 A and 55 A distant from their native structures.

  5. Ultrafiltration of pegylated proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molek, Jessica R.

    There is considerable clinical interest in the use of "second-generation" therapeutics produced by conjugation of a native protein with various polymers including polyethylene glycol (PEG). PEG--protein conjugates, so-called PEGylated proteins, can exhibit enhanced stability, half-life, and bioavailability. One of the challenges in the commercial production of PEGylated proteins is the purification required to remove unreacted polymer, native protein, and in many cases PEGylated proteins with nonoptimal degrees of conjugation. The overall objective of this thesis was to examine the use of ultrafiltration for the purification of PEGylated proteins. This included: (1) analysis of size-based separation of PEGylated proteins using conventional ultrafiltration membranes, (2) use of electrically-charged membranes to exploit differences in electrostatic interactions, and (3) examination of the effects of PEGylation on protein fouling. The experimental results were analyzed using appropriate theoretical models, with the underlying physical properties of the PEGylated proteins evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, and reverse phase chromatography. PEGylated proteins were produced by covalent attachment of activated PEG to a protein via primary amines on the lysine residues. A simple model was developed for the reaction kinetics, which was used to explore the effect of reaction conditions and mode of operation on the distribution of PEGylated products. The effective size of the PEGylated proteins was evaluated using size exclusion chromatography, with appropriate correlations developed for the size in terms of the molecular weight of the native protein and attached PEG. The electrophoretic mobility of the PEGylated proteins were evaluated by capillary electrophoresis with the data in good agreement with a simple model accounting for the increase in protein size and the reduction in the number of protonated amine

  6. How Many Protein-Protein Interactions Types Exist in Nature?

    OpenAIRE

    Garma, Leonardo; Mukherjee, Srayanta; Mitra, Pralay; Zhang, Yang

    2012-01-01

    Protein quaternary structure universe” refers to the ensemble of all protein-protein complexes across all organisms in nature. The number of quaternary folds thus corresponds to the number of ways proteins physically interact with other proteins. This study focuses on answering two basic questions: Whether the number of protein-protein interactions is limited and, if yes, how many different quaternary folds exist in nature. By all-to-all sequence and structure comparisons, we grouped the pro...

  7. How Many Protein-Protein Interactions Types Exist in Nature?

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Garma; Srayanta Mukherjee; Pralay Mitra; Yang Zhang

    2012-01-01

    "Protein quaternary structure universe" refers to the ensemble of all protein-protein complexes across all organisms in nature. The number of quaternary folds thus corresponds to the number of ways proteins physically interact with other proteins. This study focuses on answering two basic questions: Whether the number of protein-protein interactions is limited and, if yes, how many different quaternary folds exist in nature. By all-to-all sequence and structure comparisons, we grouped the pro...

  8. [Oral medicine 4. Clinical aspects and treatment of taste and smell disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissink, A; Jager-Wittenaar, H; Visser, A; Spijkervet, F K L; van Weissenbruch, R; van Nieuw Amerongen, A

    2013-03-01

    Taste and smell perception are closely related. Many chemosensory disorders which result in faulty taste are in fact smell disorders. Causes ofchemosensory disorders which call for attention are ageing, medication, natural proteins, burning mouth syndrome, nerve injuries, aerate disorders in the neighbourhood of the sense ofsmell, damage to the smell epithelium, and oncologic diseases or their treatment. A chemosensory disorder has implications for food delight and psychological well-being, may lead to weight loss or increase and to deficient intake of vitamins and minerals. A chemosensory disorder can be treated by medication, surgical intervention, improvement of oral health, smell rehabilitation, and dietary advice. PMID:23600181

  9. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 286011 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007057271.1 1117:4890 1161:684 1185:224 373984:129 373994:129 histidine kinase,PAS ... domain-con ... taining protein,PAS ... domain-containing protein,histidine kinase,GAF dom ...

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357488463 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003614519.1 33090:2423 35493:1202 131221:1202 3193:1202 58023:2056 78536:1595 58024:1595 3398 ... 938 3814:1938 163742:3028 3877:3028 3880:3028 Cyst nematode ... resistance protein-like protein Medicago truncatul ...

  11. Poxviral Ankyrin Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Herbert

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple repeats of the ankyrin motif (ANK are ubiquitous throughout the kingdoms of life but are absent from most viruses. The main exception to this is the poxvirus family, and specifically the chordopoxviruses, with ANK repeat proteins present in all but three species from separate genera. The poxviral ANK repeat proteins belong to distinct orthologue groups spread over different species, and align well with the phylogeny of their genera. This distribution throughout the chordopoxviruses indicates these proteins were present in an ancestral vertebrate poxvirus, and have since undergone numerous duplication events. Most poxviral ANK repeat proteins contain an unusual topology of multiple ANK motifs starting at the N-terminus with a C-terminal poxviral homologue of the cellular F-box enabling interaction with the cellular SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. The subtle variations between ANK repeat proteins of individual poxviruses suggest an array of different substrates may be bound by these protein-protein interaction domains and, via the F-box, potentially directed to cellular ubiquitination pathways and possible degradation. Known interaction partners of several of these proteins indicate that the NF-κB coordinated anti-viral response is a key target, whilst some poxviral ANK repeat domains also have an F-box independent affect on viral host-range.

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 186478918 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001117362.1 33090:264 35493:490 131221:490 3193:490 58023:763 78536:5554 58024:5554 3398:5554 ... 88 3699:588 3700:588 980083:588 3701:588 3702:2514 StaR -like protein domain-containing protein Arabidopsis ...

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 145336153 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_174031.2 33090:264 35493:490 131221:490 3193:490 58023:763 78536:5554 58024:5554 3398:5554 71 ... 88 3699:588 3700:588 980083:588 3701:588 3702:2514 StaR -like protein domain-containing protein Arabidopsis ...

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 186478920 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001117363.1 33090:264 35493:490 131221:490 3193:490 58023:763 78536:5554 58024:5554 3398:5554 ... 88 3699:588 3700:588 980083:588 3701:588 3702:2514 StaR -like protein domain-containing protein Arabidopsis ...

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 18396209 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_564271.1 33090:264 35493:490 131221:490 3193:490 58023:763 78536:5554 58024:5554 3398:5554 71 ... 88 3699:588 3700:588 980083:588 3701:588 3702:2514 StaR -like protein domain-containing protein Arabidopsis ...

  16. Proteins in biomass streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study is to give an overview of traditional and new biomasses and biomass streams that contain proteins. When information was available, the differences in molecular structure and physical and chemical properties for the different proteins is given. For optimal biomass use, isolati

  17. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 187726 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00515693.1 1117:3739 1118:294 263510:556 263511:556 165597:1102 Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P ... 47K:Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P47K Crocosphaera watsonii WH 8501 MHKIPVT ...

  18. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 187721 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00515086.1 1117:3739 1118:294 263510:556 263511:556 165597:1102 Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P ... 47K:Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P47K Crocosphaera watsonii WH 8501 MSGINQQ ...

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 187724 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00514782.1 1117:3739 1118:294 263510:556 263511:556 165597:1102 Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P ... 47K:Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P47K Crocosphaera watsonii WH 8501 MQIVDKK ...

  20. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 187722 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00515750.1 1117:3739 1118:294 263510:556 263511:556 165597:1102 Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P ... 47K:Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P47K Crocosphaera watsonii WH 8501 MTPLNFN ...

  1. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 187723 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_00515087.1 1117:3739 1118:294 263510:556 263511:556 165597:1102 Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P ... 47K:Cobalamin synthesis ... protein/P47K Crocosphaera watsonii WH 8501 MTRLDFN ...

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 15240110 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_201488.1 33090:325 35493:1944 131221:1944 3193:1944 58023:3713 78536:2650 58024:2650 3398:265 ... :1852 LOB domain-containing protein 36 (ASYMMETRIC LEAVES ... 2-like protein 1) Arabidopsis thaliana MASSSSPCAAC ...

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357505877 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003623227.1 33090:2309 35493:2314 131221:2314 3193:2314 58023:1780 78536:1486 58024:1486 3398 ... 163742:9849 3877:9849 3880:9849 Cell cycle control crn ... (Crooked neck) protein-like protein Medicago trunc ...

  4. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357472389 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003606479.1 33090:29954 35493:20452 131221:20452 3193:20452 58023:15679 78536:15788 58024:157 ... 2228 163742:12813 3877:12813 3880:12813 Defects in morphology ... protein-like protein Medicago truncatula MAETSSSNN ...

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357472385 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003606477.1 33090:29954 35493:20452 131221:20452 3193:20452 58023:15679 78536:15788 58024:157 ... 2228 163742:12813 3877:12813 3880:12813 Defects in morphology ... protein-like protein Medicago truncatula MAETSSSNN ...

  6. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357440307 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003590431.1 33090:29954 35493:20452 131221:20452 3193:20452 58023:15679 78536:15788 58024:157 ... 2228 163742:12813 3877:12813 3880:12813 Defects in morphology ... protein-like protein Medicago truncatula MAGTSSKIP ...

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357444551 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003592553.1 33090:29954 35493:20452 131221:20452 3193:20452 58023:15679 78536:15788 58024:157 ... 2228 163742:12813 3877:12813 3880:12813 Defects in morphology ... protein-like protein Medicago truncatula MAGTSSKIP ...

  8. C-reactive protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is produced by the liver. The level of CRP rises when there is inflammation throughout the body. It is one of a group of proteins called "acute phase reactants" that go up in response to inflammation. ...

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 18414878 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_567527.1 33090:1722 35493:20777 131221:20777 3193:20777 58023:13588 78536:13546 58024:13546 3 ... 83:5979 3701:5979 3702:6150 Tryptophan RNA-binding attenuator ... protein-like protein Arabidopsis thaliana MAAPFFST ...

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 238480800 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001154247.1 33090:1722 35493:20777 131221:20777 3193:20777 58023:13588 78536:13546 58024:1354 ... 83:5979 3701:5979 3702:6150 Tryptophan RNA-binding attenuator ... protein-like protein Arabidopsis thaliana MAAPFFST ...

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 238480798 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001154246.1 33090:1722 35493:20777 131221:20777 3193:20777 58023:13588 78536:13546 58024:1354 ... 83:5979 3701:5979 3702:6150 Tryptophan RNA-binding attenuator ... protein-like protein Arabidopsis thaliana MAAPFFST ...

  12. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 305313 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_09781770.1 1117:5986 1150:1684 35823:2516 376219:684 Cytochrome b6-f complex iron -sulfur subu ... nit 1 (Rieske iron -sulfur protein 1) (Plastohydroquinone:plastocyanin ... oxidoreductase iron -sulfur protein 1) (ISP 1) (RISP 1) Arthrospira sp. ...

  13. Protein Attachment on Nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Lun; Lin, Cheng-Huang; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Su, Meng-Chih

    2015-07-16

    A recent advance in nanotechnology is the scale-up production of small and nonaggregated diamond nanoparticles suitable for biological applications. Using detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) with an average diameter of ∼4 nm as the adsorbents, we have studied the static attachment of three proteins (myoglobin, bovine serum albumin, and insulin) onto the nanoparticles by optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering, and electrophoretic zeta potential measurements. Results show that the protein surface coverage is predominantly determined by the competition between protein-protein and protein-ND interactions, giving each protein a unique and characteristic structural configuration in its own complex. Specifically, both myoglobin and bovine serum albumin show a Langmuir-type adsorption behavior, forming 1:1 complexes at saturation, whereas insulin folds into a tightly bound multimer before adsorption. The markedly different adsorption patterns appear to be independent of the protein concentration and are closely related to the affinity of the individual proteins for the NDs. The present study provides a fundamental understanding for the use of NDs as a platform for nanomedical drug delivery. PMID:25815400

  14. Protein sequence databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apweiler, Rolf; Bairoch, Amos; Wu, Cathy H

    2004-02-01

    A variety of protein sequence databases exist, ranging from simple sequence repositories, which store data with little or no manual intervention in the creation of the records, to expertly curated universal databases that cover all species and in which the original sequence data are enhanced by the manual addition of further information in each sequence record. As the focus of researchers moves from the genome to the proteins encoded by it, these databases will play an even more important role as central comprehensive resources of protein information. Several the leading protein sequence databases are discussed here, with special emphasis on the databases now provided by the Universal Protein Knowledgebase (UniProt) consortium. PMID:15036160

  15. Manipulating and Visualizing Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Horst D.

    2003-12-05

    ProteinShop Gives Researchers a Hands-On Tool for Manipulating, Visualizing Protein Structures. The Human Genome Project and other biological research efforts are creating an avalanche of new data about the chemical makeup and genetic codes of living organisms. But in order to make sense of this raw data, researchers need software tools which let them explore and model data in a more intuitive fashion. With this in mind, researchers at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the University of California, Davis, have developed ProteinShop, a visualization and modeling program which allows researchers to manipulate protein structures with pinpoint control, guided in large part by their own biological and experimental instincts. Biologists have spent the last half century trying to unravel the ''protein folding problem,'' which refers to the way chains of amino acids physically fold themselves into three-dimensional proteins. This final shape, which resembles a crumpled ribbon or piece of origami, is what determines how the protein functions and translates genetic information. Understanding and modeling this geometrically complex formation is no easy matter. ProteinShop takes a given sequence of amino acids and uses visualization guides to help generate predictions about the secondary structures, identifying alpha helices and flat beta strands, and the coil regions that bind them. Once secondary structures are in place, researchers can twist and turn these pre-configurations until they come up with a number of possible tertiary structure conformations. In turn, these are fed into a computationally intensive optimization procedure that tries to find the final, three-dimensional protein structure. Most importantly, ProteinShop allows users to add human knowledge and intuition to the protein structure prediction process, thus bypassing bad configurations that would otherwise be fruitless for optimization. This saves compute cycles and accelerates

  16. MicroProteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eguen, Teinai Ebimienere; Straub, Daniel; Graeff, Moritz;

    2015-01-01

    MicroProteins (miPs) are short, usually single-domain proteins that, in analogy to miRNAs, heterodimerize with their targets and exert a dominant-negative effect. Recent bioinformatic attempts to identify miPs have resulted in a list of potential miPs, many of which lack the defining...... characteristics of a miP. In this opinion article, we clearly state the characteristics of a miP as evidenced by known proteins that fit the definition; we explain why modulatory proteins misrepresented as miPs do not qualify as true miPs. We also discuss the evolutionary history of miPs, and how the miP concept...... can extend beyond transcription factors (TFs) to encompass different non-TF proteins that require dimerization for full function....

  17. The centrality of cancer proteins in human protein-protein interaction network: a revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Xie, Luyu; Zhou, Shuigeng; Liu, Hui; Guan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    Topological analysis of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks has been widely applied to the investigation on cancer mechanisms. However, there is still a debate on whether cancer proteins exhibit more topological centrality compared to the other proteins in the human PPI network. To resolve this debate, we first identified four sets of human proteins, and then mapped these proteins into the yeast PPI network by homologous genes. Finally, we compared these proteins' properties in human and yeast PPI networks. Experiments over two real datasets demonstrated that cancer proteins tend to have higher degree and smaller clustering coefficient than non-cancer proteins. Experimental results also validated that cancer proteins have larger betweenness centrality compared to the other proteins on the STRING dataset. However, on the BioGRID dataset, the average betweenness centrality of cancer proteins is larger than that of disease and control proteins, but smaller than that of essential proteins. PMID:24878726

  18. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    2014-01-01

    The chapter discusses general considerations about protein oxidation and reviews the mechanisms involved in protein oxidation and consequences of protein oxidation on fish proteins. It presents two case studies, the first deals with protein and lipid oxidation in frozen rainbow trout......, and the second with oxidation in salted herring. The mechanisms responsible for initiation of protein oxidation are unclear, but it is generally accepted that free radical species initiating lipid oxidation can also initiate protein oxidation. The chapter focuses on interaction between protein and lipid...... oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...

  19. An Algorithm for Finding Functional Modules and Protein Complexes in Protein-Protein Interaction Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Guangyu Cui; Yu Chen; De-Shuang Huang; Kyungsook Han

    2008-01-01

    Biological processes are often performed by a group of proteins rather than by individual proteins, and proteins in a same biological group form a densely connected subgraph in a protein-protein interaction network. Therefore, finding a densely connected subgraph provides useful information to predict the function or protein complex of uncharacterized proteins in the highly connected subgraph. We have developed an efficient algorithm and program for finding cliques and near-cliques in a prote...

  20. Quantification of the Influence of Protein-Protein Interactions on Adsorbed Protein Structure and Bioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yang; Thyparambil, Aby A.; Latour, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    While protein-surface interactions have been widely studied, relatively little is understood at this time regarding how protein-surface interaction effects are influenced by protein-protein interactions and how these effects combine with the internal stability of a protein to influence its adsorbed-state structure and bioactivity. The objectives of this study were to develop a method to study these combined effects under widely varying protein-protein interaction conditions using hen egg-whit...

  1. New approach for predicting protein-protein interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are of vital importance for virtually all processes of a living cell. The study of these associations of protein molecules could improve people's understanding of diseases and provide basis for therapeutic approaches.

  2. Analysis of correlations between protein complex and protein-protein interaction and mRNA expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Lun; XUE Hong; LU Hongchao; ZHAO Yi; ZHU Xiaopeng; BU Dongbo; LING Lunjiang; CHEN Runsheng

    2003-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction is a physical interaction of two proteins in living cells. In budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, large-scale protein-protein interaction data have been obtained through high-throughput yeast two-hybrid systems (Y2H) and protein complex purification techniques based on mass-spectrometry. Here, we collect 11855 interactions between total 2617 proteins. Through seriate genome-wide mRNA expression data, similarity between two genes could be measured. Protein complex data can also be obtained publicly and can be translated to pair relationship that any two proteins can only exist in the same complex or not. Analysis of protein complex data, protein-protein interaction data and mRNA expression data can elucidate correlations between them. The results show that proteins that have interactions or similar expression patterns have a higher possibility to be in the same protein complex than randomized selected proteins, and proteins which have interactions and similar expression patterns are even more possible to exist in the same protein complex. The work indicates that comprehensive integration and analysis of public large-scale bioinformatical data, such as protein complex data, protein-protein interaction data and mRNA expression data, may help to uncover their relationships and common biological information underlying these data. The strategies described here may help to integrate and analyze other functional genomic and proteomic data, such as gene expression profiling, protein-localization mapping and large-scale phenotypic data, both in yeast and in other organisms.

  3. Piezoelectric allostery of protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Jun; Sato, Takato; Takano, Mitsunori

    2016-07-01

    Allostery is indispensable for a protein to work, where a locally applied stimulus is transmitted to a distant part of the molecule. While the allostery due to chemical stimuli such as ligand binding has long been studied, the growing interest in mechanobiology prompts the study of the mechanically stimulated allostery, the physical mechanism of which has not been established. By molecular dynamics simulation of a motor protein myosin, we found that a locally applied mechanical stimulus induces electrostatic potential change at distant regions, just like the piezoelectricity. This novel allosteric mechanism, "piezoelectric allostery", should be of particularly high value for mechanosensor/transducer proteins. PMID:27575163

  4. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  5. Protein crystallography prescreen kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segelke, Brent W.; Krupka, Heike I.; Rupp, Bernhard

    2005-07-12

    A kit for prescreening protein concentration for crystallization includes a multiplicity of vials, a multiplicity of pre-selected reagents, and a multiplicity of sample plates. The reagents and a corresponding multiplicity of samples of the protein in solutions of varying concentrations are placed on sample plates. The sample plates containing the reagents and samples are incubated. After incubation the sample plates are examined to determine which of the sample concentrations are too low and which the sample concentrations are too high. The sample concentrations that are optimal for protein crystallization are selected and used.

  6. Human Protein Z.

    OpenAIRE

    Broze, G J; Miletich, J P

    1984-01-01

    Protein Z was purified from human plasma by a four-step procedure which included barium citrate adsorption, ammonium sulfate fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, and blue agarose chromatography with a yield of 20%. It is a 62,000 mol wt protein with an extinction coefficient of 12.0. The concentration of Protein Z in pooled, citrated plasma is 2.2 micrograms/ml and its half-life in patients starting warfarin anticoagulation therapy is estimated to be less than 2.5 d. The NH2-terminal...

  7. Evolution of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayhoff, M. O.

    1971-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of proteins from living organisms are dealt with. The structure of proteins is first discussed; the variation in this structure from one biological group to another is illustrated by the first halves of the sequences of cytochrome c, and a phylogenetic tree is derived from the cytochrome c data. The relative geological times associated with the events of this tree are discussed. Errors which occur in the duplication of cells during the evolutionary process are examined. Particular attention is given to evolution of mutant proteins, globins, ferredoxin, and transfer ribonucleic acids (tRNA's). Finally, a general outline of biological evolution is presented.

  8. The characterisation and prediction of protein-protein interfaces.

    OpenAIRE

    Kabir, T.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding how proteins interact with each other is of fundamental importance and is one of the most important goals of molecular biology. In order to study the characteristics of protein-protein interaction sites datasets of non-homologous protein-complexes have been compiled. These datasets include 142 obligate homocomplexes, 20 obligate hetero-complexes, 20 enzyme-inhibitor complexes, 15 antibody-antigen complexes, and 10 signaling complexes. Overall, the protein-protein interfaces of o...

  9. Whey Protein- The Role of Protein Supplementation in Resistance Training

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmer, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    Adequate protein intake is an important concern for many athletes who are undergoing strength-training programs. Many athletes choose to take a protein supplement, such as whey protein, in order to help them build lean muscle mass more efficiently. But the benefit of very high levels of dietary protein in resistance training remains questionable. This paper examines the effectiveness of whey protein, and other forms of protein supplements, in helping athletes augment their muscle mass. A comp...

  10. Protein-protein interaction databases: keeping up with growing interactomes

    OpenAIRE

    Lehne Benjamin; Schlitt Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Over the past few years, the number of known protein-protein interactions has increased substantially. To make this information more readily available, a number of publicly available databases have set out to collect and store protein-protein interaction data. Protein-protein interactions have been retrieved from six major databases, integrated and the results compared. The six databases (the Biological General Repository for Interaction Datasets [BioGRID], the Molecular INTeraction ...

  11. The effect of protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions on membrane fouling in ultrafiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, I.H.; Prádanos, P.; Hernández, A.

    2000-01-01

    It was studied how protein-protein and protein-membrane interactions influence the filtration performance during the ultrafiltration of protein solutions over polymeric membranes. This was done by measuring flux, streaming potential, and protein transmission during filtration of bovine serum albumin

  12. Polymers for Protein Conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Pasut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene glycol (PEG at the moment is considered the leading polymer for protein conjugation in view of its unique properties, as well as to its low toxicity in humans, qualities which have been confirmed by its extensive use in clinical practice. Other polymers that are safe, biodegradable and custom-designed have, nevertheless, also been investigated as potential candidates for protein conjugation. This review will focus on natural polymers and synthetic linear polymers that have been used for protein delivery and the results associated with their use. Genetic fusion approaches for the preparation of protein-polypeptide conjugates will be also reviewed and compared with the best known chemical conjugation ones.

  13. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 292092 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_11392515.1 1117:5087 1150:2441 44887:135 864702:135 PAS ... domain type 3-containing protein,PAS ... STISDITSQKRTEAALQRSTARYENLASNIPGMIYQVVLETNGHFRFAYASPAS REIFGLEPEQLMKSAALGMTVIHPDDVVSFRQSIAQSAKTLQTQLGKLPK ...

  14. Protein turnover in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable advances have been made in the knowledge of the mechanisms and control of synthesis and degradation of proteins in animal tissues during the last decade. Most of the work on the measurement of synthetic and degradative rates of the mixed protein fraction from tissues has been conducted in the rat. There have, unfortunately, been few publications describing results of protein turnover studies with ruminants. Consideration is given here to the techniques used to measure protein turnover, and some of the results obtained, particularly with sheep, are summarized. No attempt has been made to discuss directly the situation in parasitized animals; rather the aim is to provide background information which complements other work dealing with the effects of parasites on the nitrogen metabolism of ruminants. (author)

  15. Engineered Proteins for Bioelectrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akram, Muhammad Safwan; Rehman, Jawad Ur; Hall, Elizabeth A. H.

    2014-06-01

    It is only in the past two decades that excellent protein engineering tools have begun to meet parallel advances in materials chemistry, nanofabrication, and electronics. This is revealing scenarios from which synthetic enzymes can emerge, which were previously impossible, as well as interfaces with novel electrode materials. That means the control of the protein structure, electron transport pathway, and electrode surface can usher us into a new era of bioelectrochemistry. This article reviews the principle of electron transfer (ET) and considers how its application at the electrode, within the protein, and at a redox group is directing key advances in the understanding of protein structure to create systems that exhibit better efficiency and unique bioelectrochemistry.

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308813231 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003083922.1 33090:9527 3041:5078 1035538:3664 13792:3664 70447:4128 70448:5494 Protein requir ... ed for actin cytoskeleton organization ... and cell cycle progression (ISS) Ostreococcus taur ...

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308808566 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003081593.1 33090:6182 3041:4098 1035538:2508 13792:2508 70447:3211 70448:4097 Mitochondrial ... inheritance and actin cytoskeleton organization ... protein (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MPPKKPPPPPPDAKSYP ...

  18. The Pentapeptide Repeat Proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetting,M.; Hegde, S.; Fajardo, J.; Fiser, A.; Roderick, S.; Takiff, H.; Blanchard, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Pentapeptide Repeat Protein (PRP) family has over 500 members in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic kingdoms. These proteins are composed of, or contain domains composed of, tandemly repeated amino acid sequences with a consensus sequence of [S, T,A, V][D, N][L, F]-[S, T,R][G]. The biochemical function of the vast majority of PRP family members is unknown. The three-dimensional structure of the first member of the PRP family was determined for the fluoroquinolone resistance protein (MfpA) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure revealed that the pentapeptide repeats encode the folding of a novel right-handed quadrilateral {beta}-helix. MfpA binds to DNA gyrase and inhibits its activity. The rod-shaped, dimeric protein exhibits remarkable size, shape and electrostatic similarity to DNA.

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255084748 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002504805.1 33090:7862 3041:6362 1035538:5159 13792:5159 38832:5340 296587:5427 DUF1244/molyb ... denum cofactor synthesis ... fusion protein Micromonas sp. RCC299 MASTRTEIEAYAF ...

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 303283029 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003060806.1 33090:7862 3041:6362 1035538:5159 13792:5159 38832:5340 38833:5093 564608:5093 mo ... lybdenum cofactor synthesis ... protein Micromonas pusilla CCMP1545 MVDAQTTEKIEAYA ...

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308812183 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003083399.1 33090:12970 3041:5897 1035538:4613 13792:4613 70447:1628 70448:5196 Glycosylphosp ... hatidylinositol anchor synthesis ... protein (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MSARRASFQSRFNDSSQ ...

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308810647 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003082632.1 33090:15674 3041:5296 1035538:3911 13792:3911 70447:3635 70448:4717 senescence-in ... ducible chloroplast stay-green ... protein (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MDRATTSSRASTARTFH ...

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308811905 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003083260.1 33090:255 3041:4962 1035538:3528 13792:3528 70447:3840 70448:5111 T08009 probable ... ribosomal protein L5-green ... alga (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MGKRRQKRKSQSVAKTTAYQ ...

  4. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 28423 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_10226597.1 1117:517 1118:7626 1125:2051 1160279:627 Type 4 prepilin-like proteins leader ... pept ... ide-processing enzyme (Includes: Leader ... peptidase ; N-methyltransferase) Microcystis sp. T ...

  5. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 360784 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007097029.1 1117:17211 1118:17546 217161:1718 1173032:1718 1173020:1718 putative stress ... prote ... in (general stress ... protein 26) Chamaesiphon minutus PCC 6605 MANATENQ ...

  6. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 392180 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_07113914.1 1117:24513 1150:7038 1158:3915 272129:3709 Bifunctional protein birA (Includes: Biotin ... otin operon repressor; Biotin --(acetyl-CoA-carboxylase) synthetase (Biotin --prot ...

  7. Interactive protein manipulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SNCrivelli@lbl.gov

    2003-07-01

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures.

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308811366 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003082991.1 33090:1951 3041:1340 1035538:592 13792:592 70447:610 70448:205 Transporter, ABC s ... uperfamily (Breast cancer ... resistance protein) (ISS), partial Ostreococcus ta ...

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308810513 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003082565.1 33090:8864 3041:8803 1035538:7822 13792:7822 70447:3615 70448:4680 Predicted memb ... rane protein (associated with esophageal cancer ... in humans) (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MTSSRKLCAFVRDA ...

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308804289 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003079457.1 33090:1951 3041:1340 1035538:592 13792:592 70447:610 70448:205 Transporter, ABC s ... uperfamily (Breast cancer ... resistance protein) (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MASRV ...

  11. Untying knots in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowska, Joanna I; Sułkowski, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2010-10-13

    A shoelace can be readily untied by pulling its ends rather than its loops. Attempting to untie a native knot in a protein can also succeed or fail depending on where one pulls. However, thermal fluctuations induced by the surrounding water affect conformations stochastically and may add to the uncertainty of the outcome. When the protein is pulled by the termini, the knot can only get tightened, and any attempt at untying results in failure. We show that, by pulling specific amino acids, one may easily retract a terminal segment of the backbone from the knotting loop and untangle the knot. At still other amino acids, the outcome of pulling can go either way. We study the dependence of the untying probability on the way the protein is grasped, the pulling speed, and the temperature. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying this dependence is critical for a successful experimental realization of protein knot untying. PMID:20857930

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308806666 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003080644.1 33090:21099 3041:5360 1035538:3986 13792:3986 70447:3049 70448:3532 COG3310: Unch ... aracterized protein conserved in bacteria ... (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MRRTCASRNLARSPVAARERCRQMV ...

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308803575 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003079100.1 33090:20519 3041:4460 1035538:2940 13792:2940 70447:2035 70448:2555 COG4399: Unch ... aracterized protein conserved in bacteria ... (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MKALQRLVLRGSTDGVRPACERAMA ...

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308804123 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003079374.1 33090:20519 3041:4460 1035538:2940 13792:2940 70447:2035 70448:2555 COG4399: Unch ... aracterized protein conserved in bacteria ... (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MDSLATSRRRRLARAGAAIATALAL ...

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255077633 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002502450.1 33090:20956 3041:5145 1035538:3740 13792:3740 38832:3722 296587:3525 isocitrate d ... ehydrogenase (NADP+), bacteria -like protein Micromonas sp. RCC299 MAAASAGGKIQAAPM ...

  16. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 228257 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ZP_09784859.1 1117:4333 1150:1533 35823:3512 376219:3411 Protein ushA precursor (Includes: UDP-sugar ... ugar hydrolase (UDP-sugar ... pyrophosphatase) (UDP-sugar ... diphosphatase); 5'-nuc ...

  17. Protein folding and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    González-Diáz, P F

    1997-01-01

    Protein denaturing induced by supercooling is interpreted as a process where some or all internal symmetries of the native protein are spontaneously broken. Hence, the free-energy potential corresponding to a folding-funnel landscape becomes temperature-dependent and describes a phase transition. The idea that deformed vortices could be produced in the transition induced by temperature quenching, from native proteins to unfolded conformations is discussed in terms of the Zurek mechanism that implements the analogy between vortices, created in the laboratory at low energy, and the cosmic strings which are thought to have been left after symmetry breaking phase transitions in the early universe. An experiment is proposed to test the above idea which generalizes the cosmological analogy to also encompass biological systems and push a step ahead the view that protein folding is a biological equivalent of the big bang.

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308804764 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003079694.1 33090:24290 3041:9393 1035538:8433 13792:8433 70447:5209 70448:2928 probable memb ... rane protein YCR013c-yeast ... (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MQLREVKERLRAYFSSSAATPGRTR ...

  19. Protein (Cyanobacteria): 338848 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available YP_007172477.1 1117:11758 1118:7408 13034:1671 292566:1671 13035:1671 cell envelope-related func ... tion transcriptional attenuator ... common domain protein Dactylococcopsis salina PCC ...

  20. Electron transfer in proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I

    1991-01-01

    Electron migration between and within proteins is one of the most prevalent forms of biological energy conversion processes. Electron transfer reactions take place between active centers such as transition metal ions or organic cofactors over considerable distances at fast rates and with remarkable...... specificity. The electron transfer is attained through weak electronic interaction between the active sites, so that considerable research efforts are centered on resolving the factors that control the rates of long-distance electron transfer reactions in proteins. These factors include (in addition to the......-containing proteins. These proteins serve almost exclusively in electron transfer reactions, and as it turns out, their metal coordination sites are endowed with properties uniquely optimized for their function....

  1. Protein Colloidal Aggregation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva-Buisson, Yvette J. (Compiler)

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the pathways and kinetics of protein aggregation to allow accurate predictive modeling of the process and evaluation of potential inhibitors to prevalent diseases including cataract formation, chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease and others.

  2. Interactive protein manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We describe an interactive visualization and modeling program for the creation of protein structures ''from scratch''. The input to our program is an amino acid sequence -decoded from a gene- and a sequence of predicted secondary structure types for each amino acid-provided by external structure prediction programs. Our program can be used in the set-up phase of a protein structure prediction process; the structures created with it serve as input for a subsequent global internal energy minimization, or another method of protein structure prediction. Our program supports basic visualization methods for protein structures, interactive manipulation based on inverse kinematics, and visualization guides to aid a user in creating ''good'' initial structures

  3. Egg protein hydrolysates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Beelen, M.J.C.; Wolbers, L.A.M.; Gilst, van W.H.; Buikema, J.H.; Nelissen, J.W.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    The present invention provides egg-protein hydrolysates with DPP-IV inhibitory activity which are particularly suited for the treatment of diabetes. Particularly advantageous is to use hydrolysate of lysozyme for the treatment of diabetes.

  4. Bence-Jones protein - quantitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunoglobulin light chains - urine; Urine Bence-Jones protein ... Bence-Jones proteins are a part of regular antibodies called light chains. These proteins are not normally in urine. Sometimes, when ...

  5. The Malignant Protein Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    When most people hear the words malignant and brain, cancer immediately comes to mind. But our authors argue that proteins can be malignant too, and can spread harmfully through the brain in neurodegenerative diseases that include Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, CTE, and ALS. Studying how proteins such as PrP, amyloid beta, tau, and others aggregate and spread, and kill brain cells, represents a crucial new frontier in neuroscience. PMID:27408676

  6. Fish protein hydrolysates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackie, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes now available in commercial quantities can be used to liquefy the fish and fish waste presently considered suitable for conversion to fish meal. The products obtained are readily dispersed or dissolved in water and have a high nutritional value. They have been satisfactorily used as substitutes for milk proteins in milk replacers for young animals. Further research is necessary on means of controlling the degree of hydrolysis to give protein preparations with acceptable functional properties as human food supplements. (Refs. 21).

  7. Recombinant Collagenlike Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertala, Andzej

    2007-01-01

    A group of collagenlike recombinant proteins containing high densities of biologically active sites has been invented. The method used to express these proteins is similar to a method of expressing recombinant procollagens and collagens described in U. S. Patent 5,593,859, "Synthesis of human procollagens and collagens in recombinant DNA systems." Customized collagenous proteins are needed for biomedical applications. In particular, fibrillar collagens are attractive for production of matrices needed for tissue engineering and drug delivery. Prior to this invention, there was no way of producing customized collagenous proteins for these and other applications. Heretofore, collagenous proteins have been produced by use of such biological systems as yeasts, bacteria, and transgenic animals and plants. These products are normal collagens that can also be extracted from such sources as tendons, bones, and hides. These products cannot be made to consist only of biologically active, specific amino acid sequences that may be needed for specific applications. Prior to this invention, it had been established that fibrillar collagens consist of domains that are responsible for such processes as interaction with cells, binding of growth factors, and interaction with a number of structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix. A normal collagen consists of a sequence of domains that can be represented by a corresponding sequence of labels, e.g., D1D2D3D4. A collagenlike protein of the present invention contains regions of collagen II that contain multiples of a single domain (e.g., D1D1D1D1 or D4D4D4D4) chosen for its specific biological activity. By virtue of the multiplicity of the chosen domain, the density of sites having that specific biological activity is greater than it is in a normal collagen. A collagenlike protein according to this invention can thus be made to have properties that are necessary for tissue engineering.

  8. Untying Knots in Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sułkowska, Joanna I.; Sułkowski, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr; Cieplak, Marek

    2010-01-01

    A shoelace can be readily untied by pulling its ends rather than its loops. Attempting to untie a native knot in a protein can also succeed or fail depending on where one pulls. However, thermal fluctuations induced by the surrounding water affect conformations stochastically and may add to the uncertainty of the outcome. When the protein is pulled by the termini, the knot can only get tightened, and any attempt at untying results in failure. We show that, by pulling specific amino acids, ...

  9. Digestibility of sorghum proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Axtell, J D; Kirleis, A. W.; Hassen, M M; D'Croz Mason, N; Mertz, E T; Munck, L.

    1981-01-01

    Published information indicates that rice, maize, and wheat proteins are much more digestible in children than sorghum proteins are (66-81% compared with 46%). However, this digestibility difference cannot be demonstrated with the weanling rat, which gave digestibility values of 80% for cooked and 85% for uncooked sorghum gruels. Therefore, a search was made for a laboratory system sensitive to the digestibility differences between sorghum and other cereals. We found that porcine pepsin in vi...

  10. Identifying Unknown Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Winona C.; Dayhoff, Margaret O.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper we discuss ways to identify a protein, both when its amino acid sequence is known and, particularly, prior to the determination of the complete sequence. If a similar sequence is in the Protein Sequence Database, an unknown may be identified on the basis of partial or ambiguous sequence data, or on the basis of amino acid composition. Identification in the early stages of structural determination can save time and scarce resources by preventing duplicate effort or by suggesting ...

  11. Proteins and their crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kutá-Smatanová, Ivana; Hogg, T.; Hilgenfeld, R.; Grandori, R.; Carey, J.; Vácha, František; Štys, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 1 (2003), s. 31-32. ISSN 1211-5894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA ČR GA206/00/D007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902; CEZ:MSM 123100001 Keywords : pokeweed antiviral protein * flavodoxin-like protein * PSII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Occupational protein contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaud, Annick; Poreaux, Claire; Penven, Emmanuelle; Waton, Julie

    2015-12-01

    Occupational contact dermatitis is generally caused by haptens but can also be induced by proteins causing mainly immunological contact urticaria (ICU); chronic hand eczema in the context of protein contact dermatitis (PCD). In a monocentric retrospective study, from our database, only 31 (0.41%) of patients with contact dermatitis had positive skin tests with proteins: 22 had occupational PCD, 3 had non-occupational PCD, 5 occupational ICU and 1 cook had a neutrophilic fixed food eruption (NFFE) due to fish. From these results and analysis of literature, the characteristics of PCD can be summarized as follows. It is a chronic eczematous dermatitis, possibly exacerbated by work, suggestive if associated with inflammatory perionyxix and immediate erythema with pruritis, to be investigated when the patient resumes work after a period of interruption. Prick tests with the suspected protein-containing material are essential, as patch tests have negative results. In case of multisensitisation revealed by prick tests, it is advisable to analyse IgE against recombinant allergens. A history of atopy, found in 56 to 68% of the patients, has to be checked for. Most of the cases are observed among food-handlers but PCD can also be due to non-edible plants, latex, hydrolysed proteins or animal proteins. Occupational exposure to proteins can thus lead to the development of ICU. Reflecting hypersensitivity to very low concentrations of allergens, investigating ICU therefore requires caution and prick tests should be performed with a diluted form of the causative protein-containing product. Causes are food, especially fruit peel, non-edible plants, cosmetic products, latex, animals. PMID:26242922

  13. Protein hydrolysates in sports nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manninen Anssi H

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It has been suggested that protein hydrolysates providing mainly di- and tripeptides are superior to intact (whole proteins and free amino acids in terms of skeletal muscle protein anabolism. This review provides a critical examination of protein hydrolysate studies conducted in healthy humans with special reference to sports nutrition. The effects of protein hydrolysate ingestion on blood amino acid levels, muscle protein anabolism, body composition, exercise performance and muscle glycogen resynthesis are discussed.

  14. Protein Functionality in Food Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Panpan

    2010-01-01

    The structure,shape,color,smell and taste of food were decided by protein functionality.The utilization of protein will improve by changing the protein functionality.Protein functionality is also advantage to maintain and utilize the nutrition of food.This paper summarized the nature,classification,factors and prospect of protein functionality.It ccn provide a theoretical basis for application of protein in food industry.

  15. Protein Databases on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Dong

    2004-01-01

    Protein databases have become a crucial part of modern biology. Huge amounts of data for protein structures, functions, and particularly sequences are being generated. Searching databases is often the first step in the study of a new protein. Comparison between proteins or between protein families provides information about the relationship between proteins within a genome or across different species, and hence offers much more information than can be obtained by studying only an isolated pro...

  16. More protein in cereals?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ways in which the protein content of plant crops may be raised by the use of nuclear radiation are to be discussed at a symposium in Vienna in June next year, organized by the joint Food and Agriculture Organization/Agency Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture. Plant crops - especially cereal grains - are the basic food and protein source of most of the world's population, particularly in less-developed countries. But their natural protein content is low; increasing the quantity and nutritional quality of plant protein is potentially the most feasible way to combat widespread protein malnutrition. This improvement in seed stock can be achieved by plant breeding methods in which nuclear irradiation techniques are used to induce mutations in grain, and other isotopic techniques can be used to select only those mutants which have the desired properties. The scientists who attend the symposium will have an opportunity to review what mutation plant breeders have achieved, the application of nuclear techniques to screening for protein and amino-acid content and nutritional value, and isotopic methods which contribute to research in plant nutrition and physiology. (author)

  17. Stretching to Understand Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplak, Marek

    2007-03-01

    Mechanical stretching of single proteins has been studied experimentally for about 50 proteins yielding a variety of force patterns and values of the peak forces. We have performed a theoretical survey of 7749 proteins of known native structure and map out the landscape of possible dynamical behaviors unders stretching at constant speed. The model used is constructed based on the native geometry. It is solved by methods of molecular dynamics and validated by comparing the theoretical predictions to experimental results. We characterize the distribution of peak forces and on correlations with the system size and with the structure classification as characterized by the CATH scheme. We identify proteins with the biggest forces and show that they belong to few topology classes. We determine which protein segments act as mechanical clamps and show that, in most cases, they correspond to long stretches of parallel beta-strands, but other mechanisms are also possible. We then consider stretching by fluid flows. We show that unfolding induced by a uniform flow shows a richer behavior than that in the force clamp. The dynamics of unfolding is found to depend strongly on the selection of the amino acid, usually one of the termini, which is anchored. These features offer potentially wider diagnostic tools to investigate structure of proteins compared to experiments based on the atomic force microscopy.

  18. Expression of Tas1 taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Dorke; Voigt, Anja; Widmayer, Patricia; Borth, Heike; Huebner, Sandra; Breit, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; Hrabé de Angelis, Martin; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Gudermann, Thomas; Boekhoff, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background: During their transit through the female genital tract, sperm have to recognize and discriminate numerous chemical compounds. However, our current knowledge of the molecular identity of appropriate chemosensory receptor proteins in sperm is still rudimentary. Considering that members of the Tas1r family of taste receptors are able to discriminate between a broad diversity of hydrophilic chemosensory substances, the expression of taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa was examined...

  19. Expression of Tas1 Taste Receptors in Mammalian Spermatozoa: Functional Role of Tas1r1 in Regulating Basal Ca2+ and cAMP Concentrations in Spermatozoa

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Dorke; Voigt, Anja; Widmayer, Patricia; Borth, Heike; Huebner, Sandra; Breit, Andreas; Marschall, Susan; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Boehm, Ulrich; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Gudermann, Thomas; Boekhoff, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Background During their transit through the female genital tract, sperm have to recognize and discriminate numerous chemical compounds. However, our current knowledge of the molecular identity of appropriate chemosensory receptor proteins in sperm is still rudimentary. Considering that members of the Tas1r family of taste receptors are able to discriminate between a broad diversity of hydrophilic chemosensory substances, the expression of taste receptors in mammalian spermatozoa was examined....

  20. Nutrient sensing in the gut: new roads to therapeutics?

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Sara; Depoortere, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The release of gut hormones involved in the control of food intake is dependent on the acute nutritional status of the body, suggesting that chemosensory mechanisms are involved in the control of their release. G protein-coupled taste receptors similar to those in the lingual system, that respond to sweet, bitter, umami, and fatty acids, are expressed in endocrine cells within the gut mucosa, and coordinate, together with other chemosensory signaling elements, the release of hormones that reg...

  1. Inferring protein function by domain context similarities in protein-protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sun Zhirong; Liu Ke; Chen Hu; Zhang Song

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Genome sequencing projects generate massive amounts of sequence data but there are still many proteins whose functions remain unknown. The availability of large scale protein-protein interaction data sets makes it possible to develop new function prediction methods based on protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. Although several existing methods combine multiple information resources, there is no study that integrates protein domain information and PPI networks to pre...

  2. ADSORPTION OF PROTEIN ON NANOPARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qi

    1994-01-01

    The adsorption of protein on nanoparticles was studied by using dynamic light scattering to measure the hydrodynamic size of both pure protein and nanoparticles adsorbed with different amounts of protein. The thickness of the adsorbed protein layer increases as protein concentration, but decreases as the initial size of nanoparticles. After properly scaling the thickness with the initial diameter, we are able to fit all experimental data with a single master curve. Our experimental results suggest that the adsorbed proteins form a monolayeron the nanoparticle surface and the adsorbed protein molecules are attached to the particle surface at many points through a possible hydrogen-bonding. Our results also indicate that as protein concentration increases, the overall shape of the adsorbed protein molecule continuously changes from a flat layer on the particle surface to a stretched coil extended into water. During the change, the hydrodynamic volume of the adsorbed protein increases linearly with protein concentration.

  3. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  4. Histophilus somni Surface Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, Lynette B

    2016-01-01

    The pathogen surface is usually the first site of interaction with the host. Histophilus somni was earlier thought to only have an outer membrane on its surface. Now it is known that the surface is composed of many virulence factors, including outer membrane proteins, lipooligosaccharide or endotoxin, a fibrillar network, and an exopolysaccharide. Outer membrane blebs, endotoxin, the fibrillar network, and the exopolysaccharide are also shed from the surface. This review will focus on the surface proteins of this pathogen that may colonize the mucosal surface of ruminants as a commensal or may cause pneumonia, septicemia, myocarditis, thrombotic meningoencephalitis, arthritis, and/or abortion. The major outer membrane protein has been well studied. Since its size and epitopes vary from strain to strain, it may be useful for typing strains. Iron-regulated OMPs have also received much attention because of their role in iron uptake for in vivo growth of H. somni. Other OMPs may be protective, based on passive immunization with monospecific antibodies and active immunization experiments. The surface and shed fibrillar network has been shown to be an immunoglobulin-binding protein in that it binds bovine IgG2 by the Fc portion. Two repeat domains (DR1 and DR2) have cytotoxic Fic motifs. Vaccine studies with recombinant DR2 are promising. Studies of the bacterial genome as well as comparison of surface proteins of different strains from the various H. somni syndromes and carrier states will be discussed and have provided much insight into pathogenesis and protection. PMID:26728061

  5. Ontology integration to identify protein complex in protein interaction networks

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Zhihao; Lin Hongfei; Xu Bo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Protein complexes can be identified from the protein interaction networks derived from experimental data sets. However, these analyses are challenging because of the presence of unreliable interactions and the complex connectivity of the network. The integration of protein-protein interactions with the data from other sources can be leveraged for improving the effectiveness of protein complexes detection algorithms. Methods We have developed novel semantic similarity metho...

  6. Identifying Protein-Protein Interaction Sites Using Covering Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Jie Song; Jiaxing Cheng; Xiuquan Du

    2009-01-01

    Identification of protein-protein interface residues is crucial for structural biology. This paper proposes a covering algorithm for predicting protein-protein interface residues with features including protein sequence profile and residue accessible area. This method adequately utilizes the characters of a covering algorithm which have simple, lower complexity and high accuracy for high dimension data. The covering algorithm can achieve a comparable performance (69.62%, Complete dataset; 60....

  7. Protein-Protein Interaction Detection: Methods and Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    V. Srinivasa Rao; Srinivas, K.; Sujini, G. N.; G. N. Sunand Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction plays key role in predicting the protein function of target protein and drug ability of molecules. The majority of genes and proteins realize resulting phenotype functions as a set of interactions. The in vitro and in vivo methods like affinity purification, Y2H (yeast 2 hybrid), TAP (tandem affinity purification), and so forth have their own limitations like cost, time, and so forth, and the resultant data sets are noisy and have more false positives to annotate t...

  8. Protein Microarray On-Demand: A Novel Protein Microarray System

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Deb K.; Sitaraman, Kalavathy; Baptista, Cassio; Hartley, James; Hill, Thomas M.; David J. Munroe

    2008-01-01

    We describe a novel, simple and low-cost protein microarray strategy wherein the microarrays are generated by printing expression ready plasmid DNAs onto slides that can be converted into protein arrays on-demand. The printed expression plasmids serve dual purposes as they not only direct the synthesis of the protein of interest; they also serve to capture the newly synthesized proteins through a high affinity DNA-protein interaction. To accomplish this we have exploited the high-affinity bin...

  9. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Polarizable protein packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Albert H; Snow, Christopher D

    2011-05-01

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol(-1)] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. PMID:21264879

  11. Electron transfer in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, H B; Winkler, J R

    1996-01-01

    Electron-transfer (ET) reactions are key steps in a diverse array of biological transformations ranging from photosynthesis to aerobic respiration. A powerful theoretical formalism has been developed that describes ET rates in terms of two parameters: the nuclear reorganization energy (lambda) and the electronic-coupling strength (HAB). Studies of ET reactions in ruthenium-modified proteins have probed lambda and HAB in several metalloproteins (cytochrome c, myoglobin, azurin). This work has shown that protein reorganization energies are sensitive to the medium surrounding the redox sites and that an aqueous environment, in particular, leads to large reorganization energies. Analyses of electronic-coupling strengths suggest that the efficiency of long-range ET depends on the protein secondary structure: beta sheets appear to mediate coupling more efficiently than alpha-helical structures, and hydrogen bonds play a critical role in both. PMID:8811189

  12. Accessory Proteins at ERES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkenberg, Rafael David

    proteins. Together these components co‐operate in cargo‐selection as well as forming, loading and releasing budding vesicles from specific regions on the membrane surface of the ER. Coat components furthermore convey vesicle targeting towards the Golgi. However, not much is known about the mechanisms that...... regulate the COPII assembly at the vesicle bud site. This thesis provides the first regulatory mechanism of COPII assembly in relation to ER‐membrane lipid‐signal recognition by the accessory protein p125A (Sec23IP). The aim of the project was to characterize p125A function by dissecting two main domains...... in the protein; a putative lipid‐associating domain termed the DDHD domain that is defined by the four amino acid motif that gives the domain its name; and a ubiquitously found domain termed Sterile α‐motif (SAM), which is mostly associated with oligomerization and polymerization. We first show, that...

  13. Sound of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    In my group we work with Molecular Dynamics to model several different proteins and protein systems. We submit our modelled molecules to changes in temperature, changes in solvent composition and even external pulling forces. To analyze our simulation results we have so far used visual inspection...... and statistical analysis of the resulting molecular trajectories (as everybody else!). However, recently I started assigning a particular sound frequency to each amino acid in the protein, and by setting the amplitude of each frequency according to the movement amplitude we can "hear" whenever two aminoacids....... These are early days, and it still remains to be proven that this method has any advantage over other methods, but at least it is fun to do and the harmonies produced invoke an eerie sounding futuristic landscape...

  14. Ubiquitin domain proteins in disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Louise Kjær; Schulze, Andrea; Seeger, Michael;

    2007-01-01

    The human genome encodes several ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs). Members of this protein family are involved in a variety of cellular functions and many are connected to the ubiquitin proteasome system, an essential pathway for protein degradation in eukaryotic cells. Despite their...... and cancer. Publication history: Republished from Current BioData's Targeted Proteins database (TPdb; http://www.targetedproteinsdb.com)....

  15. SOY PROTEIN NANOPARTICLES AND NANOCOMPOSITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) is obtained from soybean by removing soybean oil and soy carbohydrates. SPI contains more than 90% protein. Structurally, SPI is a globular protein and its aggregates in water consist of sphere-like protein particles. The number average aggregate size of SPI at pH=5.2 is...

  16. The Formation of Protein Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Dynamically induced curvature owing to long-range excitations along the backbones of protein molecules with non-linear elastic properties may control the folding of proteins.......Dynamically induced curvature owing to long-range excitations along the backbones of protein molecules with non-linear elastic properties may control the folding of proteins....

  17. Vibrational spectroscopy of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two important steps for the development of a biosensor are the immobilization of the biological component (e.g. protein) on a surface and the enhancement of the signal to improve the sensitivity of detection. To address these subjects, the present work describes Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) investigations of several proteins bound to the surface of an attenuated total reflection (ATR) crystal. Furthermore, new nanostructured surfaces for signal enhancement were developed for use in FTIR microscopy. The mitochondrial redox-protein cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was incorporated into a protein-tethered bilayer lipid membrane (ptBLM) on an ATR crystal featuring a roughened two-layer gold surface for signal enhancement. Electrochemical excitation by periodic potential pulses at different modulation frequencies was followed by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. Phase sensitive detection was used for deconvolution of the IR spectra into vibrational components. A model based on protonation-dependent chemical reaction kinetics could be fitted to the time evolution of IR bands attributed to several different redox centers of the CcO. Further investigations involved the odorant binding protein 14 (OBP14) of the honey bee (Apis mellifera), which was studied using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and circular dichroism. OBP14 was found to be thermally stable up to 45 °C, thus permitting the potential application of this protein for the fabrication of biosensors. Thermal denaturation measurements showed that odorant binding increases the thermal stability of the OBP-odorant complex. In another project, plasmonic nanostructures were fabricated that enhance the absorbance in FTIR microscopy measurements. The nanostructures are composed of an array of round-shaped insulator and gold discs on top of a continuous gold layer. Enhancement factors of up to ⁓125 could be observed with self-assembled monolayers of dodecanethiol molecules immobilized on the gold surface (author)

  18. Modeling Mercury in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, J M; Smith, J C

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a naturally occurring element that is released into the biosphere both by natural processes and anthropogenic activities. Although its reduced, elemental form Hg(0) is relatively nontoxic, other forms such as Hg(2+) and, in particular, its methylated form, methylmercury, are toxic, with deleterious effects on both ecosystems and humans. Microorganisms play important roles in the transformation of mercury in the environment. Inorganic Hg(2+) can be methylated by certain bacteria and archaea to form methylmercury. Conversely, bacteria also demethylate methylmercury and reduce Hg(2+) to relatively inert Hg(0). Transformations and toxicity occur as a result of mercury interacting with various proteins. Clearly, then, understanding the toxic effects of mercury and its cycling in the environment requires characterization of these interactions. Computational approaches are ideally suited to studies of mercury in proteins because they can provide a detailed molecular picture and circumvent issues associated with toxicity. Here, we describe computational methods for investigating and characterizing how mercury binds to proteins, how inter- and intraprotein transfer of mercury is orchestrated in biological systems, and how chemical reactions in proteins transform the metal. We describe quantum chemical analyses of aqueous Hg(II), which reveal critical factors that determine ligand-binding propensities. We then provide a perspective on how we used chemical reasoning to discover how microorganisms methylate mercury. We also highlight our combined computational and experimental studies of the proteins and enzymes of the mer operon, a suite of genes that confer mercury resistance in many bacteria. Lastly, we place work on mercury in proteins in the context of what is needed for a comprehensive multiscale model of environmental mercury cycling. PMID:27497164

  19. Mining protein structure data

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, José Carlos Almeida

    2006-01-01

    The principal topic of this work is the application of data mining techniques, in particular of machine learning, to the discovery of knowledge in a protein database. In the first chapter a general background is presented. Namely, in section 1.1 we overview the methodology of a Data Mining project and its main algorithms. In section 1.2 an introduction to the proteins and its supporting file formats is outlined. This chapter is concluded with section 1.3 which defines that main problem we...

  20. Protein-based ferrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Puja; Hart, Cassidy; Romano, Siena; El-Magbri, Mariam; Esson, Moira M; Ibeh, Trisha; Knowlton, Elizabeth D; Zhang, Ming; Wagner, Michael J; Hartings, Matthew R

    2016-06-01

    We present a novel synthesis in which hemoglobin and Fe(2+) react, in the presence of KNO3 and KOH, to produce protein microgels that contain magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The synthesis results in microgels with polymer properties (denaturing and glass transition temperatures) that are consistent with the dried protein. The iron oxide nanoparticles that exhibit an average diameter of 22nm, are ferrimagnetic, and display properties consistent with Fe3O4. The multiple functional capabilities displayed by these materials: biocompatibility, magnetism, dye uptake and controlled release, and other properties archetypal of hydrogels, will make the magnetic hydrogels attractive for a number of biomedical applications. PMID:26901627

  1. Lipid-transfer proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Tzi Bun; Cheung, Randy Chi Fai; Wong, Jack Ho; Ye, Xiujuan

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs) are basic proteins found in abundance in higher plants. LTPs play lots of roles in plants such as participation in cutin formation, embryogenesis, defense reactions against phytopathogens, symbiosis, and the adaptation of plants to various environmental conditions. In addition, LTPs from field mustard and Chinese daffodil exhibit antiproliferative activity against human cancer cells. LTPs from chili pepper and coffee manifest inhibitory activity against fungi pathogenic to humans such as Candida species. The intent of this article is to review LTPs in the plant kingdom. PMID:23193591

  2. Chirality and Protein Folding

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecinska, Joanna I.; Cieplak, Marek

    2004-01-01

    There are several simple criteria of folding to a native state in model proteins. One of them involves crossing of a threshold value of the RMSD distance away from the native state. Another checks whether all native contacts are established, i.e. whether the interacting amino acids come closer than some characteristic distance. We use Go-like models of proteins and show that such simple criteria may prompt one to declare folding even though fragments of the resulting conformations have a wron...

  3. Conformation Distributions in Adsorbed Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuse, Curtis W.; Hubbard, Joseph B.; Vrettos, John S.; Smith, Jackson R.; Cicerone, Marcus T.

    2007-03-01

    While the structural basis of protein function is well understood in the biopharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, few methods for the characterization and comparison of protein conformation distributions are available. New methods capable of measuring the stability of protein conformations and the integrity of protein-protein, protein-ligand and protein-surface interactions both in solution and on surfaces are needed to help the development of protein-based products. We are developing infrared spectroscopy methods for the characterization and comparison of molecular conformation distributions in monolayers and in solutions. We have extracted an order parameter describing the orientational and conformational variations of protein functional groups around the average molecular values from a single polarized spectrum. We will discuss the development of these methods and compare them to amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange methods for albumin in solution and on different polymer surfaces to show that our order parameter is related to protein stability.

  4. G Protein-coupled receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Elliott M.

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins can diffuse laterally in the plasma membrane such that one receptor can catalyze the activation (GDP/GTP exchange) of multiple G proteins. In some cases, these processes are fast enough to support molecular signal amplification, where a single receptor maintains the activation of multiple G proteins at steady-state. Amplification in cells is probably highly regulated. It depends upon the identities of the G receptor and G protein - som...

  5. Protein stability, flexibility and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilum, Kaare; Olsen, Johan G; Kragelund, Birthe B

    2011-01-01

    Proteins rely on flexibility to respond to environmental changes, ligand binding and chemical modifications. Potentially, a perturbation that changes the flexibility of a protein may interfere with its function. Millions of mutations have been performed on thousands of proteins in quests for a...... data presented is it clear that there are specific sites (flexibility hotspots) in proteins that are important for both binding and stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Protein Dynamics: Experimental and Computational Approaches....

  6. Protein oxidation in aquatic foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baron, Caroline P.

    oxidation. The protein carbonyl group measurement is the widely used method for estimating protein oxidation in foods and has been used in fish muscle. The chapter also talks about the impact of protein oxidation on protein functionality, fish muscle texture, and food nutritional value. Protein oxidation...... may not only induce quality losses but may be desirable in some type of foods, such as salted herring....

  7. Measuring protein breakdown in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjær, Michael

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo. RECENT FINDINGS: None of the available methods for determining protein breakdown can...... be used to determine the breakdown rate of specific proteins and, therefore, do not keep up to the preceding methodological demands in physiological research. A newly developed approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of single proteins seems promising. Its conceptual advantage is that the...... proteins of interest are the site of measurement. Hence, the application initially demands the proteins to be labeled with stable isotopically labeled amino acids. Subsequently, the loss of label from the proteins will be dependent on the protein breakdown rate when no labeled amino acids are...

  8. Integral UBL domain proteins: a family of proteasome interacting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann-Petersen, Rasmus; Gordon, Colin

    2004-01-01

    The family of ubiquitin-like (UBL) domain proteins (UDPs) comprises a conserved group of proteins involved in a multitude of different cellular activities. However, recent studies on UBL-domain proteins indicate that these proteins appear to share a common property in their ability to interact with......-domain proteins catalyse the formation of ubiquitin-protein conjugates, whereas others appear to target ubiquitinated proteins for degradation and interact with chaperones. Hence, by binding to the 26S proteasome the UBL-domain proteins seem to tailor and direct the basic proteolytic functions of the particle to...... 26S proteasomes. The 26S proteasome is a multisubunit protease which is responsible for the majority of intracellular proteolysis in eukaryotic cells. Before degradation commences most proteins are first marked for destruction by being coupled to a chain of ubiquitin molecules. Some UBL...

  9. Interaction between plate make and protein in protein crystallisation screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon J King

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Protein crystallisation screening involves the parallel testing of large numbers of candidate conditions with the aim of identifying conditions suitable as a starting point for the production of diffraction quality crystals. Generally, condition screening is performed in 96-well plates. While previous studies have examined the effects of protein construct, protein purity, or crystallisation condition ingredients on protein crystallisation, few have examined the effect of the crystallisation plate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a statistically rigorous examination of protein crystallisation, and evaluated interactions between crystallisation success and plate row/column, different plates of same make, different plate makes and different proteins. From our analysis of protein crystallisation, we found a significant interaction between plate make and the specific protein being crystallised. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Protein crystal structure determination is the principal method for determining protein structure but is limited by the need to produce crystals of the protein under study. Many important proteins are difficult to crystallize, so that identification of factors that assist crystallisation could open up the structure determination of these more challenging targets. Our findings suggest that protein crystallisation success may be improved by matching a protein with its optimal plate make.

  10. HIV protein sequence hotspots for crosstalk with host hub proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sarmady

    Full Text Available HIV proteins target host hub proteins for transient binding interactions. The presence of viral proteins in the infected cell results in out-competition of host proteins in their interaction with hub proteins, drastically affecting cell physiology. Functional genomics and interactome datasets can be used to quantify the sequence hotspots on the HIV proteome mediating interactions with host hub proteins. In this study, we used the HIV and human interactome databases to identify HIV targeted host hub proteins and their host binding partners (H2. We developed a high throughput computational procedure utilizing motif discovery algorithms on sets of protein sequences, including sequences of HIV and H2 proteins. We identified as HIV sequence hotspots those linear motifs that are highly conserved on HIV sequences and at the same time have a statistically enriched presence on the sequences of H2 proteins. The HIV protein motifs discovered in this study are expressed by subsets of H2 host proteins potentially outcompeted by HIV proteins. A large subset of these motifs is involved in cleavage, nuclear localization, phosphorylation, and transcription factor binding events. Many such motifs are clustered on an HIV sequence in the form of hotspots. The sequential positions of these hotspots are consistent with the curated literature on phenotype altering residue mutations, as well as with existing binding site data. The hotspot map produced in this study is the first global portrayal of HIV motifs involved in altering the host protein network at highly connected hub nodes.

  11. Characterization of Protein Complexes and Subcomplexes in Protein-Protein Interaction Databases

    OpenAIRE

    Nazar Zaki; Elfadil A. Mohamed; Antonio Mora

    2015-01-01

    The identification and characterization of protein complexes implicated in protein-protein interaction data are crucial to the understanding of the molecular events under normal and abnormal physiological conditions. This paper provides a novel characterization of subcomplexes in protein interaction databases, stressing definition and representation issues, quantification, biological validation, network metrics, motifs, modularity, and gene ontology (GO) terms. The paper introduces the concep...

  12. Protein Molecular Structures, Protein SubFractions, and Protein Availability Affected by Heat Processing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiqiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization and availability of protein depended on the types of protein and their specific susceptibility to enzymatic hydrolysis (inhibitory activities in the gastrointestine and was highly associated with protein molecular structures. Studying internal protein structure and protein subfraction profiles leaded to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein. An understanding of the molecular structure of the whole protein was often vital to understanding its digestive behavior and nutritive value in animals. In this review, recently obtained information on protein molecular structural effects of heat processing was reviewed, in relation to protein characteristics affecting digestive behavior and nutrient utilization and availability. The emphasis of this review was on (1 using the newly advanced synchrotron technology (S-FTIR as a novel approach to reveal protein molecular chemistry affected by heat processing within intact plant tissues; (2 revealing the effects of heat processing on the profile changes of protein subfractions associated with digestive behaviors and kinetics manipulated by heat processing; (3 prediction of the changes of protein availability and supply after heat processing, using the advanced DVE/OEB and NRC-2001 models, and (4 obtaining information on optimal processing conditions of protein as intestinal protein source to achieve target values for potential high net absorbable protein in the small intestine. The information described in this article may give better insight in the mechanisms involved and the intrinsic protein molecular structural changes occurring upon processing.

  13. Transient protein-protein interactions visualized by solution NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhu; Gong, Zhou; Dong, Xu; Tang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Proteins interact with each other to establish their identities in cell. The affinities for the interactions span more than ten orders of magnitude, and KD values in μM-mM regimen are considered transient and are important in cell signaling. Solution NMR including diamagnetic and paramagnetic techniques has enabled atomic-resolution depictions of transient protein-protein interactions. Diamagnetic NMR allows characterization of protein complexes with KD values up to several mM, whereas ultraweak and fleeting complexes can be modeled with the use of paramagnetic NMR especially paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). When tackling ever-larger protein complexes, PRE can be particularly useful in providing long-range intermolecular distance restraints. As NMR measurements are averaged over the ensemble of complex structures, structural information for dynamic protein-protein interactions besides the stereospecific one can often be extracted. Herein the protein interaction dynamics are exemplified by encounter complexes, alternative binding modes, and coupled binding/folding of intrinsically disordered proteins. Further integration of NMR with other biophysical techniques should allow better visualization of transient protein-protein interactions. In particular, single-molecule data may facilitate the interpretation of ensemble-averaged NMR data. Though same structures of proteins and protein complexes were found in cell as in diluted solution, we anticipate that the dynamics of transient protein protein-protein interactions be different, which awaits awaits exploration by NMR. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. PMID:25896389

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308810769 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003082693.1 33090:1723 3041:2182 1035538:123 13792:123 70447:3706 70448:4753 K+-channel ERG a ... nd related proteins, contain PAS /PAC sensor domain (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MHFNADL ...

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308809165 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003081892.1 33090:2400 3041:801 1035538:331 13792:331 70447:681 70448:136 K+-channel ERG and ... related proteins, contain PAS /PAC sensor domain (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MPSTAGM ...

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357507515 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003624046.1 33090:6310 35493:7221 131221:7221 3193:7221 58023:3109 78536:1898 58024:1898 3398 ... 803:6139 3814:6139 163742:7708 3877:7708 3880:7708 Nematode ... resistance-like protein Medicago truncatula MTLPLA ...

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 225448363 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002268520.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 667:4453 3602:4453 3603:4453 29760:4453 PREDICTED: nematode ... resistance protein-like HSPRO2 isoform 1 Vitis vin ...

  18. Protein (Viridiplantae): 226529483 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001151109.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 0:6136 147369:6136 147429:6136 4575:6020 4577:6020 nematode -resistance protein Zea mays MATPDLSPVSPVRRDDKQCAPS ...

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357125930 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003564642.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... :4262 147385:4262 15367:4262 15368:4262 PREDICTED: nematode ... resistance protein-like HSPRO1-like Brachypodium d ...

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 356553794 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003545237.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 14:9870 163735:3769 3846:3769 3847:3769 PREDICTED: nematode ... resistance protein-like HSPRO2-like Glycine max MV ...

  1. Protein (Viridiplantae): 357492609 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003616593.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... :9870 3814:9870 163742:15503 3877:15503 3880:15503 Nematode ... resistance HS1pro1 protein Medicago truncatula MVD ...

  2. Protein (Viridiplantae): 351726303 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001236610.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 803:9870 3814:9870 163735:3769 3846:3769 3847:3769 nematode ... resistance HS1pro1 protein Glycine max MVDLDWQTKMV ...

  3. Protein (Viridiplantae): 350537949 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001234063.1 33090:6270 35493:2337 131221:2337 3193:2337 58023:2583 78536:1868 58024:1868 3398 ... 4 424574:154 4107:154 49274:154 4081:154 root-knot nematode ... resistance protein Solanum lycopersicum MEKRKDIEEA ...

  4. Protein (Viridiplantae): 356568543 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003552470.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 14:9870 163735:3769 3846:3769 3847:3769 PREDICTED: nematode ... resistance protein-like HSPRO2-like Glycine max MV ...

  5. Protein (Viridiplantae): 356560204 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003548384.1 33090:30695 35493:21281 131221:21281 3193:21281 58023:14619 78536:14658 58024:146 ... 14:9870 163735:3769 3846:3769 3847:3769 PREDICTED: nematode ... resistance protein-like HSPRO2-like, partial Glyci ...

  6. Combinable protein crop production

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    This research topic review aims to summarise research knowledge and observational experience of combinable protein crop production in organic farming systems for the UK. European research on peas, faba beans and lupins is included; considering their role in the rotation, nitrogen fixation, varieties, establishment, weed control, yields, problems experienced and intercropping with cereals.

  7. Protein (Viridiplantae): 226531780 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001147196.1 33090:20715 35493:21884 131221:21884 3193:21884 58023:14330 78536:14347 58024:143 ... 470 4575:5441 4577:5441 deleted in split hand/splt foot ... protein 1 Zea mays MAAAPADAKAEAAKMDLLEDDDEFEEFEIDQ ...

  8. Protein (Viridiplantae): 159468784 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_001692554.1 33090:22049 3041:6770 3166:4229 3042:4229 3051:3540 3052:3540 3055:3540 coenzyme ... ing protein, partial Chlamydomonas reinhardtii WTPEQ LYAVVSRVEDYHLFVPWCQ KSRPAAREAGDYMEAELEVGFQ LLVERYTSQ I ... YLTPGRAVRSAVPDSSLFDHLDSTWTMEPGPAPATCWLSFHVDFAFRSQ LHGYLADLFFSEVVKQ MSNAFEGRCARLYGPSS ...

  9. Protein (Viridiplantae): 18395564 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_027545.1 33090:256 35493:21220 131221:21220 3193:21220 58023:13487 78536:13436 58024:13436 33 ... 0:5421 980083:5421 3701:5421 3702:5521 SPFH/Band 7/PHB ... domain-containing membrane-associated protein Arab ...

  10. Protein (Viridiplantae): 15239547 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_200221.1 33090:255 35493:10960 131221:10960 3193:10960 58023:6871 78536:476 58024:476 3398:47 ... 0:2583 980083:2583 3701:2583 3702:1873 SPFH/Band 7/PHB ... domain-containing membrane-associated protein Arab ...

  11. Protein (Viridiplantae): 18417021 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_567778.1 33090:255 35493:10960 131221:10960 3193:10960 58023:6871 78536:476 58024:476 3398:47 ... 0:2583 980083:2583 3701:2583 3702:1873 SPFH/Band 7/PHB ... domain-containing membrane-associated protein Arab ...

  12. Protein (Viridiplantae): 42571103 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_973625.1 33090:14975 35493:14487 131221:14487 3193:14487 58023:10069 78536:8383 58024:8383 33 ... 980083:5566 3701:5566 3702:5685 protein sodium-and lithium -tolerant 1 Arabidopsis thaliana MENMYMWVFKERPENALG ...

  13. Protein (Viridiplantae): 18404463 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_565864.1 33090:14975 35493:14487 131221:14487 3193:14487 58023:10069 78536:8383 58024:8383 33 ... 980083:5566 3701:5566 3702:5685 protein sodium-and lithium -tolerant 1 Arabidopsis thaliana MENHHPSTLLSMDSSASS ...

  14. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255590528 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002535292.1 33090:897 35493:1400 131221:1400 3193:1400 58023:1784 78536:1198 58024:1198 3398: ... 5629:537 235880:537 3987:537 3988:537 Protein BABY BOOM , putative Ricinus communis MKHMTRQEFVASIRRKSSGFSRG ...

  15. Protein (Viridiplantae): 226500350 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_001147535.1 33090:897 35493:1400 131221:1400 3193:1400 58023:1784 78536:1198 58024:1198 3398: ... 7369:454 147429:454 4575:168 4577:168 protein BABY BOOM ... 1 Zea mays MASANNWLGFSLSGQDNPQPNQDSSPAAGIDISGASDFY ...

  16. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255585676 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002533523.1 33090:897 35493:1400 131221:1400 3193:1400 58023:1784 78536:1198 58024:1198 3398: ... 5629:537 235880:537 3987:537 3988:537 Protein BABY BOOM , putative Ricinus communis MAPATTNWLSFSLSPMEMLRSST ...

  17. Protein (Viridiplantae): 308807062 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_003080842.1 33090:2448 3041:440 1035538:347 13792:347 70447:323 70448:86 FTSH1_SYNY3 Cell ... div ... ision protein ftsH homolog 1 dbj|BAA10230.1| cell ... division prot (ISS) Ostreococcus tauri MRAHFRASVRA ...

  18. Protein Thin Film Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Federici, Stefania; Oliviero, Giulio; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Bergese, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    We report the first example of microcantilever beams that are reversibly driven by protein thin film machines fuelled by cycling the salt concentration of the surrounding solution. We also show that upon the same salinity stimulus the drive can be completely reversed in its direction by introducing a surface coating ligand. Experimental results are throughout discussed within a general yet simple thermodynamic model.

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 255541926 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available XP_002512027.1 33090:26381 35493:16326 131221:16326 3193:16326 58023:13222 78536:13135 58024:131 ... 7:4031 235629:4031 235880:4031 3987:4031 3988:4031 Ethanol ... tolerance protein GEKO1, putative Ricinus communis ...

  20. Protein (Viridiplantae): 30693285 [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NP_198682.3 33090:122 35493:14455 131221:14455 3193:14455 58023:10070 78536:8442 58024:8442 3398 ... 83:3647 3701:3647 3702:3409 protein acclimation of photosynthesis ... to environment Arabidopsis thaliana MGSITVAPGTTVLF ...