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Sample records for antennae galaxies ngc

  1. The Multi-Colored Hot Interstellar Medium of "The Antennae" Galaxies (NGC 4038/39)

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbiano, G; Zezas, A L; Rots, A; Neff, S G

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of the analysis of the extended soft emission discovered in the Chandra ACIS pointing at the merging system NGC 4038/39 (the Antennae). We present a `multi-color' X-ray image that suggests both extensive absorption by the dust in this system, peaking in the contact region, as well as variations in the temperature of different emitting regions of the hot interstellar medium (ISM). Spectral fits to multi-component thermal emission models confirm this picture and give a first evaluation of the parameters of the hot plasma. We compare the diffuse X-ray emission with radio continuum (6cm), HI, CO, and H$\\alpha$ images to take a first look at the multi-phase ISM of the Antennae galaxies. We find that the hot (X-ray) and cold (CO) gas have comparable thermal pressures in the two nuclear regions. We also conclude that the displacement between the peak of the diffuse X-ray emission in the north of the galaxy system, towards the inner regions of the northern spiral arm (as defined by H$\\alpha$, ra...

  2. The Luminosity Function of Young Star Clusters In "The Antennae" Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B C; Leitherer, C; Fall, S M; Schweizer, F; Miller, B W; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Zhang, Qing; Leitherer, Claus; Schweizer, Francois; Miller, Bryan W.

    1999-01-01

    The WFPC2 of the HST has been used to obtain high-resolution images of NGC 4038/4039 that go roughly 3 magnitudes deeper in V than previous observations made during Cycle 2 (-14 < M_V < -6). To first order the luminosity function (LF) is a power law, with exponent \\alpha = -2.12 +/- 0.04. However, after decoupling the cluster and stellar LFs, which overlap in the range -9 < M_V < -6, we find an apparent bend in the young cluster LF at approximately M_V = -10.4. The LF has a power law exponent -2.6 +/- 0.2 in the brightward and -1.7 +/- 0.2 in the faintward. The bend corresponds to a mass ~ 10^5 M_{ødot}, only slightly lower than the characteristic mass of globular clusters in the Milky Way (~2x10^5 M_{ødot}). The star clusters of the Antennae appear slightly resolved, with median effective radii of 4 +/- 1 pc, similar to or perhaps slightly larger than those of globular clusters in our Galaxy. However, the radial extents of some of the very young clusters (ages < 10 Myr) are much larger than ...

  3. The Antennae Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Karl, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39) are the nearest and best-studied major merger of two gas-rich spirals in the local Universe. They are named after the characteristic pair of tidal tails that protrude out of their main galactic disks. Due to their proximity the Antennae are extremely well sampled by modern high-resolution observations over an enormous wavelength range, from radio to X-ray. This allows for a comprehensive multiwavelength approach to the present-day morpholo...

  4. The Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) Revisited: ACS and NICMOS Observations of a Prototypical Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C; Schweizer, Francois; Rothberg, Barry; Leitherer, Claus; Rieke, Marcia; Rieke, George; Blair, W P; Mengel, S; Alonso-Herrero, A

    2010-01-01

    The ACS and NICMOS have been used to obtain new HST images of NGC 4038/4039 ("The Antennae"). These new observations allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars, based on both size and color. We use this ability to extend the cluster luminosity function by approximately two magnitudes over our previous WFPC2 results, and find that it continues as a single power law, dN/dL propto L^alpha with alpha=-2.13+/-0.07, down to the observational limit of Mv~-7. Similarly, the mass function is a single power law dN/dM propto M^beta with beta=-2.10+/-0.20 for clusters with ages t<3x10^8 yr, corresponding to lower mass limits that range from 10^4 to 10^5 Msun, depending on the age range of the subsample. Hence the power law indices for the luminosity and mass functions are essentially the same. The luminosity function for intermediate-age clusters (i.e., ~100-300 Myr old objects found in the loops, tails, and outer areas) shows no bend or turnover down to Mv~-6, consistent with relaxat...

  5. UNVEILING THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND KINEMATICS OF MOLECULAR GAS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES (NGC 4038/9) THROUGH HIGH-RESOLUTION CO (J = 3-2) OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Junko; Iono, Daisuke; Kawabe, Ryohei; Tamura, Yoichi [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 462-2 Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan); Petitpas, Glen; Ho, Paul T. P.; Peck, Alison B.; Wang Zhong; Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Yun, Min S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Mao Ruiqing [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 210008 Nanjing (China); Martin, Sergio [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Wang Junzhi [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, 22 Road, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-01-20

    We present a {approx}1'' (100 pc) resolution {sup 12}CO (3-2) map of the nearby intermediate-stage interacting galaxy pair NGC 4038/9 (the Antennae galaxies) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. We find that half the CO (3-2) emission originates in the overlap region where most of the tidally induced star formation had been previously found in shorter wavelength images, with the rest being centered on each of the nuclei. The gross distribution is consistent with lower resolution single-dish images, but we show for the first time the detailed distribution of the warm and dense molecular gas across this galaxy pair at resolutions comparable to the size of a typical giant molecular complex. While we find that 58% (33/57) of the spatially resolved Giant Molecular Associations (a few Multiplication-Sign 100 pc) are located in the overlap region, only {<=}30% spatially coincides with the optically detected star clusters, suggesting that the bulk of the CO (3-2) emission traces the regions with very recent or near future star formation activity. The spatial distribution of the CO (3-2)/CO (1-0) integrated brightness temperature ratios mainly ranges between 0.3 and 0.6, which suggests that on average the CO (3-2) line in the Antennae is not completely thermalized and similar to the average values of nearby spirals. A higher ratio is seen in both nuclei and the southern complexes in the overlap region. A higher radiation field associated with intense star formation can account for the nucleus of NGC 4038 and the overlap region, but the nuclear region of NGC 4039 shows relatively little star formation or active galactic nucleus activity and cannot be easily explained. We show kinematical evidence that the high line ratio in NGC 4039 is possibly caused by gas inflow into the counter-rotating central disk.

  6. Photographic surface photometry of NGC 2855 and NGC 6771 galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photographic surface photometry in the BV system was carried out two Southern SO's galaxies, NGC 2855 and NGC 6771. B and V isophote maps were obtained as well as geometric and integrated parameters as position angles, inclination, diameters, magnitudes and integrated colors. Each luminosity profile was decomposed into bulge and disk contributions, each component being fitted to convenient laws. For NGC 2855 de Vaucouleurs law described well the bulge whereas the disk showed an exponential distribution. For NGC 6771 the barred nuclear bulge as well as the disk was best fitted by exponential laws. Additional luminosity components due to an inner fragmented ring were identified in NGC 2855 and due to both a quite prominent lens and well defined ring in NGC 6771. In this galaxy the minor axis, oriented almost edge-on, present clues of another luminosity component besides the bulge and the thin disk. For both galaxies the disk central surface brightness was found to be fainter than the standard value observed by Freeman. The fitting parameters were used to determine the bulge-to-disk luminosity ratios as well as their contribution to total luminosity. The domination by the bulge light over the disk light was clear in both galaxies. From the B and V luminosity profile the color gradients were estimated. For both objects the local color indices decreased from inner to outer regions, this effect being relatively smooth in NGC 2855 and more prominent in NGC 6771

  7. A New Distance to The Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39) Based on the Type Ia Supernova 2007sr

    CERN Document Server

    Schweizer, Francois; Madore, Barry F; Mager, Violet A; Phillips, M M; Freedman, Wendy L; Boldt, Luis; Contreras, Carlos; Folatelli, Gaston; Gonzalez, Sergio; Hamuy, Mario; Krzeminski, Wojtek; Morrell, Nidia I; Persson, S E; Roth, Miguel R; Stritzinger, Maximilian D

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, the distance to NGC 4038/39 has been derived from the systemic recession velocity, yielding about 20 Mpc for H_0 = 72 km/s/Mpc. Recently, this widely adopted distance has been challenged based on photometry of the presumed tip of the red giant branch (TRGB), which seems to yield a shorter distance of 13.3+-1.0 Mpc and, with it, nearly 1 mag lower luminosities and smaller radii for objects in this prototypical merger. Here we present a new distance estimate based on observations of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2007sr in the southern tail, made at Las Campanas Observatory as part of the Carnegie Supernova Project. The resulting distance of D(SN Ia) = 22.3+-2.8 Mpc [(m-M)_0 = 31.74+-0.27 mag] is in good agreement with a refined distance estimate based on the recession velocity and the large-scale flow model developed by Tonry and collaborators, D(flow) = 22.5+-2.8 Mpc. We point out three serious problems that a short distance of 13.3 Mpc would entail, and trace the claimed short distance to a likely...

  8. NGC 3934: a shell galaxy in a compact galaxy environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni, D; Rampazzo, R; Marino, A; Mazzei, P; Buson, L M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the NGC 3933 poor galaxy association, that contains NGC 3934, which is classified as a polar-ring galaxy. The multi-band photometric analysis of NGC 3934 allows us to investigate the nature of this galaxy and to re-define the NGC 3933 group members with the aim to characterize the group dynamical properties and its evolutionary phase. We imaged the group in the far (FUV,lambda = 1530A) and near (NUV, lambda=2316A) ultraviolet (UV) bands of the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX). From the deep optical imaging we determined the fine structure of NGC 3934. We measured the recession velocity of PGC 213894 which shows that it belongs to the NGC 3933 group. We derived the spectral energy distribution (SED) from FUV (GALEX) to far-IR emission of the two brightest members of the group. We compared a grid of smooth particle hydrodynamical (SPH) chemo-photometric simulations with the SED and the integrated properties of NGC 3934 and NGC 3933 to devise their possible formation/evolutionary scenarios. The N...

  9. ASCA observation of three bright early-type galaxies: NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Mushotzky, Richard; Tsuru, Takeshi; Fabian, Andrew C.; Fukazawa, Yasushi; Loewenstein, Michael; Makishima, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hironori; Matsushita, Kyoko; Mihara, Tatehiro

    1994-01-01

    We report Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) 0.3-10 keV and X-ray observations of three early type galaxies, NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636. The extended mission in these galaxies is well described by thin thermal eimssion from hot gas. The gas temperature is 0.92 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4472, 0.79 +/- 0.01 keV for NGC 4406, and 0.73 +/- 0.02 keV for NGC 4636. The metal abundance for NGC 4472, NGC 4406, and NGC 4636 are, under the assumption of solar ratios, 0.63 +/- 0.15, 0.45 +/- 0.10, and 0.38 +/- 0.07, respectively. Detailed analysis has allowed determination of the abundances of oxygen, silicon, sulfur, and iron. The observed abundances are consistent with the solar ratios. For NGC 4472 and NGC 4406 we also determined the mean temperature of the gas producing the Si lines from the ratio of the Si H to He-like lines and find it to be consistent with the continuum temperature. The X-ray temperature is in good agreement with the observed optical velocity dispersion, stellar density profile, and gas density profile. Our data indicates that the supernova rate should be less than one fifth of the nominal rate in early type galaxies. We derive the mass of these systems within fixed angular scales and find that M/L greater than 40, confirming that elliptical galaxies are dark matter dominated at large radii.

  10. Turbulence in the Harassed Galaxy NGC 4254

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Prasun; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2010-01-01

    Galaxy harassment is an important mechanism for the morphological evolution of galaxies in clusters. The spiral galaxy NGC 4254 in the Virgo cluster is believed to be a harassed galaxy. We have analyzed the power spectrum of HI emission fluctuations from NGC 4254 to investigate whether it carries any imprint of galaxy harassment. The power spectrum, as determined using the 16 central channels which contain most of the HI emission, is found to be well fitted by a power law $P(U)=AU^{\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha\\ =-\\ 1.7\\pm 0.2$ at length-scales $1.7 \\, {\\rm k pc}$ to $ 8.4 \\, {\\rm kpc}$. This is similar to other normal spiral galaxies which have a slope of $\\sim -1.5$ and is interpreted as arising from two dimensional turbulence at length-scales larger than the galaxy's scale-height. NGC 4254 is hence yet another example of a spiral galaxy that exhibits scale-invariant density fluctuations out to length-scales comparable to the diameter of the HI disk. While a large variety of possible energy sources like proto-stell...

  11. Spectroscopy of Globular Clusters in the Sculptor Group Galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 55

    CERN Document Server

    Beasley, M A

    1999-01-01

    We have obtained spectra for 103 published globular cluster candidates in the Sculptor Group galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 55. On the basis of radial velocities and digitized plate images, 14 globular clusters are identified in NGC 253 and one probable globular cluster is identified in NGC 55. The majority of the objects in the sample appear to be background galaxies. We have obtained and analysed COSMOS plate scans of NGC 253 and NGC 55 and use these along with the spectroscopically identified clusters to define new samples of globular cluster candidates in the two galaxies which should have reduced contamination.

  12. Stellar subsystems of the galaxy NGC 1313

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikhonov, N. A.; Galazutdinova, O. A.

    2016-07-01

    Based on archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) ACS/WFC images, we have performed stellar photometry for eight fields of the spiral galaxy NGC 1313 and its satellite, the low-mass Sph/Irr galaxy AM0319-662. Stars of various ages have been identified on the constructed Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams: young supergiants, middle-aged stars, and old stars (red giants); their apparent distributions over the body of the galaxy are presented. The red supergiants and giants have been divided into groups with larger and smaller color indices, corresponding to a difference in stellar metallicity. These groups of stars are shown to have different spatial distributions and to belong to two galaxies, NGC1313 itself and the disrupted satellite. We have determined the distance to NGC 1313, D = 3.88 ± 0.07 Mpc, by the TRGB method from six fields. Our photometry of 2014 HST images has revealed an emerged charge transfer inefficiency on the ACS/WFC CCDs, which manifests itself as a dependence of the photometry of stars on their coordinates on the CCD.

  13. Feedback in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9): I. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Winds from Super Star Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, A; Graham, J

    2007-06-05

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 24,600) near-IR spectroscopy of the youngest super star clusters (SSCs) in the prototypical starburst merger, the Antennae Galaxies. These SSCs are young (3-7 Myr old) and massive (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} for a Kroupa IMF) and their spectra are characterized by broad, extended Brackett {gamma} emission, so we refer to them as emission-line clusters (ELCs) to distinguish them from older SSCs. The Br {gamma} lines of most ELCs have supersonic widths (60-110 km s{sup -1} FWHM) and non-Gaussian wings whose velocities exceed the clusters escape velocities. This high-velocity unbound gas is flowing out in winds that are powered by the clusters massive O and W-R stars over the course of at least several crossing times. The large sizes of some ELCs relative to those of older SSCs may be due to expansion caused by these outflows; many of the ELCs may not survive as bound stellar systems, but rather dissipate rapidly into the field population. The observed tendency of older ELCs to be more compact than young ones is consistent with the preferential survival of the most concentrated clusters at a given age.

  14. Galaxy-Cluster Interaction in NGC 7619

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2007-01-01

    We present new observational results of NGC 7619, an elliptical galaxy with a prominent X-ray tail and a dominant member of the Pegasus group. With Chandra and XMM-Newton observations, we confirm the presence of a long X-ray tail in the SW direction; moreover, we newly identify a sharp discontinuity of the X-ray surface brightness in the opposite (NE) side of the galaxy. We interpret these features as a strong indication that NGC 7619 is moving toward the NE within its parent cluster, so that its hot ISM experiences ram pressure against the hotter ambient ICM. The density, temperature and pressure jump at the NE discontinuity suggest a Mach number ~1, corresponding to a galaxy velocity of ~500 km s-1, relative to ICM. Spectral analysis of these data shows that the Iron abundance of the hot gaseous medium is much higher (1-2 solar) near the center of NGC 7619 and in the tail extending from the core than in the surrounding regions (1/2 solar). This result offers the first clear pictorial evidence of the process...

  15. X-ray Source Population in the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 720 with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Jeltema, T E; Buote, D A; Garmire, G P; Jeltema, Tesla E.; Canizares, Claude R.; Buote, David A.; Garmire, Gordon P.

    2003-01-01

    With a Chandra ACIS-S3 observation, we detect 42 X-ray point sources in the elliptical galaxy NGC 720, including a possible central source. Most of these sources will be low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), and 12 are located within 2" of globular cluster candidates. We investigate both the hardness ratios and combined spectra of the sources. They exhibit a distribution of X-ray colors similar to those seen in other early-type galaxies. We find that there is a population of highly absorbed sources located at large distances from the center of the galaxy. The overall spatial distribution of sources is consistent with the ellipticity and position angle of the galaxy, but the sources appear to form several arcs. NGC 720 contains nine ultraluminous sources (L_x >= 10^39 ergs/s). This number is more than have previously been detected in an early-type galaxy but similar to the number seen in the Antennae merger system. The ratio L_ULX/L_B for NGC 720 is more than double the ratio for the S0 galaxy NGC 1553 and a factor...

  16. FISICA observations of the starburst galaxy, NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Raines, S. N.; Gruel, N.; Elston, R.; Guzman, R.; Julian, J.; Boreman, G.; Glenn, P. E.; Hull-Allen, C. G.; Hoffman, J.; Rodgers, M.; Thompson, K.; Flint, S.; Comstock, L.; Myrick, B.

    2006-06-01

    Using the Florida Image Slicer for Infrared Cosmology and Astrophysics (FISICA) we obtained observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1569. We present our JH band spectra, particularly noting the existence of extended emission in Paschen β and He I.

  17. HI aperture synthesis and optical observations of the pair of galaxies NGC6907 and NGC6908

    CERN Document Server

    Scarano, S; Roy, Nirupam; Lépine, J R D

    2008-01-01

    NGC6908, a S0 galaxy situated in direction of NGC6907, was only recently recognized as a distinct galaxy, instead of only a part of NGC6907. We present 21 cm radio synthesis observations obtained with the GMRT and optical images and spectroscopy obtained with the Gemini North telescope of this pair of interacting galaxies. From the radio observations we obtained the velocity field and the HI column density map of the whole region containing the NGC6907/8 pair, and by means of the Gemini multi-object spectroscopy we obtained high quality photometric images and $5 {\\AA}$ resolution spectra sampling the two galaxies. By comparing the rotation curve of NGC6907 obtained from the two opposite sides around the main kinematic axis, we were able to distinguish the normal rotational velocity field from the velocity components produced by the interaction between the two galaxies. Taking into account the rotational velocity of NGC6907 and the velocity derived from the absorption lines for NGC6908, we verified that the re...

  18. Large scale star formation in galaxies. II. The spirals NGC 3377A, NGC 3507 and NGC 4394

    CERN Document Server

    Vicari, A; Capuzzo-Dolcetta, R; Wyder, T K; Arrabito, G

    2001-01-01

    The identification of young star groupings (YSG) in the three spiral galaxies NGC 3377A, NGC 3507, NGC 4394 is obtained by mean of the statistical method described in Paper I. We find 83, 90, 185 YSGs, respectively. An identification map of YSGs, as well as their size distribution, their B-luminosity function, their surface luminosity density radial behaviour, are presented and comparatively discussed. These data, in addition to those in Paper I, constitute a first sample suitable for seeking correlations among properties of galaxies and their YSG, which we briefly discuss here.

  19. A Stellar Tidal Stream Around the Whale Galaxy, NGC 4631

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Delgado, David; D'Onghia, Elena; Chonis, Taylor S.; Beaton, Rachael L.; Teuwen, Karel; GaBany, R. Jay; Grebel, Eva K.; Morales, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40 cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extending between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (streamSE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (streamNW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc in projection. The orientation of streamSE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from an interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e = 0.6) around NGC 4631 over ˜3.5 Gyr. Both modeling and inferences from the morphology of the streams indicate these are not associated with the complex HI tidal features observed between both spirals, which likely originate from a more recent, gas-rich accretion event. The structure of streamNW suggests that it may contain the progenitor of the stream, in agreement with the N-body model. However, we cannot exclude other possibilities such as the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 4627 being the progenitor based on these data. In addition, streamNW is roughly aligned with two very faint dwarf spheroidal candidates. The system of dwarf galaxies and the tidal stream around NGC 4631 can provide an additional interesting case for exploring the anisotropy distribution of satellite galaxies recently reported around Local Group spiral galaxies by means of future follow-up observations.

  20. New optical and radio observations of the X-ray galaxies NGC 7582 and NGC 2992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio maps and spectrophotometric observations are presented of two X-ray emitting emission-line galaxies, NGC 7582 and 2992, which suggest that their nuclear emission has Seyfert-like characteristics. These are contrasted with the properties of the companion galaxies NGC 7552 and 2993 which, although exhibiting emission-line spectra, are thought to be dominated by thermal processes. Direct AAT plates show the presence of substantial amounts of dust in all four galaxies. Estimates of the extinctions appropriate to the emission-line and continuum-emitting regions are made. Asub(V) approximately 3.5 to 4.0 mag is found for the emission lines and Asub(V) approximately 1.0 mag for the continuum. The total energy distributions of NGC 7582 and 2992 are very similar and may be explained by simple Synchrotron Self-Compton theory. These galaxies are typical of nearby galaxies which exhibit non-thermal activity. (author)

  1. The NGC 1023 Galaxy Group: An Anti-Hubble Flow?

    OpenAIRE

    Chernin, A. D.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss recently published data indicating that the nearby galaxy group NGC 1023 includes an inner virialized quasi-stationary component and an outer component comprising a flow of dwarf galaxies falling toward the center of the system. The inner component is similar to the Local Group of galaxies, but the Local Group is surrounded by a receding set of dwarf galaxies forming the very local Hubble flow, rather than a system of approaching dwarfs. This clear difference in the structures of t...

  2. Corrugated velocity patterns in the spiral galaxies: NGC 278, NGC 1058, NGC 2500 \\& UGC 3574

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-Gil, M Carmen; Pérez, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    We address the study of the \\Ha\\ vertical velocity field in a sample of four nearly face-on galaxies using long slit spectroscopy taken with the ISIS spectrograph attached to the WHT at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory (Spain). The spatial structure of the velocity vertical component shows a radial corrugated pattern with spatial scales higher or within the order of { one} kiloparsec. The gas is mainly ionized by high-energy photons: only in some locations of NGC~278 and NGC~1058 is there some evidence of ionization by low-velocity shocks, which, in the case of NGC~278, could be due to minor mergers. The behaviour of the gas in the neighbourhood of the spiral arms fits, in the majority of the observed cases, with that predicted by the so-called hydraulic bore mechanism, where a thick magnetized disk encounters a spiral density perturbation. The results obtained show that it is { difficult to explain the \\Ha\\ large scale velocity field without the presence of a magnetized, thick galactic disk}. Larger sa...

  3. ISO observations of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 7714 and its companion object NGC 7715

    CERN Document Server

    O'Halloran, B; Delaney, M; McBreen, B; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K J; Watson, D; Hanlon, L O

    2000-01-01

    The interacting system Arp 284 consisting of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 7714 and its irregular companion NGC 7715 was observed using the Infrared Space Observatory. Deconvolved ISOCAM maps of the galaxies using the 14.3, 7.7 and 15 micron LW3, LW6 and LW9 filters, along with ISOPHOT spectrometry of the nuclear region of NGC 7714 were obtained and are presented. Strong ISOCAM emission was detected from the central source in NGC 7714, along with strong PAH features, the emission line [Ar II], molecular hydrogen at 9.66 microns and a blend of features including [S IV] at 10.6 microns. IR emission was not detected from the companion galaxy NGC 7715, the bridge linking the two galaxies or from the partial stellar ring in NGC 7714 where emission ceases abruptly at the interface between the disk and the ring. The morphology of the system can be well described by an off-centre collision between the two galaxies. The LW3/LW2, where the LW2 flux was synthesized from the PHOT-SL spectrum, LW9/LW6 and LW3/LW6 ratios sugge...

  4. The SLUGGS Survey: New evidence for a tidal interaction between the early type galaxies NGC 4365 and NGC 4342

    CERN Document Server

    Blom, Christina; Foster, Caroline; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P

    2014-01-01

    We present new imaging and spectral data for globular clusters (GCs) around NGC 4365 and NGC 4342. NGC 4342 is a compact, X-ray luminous S0 galaxy with an unusually massive central black hole. NGC 4365 is another atypical galaxy that dominates the W' group of which NGC 4342 is a member. Using imaging from the MegaCam instrument on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) we identify a stream of GCs between the two galaxies and extending beyond NGC 4342. The stream of GCs is spatially coincident with a stream/plume of stars previously identified. We find that the photometric colours of the stream GCs match those associated with NGC 4342, and that the recession velocity of the combined GCs from the stream and NGC 4342 match the recession velocity for NGC 4342 itself. These results suggest that NGC 4342 is being stripped of GCs (and stars) as it undergoes a tidal interaction with the nearby elliptical galaxy NGC 4365. We compare NGC 4342 to two well-known, tidally stripped galaxies (M32 and NGC 4486B) and find ...

  5. NGC 922 - a new drop-through ring galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, O. I.; Meurer, G. R.; Bekki, K.; Hanish, D. J.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Ryan-Weber, E. V.; Koribalski, B.; Kilborn, V. A.; Putman, M. E.; Heiner, J.S.; Webster, R. L.; Allen, R. J.; Dopita, M. A.; Doyle, M. T.; Drinkwater, M. J.; Ferguson, H. C.; Freeman, K. C.; Heckman, T. M.; Hoopes, C.; Knezek, P. M.; Meyer, M. J.; Oey, M. S.; Seibert, M.; Smith, R. C.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Thilker, D.; Werk, J.; Zwaan, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    We have found the peculiar galaxy NGC 922 to be a new drop-through ring galaxy using multiwavelength (ultraviolet-radio) imaging and spectroscopic observations. Its 'C'-shaped morphology and tidal plume indicate a recent strong interaction with its companion which was identified with these observati

  6. A GMRT Study of Seyfert Galaxies NGC4235 & NGC4594: Evidence of Episodic Activity ?

    CERN Document Server

    Kharb, P; Singh, V; Gallimore, J F; Ishwara-Chandra, C H; Hota, Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Low frequency observations at 325 and 610 MHz have been carried out for two "radio-loud" Seyfert galaxies, NGC4235 and NGC4594 (Sombrero galaxy), using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). The 610 MHz total intensity and 325-610 MHz spectral index images of NGC4235 tentatively suggest the presence of a "relic" radio lobe, most likely from a previous episode of AGN activity. This makes NGC4235 only the second known Seyfert galaxy after Mrk6 to show signatures of episodic activity. Spitzer and Herschel infrared spectral energy distribution (SED) modelling using the clumpyDREAM code predicts star formation rates (SFR) that are an order of magnitude lower than those required to power the radio lobes in these Seyferts (~0.13-0.23 M_sun/yr compared to the required SFR of ~2.0-2.7 M_sun/yr in NGC4594 and NGC4235, respectively). This finding along with the detection of parsec and sub-kpc radio jets in both Seyfert galaxies, that are roughly along the same position angles as the radio lobes, strongly support th...

  7. HST/ACS Direct Ages of the Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185

    CERN Document Server

    Geha, M; Grocholski, A; Dolphin, A; van der Marel, R P; Guhathakurta, P

    2015-01-01

    We present the deepest optical photometry for any dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy based on Hubble Space Telescope ACS observations of the Local Group dE galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The resulting F606W and F814W color-magnitude diagrams are the first to reach below the main sequence turnoff in a dE galaxy, allowing us to determine full star formation histories in these systems. The ACS fields are located ~1.5 effective radii from the galaxy center to avoid photometric crowding. While our ACS pointings in both dEs show unambiguous evidence for old and intermediate age stars, the mean age in NGC 147 is ~ 4 Gyr younger as compared to NGC 185. In NGC 147, only 40% of stars were in place 12.5 Gyrs ago (z~5), with the bulk of the remaining stellar population forming between 5 to 7 Gyr. In contrast, 70% of stars were formed in NGC 185 field more than12.5 Gyr ago with the majority of the remaining population forming between 8 to 10 Gyr. Star formation ceased in both ACS fields at least 3 Gyr ago. Previous observations ...

  8. MERGING COLD FRONTS IN THE GALAXY PAIR NGC 7619 AND NGC 7626

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results from Chandra observations of the galaxy pair NGC 7619 and NGC 7626, the two dominant members of the Pegasus group. The X-ray images show a brightness edge associated with each galaxy, which we identify as merger cold fronts. The edges are sharp, and the axes of symmetry of the edges are roughly antiparallel, suggesting that these galaxies are falling toward one another in the plane of the sky. The detection of merger cold fronts in each of the two dominant member galaxies implies a merging subgroup scenario, since the alternative is that the galaxies are falling into a preexisting ∼1 keV halo without a dominant galaxy of its own, and such objects are not observed. We estimate the three-dimensional velocities from the cold fronts and, using the observed radial velocities of the galaxies, show that the velocity vectors are indeed most likely close to the plane of the sky, with a relative velocity of ∼1190 km s-1. The relative velocity is consistent with what is expected from the infall of two roughly equal mass subgroups whose total viral mass equals that of the Pegasus group. We conclude that the Pegasus cluster is most likely currently forming from a major merger of two subgroups, dominated by NGC 7619 and NGC 7626. NGC 7626 contains a strong radio source, consisting of a core with two symmetric jets, and radio lobes. Although we find no associated structure in the X-ray surface brightness map, the temperature map reveals a clump of cool gas just outside the southern lobe, presumably entrained by the lobe, and possibly an extension of cooler gas into the lobe itself. The jet axis is parallel with the projected direction of motion of NGC 7626 (inferred from the symmetry axis of the merger cold front), and the southern leading jet is foreshortened as compared to the northern trailing one, possibly due to the additional ram pressure encountered by the forward jet.

  9. Star formation properties in barred galaxies (SFB) Ⅱ.NGC 2903 and NGC 7080

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Min Zhou; Chen Cao; Hong Wu

    2012-01-01

    Stellar bars are important for the secular evolution of disk galaxies because they can drive gas into the galactic central regions.To investigate the star formation properties in barred galaxies,we presented a multi-wavelength study of two barred galaxies:NGC 2903 and NGC 7080.We performed the three-component bulge-diskbar decomposition using the 3.6 μm images,and identified the bulges in the two galaxies as pseudobulges.Based on the narrowband Hα images,the star formation clumps were identified and analyzed.The clumps in the bulge regions have the highest surface densities of star formation rates in both galaxies,while the star formation activities in the bar of NGC 2903 are more intense than those in the bar of NGC 7080.Finally,we compared our results with the scenario of bar-driven secular evolution in previous studies,and discussed the possible evolutionary stages of the two galaxies.

  10. LENTICULAR GALAXIES AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF THE LEO II GROUP: NGC 3599 AND NGC 3626

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied unbarred S0 galaxies, NGC 3599 and NGC 3626, the members of the X-ray bright group Leo II, by means of three-dimensional spectroscopy, long-slit spectroscopy, and imaging, with the aim of identifying the epoch and mechanisms of their transformation from spirals. Both galaxies have appeared to bear complex features obviously resulting from minor merging: decoupled gas kinematics, nuclear star-forming rings, and multi-tiered oval large-scale stellar disks. The weak emission line nucleus of NGC 3599 bears all signs of Seyfert activity, according to the line-ratio diagnostics of the gas excitation mechanism. We conclude that the transformation of these lenticular galaxies took place about 1-2 Gyr ago, through gravitational mechanisms unrelated to the hot intragroup medium of Leo II.

  11. The Nature of the Peculiar Virgo Cluster Galaxies NGC 4064 and NGC 4424

    CERN Document Server

    Cortes, J R; Hardy, E

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the peculiar HI-deficient Virgo cluster spiral galaxies NGC 4064 and NGC 4424, using $^{12}$CO 1-0 interferometry, optical imaging and integral-field spectroscopic observations, in order to learn what type of environmental interactions have afected these galaxies. Optical imaging reveals that NGC 4424 has a strongly disturbed stellar disk, with banana-shaped isophotes and shells. NGC 4064, which lies in the cluster outskirts, possesses a relatively undisturbed outer stellar disk and a central bar. In both galaxies H-alpha emission is confined to the central kiloparsec. CO observations reveal bilobal molecular gas morphologies, with H-alpha emission peaking inside the CO lobes, implying a time sequence in the star formation process.Gas kinematics reveals strong bar-like non-circular motions in the molecular gas in both galaxies, suggesting that the material is radially infalling. In NGC 4064 the stellar kinematics reveal strong bar-like non-circular motions in the central 1 kpc. ...

  12. A concentration of quasars around the jet galaxy NGC1097

    OpenAIRE

    Arp, H.; Carosati, D.

    2007-01-01

    A quasar search in the region of the active galaxy NGC 1097 yielded 31 quasars in 1984. After completion of the 2dF survey in 2004 the number of catalogued quasars just within 1 degree of the galaxy increased to 142. About 38 $\\pm$ 10 of these are in excess of average background values. The evidence in 1984 is confirmed here by an increasing density of quasars as one approaches NGC 1097. Quasars within 1 degree differ from the background by being significantly brighter. There also appear two ...

  13. Neutral Hydrogen Gas in Interacting Galaxies: The NGC 1511 galaxy group

    CERN Document Server

    Koribalski, B S

    2005-01-01

    We present HI line and 20-cm radio continuum observations of the NGC 1511 galaxy group obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array. The data reveal an extended, rather disturbed HI distribution for the peculiar starburst galaxy NGC 1511 and a narrow bridge to its small companion galaxy, NGC 1511B, which has been severely distorted by the interaction/collision between the two galaxies. No stellar counterpart to the gaseous bridge has been detected. In addition, we find that the peculiar optical ridge to the east of NGC 1511 is probably the stellar remnant of a galaxy completed disrupted by interactions with NGC 1511. The slightly more distant neighbour, NGC 1511A, shows a regular HI velocity field and no obvious signs of interactions. Radio continuum emission from NGC 1511 reveals three prominent sources on top of a more diffuse, extended distribution. We derive an overall star formation rate of 7 Msun/yr. The most enhanced star formation is found in the south-eastern part of the disk, coincident with ...

  14. Black Holes in Bulgeless Galaxies: An XMM-Newton Investigation of NGC 3367 AND NGC 4536

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpine, W.; Satyapal, S.; Gliozzi, M.; Cheung, C. C.; Sambruna, R. M.; Eracleous, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of optically identified active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the local Universe reside in host galaxies with prominent bulges, supporting the hypothesis that black hole formation and growth is fundamentally connected to the build-up of galaxy bulges. However, recent mid-infrared spectroscopic studies with Spitzer of a sample of optically "normal" late-type galaxies reveal remarkably the presence of high-ionization [NeV] lines in several sources, providing strong evidence for AGNs in these galaxies. We present follow-up X-ray observations recently obtained with XMM-Newton of two such sources, the late-type optically normal galaxies NGC 3367 and NGC 4536. Both sources are detected in our observations. Detailed spectral analysis reveals that for both galaxies, the 2-10 keV emission is dominated by a power law with an X-ray luminosity in the L(sub 2- 10 keV) approximates 10(exp 39) - 10(exp 40) ergs/s range, consistent with low luminosity AGNs. While there is a possibility that X-ray binaries account for some fraction of the observed X-ray luminosity, we argue that this fraction is negligible. These observations therefore add to the growing evidence that the fraction of late-type galaxies hosting AGNs is significantly underestimated using optical observations alone. A comparison of the midinfrared [NeV] luminosity and the X-ray luminosities suggests the presence of an additional highly absorbed X-ray source in both galaxies, and that the black hole masses are in the range of 10(exp 5) - 10(exp 7) solar M for NGC 3367 and 10(exp 4) - (exp 10) solar M for NGC 4536

  15. Modeling Dust and Starlight in Galaxies Observed by Spitzer and Herschel: NGC 628 and NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Aniano, G; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Hunt, L K; Kennicutt, R C; Krause, O; Leroy, A K; Rix, H-W; Roussel, H; Sandstrom, K; Sauvage, M; Walter, F; Armus, L; Bolatto, A D; Crocker, A; Meyer, J Donovan; Galametz, M; Helou, G; Hinz, J; Johnson, B D; Koda, J; Montiel, E; Murphy, E J; Skibba, R; Smith, J -D T; Wolfire, M G

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the dust in NGC628 and NGC6946, two nearby spiral galaxies in the KINGFISH sample. With data from 3.6um to 500um, dust models are strongly constrained. Using the Draine & Li (2007) dust model, (amorphous silicate and carbonaceous grains), for each pixel in each galaxy we estimate (1) dust mass surface density, (2) dust mass fraction contributed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)s, (3) distribution of starlight intensities heating the dust, (4) total infrared (IR) luminosity emitted by the dust, and (5) IR luminosity originating in regions with high starlight intensity. We obtain maps for the dust properties, which trace the spiral structure of the galaxies. The dust models successfully reproduce the observed global and resolved spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The overall dust/H mass ratio is estimated to be 0.0082+/-0.0017 for NGC628, and 0.0063+/-0.0009 for NGC6946, consistent with what is expected for galaxies of near-solar metallicity. Our derived dust masses are larger (by...

  16. ATOMIC-HYDROGEN IN THE NGC-4631 GROUP OF GALAXIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RAND, RJ

    1994-01-01

    We present WSRT observations of 21-cm line emission from the disturbed, edge-on galaxy NGC 4631. Maps at resolutions 12'' x 22'', 35'', and 45'' x 89'' are presented, and these are used in conjunction with position-velocity cuts through the various data cubes in order to understand the structure of

  17. NGC 4262: a Virgo galaxy with an extended ultraviolet ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bettoni,; Buson,; M., L; Galletta,; G.,

    2010-01-01

    The Galaxy Ultraviolet Explorer (GALEX) satellite has recently shown the presence of an extended, outer ring studded with UV-bright knots surrounding the lenticular galaxy NGC 4262. Such a structure---not detected in the optical---is coupled with a ring of atomic (HI) gas. We want to show that both star-forming and HI rings surrounding this SB0 galaxy share the same radial distance from the galaxy center and spatial orientation. We want also to model the kinematics of the ring(s) and of the galaxy body. We make use of archive FUV and NUV GALEX data plus HI observations from the literature. We confirm that the UV-bright and atomic gas rings of NGC 4262 have the same extent and projected spatial orientation. Their kinematics is not coupled with that of the galaxy stars. It is possible that NGC 4262 has undergone a major gas stripping event in the past which gave origin to the present "necklace" of UV-bright knots.

  18. Dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC 891

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the results of a survey of the region within 40 arcmin of NGC 891, a nearby nearly perfectly edge-on spiral galaxy. Candidate 'non-stars' with diameters greater than 15 arcsec were selected from the GSC 2.3.2 catalog and cross-comparison of observations in several bands using archived GALEX, DSS2, WISE, and Two Micron All Sky Survey images identified contaminating stars, artifacts, and background galaxies, all of which were excluded. The resulting 71 galaxies, many of which were previously uncataloged, comprise a size-limited survey of the region. A majority of the galaxies are in the background of NGC 891 and are for the most part members of the A347 cluster at a distance of about 75 Mpc. The new finds approximately double the known membership of A347, previously thought to be relatively sparse. We identify a total of seven dwarf galaxies, most of which are new discoveries. The newly discovered dwarf galaxies are dim and gas-poor and may be associated with the previously observed arcs of red giant branch halo stars in the halo and the prominent H I filament and the lopsided features in the disk of NGC 891. Several of the dwarfs show signs of disruption, consistent with being remnants of an ancient collision.

  19. Dwarf Galaxies in the Halo of NGC 891

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Earl

    2014-07-01

    We report the results of a survey of the region within 40 arcmin of NGC 891, a nearby nearly perfectly edge-on spiral galaxy. Candidate "non-stars" with diameters greater than 15 arcsec were selected from the GSC 2.3.2 catalog and cross-comparison of observations in several bands using archived GALEX, DSS2, WISE, and Two Micron All Sky Survey images identified contaminating stars, artifacts, and background galaxies, all of which were excluded. The resulting 71 galaxies, many of which were previously uncataloged, comprise a size-limited survey of the region. A majority of the galaxies are in the background of NGC 891 and are for the most part members of the A347 cluster at a distance of about 75 Mpc. The new finds approximately double the known membership of A347, previously thought to be relatively sparse. We identify a total of seven dwarf galaxies, most of which are new discoveries. The newly discovered dwarf galaxies are dim and gas-poor and may be associated with the previously observed arcs of red giant branch halo stars in the halo and the prominent H I filament and the lopsided features in the disk of NGC 891. Several of the dwarfs show signs of disruption, consistent with being remnants of an ancient collision.

  20. An extremely optically dim tidal feature in the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877

    CERN Document Server

    Lee-Waddell, K; Cuillandre, J -C; Cannon, J; Haynes, M P; Sick, J; Chandra, P; Patra, N; Stierwalt, S; Giovanelli, R

    2014-01-01

    We present GMRT HI observations and deep CFHT MegaCam optical images of the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 871/NGC 876/NGC 877 (hereafter NGC 871/6/7). Our high-resolution data sets provide a census of the HI and stellar properties of the detected gas-rich group members. In addition to a handful of spiral, irregular and dwarf galaxies, this group harbours an intriguing HI feature, AGC 749170, that has a gas mass of ~10^9.3 M_sol, a dynamical-to-gas mass ratio of ~1 (assuming the cloud is rotating and in dynamical equilibrium) and no optical counterpart in previous imaging. Our observations have revealed a faint feature in the CFHT g'- and r'-bands; if it is physically associated with AGC 749170, the latter has M/L_g > 1000 M_sol/L_sol as well as a higher metallicity (estimated using photometric colours) and a significantly younger stellar population than the other low-mass gas-rich group members. These properties, as well as its spectral and spatial location with respect to its suspected parent galaxie...

  1. Local Group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: II. Stellar Kinematics to Large Radii in NGC 147 and NGC 185

    OpenAIRE

    Geha, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Guhathakurta, P.; Gilbert, K. M.; Kalirai, J.; Kirby, E. N.

    2009-01-01

    We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of eight half-light radii (8 r_eff = 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. In contrast to previous studies, we find that bo...

  2. Dark Matter Deprivation in Field Elliptical Galaxy NGC 7507

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Richard R; Richtler, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of LCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. We use penalised pixel fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling we produce best fit models to the velocity dispersion. We find that NGC 7507 has a two component stellar halo, with the outer halo and inner haloes counter rotating. The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70" (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by LCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at a...

  3. Hydrogen Fluoride toward Luminous Nearby Galaxies: NGC 253 and NGC 4945

    CERN Document Server

    Monje, R R; Falgarone, E; Lis, D C; Neufeld, D A; Phillips, T G; Güsten, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the detection of hydrogen fluoride, HF, in two luminous nearby galaxies NGC 253 and NGC 4945 using the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) on board the Herschel Space Observatory. The HF line toward NGC 253 has a P-Cygni profile, while an asymmetric absorption profile is seen toward NGC 4945. The P-Cygni profile in NGC 253 suggests an outflow of molecular gas with a mass of M(H$_2$)$_{out}$ $\\sim$ 1 $\\times$ 10$^7$ M$_\\odot$ and an outflow rate as large as \\.{M} $\\sim$ 6.4 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. In the case of NGC 4945, the axisymmetric velocity components in the HF line profile is compatible with the interpretation of a fast-rotating nuclear ring surrounding the nucleus and the presence of inflowing gas. The gas falls into the nucleus with an inflow rate of $\\le$ 1.2 M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$, inside a inner radius of $\\le$ 200 pc. The gas accretion rate to the central AGN is much smaller, suggesting that the inflow can be triggering a nuclear starburst. From these results, the HF $J = 1-0$ ...

  4. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, M.; Jungwiert, B.; Jílková, L.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.; Křížek, M.

    2013-11-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is surrounded by numerous stellar shells that are concentric arcs centered on the Galactic core. They are very likely a result of a minor merger and they consist of stars in nearly radial orbits. For a given potential, the shell radii at a given time after the merger can be calculated and compared to observations. The MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a theory that aims to solve the missing mass problem by modifying the laws of classical dynamics in the limit of small accelerations. Hernquist & Quinn (1987, ApJ, 312, 1) claimed that the shell distribution of NGC 3923 contradicted MOND, but Milgrom (1988, ApJ, 332, 86) found several substantial insufficiencies in their work. Aims: We test whether the observed shell distribution in NGC 3923 is consistent with MOND using the current observational knowledge of the shell number and positions and of the host galaxy surface brightness profile, which supersede the data available in the 1980s when the last (and negative) tests of MOND viability were performed on NGC 3923. Methods: Using the 3.6 μm bandpass image of NGC 3923 from the Spitzer space telescope we construct the mass profile of the galaxy. The evolution of shell radii in MOND is then computed using analytical formulae. We use 27 currently observed shells and allow for their multi-generation formation, unlike the Hernquist & Quinn one-generation model that used the 18 shells known at the time. Results: Our model reproduces the observed shell radii with a maximum deviation of ~5% for 25 out of 27 known shells while keeping a reasonable formation scenario. A multi-generation nature of the shell system, resulting from successive passages of the surviving core of the tidally disrupted dwarf galaxy, is one of key ingredients of our scenario supported by the extreme shell radial range. The 25 reproduced shells are interpreted as belonging to three generations.

  5. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey: Observations towards the NGC 7817/7798 Galaxy Pair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Amanda; Robert Minchin

    2016-01-01

    The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) examines the environment of neutral hydrogen gas in the interstellar medium. AGES uses the 305m Arecibo Radio Telescope and the Arecibo L-Band Feed Array to create a deep field neutral hydrogen survey which we used to detect galaxies in an area five square degrees around the galaxy pair NGC 7817/7798. By finding and investigating hydrogen rich galaxies we hope to gain a better understanding of how the environment affects galaxy evolution. H1 line profiles were made for the detected H1 emission and ten galaxies which had the characteristic double-horned feature were found. NGC 7798 was not detected, but NGC 7817 and the other galaxies were cross-identified in NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database as well as in Sloan Digital Sky Survey to obtain optical data. Out of the ten, two of the sources were uncatalogued. We analyzed the hydrogen spectra and aperture photometry to learn about the characteristics of these galaxies such as their heliocentric velocity, flux, and mass of the neutral hydrogen. Furthermore, we graphed the Tully-Fisher and the Baryonic Tully-Fisher of the ten sources and found that most followed the relation. One that is the biggest outlier is suspected be a galaxy cluster while other outliers may be caused by ram pressure stripping deforming the galaxy.

  6. Kinematics in the Interacting, Star-Forming Galaxies NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistrop, Donna; Nelson, Charles H.

    1999-01-01

    It has been suggested that induced star formation is more sensitive to galaxy dynamics than to local phenomena and that enhanced star formation is found in galaxies with disturbed velocity structures. We are studying the stellar populations of several UV-bright, interacting galaxies to try to understand the detailed star formation process in these systems. We present preliminary results of an investigation of the kinematics of star-forming regions in the interacting systems NGC 3395/3396 and NGC 3991/3994/3995. Regions of powerful star formation are observed throughout these galaxies. The observatation will be used to investigate rotation curves in the galaxies and motion in the tidal tails.

  7. XMM-NEWTON OBSERVATIONS OF LUMINOUS SOURCES IN NEARBY GALAXIES NGC 4395, NGC 4736, AND NGC 4258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a study of non-nuclear discrete sources in a sample of three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 4395, NGC 4736, and NGC 4258) based on XMM-Newton archival data supplemented with Chandra data for spectral and timing analyses. A total of 75 X-ray sources have been detected within the D25 regions of the target galaxies. The large collecting area of XMM-Newton makes the statistics sufficient to obtain spectral fitting for 16 (about 20%) of these sources. Compiling the extensive archival exposures available, we were able to obtain the detailed spectral shapes of diverse classes of point sources. We have also studied temporal properties of these luminous sources. Eleven of them are found to show short-term (less than 80 ks) variation while eight of them show long-term variation within factors of ∼2-5 during a time interval of ∼2-12 years. Timing analysis provides strong evidence that most of these sources are accreting X-ray binary systems. One source that has properties different from others was suspected to be a supernova remnant, and our follow-up optical observation confirmed this. Our results indicate that sources within the three nearby galaxies are showing a variety of source populations, including several ultraluminous X-ray sources, X-ray binaries, transients together with a super soft source, and a background active galactic nucleus candidate.

  8. Warm Molecular Hydrogen Emission in Normal Edge-On Galaxies NGC 4565 and NGC 5907

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Seppo; Gottesman, Stephen T; Ashby, Matthew L N; Garland, Catherine A

    2010-01-01

    We have observed warm molecular hydrogen in two nearby edge-on disk galaxies, NGC 4565 and NGC 5907, using the Spitzer high-resolution infrared spectrograph. The 0-0 S(0) 28.2 micron and 0-0 S(1) 17.0 micron pure rotational lines were detected out to 10 kpc from the center of each galaxy on both sides of the major axis, and in NGC 4565 the S(0) line was detected at r = 15 kpc on one side. This location lies beyond a steep drop in the radio continuum emission from cosmic rays in the disk. Despite indications that star formation activity decreases with radius, the H2 excitation temperature and the ratio of the H2 line and the far-IR luminosity surface densities, Sigma_L(H2}/Sigma_L(TIR}, change very little as a function of radius, even into the diffuse outer region of the disk of NGC 4565. This suggests that the source of excitation of the H2 operates over a large range of radii, and is broadly independent of the strength and relative location of UV emission from young stars. Although excitation in photodissoci...

  9. NGC 55: a disc galaxy with flat abundance gradients

    CERN Document Server

    Magrini, Laura; Vajgel, Bruna

    2016-01-01

    We present new spectroscopic observations obtained with GMOS@Gemini-S of a sample of 25 hii regions located in NGC 55, a late-type galaxy in the nearby Sculptor group. We derive physical conditions and chemical composition through the te-method for 18 hii regions, and strong-line abundances for 22 hii regions. We provide abundances of He, O, N, Ne, S, Ar, finding a substantially homogenous composition in the ionised gas of the disc of NGC 55, with no trace of radial gradients. The oxygen abundances, both derived with \\te- and strong-line methods, have similar mean values and similarly small dispersion: 12+$\\log$(O/H)=8.13$\\pm$0.18~dex with the former and 12+$\\log$(O/H)=8.17$\\pm$0.13~dex with the latter. The average metallicities and the flat gradients agree with previous studies of smaller samples of \\hii\\ regions and there is a qualitative agreement with the blue supergiant radial gradient as well. We investigate the origin of such flat gradients comparing NGC 55 with NGC 300, its companion galaxy, which is ...

  10. Chandra Observations of the Flat Spectrum Seyfert-2 Galaxies NGC 2110 and NGC 7582

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Dong; Sui-Jian Xue; Cheng Li; Fu-Zhen Cheng

    2004-01-01

    Chandra observations of the Seyfert-2 galaxies NGC 2110 and NGC 7582 are presented. With the superb spatial resolution of Chandra we found that in NGC 7582 the soft (≤2keV) and hard (2-10keV) X-rays are emitted in different regions, consistent with the report by Xue et al. By comparing the present X-ray data with the previous infrared data, we determined that the soft X-ray region is the site of starburst activities. We found no significant temporal variations during our observations. We confirm the previous finding that NGC 2110 and NGC 7582 are fiat-spectrum sources. We argue that the fiat spectra may result from a cold absorbing material such as envisaged in the "dual absorbed" model. Strong Fe Ks emission feature is detected in 6~7keV. Its equivalent width is so large that it cannot be reproduced by using the Galactic column density of ~ 1022 cm-2.

  11. A supernova distance to the anchor galaxy NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Polshaw, J; Chambers, K C; Smartt, S J; Taubenberger, S; Kromer, M; Gall, E E E; Hillebrandt, W; Huber, M; Smith, K W; Wainscoat, R J

    2015-01-01

    The fortuitous occurrence of a type II-Plateau (IIP) supernova, SN~2014bc, in a galaxy for which distance estimates from a number of primary distance indicators are available provides a means with which to cross-calibrate the standardised candle method (SCM) for type IIP SNe. By applying calibrations from the literature we find distance estimates in line with the most precise measurement to NGC~4258 based on the Keplerian motion of masers (7.6$\\pm$0.23\\,Mpc), albeit with significant scatter. We provide an alternative local SCM calibration by only considering type IIP SNe that have occurred in galaxies for which a Cepheid distance estimate is available. We find a considerable reduction in scatter ($\\sigma_I = 0.16$\\, mag.), but note that the current sample size is limited. Applying this calibration, we estimate a distance to NGC~4258 of $7.08\\pm0.86$ Mpc.

  12. NGC 2442 Tidal Encounters and the Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mihos, C; Mihos, Chris; Bothun, Greg

    1997-01-01

    Using imaging Fabry-Perot data, we study the star-forming properties and kinematics of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2442. The Halpha emission is very localized along the strong spiral arms of the galaxy, and shows a marked asymmetry between the sharp, well-defined northern tidal arm and the weaker southern arm. The velocity field appears highly distorted, with a rapidly rotating nuclear component. We find evidence for strong non-circular motions along the northern arm, coincident with the pronounced dust lane and regions of intense star formation. The strong asymmetries, disturbed velocity field, and presence of a perturbed companion suggest that we are witnessing a strong kinematic response to a close interaction, which has redistributed the star formation activity throughout the disk of NGC 2442. Dynamical modeling supports this hypothesis, and suggests that the regions of strongest star formation are coincident with strong shocks occurring along the perturbed northern arm. Despite this redistributio...

  13. Young Stellar Populations in the Collisional Ring Galaxy NGC 922

    CERN Document Server

    Pellerin, Anne; Bekki, Kenji; Elmegreen, Debra M; Wong, O Ivy; Knezek, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    We studied the star cluster population properties in the nearby collisional ring galaxy NGC 922 using HST/WFPC2 photometry and population synthesis modeling. We found that 69% of the detected clusters are younger than 7 Myr, and that most of them are located in the ring or along the bar, consistent with the strong Halpha emission. The images also show a tidal plume pointing toward the companion. Its stellar age is consistent with pre-existing stars that were probably stripped off during the passage of the companion. We compared the star-forming complexes observed in NGC 922 with those of a distant ring galaxy from the GOODS field. It indicates very similar masses and sizes, suggesting similar origins. Finally, we found clusters that are excellent progenitor candidates for faint fuzzy clusters.

  14. NGC 4550 - A laboratory for testing galaxy formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rix, Hans-Walter; Franx, Marijn; Fisher, David; Illingworth, Garth

    1992-01-01

    The kinematic and photometric structure of the two components of the E7/S0 galaxy NGC 4550 are evaluated quantitatively to determine the system's morphology. Attention is given to whether the data indicate a rotating bulge with a counterrotating disk or a pair of counterstreaming disks, and formation scenarios are discussed in the light of the findings. The data examined include long-slit spectroscopy with evidence of bimodality in the line-of-sight velocity distribution. Two photometrically inseparable counterstreaming disk components are identified and their velocities given. The structure and the formation scenarios given point to the feasibility of absorption of external material by galaxy disks without extreme heating. The possibility of detecting stellar counterrotation in S0 disks is discussed based on the study of NGC 4550.

  15. Gas-phase Oxygen Abundances and Radial Metallicity Gradients in the Two nearby Spiral Galaxies NGC 7793 and NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Magrini, Laura; Casasola, Viviana

    2015-10-01

    Gas-phase abundances in H ii regions of two spiral galaxies, NGC 7793 and NGC 4945, have been studied to determine their radial metallicity gradients. We used the strong-line method to derive oxygen abundances from spectra acquired with GMOS-S, the multi-object spectrograph on the 8 m Gemini South telescope. We found that NGC 7793 has a well-defined gas-phase radial oxygen gradient of -0.321 ± 0.112 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.054 ± 0.019 dex kpc-1) in the galactocentric range 0.17 < RG/R25 < 0.82, not dissimilar from gradients calculated with direct abundance methods in galaxies of similar mass and morphology. We also determined a shallow radial oxygen gradient in NGC 4945, -0.253 ± 0.149 dex {R}25-1 (or -0.019 ± 0.011 dex kpc-1) for 0.04 < RG/R25 < 0.51, where the larger relative uncertainty derives mostly from the larger inclination of this galaxy. NGC 7793 and NGC 4945 have been selected for this study because they are similar, in mass and morphology, to M33 and the Milky Way, respectively. Since at zeroth order we expect the radial metallicity gradients to depend on mass and galaxy type, we compared our galaxies in the framework of radial metallicity models best suited for M33 and the Galaxy. We found a good agreement between M33 and NGC 7793, pointing toward similar evolution for the two galaxies. We notice instead differences between NGC 4945 and the radial metallicity gradient model that best fits the Milky Way. We found that these differences are likely related to the presence of an active galactic nucleus combined with a bar in the central regions of NGC 4945, and to its interacting environment.

  16. The Void in the Sculptor Group Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner-Kaiser, R; Sarajedini, A; Chakrabarti, S

    2014-01-01

    The dwarf galaxy NGC 247, located in the Sculptor Filament, displays an apparent void on the north side of its spiral disk. The existence of the void in the disk of this dwarf galaxy has been known for some time, but the exact nature and cause of this strange feature has remained unclear. We investigate the properties of the void in the disk of NGC 247 using photometry of archival Hubble Space Telescope data to analyze the stars in and around this region. Based on a grid of isochrones from log(t)=6.8 to log(t)=10.0, we assign ages using nearest-neighbor interpolation. Examination of the spatial variation of these ages across the galaxy reveals an age difference between stars located inside the void region and stars located outside this region. We speculate that the void in NGC 247's stellar disk may be due to a recent interaction with a nearly dark sub-halo that collided with the disk and could account for the long-lived nature of the void.

  17. ISM Parameters in the Normal Galaxy NGC 5713

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, S. D.; Malhotra, S.; Lim, T.; Helou, G.; Beichman, C. A.; Dinerstein, H.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Hunter, D. A.; Lo, K. Y.; Lu, N. Y.; Rubin, R. H.; Stacey, G. J.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Werner, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We report ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer (LWS) observations fo the Sbc(s) pec galaxy NGC 5713. We have obtained strong detections of the fine-structure forbidden transitions [C(sub ii)] 158(micro)m, [O(sub i)]63(micro)m, and [O(sub iii)] 88(micro)m, and significant upper limits for[N(sub ii)]122(micro)m, [O(sub iii)] 52(micro)m, and [N(sub iii)] 57(micro)m. We also detect the galaxy's dust continuum emission between 43 and 197 microns.

  18. Cold dust in giant barred galaxy NGC1365,

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Weiss, A; Combes, F; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Beck, R.; Kovacs, A.; Guesten R.: 2013,

    2013-01-01

    Observations of galaxies at sub-millimeter wavelengths, where the emission is mainly due to cold dust, are required to constrain the dust physical properties and provide important insight on the gas content of galaxies. We mapped NGC1365 at 870um with LABOCA, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera, allowing us to probe the central mass concentration as well as the rate at which the gas flows to the center. We obtained the dust physical properties both globally and locally for different locations in ...

  19. Merging Cold Fronts in the Galaxy Pair NGC 7619 and NGC 7626

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, S W; Kraft, R; Forman, W R; O'Sullivan, E

    2008-01-01

    We present results from {\\it Chandra} observations of the galaxy pair NGC 7619 and NGC 7626, the two dominant members of the Pegasus group. The X-ray images show a brightness edge associated with each galaxy, which we identify as merger cold fronts. The edges are sharp, and the axes of symmetry of the edges are roughly anti-parallel, suggesting that these galaxies are falling towards one another in the plane of the sky. The detection of merger cold fronts implies a merging subgroup scenario, since the alternative is that the galaxies are falling into a pre-existing $\\sim1$ keV halo without a dominant galaxy of its own, and such objects are not observed. We estimate the 3D velocities from the cold fronts and show that the velocity vectors are indeed most likely close to the plane of the sky, with a relative velocity of $\\sim1190\\kms$. The relative velocity is consistent with what is expected from the infall of two roughly equal mass subgroups whose total viral mass equals that of the Pegasus group. We conclude...

  20. H$\\alpha$ Velocity Fields and Galaxy Interaction in the Quartet of Galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. A. Yeghiazaryan; T. A. Nazaryan; A. A. Hakobyan

    2016-03-01

    The quartet of galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A is a system of interacting galaxies. Close interaction between galaxies caused characteristic morphological features: tidal arms and bars, as well as an induced star formation. In this study, we performed the Fabry–Perot scanning interferometry of the system in H\\alpha line and studied the velocity fields of the galaxies. We found that the rotation curve of NGC 7769 is weakly distorted. The rotation curve of NGC 7771 is strongly distorted with the tidal arms caused by direct flyby of NGC 7769 and flyby of a smaller neighbor NGC 7770. The rotation curve of NGC 7770 is significantly skewed because of the interaction with the much massive NGC 7771. The rotation curves and morphological disturbances suggest that the NGC 7769 and NGC 7771 have passed the first pericenter stage, however, probably the second encounter has not happened yet. Profiles of surface brightness of NGC 7769 have a characteristic break, and profiles of color indices have a minimum at a radius of intensive star formation induced by the interaction with NGC 7771.

  1. LOCAL GROUP DWARF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. STELLAR KINEMATICS TO LARGE RADII IN NGC 147 AND NGC 185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M 31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of 8 half-light radii (8reff ∼ 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. In contrast to previous studies, we find that both dEs have significant internal rotation. We measure a maximum rotational velocity of 17 ± 2 km s-1 for NGC 147 and 15 ± 5 km s-1 for NGC 185. While both rotation profiles suggest a flattening in the outer regions, there is no indication that we have reached the radius of maximum rotation velocity. The velocity dispersions decrease gently with radius with average dispersions of 16 ± 1 km s-1 and 24 ± 1 km s-1 for NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. The average metallicities for NGC 147 and NGC 185 are [Fe/H] = -1.1 ± 0.1 and [Fe/H] = -1.3 ± 0.1, respectively; both dEs have internal metallicity dispersions of 0.5 dex, but show no evidence for a radial metallicity gradient. We construct two-integral axisymmetric dynamical models and find that the observed kinematical profiles cannot be explained without modest amounts of non-baryonic dark matter. We measure central mass-to-light ratios of M/LV = 4.2 ± 0.6 and M/LV = 4.6 ± 0.6 for NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. Both dE galaxies are consistent with being primarily flattened by their rotational motions, although some anisotropic velocity dispersion is needed to fully explain their observed shapes. The velocity profiles of all three Local Group dEs (NGC 147, NGC 185, and NGC 205) suggest that rotation is more prevalent in the dE galaxy class than previously assumed, but often manifests only at several times the effective radius. Since all dEs outside the Local Group have been probed to only inside the effective radius, this

  2. Soft X-ray observations of the interacting galaxies NGC 1808 and NGC 1792

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlem, Michael; Hartner, Gisela D.; Junkes, Norbert

    1994-01-01

    The soft X-ray emission from both galaxies NGC 1808 and NGC 1792, which we investigated using the ROSAT HRI and Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC), comes most probably from X-ray binaries and/or from hot ionized gas in powerful supernovae and supernova remnants. The distribution of the soft X-ray emission in NGC 1808, which is very well correlated with the distribution of 'radio knots' in the central starburst, suggests that hot gas dominates the emission in the ROSAT band. This is consistent with the results of PSPC observations by Junkes et al. The total soft X-ray luminosity in the ROSAT band of NGC 1808 of 1.2 x 10(exp 41) ergs/s is relatively high compared with other nearby starburst galaxies. Soft X-ray emission of diffuse hot ionized gas that is associated with the outflow traced by the conspicuous dust filaments protruding from the plane has been detected. Its luminosity in the ROSAT band is greater than or equal to 3 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, i.e., several percent of the total soft X-ray luminosity. Thus, NGC 1808 is another example for a 'superwind' galaxy. The soft X-ray radiation from NGC 1792 is more likely to be dominated by a population of high-mass X-ray binaries or young powerful supernovae which are associated with the high-level star formation going on in the very prominent H II regions along its spiral arms, with possibly an additional contribution of diffuse hot ionized gas. The soft X-ray luminosities of individual sources lie in the range of 5 x 10(exp 38) to 2.7 x 10(exp 39) ergs/s, thus exceeding by far the Eddington luminosity of an accreting neutron star. The peaks of some of these soft X-ray luminous sources are offset with respect to the H II regions by a few hundred parsecs. Accordingly, if the soft X-ray sources should originate from the H II regions, their relative velocities with respect to the ambient medium have to be as high as approximately 100 km/s.

  3. Cold dust in giant barred galaxy NGC1365

    CERN Document Server

    Tabatabaei, F S; Combes, F; Henkel, C; Menten, K M; Beck, R; Kovács, A; Guesten, R

    2013-01-01

    Observations of galaxies at sub-millimeter wavelengths, where the emission is mainly due to cold dust, are required to constrain the dust physical properties and provide important insight on the gas content of galaxies. We mapped NGC1365 at 870um with LABOCA, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera, allowing us to probe the central mass concentration as well as the rate at which the gas flows to the center. We obtained the dust physical properties both globally and locally for different locations in the galaxy. A 20 K modified black body represents about 98% of the total dust content of the galaxy, the rest can be represented by a warmer dust component of 40 K. The bar exhibits an east-west asymmetry in the dust distribution: The eastern bar is heavier than the western bar by more than a factor of 4. Integrating the dust SED, we derive a total infrared (IR) luminosity of 9.8 x 10^{10} L_{\\odot} leading to a dust-enshrouded star formation rate of ~16.7 M_{\\odot} per year in NGC1365. We derive the gas mass from the mea...

  4. Dark matter deprivation in the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Richard R.; Salinas, Ricardo; Richtler, Tom

    2015-02-01

    Context. Previous studies have shown that the kinematics of the field elliptical galaxy NGC 7507 do not necessarily require dark matter. This is troubling because, in the context of ΛCDM cosmologies, all galaxies should have a large dark matter component. Aims: Our aims are to determine the rotation and velocity dispersion profile out to larger radii than do previous studies, and, therefore, more accurately estimate of the dark matter content of the galaxy. Methods: We use penalised pixel-fitting software to extract velocities and velocity dispersions from GMOS slit mask spectra. Using Jeans and MONDian modelling, we then produce models with the goal of fitting the velocity dispersion data. Results: NGC 7507 has a two-component stellar halo, with the outer halo counter rotating with respect to the inner halo, with a kinematic boundary at a radius of ~110'' (~12.4 kpc). The velocity dispersion profile exhibits an increase at ~70'' (~7.9 kpc), reminiscent of several other elliptical galaxies. Our best fit models are those under mild anisotropy, which include ~100 times less dark matter than predicted by ΛCDM, although mildly anisotropic models that are completely dark matter free fit the measured dynamics almost equally well. Our MONDian models, both isotropic and anisotropic, systematically fail to reproduce the measured velocity dispersions at almost all radii. Conclusions: The counter-rotating outer halo implies a merger remnant, as does the increase in velocity dispersion at ~70''. From simulations it seems plausible that the merger that caused the increase in velocity dispersion was a spiral-spiral merger. Our Jeans models are completely consistent with a no dark matter scenario, however, some dark matter can be accommodated, although at much lower concentrations than predicted by ΛCDM simulations. This indicates that NGC 7507 may be a dark matter free elliptical galaxy. Regardless of whether NGC 7507 is completely dark matter free or very dark matter poor

  5. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    CERN Document Server

    Bilek, Michal; Jilkova, Lucie; Ebrova, Ivana; Bartoskova, Katerina; Krizek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is surrounded by numerous stellar shells that are concentric arcs centered on the galactic core. They are very likely a result of a minor merger and they consist of stars in nearly radial orbits. For a given potential, the shell radii at a given time after the merger can be calculated and compared to observations. The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a theory that aims to solve the missing mass problem by modifying the laws of classical dynamics in the limit of small accelerations. Hernquist & Quinn(1987) claimed that the shell distribution of NGC 3923 contradicted MOND, but Milgrom(1988) found several substantial insufficiencies in their work. Aims. We test whether the observed shell distribution in NGC 3923 is consistent with MOND using the current observational knowledge of the shell number and positions and of the host galaxy surface brightness profile, which supersede the data available in the 1980s when the last (and negative) tests of MOND viability were...

  6. The Ha Velocity Fields and Galaxy Interaction in the Quartet of Galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A

    CERN Document Server

    Yeghiazaryan, A A; Hakobyan, A A

    2015-01-01

    The quartet of galaxies NGC 7769, 7770, 7771 and 7771A is a system of interacting galaxies. Close interaction between galaxies caused characteristic morphological features: tidal arms and bars, as well as an induced star formation. In this study, we performed the Fabry-Perot scanning interferometry of the system in Ha line and studied the velocity fields of the galaxies. We found that the rotation curve of NGC 7769 is weakly distorted. The rotation curve of NGC 7771 is strongly distorted with the tidal arms caused by direct flyby of NGC 7769 and flyby of a smaller neighbor NGC 7770. The rotation curve of NGC 7770 is significantly skewed because of the interaction with much massive NGC 7771. The rotation curves and morphological disturbances suggest that the NGC 7769 and NGC 7771 have passed the first pericenter stage, however, probably the second encounter has not happened yet. Profiles of surface brightness of NGC 7769 have a characteristic break, and profiles of color indices have a minimum at a radius of i...

  7. Mid-infrared dust in two nearby radio galaxies, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duah Asabere, B.; Horellou, C.; Jarrett, T. H.; Winkler, H.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Most radio galaxies are hosted by giant gas-poor ellipticals, but some contain significant amounts of dust, which is likely to be of external origin. Aims: In order to characterize the mid-IR properties of two of the most nearby and brightest merger-remnant radio galaxies of the Southern hemisphere, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36), we used observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 μm and Spitzer mid-infrared spectra. Methods: By applying a resolution-enhancement technique, new WISE images were produced at angular resolutions ranging from 2.̋6 to 5.̋5. Global measurements were performed in the four WISE bands, and stellar masses and star-formation rates were estimated using published scaling relations. Two methods were used to uncover the distribution of dust, one relying on two-dimensional fits to the 3.4 μm images to model the starlight, and the other one using a simple scaling and subtraction of the 3.4 μm images to estimate the stellar continuum contribution to the emission in the 12 and 22 μm bands. Results: The two galaxies differ markedly in their mid-IR properties. The 3.4 μm brightness distribution can be well represented by the superposition of two Sérsic models in NGC 1316 and by a Sérsic model and an exponential disk in NGC 612. The WISE colors of NGC 1316 are typical of those of early-type galaxies; those of NGC 612 are in the range found for star-forming galaxies. From the 22 μm luminosity, we infer a star-formation rate of ~0.7 M⊙ yr-1 in NGC 1316 and ~7 M⊙ yr-1 in NGC 612. Spitzer spectroscopy shows that the 7.7-to-11.3 μm PAH line ratio is significantly lower in NGC 1316 than in NGC 612. The WISE images reveal resolved emission from dust in the central 1'-2' of the galaxies. In NGC 1316, the extra-nuclear emission coincides with two dusty regions NW and SE of the nucleus seen in extinction in optical images and where molecular gas is known to reside

  8. Cepheid Variables in the Maser-Host Galaxy NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2015-01-01

    We present results of a ground-based survey for Cepheid variables in NGC 4258. This galaxy plays a key role in the Extragalactic Distance Scale due to its very precise and accurate distance determination via VLBI observations of water masers. We imaged two fields within this galaxy using the Gemini North telescope and GMOS, obtaining 16 epochs of data in the SDSS gri bands over 4 years. We carried out PSF photometry and detected 94 Cepheids with periods between 7 and 127 days, as well as an additional 215 variables which may be Cepheids or Population II pulsators. We used the Cepheid sample to test the absolute calibration of theoretical gri Period-Luminosity relations and found good agreement with the maser distance to this galaxy. The expected data products from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should enable Cepheid searches out to at least 10 Mpc.

  9. Reverberation mapping of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. M.; Grier, C. J.; Pogge, R. W.; De Rosa, G.; Denney, K. D.; Martini, Paul; Zu, Y.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shappee, B.; Araya Salvo, C.; Beatty, T. G.; Bird, J. C. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Horne, Keith [SUPA Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Astronomy Offices, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Sergeev, S. G.; Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Kaspi, S. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel); Minezaki, T. [Institute of Astronomy, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 2-21-1, Osawa, Mitaka, 181-0015 Tokyo (Japan); Siverd, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, 6301 Stevenson Center, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Bord, D. J., E-mail: peterson.12@osu.edu [Department of Natural Sciences, The University of Michigan—Dearborn, 4901 Evergreen Road, Dearborn, MI 48128 (United States); and others

    2014-11-10

    A large reverberation-mapping study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 7469 has yielded emission-line lags for Hβ λ4861 and He II λ4686 and a central black hole mass measurement M {sub BH} ≈ 1 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, consistent with previous measurements. A very low level of variability during the monitoring campaign precluded meeting our original goal of recovering velocity-delay maps from the data, but with the new Hβ measurement, NGC 7469 is no longer an outlier in the relationship between the size of the Hβ-emitting broad-line region and the luminosity of the active galactic nucleus. It was necessary to detrend the continuum and Hβ and He II λ4686 line light curves and those from archival UV data for different time-series analysis methods to yield consistent results.

  10. The ionized gas in the CALIFA early-type galaxies I. Mapping two representative cases: NGC 6762 and NGC 5966

    CERN Document Server

    Kehrig, C; Papaderos, P; Vilchez, J M; Gomes, J M; Masegosa, J; Sanchez, S F; Lehnert, M D; Fernandes, R Cid; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Bomans, D J; Marquez, I; Mast, D; Aguerri, J A L; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Marino, R A; Pasquali, A; Perez, I; Roth, M M; Sanchez-Blazquez, P; Ziegler, B

    2012-01-01

    As part of the CALIFA survey, we conducted a thorough 2D analysis of the ionized gas in two E/S0 galaxies, NGC6762 and NGC5966, aiming to shed light on the nature of their warm ionized ISM. We present optical IFS obtained with the PMAS/PPAK spectrophotometer. To recover the nebular lines, we subtracted the underlying stellar continuum from the observed spectra using the STARLIGHT code. In NGC6762, the ionized gas and stellar emission display similar morphologies, while the emission line morphology is elongated in NGC5966, spanning ~6 kpc, and is oriented roughly orthogonal to the major axis of the stellar continuum ellipsoid. Whereas gas and stars are kinematically aligned in NGC6762, the gas is kinematically decoupled from the stars in NGC5966. A decoupled rotating disk or an ionization cone are two possible interpretations of the elongated ionized gas structure in NGC5966. The latter would be the first ionization cone of such a dimension detected within a weak emission-line galaxy. Both galaxies have weak e...

  11. Local Group Dwarf Elliptical Galaxies: II. Stellar Kinematics to Large Radii in NGC 147 and NGC 185

    CERN Document Server

    Geha, M; Guhathakurta, P; Gilbert, K M; Kalirai, J; Kirby, E N

    2009-01-01

    We present kinematic and metallicity profiles for the M31 dwarf elliptical (dE) satellite galaxies NGC 147 and NGC 185. The profiles represent the most extensive spectroscopic radial coverage for any dE galaxy, extending to a projected distance of eight half-light radii (8 r_eff = 14'). We achieve this coverage via Keck/DEIMOS multislit spectroscopic observations of 520 and 442 member red giant branch stars in NGC 147 and NGC 185, respectively. Contrary to previous studies, we find that both dEs have significant internal rotation. We measure a maximum rotational velocity of 17+/-2 km/s for NGC 147 and 15+/-5 km/s for NGC 185. The velocity dispersions decrease gently with radius with an average dispersion of 16+/-1 km/s for NGC 147 and 24+/-1 km/s for NGC 185. Both dEs have internal metallicity dispersions of 0.5 dex, but show no evidence for a radial metallicity gradient. We construct two-integral axisymmetric dynamical models and find that the observed kinematical profiles cannot be explained without modest ...

  12. Molecular Gas Kinematics and Line Diagnostics in Early-type Galaxies: NGC4710 and NGC5866

    CERN Document Server

    Topal, Selcuk; Davis, Timothy A; Krips, Melanie; Young, Lisa M; Crocker, Alison F

    2016-01-01

    We present interferometric observations of CO lines (12CO(1-0, 2-1) and 13CO(1-0, 2-1)) and dense gas tracers (HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), HNC(1-0) and HNCO(4-3)) in two nearby edge-on barred lenticular galaxies, NGC 4710 and NGC 5866, with most of the gas concentrated in a nuclear disc and an inner ring in each galaxy. We probe the physical conditions of a two-component molecular interstellar medium in each galaxy and each kinematic component by using molecular line ratio diagnostics in three complementary ways. First, we measure the ratios of the position-velocity diagrams of different lines, second we measure the ratios of each kinematic component's integrated line intensities as a function of projected position, and third we model these line ratios using a non-local thermodynamic equilibrium radiative transfer code. Overall, the nuclear discs appear to have a tenuous molecular gas component that is hotter, optically thinner and with a larger dense gas fraction than that in the inner rings, suggesting more dense ...

  13. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m ∼–6 M☉ yr–1 kpc–2). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  14. Testing MOND gravity in the shell galaxy NGC 3923

    OpenAIRE

    Bilek, Michal; Jungwiert, Bruno; Jilkova, Lucie; Ebrova, Ivana; Bartoskova, Katerina; Krizek, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is surrounded by numerous stellar shells that are concentric arcs centered on the galactic core. They are very likely a result of a minor merger and they consist of stars in nearly radial orbits. For a given potential, the shell radii at a given time after the merger can be calculated and compared to observations. The Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) is a theory that aims to solve the missing mass problem by modifying the laws of classical dynamics in...

  15. Stellar counter-rotation in lenticular galaxy NGC 448

    CERN Document Server

    Katkov, Ivan Yu; Chilingarian, Igor V; Uklein, Roman I; Egorov, Oleg V

    2016-01-01

    The counter-rotation phenomenon in disc galaxies directly indicates a complex galaxy assembly history which is crucial for our understanding of galaxy physics. Here we present the complex data analysis for a lenticular galaxy NGC 448, which has been recently suspected to host a counter-rotating stellar component. We collected deep long-slit spectroscopic observations using the Russian 6-m telescope and performed the photometric decomposition of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) archival images. We exploited (i) a non-parametric approach in order to recover stellar line-of-sight velocity distributions and (ii) a parametric spectral decomposition technique in order to disentangle stellar population properties of both main and counter-rotating stellar discs. Our spectral decomposition stays in perfect agreement with the photometric analysis. The counter-rotating component contributes $\\approx$30 per cent to the total galaxy light. We estimated its stellar mass to be $9.0^{+2.7}_{-1.8}\\cdot10^{9}M_\\odot$. The radia...

  16. HI power spectrum of the spiral galaxy NGC628

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Prasun; Bharadwaj, Somnath; Chengalur, Jayaram N

    2007-01-01

    We have measured the HI power spectrum of the nearly face-on spiral galaxy NGC628 (M74) using a visibility based estimator. The power spectrum is well fitted by a power law $P(U)=AU^{\\alpha}$, with $\\alpha =- 1.6\\pm0.2$ over the length scale $800 {\\rm pc} {\\rm to} 8 {\\rm kpc}$. The slope is found to be independent of the width of the velocity channel. This value of the slope is a little more than one in excess of what has been seen at considerably smaller length scales in the Milky-Way, Small Magellanic Cloud (LMC), Large Magellanic Cloud (SMC) and the dwarf galaxy DDO210. We interpret this difference as indicating a transition from three dimensional turbulence at small scales to two dimensional turbulence in the plane of the galaxy's disk at length scales larger than galaxy's HI scale height. The slope measured here is similar to that found at large scales in the LMC. Our analysis also places an upper limit to the galaxy's scale height at $800\\ {\\rm pc}$ .

  17. ACA [CI] observations of the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krips, M.; Martín, S.; Sakamoto, K.; Aalto, S.; Bisbas, T. G.; Bolatto, A. D.; Downes, D.; Eckart, A.; Feruglio, Ch.; García-Burillo, S.; Geach, J.; Greve, T. R.; König, S.; Matsushita, S.; Neri, R.; Offner, S.; Peck, A. B.; Viti, S.; Wagg, J.

    2016-07-01

    Context. Carbon monoxide (CO) is widely used as a tracer of the molecular gas in almost all types of environments. However, several shortcomings of CO complicate usaging it as H2 tracer, such as its optical depth effects, the dependence of its abundance on metallicity, or its susceptibility to dissociation in highly irradiated regions. Neutral carbon emission has been proposed to overcome some of these shortcomings and hence to help revealing the limits of CO as a measure of the molecular gas. Aims: We aim to study the general characteristics of the spatially and spectrally resolved carbon line emission in a variety of extragalactic sources and evaluate its potential as complementary H2 tracer to CO. Methods: We used the Atacama Compact Array to map the [CI](3P1-3P0) line emission in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253 at unprecedented angular resolution (~3''). This is the first well-resolved interferometric [CI] map of an extragalactic source. Results: We have detected the [CI] line emission at high significance levels along the central disk of NGC 253 and its edges where expanding shells have previously been found in CO. Globally, the distribution of the [CI] line emission strongly resembles that of CO, confirming the results of previous Galactic surveys that [CI] traces the same molecular gas as CO. However, we also identify a significant increase of [CI] line emission with respect to CO in (some of) the outflow or shocked regions of NGC 253, namely the bipolar outflow emerging from the nucleus. A first-order estimate of the [CI] column densities indicates abundances of [CI] that are very similar to the abundance of CO in NGC 253. Interestingly, we find that the [CI] line is marginally optically thick within the disk. Conclusions: The enhancement of the [CI]/CO line ratios (~0.4-0.6) with respect to Galactic values (≤0.1), especially in the shocked regions of NGC 253, clearly indicates that mechanical perturbation such as shocks and the strong radiation

  18. Gas-phase oxygen abundances and radial metallicity gradients in the two nearby spiral galaxies NGC7793 and NGC4945

    CERN Document Server

    Stanghellini, Letizia; Casasola, Viviana

    2015-01-01

    Gas-phase abundances in HII regions of two spiral galaxies, NGC7793 and NGC4945, have been studied to determine their radial metallicity gradients. We used the strong-line method to derive oxygen abundances from spectra acquired with GMOS-S, the multi-object spectrograph on the 8m- Gemini South telescope. We found that NGC7793 has a well-defined gas-phase radial oxygen gradient of -0.321 $\\pm$ 0.112 dex R$_{\\rm 25}^{-1}$ (or -0.054 $\\pm$ 0.019 dex kpc$^{-1}$) in the galactocentric range 0.17$<$R$_{\\rm G}$/R$_{\\rm 25}$ $<$ 0.82, not dissimilar from gradients calculated with direct abundance methods in galaxies of similar mass and morphology. We also determined a shallow radial oxygen gradient in NGC4945, -0.253 $\\pm$ 0.149 dex R$_{\\rm 25}^{-1}$ (or -0.019 $\\pm$ 0.011 dex kpc$^{-1}$) for 0.04$<$R$_{\\rm G}$/R$_{\\rm 25}$ $<$ 0.51, where the larger relative uncertainty derives mostly from the larger inclination of this galaxy. NGC7793 and NGC4945 have been selected for this study because they are simil...

  19. Globular Cluster Systems in Brightest Cluster Galaxies. II: NGC 6166

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, William E; Whitmore, Bradley C; Gnedin, Oleg Y; Geisler, Douglas; Rothberg, Barry

    2015-01-01

    We present new deep photometry of the globular cluster system (GCS) around NGC 6166, the central supergiant galaxy in Abell 2199. HST data from the ACS and WFC3 cameras in F475W, F814W are used to determine the spatial distribution of the GCS, its metallicity distribution function (MDF), and the dependence of the MDF on galactocentric radius and on GC luminosity. The MDF is extremely broad, with the classic red and blue subpopulations heavily overlapped, but a double-Gaussian model can still formally match the MDF closely. The spatial distribution follows a Sersic-like profile detectably to a projected radius of at least $R_{gc} = 250$ kpc. To that radius, the total number of clusters in the system is N_{GC} = 39000 +- 2000, the global specific frequency is S_N = 11.2 +- 0.6, and 57\\% of the total are blue, metal-poor clusters. The GCS may fade smoothly into the Intra-Cluster Medium of A2199; we see no clear transition from the core of the galaxy to the cD halo or the ICM. The radial distribution, projected e...

  20. Two Pseudobulges in the "Boxy Bulge" Galaxy NGC 5746

    CERN Document Server

    Barentine, John C

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy formation and growth under the {\\Lambda}CDM paradigm is expected to proceed in a hierarchical, bottom-up fashion by which small galaxies grow into large galaxies; this mechanism leaves behind large "classical bulges" kinematically distinct from "pseudobulges" grown by internal, secular processes. We use archival data (Spitzer 3.6 \\mum wavelength, Hubble Space Telescope H-band, Two Micron All Sky Survey Ks-band, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey gri-band) to measure composite minor- and major-axis surface brightness profiles of the almost-edgeon spiral galaxy NGC 5746. These light profiles span a large range of radii and surface brightnesses to reveal an inner, high surface brightness stellar component that is distinct from the well-known boxy bulge. It is well fitted by S\\'ersic functions with indices n = 0.99 \\pm 0.08 and 1.17 \\pm 0.24 along the minor and major axes, respectively. Since n < 2, we conclude that this innermost component is a secularly-evolved pseudobulge that is distinct from the boxy pse...

  1. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC 4214 and Detection of a Distant Galaxy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shweta Srivastava; N. G. Kantharia; D. C. Srivastava

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by GALEX. The galaxy is undergoing continuous star formation which can explain the diffuse emission. We suggest that the diffuse radio continuum emission and X-ray emission detected in the northern part of NGC 4214 is associated with a background galaxy, 2MASX J12153795+3622218.

  2. IUE and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, G. A.; Puchnarewicz, E. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1990-01-01

    Results of International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and Einstein observations of the LINER galaxy NGC 4579 are reported. Spatial profiles of the long wavelength IUE emission show a two component structure, with an unresolved core superimposed on broader underlying emission. The core spectrum shows strong C II lambda 2326 and broad Mg II lambda 2800 emission, and perhaps emission due to blends of Fe II multiplets (2300 to 23600 angstrom). The short wavelength emission is spatially unresolved, and shows C II lambda 1335, C III lambda 1909 broad C IV lambda 1550 emission, and a broad feature at approximately 1360 angstrom which may be due to 0.1 lambda 1356. Contrary to previous reports no evidence for He II lambda 1640 is found in the spectrum. An unresolved x ray source is detected at the location of the nucleus; its spectrum is well fitted by a power law of energy slope alpha approximately -0.5. These results further support the idea that NGC 4579 may contain a dwarf Seyfert nucleus.

  3. Physical Conditions in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 2992

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, M G; Tsvetanov, Z I; Sutherland, R S; Allen, Mark G.; Dopita, Michael A.; Tsvetanov, Zlatan I.; Sutherland, Ralph S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents long slit spectral maps of the bi-cone shaped extended narrow line region (ENLR) in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992. We investigate the physical properties of the ENLR via emission line diagnostics, and compare the observations to shock and photoionization models for the excitation mechanism of the gas. The line ratios vary as a function of position in the ENLR, and the loci of the observed points on line ratio diagrams are shown to be most consistent with shock+precursor model grids. We consider the energetics of a nuclear ionizing source for the ENLR, and perform the q-test in which the rate of ionizing photons from the nucleus is inferred from measurements of the density and ionization parameter. The q-test is shown to be invalid in the case of NGC 2992 because of the limitations of the [S II]6717/6731 density diagnostic. The excitation of the gas is shown to be broadly consistent with the kinematics, with higher [N II]6583/H-alpha present in the more dynamically active region. We also show...

  4. Dynamic S0 Galaxies: a Case Study of NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao; Li, Zhiyuan; Chen, Yang

    2009-01-01

    S0 galaxies are often thought to be passively evolved from spirals after star formation is quenched. To explore what is occurring in S0s, we present a multi-wavelength study of NGC5866--an isolated nearby edge-on S0. This study shows strong evidence for dynamic activities in the interstellar medium, which are most likely driven by supernova explosions in the galactic disk and bulge. We utilize Chandra, HST, and Spitzer data as well as ground-based observations to characterize the content, structure, and physical state of the medium and its interplay with stars in NGC5866. A cold gas disk is detected with an exponential scale height of 100pc. Numerous off-disk dusty spurs are clearly present: prominent ones can extend as far as 300pc from the galactic plane and are probably produced by individual SNe, whereas faint filaments can have ~ kpc scale and are likely produced by SNe collectively in disk/bulge. We also detect substantial amounts of diffuse Ha- and Pa-emitting gas with a comparable scale height as the ...

  5. Structure of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Kellermann, K.I.; Pauliny-Toth, I.I.K.; Kostenko, V.I.; Moiseev, I.G.; Kogan, L.R.; Witzel, A.; Roennaeng, B.O.; Shaffer, D.B.; Preuss, E.

    1980-01-01

    The nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been surveyed at 1.35-cm wavelength with the Haystack--Green Bank--Effelsberg--Onsala--Crimea radio-interferometer network. Its structure comprises eastern and western systems of features, separated by 0.7 pc. The eastern system has a core embedded in an absorbing medium whose electron density depends on distance L as N/sub e/approx. =4 x 10/sup 45/ L/sup -2.3plus-or-minus0.5/. The compact components, which measure approx. =0''.0001 across, have a magnetic field strength Happrox. =0.3 gauss. All fine-structure components maintain stable positions, but their brightness is variable. The radio brightness distribution is probably governed by the magnetic field structure.

  6. The elusive radio loud Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110

    CERN Document Server

    Beckmann, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The AGN NGC 2110 presents a peculiar case among the Seyfert 2 galaxies, as it displays also features of radio-loud objects and is classified as FR-I radio galaxy. Here we analyse simultaneous INTEGRAL and Swift data taken in 2008 and 2009. We reconstruct the spectral energy distribution in order to provide further insight. The combined X-ray spectrum is well represented by an absorbed cut-off power law model plus soft excess. Combining all available data, the spectrum appears flat (photon index 1.25 \\pm 0.04) with the high-energy cut-off being at 82 \\pm 9 keV. The intrinsic absorption is moderate (NH = 4E22 1/cm**2), the iron K-alpha line is weak (EW = 114 eV), and no reflection component is detected in the INTEGRAL spectrum. The data indicate that the X-ray spectrum is moderately variable both in flux and spectral shape. The 2008 spectrum is slightly steeper (photon index 1.5, Ec = 90 keV) with the source being brighter, and flatter in 2009 (photon index 1.4, Ec = 120 keV) in the lower flux state. The spectr...

  7. Dense Gas Fraction and Star Formation Efficiency Variations in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo; Bolatto, Alberto D; da Cunha, Elisabete; Rosolowsky, Erik; Sandstrom, Karin; Usero, Antonio; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We use the CARMA millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the 12CO(1-0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and HNC(1-0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified "supergiant molecular clouds". We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (SFR/H2~IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of 6 within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in mm-wave line emission, whil...

  8. Spectroscopy of globular clusters in the low-luminosity spiral galaxy NGC 45

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mora, M.D.; Larsen, S.S.; Kissler-Patig, M.

    2008-01-01

    Context. Extragalactic globular clusters have been studied in elliptical galaxies and in a few luminous spiral galaxies, but little is known about globular clusters in low-luminosity spirals. Aims. Past observations with the ACS have shown that NGC 45 hosts a large population of globular clusters (1

  9. THE DYNAMICS AND STRUCTURE OF THE S0 GALAXY NGC-7332

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FISHER, D; ILLINGWORTH, G; FRANX, M

    1994-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric observations of the edge-on SO galaxy NGC 7332 are presented. The spectra show the galaxy to possess a rapidly counter-rotating extended gas disk as detected from both [O III] 5007 angstrom and Halpha emission. Multiple slit orientations at a variety of position angles

  10. NGC 4656UV: A UV-SELECTED TIDAL DWARF GALAXY CANDIDATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the discovery of a UV-bright tidal dwarf galaxy (TDG) candidate in the NGC 4631/4656 galaxy group, which we designate NGC 4656UV. Using survey and archival data spanning from 1.4 GHz to the ultraviolet, we investigate the gas kinematics and stellar properties of this system. The H I morphologies of NGC 4656UV and its parent galaxy NGC 4656 are extremely disturbed, with significant amounts of counterrotating and extraplanar gas. From UV-FIR photometry, computed using a new method to correct for surface gradients on faint objects, we find that NGC 4656UV has no significant dust opacity and a blue spectral energy distribution. We compute a star formation rate of 0.027 M☉ yr–1 from the far-ultraviolet flux and measure a total H I mass of 3.8 × 108 M☉ for the object. Evolutionary synthesis modeling indicates that NGC 4656UV is a low-metallicity system whose only major burst of star formation occurred within the last ∼260-290 Myr. The age of the stellar population is consistent with a rough timescale for a recent tidal interaction between NGC 4656 and NGC 4631, although we discuss the true nature of the object—whether it is tidal or pre-existing in origin—in the context of its metallicity being a factor of 10 lower than its parent galaxy. We estimate that NGC 4656UV is either marginally bound or unbound. If bound, it contains relatively low amounts of dark matter. The abundance of archival data allows for a deeper investigation into this dynamic system than is currently possible for most TDG candidates.

  11. Submillimeter H$_2$O megamasers in NGC 4945 and the Circinus galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Pesce, D W; Impellizzeri, C M V

    2016-01-01

    We present 321 GHz observations of five AGN from ALMA Cycle 0 archival data: NGC 5793, NGC 1068, NGC 1386, NGC 4945, and the Circinus galaxy. Submillimeter maser emission is detected for the first time towards NGC 4945, and we present a new analysis of the submillimeter maser system in Circinus. None of the other three galaxies show maser emission, though we have detected and imaged the continuum from every galaxy. Both NGC 4945 and Circinus are known to host strong ($\\gtrsim 10$ Jy) 22 GHz megamaser emission, and VLBI observations have shown that the masers reside in the innermost $\\sim 1$ parsec of the galaxies. The peak flux densities of the 321 GHz masers in both systems are substantially weaker (by a factor of $\\sim$100) than what is observed at 22 GHz, though the corresponding isotropic luminosities are more closely matched (within a factor of $\\sim$10) between the two transitions. We compare the structure of the submillimeter spectra presented here to the known 22 GHz spectra, and we argue that in both...

  12. The Isolated Elliptical NGC 1132 Evidence For a Merged Group of Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Mulchaey, J S; Mulchaey, John S.; Zabludoff, Ann I.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical simulations predict that some poor groups of galaxies have merged by the present epoch into giant ellipticals (cf. Barnes 1989). To identify the possible remnants of such mergers, we have compiled a sample of nearby, isolated ellipticals (Colbert, Mulchaey, & Zabludoff 1998). ASCA observations of the first galaxy studied, NGC 1132 reveal an X-ray halo that extends out to at least 250 kpc. The temperature, metallicity and luminosity of NGC 1132's X-ray halo are comparable to those of poor group halos. The total mass inferred from the X-ray emission is also like that of an X-ray detected group. Optical imaging uncovers a dwarf galaxy population clustered about NGC 1132 that is consistent in number density and in projected radial distribution with that of an X-ray group. The similarities of NGC 1132 to poor groups in both the X-ray band and at the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function, combined with the deficit of luminous galaxies in the NGC 1132 field, are compatible with the merged group p...

  13. Hierarchical Star Formation across the ring galaxy NGC 6503

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Calzetti, Daniela; Lee, Janice C; Adamo, Angela; Aloisi, Alessandra; Cignoni, Michele; Cook, David O; Dale, Daniel; Gallagher, John S; Grasha, Kathryn; Grebel, Eva K; Davo, Artemio Herrero; Hunter, Deidre A; Johnson, Kelsey E; Kim, Hwihyun; Nair, Preethi; Nota, Antonella; Pellerin, Anne; Ryon, Jenna; Sabbi, Elena; Sacchi, Elena; Smith, Linda J; Tosi, Monica; Ubeda, Leonardo; Whitmore, Brad

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed clustering analysis of the young stellar population across the star-forming ring galaxy NGC 6503, based on the deep HST photometry obtained with the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS). We apply a contour-based map analysis technique and identify in the stellar surface density map 244 distinct star-forming structures at various levels of significance. These stellar complexes are found to be organized in a hierarchical fashion with 95% being members of three dominant super-structures located along the star-forming ring. The size distribution of the identified structures and the correlation between their radii and numbers of stellar members show power-law behaviors, as expected from scale-free processes. The self-similar distribution of young stars is further quantified from their autocorrelation function, with a fractal dimension of ~1.7 for length-scales between ~20 pc and 2.5 kpc. The young stellar radial distribution sets the extent of the star-forming ring at radial distances betwe...

  14. Deep Fabry-Perot Hα observations of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Marcelin, M.; Epinat, B.; Carignan, C.; de Denus-Baillargeon, M.-M.; Daigle, O.; Hernandez, O.

    2011-09-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse ionized gas can extend all the way to the end of the H I disc, and even beyond, such as in the case of the warped galaxyNGC 253 (Bland-Hawthorn et al.). Detecting ionized gas at these radii could carry significant implications as to the distribution of dark matter in galaxies. With the aim of detecting this gas, we carried out a deep Hα kinematical analysis of two Sculptor group galaxies, NGC 247 and 300. The Fabry-Perot data were taken at the 36-cm Marseille Telescope in La Silla, Chile, offering a large field of view. With almost 20 hours of observations for each galaxy, very faint diffuse emission is detected. Typical emission measures of 0.1 cm-6 pc are reached. For NGC 247, emission extending up to a radius comparable with that of the H I disc (r˜ 13 arcmin) is found, but no emission is seen beyond the H I disc. For NGC 300, we detect ionized gas on the entirety of our field of view (rmax˜ 14 arcmin), and find that the bright H II regions are embedded in a diffuse background. Using the deep data, extended optical rotation curves are obtained, as well as mass models. These are the most extended optical rotation curves thus far for these galaxies. We find no evidence suggesting that NGC 247 has a warped disc, and to account for our non-detection of Hα emission beyond its H I disc, as opposed to the warped galaxy NGC 253, our results favour the model in which, only through a warp, ionization by hot young stars in the central region of a galaxy can let photons escape and ionize the interstellar medium in the outer parts.

  15. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. XI. THE REMARKABLY UNDISTURBED NGC 2403 DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail: ben@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: jd@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: adrienne@astro.washington.edu, E-mail: dolphin@raytheon.com, E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  16. The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, N. F.; Weijmans, A.; Bosch, R. C. E. van den; L. Zhu; Yildirim, A.; van de Ven, G.; Cappellari, M.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; Naab, T.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998 with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph and extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions out to three half-light radii. We constructed collisionless orbit models in order to constrain NGC 3998's dark and visible structure, using kinematics from both the Mitchell and SAURON instruments. We find NGC 3998 to be almost axisymmetric, seen nearly face-on with a flattened intrinsic shape – i.e. a face-on fast rotator. We find an I-band mass-to-light...

  17. The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998

    OpenAIRE

    Boardman, N. F.; Weijmans, A.; Bosch, R. C. E. van den; Zhu, L.; Yildirim, A.; van de Ven, G.; Cappellari, M.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E; Krajnović, D.; Naab, T.

    2016-01-01

    We observed the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998 with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph and extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions out to 3 half-light radii. We constructed collisionless orbit models in order to constrain NGC 3998's dark and visible structure, using kinematics from both the Mitchell and SAURON instruments. We find NGC 3998 to be almost axisymmetric, seen nearly face on with a flattened intrinsic shape - i.e., a face-on fast-rotator. We find an I-band mass-to-light ra...

  18. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VI. The Ancient Star Forming disk of NGC 404

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. Our deepest field reaches the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ~70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z~2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ~90% formed prior to z~1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on averag...

  19. Multiband imaging observations of a prominent dust lane galaxy NGC 4370

    CERN Document Server

    Patil, M K; Kembhavi, Ajit; Sahu, D K

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present extinction properties of interstellar dust in a prominent dust lane galaxy NGC 4370 based on the optical broad band (BVRI) imaging observations taken from the Himalaya Chandra Telescope (HCT), Hanle and the near-IR (J,H,K$_s$) images taken from the 2MASS archive. NGC 4370 belongs to the Virgo cluster (VCC 0758) and form a non-interactive pair with NGC 4365 at 10$\\arcmin$. NGC 4370 hosts a prominent dust lane running parallel to its optical major axis and is extended almost up to 1\\arcmin. The extinction curve derived for NGC 4370 is found to run parallel to Galactic extinction curve, implying that the properties of dust in NGC 4370 are identical to those of the canonical grains in the Milky Way. The $R_V$ value is found to be equal to 2.85$\\pm$0.05 and is consitent with the values reported for the dust lane galaxies. The total dust content of NGC 4370 estimated using optical extinction and IRAS flux densities are found to be equal to $4.4\\times 10^4$ \\msol and $2.0\\times 10^5$ \\msol, ...

  20. Model of Outgrowths in the Spiral Galaxies NGC 4921 and NGC 7049 and the Origin of Spiral Arms

    CERN Document Server

    Carlqvist, Per

    2012-01-01

    NGC 4921 and 7049 are two spiral galaxies presenting narrow, distinct dust features. A detailed study of the morphology of those features has been carried out using Hubble Space Telescope archival images. NGC 4921 shows a few but well-defined dust arms midway to its centre while NGC 7049 displays many more dusty features, mainly collected within a ring-shaped formation. Numerous dark and filamentary structures, called outgrowths, are found to protrude from the dusty arms in both galaxies. The outgrowths point both outwards and inwards in the galaxies. Mostly they are found to be V-shaped or Y-shaped with the branches connected to dark arm filaments. Often the stem of the Y appears to consist of intertwined filaments. Remarkably, the outgrowths show considerable similarities to elephant trunks in H II regions. A model of the outgrowths, based on magnetized filaments, is proposed. The model provides explanations of both the shapes and orientations of the outgrowths. Most important, it can also give an account f...

  1. Star Formation Rates in Resolved Galaxies: Calibrations with Near and Far Infrared Data for NGC5055 and NGC6946

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yiming; Calzetti, Daniela; Wilson, Christine D; Kennicutt, Robert C; Murphy, Eric J; Brandl, Bernhard R; Draine, B T; Galametz, M; Johnson, B D; Armus, L; Gordon, K D; Croxall, K; Dale, D A; Engelbracht, C W; Groves, B; Hao, C -N; Helou, G; Hinz, J; Hunt, L K; Krause, O; Roussel, H; Sauvage, M; Smith, J D T

    2013-01-01

    We use the near--infrared Br\\gamma hydrogen recombination line as a reference star formation rate (SFR) indicator to test the validity and establish the calibration of the {\\it Herschel} PACS 70 \\mu m emission as a SFR tracer for sub--galactic regions in external galaxies. Br\\gamma offers the double advantage of directly tracing ionizing photons and of being relatively insensitive to the effects of dust attenuation. For our first experiment, we use archival CFHT Br\\gamma and Ks images of two nearby galaxies: NGC\\,5055 and NGC\\,6946, which are also part of the {\\it Herschel} program KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel). We use the extinction corrected Br\\gamma emission to derive the SFR(70) calibration for H{\\sc ii} regions in these two galaxies. A comparison of the SFR(70) calibrations at different spatial scales, from 200 pc to the size of the whole galaxy, reveals that about 50% of the total 70\\mu m emission is due to dust heated by stellar populations that are unr...

  2. NGC 5011C: An Overlooked Dwarf Galaxy in the Centaurus A Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviane, Ivo; Jerjen, Helmut

    2007-04-01

    A critical study of the properties of groups of galaxies can be done only once a complete census of group members is available. Despite extensive surveys, even nearby groups can lead to surprises. Indeed, we report the discovery of a previously unnoticed member of the Centaurus A Group, NGC 5011C. While the galaxy is a well-known stellar system listed with a NGC number, its true identity has remained hidden because of coordinate confusion and wrong redshifts in the literature. NGC 5011C attracted our attention since, at a putative distance of 45.3 Mpc, it would be a peculiar object with a very low surface brightness typical of a dwarf galaxy and, at the same time, a size typical of an early-type spiral or S0 galaxy. To confirm or reject this peculiarity, our immediate objective was to have the first reliable measurement of its recession velocity. The observations were carried out with EFOSC2 at the 3.6 m European Southern Observatory (ESO) telescope, and the spectra were obtained with the instrument in long-slit mode. The redshifts of both NGC 5011C and its neighbor NGC 5011B were computed by cross-correlating their spectra with that of a radial velocity standard star. We found that NGC 5011C indeed has a low redshift of vodot = 647 ± 96 km s-1 and thus is a nearby dwarf galaxy rather than a member of the distant Centaurus cluster, as believed for the past 23 years. Rough distance estimates based on photometric parameters also favor this scenario. As a by-product of our study we update the redshift for NGC 5011B to vodot = 3227 ± 50 km s-1. Applying population synthesis techniques, we find that NGC 5011B has a luminosity-weighted age of 4 ± 1 Gyr and a solar metallicity, and that the luminosity-weighted age and metallicity of NGC 5011C are 0.9 ± 0.1 Gyr and 1/5 solar. Finally, we estimate a stellar mass of NGC 5011C comparable to that of dwarf spheroidal galaxies in the Local Group. Based on observations made with European Southern Observatory telescopes at the

  3. Globular Clusters and Spur Clusters in NGC 4921, the Brightest Spiral Galaxy in the Coma Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Myung Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    We resolve a significant fraction of globular clusters (GCs) in NGC 4921, the brightest spiral galaxy in Coma. Also we find a number of extended bright star clusters (star complexes) in the spur region of the arms. The latter are much brighter and bluer than those in the normal star-forming region, being as massive as 3x10^5 M_odot. The color distribution of the GCs in this galaxy is found to be bimodal. The turnover magnitudes of the luminosity functions (LF) of the blue (metal-poor) GCs (0.70<(V-I)<1.05) in the halo are estimated to be V(max) =27.11+-0.09 mag and I(max)=26.21+-0.11 mag. We obtain similar values for NGC 4923, a companion S0 galaxy, and two Coma cD galaxies (NGC 4874 and NGC 4889). The mean value for the turnover magnitudes of these four galaxies is I(max)=26.25+-0.03 mag. Adopting M_I (max) = -8.56+-0.09 mag for the metal-poor GCs, we determine the mean distance to the four Coma galaxies, 91+-4 Mpc. Combining this and the Coma radial velocity, we derive a value of the Hubble constant, ...

  4. Discovery of a stellar tidal stream around the Whale galaxy, NGC 4631

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Chonis, Taylor S; Beaton, Rachael L; Teuwen, Karel; GaBany, R Jay; Grebel, Eva K; Morales, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of a giant stellar tidal stream in the halo of NGC 4631, a nearby edge-on spiral galaxy interacting with the spiral NGC 4656, in deep images taken with a 40-cm aperture robotic telescope. The stream has two components: a bridge-like feature extended between NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 (stream_SE) and an overdensity with extended features on the opposite side of the NGC 4631 disk (stream_NW). Together, these features extend more than 85 kpc and display a clear (g-r) colour gradient. The orientation of stream_SE relative to the orientations of NGC 4631 and NGC 4656 is not consistent with an origin from interaction between these two spirals, and is more likely debris from a satellite encounter. The stellar tidal features can be qualitatively reproduced in an N-body model of the tidal disruption of a single, massive dwarf satellite on a moderately eccentric orbit (e=0.6) around NGC 4631 over $\\sim$ 3.5 Gyr, with a dynamical mass ratio (m1:m2) of ~40. Both modelling and inferences from the morpho...

  5. The Arecibo Galaxy Environments survey IV: the NGC7448 region and the HI mass function

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, J I; Burns, L; Minchin, R; Momjian, E; Schneider, S; Smith, M; Taylor, R; van Driel, W

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we describe results from the Arecibo Galaxy Environments Survey (AGES). The survey reaches column densities of ~3x10^18 cm^-2 and masses of ~10^7 M_O, over individual regions of order 10 sq deg in size, out to a maximum velocity of 18,000 km s^-1. Each surveyed region is centred on a nearby galaxy, group or cluster, in this instance the NGC7448 group. Galaxy interactions in the NGC7448 group reveal themselves through the identification of tidal tails and bridges. We find ~2.5 times more atomic gas in the inter-galactic medium than in the group galaxies. We identify five new dwarf galaxies, two of which appear to be members of the NGC7448 group. This is too few, by roughly an order of magnitude, dwarf galaxies to reconcile observation with theoretical predictions of galaxy formation models. If they had observed this region of sky previous wide area blind HI surveys, HIPASS and ALFALFA, would have detected only 5% and 43% respectively of the galaxies we detect, missing a large fraction of the atom...

  6. Soft X-ray Emission from the Spiral Galaxy NGC 1313

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Petre, R.; Schlegel, E. M.; Ryder, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    The nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1313 has been observed with the PSPC instr- ument on board the ROSAT X-ray satellite. Ten individual sources are found. Three sources (X-1, X-2 and X-3 [SN~1978K]) are very bright (~10^40 erg/s) and are unusual in that analogous objects do not exist in our Galaxy. We present an X-ray image of NGC~1313 and \\xray spectra for the three bright sources. The emission from the nuclear region (R ~< 2 kpc) is dominated by source X-1, which is located ~1 kpc north of...

  7. The isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5426/27 (Arp 271)

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes-Carrera, I; Amram, P; Dultzin-Hacyan, D; Cruz-Gonzalez, I; Salo, H; Laurikainen, E; Bernal, A; Ambrocio-Cruz, P; Le Coarer, E

    2003-01-01

    We present H alpha observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5426/27 using the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer PUMA. The velocity field, various kinematical parameters and rotation curve for each galaxy were derived. The FWHM map and the residual velocities map were also computed to study the role of non-circular motions of the gas. Most of these motions can be associated with the presence of spiral arms and structure such as central bars. We found a small bar-like structure in NGC 5426, a distorted velocity field for NGC 5427 and a bridge-like feature between both galaxies which seems to be associated with NGC 5426. Using the observed rotation curves, a range of possible masses was computed for each galaxy. These were compared with the orbital mass of the pair derived from the relative motion of the participants. The rotation curve of each galaxy was also used to fit different mass distribution models considering the most common theoretical dark halo models. An analysis of the interaction ...

  8. CO Observations of the Interacting Galaxy Pair NGC 5394/95

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufman, M J; Struck, C; Elmegreen, B G; Thomasson, M; Elmegreen, D M; Brinks, E; Kaufman, Michele; Sheth, Kartik; Struck, Curtis; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Thomasson, Magnus; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Brinks, Elias

    2001-01-01

    BIMA CO 1-0 observations are presented of the spiral galaxies NGC 5394 and NGC 5395 that have undergone a recent, grazing encounter. In NGC 5394, 80% of the CO emission detected by BIMA is concentrated in the central 800 pc (FWHM) starburst region.In an encounter simulation that reproduces some of the main features of this galaxy pair, a considerable amount of gas in NGC 5394 falls into the central region early in the collision. The observed total gas distribution in the disk of NGC 5394 is lopsided, with more HI, CO, and H-alpha emission coming from the western or southwestern side. The innermost western arm of NGC 5394 is seen in CO and H-alpha emission, but the eastern inner-disk arm, which is very bright in the optical continuum, is not detected in CO or H-alpha emission. From a comparison of the radio continuum, H-alpha, 60 micron, and CO luminosities, we estimate that the average visual extinction of the starburst is 3 - 4 mag and the conversion factor N(H2)/I(CO) in the starburst is a factor of 3 - 4 b...

  9. The ALMA view of the Antennae galaxy collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Cinthya N.; Boulanger, Francois; Falgarone, Edith G.; Pineau des Forets, Guillaume; Garcia-Burillo, Santiago; Iono, Daisuke; Guillard, Pierre

    2015-08-01

    The Antennae galaxies are a spectacular example of a burst of star formation triggered by the encounter of two galaxies, being an ideal source to understand how the dynamics of galaxy mergers trigger the star formation. Most of the newly formed stars are observed in massive clusters, potentially the progenitors of globular clusters. In the Antennae, their formation must involve a complex interplay of merger-driven gas dynamics, turbulence fed by galaxy interaction and dissipation of the gas kinetic energy.We will present archive ALMA CO(3-2) and new 13CO(2-1) and C18O(2-1) Cycle 2 observations, at 50 pc resolution, and VLT near-IR H2 spectro-imaging observations. We will show an analysis of the excitation of the CO gas in the region where the two galaxies collide, and demonstrate that most of the H2 emission associated with this gas is shock-excited. We will focus on a compact, bright H2 source, associated with cold molecular gas and dust continuum emission, located where the velocity gradient in the interaction region is observed to be the largest. The characteristics of this source suggest that we are witnessing the formation, initiated by turbulent dissipation, of a cloud massive enough to form a super star cluster within 1 Myr.

  10. ISO observations of Hickson Compact Group 31 with the central Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 1741

    CERN Document Server

    O'Halloran, B; McBreen, B; Laureijs, R J; Leech, K; Delaney, M; Watson, D; Hanlon, L O

    2002-01-01

    Hickson Compact Group (HCG) 31, consisting of the Wolf-Rayet galaxy NGC 1741 and its irregular dwarf companions, was observed using the Infrared Space Observatory. The deconvolved ISOCAM maps of the galaxies using the 7.7 micron and 14.3 micron (LW6 and LW3) filters are presented, along with ISOPHOT spectrometry of the central starburst region of NGC 1741 and the nucleus of galaxy HCG 31A. Strong mid-IR emission was detected from the central burst in NGC 1741, along with strong PAH features and a blend of features including [S IV] at 10.5 micron. The 14.3/6.75 micron flux ratio, where the 6.75 micron flux was synthesized from the PHT-S spectrum, and 14.3/7.7 micron flux ratios suggest that the central burst within NGC 1741 may be moving towards the post-starburst phase. Diagnostic tools including the ratio of the integrated PAH luminosity to the 40 to 120 micron infrared luminosity and the far-infrared colours reveal that despite the high surface brightness of the nucleus, the properties of NGC 1741 can be ex...

  11. STAR FORMATION RATES IN RESOLVED GALAXIES: CALIBRATIONS WITH NEAR- AND FAR-INFRARED DATA FOR NGC 5055 AND NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yiming; Crocker, Alison F.; Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Wilson, Christine D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Kennicutt, Robert C.; Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Murphy, Eric J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Brandl, Bernhard R.; Groves, B. [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Draine, B. T. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Johnson, B. D. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gordon, K. D. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Croxall, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Dale, D. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Engelbracht, C. W.; Hinz, J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Hao, C.-N. [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Helou, G. [NASA Herschel Science Center, IPAC, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hunt, L. K., E-mail: yimingl@astro.umass.edu [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); and others

    2013-05-10

    We use the near-infrared Br{gamma} hydrogen recombination line as a reference star formation rate (SFR) indicator to test the validity and establish the calibration of the Herschel/PACS 70 {mu}m emission as a SFR tracer for sub-galactic regions in external galaxies. Br{gamma} offers the double advantage of directly tracing ionizing photons and of being relatively insensitive to the effects of dust attenuation. For our first experiment, we use archival Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Br{gamma} and Ks images of two nearby galaxies: NGC 5055 and NGC 6946, which are also part of the Herschel program KINGFISH (Key Insights on Nearby Galaxies: a Far-Infrared Survey with Herschel). We use the extinction corrected Br{gamma} emission to derive the SFR(70) calibration for H II regions in these two galaxies. A comparison of the SFR(70) calibrations at different spatial scales, from 200 pc to the size of the whole galaxy, reveals that about 50% of the total 70 {mu}m emission is due to dust heated by stellar populations that are unrelated to the current star formation. We use a simple model to qualitatively relate the increase of the SFR(70) calibration coefficient with decreasing region size to the star formation timescale. We provide a calibration for an unbiased SFR indicator that combines the observed H{alpha} with the 70 {mu}m emission, also for use in H II regions. We briefly analyze the PACS 100 and 160 {mu}m maps and find that longer wavelengths are not as good SFR indicators as 70 {mu}m, in agreement with previous results. We find that the calibrations show about 50% difference between the two galaxies, possibly due to effects of inclination.

  12. Far-infrared counterpart to the optical and H I plume in the Leo triplet of galaxies - NGC 3623, NGC 3627, and NGC 3628

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the IR emission in the Leo triplet of interacting galaxies is presented. A new background subtraction routine is applied to IRAS-calibrated raw detector data covering a 4 sq deg field centered on the triplet of galaxies. The discovery of an extragalactic IR counterpart is reported at 60 and 100 microns to the previously known optical and H I tidal plume associated with NGC 3628. The IR plume has a ratio I(100 microns)/N(H) of 7 + or - 4 x 10 to the -15th Jy/sr per H I atoms per sq cm, in striking agreement with Galactic cirrus clouds, and a dust-to-gas ratio of 3.3 x 10 to the -5th. These values are consistent with the tidal model of the plume formation. The IR plume also exhibits a gradient of decreasing temperature along the plume away from NGC 3628 which can be explained by a dilution of the stellar optical and UV radiation field. In addition to the Leo triplet galaxies, almost all background late-type galaxies in the field were detected. 32 refs

  13. Dark mammoth trunks in the merging galaxy NGC 1316 and a mechanism of cosmic double helices

    OpenAIRE

    Carlqvist, Per

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1316 is a giant, elliptical galaxy containing a complex network of dark, dust features. The morphology of these features has been examined in some detail using a Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys image. It is found that most of the features are constituted of long filaments. There also exist a great number of dark structures protruding inwards from the filaments. Many of these structures are strikingly similar to elephant trunks in H II regions in the Milky Way Galaxy, a...

  14. Charge-exchange emission in the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC3256

    CERN Document Server

    Ranalli, Piero

    2012-01-01

    Charge-exchange (CE) emission produces features which are detectable with the current X-ray instrumentation in the brightest near galaxies. We describe these aspects in the observed X-ray spectra of the star forming galaxies M82 and NGC 3256, from the Suzaku and XMM-Newton telescopes. Emission from both ions (O, C) and neutrals (Mg, Si) is recognised. We also describe how microcalorimeter instrumentation on future missions will improve CE observations.

  15. UBVRI simultaneous observations of the nucleus of Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 in 1993-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. I.

    2002-05-01

    An ongoing program on photometric and spectral monitoring of some bright Seyfert galaxies has been carried out at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory since 1989. Results of photometric observations of NGC 5548 obtained with the 1.25 m telescope are reported in this paper; it focuses on the analysis of intranight variations. During 44 observational nights in 1993-1999 in each spectral band of the Johnson UBVRI system, 672 measurements have been performed simultaneously through the round aperture (diameter 15\\arcsec) using differential photometry techniques. The estimated accuracy of each measurement is about 0.01 mag. The peak amplitude R_max = Fmax /Fmin = 2.99 for the whole light curve was observed in the U band, while the minimum amplitude Fmax /Fmin =1.37 occurred in the I band during the full observation period. UBVRI observations and good sampled data of international monitoring campaigns of NGC 5548, were used to calculate Structure Functions. A comparison is made of the characteristics of the long and short time scale variations of NGC 5548 with those of NGC 4151, NGC 7469 and NGC 1275. In order to examine the intranight variations of the nucleus of NGC 5548, standard deviations (SD) of the nightly averaged flux F, and a measure of intranight variability - SD/F were calculated for each night. Using this parameter, a probability characteristics is introduced, and duty cycles (the fraction of time when the galaxy is variable), characterizing the efficiency of the central energy source, were evaluated. It is concluded that intranight variability is really transient in character and manifests itself with different probabilities for different galaxies.

  16. The Total Mass of the Early-Type Galaxy NGC 4649 (M60

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćirković, M. M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of the total mass and the total mass-to-light ratio of the early-type galaxy NGC~4649 (M60 is analyzed. Use is made of two independent techniques: the X-ray methodology which is based on the temperature of the X-ray halo of NGC~4649 and the tracer mass estimator (TME which uses globular clusters (GCs observed in this galaxy. The mass is calculated in Newtonian and MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND approaches and it is found that inside 3 effective radii ($R_e$ there is no need for large amounts of dark matter. Beyond $3R_e$ the dark matter starts to play important dynamical role. The possible reasons for the discrepancy between the estimates of the total mass based on X-rays and TME in the outer regions of NGC~4649 are also discussed.

  17. VERITAS UPPER LIMIT ON THE VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent detection by the Fermi γ-ray space telescope of high-energy γ-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E>100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hr. No VHE γ-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope result.

  18. Dense Gas Fraction and Star-formation Efficiency Variations in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigiel, F.; Leroy, A. K.; Blitz, L.; Bolatto, A. D.; da Cunha, E.; Rosolowsky, E.; Sandstrom, K.; Usero, A.

    2015-12-01

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the 12CO(1-0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and HNC(1-0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified "supergiant molecular clouds." We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H2 ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO+ (1-0) emission is stronger than HCN (1-0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  19. Extranuclear X-ray Emission in the Edge-on Seyfert Galaxy NGC 2992

    OpenAIRE

    Colbert, Edward J. M.; Strickland, David K.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Weaver, Kimberly A.

    2005-01-01

    We found several extranuclear (r >~ 3") X-ray nebulae within 40" (6.3 kpc at 32.5 Mpc) of the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992. The net X-ray luminosity from the extranuclear sources is ~2-3 E39 erg/s (0.3-8.0 keV). The X-ray core itself (r

  20. Chandra Data Analysis of H2O Megamaser Galaxy NGC 4258

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Baisheng Liu; Jiangshui Zhang; Jin Wang

    2011-03-01

    Chandra observations of NGC 4258 were analyzed to investigate the circumnuclear environment of the H2O megamaser galaxy. Its adaptively-smoothed image shows a bright nucleus and another weak source nearby. For the maser host nucleus, our preferred fitting of its spectra gives the absorption of ∼ 7 × 1022cm-2.

  1. Atomic and molecular gas in the merger galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and its environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horellou, C; Black, JH; van Gorkom, JH; Combes, F; van der Hulst, JM; Charmandaris, [No Value

    2001-01-01

    We present and interpret observations of atomic and molecular gas toward the southern elliptical galaxy NGC 1316 (Fornax A), a strong double-lobe radio source with a disturbed optical morphology that includes numerous shells and loops. The (CO)-C-12(1-0), (CO)-C-12(2-1), and Hi observations were mad

  2. NGC 5011C: an overlooked dwarf galaxy in the Centaurus A group

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; 10.1086/512157

    2008-01-01

    (abridged) We report the discovery of a previously unnoticed member of the Centaurus A Group, NGC 5011C. While the galaxy is a well known stellar system listed with a NGC number its true identity remained hidden because of coordinate confusion and wrong redshifts in the literature. NGC 5011C attracted our attention since, at a putative distance of 45.3 Mpc, it would be a peculiar object having a very low surface brightness typical of a dwarf galaxy, and at the same time having the size of an early-type spiral or S0 galaxy. To confirm or reject this peculiarity, our immediate objective was to have the first reliable measurement of its recession velocity. The observations were carried out with EFOSC2 at the 3.6m ESO telescope. We found that NGC 5011C has indeed a low redshift of v_sun=647+/-96 km/sec and thus is a nearby dwarf galaxy rather than a member of the distant Centaurus cluster as believed for the past 23 years. Rough distance estimates based on photometric parameters also favor this scenario. As a byp...

  3. Seeking large-scale magnetic fields in a pure-disk dwarf galaxy NGC 2976

    CERN Document Server

    Drzazga, R T; Heald, G H; Elstner, D; Gallagher, J S

    2016-01-01

    It is still unknown how magnetic field-generation mechanisms could operate in low-mass dwarf galaxies. Here, we present a detailed study of a nearby pure-disk dwarf galaxy NGC 2976. Unlike previously observed dwarf objects, this galaxy possesses a clearly defined disk. For the purpose of our studies, we performed deep multi-frequency polarimetric observations of NGC 2976 with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. Additionally, we supplement them with re-imaged data from the WSRT-SINGS survey. The magnetic field morphology discovered in NGC 2976 consists of a southern polarized ridge. This structure does not seem to be due to just a pure large-scale dynamo process (possibly cosmic-ray driven) at work in this object, as indicated by the RM data and dynamo number calculations. Instead, the field of NGC 2976 is modified by past gravitational interactions and possibly also by ram pressure inside the M 81 galaxy group environment. The estimates of total (7 muG) and ordered (3 muG) magnetic field strengths, as we...

  4. Size and properties of the NLR in the Seyfert-2 galaxy NGC 1386

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bennert, N.; Jungwiert, Bruno; Komossa, S.; Haas, M.; Chini, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 446, č. 3 (2006), s. 919-932. ISSN 0004-6361 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : active galaxies * NGC 1386 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.971, year: 2006

  5. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION IN TWO SPIRAL GALAXIES: NGC 3938 AND NGC 3184; MULTIWAVELENGTH ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caldú-Primo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la naturaleza grumosa de las galaxias espirales NGC 3184 (SAB(rscd HII y NGC 3938 (SA(sc HII en varias longitudes de onda (8 and 24 Mm, NUV, H , and CO utilizando el algoritmo \\Clump nd2d" (Williams et al. 1994. Con los grumos encontrados por el algoritmo, se calculan las tasas de formaci n estelar en ambas galaxias utilizando varios m todos. La dispersi n de los resultados obtenidos es grande. Para cada longitud de onda encontramos una relaci n entre la luminosidad y el rea del grumo. Proponemos nuevas f rmulas para calcular la tasa de formaci n estelar para las longitudes de onda consideradas. Encontramos que la tasa media de formaci n estelar es 0.72+-0.40 M yr-1 para NGC 3184 y 0.33+-0.09 M yr-1 para NGC 3938.

  6. Globular cluster scale sizes in giant galaxies: orbital anisotropy and tidally underfilling clusters in M87, NGC 1399 and NGC 5128

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison; Harris, William E.; Gómez, Matías; Paolillo, Maurizio; Woodley, Kristin A.; Puzia, Thomas H.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the shallow increase in globular cluster half-light radii with projected galactocentric distance Rgc observed in the giant galaxies M87, NGC 1399, and NGC 5128. To model the trend in each galaxy, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy and tidally underfilling clusters. While a strong degeneracy exists between the two parameters, we use kinematic studies to help constrain the distance Rβ beyond which cluster orbits become anisotropic, as well as the distance Rfα beyond which clusters are tidally underfilling. For M87 we find Rβ > 27 kpc and 20 13 kpc and 10 present-day distributions of cluster properties. For NGC 5128, the central giant in a small galaxy group, we find Rβ > 5 kpc and Rfα > 30 kpc. While we cannot rule out a dependence on Rgc, NGC 5128 is well fitted by a tidally filling cluster population with an isotropic distribution of orbits, suggesting it may have formed via an initial fast accretion phase. Perturbations from the surrounding environment may also affect a galaxy's orbital anisotropy profile, as outer clusters in M87 and NGC 1399 have primarily radial orbits while outer NGC 5128 clusters remain isotropic.

  7. Velocity dispersions in galaxies. I - The E7 galaxy NGC 7332.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D. C.; Chevalier, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    A coude spectrum of the E7 galaxy NGC 7332 with 0.9 A-resolution from 4186 to 4364 A was obtained with the Princeton SEC vidicon television camera and the Hale telescope. Comparisons with spectra of G and K giant stars, numerically broadened for various Maxwellian velocity distributions, give a dispersion velocity in the line of sight of 160 (plus or minus 20) km/sec with the best fit at G8 III. The dispersion appears to be constant within plus or minus 35 km/sec out to 1.4 kpc. After correction for projection, the rotation curve has a slope of 0.18 km/sec per pc at the center and a velocity of 130 km/sec at 1.4 kpc where it is still increasing. For an estimated effective radius of 3.5 kpc enclosing half the light, the virial theorem gives a mass of 140 billion solar masses if the mass-to-light ratio is constant throughout the galaxy.

  8. Antlia B: A faint dwarf galaxy member of the NGC 3109 association

    CERN Document Server

    Sand, D J; Crnojević, D; Hargis, J R; Willman, B; Strader, J; Grillmair, C J

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Antlia B, a faint dwarf galaxy at a projected distance of $\\sim$72 kpc from NGC 3109 ($M_{V}$$\\sim$$-$15 mag), the primary galaxy of the NGC 3109 dwarf association at the edge of the Local Group. The tip of the red giant branch distance to Antlia B is $D$=1.29$\\pm$0.10 Mpc, which is consistent with the distance to NGC 3109. A qualitative analysis indicates the new dwarf's stellar population has both an old, metal poor red giant branch ($\\gtrsim$10 Gyr, [Fe/H]$\\sim$$-$2), and a younger blue population with an age of $\\sim$200-400 Myr, analogous to the original Antlia dwarf, another likely satellite of NGC 3109. Antlia B has \\ion{H}{1} gas at a velocity of $v_{helio,HI}$=376 km s$^{-1}$, confirming the association with NGC 3109 ($v_{helio}$=403 km s$^{-1}$). The HI gas mass (M$_{HI}$=2.8$\\pm$0.2$\\times$10$^{5}$ M$_{\\odot}$), stellar luminosity ($M_{V}$=$-$9.7$\\pm$0.6 mag) and half light radius ($r_{h}$=273$\\pm$29 pc) are all consistent with the properties of dwarf irregular and dwarf ...

  9. Seeking large-scale magnetic fields in a pure-disk dwarf galaxy NGC 2976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzazga, R. T.; Chyży, K. T.; Heald, G. H.; Elstner, D.; Gallagher, J. S.

    2016-05-01

    Aims: It is still unknown how magnetic field-generation mechanisms could operate in low-mass dwarf galaxies. Here, we present a detailed study of a nearby pure-disk dwarf galaxy NGC 2976. Unlike previously observed dwarf objects, this galaxy possesses a clearly defined disk. We also discuss whether NGC 2976 could serve as a potential source of the intergalactic magnetic field. Methods: For the purpose of our studies, we performed deep multi-frequency polarimetric observations of NGC 2976 with the VLA and Effelsberg radio telescopes. Additionally, we supplement them with re-imaged data from the WSRT-SINGS survey for which a rotation measure (RM) synthesis was performed. A new weighting scheme for the RM synthesis algorithm, consisting of including information about the quality of data in individual frequency channels, was proposed and investigated. Application of this new weighting to the simulated data, as well as to the observed data, results in an improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio in the Faraday depth space. Results: The magnetic field morphology discovered in NGC 2976 consists of a southern polarized ridge. This structure does not seem to be due to just a pure large-scale dynamo process (possibly cosmic-ray driven) at work in this object, as indicated by the RM data and dynamo number calculations. Instead, the field of NGC 2976 is modified by past gravitational interactions and possibly also by ram pressure inside the M 81 galaxy group environment. The estimates of total (7 μG) and ordered (3 μG) magnetic field strengths, as well as degree of field order (0.46), which is similar to those observed in spirals, suggest that tidally generated magnetized gas flows can further enhance dynamo action in the object. NGC 2976 is apparently a good candidate for the efficient magnetization of its neighbourhood. It is able to provide an ordered (perhaps also regular) magnetic field into the intergalactic space up to a distance of about 5 kpc. Conclusions: Tidal

  10. 2-D spectroscopy of polar-ring galaxies candidates. II. The peculiar galaxies NGC 2748 and UGC 4385

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, O. A.; Shalyapina, L. V.; Yakovleva, V. A.

    2009-09-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of new observational data obtained on the 6-m telescope using multimode instrument SCORPIO for two peculiar galaxies NGC 2748 and UGC 4385. Using scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) large-scale velocity fields of ionized gas in lines H α and [N II] λ6584 Å for NGC 2748 and in line H α for UGC 4385 and the maps of brightness distribution in continuum and in corresponding lines for both galaxies were constructed. Observational data obtained in the long-slit mode of spectroscopy gave information about the kinematics of stellar component. The analysis of the received materials for NGC 2748 have shown that this object is a disky galaxy with stellar shell which rotates around the major axis of main body. The origin of such shell is most likely connected with the capture and disruption of dwarf companion. The structure of ionized gas velocity field of UGC 4385 appeared to be very complex. The most regular part of the field which concerns the supposed ring is best represented by the model of circular rotation with expansion. In addition long-slit observations showed that the optical spectra of two bright in the infrared region condensations resemble the spectra of galaxies’ nuclei. A supposition was made that UGC 4385 is two galaxies in the stage of head-on collision.

  11. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    CERN Document Server

    Barbosa, Carlos Eduardo; Coccato, Lodovico; Hilker, Michael; de Oliveira, Cláudia Mendes; Richtler, Tom

    2016-01-01

    (Abridged for arXiv) The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by the mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre. We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster and out to three effective radii. Using seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system and single stellar populations models, we obtained luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities and alpha element abundances. The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided into two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, $R_e = 8.4$ kpc, similar to the distinction between inner galaxy and external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy ($R\\leq R_e$) is old (age $\\sim 14$ Gyr), have negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha ...

  12. Globular clusters kinematics and dynamical models of the massive early-type galaxy NGC 1399

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samurović, S.

    2016-06-01

    We analyze the dynamical models of the massive early-type galaxy NGC 1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster. We use the sample of 790 globular clusters as tracers of gravitational potential and we first extract the kinematics, which is then dynamically modeled. We find that the velocity dispersion remains high and approximately constant throughout the whole galaxy and that the departures from the Gaussian distribution of the orbits are not large. We use the spherical Jeans equation in both Newtonian and MOND approaches, assuming three cases of orbital anisotropies: we study isotropic, tangentially and radially anisotropic models in order to establish the best-fitting values of the mass-to-light ratios. We found that in the Newtonian approximation a significant amount of dark matter is needed and that Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) model with a dark halo provides a satisfactory description of the kinematics of NGC 1399. We tested three MOND models (standard, simple and toy) and found that none of them can provide a fit of the velocity dispersion profile without the inclusion of dark matter. Finally, using our findings, we placed the galaxy NGC 1399 within the context of other observed early-type galaxies and discuss its location among them.

  13. Extended soft X-ray emission in Seyfert galaxies: ROSAT HRI observations of NGC 3516, NGC 4151, and Markarian 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon A.; Wilson, Andrew S.; Elvis, Martin; Weaver, Kimberly A.

    1995-01-01

    We have used the ROSAT High Resolution Imager (HRI) to examine the distribution of soft X-rays in three nearby Seyfert galaxies with approximately 4 to 5 arcsecs FWHM spatial resolution. A feature of our analysis is an attempt to remove errors in the aspect solution using a method developed by one of us (J.M.). NGC 4151 shows resolved X-ray emission that is spatially correlated with the optical extended narrow-line region (ENLR), confirming the results obtained with the Einstein HRI by Elvis, Briel, & Henry. NGC 3516 is elongated along a position angle of approximately 40 to 220 deg, similar to the direction of the Z-shaped narrow-line region. MRK 3 is very faint in our HRI image and is probably spatially unresolved. We detect the faint X-ray source approximately 2 arcmins west of the MRK 3 nucleus previously found by Turner, Urry, & Mushotzky. We also detected the BL Lac object BL 1207 + 39 approximately 5 arcmins north-northwest of NGC 4151. This object appears spatially unresolved, but some excess X-ray emission may be observed in the azimuthally averaged radial brightness profile of BL 1207 + 39 between radii of 10 arcsecs and 30 arcsecs when compared to a calibration source. A much deeper image is necessary to confirm this result.

  14. On the distance and reddening of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Fusco, F; Bono, G; Cassisi, S; Monelli, M; Pietrinferni, A

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of a new photometric analysis of the Local Group Dwarf Irregular Galaxy NCG 6822 based on observations obtained with Advanced Camera for Surveys on board of the the Hubble Space Telescope, we have obtained a new estimate of the extinction of two fields located in the southeast region of the galaxy. Due to the presence of significant differences in the distance estimates to NGC 6822 available in literature, we have decided to provide an independent determination of the distance to this galaxy based on an updated and self-consistent theoretical calibration of the tip of the Red Giant Branch (TRGB) brightness. As a result we have obtained a new determination of the distance to NGC 6822 equal to ${\\rm(m-M)}_0=23.54\\pm 0.05$, and compared our measurement with the most recent determinations of this distance.

  15. Low dark matter content of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samurović S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the kinematics and dynamics of the nearby early-type galaxy NGC 821 based on its globular clusters (GCs and planetary nebulae (PNe. We use PNe and GCs to extract the kinematics of NGC 821 which is then used for the dynamical modelling based on the Jeans equation. We apply the Jeans equation using the Newtonian mass-follows-light approach assuming constant mass-to-light ratio and find that using such an approach we can successfully fit the kinematic data. The inferred constant mass-to-light ratio, 4:2 < M=LB < 12:4 present throughout the whole galaxy, implies the lack of significant amount of dark matter. We also used three different MOND approaches and found that we can fit the kinematic data without the need for additional, dark, component. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176021: Visible and invisible matter in nearby galaxies: theory and observations

  16. The flaring HI disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Ibata, R

    2015-01-01

    New deep VLA D array HI observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model HI data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80 degrees; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution of the gas disk; (iii) a slight warp in inclination; (iv) an exponential flare; and (v) a low surface-density gas ring. The slope of NGC 2683's flare is comparable, but somewhat steeper than those of other spiral galaxies. NGC 2683's maximum height of the flare is also comparable to those of other galaxies. On the other hand, a saturation of the flare is only observed in NGC 2683. Based on the comparison between the high resolution model and observations, we exclude the existence of an extended atomic gas halo around the ...

  17. Mapping the inner regions of the polar disk galaxy NGC4650A with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, E; Combes, F; de Zeeuw, T; Arnaboldi, M; Weilbacher, P M; Bacon, R; Kuntschner, H; Spavone, M

    2015-01-01

    [abridged] The polar disk galaxy NGC4650A was observed during the commissioning of the MUSE at the ESO VLT to obtain the first 2D map of the velocity and velocity dispersion for both stars and gas. The new MUSE data allow the analysis of the structure and kinematics towards the central regions of NGC4650A, where the two components co-exist. These regions were unexplored by the previous long-slit literature data available for this galaxy. The extended view of NGC~4650A given by the MUSE data is a galaxy made of two perpendicular disks that remain distinct and drive the kinematics right into the very centre of this object. In order to match this observed structure for NGC4650A, we constructed a multicomponent mass model made by the combined projection of two disks. By comparing the observations with the 2D kinematics derived from the model, we found that the modelled mass distribution in these two disks can, on average, account for the complex kinematics revealed by the MUSE data, also in the central regions of...

  18. Structure of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 and the quasar 3C 345 nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Paulini-Tos, I.K.; Kostenko, V.I.; Romni, Dzh.D.; Bot, L.B.

    1985-06-01

    Structure of the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied with a global radio interference network at 18 cm wavelength. The quasar has a nucleus and a compact feature, both sizing to approximately 0.3 mas, and a fine jet, the brightness of which decreases with the distance from the nucleus, its position angle changing too. The central compact feature of NGC 1275, which has been observed at shorter wavelengths, is absent at 18 cm. This is likely due to reabsorption and absorption of synchrotron emission by the ionized gas surrounding the nucleus.

  19. Nuclear structure in the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveenko, L.I.; Pauliny-Toth, I.I.K.; Kostenko, V.I.; Romney, J.D.; Baath, L.B.

    1985-05-01

    The structure of the quasar 3C 345 and of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied at lambda = 18 cm with a global VLBI network. Within 3C 345 are a nucleus and a compact feature, both measuring roughly-equal 0''.0003, accompanied by a thin jet that weakens and bends with distance from the nucleus. In NGC 1275 the compact central feature observed at shorter lambda is absent at 18 cm, probably because of synchrotron self-absorption as well as absorption in ionized gas surrounding the nucleus.

  20. Nuclear structure in the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the quasar 3C 345 and of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied at lambda = 18 cm with a global VLBI network. Within 3C 345 are a nucleus and a compact feature, both measuring roughly-equal 0''.0003, accompanied by a thin jet that weakens and bends with distance from the nucleus. In NGC 1275 the compact central feature observed at shorter lambda is absent at 18 cm, probably because of synchrotron self-absorption as well as absorption in ionized gas surrounding the nucleus

  1. Structure of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 and the quasar 3C 345 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure of the quasar 3C 345 and the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 has been studied with a global radio interference network at 18 cm wavelength. Quasar has a nucleus and a compact feature, both sizing to approximately 0.3 mas, and a fine jet, the brightness of which decreases with the distance from the nucleus, its position angle changing too. The central compact feature of NGC 1275, which has been observed at shorter wavelengths, is absent at 18 cm. This is likely due to reabsorption and absorption of synchrotron emission by the ionized gas surrounding the nucleus

  2. The Mg II line profile in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151: a new outflowing component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper examines the Mg II lambdalambda2795, 2802 doublet in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 at a higher resolution than has previously been used, searching for velocity systems in absorption and emission. Evidence is presented for a new, narrow, outflowing absorption system in Mg II having a velocity of 825 km s-1 relative to the Sun, - 165 km s-1 relative to the systemic velocity of NGC 4151. For the Mg II and C IV lines a model decomposition of the line profile is presented. (author)

  3. Mapping the inner regions of the polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, E.; Coccato, L.; Combes, F.; de Zeeuw, T.; Arnaboldi, M.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Bacon, R.; Kuntschner, H.; Spavone, M.

    2015-11-01

    The polar disk galaxy NGC 4650A was observed during the commissioning of the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) at the ESO Very Large Telescope to obtain the first 2D map of the velocity and velocity dispersion for both stars and gas. The new MUSE data allow the analysis of the structure and kinematics towards the central regions of NGC 4650A, where the two components co-exist. These regions were unexplored by the previous long-slit literature data available for this galaxy. The stellar velocity field shows that there are two main directions of rotation, one along the host galaxy major axis (PA = 67 deg) and the other along the polar disk (PA = 160 deg). The host galaxy has, on average, the typical pattern of a rotating disk, with receding velocities on the SW side and approaching velocities on the NE side, and a velocity dispersion that remains constant at all radii (σstar ~ 50-60 km s-1). The polar disk shows a large amount of differential rotation from the centre up to the outer regions, reaching V ~ 100-120 km s-1 at R ~ 75 arcsec ~ 16 kpc. Inside the host galaxy, a velocity gradient is measured along the photometric minor axis. Close to the centre, for R ≤ 2 arcsec the velocity profile of the gas suggests a decoupled component and the velocity dispersion increases up to ~110 km s-1, while at larger distances it remains almost constant (σgas ~ 30-40 km s-1). The extended view of NGC 4650A given by the MUSE data is a galaxy made of two perpendicular disks that remain distinct and drive the kinematics right into the very centre of this object. In order to match this observed structure for NGC 4650A, we constructed a multicomponent mass model made by the combined projection of two disks. By comparing the observations with the 2D kinematics derived from the model, we found that the modelled mass distribution in these two disks can, on average, account for the complex kinematics revealed by the MUSE data, also in the central regions of the galaxy where the

  4. Disky elliptical galaxies and the allegedly over-massive black hole in the compact massive `ES' galaxy NGC 1271

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Alister W; Savorgnan, Giulia A D

    2016-01-01

    While spiral and lenticular galaxies have large-scale disks extending beyond their bulges, and most local early-type galaxies with 10^{10} < M_*/M_Sun < 2x10^{11} contain a disk (e.g., ATLAS^3D), the early-type galaxies do possess a range of disk sizes. The edge-on, `intermediate-scale' disk in the `disky elliptical' galaxy NGC 1271 has led to some uncertainty as to what is its spheroidal component. Walsh et al. reported a directly measured black hole mass of 3x10^9 M_Sun for this galaxy; which they remarked was an order of magnitude greater than what they expected based on their derivation of the host spheroid's luminosity. Our near-infrared image analysis supports a small embedded disk within a massive spheroidal component with M_{sph,*} = (0.9+/-0.2)x10^{11} M_Sun (using M_*/L_H = 1.4 from Walsh et al.). This places NGC 1271 just 1.6-sigma above the near-linear M_bh-M_{sph,*} relation for early-type galaxies. Therefore, past speculation that there may be a systematic difference in the black hole scal...

  5. The stellar populations in the low luminosity, early-type galaxy NGC59

    CERN Document Server

    Sansom, A E; Deakin, M A; Väisänen, P; Kniazev, A Y; van Loon, J Th

    2015-01-01

    Low luminosity galaxies may be the building blocks of more luminous systems. Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) observations of the low luminosity, early-type galaxy NGC59 are obtained and analysed. These data are used to measure the stellar population parameters in the centre and off-centre regions of this galaxy, in order to uncover its likely star formation history. We find evidence of older stars, in addition to young stars in the emission line regions. The metallicity of the stellar population is constrained to be [Z/H] ~ -1.1 to -1.6, which is extremely low, even for this low luminosity galaxy, since it is not classed as a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. The measured [alpha/Fe] ratio is sub-solar, which indicates an extended star formation history in NGC59. If such objects formed the building blocks of more massive, early-type galaxies, then they must have been gaseous mergers, rather than dry mergers, in order to increase the metals to observed levels in luminous, early-type galaxies.

  6. Deep imaging of the shell elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 with MegaCam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílek, M.; Cuillandre, J.-C.; Gwyn, S.; Ebrová, I.; Bartošková, K.; Jungwiert, B.; Jílková, L.

    2016-04-01

    Context. The elliptical galaxy NGC 3923 is known to be surrounded by a number of stellar shells, probable remnants of an accreted galaxy. Despite its uniqueness, the deepest images of its outskirts come from the 1980s. On the basis of the modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), it has recently been predicted that a new shell lies in this region. Aims: We obtain the deepest image ever of the galaxy, map the tidal features in it, and search for the predicted shell. Methods: The image of the galaxy was taken by the MegaCam camera at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in the g'-band. It reached the surface-brightness limit of 29 mag arcsec-2. In addition, we reanalyzed an archival HST image of the galaxy. Results: We detected up to 42 shells in NGC 3923. This is by far the highest number among all shell galaxies. We present the description of the shells and other tidal features in the galaxy. A probable progenitor of some of these features was discovered. The shell system likely originates from two or more progenitors. The predicted shell was not detected, but the new image revealed that the prediction was based on incorrect assumptions and poor data. The reduced images (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/588/A77

  7. Compact stellar systems in the polar ring galaxies NGC 4650A and NGC 3808B: Clues to polar disk formation

    CERN Document Server

    Ordenes-Briceño, Yasna; Puzia, Thomas H; Goudfrooij, Paul; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2016-01-01

    Polar ring galaxies (PRGs) are composed of two kinematically distinct and nearly orthogonal components, a host galaxy (HG) and a polar ring/disk (PR). The HG usually contains an older stellar population than the PR. The suggested formation channel of PRGs is still poorly constrained. Suggested options are merger, gas accretion, tidal interaction, or a combination of both. To constrain the formation scenario of PRGs, we study the compact stellar systems (CSSs) in two PRGs at different evolutionary stages: NGC 4650A with well-defined PR, and NGC 3808B, which is in the process of PR formation. We use archival HST/WFPC2 imaging. PSF-fitting techniques, and color selection criteria are used to select cluster candidates. Photometric analysis of the CSSs was performed to determine their ages and masses using stellar population models at a fixed metallicity. Both PRGs contain young CSSs ($< 1$ Gyr) with masses of up to 5$\\times$10$^6$M$_\\odot$, mostly located in the PR and along the tidal debris. The most massive ...

  8. Mid-infrared dust in two nearby radio galaxies, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, B Duah; Jarrett, T; Winkler, H

    2016-01-01

    Most radio galaxies are hosted by giant gas-poor ellipticals, but some contain significant amounts of dust, which is likely to be of external origin. In order to characterize the mid-IR properties of two of the most nearby and brightest merger-remnant radio galaxies of the Southern hemisphere, NGC 1316 (Fornax A) and NGC 612 (PKS 0131-36), we used observations with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) at wavelengths of 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron and Spitzer mid-infrared spectra. By applying a resolution-enhancement technique, new WISE images were produced at angular resolutions ranging from 2.6" to 5.5". Global measurements were performed in the four WISE bands, and stellar masses and star-formation rates were estimated using published scaling relations. Two methods were used to uncover the distribution of dust, one relying on two-dimensional fits to the 3.4 micron images to model the starlight, and the other one using a simple scaling and subtraction of the 3.4 micron images to estimate the stellar...

  9. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups - III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Antonietta; Mazzei, Paola; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-06-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (Vhel ≤ 3000 km s-1) with a multiwavelength approach. We analyse GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey u, g, r, i, z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here, we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of early-type galaxies (ETGs) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40 per cent are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 resembles that of the Virgo cluster, however our analysis suggests that star formation episodes are still occurring in most of the group galaxies, including ETGs. The NUV-i colour distribution, the optical-UV colour-colour diagram, and NUV-r versus Mr colour-magnitude relation suggest that the gas contribution cannot be neglected in the evolution of ETG-type group members. Our analysis highlights that NGC 5846 is still in an active phase of its evolution, notwithstanding the dominance of dwarf and bright ETGs and its virialized configuration.

  10. Satellite accretion in action: a tidally disrupting dwarf spheroidal around the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Romanowsky, Aaron J; Martin, Nicolas F; Morales, Gustavo; Jennings, Zachary G; GaBany, R Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Grebel, Eva K; Schedler, Johannes; Sidonio, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of NGC 253-dw2, a dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxy candidate undergoing tidal disruption around a nearby spiral galaxy, NGC 253 in the Sculptor group: the first such event identified beyond the Local Group. The dwarf was found using small-aperture amateur telescopes, and followed up with Suprime-Cam on the 8 m Subaru Telescope in order to resolve its brightest stars. Using g- and R_c-band photometry, we detect a red giant branch consistent with an old, metal-poor stellar population at a distance of ~ 3.5 Mpc. From the distribution of likely member stars, we infer a highly elongated shape with a semi-major axis half-light radius of (2 +/- 0.4) kpc. Star counts also yield a luminosity estimate of ~ 2x10^6 L_Sun,V (M_V ~ -10.7). The morphological properties of NGC 253-dw2 mark it as distinct from normal dSphs and imply ongoing disruption at a projected distance of ~ 50 kpc from the main galaxy. Our observations support the hierarchical paradigm wherein massive galaxies continously accrete l...

  11. The young nuclear stellar disc in the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023

    CERN Document Server

    Corsini, E M; Pastorello, N; Bontà, E Dalla; Pizzella, A; Portaluri, E

    2015-01-01

    Small kinematically-decoupled stellar discs with scalelengths of a few tens of parsec are known to reside in the centre of galaxies. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain how they form, including gas dissipation and merging of globular clusters. Using archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging and ground-based integral-field spectroscopy, we investigated the structure and stellar populations of the nuclear stellar disc hosted in the interacting SB0 galaxy NGC 1023. The stars of the nuclear disc are remarkably younger and more metal rich with respect to the host bulge. These findings support a scenario in which the nuclear disc is the end result of star formation in metal enriched gas piled up in the galaxy centre. The gas can be of either internal or external origin, i.e. from either the main disc of NGC 1023 or the nearby satellite galaxy NGC 1023A. The dissipationless formation of the nuclear disc from already formed stars, through the migration and accretion of star clusters into the galactic cen...

  12. Kinematics of NGC 4826: A sleeping beauty galaxy, not an evil eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.

    1994-01-01

    A recent high resolution H I study of the Sab galaxy NGC 4826 (1992) reveals that the sense of rotation of the neutral gas reverses from the inner to the outer disk. The present paper reports on optical spectra at high velocity resolution in four position angles in NGC 4826, which cover the region of the gas reversal and which reveal a high degree of complexity. In the inner disk, which includes the prominent dusty lane, the stars and gas rotate in concert, and the spiral arms trail (for the adopted geometry). Arcs of ionized gas are observed partially encircling the nucleus; expansion velocities reach 400 km/s. At distances just beyond the prominent dust lane, the ionized gas exhibits a rapid, orderly velocity fall and within 500 parsecs it has reversed from 180 km/s prograde to 200 km/s retrograde; it also has a component radial toward the nucleus of over 100 km/s. The stars, however, continue their prograde rotation. Beyond this transition zone, the neutral gas continues its retrograde rotation, stellar velocities are prograde, but the sense of the almost circular arms is not established. Because of its kinematical complexity as well as its proximity, NGC 4826 is an excellent early-type galaxy in which to observe the long term effects of gas acquistion or a galaxy merger on a disk galaxy.

  13. THE STAR CLUSTER POPULATION OF THE COLLISIONAL RING GALAXY NGC 922

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed study of the star cluster population detected in the galaxy NGC 922, one of the closest collisional ring galaxies known to date, using Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 UBVI photometry, population synthesis models, and N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. We find that 69% of the clusters are younger than 7 Myr, and that most of them are located in the ring or along the bar, consistent with the strong Hα emission. The cluster luminosity function slope of 2.1-2.3 for NGC 922 is in agreement with those of young clusters in nearby galaxies. Models of the cluster age distribution match the observations best when cluster disruption is considered. We also find clusters with ages (>50 Myr) and masses (>105 M sun) that are excellent progenitors for faint fuzzy clusters. The images also show a tidal plume pointing toward the companion. Its stellar age from our analysis is consistent with pre-existing stars that were stripped off during the passage of the companion. Finally, a comparison of the star-forming complexes observed in NGC 922 with those of a distant ring galaxy from the GOODS field indicates very similar masses and sizes, suggesting similar origins.

  14. Ionized gas kinematics within the inner kiloparsec of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, Davide; Robinson, Andrew; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Couto, Guilherme S.; Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Riffel, Rogemar A.

    2016-07-01

    We observed the nuclear region of the galaxy NGC 1365 with the integral field unit of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph mounted on the GEMINI-South telescope. The field of view covers 13 × 6 arcsec2(1173 × 541 pc2) centred on the nucleus, at a spatial resolution of 52 pc. The spectral coverage extends from 5600 to 7000 Å, at a spectral resolution R = 1918. NGC 1365 hosts a Seyfert 1.8 nucleus, and exhibits a prominent bar extending out to 100 arcsec (9 kpc) from the nucleus. The field of view lies within the inner Lindblad resonance. Within this region, we found that the kinematics of the ionized gas (as traced by [O I], [N II], Hα, and [S II]) is consistent with rotation in the large-scale plane of the galaxy. While rotation dominates the kinematics, there is also evidence for a fan-shaped outflow, as found in other studies based on the [O III] emission lines. Although evidence for gas inflowing along nuclear spirals has been found in a few barred galaxies, we find no obvious signs of such features in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1365. However, the emission lines exhibit a puzzling asymmetry that could originate from gas which is slower than the gas responsible for the bulk of the narrow-line emission. We speculate that it could be tracing gas which lost angular momentum, and is slowly migrating from the inner Lindblad resonance towards the nucleus of the galaxy.

  15. Star Cluster Formation and Destruction in the Merging Galaxy NGC 3256

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, A. J.; Chandar, R.; Whitmore, B. C.

    2016-07-01

    We use the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the rich population of young massive star clusters in the main body of NGC 3256, a merging pair of galaxies with a high star formation rate (SFR) and SFR per unit area (ΣSFR). These clusters have luminosity and mass functions that follow power laws, dN/dL ∝ L α with α = ‑2.23 ± 0.07, and dN/dM ∝ M β with β = ‑1.86 ± 0.34 for τ function) for NGC 3256 and comparing the results with those for other galaxies. We find that the CMF/SFR statistic for NGC 3256 agrees well with that found for galaxies with ΣSFR and SFRs that are lower by 1–3 orders of magnitude, but that estimates for Γ are only robust when the same sets of assumptions are applied. Currently, Γ values available in the literature have used different sets of assumptions, making it more difficult to compare the results between galaxies.

  16. A Study of the Star-forming Dwarf Galaxy NGC 855 with Spitzer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We present a study of the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC 855 using the narrow-band Ha and Spitzer data. Both the Ha and Spitzer IRAC images confirm star-forming activity in the center of NGC 855. We obtained a star formation rate (SFR) of 0.022 and 0.025 M☉yr-1, respectively, from the Spitzer IRAC 8.0 μm and MIPS 24 μm emission data. The HI observa tion suggests that the star-forming activity might be triggered by a minor merger. We also find that there is a distinct IR emission region in 5.8 and 8.0μm bands, located at about 10 "away from the nucleus of NGC 855. Given the strong 8.0μm but faint Hα emission, we expect that it is a heavily obscured star-forming region, which needs to be confirmed by further optical spectroscopic observations.

  17. Galaxy evolution in nearby galaxy groups. III. A GALEX view of NGC 5846, the largest group in the local universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Antonietta; Rampazzo, Roberto; Bianchi, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We explore the co-evolution of galaxies in nearby groups (V < 3000 km/s) with a multi-wavelength approach. We analyze GALEX far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) imaging and SDSS u,g,r,i,z data of groups spanning a large range of dynamical phases. We characterize the photometric properties of spectroscopically-confirmed galaxy members and investigate the global properties of the groups through a dynamical analysis. Here we focus on NGC 5846, the third most massive association of Early-Type Galaxies (ETG) after the Virgo and Fornax clusters. The group, composed of 90 members, is dominated by ETGs (about 80 per cent), and among ETGs about 40\\% are dwarfs. Results are compared with those obtained for three groups in the LeoII cloud, which are radically different both in member-galaxy population and dynamical properties. The FUV-NUV cumulative colour distribution and the normalized UV luminosity function (LF) significantly differ due to the different fraction of late-type galaxy population. The UV LF of NGC 5846 rese...

  18. An Enhanced Rate of Tidal Disruptions in the Centrally Overdense E+A Galaxy NGC 3156

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nicholas C.; van Velzen, Sjoert

    2016-07-01

    Time domain optical surveys have discovered roughly a dozen candidate stellar tidal disruption flares in the last five years, and future surveys like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely find hundreds to thousands more. These tidal disruption events (TDEs) present an interesting puzzle: a majority of the current TDE sample is hosted by rare post-starburst galaxies, and tens of percents of the galaxies are hosted in even rarer E+A galaxies, which make up ∼ 0.1 % of all galaxies in the local universe. E+As are therefore overrepresented among TDE hosts by 1–2 orders of magnitude, a discrepancy unlikely to be accounted for by selection effects. We analyze Hubble Space Telescope photometry of one of the nearest E+A galaxies, NGC 3156, to estimate the rate of stellar tidal disruption produced as two-body relaxation diffuses stars onto orbits in the loss cone of the central supermassive black hole. The rate of TDEs produced by two-body relaxation in NGC 3156 is large when compared to other galaxies with similar black hole mass: {\\dot{N}}{{TDE}}∼ 1× {10}-3 {{{yr}}}-1. This suggests that the preference of TDEs for E+A hosts may be due to central stellar overdensities produced in recent starbursts.

  19. A 21-cm line study of NGC 5963, an SC galaxy with a low-surface brightness disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, A.; Athanassoula, E.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    1988-06-01

    Results are presented from a detailed 21-cm line study of the Sc galaxy NGC 5963. The extent of the H I emission is found to be roughly coincident with the optical image, the latter being of much lower surface brightness than normal for Sc galaxies. The velocity field shows little deviation from axial symmetry, and the derived rotation curve is typical for Sc galaxies about twice as bright as NGC 5963. A composite mass model is presented using the observed light distribution to calculate a rotation curve for the luminous part of the galaxy (assuming a constant M/L-ratio with radius); this calculated rotation curve is compared to the observed one to derive a rotation law for a dark halo. Comparison with Sc galaxies having normal disk surface brightnesses suggests that the halo in NGC 5963 is more concentrated than in normal Scs with similar rotation curves. The origin of the low surface brightness of the disk is discussed.

  20. The Structure of the Circumgalactic Medium of Galaxies: Cool Accretion Inflow Around NGC 1097

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, David V.; Chelouche, Doron; Jenkins, Edward B.; Tripp, Todd M.; Pettini, Max; York, Donald G.; Frye, Brenda L.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope far-UV spectra of four QSOs whose sightlines pass through the halo of NGC 1097 at impact parameters of ρ = 48–165 kpc. NGC 1097 is a nearby spiral galaxy that has undergone at least two minor merger events, but no apparent major mergers, and is relatively isolated with respect to other nearby bright galaxies. This makes NGC 1097 a good case study for exploring baryons in a paradigmatic bright-galaxy halo. Lyα absorption is detected along all sightlines and Si iii λ1206 is found along the three sightlines with the smallest ρ metal lines of C ii, Si ii, and Si iv are only found with certainty toward the innermost sightline. The kinematics of the absorption lines are best replicated by a model with a disk-like distribution of gas approximately planar to the observed 21 cm H i disk, which is rotating more slowly than the inner disk, and into which gas is infalling from the intergalactic medium. Some part of the absorption toward the innermost sightline may arise either from a small-scale outflow or from tidal debris associated with the minor merger that gives rise to the well known “dog-leg” stellar stream that projects from NGC 1097. When compared to other studies, NGC 1097 appears to be a “typical” absorber, although the large dispersion in absorption line column density and equivalent width in a single halo goes perhaps some way toward explaining the wide range of these values seen in higher-z studies. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  1. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M BH = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 106 M ☉. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  2. The Mass of the Central Black Hole in the Nearby Seyfert Galaxy NGC5273

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P; Parks, J Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G; Turner, Clay

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus. Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of $M_{\\rm BH} = (4.7 \\pm 1.6) \\times 10^6$ M$_{\\odot}$. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  3. The mass of the central black hole in the nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 5273

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentz, Misty C.; Horenstein, Daniel; Bazhaw, Craig; Manne-Nicholas, Emily R.; Ou-Yang, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Matthew; Jones, Jeremy; Norris, Ryan P.; Parks, J. Robert; Saylor, Dicy; Teems, Katherine G.; Turner, Clay, E-mail: bentz@astro.gsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 600, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We present the results of a reverberation-mapping program targeting NGC 5273, a nearby early-type galaxy with a broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN). Over the course of the monitoring program, NGC 5273 showed strong variability that allowed us to measure time delays in the responses of the broad optical recombination lines to changes in the continuum flux. A weighted average of these measurements results in a black hole mass determination of M {sub BH} = (4.7 ± 1.6) × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}. An estimate of the size of the black hole sphere of influence in NGC 5273 puts it just at the limit of the resolution achievable with current ground-based large aperture telescopes. NGC 5273 is therefore an important future target for a black hole mass determination from stellar dynamical modeling, especially because it is the only nearby early-type galaxy hosting an AGN with a reverberation-based mass, allowing the best comparison for the masses determined from these two techniques.

  4. A counter-rotating tilted gas disc in the peanut galaxy NGC~128

    CERN Document Server

    Emsellem, E; Emsellem, Eric; Arsenault, Robin

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained $V$, $R_c$, $I_c$ HRCAM images and TIGER spectrography of the central region of the peanut galaxy NGC~128. The colour images reveal the presence of a red disc tilted by about 26 degres with respect to the major-axis of the galaxy. This tilted disc is made of dust and gas, as revealed by the 2D TIGER map of the ionized gas distribution. The TIGER stellar and gas velocity fields show that the angular momentum vectors of the stellar and gaseous components are reversed. We therefore suggest that the gas orbits belong to the so-called anomalous family, which is evidence for a tumbling triaxial potential (a bar) associated with the peanut morphology. The bar formation has very probably been triggered through the interaction with its nearby companion NGC~127, from which the dissipative component is being accreted along retrograde orbits.

  5. Detailed photometric analysis of young star groups in the galaxy NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Jimena, Rodríguez María; Carlos, Feinstein

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to understand the global characteristics of the stellar populations in NGC 300. In particular, we focused our attention on searching young star groups and study their hierarchical organization. The research was conducted using archival point spread function fitting photometry measured from images in multiple bands obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys of the Hubble Space Telescope. Using the path linkage criterion, we cataloged young star groups and analyzed them from the observation of individual stars in the galaxy NGC 300. We also built stellar density maps from the bluest stars and applied the SExtractor code to identify overdensities. By plotting isocontours over the density maps and comparing the two methods, we could infer and delineate the hierarchical structure of the blue population in the galaxy. For each region of a detected young star group, we estimated the size and derived the radial surface density profiles for stellar populations of different color. A stati...

  6. XMM-Newton Observation of an X-ray Trail Between the Spiral Galaxy NGC6872 and the Central Elliptical NGC6876 in the Pavo Group

    CERN Document Server

    Machacek, M; Stirbat, L; Jones, C; Forman, W

    2004-01-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of a trail of enhanced X-rayemission extending along the 8'.7 X 4' region between the spiral NGC6872 and the dominant elliptical NGC6876 in the Pavo Group,the first known X-ray trail associated with a spiral galaxy in a poor galaxy group and, with projected length of 90 kpc, one of the longest X-ray trails observed in any system. The X-ray surface brightness in the trail region is roughly constant beyond ~20 kpc of NGC6876 in the direction of NGC6872. The trail is hotter (~ 1 keV) than the undisturbed Pavo IGM (~0.5 keV) and has low metal abundances (0.2 Zsolar). The 0.5-2 keV luminosity of the trail, measured using a 67 X 90 kpc rectangular region, is 6.6 X 10^{40} erg/s. We compare the properties of gas in the trail to the spectral properties of gas in the spiral NGC6872 and in the elliptical NGC6876 to constrain its origin. We suggest that the X-ray trail is either IGM gas gravitationally focused into a Bondi-Hoyle wake, a thermal mixture of ~64% Pavo IGM gas with ~36% ga...

  7. Theoretical Explanation of the Cosmic Ray Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient in the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    OpenAIRE

    Buffie, Kaitlynn; Heesen, Volker; Shalchi, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients are usually used to describe the propagation of Cosmic Rays through the Universe. Whereas such transport parameters can be obtained from experiments in the Solar System, it is difficult to determine diffusion coefficients in the Milky Way or in external galaxies. Recently a value for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient in the nearby starburst halaxy NGC 253 has been proposed. In the present paper we reproduce this value theoretically by using an advanced analytical ...

  8. A catalog of planetary nebula candidates in the Sculptor spiral galaxy NGC 300

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Miriam; Reyes-Perez, Jonnathan; Hernandez-Martinez, Liliana; Perez-Guillen, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    [OIII]5007 on-band off-band images, obtained with the VLT and FORS2 spectrograph in two zones (center and outskirts) of the spiral galaxy NGC300, are analyzed searching for emission line objects. In particular we search for planetary nebula (PN) candidates to analyze their distribution and luminosity properties, to perform follow-up spectroscopy, and to study the planetary nebula luminosity function, PNLF. In the continuum-subtracted images, a large number of emission line objects were detect...

  9. Multiband optical surface brightness profile decompositions of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 79 and NGC 5548

    OpenAIRE

    Mihov, Boyko; Slavcheva-Mihova, Lyuba

    2007-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the Johnson-Cousins (U)BVRI surface brightness profile decompositions of the Seyfert galaxies Mrk 79 and NGC 5548. The profiles were modelled as a sum of a Gaussian law for the nucleus, a Sersic law for the bulge and an exponent law for the disk. A flat bar was added to the model profile of Mrk 79. The parameters and the total magnitudes of the structural components were derived.

  10. Chandra and Very Large Array Observations of the Nearby Sd Galaxy NGC 45

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannuti, Thomas G.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Laine, Seppo; Schlegel, Eric M.; Lacey, Christina K.; Moffitt, William P.; Sharma, Biswas; Lackey-Stewart, Aaron M.; Kosakowski, Alekzander R.; Filipović, Miroslav D.; Payne, Jeffrey L.

    2015-09-01

    We present an analysis of high angular resolution observations made in the X-ray and the radio with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), respectively, of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 45. This galaxy is the third that we have considered in a study of the supernova remnant (SNR) populations of nearby spiral galaxies and the present work represents the first detailed analysis of the discrete X-ray and radio source populations of this galaxy. We analyzed data sets from the three pointed observations made of this galaxy with Chandra along with a merged data set obtained from combining these data sets: the total effective exposure time of the merged data set is 63515 s. A total of 25 discrete X-ray sources are found in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip, with 16 sources found within the visual extent of the galaxy. We estimate that as many as half of the sources detected in the entire field of view of the ACIS-S3 chip and seven of the sources detected in the optical extent of NGC 45 may be background sources. We analyzed the spectral properties of the discrete X-ray sources within the galaxy and conclude that the majority of these sources are X-ray binaries. We have searched for counterparts at different wavelengths to the discrete X-ray sources and we find two associations: one with a star cluster and the other with a background galaxy. We have found one source that is clearly variable within one observation and seven that are seen to vary from one observation to another. We also conduct a photometric analysis to determine the near-infrared fluxes of the discrete X-ray sources in Spitzer Infrared Array Camera channels. We constructed a cumulative luminosity function of the discrete X-ray sources seen toward NGC 45: taking into account simultaneously the luminosity function of background sources, the fitted slope of the cumulative luminosity function Γ = -1.3{}-1.6+0.7 (all error bounds correspond to 90% confidence

  11. The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998

    CERN Document Server

    Boardman, N F; Bosch, R C E van den; Zhu, L; Yildirim, A; van de Ven, G; Cappellari, M; de Zeeuw, P T; Emsellem, E; Krajnović, D; Naab, T

    2016-01-01

    We observed the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998 with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph and extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions out to 3 half-light radii. We constructed collisionless orbit models in order to constrain NGC 3998's dark and visible structure, using kinematics from both the Mitchell and SAURON instruments. We find NGC 3998 to be almost axisymmetric, seen nearly face on with a flattened intrinsic shape - i.e., a face-on fast-rotator. We find an I-band mass-to-light ratio of $4.7_{-0.45}^{+0.32}$ in good agreement with previous spectral fitting results for this galaxy. Our best-fit orbit model shows a both a bulge and a disc component, with a non-negligible counter-rotating component also evident. We find that relatively little dark matter is needed to model this galaxy, with an inferred dark mass fraction of just $(7.1^{+8.1}_{-7.1})\\%$ within one half-light radius.

  12. REVISITING THE ABUNDANCE GRADIENT IN THE MASER HOST GALAXY NGC 4258

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New spectroscopic observations of 36 H II regions in NGC 4258 obtained with the Gemini telescope are combined with existing data from the literature to measure the radial oxygen abundance gradient in this galaxy. The [O III]λ4363 auroral line was detected in four of the outermost targets (17-22 kpc from the galaxy center), allowing a determination of the electron temperature Te of the ionized gas. From the use of different calibrations of the R23 abundance indicator, an oxygen abundance gradient of approximately -0.012 ± 0.002 dex kpc-1 is derived. Such a shallow gradient, combined with the difference in the distance moduli measured from the Cepheid period-luminosity relation by Macri et al. between two distinct fields in NGC 4258, would yield an unrealistically strong effect of metallicity on the Cepheid distances. This strengthens the suggestion that systematic biases might affect the Cepheid distance of the outer field. Evidence for a similar effect in the differential study of M33 by Scowcroft et al. is presented. A revision of the transformation between strong-line and Te -based abundances in Cepheid-host galaxies is discussed. In the Te abundance scale, the oxygen abundance of the inner field of NGC 4258 is found to be comparable with the LMC value.

  13. The Structure of the Circumgalactic Medium of Galaxies: Cool Accretion Inflow Around NGC 1097

    CERN Document Server

    Bowen, D V; Jenkins, E B; Tripp, T M; Pettini, M; York, D G; Frye, B L

    2016-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope far-UV spectra of 4 QSOs whose sightlines pass through the halo of NGC 1097 at impact parameters of 48 -165 kpc. NGC 1097 is a nearby spiral galaxy that has undergone at least two minor merger events, but no apparent major mergers, and is relatively isolated with respect to other nearby bright galaxies. This makes NGC 1097 a good case study for exploring baryons in a paradigmatic bright-galaxy halo. Lyman-alpha absorption is detected along all sightlines and Si III 1206 is found along the 3 smallest impact parameter sightlines; metal lines of C II, Si II and Si IV are only found with certainty towards the inner-most sightline. The kinematics of the absorption lines are best replicated by a model with a disk-like distribution of gas approximately planar to the observed 21 cm H I disk, that is rotating more slowly than the inner disk, and into which gas is infalling from the intergalactic medium. Some part of the absorption towards the inner-most sightline may arise either from...

  14. The low dark matter content of the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Nicholas F.; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; van den Bosch, Remco; Zhu, Ling; Yildirim, Akin; van de Ven, Glenn; Cappellari, Michele; de Zeeuw, Tim; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; Naab, Thorsten

    2016-08-01

    We observed the lenticular galaxy NGC 3998 with the Mitchell Integral-Field Spectrograph and extracted line-of-sight velocity distributions out to 3 half-light radii. We constructed collisionless orbit models in order to constrain NGC 3998's dark and visible structure, using kinematics from both the Mitchell and SAURON instruments. We find NGC 3998 to be almost axisymmetric, seen nearly face on with a flattened intrinsic shape - i.e., a face-on fast-rotator. We find an I-band mass-to-light ratio of $4.7_{-0.45}^{+0.32}$ in good agreement with previous spectral fitting results for this galaxy. Our best-fit orbit model shows a both a bulge and a disc component, with a non-negligible counter-rotating component also evident. We find that relatively little dark matter is needed to model this galaxy, with an inferred dark mass fraction of just $(7.1^{+8.1}_{-7.1})\\%$ within one half-light radius.

  15. The Cuspy LINER Nucleus of the S0/a Galaxy NGC 2681

    CERN Document Server

    Cappellari, M; Burstein, D; Buson, L M; Greggio, L; Renzini, A; Cappellari, Michele; Bertola, Francesco; Burstein, David; Buson, Lucio M.; Greggio, Laura; Renzini, Alvio

    2001-01-01

    The nucleus of the bulge-dominated, multiply-barred S0/a galaxy NGC 2681 is studied in detail, using high resolution Hubble Space Telescope FOC and NICMOS imaging and FOS spectroscopy. The ionised gas central velocity dispersion is found to increase by a factor ~2 when narrowing the aperture from R~1.5" (ground) to R~0.1" (FOS). Dynamical modeling of these velocity dispersions suggests that NGC 2681 does host a supermassive black hole (BH) for which one can estimate a firm mass upper limit M_BH < 6*10^7 Solar Masses. This upper limit is consistent with the relation between the central BH mass and velocity dispersion M_BH - sigma known for other galaxies. The emission line ratios place the nucleus of NGC 2681 among LINERs. It is likely that the emission line region comes from a rather mild, but steady, feeding of gas to the central BH in this galaxy. The inner stellar population lacks any measurable color gradient (to a radius of 0.6 kpc) from the infrared to the ultraviolet, consistently with FOC, FOS and ...

  16. The Star Cluster Population of the Collisional Ring Galaxy NGC 922

    CERN Document Server

    Pellerin, Anne; Bekki, Kenji; Elmegreen, Debra M; Wong, O Ivy; Knezek, Patricia M

    2010-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the star cluster population detected in the galaxy NGC922, one of the closest collisional ring galaxies known to date, using HST/WFPC2 UBVI photometry, population synthesis models, and N-body/SPH simulations.We find that 69% of the clusters are younger than 7Myr, and that most of them are located in the ring or along the bar, consistent with the strong Halpha emission. The cluster luminosity function slope of 2.1-2.3 for NGC922 is in agreement with those of young clusters in nearby galaxies. Models of the cluster age distribution match the observations best when cluster disruption is considered. We also find clusters with ages (>50Myr) and masses (>10^5 Msun) that are excellent progenitors for faint fuzzy clusters. The images also show a tidal plume pointing toward the companion. Its stellar age from our analysis is consistent with pre-existing stars that were stripped off during the passage of the companion. Finally, a comparison of the star-forming complexes observed in NGC922...

  17. A counter-rotating tilted gas disc in the peanut galaxy NGC~128

    OpenAIRE

    Emsellem, Eric; Arsenault, Robin

    1997-01-01

    We have obtained $V$, $R_c$, $I_c$ HRCAM images and TIGER spectrography of the central region of the peanut galaxy NGC~128. The colour images reveal the presence of a red disc tilted by about 26 degres with respect to the major-axis of the galaxy. This tilted disc is made of dust and gas, as revealed by the 2D TIGER map of the ionized gas distribution. The TIGER stellar and gas velocity fields show that the angular momentum vectors of the stellar and gaseous components are reversed. We theref...

  18. Subaru High-Dispersion Spectroscopy of Narrow-Line Region in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151

    OpenAIRE

    Nagao, Tohru; Murayama, Takashi; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    We report on a study of forbidden emission-line spectrum of nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 based on the high-resolution (R ~ 45,000) optical spectrum obtained by using the High Dispersion Spectrograph boarded on the Subaru Telescope. The profile parameters such as the emission-line widths, the velocity shifts from the recession velocity of the host galaxy, and the asymmetry indices, for emission lines including very faint ones such as [Ar IV]4712,4740 and [Fe VI]5631,5677 are investigated...

  19. The Hydra I cluster core. I. Stellar populations in the cD galaxy NGC 3311

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, C. E.; Arnaboldi, M.; Coccato, L.; Hilker, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Richtler, T.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The history of the mass assembly of brightest cluster galaxies may be studied by mapping the stellar populations at large radial distances from the galaxy centre, where the dynamical times are long and preserve the chemodynamical signatures of the accretion events. Aims: We provide extended and robust measurements of the stellar population parameters in NGC 3311, the cD galaxy at the centre of the Hydra I cluster, and out to three effective radii. We wish to characterize the processes that drove the build-up of the stellar light at all these radii. Methods: We obtained the spectra from several regions in NGC 3311 covering an area of ~3 arcmin2 in the wavelength range 4800 ≲ λ(Å) ≲ 5800, using the FORS2 spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in the MXU mode. We measured the equivalent widths of seven absorption-features defined in the Lick/IDS system, which were modelled by single stellar populations, to provide luminosity-weighted ages, metallicities, and alpha element abundances. Results: The trends in the Lick indices and the distribution of the stellar population parameters indicate that the stars of NGC 3311 may be divided in two radial regimes, one within and the another beyond one effective radius, Re = 8.4 kpc, similar to the distinction between the inner galaxy and the external halo derived from the NGC 3311 velocity dispersion profile. The inner galaxy (R ≤ Re) is old (age ~14 Gyr), has negative metallicity gradients and positive alpha element gradients. The external halo is also very old, but has a negative age gradient. The metal and element abundances of the external halo both have a large scatter, indicating that stars from a variety of satellites with different masses have been accreted. The region in the extended halo associated with the off-centred envelope at 0°parent galaxies, either disks with truncated star formation, or the outer regions of early-type galaxies. Late mass accretion at large radii is now coming from the tidal

  20. An enhanced rate of tidal disruptions in the centrally overdense E+A galaxy NGC 3156

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Time domain optical surveys have discovered roughly a dozen candidate stellar tidal disruption flares in the last five years, and future surveys like the {\\it Large Synoptic Survey Telescope} will find hundreds to thousands more. These tidal disruption events (TDEs) present an interesting puzzle: a majority of the current TDE sample is hosted by rare post-starburst galaxies, and tens of percent are hosted in even rarer E+A galaxies, which make up $\\sim 0.1\\%$ of all galaxies in the local universe. E+As are therefore overrepresented among TDE hosts by 1-2 orders of magnitude, a discrepancy unlikely to be accounted for by selection effects. We analyze {\\it HST} photometry of one of the nearest E+A galaxies, NGC~3156, to estimate the rate of stellar tidal disruption produced as two-body relaxation diffuses stars onto orbits in the loss cone of the central supermassive black hole. The rate of TDEs produced by two-body relaxation in NGC~3156 is large when compared to other galaxies with similar black hole mass: $\\...

  1. Evolutionary properties of the low-luminosity galaxy population in the NGC5044 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, A; Saracco, P; Zucca, E

    2011-01-01

    With this third paper of a series we present Johnson-Gunn B,g,V,r,i,z multicolour photometry for 79 objects, including a significant fraction of the faintest galaxies around NGC5044, assessing group membership on the basis of apparent morphology and low-resolution optical spectroscopy to estimate redshift for 21 objects. Together, dE's and Im's provide the bulk of the galaxy luminosity function, around M(g)\\sim-18.0, while the S0 and dSph components dominate, respectively, the bright and faint-end tails of the distribution. This special mix places the NGC 5044 group just "midway" between the high-density cosmic aggregation scale typical of galaxy clusters, and the low-density environment of looser galaxy clumps like our Local Group. The bright mass of the 136 member galaxies with available photometry and morphological classification, amounts to a total of 2.3x10^{12}M_sun while current SFR within the group turns to be about or higher than 23M_sun/yr. In this regard, a drift toward bluer integrated colours is ...

  2. The SLUGGS survey: chromo-dynamical modelling of the lenticular galaxy NGC 1023

    CERN Document Server

    Cortesi, Arianna; Pota, Vincenzo; Foster, Caroline; Coccato, Lodovico; de Oliveira, Claudia Mendes; Forbes, Duncan A; Merrifield, Michael M; Bamford, Steven P; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Brodie, Jean P; Kartha, Sreeja S; Alabi, Adebusola B; Proctor, Robert N; Almeida, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) can be considered discrete, long-lived, dynamical tracers that retain crucial information about the assembly history of their parent galaxy. In this paper, we present a new catalogue of GC velocities and colours for the lenticular galaxy NGC 1023, we study their kinematics and spatial distribution, in comparison with the underlying stellar kinematics and surface brightness profile, and we test a new method for studying GC properties. Specifically, we decompose the galaxy light into its spheroid (assumed to represent the bulge + halo components) and disk components and use it to assign to each GC a probability of belonging to one of the two components. Then we model the galaxy kinematics, assuming a disk and spheroidal component, using planetary nebulae (PNe) and integrated stellar light. We use this kinematic model and the probability previously obtained from the photometry to recalculate for each GC its likelihood of being associated with the disk, the spheroid, or neither. We find th...

  3. Is NGC 3108 transforming itself from an early- to late-type galaxy - an astronomical hermaphrodite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hau, George K. T.; Bower, Richard G.; Kilborn, Virginia; Forbes, Duncan A.; Balogh, Michael L.; Oosterloo, Tom

    2008-04-01

    A common feature of hierarchical galaxy formation models is the process of `inverse' morphological transformation: a bulge dominated galaxy accretes a gas disc, dramatically reducing the system's bulge-to-disc mass ratio. During their formation, present-day galaxies may execute many such cycles across the Hubble diagram. A good candidate for such a `hermaphrodite' galaxy is NGC 3108: a dust-lane early-type galaxy which has a large amount of HI gas distributed in a large-scale disc. We present narrow-band Hα and R-band imaging, and compare the results with the HI distribution from the literature. The emission is in two components: a nuclear bar and an extended disc component which coincides with the HI distribution. This suggests that a stellar disc is currently being formed out of the HI gas. The spatial distributions of the Hα and HI emission and the HII regions are consistent with a barred spiral structure, extending some 20 kpc in radius. We measure an extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) of 0.42Msolaryr-1. The luminosity function of the HII regions is similar to other spiral galaxies, with a power-law index of -2.1, suggesting that the star formation mechanism is similar to other spiral galaxies. We measured the current disc mass and find that it is too massive to have been formed by the current SFR over the last few Gyr. It is likely that the SFR in NGC 3108 was higher in the past. With the current SFR, the disc in NGC 3108 will grow to be ~6.2 × 109Msolar in stellar mass within the next 5.5 Gyr. While this is substantial, the disc will be insignificant compared with the large bulge mass: the final stellar mass disc-to-bulge ratio will be ~0.02. NGC 3108 will fail to transform into anything resembling a spiral without a boost in the SFR and additional supply of gas.

  4. THE BULGELESS SEYFERT/LINER GALAXY NGC 3367: DISK, BAR, LOPSIDEDNESS, AND ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGC 3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar, and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and search for evidence of recent interaction. Our study is based on new UBVRI Hα and JHK images and on archive Hα Fabry-Perot and H I Very Large Array data. From a coupled one-dimensional/two-dimensional GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition a (B/D ∼ 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A near-infrared (NIR) estimate of the bar strength QmaxT(R) = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) the optical and NIR concentration-asymmetry-clumpiness indices, (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (Hα, H I) A1 Fourier mode amplitudes, and (3) the H I-integrated profile and H I mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the local universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A1 mode amplitudes suggesting that the gas has been recently perturbed and placing NGC 3367 in a global starburst phase. NGC 3367 is devoid of H I gas in the central regions where a significant amount of molecular CO gas exists instead. Our search for (1) faint stellar structures in the outer regions (up to μR ∼ 26 mag arcsec–2), (2) (Hα) star-forming satellite galaxies, and (3) regions with different colors (stellar populations) along the disk all failed. Such an absence is interpreted by using results from recent numerical simulations to constrain either a possible tidal event with an LMC like galaxy to some dynamical times in the past or a very low mass but perhaps gas rich recent encounter. We conclude that a cold flow accretion mode (gas and small/dark galaxies) may be responsible for the nuclear activity and peculiar (young stars and gas) morphology

  5. Chemical enrichment of the complex hot ISM of the Antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, A; Fabbiano, G; Zezas, A L; Rots, A H; Schweizer, F; King, A R; Ponman, T J

    2004-01-01

    We present an analysis of the properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the merging pair of galaxies known as The Antennae (NGC 4038/39), performed using the deep coadded ~411 ks Chandra ACIS-S data set. These deep observations and Chandra's high angular resolution allow us to investigate the properties of the hot ISM with unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. Through a spatially resolved spectral analysis, we find a variety of temperatures (from 0.2 to 0.9 keV), densities (from 3x10^-2 to 3x10^-1 cm^-3), and N_H (from Galactic to 2x10^21 cm^-2). Metal abundances for Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe vary dramatically throughout the ISM from sub-solar values (~0.2) up to ~20-30 times solar. Measures for the hot-gas mass (~10^7 solar masses), cooling times (10^7-10^8 yr), and pressure are derived. In the two nuclei the hot-gas pressure is significantly higher than the CO pressure, implying that shock waves may be driven into the CO clouds. Comparison of the abundances with the average stellar yields predicted b...

  6. On the progenitor of the Type Ic SN 2013dk in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Maund, Justyn R; Takáts, Katalin; Fraser, Morgan; Smartt, Stephen J; Benetti, Stefano; Pignata, Giuliano; Sand, David; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of our search for the progenitor candidate of SN 2013dk, a Type Ic supernova (SN) that exploded in NGC 4038 in the Antennae Galaxy system (distance 22.3 Mpc). We compare pre-explosion archival images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with SN images obtained using adaptive optics images taken with the ESO Very Large Telescope+Naos-Conica. We isolate the SN position to within 3 sigma uncertainty radius of 0.02", and show that there is no detectable point source in any of the HST filter images within the error circle. We set an upper limit to the absolute magnitude of the progenitor to be M_F555W > -5.7. In isolation, this does not allow Wolf-Rayet (WR) star progenitors to be ruled out but SN 2013dk joins the list of undetected supernova Ib/c progenitors. A bright source appears 0.17" away, which is either a single bright supergiant or compact cluster. Although the core is not obviously more extended than other point-like sources, we consider it most likely that it is a compact cl...

  7. UBVRI Light Curves of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 7469 During 1990-1998: Microvariability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkulova, N. I.

    2000-02-01

    Observations of the nuclear region of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 7469 obtained at Crimean Astrophysical Observatory with the 1.25 m telescope are presented. During 64 nights on nine observational runs between 1990 September 24 and 1998 October 22 in each spectral band of the Johnson UBVRI system, about 1500 measurements have been performed simultaneously through the round aperture 20" in diameter using differential photometry techniques. The estimated accuracy of each measurement is about 0.01 mag. During the observing period 1990-1996 the mean luminosity of the nucleus was almost constant; only overlapping brightness fluctuations were observed. The mean luminosity level has been raised in 1996 October. The peak amplitude (maximum flux/minimum flux) Fmax/Fmin=2.09 on the light curves was observed in the U band, while the minimum amplitude Fmax/Fmin=1.32 was in the I band for the entire observation period. Using structure function (SF) analysis, the following conclusions have been made: (1) Long-term variability is caused by the same processes in the optical, because the slope b of the SF is approximately equal for all wave bands, except for the I band the slope is appreciably distinguished from the others. This would be an indication of the presence of an independent IR energy source in NGC 7469. (2) Considering the same time interval (from 6 minutes to 2 hr) for intranight variability on SFs at different wave bands, one can conclude that flicker noise causes variations observed on the light curve at the UV region (U and B bands), while at the near-IR region the light curve is formed by mixed shot noise and flicker noise-the greater the wavelength, the more the contribution of shot noise processes. (3) On intranight light curves of the NGC 7469 there exist rapid flares with durations ~25 minutes at U band, ~55 minutes at B, V bands, and ~2 hr at R, I bands-a typical timescale of intranight variability increasing with the increasing wavelength. In order to examine the

  8. Kinematics of Superbubbles and Supershells in the Irregular Galaxy, NGC 1569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Cruces, M.; Rosado, M.; Rodríguez-González, A.; Reyes-Iturbide, J.

    2015-02-01

    We present observations in the optical lines of Hα and [S II] (λλ6717, 6731 Å) and in X-rays of the irregular galaxy, NGC 1569. The observations in Hα and [S II] were made with the UNAM scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (PUMA) and the X-ray data were obtained from the Chandra data archive. We detected several superbubbles, filaments, and supershells in NGC 1569 for which we determined size as well as their kinematic properties. We present a catalog of expansion velocities of 12 superbubbles, listing their positions, diameters, and physical parameters. Likewise, we present a catalog of 15 filaments and 4 supershells. In order to identify possible X-ray emission from the superbubbles in this galaxy, we analyzed the X-ray emission of NGC 1569 in two energy bands: 0.2-2.0 keV (soft X-rays) and 2.0-8.0 keV (hard X-rays). Based on X-ray images, we detected X-ray emission that could possibly be related to some of the superbubbles. The spectrum of the X-ray superbubbles can be described by an optically thin thermal plasma model. In order to identify the possible coexistence of galactic super winds and superbubbles we have performed adiabatic three-dimensional N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations to follow the evolution of the most important stellar clusters in this galaxy, SSC A and SSC B, using the GADGET-2 code. Those simulations demonstrate that depending on the specific initial conditions, the formation of superbubbles or a galactic superwind can result in NGC 1569.

  9. A dynamical model for the spiral galaxy ngc 3359

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rozas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, con simulaciones numéricas del medio interestelar, determinamos el patrón de velocidad y construimos un modelo dinámico para NGC 3359. Ésta es una galaxia espiral fuertemente barrada y estructuralmente compleja, incluyendo una zona anular con fuerte formación estelar. Presentamos simulaciones numéricas auto-consistentes del gas molecular de NGC 3359, y usando el potencial derivado de una imagen en la banda I, encontramos los parámetros responsables de la cinemática y de la morfología del gas observado. Los mejores resultados se han obtenido con un modelo con dos patrones de velocidad diferentes: la región central (hasta 15´´ que corresponde a la barra nuclear rota con una Ωs = 100 km s−1 kpc−1; y la barra principal, junto con la espiral externa, desacopladas de la región nuclear, que rota con una velocidad angular, Ωp = 27 km s−1 kpc−1. Este modelo reproduce bien la compleja estructura en Hα de la galaxia en la zona interna, la cual no puede ser explicada con un único patrón de velocidad.

  10. X-Ray Emission from a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Vagshette, N D; Pandey, S K; Patil, M K

    2015-01-01

    We report the multiband imagery with an emphasis on the X-ray emission properties of a prominent dust lane lenticular galaxy NGC 5866. X-ray emission from this galaxy is due to a diffuse component and a substantial contribution from the population of discrete X-ray binary sources. A total of 22 discrete sources have been detected within the optical D25 extent of the galaxy, few of which exhibit spatial association with the globular clusters hosted by this system. Composite spectrum of the diffuse emission from this galaxy was well constrained by a thermal plasma model plus a power law component to represent the emission from unresolved sources, while that of the discrete sources was well fitted by an absorbed power law component of photon index 1.82$\\pm$0.14. X-ray color-color plot for the resolved source was used to classify the detected sources. The cumulative X-ray luminosity function of the XRBs is well represented by a power law function of index of {\\Gamma} ~ 0.82$\\pm$0.12. Optical imagery of NGC 5866 r...

  11. Spectacular tails of ionised gas in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4569

    CERN Document Server

    Boselli, A; Fossati, M; Boissier, S; Bomans, D; Consolandi, G; Anselmi, G; Cortese, L; Cote, P; Durrell, P; Ferrarese, L; Fumagalli, M; Gavazzi, G; Gwyn, S; Hensler, G; Sun, M; Toloba, E

    2016-01-01

    We obtained using MegaCam at the CFHT a deep narrow band Halpha+[NII] wide field image of NGC 4569, the brightest late-type galaxy in the Virgo cluster. The image reveals the presence of long tails of diffuse ionised gas without any associated stellar component extending from the disc of the galaxy up to ~ 80 kpc (projected distance) with a typical surface brightness of a few 10^-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. These features provide direct evidence that NGC 4569 is undergoing a ram presure stripping event. The image also shows a prominent 8 kpc spur of ionised gas associated to the nucleus that spectroscopic data identify as an outflow. With some assumptions on the 3D distribution of the gas, we use the Halpha surface brightness of these extended low surface brightness features to derive the density and the mass of the gas stripped during the interaction of the galaxy with the ICM. The comparison with ad-hoc chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution indicates that the mass of the Halpha emitting gas in t...

  12. A new superwind galaxy: XMM-Newton observations of NGC 6810

    CERN Document Server

    Strickland, D K

    2007-01-01

    We present the first imaging X-ray observation of the highly inclined (i = 78 deg) Sab Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 6810 using XMM-Newton, which reveals soft X-ray emission that extends out to a projected height of ~7 kpc away from the plane of the galaxy. The soft X-ray emission beyond the optical disk of the galaxy is most plausibly extra-planar, although it could instead come from large galactic radius. This extended X-ray emission is spatially associated with diffuse H-alpha emission, in particular with a prominent 5-kpc-long H-alpha filament on the north-west of the disk. A fraction 2 kpc. Within the optical disk of the galaxy the soft X-ray emission is associated with the star-forming regions visible in ground-based H-alpha and XMM-Newton Optical Monitor near-UV imaging. The temperature, super-Solar alpha-element-to-iron abundance ratio, soft X-ray/H-alpha correlation, and X-ray to far-IR flux ratio of NGC 6810 are all consistent with local starbursts with winds, although the large base radius of the outflow w...

  13. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G

    2011-09-22

    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. PMID:21881560

  14. Serendipitous discovery of a dying Giant Radio Galaxy associated with NGC 1534, using the Murchison Widefield Array

    CERN Document Server

    Hurley-Walker, Natasha; Ekers, Ron; Hunstead, Richard; Sadler, Elaine M; Hindson, Luke; Hancock, Paul; Bernardi, Gianni; Bowman, Judd D; Briggs, Frank; Cappallo, Roger; Corey, Brian; Deshpande, Avinash A; Emrich, David; Gaensler, Bryan M; Goeke, Robert; Greenhill, Lincoln; Hazelton, Bryna J; Hewitt, Jacqueline; Kaplan, David L; Kasper, Justin; Kratzenberg, Eric; Lonsdale, Colin; Lynch, Mervyn; Mitchell, Daniel; McWhirter, Russell; Morales, Miguel; Morgan, Edward; Oberoi, Divya; Offringa, Andre; Ord, Stephen; Prabu, Thiagaraj; Rogers, Alan; Roshi, Anish; Shankar, Udaya; Srivani, K; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Tingay, Steven; Waterson, Mark; Wayth, Randall B; Webster, Rachel; Whitney, Alan; Williams, Andrew; Williams, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent observations with the Murchison Widefield Array at 185~MHz have serendipitously unveiled a heretofore unknown giant and relatively nearby ($z = 0.0178$) radio galaxy associated with NGC\\,1534. The diffuse emission presented here is the first indication that NGC\\,1534 is one of a rare class of objects (along with NGC\\,5128 and NGC\\,612) in which a galaxy with a prominent dust lane hosts radio emission on scales of $\\sim$700\\,kpc. We present details of the radio emission along with a detailed comparison with other radio galaxies with disks. NGC1534 is the lowest surface brightness radio galaxy known with an estimated scaled 1.4-GHz surface brightness of just 0.2\\,mJy\\,arcmin$^{-2}$. The radio lobes have one of the steepest spectral indices yet observed: $\\alpha=-2.1\\pm0.1$, and the core to lobe luminosity ratio is $<0.1$\\%. We estimate the space density of this low brightness (dying) phase of radio galaxy evolution as $7\\times10^{-7}$\\,Mpc$^{-3}$ and argue that normal AGN cannot spend more than 6\\% of...

  15. The potential role of NGC 205 in generating Andromeda's vast thin co-rotating plane of satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Angus, Garry W; Gentile, Gianfranco; Diaferio, Antonaldo

    2016-01-01

    The Andromeda galaxy is observed to have a system of two large dwarf ellipticals and ~13 smaller satellite galaxies that are currently co-rotating in a thin plane, in addition to 2 counter-rotating satellite galaxies. We explored the consistency of those observations with a scenario where the majority of the co-rotating satellite galaxies originated from a subhalo group, where NGC 205 was the host and the satellite galaxies occupied dark matter sub-subhalos. We ran N-body simulations of a close encounter between NGC 205 and M31. In the simulations, NGC 205 was surrounded by massless particles to statistically sample the distribution of the sub-subhalos expected in a subhalo that has a mass similar to NGC 205. We made Monte Carlo samplings and found that, using a set of reference parameters, the probability of producing a thinner distribution of sub-subhalos than the observed NGC 205 + 15 smaller satellites (thus including the 2 counter-rotators, but excluding M32) increased from <1e-8 for the initial distr...

  16. H_2O maser and a plasma obscuring torus in the radio galaxy NGC 1052

    CERN Document Server

    Sawada-Satoh, S; Nakamura, K; Namikawa, D; Shibata, K M; Inoue, M

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-frequency simultaneous VLBA observations at 15, 22 and 43 GHz towards the nucleus of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 1052. These three continuum images reveal a double-sided jet structure, whose relative intensity ratios imply that the jet axis is oriented close to the sky plane. The steeply rising spectra at 15-43 GHz at the inner edges of the jets strongly suggest that synchrotron emission is absorbed by foreground thermal plasma. We detected H_2O maser emission in the velocity range of 1550-1850 km/s, which is redshifted by 50-350 km/s with respect to the systemic velocity of NGC 1052. The redshifted maser gas appears projected against both sides of the jet, similar to the HI seen in absorption. The H_2O maser gas is located where the free-free absorption opacity is large. This probably implies that the masers in NGC 1052 are associated with a circumnuclear torus or disk as in the nucleus of NGC 4258. Such circumnuclear structure can be the sense of accreting onto the central engine.

  17. The hard X–ray emission of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 6240 as observed by NuSTAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puccetti, S.; Comastri, A.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Fiore, F.; Harrison, F. A.; Luo, B.; Stern, D.; Urry, C. M.; Alexander, D. M.; Annuar, A.; Arévalo, P.; Balokoviic, M.; Boggs, S. E.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, W. W.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; J. Koss, M.; La Massa, S.; Marinucci, A.; Ricci, C.; Walton, D. J.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a broad–band (∼0.3–70 keV) spectral and temporal analysis of NuSTAR observations of the luminous infrared galaxy NGC6240, combined with archival Chandra, XMM–Newton and BeppoSAX data. NGC 6240 is a galaxy in a relatively early merger statewith two distinct nuclei separated by ∼1...

  18. The SLUGGS Survey: Globular cluster kinematics in a "double sigma" galaxy - NGC 4473

    CERN Document Server

    Alabi, Adebusola B; Forbes, Duncan A; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Pastorello, Nicola; Brodie, Jean P; Spitler, Lee R; Strader, Jay; Usher, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4473 is a so--called double sigma (2$\\sigma$) galaxy, i.e. a galaxy with rare, double peaks in its 2D stellar velocity dispersion. Here, we present the globular cluster (GC) kinematics in NGC 4473 out to $\\sim10\\,R_e$ (effective radii) using data from combined HST/ACS and Subaru/Suprime--Cam imaging and Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. We find that the 2$\\sigma$ nature of NGC 4473 persists up to 3 $R_e$, though it becomes misaligned to the photometric major axis. We also observe a significant offset between the stellar and GC rotation amplitudes. This offset can be understood as a co--addition of counter--rotating stars producing little net stellar rotation. We identify a sharp radial transition in the GC kinematics at $\\sim4\\,R_e$ suggesting a well defined kinematically distinct halo. In the inner region ($4\\,R_e$), the red GCs rotate in an opposite direction compared to the inner region red GCs, along the photometric major axis, while the blue GCs rotate along an axis intermediate between the major and minor p...

  19. Hot gas in the center of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakai, Naomasa; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Nagai, Makoto; Ishii, Shun; Yamauchi, Aya

    2015-08-01

    The nearby (d = 19.7 Mpc) Seyfert galaxy NGC 3079 exhibits a prominent bubble emerging from the nucleus. In order to investigate the nuclear power source, we carried out ammonia observations toward the center of NGC 3079 with the Tsukuba 32-m telescope and the JVLA. The NH3 (J, K) = (1, 1) through (6,6) lines were detected in absorption at the center of NGC 3079 with the JVLA, although the profile of NH3(3,3) was in emission in contrast to the other transitions. All ammonia absorption lines have two distinct velocity components: one is at the systemic velocity (Vsys ~ 1116 km s-1) and the other is blueshifted (Vsys ~ 1020 km s-1), and both components are aligned along the nuclear jets. The blueshifted NH3(3,3) emission can be regarded as ammonia masers associated with shocks by strong winds probably from newly formed massive stars or supernova explosions in the nuclear megamaser disk. The derived rotational temperature, Trot = 120±12 K for the systemic component and Trot = 157±19 K for the blueshifted component, and fractional abundance of NH3 relative to molecular hydrogen H2 are higher than those in other galaxies reported. The high temperature environment at the center may be mainly attributed to heating by the nuclear jets.

  20. Abundance ratios and IMF slope in the dwarf elliptical galaxy NGC~1396 with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Mentz, J J; Peletier, R F; Falcón-Barroso, J; Lisker, T; van de Ven, G; Loubser, S I; Hilker, M; Sánchez-Janssen, R; Napolitano, N; Cantiello, M; Capaccioli, M; Norris, M; Paolillo, M; Smith, R; Beasley, M A; Lyubenova, M; Munoz, R; Puzia, T

    2016-01-01

    Deep observations of the dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxy NGC 1396 (M$_V = -16.60$, Mass $\\sim 4\\times10^8$ M$_\\odot$), located in the Fornax cluster, have been performed with the VLT/ MUSE spectrograph in the wavelength region from $4750-9350$ \\AA{}. In this paper we present a stellar population analysis studying chemical abundances, the star formation history (SFH) and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) as a function of galacto-centric distance. Different, independent ways to analyse the stellar populations result in a luminosity-weighted age of $\\sim$ 6 Gyr and a metallicity [Fe/H]$\\sim$ $-0.4$, similar to other dEs of similar mass. We find unusually overabundant values of [Ca/Fe] $\\sim +0.1$, and under-abundant Sodium, with [Na/Fe] values around $-0.1$, while [Mg/Fe] is overabundant at all radii, increasing from $\\sim+0.1$ in the centre to $\\sim +0.2$ dex. We notice a significant metallicity and age gradient within this dwarf galaxy. To constrain the stellar IMF of NGC 1396, we find that the IMF of NGC 1...

  1. BeppoSAX Observations of the Seyfert-2 Galaxies NGC 7172 and ESO 103-G35

    CERN Document Server

    Akylas, A; Comastri, A

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectra of the type-2 Seyfert galaxies NGC 7172 and ESO 103-G35, using BeppoSAX observations, separated by approximately one year. We find that the X-ray spectra of both NGC 7172 and ESO 103-G35 can be well fitted using a power-law model with an Fe K emission line at 6.4 keV. We did not find any statistically significant evidence for the existence of a reflection component in the X-ray spectra of these two galaxies. The continuum flux has decreased by a factor of approximately two during this period, in both objects. However, the spectral index as well as the absorption column have remained constant. We find weak evidence for the decrease of the normalization of the Fe K emission line in a similar manner to the continuum in NGC7172. We also report evidence for a broad Fe K confirming previous observations. In contrast, in the case of ESO 103-G35 the line flux does not change while its width remains unresolved.

  2. Exploring the mass assembly of the early-type disc galaxy NGC3115 with MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Guérou, Adrien; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M; Contini, Thierry; Weilbacher, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    We present MUSE integral field spectroscopic data of the S0 galaxy NGC 3115 obtained during the instrument commissioning at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). We analyse the galaxy stellar kinematics and stellar populations and present two dimensional maps of their associated quantities. We thus illustrate the capacity of MUSE to map extra-galactic sources to large radii in an efficient manner, i.e., ~4 Re, and provide relevant constraints on its mass assembly. We probe the well known set of substructures of NGC 3115 (its nuclear disc, stellar rings, outer kpc-scale stellar disc and spheroid) and show their individual associated signatures in the MUSE stellar kinematics and stellar populations maps. In particular, we confirm that NGC 3115 has a thin fast rotating stellar disc embedded in a fast rotating spheroid, and that these two structures show clear differences in their stellar age and metallicity properties. We emphasise an observed correlation between the radial stellar velocity, V, and the Gauss-Hermi...

  3. A Jet Model for the Broadband Spectrum of the Seyfert-1 Galaxy NGC 4051

    CERN Document Server

    Maitra, Dipankar; Markoff, Sera; King, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    Recent radio VLBI observations of the ~parsec-scale nuclear region of the narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 hint toward the presence of outflowing plasma. From available literature we have collected high-quality, high-resolution broadband spectral energy distribution data of the nuclear region of NGC 4051 spanning from radio through X-rays, to test whether the broadband SED can be explained within the framework of a relativistically outflowing jet model. We show that once the contribution from the host galaxy is taken into account, the broadband emission from the active galactic nucleus of NGC 4051 can be well described by the jet model. Contributions from dust and ongoing star-formation in the nuclear region tend to dominate the IR emission even at the highest resolutions. In the framework of the jet model, the correlated high variability of the extreme ultraviolet and X-rays compared to other wavelengths suggests that the emission at these wavelengths is optically thin synchrotron originating in the par...

  4. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VI. The Ancient Star Forming disk of NGC 404

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Karoline M; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel; Skillman, Evan

    2010-01-01

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. Our deepest field reaches the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ~70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z~2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ~90% formed prior to z~1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early and late type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in GALEX images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mas...

  5. The Young Stellar Population of the Nearby Late-Type Galaxy NGC 1311

    CERN Document Server

    Eskridge, Paul B; Mager, Violet A; Jansen, Rolf A

    2010-01-01

    We have extracted PSF-fitted stellar photometry from near-ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared images, obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope, of the nearby (D ~ 5.5 Mpc) SBm galaxy NGC 1311. The ultraviolet and optical data reveal a population of hot main sequence stars with ages of 2-10 Myr. We also find populations of blue supergiants with ages between 10 and 40 Myr and red supergiants with ages between 10 and 100 Myr. Our near-infrared data shows evidence of star formation going back ~1 Gyr, in agreement with previous work. Fits to isochrones indicate a metallicity of Z ~ 0.004. The ratio of blue to red supergiants is consistent with this metallicity. This indicates that NGC 1311 follows the well-known luminosity-metallicity relation for late-type dwarf galaxies. About half of the hot main sequence stars and blue supergiants are found in two regions in the inner part of NGC 1311. These two regions are each about 200 pc across, and thus have crossing times roughly equal to the 10 Myr age we find for th...

  6. Cold dust in the giant barred galaxy NGC 1365

    OpenAIRE

    Tabatabaei, F. S.; Weiß, A.; Combes, F; Henkel, C.; Menten, K. M.; Beck, R.; Kovács, A.; Güsten, R.

    2013-01-01

    Constraining the physcial properties of dust requires observations at submm wavelengths. This will provide important insight into the gas content of galaxies. We mapped NGC 1365 at 870 μm with LABOCA, the Large APEX Bolometer Camera, allowing us to probe the central mass concentration as well as the rate at which the gas flows to the center. We obtained the dust physical properties both globally and locally for different locations in the galaxy. A 20 K modified black body represents about 98%...

  7. Globular Cluster Scale Sizes in Giant Galaxies: Orbital Anisotropy and Tidally Under-filling Clusters in M87, NGC 1399, and NGC 5128

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Jeremy J; Harris, William E; Gómez, Matías; Paolillo, Maurizio; Woodley, Kristin A; Puzia, Thomas H

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the shallow increase in globular cluster half-light radii with projected galactocentric distance $R_{gc}$ observed in the giant galaxies M87, NGC 1399, and NGC 5128. To model the trend in each galaxy, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy and tidally under-filling clusters. While a strong degeneracy exists between the two parameters, we use kinematic studies to help constrain the distance $R_\\beta$ beyond which cluster orbits become anisotropic, as well as the distance $R_{f\\alpha}$ beyond which clusters are tidally under-filling. For M87 we find $R_\\beta > 27$ kpc and $20 13$ kpc and $10 5$ kpc and $R_{f\\alpha} > 30$ kpc. While we cannot rule out a dependence on $R_{gc}$, NGC 5128 is well fitted by a tidally filling cluster population with an isotropic distribution of orbits, suggesting it may have formed via an initial fast accretion phase. Perturbations from the surrounding environment may also affect a galaxy's orbital anisotropy profile, as outer clusters in M87 and NGC 1399 have ...

  8. Ram pressure stripping of the multiphase ISM in the Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4438

    CERN Document Server

    Vollmer, B; Chung, A; Chemin, L; Braine, J; Boselli, A; Beck, R

    2009-01-01

    Ram pressure stripping of the multiphase ISM is studied in the perturbed Virgo cluster spiral galaxy NGC 4438. This galaxy underwent a tidal interaction ~100 Myr ago and is now strongly affected by ram pressure stripping. Deep VLA radio continuum observations at 6 and 20 cm are presented. We detect prominent extraplanar emission to the west of the galactic center, which extends twice as far as the other tracers of extraplanar material. The spectral index of the extraplanar emission does not steepen with increasing distance from the galaxy. This implies in situ re-acceleration of relativistic electrons. The comparison with multiwavelength observations shows that the magnetic field and the warm ionized interstellar medium traced by Halpha emission are closely linked. The kinematics of the northern extraplanar Halpha emission, which is ascribed to star formation, follow those of the extraplanar CO emission. In the western and southern extraplanar regions, the Halpha measured velocities are greater than those of ...

  9. Chandra Detection of a Hot Gaseous Corona Around the Edge-on Galaxy NGC 4631

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Q D; Walterbos, R; Lauroesch, J T; Breitschwerdt, D; Immler, Stefan; Walterbos, Rene; Lauroesch, James T.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray observation that shows, unambiguously for the first time, the presence of a giant diffuse X-ray-emitting corona around the edge-on disk galaxy NGC 4631. This corona, with a characteristic thermal temperature of 2-7\\times10^6 K, extends as far as 8 kpc away from the galactic plane. The X-ray morphology resembles the radio halo of the galaxy, indicating a close connection between outflows of hot gas, cosmic rays, and magnetic field from the galactic disk. Enhanced diffuse X-ray emission is apparently enclosed by numerous H\\alpha-emitting loops blistered out from the central disk of the galaxy, as is evident in a comparison with our deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging.

  10. Deep Fabry-Perot imaging of NGC 6240: Kinematic evidence for merging galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have observed the superluminous, infrared galaxy NGC 6240 (z = 0.025) at H alpha with the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI - Bland and Tully 1989). During the past decade, observational evidence from all wavebands indicates that the unusual appearance of NGC 6240 has resulted from a collision between two gas-rich systems, a view which is supported by our spectrophotometric data. However, the origin of the enormous infrared luminosity (4 times 10(exp 11) solar luminosity) detected by the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) remains highly controversial, where opinions differ on the relative roles of large-scale shocks, massive star formation or a buried active nucleus. These mechanisms are discussed in the light of the author's Fabry-Perot observations

  11. The Chandra, HST, and VLA View of the Circumnuclear Extended Emission in the Narrow Emission Line Galaxy NGC 2110

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Kamenetska, M; Gallagher, S C; Kraft, R P; Hardcastle, M J; Weaver, K A; Evans, Daniel A.; Lee, Julia C.; Kamenetska, Maria; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Weaver, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from new Chandra and archival HST and VLA imaging observations of the circumnuclear extended emission in the nearby Type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 2110. We find resolved soft-band X-ray emission 4'' (~160 pc) north of the nucleus, which is spatially coincident with [OIII] emission, but lies just beyond the northern edge of the radio jet in the source. We find that shock-heating of multi-phase gas clouds can successfully account for this extended emission, although we cannot rule out alternative models, such as the scattering of nuclear radiation by ionized material, or pure photoionization from the nucleus. In addition, we detect kpc-scale (~30'') extended soft-band X-ray emission south of the nucleus. Finally, we compare our results for NGC 2110 with the prototypical Type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068, and suggest that different physical processes could produce extended circumnuclear X-ray emission in Seyfert galaxies.

  12. The STIS GTO Galaxy Nuclear Dynamics Project: The Stellar Dynamics in the Center of the Galaxy NGC 1023

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, G. A.; Green, R. F.; Gebhardt, K.; Bender, R.; STIS Team

    1999-12-01

    The STIS Investigation Definition Team is conducting a long-term program to confirm the presence of dark compact objects (presumably supermassive black holes, hereafter BHs) in the nuclei of several galaxies based on preliminary evidence from earlier studies, and to search for evidence of BHs in a sample of galaxies where the ground-based dynamical evidence for a BH is non-existent or weak. Through this program, we will contribute to the effort toward understanding the demographics of BHs, which are interesting for two reasons. Firstly, present data indicate a possible relationship between the mass of a BH and the mass of the galaxy spheroid within which it is embedded, thus suggesting that BH formation may be closely linked to the formation of galaxy bulges. Secondly, the demographics of local BHs provide a constraint on the accretion properties of quasars at earlier cosmological epochs. In this talk and others by our team in this session, we present preliminary results from our STIS spectroscopy of a selection of galaxies from our program. The primary observational diagnostic of a dark compact mass is measuring and interpreting the nuclear stellar dynamics in the sphere of influence of the candidate BH. The observations involve long-slit spectroscopy of a galaxy nucleus with the wavelength coverage including the strong Ca II triplet absorption lines near 8600 Angstroms. After calibrating the spectrum, we measure the stellar dynamics using the Fourier Correlation Quotient method. These measurements map the nuclear gravitational potential. Using the observed stellar dynamics and surface brightness distribution as input, we fit galaxy dynamical models to these observations to determine if there is evidence for a dark compact object. This talk presents this methodology applied to NGC 1023, which was the first galaxy observed in our program. Support for this work was provided to the STIS IDT by NASA.

  13. Spectroscopic Study of Extended Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxy NGC 6822

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Narae; Park, Hong Soo; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W.; Kim, Sang Chul; Miller, Bryan; Weisz, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on the Gemini-South 8.1 m telescope. The radial velocities derived from the spectra range from -61.2 ± 20.4 km s-1 (for C1) to -115.34 ± 57.9 km s-1 (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate-age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old (>=8 Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H] = 20'(2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have determined the total mass and the mass-to-light ratio of NGC 6822: M_{N6822} = 7.5^{+4.5}_{-0.1} \\times 10^{9}\\ M_{\\odot } and (M/L)_{N6822} = 75^{+45}_{-1} (M/L)_{\\odot }. It shows that NGC 6822 is one of the most dark matter dominated dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil), and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina).

  14. Star formation histories across the interacting galaxy NGC 6872, the largest-known spiral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGC 6872, hereafter the Condor, is a large spiral galaxy that is interacting with its closest companion, the S0 galaxy IC 4970. The extent of the Condor provides an opportunity for detailed investigation of the impact of the interaction on the current star formation rate and its history across the galaxy, on the age and spatial distribution of its stellar population, and on the mechanism that drives the star formation activity. To address these issues we analyzed the far-ultraviolet (FUV) to near-infrared (near-IR) spectral energy distribution of seventeen 10 kpc diameter regions across the galaxy, and derived their star formation history, current star formation rate, and stellar population and mass. We find that most of the star formation takes place in the extended arms, with very little star formation in the central 5 kpc of the galaxy, in contrast to what was predicted from previous numerical simulations. There is a trend of increasing star formation activity with distance from the nucleus of the galaxy, and no evidence for a recent increase in the current star formation rate due to the interaction. The nucleus itself shows no significant current star formation activity. The extent of the Condor also provides an opportunity to test the applicability of a single standard prescription for conversion of the FUV + IR (22 μm) intensities to a star formation rate for all regions. We find that the conversion factor differs from region to region, arising from regional differences in the stellar populations.

  15. The RINGS Survey I: Halpha and HI Velocity Maps of Galaxy NGC 2280

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, Carl J; Spekkens, Kristine; Lee-Waddell, K; de Naray, Rachel Kuzio; Sellwood, J A

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurements of gas kinematics in the disk of a spiral galaxy can be used to estimate its mass distribution. The Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) has a large collecting area and field of view, and is equipped with a Fabry-Perot interferometer that can measure gas kinematics in a galaxy from the Halpha line. To take advantage of this capability, we have constructed a sample of 19 nearby spiral galaxies, the RSS Imaging and Spectroscopy Nearby Galaxy Survey (RINGS), as targets for detailed study of their mass distributions and have collected much of the needed data. In this paper, we present velocity maps produced from Halpha Fabry-Perot interferometry and HI aperture synthesis for one of these galaxies, NGC 2280, and show that the two velocity measurements are generally in excellent agreement. Minor differences can mostly be attributed to the different spatial distributions of the excited and neutral gas in this galaxy, but we do detect some anomalous velocities in our Halpha velocity map of the...

  16. THE MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4649 FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXTENDED GRAVITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliptical galaxies are systems where dark matter is usually less necessary to explain observed dynamics than in the case of spiral galaxies; however, there are some instances where Newtonian gravity and the observable mass are insufficient to explain their observed structure and kinematics. Such is the case of NGC 4649, a massive elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster for which recent studies report a high fraction of dark matter, 0.78 at 4 Re . However, this galaxy has been studied within the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis, where a good agreement with the observed values of velocity dispersion is found. Using a MONDian gravity force law, here we model this galaxy as a self-consistent gravitational equilibrium dynamical system. This force law reproduces the MOND phenomenology in the a 0 regime, and reduces to the Newtonian case when a > a0. Within the MONDian a 0 scales, centrifugal equilibrium or dispersion velocities become independent of radius, and show a direct proportionality to the fourth root of the total baryonic mass, V 4∝(MGa0). We find that the recent detailed observations of the surface brightness profile and the velocity dispersion profile for this galaxy are consistent with the phenomenology expected in MONDian theories of modified gravity, without the need to invoke the presence of any hypothetical dark matter.

  17. THE MASSIVE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4649 FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF EXTENDED GRAVITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez, M. A.; Garcia, G.; Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Nasser, L., E-mail: mjimenez@astro.unam.mx [Department of Science and Mathematics, Columbia College, Chicago, 1L 60605 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Elliptical galaxies are systems where dark matter is usually less necessary to explain observed dynamics than in the case of spiral galaxies; however, there are some instances where Newtonian gravity and the observable mass are insufficient to explain their observed structure and kinematics. Such is the case of NGC 4649, a massive elliptical galaxy in the Virgo cluster for which recent studies report a high fraction of dark matter, 0.78 at 4 R{sub e} . However, this galaxy has been studied within the MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) hypothesis, where a good agreement with the observed values of velocity dispersion is found. Using a MONDian gravity force law, here we model this galaxy as a self-consistent gravitational equilibrium dynamical system. This force law reproduces the MOND phenomenology in the a < a{sub 0} regime, and reduces to the Newtonian case when a > a{sub 0}. Within the MONDian a < a{sub 0} scales, centrifugal equilibrium or dispersion velocities become independent of radius, and show a direct proportionality to the fourth root of the total baryonic mass, V {sup 4}{proportional_to}(MGa{sub 0}). We find that the recent detailed observations of the surface brightness profile and the velocity dispersion profile for this galaxy are consistent with the phenomenology expected in MONDian theories of modified gravity, without the need to invoke the presence of any hypothetical dark matter.

  18. The flaring Hi disk of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, B.; Nehlig, F.; Ibata, R.

    2016-02-01

    New deep VLA D array Hi observations of the highly inclined nearby spiral galaxy NGC 2683 are presented. Archival C array data were processed and added to the new observations. To investigate the 3D structure of the atomic gas disk, we made different 3D models for which we produced model Hi data cubes. The main ingredients of our best-fit model are (i) a thin disk inclined by 80°; (ii) a crude approximation of a spiral and/or bar structure by an elliptical surface density distribution of the gas disk; (iii) a slight warp in inclination between 10 kpc ≤ R ≤ 20 kpc (decreasing by 10°); (iv) an exponential flare that rises from 0.5 kpc at R = 9 kpc to 4 kpc at R = 15 kpc, stays constant until R = 22 kpc, and decreases its height for R> 22 kpc; and (v) a low surface-density gas ring with a vertical offset of 1.3 kpc. The slope of NGC 2683's flare is comparable, but somewhat steeper than those of other spiral galaxies. NGC 2683's maximum height of the flare is also comparable to those of other galaxies. On the other hand, a saturation of the flare is only observed in NGC 2683. Based on the comparison between the high resolution model and observations, we exclude the existence of an extended atomic gas halo around the optical and thin gas disk. Under the assumption of vertical hydrostatic equilibrium we derive the vertical velocity dispersion of the gas. The high turbulent velocity dispersion in the flare can be explained by energy injection by (i) supernovae; (ii) magneto-rotational instabilities; (iii) interstellar medium stirring by dark matter substructure; or (iv) external gas accretion. The existence of the complex large-scale warping and asymmetries favors external gas accretion as one of the major energy sources that drives turbulence in the outer gas disk. We propose a scenario where this external accretion leads to turbulent adiabatic compression that enhances the turbulent velocity dispersion and might quench star formation in the outer gas disk of NGC

  19. Investigating the nuclear activity of barred spiral galaxies: the case of NGC 1672

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, L P; Colbert, E J M; Koribalski, B; Kuntz, K D; Levan, A J; Ojha, R; Roberts, T P; Ward, M J; Zezas, A

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and ATCA ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy, many of which correlate spatially with star-formation in the bar and spiral arms, while two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ULXs, with the three brightest (LX > 5E39 erg/s) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC1672 possesses a hard (Gamma~1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4E38 erg/s. This is surrounded by an X-ray bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources an...

  20. The fluorescence-dominated X-ray spectrum of the spiral galaxy NGC 6552

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Makishima, Kazuo; Ebisawa, Ken; Fabian, Andrew C.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Ikebe, Yasushi; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Kii, Tsuneo; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Ohashi, Takaya

    1994-01-01

    A hard X-ray source with a 2-10 keV flux of approximately 6 x 10(exp -13) ergs/sec/sq cm was detected with ASCA in the north ecliptic pole region. It is identified with the spiral galaxy NGC 6552 at a redshift of z = 0.026, which is optically classified as a Seyfert 2 galaxy. The X-ray spectrum consists of a series of atomic K-emission lines from (nearly-) neutral species of at least seven abundant elements, and a heavily absorbed (N(sub H) approx. = 6 x 10(exp 23)/sq cm) hard continuum. The iron line has an equivalent width as large as approximately 0.9 keV. Our results show that NGC 6552 is an extreme type 2 Seyfert galaxy, in which the fluorescent lines are produced when hard X-rays from a hidden active nucleus are reflected off thick cool matter into our line of sight. The intrinsic 2-10 keV luminosity of the nucleus is estimated to be at least 6 x 10(exp 42) ergs/s.

  1. CHANG-ES. VII. Magnetic Outflows from the Virgo Cluster Galaxy NGC 4388

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas-Segovia, A.; Beck, R.; Vollmer, B.; Wiegert, T.; Krause, M.; Irwin, J.; Weżgowiec, M.; Li, J.; Dettmar, R.-J.; English, J.; Wang, Q. D.

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the effects of ram pressure on the ordered magnetic field of a galaxy hosting a radio halo and strong nuclear outflows. New radio images in total and polarized intensity of the edge-on Virgo galaxy NGC 4388 were obtained within the CHANG-ES EVLA project. The unprecedented noise level reached allows us to detect striking new features of the ordered magnetic field. The nuclear outflow extends far into the halo to about 5 kpc from the center and is spatially correlated with the {{H}}α and X-ray emission. For the first time, the southern outflow is detected. Above and below both spiral arms we find extended blobs of polarized emission with an ordered field oriented perpendicular to the disk. The synchrotron lifetime of the cosmic-ray electrons (CREs) in these regions yields a mean outflow velocity of 270+/- 70 {km} {{{s}}}-1, in agreement with a galactic wind scenario. The observed symmetry of the polarized halo features in NGC 4388 excludes a compression of the halo gas by the ram pressure of the intracluster medium (ICM). The assumption of equilibrium between the halo pressure and the ICM ram pressure yields an estimate of the ICM density that is consistent with both the ICM density derived from X-ray observations and the recent Planck Sunyaev–Zel’dovich measurements. The detection of a faint radio halo around cluster galaxies could thus be used for an estimate of ICM ram pressure.

  2. Intermediate-band Surface Photometry of the Edge-on Galaxy NGC 4565

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, H; Deng, Z; Wu, Hong; Burstein, Dave; Deng, Zugan

    2002-01-01

    We present a deep, 42.79 hr image of the nearby, edge-on galaxy NGC 4565 in the Beijing-Arizona-Taipei-Connecticut (BATC) 6660A band using the large-format CCD system on the 0.6m Schmidt telescope at the Xinglong Station of the National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC). we obtain a final image that is calibrated to an accuracy of 0.02 mag in zero point, and for which we can measure galaxy surface brightness to an accuracy of 0.25 mag at a surface brightness at 27.5 mag arcsec^-2 at 6660A, corresponding to a distance of 22 kpc from the center of the disk. The integrated magnitude of NGC4565 in our filter is m6660=8.99 (R magnitude of 9.1) to a surface brightness of 28 mag arcsec-2. We analyze the faint outer parts of this galaxy using a two-dimensional model comprised of three components: an exponential thin disk, an exponential thick disk, and a power-law halo. A total of 12 parameters are included in our model. We determine the best values of our model parameters via 10,000 random initial values, 3...

  3. Discovery of a deep Seyfert-2 galaxy at z = 0.222 behind NGC 300

    CERN Document Server

    Combi, J A; Rodriguez, M J; Gamen, R; Cellone, S A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the unveiling of the nature of the unidentified X-ray source 3XMM J005450.3-373849 as a Seyfert-2 galaxy located behind the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope data, new spectroscopic Gemini observations and available XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We show that the X-ray source is positionally coincident with an extended optical source, composed by a marginally resolved nucleus/bulge, surrounded by an elliptical disc-like feature and two symmetrical outer rings. The optical spectrum is typical of a Seyfert-2 galaxy redshifted to z=0.222 +/- 0.001, which confirms that the source is not physically related to NGC 300. At this redshift the source would be located at 909+/-4 Mpc (comoving distance in the standard model). The X-ray spectra of the source are well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model. By tying $N_\\mathrm{H}$ between the six available spectra, we found a variable index $\\Gamma$ running from ~2 in 2000-2001 years, to 1.4-1.6 in the 2005-2014 period. Alternatively, by tying $\\...

  4. Dust in the Radio Galaxy and Merger Remnant NGC 1316 (Fornax A)

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas; Leeuw, Lerothodi

    2014-01-01

    We present dust maps of NGC 1316 (Fornax A), a well-studied early-type galaxy located in the outskirts of the Fornax cluster. We used the Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA), operating at 870 micron with an angular resolution of 19.5 arcseconds on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) 12m submillimeter telescope in Chile and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). WISE observes in four mid-infrared bands centered at 3.4, 4.6, 12 and 22 micron with angular resolutions ranging from 6 to 12 arcseconds. The WISE and LABOCA maps reveal emission from dust in the central 2 arcminutes of NGC 1316. The disturbed optical morphology with many shells and loops, the complex distribution of molecular gas and our dust maps are evidences of past merger activity or gas accretion in the galaxy. Combining the LABOCA flux measurement with existing mid- and far-infrared measurements, we estimate the temperature of the cold (~20 K) and warm (~55 K) dust components in the galaxy. This study will be extended to other sou...

  5. The Bulgeless Seyfert/LINER Galaxy NGC 3367: Disk, Bar, Lopsidedness and Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández-Toledo, H M; Valenzuela, O; Puerari, I; García-Barreto, J A; Moreno-Díaz, E; Bravo-Alfaro, H

    2011-01-01

    NGC3367 is a nearby isolated active galaxy that shows a radio jet, a strong bar and evidence of lopsidedness. We present a quantitative analysis of the stellar and gaseous structure of the galaxy disk and a search for evidence of recent interaction based on new UBVRI Halpha and JHK images and on archival Halpha Fabry-Perot and HI VLA data. From a coupled 1D/2D GALFIT bulge/bar/disk decomposition an (B/D ~ 0.07-0.1) exponential pseudobulge is inferred in all the observed bands. A NIR estimate of the bar strength = 0.44 places NGC 3367 bar among the strongest ones. The asymmetry properties were studied using (1) optical and NIR CAS indexes (2) the stellar (NIR) and gaseous (Halpha, HI) A_1 Fourier mode amplitudes and (3) the HI integrated profile and HI mean intensity distribution. While the average stellar component shows asymmetry values close to the average found in the Local Universe for isolated galaxies, the young stellar component and gas values are largely decoupled showing significantly larger A_1 mod...

  6. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CONSTRAIN THE MASS RATIO OF MINOR MERGERS IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES: APPLICATION TO NGC 4889, THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY IN COMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minor mergers are thought to be important for the buildup and structural evolution of massive elliptical galaxies. In this work, we report the discovery of a system of four shell features in NGC 4889, one of the brightest members of the Coma cluster, using optical images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The shells are well aligned with the major axis of the host and are likely to have been formed by the accretion of a small satellite galaxy. We have performed a detailed two-dimensional photometric decomposition of NGC 4889 and of the many overlapping nearby galaxies in its vicinity. This comprehensive model allows us not only to firmly detect the low-surface brightness shells, but, crucially, also to accurately measure their luminosities and colors. The shells are bluer than the underlying stars at the same radius in the main galaxy. We make use of the colors of the shells and the color-magnitude relation of the Coma cluster to infer the luminosity (or mass) of the progenitor galaxy. The shells in NGC 4889 appear to have been produced by the minor merger of a moderate-luminosity (MI ≈ –18.7 mag) disk (S0 or spiral) galaxy with a luminosity (mass) ratio of ∼90:1 with respect to the primary galaxy. The novel methodology presented in this work can be exploited to decode the fossil record imprinted in the photometric substructure of other nearby early-type galaxies

  7. The Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6814 -- a highly variable X-ray source

    OpenAIRE

    Koenig, Michael; Friedrich, Susanne; Staubert, Ruediger; Timmer, Jens

    1996-01-01

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 6814 is a highly variable X-ray source despite the fact that it has recently been shown not to be the source of periodic variability. The 1.5 year monitoring by ROSAT has revealed a long term downward trend of the X-ray flux and an episode of high and rapidly varying flux (e.g. by a factor of about 3 in 8 hours) during the October 1992 PSPC observation. Temporal analysis of this data using both Fourier and autoregressive techniques have shown that the variability timesc...

  8. On the Anomalous Silicate Absorption Feature of the Prototypical Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068

    OpenAIRE

    Koehler, Melanie; Li, Aigen

    2012-01-01

    The first detection of the silicate absorption feature in AGNs was made at 9.7 micrometer for the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 over 30 years ago, indicating the presence of a large column of silicate dust in the line-of-sight to the nucleus. It is now well recognized that type 2 AGNs exhibit prominent silicate absorption bands, while the silicate bands of type 1 AGNs appear in emission. More recently, using the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument on the Very Large Telescope Inte...

  9. Dark Filaments in the Galaxy NGC 253 - a Boiling Galactic Disk -

    OpenAIRE

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Wakamatsu, Ken-ichi; Malin, David F.

    1994-01-01

    We study the morphology of dark lanes and filaments in the dust-rich galaxy NGC 253 using an unsharp-masked $B$-band optical photograph. Dust features are classified as `arcs', which have heights and scale radius of about 100 to 300 pc, connecting two or more dark clouds, and `loops' and `bubbles', which are developed forms of arcs, expanding into the disk-halo interface. These have diameters of a few hundred pc to $\\sim 1$ kpc. Among the bubbles, we notice a peculiar round-shaped bubble abov...

  10. Extreme X-ray spectral variability in the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1365

    OpenAIRE

    Risaliti, G.; Elvis, M.; G. Fabbiano; A. Baldi; Zezas, A.

    2005-01-01

    We present multiple Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365, which shows the most dramatic X-ray spectral changes observed so far in an AGN: the source switched from reflection dominated to transmission dominated and back in just 6 weeks. During this time the soft thermal component, arising from a ~1 kpc region around the center, remained constant. The reflection component is constant at all timescales, and its high flux relative to the primary component im...

  11. Herschel-spire Fourier transform spectrometer observations of excited CO and [C I] in the antennae (NGC 4038/39): Warm and cold molecular gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) observations of the Antennae (NGC 4038/39), a well-studied, nearby (22 Mpc), ongoing merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies. The SPIRE-FTS is a low spatial ( FWHM ∼ 19''-43'') and spectral (∼1.2 GHz) resolution mapping spectrometer covering a large spectral range (194-671 μm, 450-1545 GHz). We detect five CO transitions (J = 4-3 to J = 8-7), both [C I] transitions, and the [N II] 205 μm transition across the entire system, which we supplement with ground-based observations of the CO J = 1-0, J = 2-1, and J = 3-2 transitions and Herschel Photodetecting Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) observations of [C II] and [O I] 63 μm. Using the CO and [C I] transitions, we perform both a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of [C I] and a non-LTE radiative transfer analysis of CO and [C I] using the radiative transfer code RADEX along with a Bayesian likelihood analysis. We find that there are two components to the molecular gas: a cold (T kin ∼ 10-30 K) and a warm (T kin ≳ 100 K) component. By comparing the warm gas mass to previously observed values, we determine a CO abundance in the warm gas of x CO ∼ 5 × 10–5. If the CO abundance is the same in the warm and cold gas phases, this abundance corresponds to a CO J = 1-0 luminosity-to-mass conversion factor of αCO ∼ 7 M ☉ pc–2 (K km s–1)–1 in the cold component, similar to the value for normal spiral galaxies. We estimate the cooling from H2, [C II], CO, and [O I] 63 μm to be ∼0.01 L ☉/M ☉. We compare photon-dominated region models to the ratio of the flux of various CO transitions, along with the ratio of the CO flux to the far-infrared flux in NGC 4038, NGC 4039, and the overlap region. We find that the densities recovered from our non-LTE analysis are consistent with a background far-ultraviolet field of strength G 0 ∼ 1000. Finally, we find

  12. Variability of accretion flow in the core of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Czerny, B; Nikolajuk, M; Schwarzenberg-Czerny, A; Loska, Z; Madejski, G

    2003-01-01

    We analyze observations of the galaxy NGC 4151 covering 90 years in the optical band and 27 years of the 2-10 keV X-ray band. We compute the Normalized Power Spectrum Density (NPSD), the Structure Function (SF) and the Autocorrelation Function (ACF) for these data. The results show that the optical and X-ray variability are essentially different. X-ray variations are predominantly in the timescale range of 10 - 1000 days. The optical variations have also a short timescale component which is related to X-ray variability but the dominant effect is the long timescale variability, with timescales of order of $\\sim$ 12 years. We compare our results with observations of NGC 5548 and Cyg X-1. We conclude that the long timescale variability may be caused by radiation pressure instability in the accretion disk, although the observed timescale in NGC 4151 is by a factor of few longer than expected. X-ray variability of this source is very similar to what is observed in Cyg X-1, if scaled down with the mass of the black...

  13. X-ray variability of GeV gamma-ray emitting radio galaxy NGC 1275

    CERN Document Server

    Fukazawa, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Nagai, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed Suzaku/XIS data of 2006--2015 observations of a gamma-ray emitting radio galaxy NGC 1275, and brightening of the nucleus in the X-ray band was found in 2013--2015, correlating with GeV Gamma-ray brightening. This is the first evidence of variability with correlation between GeV gamma-ray and X-ray for NGC 1275. We also analyzed Swift/XRT data of NGC 1275, and found that X-ray was flaring by a factor of $\\sim$5 in several days in 2006, 2010, and 2013. The X-ray spectrum during the flare was featureless and somewhat steeper with a photon index of $\\sim$2 against $\\sim$1.7 in the normal state, indicating that a synchrotron component became brighter. A large Xray to GeV gamma-ray flux ratio in the flare could be explained by the shock-in-jet scenario. On the other hand, a long-term gradual brightening of radio, X-ray, and GeV gamma-ray with a larger gamma-ray amplitude could be origin of other than internal shocks, and then we discuss some possibilities.

  14. A MILLIMETER-WAVE INTERFEROMETRIC SEARCH FOR A MOLECULAR TORUS IN THE RADIO GALAXY NGC 4261

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NGC 4261 is an elliptical galaxy with a pair of symmetric kiloparsec-scale jets. We observed a nucleus of NGC 4261 at 2.6 mm and 1.3 mm with the NRO RAINBOW interferometer, the Nobeyama Millimeter Array, and the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer to determine the excitation state of molecular gas. In this observation, neither CO(J = 2-1) nor CO(J = 1-0) absorption lines were detected even at higher sensitivity than the previous work. The 3σ upper limits on the optical depths of CO lines were 0.098 for J = 2-1 and 0.042 for J = 1-0, respectively. These upper limits are much smaller than the optical depth obtained from the previous claimed detection of CO(J = 2-1) absorption (0.7), indicating that the claimed CO(J = 2-1) absorption profile could be a false feature. Our results suggest that there is a possibility that CO molecules are highly excited by the active galactic nucleus, since the optical depths of low-J CO molecules in NGC 4261 are significantly low.

  15. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury XI. The Remarkably Undisturbed NGC 2403 Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Stilp, Adrienne; Dolphin, Andrew; Skillman, Evan D; Radburn-Smith, David

    2013-01-01

    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC2403, obtained from a deep (m<28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC2403, supplemented by several shallow (m<26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24-micron fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirror s the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of 100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer (2x10^{-6} M_{\\sun} yr^{-1} kpc^{-2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these cha...

  16. Is NGC 3108 transforming itself from an early to late type galaxy -- an astronomical hermaphrodite?

    CERN Document Server

    Hau, George; Kilborn, Virginia; Forbes, Duncan; Balogh, Michael; Oosterloo, Tom

    2007-01-01

    A common feature of hierarchical galaxy formation models is the process of "inverse" morphological transformation: a bulge dominated galaxy accretes a gas disk, dramatically reducing the system's bulge-to-disk mass ratio. During their formation, present day galaxies may execute many such cycles across the Hubble diagram. A good candidate for such a "hermaphrodite" galaxy is NGC 3108: a dust-lane early-type galaxy which has a large amount of HI gas distributed in a large scale disk. We present narrow band H_alpha and R-band imaging, and compare the results with the HI distribution. The emission is in two components: a nuclear bar and an extended disk component which coincides with the HI distribution. This suggests that a stellar disk is currently being formed out of the HI gas. The spatial distributions of the H_alpha and HI emission and the HII regions are consistent with a barred spiral structure, extending some 20 kpc in radius. We measure an extinction- corrected SFR of 0.42 Msun/yr. The luminosity functi...

  17. Ghosts in the Attic: Mapping the Stellar Content of the S0 Galaxy NGC 5102

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J

    2009-01-01

    Images obtained with WIRCam and MegaCam on the CFHT are used to investigate the spatial distribution of stars in the nearby S0 galaxy NGC 5102. With the exception of gaps between detector elements, the entire galaxy is surveyed in r' and i', while the galaxy is surveyed out to a radius of 6 kpc in J and Ks. A modest population of main sequence (MS) stars with M_V < -3.5 and ages ~ 70 Myr are detected throughout the disk, and these occur in greatest numbers in the southern half of the galaxy. Star counts indicate that the structure of the disk changes near R_GC = 5 kpc, in the sense that the radial surface density profile defined by bright AGB stars levels off at larger radii. AGB stars are traced out to a radius of 14 kpc (16 arcmin) along the major axis, and distinct concentrations of these stars are found in the southern part of the outer disk. The stellar disk in the northern half of the galaxy is warped, tracing structure that is also seen in HI. A large grouping of AGB stars that subtends roughly one ...

  18. NGC1277: a massive compact relic galaxy in the nearby Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    As early as 10 Gyr ago, galaxies with more than 10^11 Msun in stars already existed. While most of these massive galaxies must have subsequently transformed through on-going star formation and mergers with other galaxies, a small fraction (10^11 Msun; Re10 Gyr) with no evidence for more recent star formation episodes. The metallicity of their stars is super-solar ([Fe/H]=0.20+-0.04) and alpha enriched ([alpha/Fe]=0.4+-0.1). This suggests a very short formation time scale for the bulk of stars of this galaxy. This object also rotates very fast (Vrot~300 km/s) and has a large velocity dispersion (sigma>300 km/s). NGC1277 will allow future explorations in full detail of properties such as the structure, internal dynamics, metallicity, dust content and initial mass function at around 10-12 Gyr back in time when the first massive galaxies were built.

  19. Spitzer and JCMT Observations of the Active Galactic Nucleus in the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594)

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Calzetti, D; Cannon, J M; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D; Joseph, R D; Kennicutt, R C; Murphy, E J; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D T; Walter, F

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer 3.6-160 micron images, Spitzer mid-infrared spectra, and JCMT SCUBA 850 micron images of the Sombrero Galaxy (NGC 4594), an Sa galaxy with a 10^9 M_solar low luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN). The brightest infrared sources in the galaxy are the nucleus and the dust ring. The spectral energy distribution of the AGN demonstrates that, while the environment around the AGN is a prominent source of mid-infrared emission, it is a relatively weak source of far-infrared emission, as had been inferred for AGN in previous research. The weak nuclear 160 micron emission and the negligible polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission from the nucleus also implies that the nucleus is a site of only weak star formation activity and the nucleus contains relatively little cool interstellar gas needed to fuel such activity. We propose that this galaxy may be representative of a subset of low ionization nuclear emission region galaxies that are in a quiescent AGN phase because of the lack of gas needed to...

  20. The low-luminosity galaxy population in the NGC 5044 Group

    CERN Document Server

    Cellone, S A; Cellone, Sergio A.; Buzzoni, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    We present multicolour imaging for 33 dwarf and intermediate-luminosity galaxies in the field of the NGC 5044 Group, complemented with mid-resolution spectroscopy for a subsample of 13 objects. With these data, a revised membership and morphological classification is made for the galaxies in the sample. We were able to confirm all but one of the "definite members" included in the spectroscopic subsample, which were originally classified based on morphological criteria; however, an important fraction of background galaxies is probably present among "likely" and "possible" members. The presence of a nucleus could be detected in just five out of the nine galaxies originally classified as dE,N, thus confirming the intrisic difficulty of photographic-plate morphological classification for this kind of object. Our deep surface photometry provided clear evidences for disc structure in at least three galaxies previously catalogued as dE or dS0. Their transition-type properties are also evident from the colour-magnitu...

  1. Exploring the mass assembly of the early-type disc galaxy NGC 3115 with MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérou, A.; Emsellem, E.; Krajnović, D.; McDermid, R. M.; Contini, T.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2016-07-01

    We present MUSE integral field spectroscopic data of the S0 galaxy NGC 3115 obtained during the instrument commissioning at the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT). We analyse the galaxy stellar kinematics and stellar populations and present two-dimensional maps of their associated quantities. We thus illustrate the capacity of MUSE to map extra-galactic sources to large radii in an efficient manner, i.e. ~4 Re, and provide relevant constraints on its mass assembly. We probe the well-known set of substructures of NGC 3115 (nuclear disc, stellar rings, outer kpc-scale stellar disc, and spheroid) and show their individual associated signatures in the MUSE stellar kinematics and stellar populations maps. In particular, we confirm that NGC 3115 has a thin fast-rotating stellar disc embedded in a fast-rotating spheroid, and that these two structures show clear differences in their stellar age and metallicity properties. We emphasise an observed correlation between the radial stellar velocity, V, and the Gauss-Hermite moment, h3, which creates a butterfly shape in the central 15'' of the h3 map. We further detect the previously reported weak spiral- and ring-like structures, and find evidence that these features can be associated with regions of younger mean stellar ages. We provide tentative evidence for the presence of a bar, although the V-h3 correlation can be reproduced by a simple axisymmetric dynamical model. Finally, we present a reconstruction of the two-dimensional star formation history of NGC 3115 and find that most of its current stellar mass was formed at early epochs (>12 Gyr ago), while star formation continued in the outer (kpc-scale) stellar disc until recently. Since z ~2 and within ~4 Re, we suggest that NGC 3115 has been mainly shaped by secular processes. The images of the derived parameters in FITS format and the reduced datacube are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  2. Radio continuum emission and HI gas accretion in the NGC 5903/5898 compact group of early-type galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Gopal-Krishna,; Wiita, Paul J; Sirothia, S K; Kantharia, N G; Ishwara-Chandra, C H

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the nature of the multi-component radio continuum and HI emission associated with the nearby galaxy group comprised of two dominant ellipticals, NGC 5898 and NGC 5903, and a dwarf lenticular ESO514-G003. Striking new details of radio emission are unveiled from the 2nd Data Release of the ongoing TIFR.GMRT.SKY.SURVEY (TGSS) which provides images with a resolution of ~ 24 arcsec x 18 arcsec and a typical rms noise of 5 mJy at 150 MHz. Previous radio observations of this compact triplet of galaxies include images at higher frequencies of the radio continuum as well as HI emission, the latter showing huge HI trails originating from the vicinity of NGC 5903 where HI is in a kinematically disturbed state. The TGSS 150 MHz image has revealed a large asymmetric radio halo around NGC 5903 and also established that the dwarf SO galaxy ESO514-G003 is the host to a previously known bright double radio source. The radio emission from NGC 5903 is found to have a very steep radio spectrum ({\\alpha} ~ -1.5) and to...

  3. NGC 1266: Characterization of the Nuclear Molecular Gas in an Unusual SB0 Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Jason; Maloney, Philip R; Kamenetzky, Julia R

    2015-01-01

    With a substantial nuclear molecular gas reservoir and broad, high-velocity CO molecular line wings previously interpreted as an outflow, NGC 1266 is a rare SB$0$ galaxy. Previous analyses of interferometry, spectrally resolved low-$J$ CO emission lines, and unresolved high-$J$ emission lines have established basic properties of the molecular gas and the likely presence of an AGN. Here, new spectrally resolved CO $J = 5 - 4$ to $J = 8 - 7$ lines from {\\it Herschel Space Observatory} HIFI observations are combined with ground-based observations and high-$J$ {\\it Herschel} SPIRE observations to decompose the nuclear and putative outflow velocity components and to model the molecular gas to quantify its properties. Details of the modeling and results are described, with comparisons to previous results and exploration of the implications for the gas excitation mechanisms. Among the findings, like for other galaxies, the nuclear and putative outflow molecular gas are well represented by components that are cool ($...

  4. Nuclear, disk-focused wind and the bipolar structure of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high-resolution, radio continuum study of the spiral galaxy NGC 3079 is presented which reveals the presence of a figure eight morphology along the minor axis, centered on the nucleus. The nucleus itself dominates the emission from the galaxy. It has an inverted spectrum and is a possible VLBI source. The morphology is successfully modeled as the interaction between a nuclear wind and interstellar gas in the disk and halo. In this model, the wind plows up interstellar material as it propagates away from the nucleus. The disk focuses the wind along the minor axis, thereby creating the observed features. The restricted volume of space where the wind originates and the high energies associated with the wind point to a compact object such as a black hole or an unusually compact and massive star cluster as the source of the wind. 24 references

  5. A one-sided radio jet in the elliptical galaxy NGC 6146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-sided radio jets are rarely found in association with low-power compact radio cores. MERLIN observations at 18 cm with sub-arcsecond resolution show such a jet in the nucleus of the optically bright elliptical galaxy NGC6146. The jet length is ∼ 1 kpc, much shorter than is typical of extragalactic radio jets. A lower resolution VLA 20-cm image shows a 6-kpc component at a position angle close to that of the 1-kpc jet. No 18- or 20-cm components are detected on the counterjet side on scales between 0.2 and 12 kpc. A minimum-energy analysis of the 1-kpc jet yields an internal pressure similar to the thermal pressures found in the nuclear regions of some elliptical galaxies. (author)

  6. AN INITIAL MASS FUNCTION STUDY OF THE DWARF STARBURST GALAXY NGC 4214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Chandar, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Elmegreen, B. G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Kennicutt, R. C. [Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge University, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kissel, J. S. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Da Silva, Robert L.; Krumholz, Mark R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD (United States); Kim, Hwihyun, E-mail: jandrews@astro.umass.edu, E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States)

    2013-04-10

    The production rate of ionizing photons in young ({<=}8 Myr), unresolved stellar clusters in the nearby irregular galaxy NGC 4214 is probed using multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data. We normalize the ionizing photon rate by the cluster mass to investigate the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (IMF). We have found that within the uncertainties the upper end of the stellar IMF appears to be universal in this galaxy, and that deviations from a universal IMF can be attributed to stochastic sampling of stars in clusters with masses {approx}<10{sup 3} M{sub Sun }. Furthermore, we have found that there does not seem to be a dependence of the maximum stellar mass on the cluster mass. We have also found that for massive clusters, feedback may cause an underrepresentation in H{alpha} luminosities, which needs to be taken into account when conducting this type of analysis.

  7. The James Clerk Maxwell Telescope Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey IX: $^{12}$CO $J=3\\to2$ Observations of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Boon-Kok; Rigopoulou, D; Warren, B E; Wilson, C D; Attewell, D; Azimlu, M; Bendo, G J; Butner, H M; Brinks, E; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Heesen, V; Israel, F; Knapen, J H; Matthews, H E; Mortier, A M J; Mühle,; Sánchez-Gallego, J R; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; van der Werf, P; Zhu, M

    2013-01-01

    We present $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} maps of NGC 2976 and NGC 3351 obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), both early targets of the JCMT Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey (NGLS). We combine the present observations with $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=1$\\rightarrow$0} data and find that the computed $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} to $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=1$\\rightarrow$0} line ratio ($R_{31}$) agrees with values measured in other NGLS field galaxies. We compute the M$_{\\rm{H_2}}$ value and find that it is robust against the value of $R_{31}$ used. Using \\textsc{Hi} data from the The \\textsc{Hi} Nearby Galaxy Survey (THINGS) survey, we find a tight correlation between surface density of H$_2$ and star formation rate density for NGC 3351 when $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} data are used. Finally, we compare the $^{12}$CO \\textit{J=3$\\rightarrow$2} intensity with the PAH 8 $\\mu$m surface brightness and find a good correlation in the high surface brightness regions. We extend this study to incl...

  8. Investigating the Nuclear Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies: The Case of NGC 1672

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, L. P.; Brandt, W. N.; Colbert, E. J.; Koribalski, B.; Kuntz, K. D.; Levan, A. J.; Ojha, R.; Roberts, T. P.; Ward, M. J.; Zezas, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have performed an X-ray study of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 1672, primarily to ascertain the effect of the bar on its nuclear activity. We use both Chandra and XMM-Newton observations to investigate its X-ray properties, together with supporting high-resolution optical imaging data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) infrared imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope, and Australia Telescope Compact Array ground-based radio data. We detect 28 X-ray sources within the D25 area of the galaxy; many are spatially correlated with star formation in the bar and spiral arms, and two are identified as background galaxies in the HST images. Nine of the X-ray sources are ultraluminous X-ray sources, with the three brightest (LX 5 * 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1)) located at the ends of the bar. With the spatial resolution of Chandra, we are able to show for the first time that NGC 1672 possesses a hard (1.5) nuclear X-ray source with a 2-10 keV luminosity of 4 * 10(exp 38) erg s(exp -1). This is surrounded by an X-ray-bright circumnuclear star-forming ring, comprised of point sources and hot gas, which dominates the 2-10 keV emission in the central region of the galaxy. The spatially resolved multiwavelength photometry indicates that the nuclear source is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (LLAGN), but with star formation activity close to the central black hole. A high-resolution multiwavelength survey is required to fully assess the impact of both large-scale bars and smaller-scale phenomena such as nuclear bars, rings, and nuclear spirals on the fueling of LLAGN.

  9. Transient X-Ray Source Population in the Magellanic-type Galaxy NGC 55

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithesh, V.; Wang, Zhongxiang

    2016-04-01

    We present the spectral and temporal properties of 15 candidate transient X-ray sources detected in archival XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the nearby Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. Based on an X-ray color classification scheme, the majority of the sources may be identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs), and six sources are soft, including a likely supernova remnant. We perform a detailed spectral and variability analysis of the data for two bright candidate XRBs. Both sources displayed strong short-term X-ray variability, and their X-ray spectra and hardness ratios are consistent with those of XRBs. These results, combined with their high X-ray luminosities (∼1038 erg s‑1), strongly suggest that they are black hole (BH) binaries. Seven less luminous sources have spectral properties consistent with those of neutron star or BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, but one of them is the likely counterpart to a background galaxy (because of positional coincidence). From our spectral analysis, we find that the six soft sources are candidate super soft sources (SSSs) with dominant emission in the soft (0.3–2 keV) X-ray band. Archival Hubble Space Telescope optical images for seven sources are available, and the data suggest that most of them are likely to be high-mass XRBs. Our analysis has revealed the heterogeneous nature of the transient population in NGC 55 (six high-mass XRBs, one low-mass XRBs, six SSSs, one active galactic nucleus), helping establish the similarity of the X-ray properties of this galaxy to those of other Magellanic-type galaxies.

  10. The nature of the UV halo around the spiral galaxy NGC 3628

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baes, Maarten; Viaene, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thanks to deep UV observations with GALEX and Swift, diffuse UV haloes have recently been discovered around galaxies. Based on UV-optical colours, it has been advocated that the UV haloes around spiral galaxies are due to UV radiation emitted from the disc and scattered off dust grains at high latitudes. Detailed UV radiative transfer models that take into account scattering and absorption can explain the morphology of the UV haloes, and they require the presence of an additional thick dust disc next the to traditional thin disc for half of the galaxies in their sample. We test whether such an additional thick dust disc agrees with the observed infrared emission in NGC 3628, an edge-on galaxy with a clear signature of a thick dust disc. We extend the far-ultraviolet radiative transfer models to full-scale panchromatic models. Our model, which contains no fine-tuning, can almost perfectly reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution from UV to mm wavelengths. These results corroborate the interpretation of the extended UV emission in NGC 3628 as scattering off dust grains, and hence of the presence of a substantial amount of diffuse extra-planar dust. A significant caveat, however, is the geometrical simplicity and non-uniqueness of our model: other models with a different geometrical setting could lead to a similar spectral energy distribution. More detailed radiative transfer simulations that compare the model results to images from UV to submm wavelengths are a way to break this degeneracy, as are UV polarisation measurements.

  11. THE BLACK HOLE MASS IN THE BRIGHTEST CLUSTER GALAXY NGC 6086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the first direct measurement of the central black hole mass, M., in NGC 6086, the Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) in A2162. Our investigation demonstrates for the first time that stellar-dynamical measurements of M. in BCGs are possible beyond the nearest few galaxy clusters. We observed NGC 6086 with laser guide star adaptive optics and the integral-field spectrograph (IFS) OSIRIS at the W. M. Keck Observatory and with the seeing-limited IFS GMOS-N at Gemini Observatory North. We combined the IFS data sets with existing major-axis kinematics and used axisymmetric stellar orbit models to determine M. and the R-band stellar mass-to-light ratio, M*/LR . We find M. = 3.6+1.7-1.1 x 109 Msun and M*/LR = 4.6+0.3-0.7 Msun Lsun-1 (68% confidence) from models using the most massive dark matter halo allowed within the gravitational potential of the host cluster. Models fitting only IFS data confirm M. ∼ 3 x 109 Msun and M*/LR ∼ 4 Msun Lsun-1, with weak dependence on the assumed dark matter halo structure. When data out to 19 kpc are included, the unrealistic omission of dark matter causes the best-fit black hole mass to decrease dramatically, to 0.6 x 109 Msun, and the best-fit stellar mass-to-light ratio to increase to 6.7 Msun L -1sun,R. The latter value is at further odds with stellar population studies favoring M*/LR ∼ 2 Msun L -1sun. Biases from dark matter omission could extend to dynamical models of other galaxies with stellar cores, and revised measurements of M. could steepen the empirical scaling relationships between black holes and their host galaxies.

  12. An Investigation of the Dust Content in the Galaxy pair NGC 1512/1510 from Near-Infrared to Millimeter Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Guilin; Yun, Min S; Wilson, Grant W; Draine, Bruce T; Scott, Kimberly; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Hughes, David; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kohno, Kotaro; Kawabe, Ryohei; Ezawa, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    We combine new ASTE/AzTEC 1.1 mm maps of the galaxy pair NGC 1512/1510 with archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images covering the wavelength range 3.6--160 um from the SINGS project to derive accurate dust masses in each galaxy, and in sub--galactic regions in NGC 1512. The two galaxies form a pair consisting of a large, high--metallicity spiral (NGC 1512) and a low metallicity, blue compact dwarf (NGC 1510). The derived total dust masses are (2.4+/-0.6) 10^7 Msun and (1.7+/-3.6) 10^5 Msun for NGC 1512 and NGC 1510, respectively. The derived ratio of dust mass to H I gas mass for the galaxy pair (0.0034) is much lower than expected, while regions within NGC 1512, specifically the central region and the arms, do not show such unusually low ratios; furthermore, the dust--to--gas ratio is within expectations for NGC 1510. These results suggest that a fraction of the H I included in the determination of the M_d/M_HI ratio of the NGC 1512/1510 pair is not associated with the star forming disks/regions of either galax...

  13. A tidally disrupting dwarf galaxy in the halo of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Toloba, Elisa; Spekkens, Kristine; Crnojevic, Denija; Simon, Joshua; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson; McLeod, Brian; Seth, Anil

    2015-01-01

    We report the discovery of Scl-MM-Dw2, a new dwarf galaxy at a projected separation of $\\sim$50 kpc from NGC 253, as part of the PISCeS (Panoramic Imaging Survey of Centaurus and Sculptor) project. We measure a tip of the red giant branch distance of $3.12\\pm0.30$ Mpc, suggesting that Scl-MM-Dw2 is likely a satellite of NGC 253. We qualitatively compare the distribution of red giant branch (RGB) stars in the color-magnitude diagram with theoretical isochrones and find that it is consistent with an old, $\\sim$12 Gyr, and metal poor, $-2.3<$[Fe/H]$<-1.1$, stellar population. We also detect a small number of asymptotic giant branch stars consistent with a metal poor $2-3$ Gyr population in the center of the dwarf. Our non-detection of HI in a deep Green Bank Telescope spectrum implies a gas fraction $M_{HI}/L_V<0.02$ Msun/Lsun. The stellar and gaseous properties of Scl-MM-Dw2 suggest that it is a dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Scl-MM-Dw2 has a luminosity of $M_V=-12.1\\pm0.5$ mag and a half-light radius of $r_...

  14. Ionized gas kinematics within the inner kiloparsec of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1365

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Davide; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Couto, Guilherme S; Schnorr-Muller, Allan; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2016-01-01

    We observed the nuclear region of the galaxy NGC 1365 with the integral field unit of the Gemini Multi Object Spectrograph mounted on the GEMINI-South telescope. The field of view covers $13^{\\prime\\prime} \\times 6^{\\prime\\prime}$ ($1173 \\times 541$ pc$^{2}$) centered on the nucleus, at a spatial resolution of $52$ pc. The spectral coverage extends from $5600$ \\AA\\ to $7000$ \\AA, at a spectral resolution $R=1918$. NGC 1365 hosts a Seyfert 1.8 nucleus, and exhibits a prominent bar extending out to $100^{\\prime\\prime}$ (9 kpc) from the nucleus. The field of view lies within the inner Lindblad resonance. Within this region, we found that the kinematics of the ionized gas (as traced by [OI], [NII], H$\\alpha$, and [SII]) is consistent with rotation in the large-scale plane of the galaxy. While rotation dominates the kinematics, there is also evidence for a fan-shaped outflow, as found in other studies based on the [OIII] emission lines. Although evidence for gas inflowing along nuclear spirals has been found in a ...

  15. Chandra Observations of Expanding Shells in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 3077

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, J; Walter, F; Ott, Juergen; Martin, Crystal L.; Walter, Fabian

    2003-01-01

    Deep Chandra observations (53 ks, ACIS-S3) of NGC 3077, a starburst dwarf galaxy in the M 81 triplet, resolve the X-ray emission from several supershells. The emission is brightest in the cavities defined by expanding shells detected previously in H alpha emission (Martin 1998). Thermal emission models fitted to the data imply temperatures ranging from ~1.3 to 4.9 x 10^(6) K and indicate that the strongest absorption is coincident with the densest clouds traced by CO emission. The fitted emission measures give pressures of P/k~10^(5-6) xi^(-0.5) f_(v)^(-0.5) K cm^(-3) (xi: metallicity of the hot gas in solar units, f_(v): volume filling factor). Despite these high pressures, the radial density profile of the hot gas is not as steep as that expected in a freely expanding wind (e.g., as seen in the neighboring starburst galaxy M 82) implying that the hot gas is still confined by the H alpha shells. The chaotic dynamical state of NGC 3077 undermines reliable estimates of the escape velocity. The more relevant qu...

  16. CHANG-ES VII: Magnetic outflows from the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4388

    CERN Document Server

    Damas-Segovia, Ancor; Vollmer, Bernd; Wiegert, Theresa; Krause, Marita; Irwin, Judith; Wezgowiec, Marek; Li, Jiang-Tao; Dettmar, Ralf-Jurgen; English, Jayanne; Wang, Q Daniel

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effects of ram pressure on the ordered magnetic field of a galaxy hosting a radio halo and strong nuclear outflows. New radio images in total and polarized intensity of the edge-on Virgo galaxy NGC\\,4388 were obtained within the CHANG-ES EVLA project. The unprecedented noise level reached allows us to detect striking new features of the ordered magnetic field. The nuclear outflow extends far into the halo to about 5\\,kpc from the center and is spatially correlated with the $\\rm{H}\\alpha$ and X-ray emission. For the first time, the southern outflow is detected. Above and below both spiral arms we find extended blobs of polarized emission with an ordered field oriented perpendicular to the disk. The synchrotron lifetime of the cosmic ray electrons (CREs) in these regions yields a mean outflow velocity of $(270\\pm70)\\kms$, in agreement with a galactic wind scenario. The observed symmetry of the polarized halo features in NGC 4388 excludes a compression of the halo gas by the ram pressure of th...

  17. A Stellar Dynamical Measurement of the Black Hole Mass in the Maser Galaxy NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Siopis, Christos; Lauer, Tod R; Kormendy, John; Pinkney, Jason; Richstone, Douglas; Faber, S M; Tremaine, Scott; Aller, M C; Bender, Ralf; Bower, Gary; Dressler, Alan; Filippenko, Alexei V; Green, Richard; Ho, Luis C; Magorrian, John

    2008-01-01

    We determine the mass of the black hole at the center of the spiral galaxy NGC 4258 by constructing axisymmetric dynamical models of the galaxy. These models are constrained by high spatial resolution imaging and long-slit spectroscopy of the nuclear region obtained with the {\\em Hubble Space Telescope}, complemented by ground-based observations extending to larger radii. Our best mass estimate is $\\MBH = (3.3 \\pm 0.2) \\times 10^7 \\MSun $ for a distance of 7.28 Mpc (statistical errors only). This is within 15% of $ (3.82\\pm 0.01) \\times 10^7 \\MSun$, the mass determined from the kinematics of water masers (rescaled to the same distance) assuming they are in Keplerian rotation in a warped disk. The construction of accurate dynamical models of NGC 4258 is somewhat compromised by an unresolved active nucleus and color gradients, the latter caused by variations in the stellar population and/or obscuring dust. These problems are not present in the $\\sim 30$ other black hole mass determinations from stellar dynamics...

  18. Observations of Sy2 galaxy NGC 3281 by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Vasylenko, A A; Zhdanov, V I

    2013-01-01

    We present here the results of our analysis of X-ray properties of Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 3281, based on the observational data obtained by XMM-Newton and INTEGRAL within the energy ranges 0.2-12 keV and 20-150 keV, respectively. The XMM-Newton spectrum of this object is presented for the first time. We show that fitting the X-ray spectrum of this galaxy with models based on the reflection from the disc with infinite column density yields non-physical results. More appropriate fit takes into account both transmitted and reflected emission, passed through a gas-dusty torus-like structure. Keeping this in mind, to model the inhomogeneous clumpy torus, we used the MYTorus model. Hence, we propose that the torus of NGC 3281 is not continuous structure, but it consists of separate clouds, which is in a good agreement with the results of near-IR observations. Using this assumption, we found that the torus inclination angle and the hydrogen column density are 66.98^{+2.63}_{-1.34} degrees and 2.08^{+0.35}_{-0.18}x10^{...

  19. Discovery of a fast transient outflow in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrero, J.; Kriss, J.; Kaastra, J.; Domcek, V.

    2016-06-01

    Obscuration events in active galaxies are key to understand the physical conditions and the dynamics of the gas in the vicinity of their central super-massive black hole. Using recent joint observations with XMM-Newton and the Hubble Space Telescope of the nearby Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 985, we have monitored the pass-by of obscuring material across our line of sight, traveling at 6000 km/s. This kind of event has been recorded previously in only a handful of cases. The properties of this transient absorber suggest that it may originate very close to the broad line region, possibly in an accretion disk wind. Moreover, by analyzing past archival observations of NGC 985, we found evidence that this obscuration process is recurrent. The analysis of the RGS spectra of this source at different epochs reveals that some of the components of the persistent warm absorber vary in response to the changes in the ionizing flux caused by this transient obscurer. In this way, we are able to derive stringent upper limits on the location of the warm absorber.

  20. Gas Dynamics and Outflow in the Barred Starburst Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Salak, Dragan; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Miyamoto, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred starburst galaxy with an outflow from the nuclear region. To study the inflow and outflow processes related to star formation and dynamical evolution of the galaxy, we have carried out \\(^{12}\\)CO (\\(J=1-0\\)) mapping observations of the central \\(r\\sim4\\) kpc of NGC 1808 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Four distinct components of molecular gas are revealed at high spatial resolution of 2\\arcsec (\\(\\sim100\\) pc): (1) a compact (\\(r<200\\) pc) circumnuclear disk (CND), (2) \\(r\\sim500\\) pc ring, (3) gas-rich galactic bar, and (4) spiral arms. Basic geometric and kinematic parameters are derived for the central 1-kpc region using tilted-ring modeling. The derived rotation curve reveals multiple mass components that include (1) a stellar bulge, (2) nuclear bar and molecular CND, and (3) unresolved massive (\\(\\sim10^7~M_\\sun\\)) core. Two systemic velocities, 998 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the CND and 964 km s\\(^{-1}\\) for the 500-pc ring, are revealed, indicating ...

  1. DISTRIBUTION AND MOTIONS OF H-I AND H-2 IN THE PECULIAR SPIRAL GALAXY NGC-3310

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MULDER, PS; VANDRIEL, W; BRAINE, J

    1995-01-01

    The peculiar Sbc-type starburst galaxy NGC 3310 was mapped in the 21 cm H I line at Westerbork with an angular resolution of 12''.2 x 15''.1 (alpha x delta) and a velocity resolution of 33 km s(-1). The galaxy was also partially mapped in the CO(1-0) and (2-1) lines at IRAM with resolutions of simil

  2. Nuclear discs as clocks for the assembly history of early-type galaxies: the case of NGC 4458

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarzi, M.; Ledo, H. R.; Coccato, L.; Corsini, E. M.; Dotti, M.; Khochfar, S.; Maraston, C.; Morelli, L.; Pizzella, A.

    2016-04-01

    Approximately 20 per cent of early-type galaxies host small nuclear stellar discs that are tens to a few hundred parsecs in size. Such discs are expected to be easily disrupted during major galactic encounters, hence their age serve to constrain their assembly history. We use VIsible MultiObject Spectrograph integral-field spectroscopic observations for the intermediate-mass E0 galaxy NGC 4458 and age-date its nuclear disc via high-resolution fitting of various model spectra. We find that the nuclear disc is at least 6 Gyr old. A clue to gain narrow limits to the stellar age is our knowledge of the nuclear disc contribution to the central surface brightness. The presence of an old nuclear disc, or the absence of disruptive encounters since z ˜ 0.6, for a small galaxy such as NGC 4458 which belongs to the Virgo cluster, may be consistent with a hierarchical picture for galaxy formation where the smallest galaxies assembles earlier and the crowded galactic environments reduce the incidence of galaxy mergers. On the other hand, NGC 4458 displays little or no bulk rotation except for a central kpc-scale kinematically decoupled core. Slow rotation and decoupled core are usually explained in terms of mergers. The presence and age of the nuclear disc constraint these mergers to have happened at high redshift.

  3. Nuclear discs as clocks for the assembly history of early-type galaxies: the case of NGC4458

    CERN Document Server

    Sarzi, Marc; Coccato, Lodovico; Corsini, Enrico-Maria; Dotti, Massimo; Khochfar, Sadegh; Maraston, Claudia; Morelli, Lorenzo; Pizzella, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 20% of early-type galaxies host small nuclear stellar discs that are tens to a few hundred parsecs in size. Such discs are expected to be easily disrupted during major galactic encounters, hence their age serve to constrain their assembly history. We use VIMOS integral-field spectroscopic observations for the intermediate-mass E0 galaxy NGC4458 and age-date its nuclear disc via high-resolution fitting of various model spectra. We find that the nuclear disc is at least 6 Gyr old. A clue to gain narrow limits to the stellar age is our knowledge of the nuclear disc contribution to the central surface brightness. The presence of an old nuclear disk, or the absence of disruptive encounters since z~0.6, for a small galaxy such as NGC4458 which belongs to the Virgo cluster, may be consistent with a hierarchical picture for galaxy formation where the smallest galaxies assembles earlier and the crowded galactic environments reduce the incidence of galaxy mergers. On the other hand, NGC4458 displays littl...

  4. Ionized gas characteristics in the cavities of the gas and dust disc of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V. L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-07-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII] λλ6548, 6583, H α and [SII] λλ6717, 6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. These cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust, visible at 5 - 8µm. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H α and [NII]/H α ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35… - 50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy, which is not surprising, given the low (12°) latitude of NGC 6946; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring inNGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. This shock excitation is as well typical for the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas (EDIG), observed in a number of spiral galaxies at their high Z-coordinates. This can most likely be explained by low density of the gas in the NGC 6946 disc (with the usual photoionization) inside the cavities, due to what we see the spectral features of the EDIG gas of NGC 6946, projected onto them, and located outside the plane of the galaxy. In the absence of separation of ionized gas into two components by radial velocities, there is an increasing contribution to the integral line parameters by the EDIG of our Galaxy when the gas density in NGC 6946 decreases, which explains some strange results, obtained in the previous studies. Themorphology of warmdust, visible in the infrared range and HI is almost the same (except for the peripheral parts of the galaxy, where there are no sources of dust heating

  5. A Chandra Study of the Radio Galaxy NGC 326: Wings, Outburst History, and AGN Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund

    2011-01-01

    NGC 326 is one of the most prominent X- or Z-shaped radio galaxies (XRGs/ZRGs) and has been the subject of several studies attempting to explain its morphology through either fluid motions or reorientation of the jet axis. We examine a 100 ks archival Chandra exposure and find several features associated with the radio galaxy: a high-temperature front that may indicate a shock, high-temperature knots around the rim of the radio emission, and a cavity associated with the eastern wing of the radio galaxy. A reasonable interpretation of these features in light of the radio data allows us to reconstruct the history of the AGN outbursts. The active outburst was likely once a powerful radio source which has since decayed, and circumstantial evidence favors reorientation as the means to produce the wings. Because of the obvious interaction between the radio galaxy and the ICM and the wide separation between the active lobes and wings, we conclude that XRGs are excellent sources in which to study AGN feedback in gala...

  6. The nature of the UV halo around the spiral galaxy NGC 3628

    CERN Document Server

    Baes, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to deep UV observations with GALEX and Swift, diffuse UV haloes have recently been discovered around galaxies. Based on UV-optical colours, it has been advocated that the UV haloes around spiral galaxies are due to UV radiation emitted from the disc and scattered off dust grains at high latitudes. Detailed UV radiative transfer models that take into account scattering and absorption can explain the morphology of the UV haloes, and they require the presence of an additional thick dust disc next the to traditional thin disc for half of the galaxies in their sample. We test whether such an additional thick dust disc agrees with the observed infrared emission in NGC 3628, an edge-on galaxy with a clear signature of a thick dust disc. We extend the far-ultraviolet radiative transfer models to full-scale panchromatic models. Our model, which contains no fine-tuning, can almost perfectly reproduce the observed spectral energy distribution from UV to mm wavelengths. These results corroborate the interpretation...

  7. The Black Hole in the Compact, High-dispersion Galaxy NGC 1271

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Jonelle L; Gebhardt, Karl; Yıldırım, Akın; Gültekin, Kayhan; Husemann, Bernd; Richstone, Douglas O

    2015-01-01

    Located in the Perseus cluster, NGC 1271 is an early-type galaxy with a small effective radius of 2.2 kpc and a large stellar velocity dispersion of 276 km/s for its K-band luminosity of 8.9x10^{10} L_sun. We present a mass measurement for the black hole in this compact, high-dispersion galaxy using observations from the integral field spectrograph NIFS on the Gemini North telescope assisted by laser guide star adaptive optics, large-scale integral field unit observations with PPAK at the Calar Alto Observatory, and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging observations. We are able to map out the stellar kinematics on small spatial scales, within the black hole sphere of influence, and on large scales that extend out to four times the galaxy's effective radius. We find that the galaxy is rapidly rotating and exhibits a sharp rise in the velocity dispersion. Through the use of orbit-based stellar dynamical models, we determine that the black hole has a mass of (3.0^{+1.0}_{-1.1}) x 10^9 M_sun and the H-band stellar...

  8. Detection of a ~20 kpc coherent magnetic field in the outskirt of merging spirals: the Antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Aritra; Kepley, Amanda A; Robishaw, Timothy; Zweibel, Ellen G; Gallagher, John S

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field properties of NGC 4038/9 (the `Antennae' galaxies), the closest example of a late stage merger of two spiral galaxies. Wideband polarimetric observations were performed using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array between 2 and 4 GHz. Rotation measure synthesis and Faraday depolarization analysis was performed to probe the magnetic field strength and structure at spatial resolution of $\\sim1$ kpc. Highly polarized emission from the southern tidal tail is detected with intrinsic fractional polarization close to the theoretical maximum ($0.62\\pm0.18$), estimated by fitting the Faraday depolarization with a volume that is both synchrotron emitting and Faraday rotating containing random magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are well aligned along the tidal tail and the Faraday depths shows large-scale smooth variations preserving its sign. This suggests the field in the plane of the sky to be regular up to $\\sim20$ kpc, which is the largest detected regular field structure on gala...

  9. Discovery of a deep Seyfert-2 galaxy at z = 0.222 behind NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, J. A.; García, F.; Rodríguez, M. J.; Gamen, R.; Cellone, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    We report on the unveiling of the nature of the unidentified X-ray source 3XMM J005450.3-373849 as a Seyfert 2 galaxy located behind the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope data, new spectroscopic Gemini observations and available XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We show that the X-ray source is positionally coincident with an extended optical source, composed by a marginally resolved nucleus/bulge, surrounded by an elliptical disc-like feature and two symmetrical outer rings. The optical spectrum is typical of a Seyfert 2 galaxy redshifted to z = 0.222 ± 0.001, which confirms that the source is not physically related to NGC 300. At this redshift the source would be located at 909±4 Mpc (comoving distance in the standard model). The X-ray spectra of the source are well-fitted by an absorbed power-law model. By tying NH between the six available spectra, we found a variable index Γ running from ˜2 in 2000-2001 years, to 1.4-1.6 in the 2005-2014 period. Alternatively, by tying Γ, we found variable absorption columns of NH ˜ 0.34 × 10-22 cm-2 in 2000-2001 years, and 0.54 - 0.75 × 10-22 cm-2 in the 2005-2014 period. Although we cannot distinguish between an spectral or absorption origin, from the derived unabsorbed X-ray fluxes, we are able to assure the presence of long-term X-ray variability. Furthermore, the unabsorbed X-ray luminosities of 0.8 - 2 ×1043 erg s-1 derived in the X-ray band are in agreement with a weakly obscured Seyfert-2 AGN at z ≈ 0.22.

  10. DISCOVERY OF AN ACTIVE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE IN THE BULGELESS GALAXY NGC 4561

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvo, C. Araya; Mathur, S. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Ghosh, H. [CNRS/CEA-Saclay, F-91911 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Fiore, F. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-100040 Monteporzio Catone (Italy); Ferrarese, L., E-mail: araya@astronomy.ohio-state.edu [Hertzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    We present XMM-Newton observations of the Chandra-detected nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4561. The hard X-ray spectrum can be described by a model composed of an absorbed power law with {Gamma} = 2.5{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3} and column density N{sub H} = 1.9{sup +0.1}{sub -0.2} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} atoms cm{sup -2}. The absorption-corrected luminosity of the source is L(0.2-10.0 keV) =2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 41} erg s{sup -1}, with bolometric luminosity over 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Based on the spectrum and the luminosity, we identify the nuclear X-ray source in NGC 4561 to be an active galactic nucleus (AGN), with a black hole (BH) of mass M{sub BH} >2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun }. The presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of this bulgeless galaxy shows that BH masses are not necessarily related to bulge properties, contrary to general belief. Observations such as these call into question several theoretical models of BH-galaxy coevolution that are based on merger-driven BH growth; secular processes clearly play an important role. Several emission lines are detected in the soft X-ray spectrum of the source which can be well parameterized by an absorbed diffuse thermal plasma with non-solar abundances of some heavy elements. Similar soft X-ray emission is observed in spectra of Seyfert 2 galaxies and low-luminosity AGNs, suggesting an origin in the circumnuclear plasma.

  11. Discovery of a deep Seyfert-2 galaxy at z = 0.222 behind NGC 300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combi, J. A.; García, F.; Rodríguez, M. J.; Gamen, R.; Cellone, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    We report on the unveiling of the nature of the unidentified X-ray source 3XMM J005450.3-373849 as a Seyfert-2 galaxy located behind the spiral galaxy NGC 300 using Hubble Space Telescope data, new spectroscopic Gemini observations and available XMM-Newton and Chandra data. We show that the X-ray source is positionally coincident with an extended optical source, composed of a marginally resolved nucleus/bulge, surrounded by an elliptical disc-like feature and two symmetrical outer rings. The optical spectrum is typical of a Seyfert-2 galaxy redshifted to z = 0.222 ± 0.001, which confirms that the source is not physically related to NGC 300. At this redshift the source would be located at 909 ± 4 Mpc (comoving distance in the standard model). The X-ray spectra of the source are well fitted by an absorbed power-law model. By tying NH between the six available spectra, we found a variable index Γ running from ˜2 in 2000-2001 to 1.4-1.6 in the 2005-2014 period. Alternatively, by tying Γ, we found variable absorption columns of NH ˜ 0.34 × 10-22 cm-2 in 2000-2001, and 0.54-0.75 × 10-22 cm-2 in the 2005-2014 period. Although we cannot distinguish between a spectral or absorption origin, from the derived unabsorbed X-ray fluxes, we are able to assure the presence of long-term X-ray variability. Furthermore, the unabsorbed X-ray luminosities of 0.8-2 × 1043 erg s-1 derived in the X-ray band are in agreement with a weakly obscured Seyfert-2 AGN at z ≈ 0.22.

  12. Chemical abundances of giant stars in NGC 5053 and NGC 5634, two globular clusters associated with the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy?

    CERN Document Server

    Sbordone, L; Bidin, C Moni; Bonifacio, P; Villanova, S; Bellazzini, M; Ibata, R; Chiba, M; Geisler, D; Caffau, E; Duffau, S

    2015-01-01

    The tidal disruption of the Sagittarius dwarf Spheroidal galaxy (Sgr dSph) is producing the most prominent substructure in the Milky Way (MW) halo, the Sagittarius Stream. Aside from field stars, the Sgr dSph is suspected to have lost a number of globular clusters (GC). Many Galactic GC are suspected to have originated in the Sgr dSph. While for some candidates an origin in the Sgr dSph has been confirmed due to chemical similarities, others exist whose chemical composition has never been investigated. NGC 5053 and NGC 5634 are two among these scarcely studied Sgr dSph candidate-member clusters. To characterize their composition we analyzed one giant star in NGC 5053, and two in NGC 5634. We analize high-resolution and signal-to-noise spectra by means of the MyGIsFOS code, determining atmospheric parameters and abundances for up to 21 species between O and Eu. The abundances are compared with those of MW halo field stars, of "unassociated" MW halo globulars, and of the metal poor Sgr dSph main body population...

  13. CO(J=3-2) On-the-fly Mapping of the Nearby Spiral Galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793: Spatially-resolved CO(J=3-2) Star-formation Law

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Kotaro

    2015-01-01

    We present the results of CO(J=3-2) on-the-fly mappings of two nearby non-barred spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793 with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment at an effective angular resolution of 25". We successfully obtained global distributions of CO(J=3-2) emission over the entire disks at a sub-kpc resolution for both galaxies. We examined the spatially-resolved (sub-kpc) relationship between CO(J=3-2) luminosities (L'CO(3-2)) and infrared (IR) luminosities (LIR) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with global luminosities of JCMT Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey sample. We found a striking linear L'CO(3-2)-LIR correlation over the 4 orders of magnitude, and the correlation is consistent even with that for ultraluminous infrared galaxies and submillimeter selected galaxies. In addition, we examined the spatially-resolved relationship between CO(J=3-2) intensities (ICO(3-2)) and extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with that f...

  14. A Luminous X-Ray Flare from the Nucleus of the Dormant Bulgeless Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    OpenAIRE

    FENG, HUA; Ho, Luis C.; Kaaret, Philip; Tao, Lian; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Zhang, Shuo; Grisé, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    NGC 247 is a nearby late-type bulgeless spiral galaxy that contains an inactive nucleus. We report a serendipitous discovery of an X-ray flare from the galaxy center with a luminosity of up to 2 x 10^(39) erg s^(−1) in the 0.3–10 keV band with XMM-Newton. A Chandra observation confirms that the new X-ray source is spatially coincident with the galaxy nucleus. The XMM-Newton data revealed a hard power-law spectrum with a spectral break near 3–4 keV, no pulsations on timescales longer than 150 ...

  15. The stellar velocity dispersion in the inner 1.3 disk scale-lengths of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, D A; Swaters, R A; Sparke, L S; Levine, S E; Hunter, Deidre A.; Rubin, Vera C.; Swaters, Rob A.; Sparke, Linda S.; Levine, Stephen E.

    2005-01-01

    We present measurements of the stellar velocity dispersion in the inner 1 arcmin radius (1.3 disk scale-lengths) of the irregular galaxy NGC 4449 determined from long-slit absorption-line spectra. The average observed dispersion is 29 +/-2 km/s, the same as predicted from NGC 4449's luminosity. No significant rotation in the stars is detected. If we assume a maximum rotation speed of the stars from the model determined from the gas kinematics of Hunter et al. (2002), the ratio V_max/sigma_z measured globally is 3. This ratio is comparable to values measured in spiral galaxies, and implies that the stellar disk in NGC 4449 is kinematically relatively cold. The intrinsic minor-to-major axis ratio (b/a)_0 is predicted to be in the range 0.3-0.6, similar to values derived from the distribution of observed b/a of Im galaxies. However, V/sigma_z measured locally is 0.5-1.1, and so the circular velocity of NGC 4449 is comparable or less than the velocity of the stars within the central 1.3 disk scale-lengths of the ...

  16. Ionized Gas Characteristics in the Cavities of the Gas and Dust Disc of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    OpenAIRE

    Efremov, Yu. N.; Afanasiev, V.L.; Egorov, O. V.

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII]6548,6583, H-alpha and [SII]6717,6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. Most of these cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, on...

  17. Spectral Characteristics of Radiation from the Nucleus of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1275 After an Epoch of its Maximum Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmaev, I. F.; Sharipova, L. M.; Galeev, A. I.; Akhmetkhanova, A. É.

    2016-03-01

    The spectral characteristics of radiation from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1275 are studied on a long time scale. Changes in the profiles of some emission lines and changes in the relative intensities of hydrogen and forbidden lines and their equivalent widths (EWλ ) are demonstrated on a time scale of decades. These studies employed spectral data obtained with the 1.5-m Russian-Turkish telescope (RTT-150) during January 2012 and drew on spectral data published earlier in the literature. These results made it possible to trace the state of the nucleus of NGC 1275 after an activity maximum that occurred during the 1960's.

  18. The origin of the soft X-ray excess in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Wilson, A. S.; Elvis, M.; Briel, U.

    1995-01-01

    We present and discuss an X-ray image and a medium-resolution X-ray spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained with the high-resolution imager (HRI) on ROSAT (0.1-2.4 keV) and Goddard's Broad Band X-ray Telescope (BBXRT; 0.3-11 keV), respectively. Spatially resolved soft X-ray emission, which peaks 4 arcsecs to the north of the nucleus and near the position of the highest excitation optical emission line gas is seen in the HRI observation. The extent has a flux of approximately 3 x 10(exp -13) ergs/sq cm/s and accounts for 11% +/- 3% of the total 0.1-2.4 keV flux. To model the BBXRT spectrum, a soft excess component is required which has a flux of approximately 3.5 x 10(exp -13) ergs/sq cm/s and accounts for approximately 14% +/- 6% of the total 0.1-2.4 keV flux. In addition, BBXRT confirms the presence of an approximately 175 eV equivalent width Fe K alpha flourescence line in NGC 2110. Because of the good agreement between their fluxes, we propose that the soft excess in NGC 2110 is due to leakage of the X-ray continuum through a patchy absorber. The temperature of the gas responsible for the soft excess is too high to be accounted for by local shock heating. In order to explain the soft excess and extent as either scattered continuum X-rays or flourescence from gas photoionized by the nuclear source, the hard X-rays must be emitted anisotropically. However, the soft excess and extent can be well modeled as thermal emission from a hot, outflowing wind, which may also be responsible for confirming at least some portion of the optical narrow line-emitting clouds.

  19. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey: Precursor Observations of the NGC 628 group

    CERN Document Server

    Auld, R; Davies, J I; Catinella, B; Henning, P A; Linder, S; Momjian, E; Müller, E; O'Neil, K; Sabatini, S; Schneider, S; Bothun, G; Cortese, L; Disney, M; Hoffman, G L; Putman, M; Rosenberg, J L; Baes, M; De Blok, W J G; Boselli, A; Brinks, E; Brosch, N; Irwin, J; Karachentsev, I D; Kilborn, V A; Koribalski, B; Spekkens, K

    2006-01-01

    The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey (AGES) is one of several HI surveys utilising the new Arecibo L-band Feed Array (ALFA) fitted to the 305m radio telescope at Arecibo. The survey is specifically designed to investigate various galactic environments to higher sensitivity, higher velocity resolution and higher spatial resolution than previous fully sampled, 21 cm multibeam surveys. The emphasis is on making detailed observations of nearby objects although the large system bandwidth (100 MHz) will allow us to quantify the HI properties over a large instantaneous velocity range. In this paper we describe the survey and its goals and present the results from the precursor observations of a 5 degree x 1 degree region containing the nearby (~10 Mpc) NGC 628 group. We have detected all the group galaxies in the region including the low mass (M{HI}~10^7Mo) dwarf, dw0137+1541 (Briggs, 1986). The fluxes and velocities for these galaxies compare well with previously published data. There is no intra-group neutral gas...

  20. Metallicity and Age of the Stellar Stream Around the Disk Galaxy NGC 5907

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Seppo; Capak, Peter; Arendt, Richard G; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Martinez-Delgado, David; Ashby, Matthew L N; Davies, James E; Majewski, Stephen R; Brodie, Jean P; GaBany, R Jay; Arnold, Jacob A

    2016-01-01

    Stellar streams have become central to studies of the interaction histories of nearby galaxies. To characterize the most prominent parts of the stellar stream around the well-known nearby (d = 17 Mpc) edge-on disk galaxy NGC 5907, we have obtained and analyzed new, deep gri Subaru/Suprime-Cam and 3.6 micron Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) observations. Combining the near-infrared 3.6 micron data with visible-light images allows us to use a long wavelength baseline to estimate the metallicity and age of the stellar population along a ~60 kpc long segment of the stream. We have fitted the stellar spectral energy distribution (SED) with a single-burst stellar population synthesis model and we use it to distinguish between the proposed satellite accretion and minor/major merger formation models of the stellar stream around this galaxy. We conclude that a massive minor merger (stellar mass ratio of at least 1:8) can best account for the metallicity of -0.3 inferred along the brightest parts of the stream.

  1. Multiphase ISM in low luminosity radio galaxies: A case study of NGC 708

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Sheetal K; Chaware, L; Pandge, M B

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength study of a nearby radio loud elliptical galaxy NGC708, selected from the Bologna B2 sample of radio galaxies. We obtained optical broad band and narrow images from IGO 2m telescope (Pune, India). We supplement the multi-wavelength coverage of the observation by using X-ray data from Chandra, infrared data from 2MASS, Spitzer and WISE and optical image from DSS and HST. In order to investigate properties of interstellar medium, we have generated unsharp-masked, color, residual, quotient, dust extinction, H_alph emission maps. From the derived maps it is evident that cool gas, dust, warm ionized H_alpha and hot X-ray gas are spatially associated with each other. We investigate the inner and outer photometric and kinematic properties of the galaxy using surface brightness profiles. From X-ray 2d beta model, unsharp masking, surface brightness profiles techniques, it is evident that pair of X-ray cavities are present in this system and which are ~5.6 Kpc away from the central X-ray s...

  2. The dust SED of dwarf galaxies I. The case of NGC 4214

    CERN Document Server

    Hermelo, Israel; Relaño, Monica; Tuffs, Richard J; Popescu, Cristina C; Groves, Brent

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present study is to establish the physical origin of dust heating and emission based on radiation transfer models, which self-consistently connect the emission components from diffuse dust and the dust in massive star forming regions. NGC 4214 is a nearby dwarf galaxy with a large set of ancillary data, ranging from the ultraviolet (UV) to radio, including maps from SPITZER, HERSCHEL and detections from PLANCK. We mapped this galaxy with MAMBO at 1.2 mm at the IRAM 30 m telescope. We extract separate dust emission components for the HII regions (plus their associated PDRs on pc scales) and for the diffuse dust (on kpc scales). We analyse the full UV to FIR/submm SED of the galaxy using a radiation transfer model which self-consistently treats the dust emission from diffuse and SF complexes components, considering the illumination of diffuse dust both by the distributed stellar populations, and by escaping light from the HII regions. While maintaining consistency with the framework of this mode...

  3. The Interstellar Medium and Star Formation in Edge-On Galaxies. I. NGC 891

    CERN Document Server

    Yim, Kijeong; Howk, J Christopher; van der Hulst, J M

    2010-01-01

    We analyze images of BIMA 12CO (J = 1 --> 0), VLA HI, and Spitzer 3.6 and 24 \\mum emission toward the edge-on galaxy NGC 891 and derive the radial and vertical distributions of gas and the radial distributions of stellar mass and recent star formation. We describe our method of deriving radial profiles for edge-on galaxies, assuming circular motion, and verify basic relationships between star formation rate and gas and stellar content, and between the molecular-to-atomic ratio and hydrostatic midplane pressure, that have been found in other galaxy samples. The Schmidt law index we find for the total gas (H2 + H I) is 0.85\\pm0.55, but the Schmidt law provides a poor description of the SFR in comparison to a model that includes the influence of the stellar disk. Using our measurements of the thickness of the gas disk and the assumption of hydrostatic equilibrium, we estimate volume densities and pressures as a function of radius and height in order to test the importance of pressure in controlling the {\\rho}H2/...

  4. The extremely populated globular cluster system of the lenticular galaxy NGC 6861

    CERN Document Server

    Escudero, Carlos G; Bassino, Lilia P; Calderon, Juan Pablo; Caso, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We present a photometric study of the globular cluster (GC) system associated to the lenticular galaxy (S0) NGC 6861, which is located in a relatively low density environment. It is based on GEMINI/GMOS images in the filters g', r', i' of three fields, obtained under good seeing conditions. Analyzing the colour-magnitude and colour-colour diagrams, we find a large number of GC candidates, which extends out to 100 kpc, and we estimate a total population of 3000+/-300 GCs. Besides the well known blue and red subpopulations, the colour distribution shows signs of the possible existence of a third subpopulation with intermediate colours. This could be interpreted as evidence of a past interaction or fusion event. Other signs of interactions presented by the galaxy, are the non-concentric isophotes and the asymmetric spatial distribution of GC candidates with colours (g'-i')_0>1.16. As observed in other galaxies, the red GCs show a steeper radial distribution than the blue GCs. In addition, the spatial distributio...

  5. Warm Dust and Spatially Variable PAH Emission in the Dwarf Starburst Galaxy NGC 1705

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, J M; Bendo, G J; Buckalew, B A; Calzetti, D; Dale, D A; Draine, B T; Engelbracht, C W; Gordon, K D; Helou, G; Hollenbach, D J; Jarrett, T H; Kennicutt, R C; Leitherer, C; Li, A; Meyer, M J; Murphy, E J; Regan, M W; Rieke, G H; Rieke, M J; Roussel, H; Sheth, K; Smith, J D T; Thornley, M D; Walter, F; Armus, Lee; Bendo, George J.; Buckalew, Brent A.; Calzetti, Daniela; Cannon, John M.; Dale, Daniel A.; Draine, Bruce T.; Engelbracht, Charles W.; Gordon, Karl D.; Helou, George; Hollenbach, David J.; Jarrett, Thomas H.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Leitherer, Claus; Li, Aigen; Meyer, Martin J.; Murphy, Eric J.; Regan, Michael W.; Rieke, George H.; Rieke, Marcia J.; Roussel, Helene; Sheth, Kartik; Smith, John-David T.; Thornley, Michele D.; Walter, Fabian

    2006-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 1705 obtained as part of SINGS. The galaxy morphology is very different shortward and longward of ~5 microns: short-wavelength imaging shows an underlying red stellar population, with the central super star cluster (SSC) dominating the luminosity; longer-wavelength data reveals warm dust emission arising from two off-nuclear regions offset by ~250 pc from the SSC. These regions show little extinction at optical wavelengths. The galaxy has a relatively low global dust mass (~2E5 solar masses, implying a global dust-to-gas mass ratio ~2--4 times lower than the Milky Way average). The off-nuclear dust emission appears to be powered by photons from the same stellar population responsible for the excitation of the observed H Alpha emission; these photons are unassociated with the SSC (though a contribution from embedded sources to the IR luminosity of the off-nuclear regions cannot be ruled out). Low-resolution IRS spectroscopy shows moderate-streng...

  6. Star Cluster Formation and Destruction in the Merging Galaxy NGC 3256

    CERN Document Server

    Mulia, Alexander J; Whitmore, Bradley C

    2016-01-01

    We use the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope to study the rich population of young massive star clusters in the main body of NGC 3256, a merging pair of galaxies with a high star formation rate (SFR) and SFR per unit area ($\\Sigma_{\\rm{SFR}}$). These clusters have luminosity and mass functions that follow power laws, $dN/dL \\propto L^{\\alpha}$ with $\\alpha = -2.23 \\pm 0.07$, and $dN/dM \\propto M^{\\beta}$ with $\\beta = -1.86 \\pm 0.34$ for $\\tau < 10$ Myr clusters, similar to those found in more quiescent galaxies. The age distribution can be described by $dN/d\\tau \\propto \\tau ^ \\gamma$, with $\\gamma \\approx -0.67 \\pm 0.08$ for clusters younger than about a few hundred million years, with no obvious dependence on cluster mass. This is consistent with a picture where $\\sim 80 \\%$ of the clusters are disrupted each decade in time. We investigate the claim that galaxies with high $\\Sigma_{\\rm{SFR}}$ form clusters more efficiently than quiescent systems by determining the fraction of sta...

  7. A supergiant supernova-blown bubble in the spiral galaxy NGC 1620

    CERN Document Server

    Vader, J P; Vader, J Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present UBR and H\\alpha imaging of NGC 1620, a highly inclined spiral galaxy that contains a large scale, arc-like feature of radius 3 kpc in its outer disk at a distance of \\sim 11 kpc from the center. What is unusual about this arc-like feature is its stellar nature and the presence of a luminous star cluster at its center. The arc is fragmented into HII region complexes and OB star clusters and shows two kinks in optical continuum light. It spans an angle of 220^{\\circ} on our U image and a full, though fragmented, circle on an unsharp masked R image. It is centered on a young star cluster that is the most luminous clump in blue optical continuum light besides the nucleus of the galaxy. This central star cluster has UBR colors and a surface brightness similar to those of other HII regions, but is a relatively weak H\\alpha emitter. It consists of at least three unresolved condensations in optical continuum light. Its location at the center of the arc and its prominence within the galaxy suggests that it ...

  8. Hot and Cold Galactic Gas in the NGC 2563 Galaxy Group

    CERN Document Server

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Mulchaey, John S; van Gorkom, J H; Jeltema, Tesla E; Zabludoff, Ann I; Wilcots, Eric; Martini, Paul; Lee, Duane; Roberts, Timothy P

    2012-01-01

    The role of environmentally induced gas stripping in driving galaxy evolution in groups remains poorly understood. Here we present extensive Chandra and Very Large Array mosaic observations of the hot and cold interstellar medium within the members of the nearby, X-ray bright NGC 2563 group, a prime target for studies of the role of gas stripping and interactions in relatively small host halos. Our observations cover nearly all group members within a projected radius of 1.15 Mpc (~1.4 R_vir) of the group center, down to a limiting X-ray luminosity and HI mass of 3e39 erg/s and 2e8 M_sun, respectively. The X-ray data are consistent with efficient ram pressure stripping of the hot gas halos of early-type galaxies near the group core, but no X-ray tails are seen and the limited statistics preclude strong conclusions. The HI results suggest moderate HI mass loss from the group members when compared to similar field galaxies. Six of the 20 HI-detected group members show HI evidence of ongoing interactions with oth...

  9. CO(J = 3-2) on-the-fly mapping of the nearby spiral galaxies NGC 628 and NGC 7793: Spatially resolved CO(J = 3-2) star-formation law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Kuno, Nario; Sorai, Kazuo; Tosaki, Tomoka; Kohno, Kotaro

    2016-04-01

    We present the results of CO(J = 3-2) on-the-fly mappings of two nearby non-barred spiral galaxies, NGC 628 and NGC 7793, with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment at an effective angular resolution of 25″. We successfully obtained global distributions of CO(J = 3-2) emission over the entire disks at a sub-kpc resolution for both galaxies. We examined the spatially resolved (sub-kpc) relationship between CO(J = 3-2) luminosities (L^' }_CO(3-2)) and infrared (IR) luminosities (LIR) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with global luminosities of a JCMT (James Clerk Maxwell Telescope) Nearby Galaxy Legacy Survey sample. We found a striking linear L^' }_CO(3-2)-LIR correlation over the four orders of magnitude, and the correlation is consistent even with that for ultraluminous IR galaxies and submillimeter-selected galaxies. In addition, we examined the spatially resolved relationship between CO(J = 3-2) intensities (ICO(3-2)) and extinction-corrected star formation rates (SFRs) for NGC 628, NGC 7793, and M 83, and compared it with that for Giant Molecular Clouds in M 33 and 14 nearby galaxy centers. We found a linear ICO(3-2)-SFR correlation with ˜1 dex scatter. We conclude that the CO(J = 3-2) star-formation law (i.e., linear L^' }_CO(3-2)-LIR and ICO(3-2)-SFR correlations) is universally applicable to various types and spatial scales of galaxies; from spatially resolved nearby galaxy disks to distant IR-luminous galaxies, within ˜1 dex scatter.

  10. Populations of Bright X-ray Sources in the Starburst Galaxies NGC 4038/4039

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Liu; Xiang-Dong Li

    2007-01-01

    Assuming a naive star formation history,we construct synthetic X-ray source populations.using a population synthesis code,for comparison with the observed X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of the interacting galaxies NGC 4038/4039.We have included highand intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.young rotation-powered pulsars and fallback disk-fed black holes in modeling the bright X-ray sources detected.We find that the majority of the X-ray sources are likely to be intermediate-mass X-ray binaries.but for typical binary evolution parameters.the predicted XLF seems to be steeper than observed.We note that the shape of the XLFs depends critically on the existence of XLF break for young populations.and suggest super-Eddington accretion luminosities or the existence of intermediate-mass black holes to account for the high luminosity end and the slope of the XLF in NGC 4038/4039.

  11. A 2 mm spectral line survey of the starburst galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, S; Henkel, C; Martín-Pintado, J; Mauersberger, R

    2006-01-01

    We present the first unbiased molecular line survey towards an extragalactic source, namely the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The scan covers the frequency band from 129.1 to 175.2 GHz, i.e. most of the 2mm atmospheric window. We identify 111 spectral features as transitions from 25 different molecular species. Eight of which (three tentatively) are detected for the first time in the extragalactic interstellar medium. Among these newly detected species, we detected the rare isotopomers 34SO and HC18O+. Tentative detections of two deuterated species, DNC and N2D+, are reported for the first time from a target beyond the Magellanic Clouds. Additionally, three hydrogen recombination lines are identified, while no organic molecules larger than methanol are detected. Column densities and rotation temperatures are calculated for all the species, including an upper limit to the ethanol abundance. A comparison of the chemical composition of the nuclear environment of NGC 253 with those of selected n...

  12. On the Anomalous Silicate Absorption Feature of the Prototypical Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068

    CERN Document Server

    Koehler, Melanie

    2012-01-01

    The first detection of the silicate absorption feature in AGNs was made at 9.7 micrometer for the prototypical Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 over 30 years ago, indicating the presence of a large column of silicate dust in the line-of-sight to the nucleus. It is now well recognized that type 2 AGNs exhibit prominent silicate absorption bands, while the silicate bands of type 1 AGNs appear in emission. More recently, using the Mid-Infrared Interferometric Instrument on the Very Large Telescope Interferometer, Jaffe et al. (2004) by the first time spatially resolved the parsec-sized dust torus around NGC 1068 and found that the 10 micrometer silicate absorption feature of the innermost hot component exhibits an anomalous profile differing from that of the interstellar medium and that of common olivine-type silicate dust. While they ascribed the anomalous absorption profile to gehlenite (Ca_2Al_2SiO_7, a calcium aluminum silicate species), we propose a physical dust model and argue that, although the presence of gehl...

  13. The massive dark halo of the compact, early-type galaxy NGC 1281

    CERN Document Server

    Yıldırım, Akın; van de Ven, Glenn; Dutton, Aaron; Läsker, Ronald; Husemann, Bernd; Walsh, Jonelle L; Gebhardt, Karl; Gültekin, Kayhan; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the compact, early-type galaxy NGC 1281 with integral field unit observations to map the stellar LOSVD out to 5 effective radii and construct orbit-based dynamical models to constrain its dark and luminous matter content. Under the assumption of mass-follows-light, the H-band stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) is {\\Upsilon} = 2.7(+-0.1) {\\Upsilon}_{sun}, higher than expected from our stellar population synthesis fits with either a canonical Kroupa ({\\Upsilon} = 1.3 {\\Upsilon}_{sun}) or Salpeter ({\\Upsilon} = 1.7 {\\Upsilon}_{sun}) stellar initial mass function. Such models also cannot reproduce the details of the LOSVD. Models with a dark halo recover the kinematics well and indicate that NGC 1281 is dark matter dominated, making up ~ 90 per cent of the total enclosed mass within the kinematic bounds. Parameterised as a spherical NFW profile, the dark halo mass is 11.5 < log(M_{DM}/M_{sun}) < 11.8 and the stellar M/L is 0.6 < {\\Upsilon} < 1.1. However, this stellar M/L is lower than p...

  14. Physical Conditions in the Inner Narrow-Line Region of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, S B; Crenshaw, D M; Kraemer, Steven B.; Ruiz, Jose R.

    1998-01-01

    The physical conditions in the inner narrow line region (NLR) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 1068, are examined using ultraviolet and optical spectra and photoionization models. The spectra are Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Harchive data obtained with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS). We selected spectra of four regions, taken through the 0.3" FOS aperture, covering the full FOS 1200A to 6800A waveband. Each region is approximately 20 pc in extent, and all are within 100 pc of the apparent nucleus of NGC 1068. The spectra show similar emission-line ratios from wide range of ionization states for the most abundant elements. After extensive photoionization modeling, we interpret this result as an indication that each region includes a range of gas densities, which we included in the models as separate components. Supersolar abundances were required for several elements to fit the observed emission line ratios. Dust was included in the models but apparently dust to gas fraction varies within these regions. The l...

  15. Extreme X-ray spectral variability in the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1365

    CERN Document Server

    Risaliti, G; Fabbiano, G; Baldi, A; Zezas, A L

    2005-01-01

    We present multiple Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the type 1.8 Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365, which shows the most dramatic X-ray spectral changes observed so far in an AGN: the source switched from reflection dominated to transmission dominated and back in just 6 weeks. During this time the soft thermal component, arising from a ~1 kpc region around the center, remained constant. The reflection component is constant at all timescales, and its high flux relative to the primary component implies the presence of thick gas covering a large fraction of the solid angle. The presence of this gas, and the fast variability time scale, suggest that the Compton-thick to Compton thin change is due to variation in the line-of-sight absorber, rather than to extreme intrinsic emission variability. We discuss a structure of the circumnuclear absorber/reflector which can explain the observed X-ray spectral and temporal properties.

  16. The Mass of the Black Hole in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 4593 from Reverberation Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denney, Kelly D.; Bentz, Misty C.; Peterson, Bradley M.;

    2006-01-01

    We present new observations leading to an improved black hole mass estimate for the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 as part of a reverberation-mapping campaign conducted at the MDM Observatory. Cross-correlation analysis of the H_beta emission-line light curve with the optical continuum light curve...... reveals an emission-line time delay of 3.73 (+-0.75) days. By combining this time delay with the H_beta line width, we derive a central black hole mass of M_BH = 9.8(+-2.1)x10^6 M_sun, an improvement in precision of a factor of several over past results....

  17. PLANETARY NEBULAE IN THE ELLIPTICAL GALAXY NGC 4649 (M 60): KINEMATICS AND DISTANCE REDETERMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a slitless spectroscopy method with (1) the 8.2 m Subaru telescope and its FOCAS Cassegrain spectrograph and (2) the ESO Very Large Telescope unit 1 (Antu) and its FORS2 Cassegrain spectrograph, we have detected 326 planetary nebulae (PNs) in the giant Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4649 (M 60) and measured their radial velocities. After rejecting some PNs more likely to belong to the companion galaxy NGC 4647, we have built a catalog with kinematic information for 298 PNs in M 60. Using these radial velocities, we have concluded that they support the presence of a dark matter halo around M 60. Based on an isotropic, two-component Hernquist model, we estimate the dark matter halo mass within 3Re to be 4 x 1011 Msun, which is almost one-half of the total mass of about 1012 Msun within 3Re. This total mass is similar to that estimated from globular cluster, XMM-Newton, and Chandra observations. The dark matter becomes dominant outside. More detailed dynamical modeling of the PN data is being published in a companion paper. We have also measured the m(5007) magnitudes of many of these PNs and built a statistically complete sample of 218 PNs. The resulting PN luminosity function (PNLF) was used to estimate a distance modulus of 30.7 ± 0.2 mag, equivalent to 14 ± 1 Mpc. This confirms an earlier PNLF distance measurement based on a much smaller sample. The PNLF distance modulus remains smaller than the surface brightness fluctuation distance modulus by 0.4 mag.

  18. Gas Dynamics and Outflow in the Barred Starburst Galaxy NGC 1808 Revealed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salak, Dragan; Nakai, Naomasa; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Miyamoto, Yusuke

    2016-05-01

    NGC 1808 is a nearby barred starburst galaxy with an outflow from the nuclear region. To study the inflow and outflow processes related to star formation and dynamical evolution of the galaxy, we have carried out 12CO (J=1-0) mapping observations of the central r ∼ 4 kpc of NGC 1808 using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Four distinct components of molecular gas are revealed at high spatial resolution of 2″ (∼100 pc): (1) a compact (r < 200 pc) circumnuclear disk (CND), (2) r ∼ 500 pc ring, (3) gas-rich galactic bar, and (4) spiral arms. Basic geometric and kinematic parameters are derived for the central 1 kpc region using tilted-ring modeling. The derived rotation curve reveals multiple mass components that include (1) a stellar bulge, (2) a nuclear bar and molecular CND, and (3) an unresolved massive (∼107 M ⊙) core. Two systemic velocities, 998 km s‑1 for the CND and 964 km s‑1 for the 500 pc ring, are revealed, indicating a kinematic offset. The pattern speed of the primary bar, derived by using a cloud-orbit model, is 56 ± 11 km s‑1 kpc‑1. Noncircular motions are detected associated with a nuclear spiral pattern and outflow in the central 1 kpc region. The ratio of the mass outflow rate to the star formation rate is {\\dot{M}}{out}/{SFR}∼ 0.2 in the case of optically thin CO (1–0) emission in the outflow, suggesting low efficiency of star formation quenching.

  19. Suppression of star formation in the galaxy NGC 253 by a starburst-driven molecular wind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolatto, Alberto D; Warren, Steven R; Leroy, Adam K; Walter, Fabian; Veilleux, Sylvain; Ostriker, Eve C; Ott, Jürgen; Zwaan, Martin; Fisher, David B; Weiss, Axel; Rosolowsky, Erik; Hodge, Jacqueline

    2013-07-25

    The under-abundance of very massive galaxies in the Universe is frequently attributed to the effect of galactic winds. Although ionized galactic winds are readily observable, most of the expelled mass (that is, the total mass flowing out from the nuclear region) is likely to be in atomic and molecular phases that are cooler than the ionized phases. Expanding molecular shells observed in starburst systems such as NGC 253 (ref. 12) and M 82 (refs 13, 14) may facilitate the entrainment of molecular gas in the wind. Although shell properties are well constrained, determining the amount of outflowing gas emerging from such shells and the connection between this gas and the ionized wind requires spatial resolution better than 100 parsecs coupled with sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales, a combination hitherto not available. Here we report observations of NGC 253, a nearby starburst galaxy (distance ∼ 3.4 megaparsecs) known to possess a wind, that trace the cool molecular wind at 50-parsec resolution. At this resolution, the extraplanar molecular gas closely tracks the Hα filaments, and it appears to be connected to expanding molecular shells located in the starburst region. These observations allow us to determine that the molecular outflow rate is greater than 3 solar masses per year and probably about 9 solar masses per year. This implies a ratio of mass-outflow rate to star-formation rate of at least 1, and probably ∼3, indicating that the starburst-driven wind limits the star-formation activity and the final stellar content. PMID:23887428

  20. The complex radio and X-ray structure in the nuclear regions of the active galaxy NGC1365

    CERN Document Server

    Stevens, I R; Norris, R P; Stevens, Ian R.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Norris, Ray P.

    1999-01-01

    We present a multiwavelength analysis of the prominent active galaxy NGC1365, in particular looking at the radio and X-ray properties of the central regions of the galaxy. We analyse ROSAT observations of NGC1365, and discuss recent ASCA results. In addition to a number of point sources in the vicinity of NGC1365, we find a region of X-ray emission extending along the central bar of the galaxy, combined with an emission peak near the centre of the galaxy. This X-ray emission is centred on the optical/radio nucleus, but is spatially extended. The X-ray spectrum can be well fitted by a thermal plasma model, with kT=0.6-0.8keV and a low local absorbing column. The thermal spectrum is suggestive of starburst emission rather than emission from a central black-hole. The ATCA radio observations show a number of hotspots, located in a ring around a weak radio nucleus. Synchrotron emission from electrons accelerated by supernovae and supernova remnants (SNRs) is the likely origin of these hotspots. The radio nucleus h...

  1. DWARFS GOBBLING DWARFS: A STELLAR TIDAL STREAM AROUND NGC 4449 AND HIERARCHICAL GALAXY FORMATION ON SMALL SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Rix, Hans-Walter; Maccio, Andrea V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomy, Heidelberg (Germany); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Arnold, Jacob A.; Brodie, Jean P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Jay Gabany, R. [Black Bird Observatory, Mayhill, New Mexico (United States); Annibali, Francesca [Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, INAF, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Fliri, Juergen [LERMA, CNRS UMR 8112, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l' Observatoire, F-75014 Paris (France); Zibetti, Stefano [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute-University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Aloisi, Alessandra [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chonis, Taylor S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Texas (United States); Carballo-Bello, Julio A. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Tenerife (Spain); Gallego-Laborda, J. [Fosca Nit Observatory, Montsec Astronomical Park, Ager (Spain); Merrifield, Michael R. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2012-04-01

    A candidate diffuse stellar substructure was previously reported in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449 by Karachentsev et al. We map and analyze this feature using a unique combination of deep integrated-light images from the BlackBird 0.5 m telescope, and high-resolution wide-field images from the 8 m Subaru Telescope, which resolve the nebulosity into a stream of red giant branch stars, and confirm its physical association with NGC 4449. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which after complete disruption will deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The stellar mass ratio between the two galaxies is {approx}1:50, while the indirectly measured dynamical mass ratio, when including dark matter, may be {approx}1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a 'stealth' merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  2. The Suzaku View of the Disk-Jet Connection in the Low Excitation Radio Galaxy NGC 6251

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, D A; Hardcastle, M J; Kraft, R P; Gandhi, P; Croston, J H; Lee, J C

    2011-01-01

    We present results from an 87-ks Suzaku observation of the canonical low-excitation radio galaxy (LERG) NGC 6251. We have previously suggested that LERGs violate conventional AGN unification schemes: they may lack an obscuring torus and are likely to accrete in a radiatively inefficient manner, with almost all of the energy released by the accretion process being channeled into powerful jets. We model the 0.5-20 keV Suzaku spectrum with a single power law of photon index $\\Gamma=1.82^{+0.04}_{-0.05}$, together with two collisionally ionized plasma models whose parameters are consistent with the known galaxy- and group-scale thermal emission. Our observations confirm that there are no signatures of obscured, accretion-related X-ray emission in NGC 6251, and we show that the luminosity of any such component must be substantially sub-Eddington in nature.

  3. The NIR structure of the barred galaxy NGC253 from VISTA

    CERN Document Server

    Iodice, E; Rejkuba, M; Neeser, M J; Greggio, L; Gonzalez, O A; Irwin, M; Emerson, J P

    2014-01-01

    [abridged] We used J and Ks band images acquired with the VISTA telescope as part of the science verification to quantify the structures in the stellar disk of the barred Sc galaxy NGC253. Moving outward from the galaxy center, we find a nuclear ring within the bright 1 kpc diameter nucleus, then a bar, a ring with 2.9 kpc radius. From the Ks image we obtain a new measure of the deprojected length of the bar of 2.5 kpc. The bar's strength, as derived from the curvature of the dust lanes in the J-Ks image, is typical of weak bars. From the deprojected length of the bar, we establish the corotation radius (R_CR=3 kpc) and bar pattern speed (Omega_b = 61.3 km /s kpc), which provides the connection between the high-frequency structures in the disk and the orbital resonances induced by the bar. The nuclear ring is located at the inner Lindblad resonance. The second ring does not have a resonant origin, but it could be a merger remnant or a transient structure formed during an intermediate stage of the bar formatio...

  4. Spectroscopy of globular clusters in the low-luminosity spiral galaxy NGC 45

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, Marcelo D; Kissler-Patig, Markus

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Extragalactic globular clusters have been studied in elliptical galaxies and in a few luminous spiral galaxies, but little is known about globular clusters in low-luminosity spirals. AIMS: Past observations with the ACS have shown that NGC 45 hosts a large population of globular clusters (19), as well as several young star clusters. In this work we aim to confirm the bona fide globular cluster status for 8 of 19 globular cluster candidates and to derive metallicities, ages, and velocities. METHODS: VLT/FORS2 multislit spectroscopy in combination with the Lick/IDS system was used to derive velocities and to constrain metallicities and [alpha/Fe] element ratio of the globular clusters. RESULTS: We confirm the 8 globular clusters as bona fide globular clusters. Their velocities indicate halo or bulge-like kinematics, with little or no overall rotation. From absorption indices such as H_beta, H_gamma, and H_delta and the combined [MgFe]' index, we found that the globular clusters are metal-poor [Z/H]<...

  5. Dark filaments in the galaxy NGC 253: A boiling galactic disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofue, Yoshiaki; Wakamatsu, Ken-Ichi; Malin, David F.

    1994-12-01

    We study the morphology of dark lanes and filaments in the dust-rich galaxy NGC 253 using an unsharp-masked B-band optical photograph. Dust features are classified as 'arcs,' which have heights and scale radius of about 100 to 300 pc, connecting two or more dark clouds, and 'loops' and 'bubbles,' which are developed forms of arcs, expanding into the disk-halo interface. These have diameters of a few hundred pc to approximately 1 kpc. Among the bubbles, we notice a peculiar round-shaped bubble above the nucleus, which could be a large-diameter (approximately 300 pc) supernova remnant exploded in the halo over the nucleus. We also find 'vertical dust streamers,' which comprise bunches of narrow filaments with a thickness of a few tens of pc and are almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, extending coherently for 1 to 2 kpc toward the halo. Finally, we note 'short vertical dust filaments' (or spicules) are found in the central region. We interpret these features as due to three-dimensional structures of gas extending from the disk into the halo. We propose a 'boiling disk' model where the filamentary features are produced by star-forming activity in the disk as well as the influence of magnetic fluxes. We discuss the implication of the model for the chemical evolution of the interstellar medium (ISM) in a galaxy disk.

  6. Dark mammoth trunks in the merging galaxy NGC 1316 and a mechanism of cosmic double helices

    CERN Document Server

    Carlqvist, Per

    2010-01-01

    NGC 1316 is a giant, elliptical galaxy containing a complex network of dark, dust features. The morphology of these features has been examined in some detail using a Hubble Space Telescope, Advanced Camera for Surveys image. It is found that most of the features are constituted of long filaments. There also exist a great number of dark structures protruding inwards from the filaments. Many of these structures are strikingly similar to elephant trunks in H II regions in the Milky Way Galaxy, although much larger. The structures, termed mammoth trunks, generally are filamentary and often have shapes resembling the letters V or Y. In some of the mammoth trunks the stem of the Y can be resolved into two or more filaments, many of which showing signs of being intertwined. A model of the mammoth trunks, related to a recent theory of elephant trunks, is proposed. Based on magnetized filaments, the model is capable of giving an account of the various shapes of the mammoth trunks observed, including the twined structu...

  7. Star formation in the warped outer pseudoring of the spiral galaxy NGC 3642

    CERN Document Server

    Verdes-Montenegro, L; Athanassoula, E

    2002-01-01

    NGC 3642 was classified as a spiral galaxy with three rings and no bar. We have performed an HI and optical study of this nearly face-on galaxy. We find that the nuclear ring might in fact be part of an inner one-armed spiral, that could be driving nuclear accretion and feeding the central activity in the inner kpc. The inner ring is faint, and the outer ring is a rather ill-defined pseudoring. Furthermore, the size ratio of the rings is such that they cannot be due to a single pattern speed linking them together. The outer pseudoring is peculiar, since it lies in the faint outer parts of the disk, where star formation is still going on at 1.4 times the optical radius. Higher HI column densities are associated with these regions and the atomic gas layer is warped. These perturbations affect only the outer disk, since the kinematics within the main body conforms well to an ordinary differentially rotating disk. We propose here that both nuclear activity and star formation in the warped outer parts might be lin...

  8. Subaru High-Dispersion Spectroscopy of Narrow-Line Region in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, T; Shioya, Y; Taniguchi, Y; Nagao, Tohru; Murayama, Takashi; Shioya, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Yoshiaki

    2003-01-01

    We report on a study of forbidden emission-line spectrum of nearby Seyfert 1.5 galaxy NGC 4151 based on the high-resolution (R ~ 45,000) optical spectrum obtained by using the High Dispersion Spectrograph boarded on the Subaru Telescope. The profile parameters such as the emission-line widths, the velocity shifts from the recession velocity of the host galaxy, and the asymmetry indices, for emission lines including very faint ones such as [Ar IV]4712,4740 and [Fe VI]5631,5677 are investigated. Statistically significant correlations between the measured profile parameters and the critical densities of transitions are found while there are no meaningful correlations between the profile parameters and the ionization potentials of ions. By comparing the results with photoionization model calculations, we remark that a simple power-law distribution of the gas density which is independent of the radius from the nucleus cannot explain the observed correlation between the emission-line widths and the critical densiti...

  9. The Spatial Distribution of the Young Stellar Clusters in the Star Forming Galaxy NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Grasha, K; Adamo, A; Kim, H; Elmegreen, B G; Gouliermis, D A; Aloisi, A; Bright, S N; Christian, C; Cignoni, M; Dale, D A; Dobbs, C; Elmegreen, D M; Fumagalli, M; Gallagher, J S; Grebel, E K; Johnson, K E; Lee, J C; Messa, M; Smith, L J; Ryon, J E; Thilker, D; Ubeda, L; Wofford, A

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the spatial distribution of the stellar cluster populations in the star forming galaxy NGC 628. Using Hubble Space Telescope broad band WFC3/UVIS UV and optical images from the Treasury Program LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey), we have identified 1392 potential young (<100 Myr) stellar clusters within the galaxy, identified from a combination of visual inspection and automatic selection. We investigate the clustering of these young stellar clusters and quantify the strength and change of clustering strength with scale using the two-point correlation function. We also investigate how image boundary conditions and dust lanes affect the observed clustering. The distribution of the clusters is well fit by a broken power law with negative exponent $\\alpha$. We recover a weighted mean index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.8 for all spatial scales below the break at 3".3 (158 pc at a distance of 9.9 Mpc) and an index of $\\alpha$ ~ -0.18 above 158 pc for the accumulation of all cluster types. The stre...

  10. Evidence of a Supermassive Black Hole in the Galaxy NGC 1023 from the Nuclear Stellar Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bower, G A; Bender, R; Gebhardt, K; Lauer, T R; Magorrian, J; Richstone, D O; Danks, A C; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Joseph, C L; Kaiser, M E; Weistrop, D; Woodgate, B; Nelson, C; Malumuth, E M

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the nuclear stellar dynamics of the SB0 galaxy NGC 1023, utilizing observational data both from the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph aboard the Hubble Space Telescope and from the ground. The stellar kinematics measured from these long-slit spectra show rapid rotation (V = 70 km/s at a distance of 0.1 arcsec = 4.9 pc from the nucleus) and increasing velocity dispersion toward the nucleus (where sigma = 295 +/- 30 km/s). We model the observed stellar kinematics assuming an axisymmetric mass distribution with both two and three integrals of motion. Both modeling techniques point to the presence of a central dark compact mass (which presumably is a supermassive black hole) with confidence > 99%. The isotropic two-integral models yield a best-fitting black hole mass of (6.0 +/- 1.4) x 10^7 M_sun and mass-to-light ratio (M/L_V) of 5.38 +/- 0.08, and the goodness-of-fit (chi^2) is insensitive to reasonable values for the galaxy's inclination. The three-integral models, which non-parametrically fit th...

  11. 3D Spectroscopy of Local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies: Kinematics of NGC 7673

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Gallego, J; Castillo-Morales, A; Castander, F J; Gallego, J; Garland, C A; Gruel, N; Pisano, D J; Sánchez, S F; Zamorano, J

    2009-01-01

    The kinematic properties of the ionized gas of local Luminous Compact Blue Galaxy (LCBG) NGC 7673 are presented using three dimensional data taken with the PPAK integral field unit at the 3.5-m telescope in the Centro Astron\\'omico Hispano Alem\\'an. Our data reveal an asymmetric rotating velocity field with a peak to peak difference of 60 km s$^{-1}$. The kinematic centre is found to be at the position of a central velocity width maximum ($\\sigma=54\\pm1$ km s$^{-1}$), which is consistent with the position of the luminosity-weighted centroid of the entire galaxy. The position angle of the minor rotation axis is 168$^{\\circ}$ as measured from the orientation of the velocity field contours. At least two decoupled kinematic components are found. The first one is compact and coincides with the position of the second most active star formation region (clump B). The second one is extended and does not have a clear optical counterpart. No evidence of active galactic nuclei activity or supernovae galactic winds poweri...

  12. Modeling the physical properties in the ISM of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC4214

    CERN Document Server

    Dimaratos, A; Bigiel, F; Madden, S C

    2015-01-01

    We present a model for the interstellar medium of NGC4214 with the objective to probe the physical conditions in the two main star-forming regions and their connection with the star formation activity of the galaxy. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model an HII region and the associated photodissociation region (PDR) to reproduce the emission of mid- and far-infrared fine-structure cooling lines from the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes for these two regions. Input parameters of the model, such as elemental abundances and star formation history, are guided by earlier studies of the galaxy, and we investigated the effect of the mode in which star formation takes place (bursty or continuous) on the line emission. Furthermore, we tested the effect of adding pressure support with magnetic fields and turbulence on the line predictions. We find that this model can satisfactorily predict (within a factor of ~2) all observed lines that originate from the ionized medium ([SIV] 10.5um, [NeIII] 15.6um,...

  13. Feeding and Feedback in the Inner Kiloparsec of the Active Galaxy NGC2110

    CERN Document Server

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Nagar, Neil M; Robinson, Andrew; Lena, Davide; Riffel, Rogemar A; Couto, Guilherme S

    2013-01-01

    We present two-dimensional gaseous kinematics of the inner 1.1 x 1.6kpc^2 of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC2110, from optical spectra obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of 100pc. Gas emission is observed over the whole field-of-view, with complex - and frequently double - emission-line profiles. We have identified four components in the emitting gas, according to their velocity dispersion (sigma), which we refer to as: (1) warm gas disk (sigma = 100-220km/s); (2) cold gas disk (sigma = 60-90km/s); (3) nuclear component (sigma = 220-600km/s); and (4) northern cloud (sigma = 60-80km/s). Both the cold and warm disk components are dominated by rotation and have similar gas densities, but the cold gas disk has lower velocity dispersions and reaches higher rotation velocities. We attribute the warm gas disk to a thick gas layer which encompasses the cold disk as observed in some edge-on spiral galaxies. After subtraction of a rotation model from the co...

  14. Gas inflows towards the nucleus of the active galaxy NGC7213

    CERN Document Server

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Nagar, Neil M; Ferrari, Fabricio

    2014-01-01

    We present two-dimensional stellar and gaseous kinematics of the inner 0.8x1.1kpc^2 of the LINER/Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC7213, from optical spectra obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of 60pc. The stellar kinematics shows an average velocity dispersion of 177km/s, circular rotation with a projected velocity amplitude of 50km/s and a kinematic major axis at a position angle of -4degrees (west of north). From the average velocity dispersion we estimate a black hole mass of M_BH=8_{-6}^{+16}x10^7 M_sun. The gas kinematics is dominated by non-circular motions, mainly along two spiral arms extending from the nucleus out to 4arcsec (280pc) to the NW and SE, that are cospatial with a nuclear dusty spiral seen in a structure map of the nuclear region of the galaxy. The projected gas velocities along the spiral arms show blueshifts in the far side and redshifts in the near side, with values of up to 200km/s. This kinematics can be interpreted as gas infl...

  15. Transient X-ray source population in the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 55

    CERN Document Server

    Jithesh, V

    2016-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal properties of 15 candidate transient X-ray sources detected in archival {\\it XMM-Newton} and {\\it Chandra} observations of the nearby Magellanic-type, SB(s)m galaxy NGC 55. On the basis of an X-ray color classification scheme, the majority of the sources may be identified as X-ray binaries (XRBs), and six sources are soft, including a likely supernova remnant. We perform a detailed spectral and variability analysis of the data for two bright candidate XRBs. Both sources displayed strong short-term X-ray variability, and their X-ray spectra and hardness ratios are consistent with those of XRBs. These results, combined with their high X-ray luminosities ($\\sim 10^{38}~\\rm erg~s^{-1}$), strongly suggest that they are black hole (BH) binaries. Seven less luminous sources have spectral properties consistent with those of neutron star or BH XRBs in both normal and high-rate accretion modes, but one of them is the likely counterpart to a background galaxy (because of positional c...

  16. The interstellar disk-halo connection in the spiral galaxy NGC 3079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain; Cecil, Gerald; Bland-Hawthorne, J.

    1995-01-01

    We discuss the morphology and excitation of ionized gas in the nearby Sc galaxy NGC 3079. The almost edge-on orientation is ideal for studying the vertical structure of the gaseous disk, and especially the diffuse ionized medium (DIM) found between the bright H II regions. We used the Hawaii Imaging Fabry-Perot Interferometer (HIFI) to map 150,000 H-alpha + (N II) lambda lambda 6548, 6583 emission-line profiles across the entire disk, with resolution 70 km/s at subarcsecond steps, down to a flux level of approximately 10(exp -17) ergs/s/sq cm (EM approximately equal to 4 cm(exp -6) pc). The DIM contributes approximately 30% of the total disk H-alpha emission within a radius of 10 kpc. The DIM has broader emission lines and larger (N II) H-alpha flux ratios than the adjacent H II regions. Within a radius of 5 kpc, we find that the X-shaped filaments reported in previous studies emerge from the inner (R approximately equal to 1.5 kpc) disk, and rise more than 4 kpc above the disk plane. The morphology, kinematics, and excitation of the filaments suggest that they form a biconic interface between the undisturbed disk gas, and gas entrained in the wide-angle outflow. The DIM beyond 5 kpc radius is more vertically extended than the thick ionized disk detected in our Galaxy and in a few nearby edge-on systems. After correcting for dust, the vertical profile of this DIM has an exponential scale height of about 1.1 kpc, similar to that of the H I disk. The (N II) lambda 6538/H-alpha flux ratio of the DIM increases monotonically with vertical height, reaching unity for absolute value of z greater than or approximately equal to 2.5 kpc. The flux required to keep the DIM ionized at R = 8 kpc is similar to that near the solar circle of our Galaxy. Highly dilute radiation from O stars in the galactic plane probably maintains the DIM. The total mass of the DIM is of order 10(exp 8) - 10(exp 9) solar mass, representing less than 1% of the total dynamical mass of NGC 3079

  17. NGC 404: A REJUVENATED LENTICULAR GALAXY ON A MERGER-INDUCED, BLUEWARD EXCURSION INTO THE GREEN VALLEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion ((1-4) x R 25) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using Galaxy Evolution Explorer UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's H I ring (formed by a merger event according to del RIo et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival Hubble Space Telescope imaging reveals resolved upper main-sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles, and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR) is ∼2.2 x 10-5 M sun yr-1 kpc-2. Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the H I ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5 x 10-3 M sun yr-1. The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy color-magnitude diagram, the presence of the star-forming H I ring places NGC 404 in the green valley separating the red and blue sequences. The rejuvenated lenticular galaxy has experienced a merger-induced, disk-building excursion away from the red sequence toward bluer colors, where it may evolve quiescently or (if appropriately triggered) experience a burst capable of placing it on the blue/star-forming sequence for up to ∼1 Gyr. The green valley galaxy population is heterogeneous, with most systems transitioning from blue to red but others evolving in the opposite sense due to acquisition of fresh gas through various channels.

  18. ALMA observations of the Antennae galaxies. I. A new window on a prototypical merger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, Bradley C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Brogan, Crystal; Evans, Aaron; Hibbard, John; Leroy, Adam; Remijan, Anthony; Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astrophysical Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Johnson, Kelsey; Privon, George, E-mail: whitmore@stsci.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We present the highest spatial resolution (≈0.''5) CO (3-2) observations to date of the 'overlap' region in the merging Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/39), taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We report on the discovery of a long (3 kpc), thin (aspect ratio 30/1), filament of CO gas that breaks up into roughly 10 individual knots. Each individual knot has a low internal velocity dispersion (≈10 km s{sup –1}); the dispersion of the ensemble of knots in the filament is also low (≈10 km s{sup –1}). At the other extreme, we find that the individual clouds in the supergiant molecular cloud 2 region discussed by Wilson and collaborators have a large range of internal velocity dispersions (10 to 80 km s{sup –1}), and a large dispersion among the ensemble (≈80 km s{sup –1}). Other large-scale features observed in CO emission, and their correspondence with historical counterparts using observations in other wavelengths, are also discussed. We compare the locations of small-scale CO features with a variety of multi-wavelength observations, in particular broad- (BVIJH) and narrow-band data (H{sub α} and Pa{sub β}) taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and radio (3.6 cm) continuum observations taken with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. This comparison leads to the development of an evolutionary classification system that provides a framework for studying the sequence of star cluster formation and evolution—from diffuse supergiant molecular clouds (SGMCs) to proto, embedded, emerging, young, intermediate/old clusters. The relative timescales have been assessed by determining the fractional population of sources at each evolutionary stage. The main uncertainty in this estimate is the identification of four regions as candidate protoclusters (i.e., strong compact CO emission but no clearly associated radio emission). Using the evolutionary framework, we estimate that the maximum age range of clusters in a single

  19. NGC 404, A Rejuvenated Lenticular Galaxy on a Merger-Induced, Blueward Excursion into the Green Valley

    CERN Document Server

    Thilker, David A; Schiminovich, David; de Paz, Armando Gil; Seibert, Mark; Madore, Barry F; Wyder, Ted; Rich, R Michael; Yi, Sukyoung; Barlow, Tom; Conrow, Tim; Forster, Karl; Friedman, Peter; Martin, Christopher D; Morrissey, Patrick; Neff, Susan; Small, Todd

    2010-01-01

    We have discovered recent star formation in the outermost portion (1-4x R_25) of the nearby lenticular (S0) galaxy NGC 404 using GALEX UV imaging. FUV-bright sources are strongly concentrated within the galaxy's HI ring (formed by a merger event according to del Rio et al.), even though the average gas density is dynamically subcritical. Archival HST imaging reveals resolved upper main sequence stars and conclusively demonstrates that the UV light originates from recent star formation activity. We present FUV, NUV radial surface brightness profiles and integrated magnitudes for NGC 404. Within the ring, the average star formation rate surface density (Sigma_{SFR}) is 2.2x10^-5 Msun/yr/kpc^2. Of the total FUV flux, 70% comes from the HI ring which is forming stars at a rate of 2.5x10^-3 Msun/yr. The gas consumption timescale, assuming a constant SFR and no gas recycling, is several times the age of the Universe. In the context of the UV-optical galaxy CMD, the presence of the SF HI ring places NGC 404 in the g...

  20. Ionized Gas Characteristics in the Cavities of the Gas and Dust Disc of the Spiral Galaxy NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yu N; Egorov, O V

    2011-01-01

    The parameters of the ionized gas in NGC 6946 (in the [NII]6548,6583, H-alpha and [SII]6717,6731 lines) are investigated with the SAO RAS BTA telescope along three positions of the long slit of the SCORPIO focal reducer, passing through a number of large and small cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. Most of these cavities correspond exactly to the cavities in warm dust. We found that everywhere in the direction of NGC 6946 the lines of ionized gas are decomposed into two Gaussians, one of which shows almost constant [SII]/H-alpha and [NII]/H-alpha ratios, as well as an almost constant radial velocity within the measurement errors (about -35 - -50 km/s). This component is in fact the foreground radiation from the diffuse ionized gas of our Galaxy; a similar component is also present in the emission of neutral hydrogen. The analysis of the component of ionized gas, occurring in NGC 6946, has revealed that it shows signs of shock excitation in the cavities of the gaseous disc of the galaxy. It is as well...

  1. Global Properties of `Ordinary' Early-type Galaxies: photometry and spectroscopy of stars and globular clusters in NGC 4494

    CERN Document Server

    Foster, Caroline; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Forbes, Duncan A; Pota, Vincenzo; Bekki, Kenji; Strader, Jay; Proctor, Robert N; Arnold, Jacob A; Brodie, Jean P

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the spatial, kinematic, and chemical properties of stars and globular clusters (GCs) in the `ordinary' elliptical galaxy NGC 4494 using data from the Keck and Subaru telescopes. We derive galaxy surface brightness and colour profiles out to large galactocentric radii. We compare the latter to metallicities derived using the near-infrared Calcium Triplet. We obtain stellar kinematics out to ~3.5 effective radii. The latter appear flattened or elongated beyond ~1.8 effective radii in contrast to the relatively round photometric isophotes. In fact, NGC 4494 may be a flattened galaxy, possibly even an S0, seen at an inclination of ~45 degrees. We publish a catalogue of 431 GC candidates brighter than i=24 based on the photometry, of which 109 are confirmed spectroscopically and 54 have measured spectroscopic metallicities. We also report the discovery of 3 spectroscopically confirmed ultra-compact dwarfs around NGC 4494 with measured metallicities of -0.4<[Fe/H]<-0.3$....

  2. On carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in starburst galaxies: New data from NGC253 and Mrk231 and their implications

    CERN Document Server

    Henkel, C; Ao, Y; Aalto, S; Danielson, A L R; Papadopoulos, P P; Garcia-Burillo, S; Aladro, R; Impellizzeri, C M V; Mauersberger, R; Martin, S; Harada, N

    2014-01-01

    Using the IRAM 30-m telescope, CN and CO isotopologues have been measured toward the central regions of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC253 and the prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy Mrk231. In NGC253, the 12C/13C ratio is 40+-10. Assuming that the ratio also holds for the CO emitting gas, this yields 16O/18O = 145+-36 and 16O/17O = 1290+-365 and a 32S/34S ratio close to that measured for the local interstellar medium (20-25). No indication for vibrationally excited CN is found. Peak line intensity ratios between NGC253 and Mrk231 are ~100 for 12C16O and 12C18O J=1-0, while the ratio for 13C16O J=1-0 is ~250. This and similar 13CO and C18O line intensities in the J=1-0 and 2-1 transitions of Mrk231 suggest 12C/13C ~ 100 and 16O/18O ~ 100, in agreement with values obtained for the less evolved ultraluminous merger Arp220. Also accounting for other extragalactic data, 12C/13C ratios appear to vary over a full order of magnitude, from >100 in ultraluminous high redshift galaxies to ~100 in more local such...

  3. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Radial Gas Inflow and Shock Excitation in NGC 1042

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Rongxin; Hao, Lei; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Jogee, Shardha; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Weinzirl, Tim

    2016-06-01

    NGC 1042 is a late-type bulgeless disk galaxy that hosts low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) coincident with a massive nuclear star cluster. In this paper, we present the integral field spectroscopy studies of this galaxy, based on the data obtained with the Mitchell spectrograph on the 2.7 m Harlan J. Smith telescope. In the central 100–300 pc region of NGC 1042, we find a circumnuclear ring structure of gas with enhanced ionization, which we suggest is mainly induced by shocks. Combining this with the harmonic decomposition analysis of the velocity field of the ionized gas, we propose that the shocked gas is the result of gas inflow driven by the inner spiral arms. The inflow velocity is ∼ 32+/- 10 {km} {{{s}}}-1, and the estimated mass-inflow rate is ∼ 1.1+/- 0.3× {10}-3 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1. The mass-inflow rate is about one hundred times the black hole’s mass-accretion rate (∼ 1.4× {10}-5 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1) and slightly larger than the star-formation rate in the nuclear star cluster (7.94× {10}-4 {M}ȯ {{yr}}-1), implying that the inflow material is enough to feed both the AGN activity and star formation in the nuclear star cluster. Our study highlights that secular evolution can be important in late-type unbarred galaxies like NGC 1042.

  4. Neutral Hydrogen Absorption and Emission in the Quasar/Galaxy Pair 3C275.1/\\NGC4651

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Stephen E.; Corbelli, Edvige

    1993-01-01

    3C275.1 and \\NGC4651 make a particularly interesting quasar/galaxy pairing because of the alignment of such a strong radio emitter behind the outer H\\I disk of a relatively undisturbed spiral galaxy. This provides an opportunity to study the spin-temperature characteristics of atomic hydrogen at low column densities, in an apparently star-free environment. We previously reported a tentative detection of absorption against the quasar based on VLA C--array observations; we have now made more se...

  5. Spectacular tails of ionized gas in the Virgo cluster galaxy NGC 4569

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, A.; Cuillandre, J. C.; Fossati, M.; Boissier, S.; Bomans, D.; Consolandi, G.; Anselmi, G.; Cortese, L.; Côté, P.; Durrell, P.; Ferrarese, L.; Fumagalli, M.; Gavazzi, G.; Gwyn, S.; Hensler, G.; Sun, M.; Toloba, E.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Using MegaCam at the CFHT, we obtained a deep narrow band Hα+[NII] wide-field image of NGC 4569 (M90), the brightest late-type galaxy in the Virgo cluster. The image reveals the presence of long tails of diffuse ionized gas, without any associated stellar component extending from the disc of the galaxy up to ≃80 kpc (projected distance) and with a typical surface brightness of a few 10-18 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2. These features provide direct evidence that NGC 4569 is undergoing a ram-presure stripping event. The image also shows a prominent 8 kpc spur of ionized gas that is associated with the nucleus that spectroscopic data identify as an outflow. With some assumptions on the 3D distribution of the gas, we use the Hα surface brightness of these extended low-surface brightness features to derive the density and the mass of the gas that has been stripped during the interaction of the galaxy with the intracluster medium. The comparison with ad hoc chemo-spectrophotometric models of galaxy evolution indicates that the mass of the Hα emitting gas in the tail is a large fraction of that of the cold phase that has been stripped from the disc, suggesting that the gas is ionized within the tail during the stripping process. The lack of star-forming regions suggests that mechanisms other than photoionization are responsible for the excitation of the gas (shocks, heat conduction, magneto hydrodynamic waves). This analysis indicates that ram pressure stripping is efficient in massive (Mstar ≃ 1010.5 M⊙) galaxies located in intermediate-mass (≃1014 M⊙) clusters under formation. It also shows that the mass of gas expelled by the nuclear outflow is only ~1% than that removed during the ram pressure stripping event.Together these results indicate that ram pressure stripping, rather than starvation through nuclear feedback, can be the dominant mechanism that is responsible for the quenching of the star formation activity of galaxies in high density

  6. PROBING THE X-RAY BINARY POPULATIONS OF THE RING GALAXY NGC 1291

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present Chandra studies of the X-ray binary (XRB) populations in the bulge and ring regions of the ring galaxy NGC 1291. We detect 169 X-ray point sources in the galaxy, 75 in the bulge and 71 in the ring, utilizing the four available Chandra observations totaling an effective exposure of 179 ks. We report photometric properties of these sources in a point-source catalog. There are ≈40% of the bulge sources and ≈25% of the ring sources showing >3σ long-term variability in their X-ray count rate. The X-ray colors suggest that a significant fraction of the bulge (≈75%) and ring (≈65%) sources are likely low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The spectra of the nuclear source indicate that it is a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus (AGN) with moderate obscuration; spectral variability is observed between individual observations. We construct 0.3-8.0 keV X-ray luminosity functions (XLFs) for the bulge and ring XRB populations, taking into account the detection incompleteness and background AGN contamination. We reach 90% completeness limits of ≈1.5 × 1037 and ≈2.2 × 1037 erg s–1 for the bulge and ring populations, respectively. Both XLFs can be fit with a broken power-law model, and the shapes are consistent with those expected for populations dominated by LMXBs. We perform detailed population synthesis modeling of the XRB populations in NGC 1291, which suggests that the observed combined XLF is dominated by an old LMXB population. We compare the bulge and ring XRB populations, and argue that the ring XRBs are associated with a younger stellar population than the bulge sources, based on the relative overdensity of X-ray sources in the ring, the generally harder X-ray color of the ring sources, the overabundance of luminous sources in the combined XLF, and the flatter shape of the ring XLF.

  7. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  8. The Cepheid distance to the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258: Studying systematics with the Large Binocular Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Fausnaugh, M M; Gerke, J R; Macri, L M; Riess, A G; Stanek, K Z

    2014-01-01

    We identify and phase a sample of 81 Cepheids in the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258 using the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), and obtain calibrated mean magnitudes in up to 4 filters for a subset of 43 Cepheids using archival HST data. We employ 3 models to study the systematic effects of extinction, the assumed extinction law, and metallicity on the Cepheid distance to NGC 4258. We find a correction to the Cepheid colors consistent with a grayer extinction law in NGC 4258 compared to the Milky Way ($R_V =4.9$), although we believe this is indicative of other systematic effects. If we combine our Cepheid sample with previously known Cepheids, we find a significant metallicity adjustment to the distance modulus of $\\gamma_1 = -0.60 \\pm 0.21$ mag/dex, for the Zaritsky et al. (1994) metallicity scale, as well as a weak trend of Cepheid colors with metallicity. Conclusions about the absolute effect of metallicity on Cepheid mean magnitudes appear to be limited by the available data on the metallicity gradient in NGC...

  9. Spectroscopic evidence of charge exchange X-ray emission from galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Liu, Jiren

    2012-01-01

    What are the origins of the soft X-ray line emission from non-AGN galaxies? XMM-Newton RGS spectra of nearby non-AGN galaxies (including starforming ones: M82, NGC 253, M51, M83, M61, NGC 4631, M94, NGC 2903, and the Antennae galaxies, as well as the inner bulge of M31) have been analyzed. In particular, the K{\\alpha} triplet of O VII shows that the resonance line is typically weaker than the forbidden and/or inter-combination lines. This suggests that a substantial fraction of the emission m...

  10. NGC 1266: Characterization of the Nuclear Molecular Gas in an Unusual SB0 Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J.; Rangwala, N.; Maloney, P. R.; Kamenetzky, J. R.

    2015-02-01

    With a substantial nuclear molecular gas reservoir and broad, high-velocity CO molecular line wings previously interpreted as an outflow, NGC 1266 is a rare SB0 galaxy. Previous analyses of interferometry, spectrally resolved low-J CO emission lines, and unresolved high-J emission lines have established basic properties of the molecular gas and the likely presence of an active galactic nucleus. Here, new spectrally resolved CO J = 5-4 to J = 8-7 lines from Herschel Space Observatory HIFI observations are combined with ground-based observations and high-J Herschel SPIRE observations to decompose the nuclear and putative outflow velocity components and to model the molecular gas to quantify its properties. Details of the modeling and results are described, with comparisons to previous results and exploration of the implications for the gas excitation mechanisms. Among the findings, like for other galaxies, the nuclear and putative outflow molecular gas are well represented by components that are cool (T_nuclear {=} 6+10-2 K and T outflow ~ 30 K), comprising bulk of the mass (log M_nuclear/M⊙ {=} 8.3+0.5-0.4 and log M_outflow/M⊙ {=} 7.6+0.3-0.3), and the minority of the luminosity (log L_nuclear/L⊙ {=} 5.44+0.22-0.18 and log L outflow/L ⊙ ~ 6.5) and warm (T_nuclear {=} 74+130-26 K and T outflow > 100 K), comprising a minority of the mass (log M_nuclear/M⊙ {=} 7.3+0.5-0.5 and log M outflow/M ⊙ ~ 6.3) but the majority of the luminosity (log L_nuclear/L⊙ {=} 6.90+0.16-0.16 and log L outflow/L ⊙ ~ 7.2). The outflow has an anomalously high L CO/L FIR of 1.7 × 10-3 and is almost certainly shock excited.

  11. Chandra observations of NGC4342, an optically faint, X-ray gas-rich early-type galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Bogdan, Akos; Kraft, Ralph P; Jones, Christine; Randall, Scott W; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhuravleva, Irina; Churazov, Eugene; Li, Zhiyuan; Nulsen, Paul E J; Vikhlinin, Alexey; Boehringer, Hans; Schindler, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Chandra X-ray observations of NGC4342, a low stellar mass (M_K=-22.79 mag) early-type galaxy, show luminous, diffuse X-ray emission originating from hot gas with temperature of kT~0.56 keV. The observed 0.5-2 keV band luminosity of the diffuse X-ray emission within the D_25 ellipse is L_0.5-2keV = 2.7 x 10^39 erg/s. The hot gas has a significantly broader distribution than the stellar light, and shows strong hydrodynamic disturbances with a sharp surface brightness edge to the northeast and a trailing tail. We identify the edge as a cold front and conclude that the distorted morphology of the hot gas is produced by ram pressure as NGC4342 moves through external gas. From the thermal pressure ratios inside and outside the cold front, we estimate the velocity of NGC4342 and find that it moves supersonically (M~2.6) towards the northeast. We also resolve eight bright (L_0.5-8keV > 3 x 10^37 erg/s) point sources within the D_25 ellipse of the galaxy, most of them being low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). The luminos...

  12. NuSTAR unveils a heavily obscured low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    CERN Document Server

    Ricci, C; Treister, E; Romero-Canizales, C; Arevalo, P; Iwasawa, K; Privon, G C; Sanders, D B; Schawinski, K; Stern, D; Imanishi, M

    2016-01-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286, identified in a 17.5 ks NuSTAR observation. The source is in an early merging stage, and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and, by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured [$N_{\\rm\\,H}\\simeq (0.95-1.32)\\times 10^{24}\\rm\\,cm^{-2}$], with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick [CT, $\\log (N_{\\rm\\,H}/\\rm cm^{-2})\\geq 24$]. The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity ($L_{2-10\\rm\\,keV}\\sim 3-20\\times 10^{41}\\rm\\,erg\\,s^{-1}$) and contributes $\\lesssim$1\\% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low-luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band ($<10$ keV) and in the infrared did not notice th...

  13. Contemporaneous observations of the radio galaxy NGC 1275 from radio to very high energy gamma-rays

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksić, J; Antonelli, L A; Antoranz, P; Babic, A; Bangale, P; de Almeida, U Barres; Barrio, J A; González, J Becerra; Bednarek, W; Berger, K; Bernardini, E; Biland, A; Blanch, O; Bock, R K; Bonnefoy, S; Bonnoli, G; Borracci, F; Bretz, T; Carmona, E; Carosi, A; Fidalgo, D Carreto; Colin, P; Colombo, E; Contreras, J L; Cortina, J; Covino, S; Da Vela, P; Dazzi, F; De Angelis, A; De Caneva, G; De Lotto, B; Mendez, C Delgado; Doert, M; Domínguez, A; Prester, D Dominis; Dorner, D; Doro, M; Einecke, S; Eisenacher, D; Elsaesser, D; Farina, E; Ferenc, D; Fonseca, M V; Font, L; Frantzen, K; Fruck, C; López, R J García; Garczarczyk, M; Terrats, D Garrido; Gaug, M; Giavitto, G; Godinović, N; Muñoz, A González; Gozzini, S R; Hadamek, A; Hadasch, D; Herrero, A; Hildebrand, D; Hose, J; Hrupec, D; Idec, W; Kadenius, V; Kellermann, H; Knoetig, M L; Krause, J; Kushida, J; La Barbera, A; Lelas, D; Lewandowska, N; Lindfors, E; Lombardi, S; López, M; López-Coto, R; López-Oramas, A; Lorenz, E; Lozano, I; Makariev, M; Mallot, K; Maneva, G; Mankuzhiyil, N; Mannheim, K; Maraschi, L; Marcote, B; Mariotti, M; Martínez, M; Mazin, D; Menzel, U; Meucci, M; Miranda, J M; Mirzoyan, R; Moralejo, A; Munar-Adrover, P; Nakajima, D; Niedzwiecki, A; Nilsson, K; Nowak, N; Orito, R; Overkemping, A; Paiano, S; Palatiello, M; Paneque, D; Paoletti, R; Paredes, J M; Paredes-Fortuny, X; Partini, S; Persic, M; Prada, F; Moroni, P G Prada; Prandini, E; Preziuso, S; Puljak, I; Reinthal, R; Rhode, W; Ribó, M; Rico, J; Garcia, J Rodriguez; Rügamer, S; Saggion, A; Saito, K; Salvati, M; Satalecka, K; Scalzotto, V; Scapin, V; Schultz, C; Schweizer, T; Shore, S N; Sillanpää, A; Sitarek, J; Snidaric, I; Sobczynska, D; Spanier, F; Stamatescu, V; Stamerra, A; Steinbring, T; Storz, J; Sun, S; Surić, T; Takalo, L; Tavecchio, F; Temnikov, P; Terzić, T; Tescaro, D; Teshima, M; Thaele, J; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Toyama, T; Treves, A; Uellenbeck, M; Vogler, P; Wagner, R M; Zandanel, F; Zanin, R; Balmaverde, B; Kataoka, J; Rekola, R; Takahashi, Y; .,

    2013-01-01

    The radio galaxy NGC 1275, recently identified as a very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) gamma-ray emitter by MAGIC, is one of the few non-blazar AGN detected in the VHE regime. In order to better understand the origin of the gamma-ray emission and locate it within the galaxy, we study contemporaneous multi-frequency observations of NGC 1275 and model the overall spectral energy distribution (SED). We analyze unpublished MAGIC observations carried out between Oct. 2009 and Feb. 2010, and the already published ones taken between Aug. 2010 and Feb. 2011. We study the multi-band variability and correlations analyzing data of Fermi-LAT (0.1 - 100 GeV), Chandra (X-ray), KVA (optical) and MOJAVE (radio) taken during the same period. Using custom Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to early MAGIC stereo data, we detect NGC 1275 also in the earlier MAGIC campaign. The flux level and energy spectra are similar to the results of the second campaign. The monthly light curve above 100 GeV shows a hint of variability at the...

  14. X-Ray Spectral Variability of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4051 Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Terashima, Y; Inoue, H; Markowitz, A G; Reeves, J N; Anabuki, N; Fabian, A C; Griffiths, R E; Hayashida, K; Itoh, T; Kokubun, N; Kubota, A; Miniutti, G; Takahashi, T; Yamauchi, M; Yonetoku, D

    2008-01-01

    We report results from a Suzaku observation of the narrow-line Seyfert 1 NGC 4051. During our observation, large amplitude rapid variability is seen and the averaged 2--10 keV flux is 8.1x10^-12 erg s^-1 cm^-2, which is several times lower than the historical average. The X-ray spectrum hardens when the source flux becomes lower, confirming the trend of spectral variability known for many Seyfert 1 galaxies. The broad-band averaged spectrum and spectra in high and low flux intervals are analyzed. The spectra are first fitted with a model consisting of a power-law component, a reflection continuum originating in cold matter, a blackbody component, two zones of ionized absorber, and several Gaussian emission lines. The amount of reflection is rather large (R ~ 7, where R=1 corresponds to reflection by an infinite slab), while the equivalent width of the Fe-K line at 6.4 keV is modest (140 eV) for the averaged spectrum. We then model the overall spectra by introducing partial covering for the power-law component...

  15. The Two-Phase, Two-Velocity Ionized Absorber in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Andrade-Velázquez, M; Elvis, M; Nicastro, F; Brickhouse, N; Binette, L; Mathur, S; Jiménez-Bailón, E

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of X-ray high quality grating spectra of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548 using archival Chandra HETGS and LETGS observations for a total exposure time of 800ks. The continuum emission is well represented by a powerlaw plus a black-body component. We find that the well known X-ray warm absorber in this source consists of two different outflow velocity systems. Recognizing the presence of these kinematically distinct components allows each system to be fitted independently, each with two absorption components with different ionization levels. The high velocity system consists of a component with temperature of 2.7X10^6K and another component with temperature of 5.8X10^5K. The low-velocity system required also two absorbing components, one with temperature of 5.8X10^5K; the other with lower temperature (3.5X10^4K). Once these components are considered, the data do not require any further absorbers. In particular, a model consisting of a continuous radial range of ionization structures is not...

  16. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): The Xco Gradient in NGC 628

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Guillermo A; Evans, Neal J; Jogee, Shardha; Bolatto, Alberto; Leroy, Adam K; Song, Mimi; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Drory, Niv; Fabricius, Maximilian; Fisher, David; Gebhardt, Karl; Heiderman, Amanda; Marinova, Irina; Vogel, Stuart; Weinzirl, Tim

    2012-01-01

    We measure the radial profile of the 12CO(1-0) to H_2 conversion factor (Xco) in NGC 628. The H\\alpha emission from the VENGA integral field spectroscopy is used to map the star formation rate surface density (\\Sigma_{SFR}). We estimate the molecular gas surface density (\\Sigma_{H2}) from \\Sigma_{SFR} by inverting the molecular star formation law (SFL), and compare it to the CO intensity to measure Xco. We study the impact of systematic uncertainties by changing the slope of the SFL, using different SFR tracers (H\\alpha vs. far-UV plus 24\\mu m), and CO maps from different telescopes (single-dish and interferometers). The observed Xco profile is robust against these systematics, drops by a factor of 2 from R~7 kpc to the center of the galaxy, and is well fit by a gradient \\Delta log(Xco)=0.06\\pm0.02 dex kpc^-1. We study how changes in Xco follow changes in metallicity, gas density, and ionization parameter. Theoretical models show that the gradient in Xco can be explained by a combination of decreasing metalli...

  17. Photometry and spectroscopy of SN 2015bh in the galaxy NGC 2770

    CERN Document Server

    Goranskij, V P; Valeev, A F; Tsvetkov, D Yu; Volkov, I M; Metlov, V G; Zharova, A V

    2016-01-01

    We present medium-resolution spectroscopy and multicolor photometry for the optical transient PSN J09093496+3307204 (SN 2015bh) in the galaxy NGC 2770, which has transferred into the supernova phase. The observations were carried out between February 2015 to May 2016. Both at the phase of the SN impostor (2015a) and at the supernova phase (2015b), besides Balmer emissions, the strong Fe II emissions are seen in the spectrum; so, these spectra resemble those of Williams Fe II type classical novae. The star is located near the edge of a dark nebula and notably absorbed (Av = 1.14 +/-0.15 mag). Taking into account this absorption, we determined maximum absolute magnitudes of Mv = -15.0 +/-0.3 mag at the 2015a phase and of Mv = -18.14 +/-0.30 mag at the 2015b phase. The light curve at the 2015b phase is similar to those of SN IIL. The supernova progenitor is a luminous blue variable (LBV) star with the powerful H{\\alpha} emission. We considered several hypotheses of supernovae explosions following optical transie...

  18. Bardeen-Petterson effect and the disk structure of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068

    CERN Document Server

    Caproni, A; Cuesta, H J M; Caproni, Anderson; Abraham, Zulema; Cuesta, Herman J. Mosquera

    2006-01-01

    VLBA high spatial resolution observations of the disk structure of the active galactic nucleus NGC 1068 has recently revealed that the kinematics and geometry of this AGN is well characterized by an outer disk of H2O maser emission having a compact milliarcsecond (parsec) scale structure, which is encircling a thin rotating inner disk surrounding a ~10^7 M$_\\sun$ compact mass, likely a black hole. A curious feature in this source is the occurrence of a misalignment between the inner and outer parts of the disk, with the galaxy's radio jet being orthogonal to the inner disk. We interpret this peculiar configuration as due to the Bardeen-Petterson effect, a general relativistic effect that warps an initially inclined (to the black hole equator) viscous disk, and drives the angular momentum vector of its inner part into alignment with the rotating black hole spin. We estimate the time-scale for both angular momenta to get aligned as a function the spin parameter of the Kerr black hole. We also reproduce the shap...

  19. A Massive Dense Gas Cloud close to the Nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068

    CERN Document Server

    Furuya, Ray S

    2016-01-01

    Using the ALMA archival data of both CO(6--5) line and 689 GHz continuum emission towards the archetypical Seyfert galaxy, NGC 1068, we identified a distinct continuum peak separated by 14 pc from the nuclear radio component S1 in projection. The continuum flux gives a gas mass of ~2x10^5 Msun and bolometric luminosity of ~10^8 Lsun, leading to a star formation rate of ~0.1 Msun/yr. Subsequent analysis on the line data suggest that the gas has a size of ~10 pc, yielding to mean H2 number density of ~10^5 cm^{-3}. We therefore refer to the gas as "massive dense gas cloud": the gas density is high enough to form a "proto starcluster" whose stellar mass of ~10^4 Msun. We found that the gas stands a unique position between galactic and extraglactic clouds in the diagrams of start formation rate (SFR) vs. gas mass proposed by Lada et al. and surface density of gas vs. SFR density by Krumholz and McKee. All the gaseous and star-formation properties may be understood in terms of the turbulence-regulated star formati...

  20. Dark filaments in the galaxy NGC 253 - a boiling galactic disk -

    CERN Document Server

    Sofue, Y; David, F; Yoshiaki Sofue; Ken-ichi Wakamatsu

    1994-01-01

    Abstract We study the morphology of dark lanes and filaments in the dust-rich galaxy NGC 253 using an unsharp-masked B-band optical photograph. Dust features are classified as `arcs', which have heights and scale radius of about 100 to 300 pc, connecting two or more dark clouds, and `loops' and `bubbles', which are developed forms of arcs, expanding into the disk-halo interface. These have diameters of a few hundred pc to \\sim 1 kpc. Among the bubbles, we notice a peculiar round-shaped bubble above the nucleus, which could be a large-diameter (\\sim 300 pc) supernova remnant exploded in the halo over the nucleus. We also find `vertical dust streamers', which comprise bunches of narrow filaments with a thickness of a few tens of pc and are almost perpendicular to the galactic plane, extending coherently for 1 to 2 kpc toward the halo. Finally, we note `short vertical dust filaments' (or spicules) are found in the central region. We interpret these features as due to three-dimensional structures of gas extending...

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope Measurements of Dust Reverberation Lags in the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 6418

    CERN Document Server

    Vazquez, Billy; Richmond, Michael; Robinson, Andrew; Axon, David J; Horne, Keith; Almeyda, Triana; Fausnaugh, Michael; Peterson, Bradley M; Bottorff, Mark; Gallimore, Jack; Eltizur, Moshe; Netzer, Hagai; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Marconi, Alessandro; Capetti, Alessandro; Batcheldor, Dan; Buchanan, Catherine; Stirpe, Giovanna; Kishimoto, Makoto; Packham, Christopher; Perez, Enrique; Tadhunter, Clive; Upton, John; Estrada-Carpenter, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a fifteen-month campaign of high-cadence (~ 3 days) mid-infrared Spitzer and optical (B and V ) monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 6418, with the objective of determining the characteristic size of the dusty torus in this active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m flux variations lag behind those of the optical continuum by $37.2^{+2.4}_{-2.2}$ days and $47.1^{+3.1}_{-3.1}$ days, respectively. We report a cross-correlation time lag between the 4.5 $\\mu$m and 3.6 $\\mu$m flux of $13.9^{+0.5}_{-0.1}$ days. The lags indicate that the dust emitting at 3.6 $\\mu$m and 4.5 $\\mu$m is located at a distance of approximately 1 light-month (~ 0.03 pc) from the source of the AGN UV-optical continuum. The reverberation radii are consistent with the inferred lower limit to the sublimation radius for pure graphite grains at 1800 K, but smaller by a factor of ~ 2 than the corresponding lower limit for silicate grains; this is similar to what has been found for near-inf...

  2. ALMA Multi-line Imaging of the Nearby Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, David S; Bolatto, Alberto D; Leroy, Adam K; Ott, Jürgen; Rosolowsky, Erik; Veilleux, Sylvain; Warren, Steven R; Weiss, Axel; Zwaan, Martin A; Zschaechner, Laura K

    2015-01-01

    We present spatially resolved ($\\sim$50 pc) imaging of molecular gas species in the central kiloparsec of the nearby starburst galaxy NGC 253, based on observations taken with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). A total of 50 molecular lines are detected over a 13 GHz bandwidth imaged in the 3 mm band. Unambiguous identifications are assigned for 27 lines. Based on the measured high CO/C$^{17}$O isotopic line ratio ($\\gtrsim$350), we show that $^{12}$CO(1-0) has moderate optical depths. A comparison of the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ with their $^{13}$C-substituted isotopologues shows that the HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) lines have optical depths at least comparable to CO(1-0). H$^{13}$CN/H$^{13}$CO$^{+}$ (and H$^{13}$CN/HN$^{13}$C) line ratios provide tighter constraints on dense gas properties in this starburst. SiO has elevated abundances across the nucleus. HNCO has the most distinctive morphology of all the bright lines, with its global luminosity dominated by the outer parts of the central re...

  3. Interaction between the intergalactic medium and central radio source in the NGC 4261 group of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    O'Sullivan, Ewan; Birkinshaw, Mark; Trinchieri, Ginevra; Wolter, Anna; Zezas, Andreas; Giacintucci, Simona

    2011-01-01

    Using observations from the Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray observatories, we examine the interaction between the intra-group medium and central radio source in the nearby NGC 4261 galaxy group. We confirm the presence of cavities associated with the radio lobes and estimate their enthalpy to be ~2.4x10^58 erg. The mechanical power output of the jets is >=10^43 erg/s, at least a factor of 60 greater than the cooling luminosity in the region the lobes inhabit. We identify rims of compressed gas enclosing the lobes, but find no statistically significant temperature difference between them and their surroundings, suggesting that the lobe expansion velocity is approximately sonic (Mach<=1.05). The apparent pressure of the radio lobes, based on the synchrotron minimum energy density argument, is a factor of 5 lower than that of the intra-group medium. Pressure balance could be achieved if entrainment of thermal gas provided additional non-radiating particles in the lobe plasma, but the energy required to heat thes...

  4. Multi-wavelength study of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3783 with XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Blustin, A J; Behar, E; Kaastra, J S; Kahn, S M; Page, M J; Sako, M; Steenbrugge, K C

    2002-01-01

    We present the analysis of multi-wavelength XMM-Newton data from the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783, including UV imaging, X-ray and UV lightcurves, the 0.2-10 keV X-ray continuum, the iron K-alpha emission line, and high-resolution spectroscopy and modelling of the soft X-ray warm absorber. The 0.2-10 keV spectral continuum can be well reproduced by a power-law at higher energies; we detect a prominent Fe K-alpha emission line, with both broad and narrow components, and a weaker emission line at 6.9 keV which is probably a combination of Fe K-beta and Fe XXVI. We interpret the significant deficit of counts in the soft X-ray region as being due to absorption by ionised gas in the line of sight. This is demonstrated by the large number of narrow absorption lines in the RGS spectrum from iron, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, neon, argon, magnesium, silicon and sulphur. The wide range of iron states present in the spectrum enables us to deduce the ionisation structure of the absorbing medium. We find that our spectrum contai...

  5. Disk mass and disk heating in the spiral galaxy NGC 3223

    CERN Document Server

    Gentile, G; Baes, M; De Geyter, G; Koleva, M; Angus, G W; de Blok, W J G; Saftly, W; Viaene, S

    2015-01-01

    We present the stellar and gaseous kinematics of an Sb galaxy, NGC 3223, with the aim of determining the vertical and radial stellar velocity dispersion as a function of radius, which can help to constrain disk heating theories. Together with the observed NIR photometry, the vertical velocity dispersion is also used to determine the stellar mass-to-light (M/L) ratio, typically one of the largest uncertainties when deriving the dark matter distribution from the observed rotation curve. We find a vertical-to-radial velocity dispersion ratio of sigma_z/sigma_R=1.21+-0.14, significantly higher than expectations from known correlations, and a weakly-constrained Ks-band stellar M/L ratio in the range 0.5-1.7, at the high end of (but consistent with) the predictions of stellar population synthesis models. Such a weak constraint on the stellar M/L ratio, however, does not allow us to securely determine the dark matter density distribution. To achieve this, either a statistical approach or additional data (e.g. integr...

  6. Chemical enrichment of the complex hot ISM of the Antennae Galaxies: II. Physical properties of the hot gas and supernova feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Baldi, A; Fabbiano, G; Zezas, A L; Rots, A H; Schweizer, F; King, A R; Ponman, T J

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of the interstellar medium (ISM) in the merging pair of galaxies known as The Antennae (NGC 4038/39), using the deep coadded ~411 ks Chandra ACIS-S data set. The method of analysis and some of the main results from the spectral analysis, such as metal abundances and their variations from ~0.2 to ~20-30 times solar, are described in Paper I (Baldi et al. submitted). In the present paper we investigate in detail the physics of the hot emitting gas, deriving measures for the hot-gas mass (~10^ M_sun), cooling times (10^7-10^8 yr), and pressure (3.5x10^-11-2.8x10^-10 dyne cm^-2). At least in one of the two nuclei (NGC 4038) the hot-gas pressure is significantly higher than the CO pressure, implying that shock waves may be driven into the CO clouds. Comparison of the metal abundances with the average stellar yields predicted by theoretical models of SN explosions points to SNe of Type II as the main contributors of metals to the hot ISM. There is no evidence of any correlatio...

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei. VII. The Spacecraft Wobble and X-Ray Variability of Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5548

    CERN Document Server

    Liszka, L; Liszka, Ludwik; S.J, William R. Stoeger

    2004-01-01

    In discussing the short-time variability of extragalactic X-ray sources, we focus on explaining how wavelet transform in conjunction with non-linear filtering methods are used to remove Poisson statistics and wobble-related variability from the data. This enables the resolution of their intrinsic stochastic, quasi-periodic and deterministic variable components, as well the determination of their persistence. As detailed examples we review and extend the application of these techniques to ROSAT data for the Seyfert I galaxy NGC 5548 and for the QSO 3C273. Besides illustrating the discriminating power of these methods, these treatments confirm the intrinsic character of the transient quasi-periodic and deterministic events in NGC 5548 and 3C273 and enable us to compare both the elementary events and the short-time variability in the two types of sources. These methods can be applied in the investigation of intrinsic source variability in other spectral regions.

  8. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. IV. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 2976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present resolved stellar photometry of NGC 2976 obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) program. The data cover the radial extent of the major axis of the disk out to 6 kpc, or ∼6 scale lengths. The outer disk was imaged to a depth of MF606W ∼ 1, and an inner field was imaged to the crowding limit at a depth of MF606W ∼ -1. Through detailed analysis and modeling of the resulting color-magnitude diagrams, we have reconstructed the star formation history (SFH) of the stellar populations currently residing in these portions of the galaxy, finding similar ancient populations at all radii but significantly different young populations at increasing radii. In particular, outside of the well-measured break in the disk surface brightness profile, the age of the youngest population increases with distance from the galaxy center, suggesting that star formation is shutting down from the outside-in. We use our measured SFH, along with H I surface density measurements, to reconstruct the surface density profile of the disk during previous epochs. Comparisons between the recovered star formation rates and reconstructed gas densities at previous epochs are consistent with star formation following the Schmidt law during the past 0.5 Gyr, but with a drop in star formation efficiency at low gas densities, as seen in local galaxies at the present day. The current rate and gas density suggest that rapid star formation in NGC 2976 is currently in the process of ceasing from the outside-in due to gas depletion. This process of outer disk gas depletion and inner disk star formation was likely triggered by an interaction with the core of the M81 group ∼>1 Gyr ago that stripped the gas from the galaxy halo and/or triggered gas inflow from the outer disk toward the galaxy center.

  9. Elliptical galaxies with rapidly decreasing velocity dispersion profiles: NMAGIC models and dark halo parameter estimates for NGC 4494

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganti, Lucia; Gerhard, Ortwin; Coccato, Lodovico; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2013-06-01

    NGC 4494 is one of several intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies inferred to have an unusually diffuse dark matter halo. We use the χ2-made-to-measure particle code NMAGIC to construct axisymmetric models of NGC 4494 from photometric and various kinematic data. The extended kinematics include light spectra in multiple slitlets out to 3.5Re, and hundreds of planetary nebula velocities out to ≃7Re, thus allowing us to probe the dark matter content and orbital structure in the halo. We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate confidence boundaries for the halo parameters, given our data and modelling set-up. We find that the true potential of the dark matter halo is recovered within ΔG (merit function) ≲ 26 (Δχ2 ≲ 59) at the 70 per cent confidence level (CL), and within ΔG ≲ 32 (Δχ2 ≲ 70) at the 90 per cent CL. These numbers are much larger than the usually assumed Δχ2 = 2.3 (4.6) for the 70 per cent (90 per cent) CL for two free parameters, perhaps case dependent, but calling into question the general validity of the standard assumptions used for halo and black hole mass determinations. The best-fitting models for NGC 4494 have a dark matter fraction of about 0.6 ± 0.1 at 5Re (70 per cent CL) and are embedded in a dark matter halo with circular velocity ˜200 km s-1. The total circular velocity curve (CVC) is approximately flat at vc = 220 km s-1 outside ˜0.5Re. The orbital anisotropy of the stars is moderately radial. These results are independent of the assumed inclination of the galaxy, and edge-on models are preferred. Comparing with the haloes of NGC 3379 and NGC 4697, whose velocity dispersion profiles also decrease rapidly from the centre outwards, the outer CVCs and dark matter haloes are quite similar. NGC 4494 shows a particularly high dark matter fraction inside ˜ 3Re, and a strong concentration of baryons in the centre.

  10. Dwarfs Gobbling Dwarfs: A Stellar Tidal Stream Around NGC 4449 and Hierarchical Galaxy Formation on Small Scales

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Delgado, David; Gabany, R Jay; Annibali, Francesca; Arnold, Jacob A; Fliri, Juergen; Zibetti, Stefano; van der Marel, Roeland P; Rix, Hans-Walter; Chonis, Taylor S; Carballo-Bello, Julio A; Aloisi, Alessandra; Maccio, Andrea V; Gallego-Laborda, J; Brodie, Jean P; Merrifield, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    We map and analyze a stellar stream in the halo of the nearby dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4449, detecting it in deep integrated-light images using the Black Bird Observatory 0.5-meter telescope, and resolving it into red giant branch stars using Subaru/Suprime-Cam. The properties of the stream imply a massive dwarf spheroidal progenitor, which will continue to disrupt and deposit an amount of stellar mass that is comparable to the existing stellar halo of the main galaxy. The ratio between luminosity or stellar-mass between the two galaxies is ~1:50, while the dynamical mass-ratio when including dark matter may be ~1:10-1:5. This system may thus represent a "stealth" merger, where an infalling satellite galaxy is nearly undetectable by conventional means, yet has a substantial dynamical influence on its host galaxy. This singular discovery also suggests that satellite accretion can play a significant role in building up the stellar halos of low-mass galaxies, and possibly in triggering their starbursts.

  11. AKARI Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Observations of Interstellar Ices in Edge-on Starburst Galaxy NGC253

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagishi, Mitsuyoshi; Ishihara, Daisuke; Oyabu, Shinki; Onaka, Takashi; Shimonishi, Takashi; Suzuki, Toyoaki

    2011-01-01

    We present the spatially-resolved near-infrared (2.5-5.0 um) spectra of the edge-on starburst galaxy NGC253 obtained with the Infrared Camera onboard AKARI. Near the center of the galaxy, we clearly detect the absorption features of interstellar ices (H_2O: 3.05 um, CO_2: 4.27 um, and XCN: 4.62 um) and the emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 3.29 um and hydrogen recombination line Br alpha at 4.05 um. We find that the distributions of the ices differ from those of the PAH and gas. We calculate the column densities of the ices and derive the abundance ratios of N(CO_2)/N(H_2O) = 0.17 +- 0.05. They are similar to those obtained around the massive young stellar objects in our Galaxy (0.17 +- 0.03), although much stronger interstellar radiation field and higher dust temperature are expected near the center of NGC253.

  12. Chandra & XMM-Newton Observations of NGC5253. Analysis of the X-ray Emission from a Dwarf Starburst Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Summers, L K; Strickland, D K; Heckman, T M; Summers, Lesley K.; Stevens, Ian R.; Strickland, David K.; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2004-01-01

    We present Chandra and XMM-Newton X-ray data of NGC5253, a local starbursting dwarf elliptical galaxy, in the early stages of a starburst episode. Contributions to the X-ray emission come from discrete point sources and extended diffuse emission, in the form of what appear to be multiple superbubbles, and smaller bubbles probably associated with individual star clusters. Chandra detects 17 sources within the optical extent of NGC5253 down to a completeness level corresponding to a luminosity of 1.5E37 erg/s.The slope of the point source X-ray luminosity function is -0.54, similar to that of other nearby dwarf starburst galaxies. Several different types of source are detected within the galaxy, including X-ray binaries and the emission associated with star-clusters. Comparison of the diffuse X-ray emission with the observed Halpha emission shows similarities in their extent. The best spectral fit to the diffuse emission is obtained with an absorbed, two temperature model giving temperatures for the two gas com...

  13. CALIFA Spectroscopy of the Interacting Galaxy NGC 5394 (Arp 84): Starbursts, Enhanced [NII]6584 and Signs of Outflows and Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, Nathan; Gomes, Jean Michel; Papaderos, Polychronis; Lagos, Patricio; Sanchez, Sebastian F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spiral galaxy NGC 5394, which is strongly interacting with the larger spiral NGC 5395 (the pair is Arp 84), using optical integral-field spectroscopy from the CALIFA survey. Spatially-resolved equivalent-widths, emission-line ratios and kinematics reveal many features related to the interaction, which has reshaped the galaxy. $\\rm H\\alpha$ maps (with other diagnostic emission lines) show a concentrated central ($r<1$ kpc) starburst and three less luminous star-forming regions (one knot far out in the northern arm), and we estimate the dust-corrected total star-formation rate as 3.39 $\\rm M_{\\odot}yr^{-1}$. However, much of the galaxy, especially the outer tidal arms, has a post-starburst spectrum, evidence of a more extensive episode of star-formation a few $\\times 10^8$ yr ago, triggered by the previous perigalacticon. The $\\rm [NII]6584/H\\alpha$ ratio is high in the nucleus, reaching 0.63 at the centre, which we interpret as related to high electron density ($n_e\\simeq 750$ $\\rm cm^{-3...

  14. Accretion-Inhibited Star Formation in the Warm Molecular Disk of the Green-valley Elliptical Galaxy NGC 3226

    CERN Document Server

    Appleton, P N; Bitsakis, T; Lacy, M; Alatalo, K; Armus, L; Charmandaris, V; Duc, P -A; Lisenfeld, U; Ogle, P

    2014-01-01

    We present archival Spitzer photometry and spectroscopy, and Herschel photometry, of the peculiar "Green Valley" elliptical galaxy NGC~3226. The galaxy, which contains a low-luminosity AGN, forms a pair with NGC~3227, and is shown to lie in a complex web of stellar and HI filaments. Imaging at 8 and 16$\\mu$m reveals a curved plume structure 3 kpc in extent, embedded within the core of the galaxy, and coincident with the termination of a 30 kpc-long HI tail. In-situ star formation associated with the IR plume is identified from narrow-band HST imaging. The end of the IR-plume coincides with a warm molecular hydrogen disk and dusty ring, containing 0.7-1.1 $\\times$ 10$^7$ M$_{\\odot}$ detected within the central kpc. Sensitive upper limits to the detection of cold molecular gas may indicate that a large fraction of the H$_2$ is in a warm state. Photometry, derived from the UV to the far-IR, shows evidence for a low star formation rate of $\\sim$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$ yr$^{-1}$ averaged over the last 100 Myrs. A mid-IR ...

  15. High-Resolution Imaging of Water Maser Emission in the active galaxies NGC 6240 and M51

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, Yoshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of observations of 22GHz H2O maser emission in NGC 6240 and M51 made with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array. Two major H2O maser features and several minor features are detected toward the southern nucleus of NGC 6240. These features are redshifted by about 300 km/s from the galaxy's systemic velocity and remain unresolved at the synthesized beam size. A combination of our two-epoch observations and published data reveals an apparent correlation between the strength of the maser and the 22GHz radio continuum emission, implying that the maser excitation relates to the activity of an active galactic nucleus in the southern nucleus rather than star-forming activity. The star-forming galaxy M51 hosts H2O maser emission in the center of the galaxy; however, the origin of the maser has been an open question. We report the first detection of 22GHz nuclear radio continuum emission in M51. The continuum emission is co-located with the maser position, which indicates that the maser arises from ...

  16. Hubble space telescope absolute proper motions of NGC 6681 (M70) and the sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have measured absolute proper motions for the three populations intercepted in the direction of the Galactic globular cluster NGC 6681: the cluster itself, the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy, and the field. For this, we used Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC and WFC3/UVIS optical imaging data separated by a temporal baseline of 5.464 yr. Five background galaxies were used to determine the zero point of the absolute-motion reference frame. The resulting absolute proper motion of NGC 6681 is (μαcos δ, μδ) = (1.58 ± 0.18, –4.57 ± 0.16) mas yr–1. This is the first estimate ever made for this cluster. For the Sgr dSph we obtain (μαcos δ, μδ) = –2.54 ± 0.18, –1.19 ± 0.16) mas yr–1, consistent with previous measurements and with the values predicted by theoretical models. The absolute proper motion of the Galaxy population in our field of view is (μαcos δ, μδ) = (– 1.21 ± 0.27, –4.39 ± 0.26) mas yr–1. In this study we also use background Sagittarius Dwarf Spheroidal stars to determine the rotation of the globular cluster in the plane of the sky and find that NGC 6681 is not rotating significantly: v rot = 0.82 ± 1.02 km s–1 at a distance of 1' from the cluster center.

  17. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. V. RADIAL STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF NGC 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of NGC 300 taken as part of the Advanced Camera for Surveys Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST). Individual stars are resolved in these images down to an absolute magnitude of MF814W = 1.0 (below the red clump). We determine the star formation history of the galaxy in six radial bins by comparing our observed color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) with synthetic CMDs based on theoretical isochrones. We find that the stellar disk out to 5.4 kpc is primarily old, in contrast with the outwardly similar galaxy M33. We determine the scale length as a function of age and find evidence for inside-out growth of the stellar disk: the scale length has increased from 1.1 ± 0.1 kpc 10 Gyr ago to 1.3 ± 0.1 kpc at present, indicating a buildup in the fraction of young stars at larger radii. As the scale length of M33 has recently been shown to have increased much more dramatically with time, our results demonstrate that two galaxies with similar sizes and morphologies can have very different histories. With an N-body simulation of a galaxy designed to be similar to NGC 300, we determine that the effects of radial migration should be minimal. We trace the metallicity gradient as a function of time and find a present-day metallicity gradient consistent with that seen in previous studies. Consistent results are obtained from archival images covering the same radial extent but differing in placement and filter combination.

  18. THE ADVANCED CAMERA FOR SURVEYS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VI. THE ANCIENT STAR-FORMING DISK OF NGC 404

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present HST/WFPC2 observations across the disk of the nearby isolated dwarf S0 galaxy NGC 404, which hosts an extended gas disk. The locations of our fields contain a roughly equal mixture of bulge and disk stars. All of our resolved stellar photometry reaches m F814W = 26 (M F814W = -1.4), which covers 2.5 mag of the red giant branch and main-sequence stars with ages F814W = 27.2 (M F814W = -0.2), sufficient to resolve the red clump and main-sequence stars with ages 10 Gyr) population. Detailed modeling of the color-magnitude diagram suggests that ∼70% of the stellar mass in the NGC 404 disk formed by z ∼ 2 (10 Gyr ago) and at least ∼90% formed prior to z ∼ 1 (8 Gyr ago). These results indicate that the stellar populations of the NGC 404 disk are on average significantly older than those of other nearby disk galaxies, suggesting that early- and late-type disks may have different long-term evolutionary histories, not simply differences in their recent star formation rates. Comparisons of the spatial distribution of the young stellar mass and FUV emission in Galaxy Evolution Explorer images show that the brightest FUV regions contain the youngest stars, but that some young stars (<160 Myr) lie outside of these regions. FUV luminosity appears to be strongly affected by both age and stellar mass within individual regions. Finally, we use our measurements to infer the relationship between the star formation rate and the gas density of the disk at previous epochs. We find that most of the history of the NGC 404 disk is consistent with star formation that has decreased with the gas density according to the Schmidt law. However, ∼ 0.5-1 Gyr ago, the star formation rate was unusually low for the inferred gas density, consistent with the possibility that there was a gas accretion event that reignited star formation ∼0.5 Gyr ago. Such an event could explain why this S0 galaxy hosts an extended gas disk.

  19. The Chandra, HST, and VLA View of the Circumnuclear Extended Emission in the Narrow Emission Line Galaxy NGC 2110

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Daniel A.; Lee, Julia C.; Kamenetska, Maria; Gallagher, Sarah C.; Kraft, Ralph P.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Weaver, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    We present results from new Chandra and archival HST and VLA imaging observations of the circumnuclear extended emission in the nearby Type 2 Seyfert galaxy NGC 2110. We find resolved soft-band X-ray emission 4'' (~160 pc) north of the nucleus, which is spatially coincident with [OIII] emission, but lies just beyond the northern edge of the radio jet in the source. We find that shock-heating of multi-phase gas clouds can successfully account for this extended emission, although we cannot rule...

  20. ASCA Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 7582: An Obscured and Scattered View of the Hidden Nucleus

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, S. -J.; Otani, C.; Mihara, T.; Cappi, M.; Matsuoka, M.

    1998-01-01

    ASCA observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7582 revealed it was highly variable on the timescale of $\\sim2\\times10^4$ s in the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) band, while the soft X-ray (0.5-2 keV) flux remained constant during the observations. The spectral analysis suggests that this object is seen through an obscuring torus with the thickness of N$_{\\rm H}\\sim1.0\\times 10^{23}\\rm cm^{-2}$. The hard X-ray is an absorbed direct continuum from a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus; the soft X-ray is dominated ...

  1. The X-ray cavities, filaments and cold fronts in the core of the galaxy group NGC 5044

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio GastaldelloINAF-IASF Milano; Buote, David A.; Pasquale Temi(NASA/Ames Research Center); Fabrizio Brighenti(Universita' di Bologna); Mathews, William G.; Stefano Ettori

    2008-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional analysis of the bright nearby galaxy group NGC 5044 using the currently available Chandra and XMM data. In the inner 10 kpc a pair of cavities are evident together with a set of bright X-ray filaments. If the cavities are interpreted as gas displaced by relativistic plasma inflated by an AGN, even in the absence of extended 1.4 GHz emission, this would be consistent with a recent outburst as also indicated by the extent of dust and H_alpha emissi...

  2. A 4% Geometric Distance to the Galaxy NGC4258 from Orbital Motions in a Nuclear Gas Disk

    OpenAIRE

    Herrnstein, J. R.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Diamond, P.J.; M. Inoue; Nakai, N.; Miyoshi, M.; Henkel, C.; Riess, A.

    1999-01-01

    The water maser in the mildly active nucleus in the nearby galaxy NGC4258 traces a thin, nearly edge-on, subparsec-scale Keplerian disk. Using the technique of very long baseline interferometry, we have detected the proper motions of these masers as they sweep in front of the central black hole at an orbital velocity of about 1100 km/s. The average maser proper motion of 31.5 microarcseconds per year is used in conjunction with the observed acceleration of the masers to derive a purely geomet...

  3. Spectral analysis and interpretation of the \\gamma-ray emission from the Starburst galaxy NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowski, A; Aharonian, F; Akhperjanian, A G; Anton, G; Balzer, A; Barnacka, A; Becherini, Y; Becker, J; Bernlöhr, K; Birsin, E; Biteau, J; Bochow, A; Boisson, C; Bolmont, J; Bordas, P; Brucker, J; Brun, F; Brun, P; Bulik, T; Büsching, I; Carrigan, S; Casanova, S; Cerruti, M; Chadwick, P M; Charbonnier, A; Chaves, R C G; Cheesebrough, A; Cologna, G; Conrad, J; Couturier, C; Dalton, M; Daniel, M K; Davids, I D; Degrange, B; Deil, C; Dickinson, H J; Djannati-Ataï, A; Domainko, W; Drury, L O'C; Dubus, G; Dutson, K; Dyks, J; Dyrda, M; Egberts, K; Eger, P; Espigat, P; Fallon, L; Fegan, S; Feinstein, F; Fernandes, M V; Fiasson, A; Fontaine, G; Förster, A; Füßling, M; Gajdus, M; Gallant, Y A; Garrigoux, T; Gast, H; Gérard, L; Giebels, B; Glicenstein, J F; Glück, B; Göring, D; Grondin, M -H; Häffner, S; Hague, J D; Hahn, J; Hampf, D; Harris, J; Hauser, M; Heinz, S; Heinzelmann, G; Henri, G; Hermann, G; Hillert, A; Hinton, J A; Hofmann, W; Hofverberg, P; Holler, M; Horns, D; Jacholkowska, A; Jahn, C; Jamrozy, M; Jung, I; Kastendieck, M A; Katarzyński, K; Katz, U; Kaufmann, S; Khélifi, B; Klochkov, D; Kluźniak, W; Kneiske, T; Komin, Nu; Kosack, K; Kossakowski, R; Krayzel, F; Laffon, H; Lamanna, G; Lenain, J -P; Lennarz, D; Lohse, T; Lopatin, A; Lu, C -C; Marandon, V; Marcowith, A; Masbou, J; Maurin, G; Maxted, N; Mayer, M; McComb, T J L; Medina, M C; Méhault, J; Moderski, R; Mohamed, M; Moulin, E; Naumann, C L; Naumann-Godo, M; de Naurois, M; Nedbal, D; Nekrassov, D; Nguyen, N; Nicholas, B; Niemiec, J; Nolan, S J; Ohm, S; Wilhelmi, E de Oña; Opitz, B; Ostrowski, M; Oya, I; Panter, M; Arribas, M Paz; Pekeur, N W; Pelletier, G; Perez, J; Petrucci, P -O; Peyaud, B; Pita, S; Pühlhofer, G; Punch, M; Quirrenbach, A; Raue, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Renaud, M; Reyes, R de los; Rieger, F; Ripken, J; Rob, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rowell, G; Rudak, B; Rulten, C B; Sahakian, V; Sanchez, D A; Santangelo, A; Schlickeiser, R; Schulz, A; Schwanke, U; Schwarzburg, S; Schwemmer, S; Sheidaei, F; Skilton, J L; Sol, H; Spengler, G; Stawarz, Ł; Steenkamp, R; Stegmann, C; Stinzing, F; Stycz, K; Sushch, I; Szostek, A; Tavernet, J -P; Terrier, R; Tluczykont, M; Valerius, K; van Eldik, C; Vasileiadis, G; Venter, C; Viana, A; Vincent, P; Völk, H J; Volpe, F; Vorobiov, S; Vorster, M; Wagner, S J; Ward, M; White, R; Wierzcholska, A; Zacharias, M; Zajczyk, A; Zdziarski, A A; Zech, A; Zechlin, H -S

    2012-01-01

    Very-high-energy (VHE; E >100 GeV) and high-energy (HE; 100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) data from \\gamma-ray observations performed with the H.E.S.S. telescope array and the Fermi-LAT instrument, respectively, are analysed in order to investigate the non-thermal processes in the starburst galaxy NGC 253. The VHE \\gamma-ray data can be described by a power law in energy with differential photon index \\Gamma=2.14 \\pm 0.18_stat \\pm 0.30_sys and differential flux normalisation at 1 TeV of F_0 = (9.6 \\pm 1.5_stat (+5.7,-2.9)_sys) x 10^{-14} TeV^{-1} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. A power-law fit to the differential HE \\gamma-ray spectrum reveals a photon index of \\Gamma=2.24 \\pm 0.14_stat \\pm 0.03_sys and an integral flux between 200 MeV and 200 GeV of F(0.2-200 GeV) = (4.9 \\pm 1.0_stat \\pm 0.3_sys) x 10^{-9} cm^{-2} s^{-1}. No evidence for a spectral break or turnover is found over the dynamic range of both the LAT instrument and the H.E.S.S. experiment: a combined fit of a power law to the HE and VHE \\gamma-ray data results in a ...

  4. THE VIRUS-P EXPLORATION OF NEARBY GALAXIES (VENGA): THE X CO GRADIENT IN NGC 628

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measure the radial profile of the 12CO(1-0) to H2 conversion factor (X CO) in NGC 628. The Hα emission from the VENGA integral field spectroscopy is used to map the star formation rate (SFR) surface density (ΣSFR). We estimate the molecular gas surface density (ΣH2) from ΣSFR by inverting the molecular star formation law (SFL), and compare it to the CO intensity to measure X CO. We study the impact of systematic uncertainties by changing the slope of the SFL, using different SFR tracers (Hα versus far-UV plus 24 μm), and CO maps from different telescopes (single-dish and interferometers). The observed X CO profile is robust against these systematics, drops by a factor of two from R ∼ 7 kpc to the center of the galaxy, and is well fit by a gradient Δlog(X CO) = 0.06 ± 0.02 dex kpc–1. We study how changes in X CO follow changes in metallicity, gas density, and ionization parameter. Theoretical models show that the gradient in X CO can be explained by a combination of decreasing metallicity, and decreasing ΣH2 with radius. Photoelectric heating from the local UV radiation field appears to contribute to the decrease of X CO in higher density regions. Our results show that galactic environment plays an important role at setting the physical conditions in star-forming regions, in particular the chemistry of carbon in molecular complexes, and the radiative transfer of CO emission. We caution against adopting a single X CO value when large changes in gas surface density or metallicity are present.

  5. GIANT MOLECULAR CLOUDS AND STAR FORMATION IN THE NON-GRAND DESIGN SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 6946

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present high spatial resolution observations of giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the eastern part of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 6946 obtained with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA). We have observed CO(1 → 0), CO(2 → 1) and 13CO(1 → 0), achieving spatial resolutions of 5.''4 × 5.''0, 2.''5 × 2.''0, and 5.''6 × 5.''4, respectively, over a region of 6 × 6 kpc. This region extends from 1.5 kpc to 8 kpc galactocentric radius, thus avoiding the intense star formation in the central kpc. We have recovered short-spacing u-v components by using single dish observations from the Nobeyama 45 m and IRAM 30 m telescopes. Using the automated CPROPS algorithm, we identified 45 CO cloud complexes in the CO(1 → 0) map and 64 GMCs in the CO(2 → 1) maps. The sizes, line widths, and luminosities of the GMCs are similar to values found in other extragalactic studies. We have classified the clouds into on-arm and inter-arm clouds based on the stellar mass density traced by the 3.6 μm map. Clouds located on-arm present in general higher star formation rates than clouds located in inter-arm regions. Although the star formation efficiency shows no systematic trend with galactocentric radius, some on-arm clouds—which are more luminous and more massive compared to inter-arm GMCs—are also forming stars more efficiently than the rest of the identified GMCs. We find that these structures appear to be located in two specific regions in the spiral arms. One of them shows a strong velocity gradient, suggesting that this region of high star formation efficiency may be the result of gas flow convergence.

  6. Modeling the physical properties in the ISM of the low-metallicity galaxy NGC 4214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaratos, A.; Cormier, D.; Bigiel, F.; Madden, S. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present a model for the interstellar medium of NGC 4214 with the objective to probe the physical conditions in the two main star-forming regions and their connection with the star formation activity of the galaxy. We used the spectral synthesis code Cloudy to model an H ii region and the associated photodissociation region (PDR) to reproduce the emission of mid- and far-infrared fine-structure lines from the Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes for these two regions. Input parameters of the model, such as elemental abundances and star formation history, are guided by earlier studies of the galaxy, and we investigated the effect of the mode in which star formation takes place (bursty or continuous) on the line emission. Furthermore, we tested the effect of adding pressure support with magnetic fields and turbulence on the line predictions. We find that this model can satisfactorily predict (within a factor of ~2) all observed lines that originate from the ionized medium ([S iv] 10.5 μm, [Ne iii] 15.6 μm, [S iii] 18.7 μm, [S iii] 33.5 μm, and [O iii] 88 μm), with the exception of [Ne ii] 12.8 μm and [N ii] 122 μm, which may arise from a lower ionization medium. In the PDR, the [O i] 63 μm, [O i] 145 μm, and [C ii] 157 μm lines are matched within a factor of ~5 and work better when weak pressure support is added to the thermal pressure or when the PDR clouds are placed farther away from the H ii regions and have covering factors lower than unity. Our models of the H ii region agree with different evolutionary stages found in previous studies, with a more evolved, diffuse central region, and a younger, more compact southern region. However, the local PDR conditions are averaged out on the 175 pc scales probed and do not reflect differences observed in the star formation properties of the two regions. Their increased porosity stands out as an intrinsic characteristic of the low-metallicity ISM, with the PDR covering factor tracing the evolution of the

  7. Detection of Faint BLR Components in the Starburst/Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6221 and Measure of the Central BH Mass

    CERN Document Server

    La Franca, Fabio; Ricci, Federica; Bianchi, Stefano; Marconi, Alessandro; Sani, Eleonora; Vignali, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    In the last decade, using single epoch virial based techniques in the optical band, it has been possible to measure the central black hole mass on large AGN1 samples. However these measurements use the width of the broad line region as a proxy of the virial velocities and are therefore difficult to be carried out on those obscured (type 2) or low luminosity AGN where the nuclear component does not dominate in the optical. Here we present the optical and near infrared spectrum of the starburst/Seyfert galaxy NGC 6221, observed with X-shooter/VLT. Previous observations of NGC 6221 in the X-ray band show an absorbed (N_H=8.5 +/- 0.4 x 10^21 cm^-2) spectrum typical of a type 2 AGN with luminosity log(L_14-195 keV) = 42.05 erg/s, while in the optical band its spectrum is typical of a reddened (A_V=3) starburst. Our deep X-shooter/VLT observations have allowed us to detect faint broad emission in the H_alpha, HeI and Pa_beta lines (FWHM ~1400-2300 km/s) confirming previous studies indicating that NGC 6221 is a redd...

  8. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1614

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alberdi, Antxon; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Hernández-García, Lorena; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2014-01-01

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ~100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Pa-alpha, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 micron emission, as well as the Pa-alpha line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used an HST/NICMOS Pa-alpha map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power-law for each individual region within the central kpc of NGC1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum...

  9. Discovery of a 3.6-hr Eclipsing Luminous X-Ray Binary in the Galaxy NGC 4214

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kajal K.; Rappaport, Saul; Tennant, Allyn F.; Swartz, Douglas A.; Pooley, David; Madhusudhan, N.

    2006-01-01

    We report the discovery of an eclipsing X-ray binary with a 3.62-hr period within 24 arcsec of the center of the dwarf starburst galaxy NGC 4214. The orbital period places interesting constraints on the nature of the binary, and allows for a few very different interpretations. The most likely possibility is that the source lies within NGC 4214 and has an X-ray luminosity of up to 7e38. In this case the binary may well be comprised of a naked He-burning donor star with a neutron-star accretor, though a stellar-mass black-hole accretor cannot be completely excluded. There is no obvious evidence for a strong stellar wind in the X-ray orbital light curve that would be expected from a massive He star; thus, the mass of the He star should be <3-4 solar masses. If correct, this would represent a new class of very luminous X-ray binary----perhaps related to Cyg X-3. Other less likely possibilities include a conventional low-mass X-ray binary that somehow manages to produce such a high X-ray luminosity and is apparently persistent over an interval of years; or a foreground AM Her binary of much lower luminosity that fortuitously lies in the direction of NGC 4214. Any model for this system must accommodate the lack of an optical counterpart down to a limiting magnitude of 22.6 in the visible.

  10. A MONTE CARLO MARKOV CHAIN BASED INVESTIGATION OF BLACK HOLE SPIN IN THE ACTIVE GALAXY NGC 3783

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of relativistically broadened X-ray spectral features from the inner accretion disk provides a powerful tool for measuring the spin of supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, AGN spectra are often complex and careful analysis employing appropriate and self-consistent models is required if one has to obtain robust results. In this paper, we revisit the deep 2009 July Suzaku observation of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3783 in order to study in a rigorous manner the robustness of the inferred black hole spin parameter. Using Monte Carlo Markov chain techniques, we identify a (partial) modeling degeneracy between the iron abundance of the disk and the black hole spin parameter. We show that the data for NGC 3783 strongly require both supersolar iron abundance (ZFe = 2-4 Z☉) and a rapidly spinning black hole (a > 0.89). We discuss various astrophysical considerations that can affect the measured abundance. We note that, while the abundance enhancement inferred in NGC 3783 is modest, the X-ray analysis of some other objects has found extreme iron abundances. We introduce the hypothesis that the radiative levitation of iron ions in the innermost regions of radiation-dominated AGN disks can enhance the photospheric abundance of iron. We show that radiative levitation is a plausible mechanism in the very inner regions of high accretion rate AGN disks.

  11. CO Multi-line Imaging of Nearby Galaxies (COMING): I. Physical properties of molecular gas in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Kazuyuki; Kuno, Nario; Nakai, Naomasa; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Miho; Yanagitani, Kazuki; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Kishida, Nozomi; Hatakeyama, Takuya; Umei, Michiko; Tanaka, Takahiro; Tomiyasu, Yuto; Saita, Chey; Ueno, Saeko; Matsumoto, Naoko; Salak, Dragan; Morokuma, Kana

    2016-01-01

    We present simultaneous mappings of J=1-0 emission of 12CO, 13CO, and C18O molecules toward the whole disk (8' x 5' or 20.8 kpc x 13.0 kpc) of the nearby barred spiral galaxy NGC 2903 with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45-m telescope at an effective angular resolution of 20" (or 870 pc). We detected 12CO(J=1-0) emission over the disk of NGC 2903. In addition, significant 13CO(J=1-0) emission was found at the center and bar-ends, whereas we could not detect any significant C18O(J=1-0) emission. In order to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of CO emission and to obtain accurate line ratios of 12CO(J=2-1)/12CO(J=1-0) ($R_{2-1/1-0}$) and 13CO(J=1-0)/12CO(J=1-0) ($R_{13/12}$), we performed the stacking analysis for our 12CO(J=1-0), 13CO(J=1-0), and archival 12CO(J=2-1) spectra with velocity-axis alignment in nine representative regions of NGC 2903. We successfully obtained the stacked spectra of the three CO lines, and could measure averaged $R_{2-1/1-0}$ and $R_{13/12}$ with high significance for all the regions...

  12. Vlbi observations of a complete sample of radio galaxies; 4, the radio galaxies NGC2484, 3C109 and 3C382

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, G; Venturi, T; Lara, L; Marcaide, J M; Rioja, M J; Spangler, S R; Wehrle, A E

    1994-01-01

    Abstract: We present here new VLBI observations of one FR-I radio galaxy (NGC2484) and two Broad Line FR-II radio galaxies (3C109 and 3C382). For 3C109 new VLA maps are also shown. These sources belong to a complete sample of radio galaxies under study for a better knowledge of their structures at parsec resolution. The parsec structure of these 3 objects is very similar: asymmetric emission which we interpret as the core plus a one-sided jet. The parsec scale jet is always on the same side of the main kpc-scale jet. The limit on the jet to counterjet brightness ratio, the ratio of the core radio power to the total radio power and the Synchrotron-self Compton model allow us to derive some constraints on the jet velocity and orientation with respect to the line of sight. From these data and from those published on 2 other sources of our sample, we suggest that parsec scale jets are relativistic in both FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies and that pc scale properties in FR-I and FR-II radio galaxies are very similar ...

  13. The SLUGGS Survey: Multi-population dynamical modelling of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407 from stars and globular clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Pota, Vincenzo; Brodie, Jean P; Peñarrubia, Jorge; Forbes, Duncan A; Napolitano, Nicola R; Foster, Caroline; Walker, Matthew G; Strader, Jay; Roediger, Joel C

    2015-01-01

    We perform in-depth dynamical modelling of the luminous and dark matter (DM) content of the elliptical galaxy NGC 1407. Our strategy consists of solving the spherical Jeans equations for three independent dynamical tracers: stars, blue GCs and red GCs in a self-consistent manner. We adopt a maximum-likelihood Markov-Chain Monte Carlo fitting technique in the attempt to constrain the inner slope of the DM density profile (the cusp/core problem), and the stellar initial mass function (IMF) of the galaxy. We find the inner logarithmic slope of the DM density profiles to be $\\gamma = 0.6\\pm0.4$, which is consistent with either a DM cusp ($\\gamma = 1$) or with a DM core $(\\gamma = 0)$. Our findings are consistent with a Salpeter IMF, and marginally consistent with a Kroupa IMF. We infer tangential orbits for the blue GCs, and radial anisotropy for red GCs and stars. The modelling results are consistent with the virial mass--concentration relation predicted by $\\Lambda$CDM simulations. The virial mass of NGC 1407 i...

  14. Observations of asymmetric velocity fields and gas cooling in the NGC 4636 galaxy group X-ray halo

    CERN Document Server

    Ahoranta, Jussi; Pinto, Ciro; Sanders, Jeremy; Kaastra, Jelle; de Plaa, Jelle; Fabian, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to probe the thermodynamic properties of the hot intragroup medium (IGM) plasma in the core regions of the NGC 4636 galaxy group by detailed measurements of several emission lines and their relative intensities. We analyzed deep XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) data in five adjacent spectral regions in the central parts of the NGC 4636 galaxy group. We examined the suppression of the Fe xvii resonance line (15.01 {\\AA}) as compared to the forbidden lines of the same ion (17.05 {\\AA} and 17.10 {\\AA}). The presence and radial dependence of the cooling flow was investigated through spectral modeling. In addition, a parallel analysis with deep Chandra Advances CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) data was conducted to gain additional information about the thermodynamical properties of the IGM. We find that the plasma at the group center to the north shows efficient Fe xvii ion resonant scattering, wheras no resonant scattering was detected at the south side. The regions featuring resona...

  15. The VIRUS-P Exploration of Nearby Galaxies (VENGA): Radial Gas Inflow and Shock Excitation in NGC 1042

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Rongxin; Blanc, Guillermo A; Jogee, Shardha; Bosch, Remco C E van den; Weinzirl, Tim

    2016-01-01

    NGC 1042 is a late type bulgeless disk galaxy which hosts a low luminosity Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) coincident with a massive nuclear star cluster. In this paper, we present the integral-field-spectroscopy (IFS) studies of this galaxy, based on the data obtained with the Mitchell spectrograph on the 2.7 meter Harlan J. Smith telescope. In the central $100\\textrm{-}300\\ \\mathrm{pc}$ region of NGC 1042, we find a circumnuclear ring structure of gas with enhanced ionization, which we suggest is mainly induced by shocks. Combining with the harmonic decomposition analysis of the velocity field of the ionized gas, we propose that the shocked gas is the result of gas inflow driven by the inner spiral arms. The inflow velocity is $\\sim 32\\pm10\\ \\mathrm{km}\\ \\mathrm{s}^{-1}$ and the estimated mass inflow rate is $\\sim 1.1\\pm0.3 \\times 10^{-3}\\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\ \\mathrm{yr}^{-1}$. The mass inflow rate is about one hundred times the blackhole's mass accretion rate ($\\sim 1.4 \\times 10^{-5}\\ \\mathrm{M}_{\\odot}\\ \\ma...

  16. Planetary nebulae: the universal mass-metallicity relation for Local Group dwarf galaxies and the chemistry of NGC 205

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, D R; Teodorescu, Ana M; Carneiro, Carolina M

    2014-01-01

    Here we study 16 planetary nebulae (PNe) in the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 205 by using GMOS@Gemini spectra to derive their physical and chemical parameters. The chemical patterns and evolutionary tracks for 14 of our PNe suggest that there are no type I PNe among them. These PNe have an average oxygen abundance of 12+log(O/H)=8.08$\\pm$0.28, progenitor masses of 2-2.5M$_{\\odot}$ and thus were born ~1.0-1.7Gyr ago. Our results are in good agreement with previous PN studies in NGC 205. The present 12+log(O/H) is combined with our previous works and with the literature to study the PN metallicity trends of the Local Group (LG) dwarf galaxies, in an effort to establish the PN luminosity- and mass-metallicity relations (LZR and MZR) for the LG dwarf irregulars (dIrrs) and dwarf spheroidals (dSphs). Previous attempts to obtain such relations failed to provide correct conclusions because were based on limited samples (Richer & McCall 1995; Gon\\c{c}calves et al. 2007). As far as we are able to compare stellar wit...

  17. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VII. The NGC 4214 Starburst and the Effects of Star Formation History on Dwarf Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Benjamin F; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Seth, Anil C.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Evan D. Skillman; Dolphin, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) ultra-violet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data ...

  18. A Stellar Dynamical Black Hole Mass for Broad-Lined Seyfert Galaxy NGC 6814 and Comparison to Results from Reverberation Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne-Nicholas, Emily; Batiste, Merida; Valluri, Monica; Bentz, Misty C.; Onken, Christopher A.; Ferrarese, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present a stellar dynamical mass for the supermassive black hole in the nearby (z=0.005) broad-lined Seyfert galaxy NGC 6814 and compare it to the published reverberation-based mass. NGC 6814 is only the third galaxy for which the comparison of these two techniques has been accomplished in the same galaxy. Though stellar dynamical modeling is currently thought to be the most direct way of measuring a SMBH mass, it is quite limited because it can only be performed on nearby galaxies that have a spatially resolvable (or nearly so) black hole gravitational sphere of influence. In contrast, reverberation mapping, which relies on time resolution and not spatial resolution, can be used to constrain black hole masses in even the most distant quasars. Reverberation masses, however, carry with them an uncertainty based on the unknown geometry of the photoionized broad line region. This uncertainty affects our ability to accurately measure masses of AGN not just for reverberation masses, but also for the thousands of masses that rely on the reverberation sample for their calibration. This comparison of the mass of the central supermassive black hole in NGC 6814 using both stellar dynamical and reverberation mapping techniques is part of a larger effort to directly compare these techniques in several galaxies. The more galaxies for which this comparison can be performed, the better we will be able to understand the scatter and potential biases in black hole masses and therefore supermassive black hole evolution across cosmic time.

  19. High Resolution HI Observations of the Galaxy NGC404: a dwarf S0 with abundant Interstellar gas

    CERN Document Server

    Del Rio, M S; Cepa, J

    2004-01-01

    (Abridged) We present HI maps of the S0 galaxy NGC404, at a spatial resolution of 15.2" x 14.4" and a velocity resolution of 2.6km/s. The HI has been traced out to a radius R~8R_25 or 48 disc scale-lengths, making it one of the largest HI extents reported (800" or 12.6kpc at the assumed distance of 3.3Mpc). Approximately 75% of the HI resides in a doughnut which is seen close to face-on and the optical galaxy fits snugly within the hole of the doughnut. The remaining 25% of the neutral gas is found in an annulus concentric with the doughnut and with a somewhat larger ellipticity. A total HI mass of 1.52 x 10^8 Msol is found, which implies an M(HI)/L_B = 0.22 in solar units. We argue that most if not all of this gas is of external origin, most likely due to the merger of a dwarf irregular galaxy with M_B ~ -15.5mag. The velocity field shows a steeply declining observed rotation curve, compatible with Keplerian decline. However, because the galaxy is close to face-on there is a degeneracy in the determination o...

  20. Globular cluster clustering and tidal features around ultra compact dwarf galaxies in the halo of NGC1399

    CERN Document Server

    Voggel, Karina; Richtler, Tom

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel approach to constrain the formation channels of Ultra-Compact Dwarf Galaxies (UCDs). This inhomogeneous class of objects of remnants of tidally stripped dwarf elliptical galaxies and high mass globular clusters. We use three methods to unravel their nature: 1) we analysed their surface brightness profiles, 2) we carried out a direct search for tidal features around UCDs and 3) we compared the spatial distribution of GCs and UCDs in the halo of their host galaxy. Based on FORS2 observations, we have studied the detailed structural composition of a large sample of 97 UCDs in the halo of NGC1399, the central galaxy of the Fornax cluster, by analysing theirsurface brightness profiles. We derived the structural parameters of 13 extended UCDs modelling them with a single Sersic function and decomposing them into composite King and Sersic profiles. We find evidence for faint stellar envelopes at mu=~26 mag\\arcsec^-2 surrounding the UCDs up to an extension of 90pc in radius. We also show new eviden...

  1. XMM-Newton observations of H2O maser galaxy NGC 7479

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Jiang-Shui Zhang; Jun-Hui Fan

    2010-01-01

    The XMM-Newton observations of H2O megamaser galaxy NGC 7479 are presented.Its smoothed X-ray image clearly shows spiral morphology,which matches well with its optical asymmetric spiral structure.One prominent source can be found at the tip of its northern spiral arm,which is much brighter than its nuclear X-ray source(about a 50% higher count rate).For the nuclear source(a circular region with a radius of 20"),the spectra show soft excess below 2 keV and a strong iron Kα emission line.The best fitting model includes a partially absorbed model for the hard continuum and one thermal plasma model for the soft scatter component.Both the high column density(NH~6.88 × 1023 cm-2)and strong fluorescent iron line(with an equivalent width of~1.5 keV)support the existence of one heavily obscured AGN.For the bright prominent source,its radial profile is consistent with that of a single point-like source.Its spectra are extracted from the circular region around its peak,with a radius of 20"and 6"respectively and both spectra show no significant difference.Four alternative models for the ultra-luminous X-ray source(ULXs)can reproduce the spectra well: an absorbed power law,thermal bremsstrahlung,multicolor blackbody disk plus another blackbody or power law.Further observations(e.g.,the tremendous improvement in the spatial resolution of the Chandra X-ray observations)and studies are desirable for probing the nature of this prominent source.In addition,we also estimate the mass of its central engine to be 1.18× 107 M⊙ and maser disk parameters: the disk radius of~0.7 pc and the dimensionless accretion rate(L2-10keV/LEdd)of 1.2 × 10-4.

  2. DISCOVERY OF A LARGE POPULATION OF ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCES IN THE BULGELESS GALAXIES NGC 337 AND ESO 501-23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulgeless disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8+4.4-3.5 M☉ yr–1, consistent at 1.5σ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with Γ= 1.18+0.19-0.11 and NH = 1.13+7.07-1.13×1020 cm–2, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of 1.08+0.05-0.07×10-12 erg s–1 cm–2. Its X-ray luminosity (LX ) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host galaxy's distance, but we argue that its spectrum implies LX > 1040 erg s–1. An optical counterpart to this object may be present in an Hubble Space Telescope image. We also identify ULX candidates in IC 1291, PGC 3853, NGC 5964, and NGC 2805. We find no evidence of nuclear activity in the galaxies in our sample, placing a flux upper limit of 4 × 10–15 erg s–1 cm–2 on putative AGN. Additionally, the Type II-P supernova SN 2011DQ in NGC 337, which exploded two months before our X-ray observation, is undetected

  3. Tracing the sites of obscured star formation in the Antennae galaxies with Herschel-PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Klaas, Ulrich; Nielbock, Markus; Haas, Martin; Krause, Oliver; Schreiber, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    FIR imaging of interacting galaxies allows locating even hidden sites of star formation and measuring of the relative strength of nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation. We want to resolve the star-forming sites in the nearby system of the Antennae. Thanks to the unprecedented sharpness and depth of the PACS camera onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, it is possible for the first time to achieve a complete assessment of individual star-forming knots in the FIR with scan maps at 70, 100...

  4. Environments of High Luminosity X-Ray Sources in the Antennae Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D. M.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Brandl, B. R.; Wilson, J. C.; Carson, J. C.; Henderson, C. P.; Hayward, T. P.; Barry, D. J.; Houck, J. R.; Ptak, A.; Colbert, E.

    2003-12-01

    We use deep J (1.25 μ m) and Ks (2.15 μ m) images of the Antennae (NGC 4038/9) obtained with the Wide-field InfraRed Camera on the Palomar 200-inch telescope, together with the Chandra X-ray source list of Zezas et al. (2001), to establish an X-ray/IR astrometric frame tie with ˜ 0.5 ″ RMS residuals over a ˜ 5 ‧ field. We find 13 ``strong" IR counterparts MK ˜ 1.2 mag more luminous than average non-X-ray clusters (>99.9% confidence), and that the X-ray/IR matches are concentrated in the spiral arms and ``bridge" regions of the Antennae. This implies that these X-ray sources lie in the most ``super" of the Antennae's Super Star Clusters, and thus trace the recent massive star formation history here. Based on the NH inferred from the X-ray sources without IR counterparts, we determine that the absence of most of the ``missing" IR counterparts is not due to extinction, but that these sources are intrinsically less luminous in the IR, implying that they trace a different (older?) stellar population. We find no clear correlation between X-ray luminosity classes and IR properties of the sources, though small number statistics hamper this analysis. Finally, we find a Ks = 16.2 mag counterpart to the Ultra-Luminous X-ray (ULX) source X-37 within <0.5 ″ , eliminating the need for the ``runaway binary" hypothesis proposed by previous authors for this object. We discuss some of the implications of this detection for models of ULX emission. This work is funded by an NSF CAREER grant.

  5. The dense gas in the largest molecular complexes of the Antennae: HCN and HCO+ observations of NGC 4038/39 using ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Schirm, Maximilien R P; Madden, Suzanne C; Clements, Dave L

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the dense molecular gas tracers HCN, HNC, and HCO+ in the J=1-0 transition using ALMA. We supplement our datasets with previous observations of CO J=1-0, which traces the total molecular gas content. We separate the Antennae into 7 bright regions in which we detect emission from all three molecules, including the nuclei of NGC 4038 and NGC 4039, 5 super giant molecular complexes in the overlap region and 2 additional bright clouds. We find that the ratio of L(HCN)/L(CO), which traces the dense molecular gas fraction, is greater in the two nuclei (L(HCN)/L(CO) ~ 0.07 - 0.08) than in the overlap region (L(HCN)/L(CO) = 5% - 10% of the PDR surface heating to the total heating budget. Finally, the ratio of L(HCN)/L(HCO+) varies from ~1 in the nucleus of NGC 4038 down to ~0.5 in the overlap region. The lower ratio in the overlap region may be due to an increase in the cosmic ray rate from the increased supernova rate within this region.

  6. The dark halo of the Hydra I galaxy cluster: core, cusp, cosmological? Dynamics of NGC 3311 and its globular cluster system

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, T; Misgeld, I; Hilker, M; Hau, G K T; Romanowsky, A J; Schuberth, Y; Spolaor, M

    2011-01-01

    NGC 3311 is the central cD galaxy of the Hydra I cluster. We use globular clusters around NGC 3311, combined with kinematical data of the galaxy itself, to investigate the dark matter distribution in the central region of Hydra I. Radial velocities of 118 bright globular clusters, based on VLT/VIMOS mask spectroscopy, are used to calculate velocity dispersions which are well defined out to 100 kpc. NGC 3311 is the most distant galaxy for which this kind of study has been performed. We also determine velocity dispersions of the stellar component from long slit spectroscopy out to 20 kpc. Moreover, we present a new photometric model for NGC 3311 in the V-band. We search for a dark halo which in the context of a spherical Jeans model. We also compare the radial velocity distributions of globular clusters and planetary nebulae. The projected stellar velocity dispersion rises from 185 km/s to 350 km/s at a radius of 20 kpc. The globular cluster dispersion rises as well from 500 km/s at 10 kpc to about 800 km/s at ...

  7. The Physical Conditions in a Pre Super Star Cluster Molecular Cloud in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, K E; Indebetouw, R; Brogan, C L; Whitmore, B C; Hibbard, J; Sheth, K; Evans, A

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the physical conditions in an extreme molecular cloud in the Antennae merging galaxies. This cloud has properties consistant with those required to form a globular cluster. We have obtained ALMA CO and 870$\\mu$m observations of the Antennae galaxy system with $\\sim 0".5$ resolution. This cloud stands out in the data with a radius of $\\lesssim 24$~pc and mass of $>5\\times 10^6$~M$_\\odot$. The cloud appears capable of forming a globular cluster, but the lack of associated thermal radio emission indicates that star formation has not yet altered the environment. The lack of thermal radio emission places the cloud in an early stage of evolution, which we expect to be short-lived ($\\lesssim 1$~Myr) and thus rare. Given its mass and kinetic energy, for the cloud to be confined (as its appearance strongly suggests) it must be subject to an external pressure of P/$k_B \\gtrsim 10^8$~K~cm$^{-3}$ -- 10,000 times higher than typical interstellar pressure. This would support theories that high pre...

  8. A Luminous X-ray Flare From The Nucleus of The Dormant Bulgeless Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, Hua; Kaaret, Philip; Tao, Lian; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Zhang, Shuo; Grisé, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    NGC 247 is a nearby late-type bulgeless spiral galaxy that contains an inactive nucleus. We report a serendipitous discovery of an X-ray flare from the galaxy center with a luminosity up to 2*10^39 erg/s in the 0.3-10 keV band with XMM-Newton. A Chandra observation confirms that the new X-ray source is spatially coincident with the galaxy nucleus. The XMM-Newton data revealed a hard power-law spectrum with a spectral break near 3-4 keV, no pulsations on timescales longer than 150 ms, and a flat power spectrum consistent with Poisson noise from 1 mHz to nearly 10 Hz. Follow-up observations with Swift detected a second flux peak followed by a luminosity drop by factor of almost 20. The spectral and temporal behaviors of the nuclear source are well consistent with the scenario that the flare was due to an outburst of a low-mass X-ray binary that contains a stellar-mass black hole emitting near its Eddington limit at the peak. However, it cannot be ruled out that the sudden brightening in the nucleus was due to a...

  9. Do We Detect the Galactic Feedback Material in X-ray Observations of Nearby Galaxies? - A Case Study of NGC 5866

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2015-01-01

    One of the major sources of X-ray emitting hot gas around galaxies is the feedback from supernovae (SNe), but most of this metal-enriched feedback material is often not directly detected in X-ray observations. This missing galactic feedback problem is extremely prominent in early-type galaxy bulges where there is little cool gas to make the SNe ejecta radiate at lower temperature beyond the X-ray domain. We herein present a deep Suzaku observation of an S0 galaxy NGC5866, which is relatively rich in molecular gas as an S0 galaxy and shows significant evidence of cool-hot gas interaction. By jointly analyzing the Suzaku and an archival Chandra data, we measure the Fe/O abundance ratio to be $7.63_{-5.52}^{+7.28}$ relative to solar values. This abundance ratio is much higher than those of spiral galaxies, and even among the highest ones of S0 and elliptical galaxies. NGC5866 also simultaneously has the highest Fe/O abundance ratio and molecular gas mass among a small sample of gas-poor early-type galaxies. An e...

  10. A Non-thermal Study of the Brightest Cluster Galaxy NGC 1275 - The Gamma-Radio Connection Over Four Decades

    CERN Document Server

    Dutson, K L; Hinton, J A; Hogan, M T; Gurwell, M A; Alston, W N

    2014-01-01

    Emission from the active nucleus in the core of the brightest cluster galaxy of the Perseus cluster, NGC 1275, has varied dramatically over the past four decades. Prompted by the Fermi detection of flaring in the gamma-ray band, we present the recent increased activity of this source in the context of its past radio and gamma-ray output. The broad correspondence between the high-frequency radio data and the high-energy (HE) emission is striking. However, on short timescales this correlation breaks down and the 1.3 mm Submillimeter Array flux is apparently unaffected during Fermi-detected flaring activity. The fact that NGC 1275 is also detected at TeV energies during the periods of HE gamma-ray flaring suggests that the short-timescale variation might be primarily related to changes in the inverse Compton scattering of photons by the electron population in the jet. The longer-timescale changes suggest a 30--40 year variation in the fuelling of the black hole, that affects the power of the inner jet. NCG 1275 ...

  11. Monitoring the Violent Activity from the Inner Accretion Disk of the Seyfert 1.9 Galaxy NGC 2992 with RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mruphy, Kendrah D.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Terashima, Yuichi

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a one year monitoring campaign of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992 with RXTE. Historically, the source has been shown to vary dramatically in 2-10 keV flux over timescales of years and was thought to be slowly transitioning between periods of quiescence and active accretion. Our results show that in one year the source continuum flux covered almost the entire historical range, making it unlikely that the low-luminosity states correspond to the accretion mechanism switching off. During flaring episodes we found that a highly redshifted Fe K line appears, implying that the violent activity is occurring in the inner accretion disk, within 100 gravitational radii of the central black hole. We also found that the Compton y parameter for the X-ray continuum remained approximately constant during the large amplitude variability. These observations make NGC 2992 well-suited for future multi-waveband monitoring, as a test-bed for constraining accretion models.

  12. Measuring the mass of the central black hole in the bulgeless galaxy NGC 4395 from gas dynamical modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Brok, Mark den; Barth, Aaron J; Carson, Daniel J; Neumayer, Nadine; Cappellari, Michele; Debattista, Victor P; Ho, Luis C; Hood, Carol E; McDermid, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    NGC 4395 is a bulgeless spiral galaxy, harboring one of the nearest known type 1 Seyfert nuclei. Although there is no consensus on the mass of its central engine, several estimates suggest it to be one of the lightest massive black holes (MBHs) known. We present the first direct dynamical measurement of the mass of this MBH from a combination of two-dimensional gas kinematic data, obtained with the adaptive optics assisted near infrared integral field spectrograph Gemini/NIFS, and high-resolution multiband photometric data from Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 (HST/WFC3). We use the photometric data to model the shape and stellar mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of the nuclear star cluster. From the Gemini/NIFS observations, we derive the kinematics of warm molecular hydrogen gas as traced by emission through the H$_2$ 1--0 S(1) transition. These kinematics show a clear rotational signal, with a position angle orthogonal to NGC 4395's radio jet. Our best fitting tilted ring models of the kinematics of th...

  13. Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies -- an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES) -- II: First Results on NGC 4631

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Judith; Benjamin, R A; Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; English, Jayanne; Heald, George; Henriksen, Richard N; Johnson, Megan; Krause, Marita; Li, Jiang-Tao; Miskolczi, Arpad; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Murphy, E J; Oosterloo, Tom; Porter, Troy A; Rand, Richard J; Saikia, D J; Schmidt, Philip; Strong, A W; Walterbos, Rene; Wang, Q Daniel; Wiegert, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the first results from the CHANG-ES survey, a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk as well as extra-planar radio continuum emission. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). In this paper (Paper II), we outline the observations and data reduction steps required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization, based on C-array test observations of NGC 4631. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data) we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 $\\mu$Jy beam$^{-1}$ at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, ...

  14. Elliptical galaxies with rapidly decreasing velocity dispersion profiles: NMAGIC models and dark halo parameter estimates for NGC 4494

    CERN Document Server

    Morganti, Lucia; Coccato, Lodovico; Martinez-Valpuesta, Inma; Arnaboldi, Magda

    2013-01-01

    NGC 4494 is one of several intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies inferred to have an unusually diffuse dark matter halo. We use the chi^2-made-to-measure particle code NMAGIC to construct axisymmetric models of NGC 4494 from photometric and various kinematic data. The extended kinematics include light spectra in multiple slitlets out to 3.5 R_e, and hundreds of planetary nebulae velocities out to ~7 R_e, thus allowing us to probe the dark matter content and orbital structure in the halo. We use Monte Carlo simulations to estimate confidence boundaries for the halo parameters, given our data and modelling set-up. We find that the true potential of the dark matter halo is recovered within Delta G (merit function)<26 (Delta chi^2<59) at 70% confidence level (C.L.), and within Delta G<32 (Delta chi^2<70) at 90% C.L.. These numbers are much larger than the usually assumed Delta chi^2=2.3 (4.6) for 70% (90%) C.L. for two free parameters, perhaps case-dependent, but calling into question the genera...

  15. Pre-existing dwarfs, tidal knots and a tidal dwarf galaxy: an unbiased HI study of the gas-rich interacting galaxy group NGC 3166/9

    CERN Document Server

    Lee-Waddell, Karen; Haynes, Martha P; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Chengalur, Jayaram; Chandra, Poonam; Giovanelli, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    We present Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) and follow-up Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) HI observations of the gas-rich interacting group NGC 3166/9. The sensitive ALFALFA data provide a complete census of HI-bearing systems in the group while the high-resolution GMRT data elucidate their origin, enabling one of the first unbiased physical studies of gas-rich dwarf companions and the subsequent identification of second generation, tidal dwarf galaxies in a nearby group. The ALFALFA maps reveal an extended HI envelope around the NGC 3166/9 group core, which we mosaic at higher resolution using six GMRT pointings spanning ~1 square degree. A thorough search of the GMRT datacube reveals eight low-mass objects with gas masses ranging from 4x10^7 to 3x10^8 M_sol and total dynamical masses up to 1.4x10^9 M_sol. A comparison of the HI fluxes measured from the GMRT data to those measured in the ALFALFA data suggests that a significant fraction (~60%) of the HI is smoothly distributed on scales greater than...

  16. High Resolution Observations of the Elliptical Galaxy NGC 4636 with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer On-Board XMM-Newton

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, H; Peterson, J R; Behar, E; Paerels, F B S; Mushotzky, R F; Jernigan, J G; Makishima, K

    2002-01-01

    We present the first high spectral resolution X-ray observation of the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4636, obtained with the Reflection Grating Spectrometer on-board the XMM-Newton Observatory. The resulting spectrum contains a wealth of emission lines from various charge states of oxygen, neon, magnesium, and iron. Examination of the cross-dispersion profiles of several of these lines provides clear, unambiguous evidence of resonance scattering by the highest oscillator strength lines, as well as a weak temperature gradient in the inner regions of the interstellar medium. We invoke a sophisticated new Monte Carlo technique which allows us to properly account for these effects in performing quantitative fits to the spectrum. Our spectral fits are not subject to many of the systematics that have plagued earlier investigations. The derived metal abundances are higher than have been inferred from prior, lower spectral resolution observations of this source (Awaki et al. 1994), but are still incompatible with conve...

  17. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    OpenAIRE

    Noda, Hirofumi; Makishima, Kazuo; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; YAMADA, SHIN'YA

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In eit...

  18. Optical Identification of Cepheids in 19 Host Galaxies of Type Ia Supernovae and NGC 4258 with the Hubble Space Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Samantha L; Riess, Adam G; Yuan, Wenlong; Casertano, Stefano; Filippenko, Alexei V; Tucker, Brad E; Chornock, Ryan; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Welch, Douglas L; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman

    2016-01-01

    We present results of an optical search for Cepheid variable stars using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 19 hosts of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) and the maser-host galaxy NGC 4258, conducted as part of the SH0ES project (Supernovae and H0 for the Equation of State of dark energy). The targets include 9 newly imaged SN Ia hosts using a novel strategy based on a long-pass filter that minimizes the number of HST orbits required to detect and accurately determine Cepheid properties. We carried out a homogeneous reduction and analysis of all observations, including new universal variability searches in all SN Ia hosts, that yielded a total of 2200 variables with well-defined selection criteria -- the largest such sample identified outside the Local Group. These objects are used in a companion paper to determine the local value of H0 with a total uncertainty of 2.4%.

  19. Gas kinematics in the inner kiloparsec of NGC 1386: a new clue to the torus-galaxy connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lena, D.

    2015-09-01

    We used the GMOS integral field unit on the Gemini South telescope to investigate the kinematics of the circum-nuclear ionized gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1386. We found that the dominant kinematic components can be explained as a combination of rotation in the large-scale galactic disk and a compact bipolar outflow along the axis of the AGN 'radiation cone'. However, there is also compelling evidence for an additional kinematic component which is consistent with outflow and/or rotation in a plane that is approximately perpendicular to the axis of the AGN radiation cone. We speculate that this is a wind which is both outfowing in the equatorial plane of the torus, and rotating about the axis of the radiation cones. From the emission line surface brightness distribution, we infer the torus inclination and opening angle.

  20. The Interstellar Line of Sight to the Interacting Galaxy NGC 5195

    CERN Document Server

    Ritchey, Adam M

    2015-01-01

    We present moderately-high resolution echelle observations of the nucleus of NGC 5195, the line of sight to which samples intervening interstellar material associated with the outer spiral arm of M51. Our spectra reveal absorption from interstellar Na I, K I, Ca II, and CH+, and from a number of diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs), at a velocity close to that exhibited by H I 21 cm emission from M51 at the position of NGC 5195. The H I column density implied by the equivalent width of the 5780.5 DIB, based on the relationship between W(5780.5) and N(H I) derived for sight lines in the local Galactic interstellar medium, is consistent with the column density obtained from the integrated H I emission. The H2 column density predicted from the observed column density of K I, using the Galactic relationship between N(K I) and N(H2), is comparable to N(H I), suggesting a high molecular fraction (~0.65) for the M51 gas toward NGC 5195. The DIBs toward NGC 5195 are, on average, ~40% weaker than would be expected based ...

  1. Spectroscopic Study of Extended Star Clusters in Dwarf Galaxy NGC 6822

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Narae; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon; Hodge, Paul W; Kim, Sang Chul; Miller, Bryan; Weisz, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We present a spectroscopic study of the four extended star clusters (ESCs) in NGC 6822 based on the data obtained with Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on the Gemini-South 8.1m telescope. Their radial velocities derived from the spectra range from $-61.2 \\pm 20.4$ km s$^{-1}$ (for C1) to $-115.34 \\pm 57.9$ km s$^{-1}$ (for C4) and, unlike the intermediate age carbon stars, they do not display any sign of systematic rotation around NGC 6822. The ages and metallicities derived using the Lick indices show that the ESCs are old ($\\geq 8$ Gyr) and metal poor ([Fe/H]$\\lesssim -1.5$). NGC 6822 is found to have both metal poor ([Fe/H]$\\approx -2.0$) and metal rich ([Fe/H]$\\approx -0.9$) star clusters within 15 arcmin (2 kpc) from the center, while only metal poor clusters are observed in the outer halo with $r \\geq 20$ arcmin (2.6 kpc). The kinematics, old ages, and low metallicities of ESCs suggest that ESCs may have accreted into the halo of NGC 6822. Based on the velocity distribution of ESCs, we have deter...

  2. Joint XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the NGC 1407/1400 complex: A tail of an early-type galaxy and a tale of a nearby merging group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nearby group centered on its bright central galaxy NGC 1407 has been suggested by previous kinematic studies to be an unusually dark system. It is also known for hosting a bright galaxy, NGC 1400, with a large radial velocity (1200 km s–1) with respect to the group center. Previous ROSAT X-ray observations revealed an extended region of enhanced surface brightness just eastward of NGC 1400. We investigate the NGC 1407/1400 complex with XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We find that the temperature and metallicity of the enhanced region are different (cooler and more metal rich) than those of the surrounding group gas but are consistent with those of the interstellar medium (ISM) in NGC 1400. The relative velocity of NGC 1400 is large enough that much of its ISM could have been ram pressure stripped while plunging through the group atmosphere. We conclude that the enhanced region is likely to be hot gas stripped from the ISM of NGC 1400. We constrain the motion of NGC 1400 using the pressure jump at its associated stagnation front and the total mass profile of the NGC 1407 group. We conclude that NGC 1400 is moving within ∼30° of the line of sight with Mach number M≲3. We do not detect any obvious shock features in this complex, perhaps because of the high line-of-sight motion of NGC 1400. With an XMM-Newton pointing on the relatively relaxed eastern side of NGC 1407, we derive a hydrostatic mass for this group of ∼1 × 1013 M ☉ within 100 kpc. The total mass extrapolated to the virial radius (681 kpc) is 3.8 × 1013 M ☉, which puts an upper limit of ∼300 M⊙/LB⊙ on the mass-to-light ratio of this group. This suggests that the NGC 1407 group is not an unusually dark group.

  3. First Results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low-mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, Jeffrey L.; Sand, David J.; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F.; Brodie, Jean P.; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A.; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H. G.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Strader, Jay

    2016-09-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of a Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group (LG), based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos (MADCASH) J074238+652501-dw lies ˜35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at D ≈ 3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has {M}g=-7.4+/- 0.4 and a half-light radius of 168 ± 70 pc, at the calculated distance of 3.39 ± 0.41 Mpc. The color–magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low-luminosity dwarfs in the LG. The lack of either detected HI gas ({M}{HI}/{L}V\\lt 0.69 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or GALEX NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos of Local Volume LMC analogs via resolved stellar populations. Models predict a total of ˜4–10 satellites at least as massive as MADCASH J074238+652501-dw around a host with the mass of NGC 2403, with 2–3 within our field of view, slightly more than the one such satellite observed in our footprint. Based in part on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  4. Integral Field Spectroscopy and multi-wavelength imaging of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC5668: an unusual flattening in metallicity gradient

    CERN Document Server

    Marino, Raffaella Anna; Castillo-Morales, Africa; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Sánchez, Sebastián F; Pérez-González, Pablo G; Gallego, Jesús; Zamorano, Jaime; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Boissier, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    We present the analysis of the full bi-dimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the PPAK IFU at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5m telescope. We make use of broad-band imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This dataset will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that, while inwards of r\\,$\\sim\\,36",\\sim$\\,4.4kpc\\,$\\sim$\\,0.36\\,$(\\frac {D_{25}}{2})$ the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r$\\sim36"$ flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and ...

  5. Radio continuum and X-ray emission from the most extreme FIR-excess galaxy NGC 1377: An extremely obscured AGN revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Costagliola, F; Lohfink, A; Pérez-Torres, M; Aalto, S; Muller, S; Alberdi, A

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies which strongly deviate from the radio-far IR correlation are of great importance for studies of galaxy evolution as they may be tracing early, short-lived stages of starbursts and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The most extreme FIR-excess galaxy NGC1377 has long been interpreted as a young dusty starburst, but millimeter observations of CO lines revealed a powerful collimated molecular outflow which cannot be explained by star formation alone. We present new radio observations at 1.5 and 10 GHz obtained with the Jansky Very Large Array (JVLA) and Chandra X-ray observations towards NGC1377. The observations are compared to synthetic starburst models to constrain the properties of the central energy source. We obtained the first detection of the cm radio continuum and X-ray emission in NGC1377. We find that the radio emission is distributed in two components, one on the nucleus and another offset by 4$"$.5 to the South-West. We confirm the extreme FIR-excess of the galaxy, with a $q_\\mathrm{FIR}\\simeq$...

  6. CONTINUUM HALOS IN NEARBY GALAXIES: AN EVLA SURVEY (CHANG-ES). II. FIRST RESULTS ON NGC 4631

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, Judith; Henriksen, Richard N. [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON K7L 3N6 (Canada); Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Mora, Silvia Carolina; Schmidt, Philip [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121, Bonn (Germany); Benjamin, R. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin at Whitewater, 800 West Main St., Whitewater, WI 53190 (United States); Dettmar, Ralf-Juergen; Miskolczi, Arpad [Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, 44780 Bochum (Germany); English, Jayanne [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Heald, George; Oosterloo, Tom [Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990 AA, Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Johnson, Megan [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Greenbank, WV 24944 (United States); Li, Jiang-Tao [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant St., Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Murphy, E. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Porter, Troy A. [Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Rand, Richard J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, 800 Yale Boulevard, NE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Saikia, D. J. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Pune University Campus, Post Bag 3, Pune 411 007 (India); Strong, A. W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Walterbos, Rene, E-mail: irwin@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: henriksn@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: twiegert@astro.queensu.ca, E-mail: rbeck@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: mkrause@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: cmora@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    We present the first results from the Continuum Halos in Nearby Galaxies-an EVLA Survey (CHANG-ES), a new survey of 35 edge-on galaxies to search for both in-disk and extraplanar radio continuum emission. CHANG-ES is exploiting the new wide-band, multi-channel capabilities of the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (i.e., the Expanded Very Large Array or EVLA) with observations in two bands centered at 1.5 and 6 GHz in a variety of array configurations with full polarization. The motivation and science case for the survey are presented in a companion paper (Paper I). These first results are based on C-array test observations in both observing bands of the well-known radio halo galaxy, NGC 4631. In this paper, we outline the observations and the data reduction steps that are required for wide-band calibration and mapping of EVLA data, including polarization. With modest on-source observing times (30 minutes at 1.5 GHz and 75 minutes at 6 GHz for the test data), we have achieved best rms noise levels of 22 and 3.5 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1} at 1.5 GHz and 6 GHz, respectively. New disk-halo features have been detected, among them two at 1.5 GHz that appear as loops in projection. We present the first 1.5 GHz spectral index map of NGC 4631 to be formed from a single wide-band observation in a single array configuration. This map represents tangent slopes to the intensities within the band centered at 1.5 GHz, rather than fits across widely separated frequencies as has been done in the past and is also the highest spatial resolution spectral index map yet presented for this galaxy. The average spectral index in the disk is {alpha}-bar{sub 1.5GHz} = -0.84 {+-} 0.05 indicating that the emission is largely non-thermal, but a small global thermal contribution is sufficient to explain a positive curvature term in the spectral index over the band. Two specific star-forming regions have spectral indices that are consistent with thermal emission. Polarization results (uncorrected for

  7. INTEGRAL FIELD SPECTROSCOPY AND MULTI-WAVELENGTH IMAGING OF THE NEARBY SPIRAL GALAXY NGC 5668 : AN UNUSUAL FLATTENING IN METALLICITY GRADIENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, R. A.; Gil de Paz, A.; Castillo-Morales, A.; Perez-Gonzalez, P. G.; Gallego, J.; Zamorano, J. [CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Departamento de Astrofisica y CC. de la Atmosfera, Facultad de CC. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Munoz-Mateos, J. C. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903-2475 (United States); Sanchez, S. F. [Centro Astronomico Hispano Aleman, Calar Alto (CSIC-MPG), C/Jesus Durban Remon 2-2, E-04004 Almeria (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain); Boissier, S., E-mail: ramarino@fis.ucm.es [Laboratoire dAstrophysique de Marseille, OAMP, Universite Aix-Marseille and CNRS UMR 6110, 38 rue Frederic Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille cedex 13 (France)

    2012-07-20

    We present an analysis of the full bidimensional optical spectral cube of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5668, observed with the Pmas fiber PAcK Integral Field Unit (IFU) at the Calar Alto observatory 3.5 m telescope. We make use of broadband imaging to provide further constraints on the evolutionary history of the galaxy. This data set will allow us to improve our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of disks. We investigated the properties of 62 H II regions and concentric rings in NGC 5668 and derived maps in ionized-gas attenuation and chemical (oxygen) abundances. We find that while inward of r {approx}36'' {approx} 4.4 kpc {approx} 0.36 (D{sub 25}/2) the derived O/H ratio follows the radial gradient typical of spiral galaxies, the abundance gradient beyond r {approx} 36'' flattens out. The analysis of the multi-wavelength surface brightness profiles of NGC 5668 is performed by fitting these profiles with those predicted by chemo-spectrophotometric evolutionary models of galaxy disks. From this, we infer a spin and circular velocity of {lambda} = 0.053 and v{sub c} = 167 km s{sup -1}, respectively. The metallicity gradient and rotation curve predicted by this best-fitting galaxy model nicely match the values derived from the IFU observations, especially within r {approx}36''. The same is true for the colors despite some small offsets and a reddening in the bluest colors beyond that radius. On the other hand, deviations of some of these properties in the outer disk indicate that a secondary mechanism, possibly gas transfer induced by the presence of a young bar, must have played a role in shaping the recent chemical and star formation histories of NGC 5668.

  8. Contemporaneous observations of the radio galaxy NGC 1275 from radio to very high energy γ-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Carreto Fidalgo, D.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Farina, E.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadamek, A.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Krause, J.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Partini, S.; Persic, M.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Sun, S.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; MAGIC Collaboration; Balmaverde, B.; Kataoka, J.; Rekola, R.; Takahashi, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: The radio galaxy NGC 1275, recently identified as a very high energy (VHE, >100 GeV) γ-ray emitter by MAGIC, is one of the few non-blazar active galactic nuclei detected in the VHE regime. The purpose of this work is to better understand the origin of the γ-ray emission and locate it within the galaxy. Methods: We studied contemporaneous multifrequency observations of NGC 1275 and modeled the overall spectral energy distribution. We analyzed unpublished MAGIC observations carried out between October 2009 and February 2010, and the previously published observations taken between August 2010 and February 2011. We studied the multiband variability and correlations by analyzing data of Fermi-LAT in the 100 MeV-100 GeV energy band, as well as Chandra (X-ray), KVA (optical), and MOJAVE (radio) data taken during the same period. Results: Using customized Monte Carlo simulations corresponding to early MAGIC stereoscopic data, we detect NGC 1275 also in the earlier MAGIC campaign. The flux level and energy spectra are similar to the results of the second campaign. The monthly light curve above 100 GeV shows a hint of variability at the 3.6σ level. In the Fermi-LAT band, both flux and spectral shape variabilities are reported. The optical light curve is also variable and shows a clear correlation with the γ-ray flux above 100 MeV. In radio, three compact components are resolved in the innermost part of the jet. One of these components shows a similar trend as the Fermi-LAT and KVA light curves. The γ-ray spectra measured simultaneously with MAGIC and Fermi-LAT from 100 MeV to 650 GeV can be well fitted either by a log-parabola or by a power-law with a subexponential cutoff for the two observation campaigns. A single-zone synchrotron-self-Compton model, with an electron spectrum following a power-law with an exponential cutoff, can explain the broadband spectral energy distribution and the multifrequency behavior of the source. However, this model suggests an

  9. The 0.3-30 Kev Spectra Of Powerful Starburst Galaxies: Nustar And Chandra Observations Of Ngc 3256 And Ngc 3310

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmer, B. D.; Tyler, J. B.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;

    2015-01-01

    -law distributions with Γ ≈ 2.6 at E > 5-7 keV. Using new and archival Chandra data, we search for signatures of heavily obscured or low luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find that both NGC 3256 and NGC 3310 have X-ray detected sources coincident with nuclear regions; however, the steep NuSTAR spectra of...

  10. A new measurement of the baryonic fraction using the sparse NGC 3258 group of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kristian; Yoshii, Y.; Sommer-Larsen, J.

    1997-01-01

    )(-1) kpc is found to be 0.065(-0.020)(+0.051) for h(50) = 1, where h(50) = H-0/50 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), in good agreement with the universal value of 0.05 +/- 0.01 predicted by standard big bang nucleosynthesis for a universe with Omega(0) = 1 and h(50) = 1. Since the deep potential of the NGC 3258 group...

  11. A Cutoff in the X-ray Fluctuation Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Edelson, R; Edelson, Rick; Nandra, Kirpal

    1998-01-01

    During 1997 March-July, XTE observed the bright, strongly variable Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 3516 once every ~12.8 hr for 4.5 months and nearly continuously (with interruptions due to SAA passage but not Earth occultation) for a 4.2 day period in the middle. These were followed by ongoing monitoring once every ~4.3 days. These data are used to construct the first well-determined X-ray fluctuation power density spectrum (PDS) of an active galaxy to span more than 4 decades of usable temporal frequency. The PDS shows no signs of any strict or quasi-periodicity, but does show a progressive flattening of the power-law slope from -1.74 at short time scales to -0.73 at longer time scales. This is the clearest observation to date of the long-predicted cutoff in the PDS. The characteristic variability time scale corresponding to this cutoff temporal frequency is 1 month. Although it is unclear how this time scale may be interpreted in terms of a physical size or process, there are several promising candidate models. The P...

  12. A Very Deep Chandra Observation of the Galaxy Group NGC 5813: AGN Shocks, Feedback, and Outburst History

    CERN Document Server

    Randall, S W; Jones, C; Forman, W R; Bulbul, E; Clarke, T E; Kraft, R; Blanton, E L; David, L; Werner, N; Sun, M; Donahue, M; Giacintucci, S; Simionescu, A

    2015-01-01

    We present results from a very deep (650 ks) Chandra X-ray observation of the galaxy group NGC~5813, the deepest Chandra observation of a galaxy group to date. Earlier observations showed two pairs of cavities distributed roughly collinearly, with each pair associated with an elliptical shock front. The new observations confirm a third pair of outer cavities, collinear with the other pairs, and reveal an associated outer outburst shock at ~30 kpc. This system is therefore unique in exhibiting three cavity pairs, each associated with an unambiguous AGN outburst shock front. The implied mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, demonstrating that the average AGN kinetic luminosity can remain stable over long timescales (~50 Myr). The two older outbursts have larger, roughly equal total energies as compared with the youngest outburst, implying that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the radiative cooling rate and the mean shock heating rate of the gas are well balanced at each shock f...

  13. The complex gas kinematics in the nucleus of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1386: rotation, outflows and inflows

    CERN Document Server

    Lena, Davide; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Schnorr-Muller, Allan; Seelig, Trent; Riffel, Rogemar A; Nagar, Neil M; Couto, Guilherme S; Shadler, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    We present optical integral field spectroscopy of the circum-nuclear gas of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1386. The data cover the central 7$^{\\prime\\prime} \\times 9^{\\prime\\prime}$ (530 $\\times$ 680 pc) at a spatial resolution of 0.9" (68 pc), and the spectral range 5700-7000 \\AA\\ at a resolution of 66 km s$^{-1}$. The line emission is dominated by a bright central component, with two lobes extending $\\approx$ 3$^{\\prime\\prime}$ north and south of the nucleus. We identify three main kinematic components. The first has low velocity dispersion ($\\bar \\sigma \\approx $ 90 km s$^{-1}$), extends over the whole field-of-view, and has a velocity field consistent with gas rotating in the galaxy disk. We interpret the lobes as resulting from photoionization of disk gas in regions where the AGN radiation cones intercept the disk. The second has higher velocity dispersion ($\\bar \\sigma \\approx$ 200 km s$^{-1}$) and is observed in the inner 150 pc around the continuum peak. This component is double peaked, with redshifted and...

  14. Suzaku Monitoring of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC5548: Warm Absorber Location and its Implication for Cosmic Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Krongold, Y; Andrade-Velazquez, M; Nicastro, F; Mathur, S; Reeves, J N; Brickhouse, N S; Binette, L; Jimenez-Bailon, E; Grupe, D; Liu, Y; McHardy, I M; Minezaki, T; Yoshii, Y; Wilkes, B

    2010-01-01

    (Abridged) We present a two month Suzaku X-ray monitoring of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. The campaign consists of 7 observations. We analyze the response in the opacity of the gas that forms the ionized absorber to ionizing flux variations. Despite variations by a factor of 4 in the impinging continuum, the soft X-ray spectra of the source show little spectral variations, suggesting no response from the ionized absorber. A detailed time modeling confirms the lack of opacity variations for an absorbing component with high ionization. Instead, the models tentatively suggest that the ionization parameter of a low ionization absorbing component might be changing with the ionizing flux, as expected for gas in photoionization equilibrium. Using the lack of variations, we set an upper limit of n_e 0.033 pc). If the variations in the low ionization component are real, they imply n_e >9.8E4 cm-3 and R 0.08 Maccr). The associated total kinetic energy deployed by the wind in the host galaxy ( >1.2E56 erg) can be en...

  15. ASCA Observations of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 7582 An Obscured and Scattered View of the Hidden Nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Xue, S J; Mihara, T; Cappi, M; Matsuoka, M

    1998-01-01

    ASCA observations of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 7582 revealed it was highly variable on the timescale of $\\sim2\\times10^4$ s in the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) band, while the soft X-ray (0.5-2 keV) flux remained constant during the observations. The spectral analysis suggests that this object is seen through an obscuring torus with the thickness of N$_{\\rm H}\\sim1.0\\times 10^{23}\\rm cm^{-2}$. The hard X-ray is an absorbed direct continuum from a hidden Seyfert 1 nucleus; the soft X-ray is dominated by the scattered central continuum from an extended spatial region. Thus we have an obscured/absorbed and a scattered view of this source as expected from the unification model for Seyfert galaxies. More interestingly, the inferred X-ray column was observed to increase by torus structure, namely the torus might be composed of many individual clouds. The observed iron line feature near 6.4 keV with the equivalent width of 170 eV is also consistent with the picture of the transmission of nuclear X-ray continuum through a no...

  16. X-Ray Properties of the Point Source Population in the Spiral Galaxy NGC 5055 (M63) with Chandra

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, B; Zhang, Z; Wang, Y; Wang, J; Xu, H; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jiyao; Zhang, Zhongli; Wang, Yu; Wang, Jingying; Xu, Haiguang

    2007-01-01

    By analyzing the Chandra ACIS S3 data we studied the X-ray properties of the low-mass and high-mass X-ray binary populations in the nearby spiral galaxy NGC 5055. A total of 43 X-ray point sources were detected within the 2 effective radii, with 31 sources located on the disk and the rest 12 sources in the bulge. The resolved point sources dominate the total X-ray emission of the galaxy by accounting for about 80% of the total counts in 0.3--10 keV. By carrying out the spectral fittings we calculated the 0.3--10.0 keV luminosities of all the detected X-ray point sources and found that they span a wide range from a few 10^{37} erg s^{-1} to over 10^{39} erg s^{-1}. After compensating for the incompleteness at the low luminosity end, we find that the corrected XLF of the bulge population is well fitted with a broken power-law model with a break at 1.57^{+0.21}_{-0.20}\\times 10^{38} erg s^{-1}, while the profile of the disk population's XLF agrees with a single power-law distribution with a slope of 0.93^{+0.07}...

  17. NGC4370: a case study for testing our ability to infer dust distribution and mass in nearby galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Viaene, S; Baes, M; Fritz, J; Bendo, G J; Boquien, M; Boselli, A; Bianchi, S; Cortese, L; Côté, P; Cuillandre, J -C; De Looze, I; Alighieri, S di Serego; Ferrarese, L; Gwyn, S D J; Hughes, T M; Pappalardo, C

    2015-01-01

    A fraction of the early-type galaxy population hosts a prominent dust lane. Methods to quantify the dust content of these systems based on optical imaging data usually yield dust masses which are an order of magnitude lower than dust masses derived from the observed FIR emission. High-quality optical data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS) and FIR/submm observations from the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey (HeViCS) allow us to revisit previous methods to determine the dust content in galaxies and explore new ones. We aim to derive the dust mass in NGC 4370 from both optical and FIR data, and investigate the need to invoke a putative diffuse dust component. We create color and attenuation maps, which are converted to approximate dust mass maps based on simple dust geometries. Dust masses are also derived from SED fits to FIR/submm observations. Finally, inverse radiative transfer fitting is performed to investigate more complex dust geometries. The empirical methods applied to the optical data ...

  18. Star formation in gaseous galaxy halos: VLT-spectroscopy of extraplanar HII-regions in NGC55

    CERN Document Server

    Tuellmann, R; Elwert, T; Bomans, D J; Ferguson, A M N; Dettmar, R J

    2003-01-01

    We present first deep VLT-spectra of a new class of compact extraplanar objects located in the disk-halo interface of the edge-on spiral galaxy NGC55. Their spectra reveal continuum emission from stars and show typical emission-lines as observed in ordinary disk HII-regions. Similar to the Diffuse Ionized Gas (DIG) the prominent ionization stage of oxygen is O+, whereas the corresponding one for low metallicity HII-regions is O++. A comparison with CLOUDY model simulations reveals that the ionization mechanism of these compact objects is most likely photoionization by late OB stars (O9.5 to B0). Further analysis of diagnostic diagrams unambiguously confirms the HII-region character. This raises the question whether these extraplanar HII-regions (EHRs) originated from the prominent extraplanar gas of this galaxy or have just been expelled from the disk into the halo. From hydrodynamical considerations ejection from the disk can be ruled out. Therefore, these objects must have formed within the halo. Compared t...

  19. Distribution of Molecules in the Circumnuclear Disk and Surrounding Starburst Ring in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1068 Observed with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, S.; Nakajima, T.; Kohno, K.; Harada, N.; Herbst, E.; Tamura, Y.; Izumi, T.; Taniguchi, A.; Tosaki, T.

    2015-12-01

    We report distributions of several molecular transitions including shock and dust related species (13CO and C18O J = 1-0, 13CN N = 1-0, CS J = 2-1, SO JN = 32-21, HNCO JKa,Kc = 50,5-40,4, HC3N J = 11-10, 12-11, CH3OH JK = 2K-1K, and CH3CN JK = 6K-5K) in the nearby Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1068 observed with ALMA. The central ˜1' (˜4.3 kpc) of this galaxy was observed in the 100 GHz region with an angular resolution of ˜4" x 2" (290 pc x 140 pc) to study the effects of an active galactic nucleus and its surrounding starburst ring on molecular abundances. We report a classification of molecular distributions into three main categories. Organic molecules such as CH3CN are found to be concentrated in the circumnuclear disk. In the starburst ring, the intensity of methanol at each clumpy region is not consistent with that of 13CO.

  20. VIMOS mosaic integral-field spectroscopy of the bulge and disk of the early-type galaxy NGC 4697

    CERN Document Server

    Spiniello, C; Coccato, L; Pota, V; Romanowsky, A J; Tortora, C; Covone, G; Capaccioli, M

    2015-01-01

    We present an integral field study of the internal structure, kinematics and stellar population of the almost edge-on, intermediate luminosity ($L_ {*}$) elliptical galaxy NGC~4697. We build extended 2-dimensional (2D) maps of the stellar kinematics and line-strengths of the galaxy up to $\\sim 0.7 $ effective radii (R$_{eff}$) using a mosaic of 8 VIMOS (VIsible Multi-Objects Spectrograph on the VLT) integral-field unit pointings. We find clear evidence for a rotation-supported structure along the major axis from the 2D kinematical maps, confirming the previous classification of this system as a `fast-rotator'. We study the correlations between the third and fourth Gauss-Hermite moments of the line-of-sight velocity distribution (LOSVD) $h_3$ and $h_4$ with the rotation parameter ($V/\\sigma$), and compare our findings to hydrodynamical simulations. We find remarkable similarities to predictions from gas-rich mergers. Based on photometry, we perform a bulge/disk decomposition and study the stellar population pr...

  1. ALMA observations of feeding and feedback in nearby Seyfert galaxies: an AGN-driven outflow in NGC 1433

    CERN Document Server

    Combes, F; Casasola, V; Hunt, L; Krips, M; Baker, A J; Boone, F; Eckart, A; Marquez, I; Neri, R; Schinnerer, E; Tacconi, L J

    2013-01-01

    We report ALMA observations of CO(3-2) emission in the Seyfert 2 double-barred galaxy NGC1433, at the unprecedented spatial resolution of 0.5"=24 pc. Our aim is to probe AGN feeding and feedback phenomena through the morphology and dynamics of the gas inside the central kpc. The CO map, which covers the whole nuclear region (nuclear bar and ring), reveals a nuclear gaseous spiral structure, inside the nuclear ring encircling the nuclear stellar bar. This gaseous spiral is well correlated with the dusty spiral seen in Hubble Space Telescope images. The nuclear spiral winds up in a pseudo-ring at 200 pc radius, which might correspond to the inner ILR. Continuum emission is detected at 0.87 mm only at the very centre, and its origin is more likely thermal dust emission than non-thermal emission from the AGN. It might correspond to the molecular torus expected to exist in this Seyfert 2 galaxy. The HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines were observed simultaneously, but only upper limits are derived, with a ratio to the CO...

  2. First results from the MADCASH Survey: A Faint Dwarf Galaxy Companion to the Low Mass Spiral Galaxy NGC 2403 at 3.2 Mpc

    CERN Document Server

    Carlin, Jeffrey L; Price, Paul; Willman, Beth; Karunakaran, Ananthan; Spekkens, Kristine; Bell, Eric F; Brodie, Jean P; Crnojević, Denija; Forbes, Duncan A; Hargis, Jonathan; Kirby, Evan; Lupton, Robert; Peter, Annika H G; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of the faintest known dwarf galaxy satellite of an LMC stellar-mass host beyond the Local Group, based on deep imaging with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam. MADCASH J074238+652501-dw lies $\\sim$35 kpc in projection from NGC 2403, a dwarf spiral galaxy at $D$$\\approx$3.2 Mpc. This new dwarf has $M_{g} = -7.4\\pm0.4$ and a half-light radius of $168\\pm70$ pc, at the calculated distance of $3.39\\pm0.41$ Mpc. The color-magnitude diagram reveals no evidence of young stellar populations, suggesting that MADCASH J074238+652501-dw is an old, metal-poor dwarf similar to low luminosity dwarfs in the Local Group. The lack of either detected HI gas ($M_{\\rm HI}/L_{V} < 0.69 M_\\odot/L_\\odot$, based on Green Bank Telescope observations) or $GALEX$ NUV/FUV flux enhancement is consistent with a lack of young stars. This is the first result from the MADCASH (Magellanic Analog Dwarf Companions And Stellar Halos) survey, which is conducting a census of the stellar substructure and faint satellites in the halos...

  3. Spectral Components in the Optical Emission of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5548 and the Comparison of Intrinsic Nuclear Spectra with Accreting Corona Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kuraszkiewicz, J.; Loska, Z.; Czerny, B.

    1997-01-01

    We study the extensively monitored Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 and compare its nuclear emission with models of accretion disk with accreting corona. To obtain the intrinsic nuclear spectra from the observed spectra we had to estimate and subtract the contribution from circumnuclear components such as stars, the Balmer continuum and blended FeII lines, and the FC2 extended, featureless continuum. The true nuclear spectra were compared with a two parameter model of the accreting disk with an accret...

  4. MOND prediction of a new giant shell in the elliptical galaxy NGC 3923

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílek, Michal; Bartošková, Kateřina; Ebrová, Ivana; Jungwiert, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 566, June (2014), A151/1-A151/11. ISSN 0004-6361 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2010005; UK(CZ) SVV-26089 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravitation * galaxies: kinematics and dynamics * galaxies: formation Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  5. Do we detect the galactic feedback material in X-ray observations of nearby galaxies? - a case study of NGC 5866

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiang-Tao

    2015-10-01

    One of the major sources of the X-ray emitting hot gas around galaxies is the feedback from supernovae (SNe), but most of this metal-enriched feedback material is often not directly detected in X-ray observations. This missing galactic feedback problem is extremely prominent in early-type galaxy bulges, where there is little cool gas to make the Type Ia SNe ejecta radiate at lower temperature beyond the X-ray domain. We herein present a deep Suzaku observation of an S0 galaxy NGC 5866, which is relatively rich in molecular gas as an S0 galaxy and shows significant evidence of cool-hot gas interaction. By jointly analysing the Suzaku and an archival Chandra data, we measure the Fe/O abundance ratio to be 7.63_{-5.52}^{+7.28} relative to solar values. This abundance ratio is much higher than those of spiral galaxies, and even among the highest ones of S0 and elliptical galaxies. NGC 5866 also simultaneously has the highest Fe/O abundance ratio and molecular gas mass among a small sample of gas-poor early-type galaxies. An estimation of the Fe budget indicates that NGC 5866 could preserve a larger than usual fraction, but far from the total amount of Fe injected by Type Ia SNe. We also find that the hot gas temperature increases from inner to outer haloes, with the inner region has a temperature of ˜ 0.25 keV, clearly lower than that expected from Type Ia SNe heating. This low temperature could be most naturally explained by additional cooling processes related to the cool-hot gas interaction as being indicated by the existence of many extraplanar dusty filaments. Our results indicate that the large cool gas content and the presence of cool-hot gas interaction in the inner region of NGC 5866 have significantly reduced the specific energy of the SN ejecta and so the velocity of the galactic outflow. The galaxy could thus preserve a considerable fraction of the metal-enriched feedback material from being blown out.

  6. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Bradley S; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar HI disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to $\\sim$10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner HI disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar HI disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fue...

  7. Spatially Resolving a Starburst Galaxy at Hard X-ray Energies: NuSTAR, Chandra, AND VLBA Observations of NGC 253

    CERN Document Server

    Wik, Daniel R; Hornschemeier, Ann E; Yukita, Mihoko; Ptak, Andrew; Zezas, Andreas; Antoniou, Vallia; Argo, Megan K; Bechtol, Keith; Boggs, Steven; Christensen, Finn; Craig, William; Hailey, Charles; Harrison, Fiona; Krivanos, Roman; Maccarone, Thomas J; Stern, Daniel; Venters, Tonia; Zhang, William W

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the launch of NuSTAR, it was not feasible to spatially resolve the hard (E > 10 keV) emission from galaxies beyond the Local Group. The combined NuSTAR dataset, comprised of three ~165 ks observations, allows spatial characterization of the hard X-ray emission in the galaxy NGC 253 for the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and VLBA monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated within 100" of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy - dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, whic...

  8. A Luminous X-Ray Flare from the Nucleus of the Dormant Bulgeless Spiral Galaxy NGC 247

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua; Ho, Luis C.; Kaaret, Philip; Tao, Lian; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Zhang, Shuo; Grisé, Fabien

    2015-07-01

    NGC 247 is a nearby late-type bulgeless spiral galaxy that contains an inactive nucleus. We report a serendipitous discovery of an X-ray flare from the galaxy center with a luminosity of up to 2× {10}39 erg s-1 in the 0.3-10 keV band with XMM-Newton. A Chandra observation confirms that the new X-ray source is spatially coincident with the galaxy nucleus. The XMM-Newton data revealed a hard power-law spectrum with a spectral break near 3-4 keV, no pulsations on timescales longer than 150 ms, and a flat power spectrum consistent with Poisson noise from 1 mHz to nearly 10 Hz. Follow-up observations with Swift detected a second flux peak followed by a luminosity drop by a factor of almost 20. The spectral and temporal behaviors of the nuclear source are consistent with the scenario that the flare was due to an outburst of a low-mass X-ray binary that contains a stellar-mass black hole emitting near its Eddington limit at the peak. However, it cannot be ruled out that the sudden brightening in the nucleus was due to accretion onto a possible low-mass nuclear black hole, fed by a tidally disrupted star or a gas cloud; the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image observations limit the peak luminosity of the flare to less than ˜ {10}43 erg s-1, suggesting that it is either a low-mass black hole or an inefficient tidal disruption event.

  9. What perturbs NGC 2188?

    CERN Document Server

    Domgorgen, H; Dettmar, R J

    1996-01-01

    VLA HI observations of the dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 2188 show that the gas and stars have spatial distributions which are substantially different. One end of the optical disk is strongly gas deficient, while neutral gas extends into the halo over distances of more than 2 kpc from the midplane. This and the peculiar velocity field suggest that NGC 2188 is a perturbed system, although it is not obviously an interacting galaxy. In addition, NGC 2188 is remarkable for its interstellar disk-halo connection. An Halpha image of NGC 2188 shows the presence of spectacular features of ionized gas extending from a large star-forming complex up to 500 pc into the halo. Also, peculiar HI filaments and at least one superbubble are present in NGC 2188.

  10. Submillimeter Array/Plateau de Bure Interferometer Multiple Line Observations of the Nearby Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 1068: Shock-related Gas Kinematics and Heating in the Central 100 pc?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krips, M.; Martin, S.; Eckart, A.; Neri, R.; Garcia-Burillo, S.; Matsushita, S.; Peck, A.; Stoklasová, Ivana; Petitpas, G.; Usero, A.; Combes, F.; Schinnerer, E.; Humphreys, L.; Baker, A.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 736, 1-4 (2011), 37/1-37/27. ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : galaxies * active galaxies * NGC 1068 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.024, year: 2011

  11. Joint XMM-Newton and Chandra Observations of the NGC 1407/1400 Complex: a Tail of an Early-Type Galaxy and a Tale of a Nearby Merging Group

    CERN Document Server

    Su, Yuanyuan; White, Raymond; Irwin, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The nearby group centered on its bright central galaxy NGC 1407 has been suggested to be an unusually dark system from previous kinematic studies. It is also known for hosting a bright galaxy, NGC 1400, with a large radial velocity (1200 km s$^{-1}$) with respect to the group center. Previous ROSAT X-ray observations revealed an extended region of enhanced surface brightness just eastward of NGC 1400. We investigate the NGC 1407/1400 complex with XMM-Newton and Chandra observations. We find that the temperature and metallicity of the enhanced region are different (cooler and more metal rich) than those of the surrounding group gas, but consistent with those of the ISM in NGC 1400. The relative velocity of NGC 1400 is large enough that much of its ISM could have been ram pressure stripped while plunging through the group atmosphere. We conclude that the enhanced region is likely to be hot gas stripped from the ISM of NGC 1400. We constrain the motion of NGC 1400 using the the pressure jump at its associated st...

  12. Hot Ammonia in the Center of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 3079

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Hagiwara, Kenzaburo; Nagai, Makoto; Ishii, Shun; Yamauchi, Aya

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of ammonia observations toward the center of NGC 3079. The NH3(J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines were detected in absorption with the Tsukuba 32-m telescope, and the NH3(1,1) through (6,6) lines with the VLA, although the profile of NH3(3,3) was in emission in contrast to the other transitions. The background continuum source, whose flux density was ~50 mJy, could not be resolved with the VLA beam of ~~ 175 K, tracing hot gas associated with the interaction of the fast nuclear outflow with dense molecular material around the nucleus.

  13. Rapid variability of the iron fluorescence line from the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC6814

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunieda, Hideyo; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Koyama, Katsuji; Turner, T. Jane; Mushotzky, Richard

    1990-01-01

    NGC6814, one of the faster X-ray-variable AGN, has been observed with the Large Area Counters aboard the Ginga satellite in order to obtain data on the variability of the iron fluorescence line and thus to constrain the distribution of cold gas from which the line originates. A positive correlation measured between the variability of the iron-line flux and the continuum emission suggests an upper limit of 10 to the 14th cm for the size of the ion reprocessing region.

  14. The Globular Cluster System of the Coma cD Galaxy NGC 4874 from Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3/IR Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyejeon; Blakeslee, John P.; Chies-Santos, Ana L.; Jee, M. James; Jensen, Joseph B.; Peng, Eric W.; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-05-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of the rich globular cluster (GC) system NGC 4874, the cD galaxy in the core of the Coma cluster (Abell 1656). NGC 4874 was observed with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F475W (g 475) and F814W (I 814) passbands and with the Wide Field Camera 3 IR Channel in F160W (H 160). The GCs in this field exhibit a bimodal optical color distribution with more than half of the GCs falling on the red side at g 475‑I 814 > 1. Bimodality is also present, though less conspicuously, in the optical-NIR I 814‑H 160 color. Consistent with past work, we find evidence for nonlinearity in the g 475‑I 814 versus I 814‑H 160 color–color relation. Our results thus underscore the need for understanding the detailed form of the color–metallicity relations in interpreting observational data on GC bimodality. We also find a very strong color–magnitude trend, or “blue tilt,” for the blue component of the optical color distribution of the NGC 4874 GC system. A similarly strong trend is present for the overall mean I 814‑H 160 color as a function of magnitude; for M 814 < ‑10 mag, these trends imply a steep mass–metallicity scaling with Z\\propto {M}{{GC}}1.4+/- 0.4, but the scaling is not a simple power law and becomes much weaker at lower masses. As in other similar systems, the spatial distribution of the blue GCs is more extended than that of the red GCs, partly because of blue GCs associated with surrounding cluster galaxies. In addition, the center of the GC system is displaced by 4 ± 1 kpc toward the southwest from the luminosity center of NGC 4874, in the direction of NGC 4872. Finally, we remark on a dwarf elliptical galaxy with a noticeably asymmetrical GC distribution. Interestingly, this dwarf has a velocity of nearly ‑3000 km s‑1 with respect to NGC 4874; we suggest it is on its first infall into the cluster core and is undergoing stripping of its GC system by

  15. A dwarf galaxy's transformation and a massive galaxy's edge: autopsy of kill and killer in NGC 1097

    CERN Document Server

    Amorisco, N C; Schedler, J

    2015-01-01

    (abridged) We present a dynamical analysis of the extended stellar stream encircling NGC 1097. Within a statistical framework, we model its surface brightness using mock streams as in Amorisco (2015) and deep imaging data from the CHART32 telescope (Stellar Tidal Stream Survey). We reconstruct the post-infall evolution of the progenitor, which has experienced 3 pericentric passages and lost more than 2 orders of magnitude in mass. At infall, $5.4\\pm0.6$ Gyr ago, the progenitor was a disky dwarf with mass of $\\log_{10}[m(<3.4\\pm1 {\\rm kpc})/ M_\\odot]=10.35\\pm0.25$. We illustrate how the 90$^\\circ$ turn in the stream, identifying the `dog leg', is the signature of the progenitor's prograde rotation. Today, the remnant is a nucleated dwarf, with a LOS velocity of $v_{\\rm p, los}^{\\rm obs}=-30\\pm 30$ kms$^{-1}$, and a luminosity of $3.3\\times 10^7 L_{V,\\odot}$ (Galianni et al. 2010). Our independent analysis predicts $v_{\\rm p, los}=-51^{-17}_{+14}$ kms$^{-1}$, and measures $\\log_{10}(m/ M_\\odot)=7.4^{+0.6}_{-...

  16. SUBMILLIMETER INTERFEROMETRY OF THE LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY NGC 4418: A HIDDEN HOT NUCLEUS WITH AN INFLOW AND AN OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have observed the nucleus of the nearby luminous infrared galaxy NGC 4418 with subarcsec resolution at 860 and 450 μm for the first time to characterize its hidden power source. A ∼20 pc (0.''1) hot dusty core was found inside a 100 pc scale concentration of molecular gas at the galactic center. The 860 μm continuum core has a deconvolved (peak) brightness temperature of 120-210 K. The CO(3-2) peak brightness temperature there is as high as 90 K at 50 pc resolution. The core has a bolometric luminosity of about 1011 L ☉, which accounts for most of the galaxy luminosity. It is Compton thick (N H ∼> 1025 cm–2) and has a high luminosity-to-mass ratio (L/M) ∼ 500 L ☉ M ☉–1 as well as a high luminosity surface density 108.5±0.5 L ☉ pc–2. These parameters are consistent with an active galactic nucleus to be the main luminosity source (with an Eddington ratio about 0.3), while they can be also due to a young starburst near its maximum L/M. We also found an optical color (reddening) feature that we attribute to an outflow cone emanating from the nucleus. The hidden hot nucleus thus shows evidence of both an inflow, previously seen with absorption lines, and the new outflow reported here in a different direction. The nucleus must be rapidly evolving with these gas flows.

  17. Modelling the spectral energy distribution of galaxies. I. Radiation fields and grain heating in the edge-on spiral NGC891

    CERN Document Server

    Popescu, C C; Kylafis, N D; Tuffs, R J; Fischera, J; Popescu, Cristina C.; Misiriotis, Angelos; Kylafis, Nikolaos D.; Tuffs, Richard J.; Fischera, Joerg

    2000-01-01

    We describe a new tool for the analysis of the UV to the sub-millimeter (sub-mm) spectral energy distribution (SED) of spiral galaxies. We use a consistent treatment of grain heating and emission, solve the radiation transfer problem for a finite disk and bulge, and self-consistently calculate the stochastic heating of grains placed in the resulting radiation field. We use this tool to analyse the well-studied nearby edge-on spiral galaxy NGC891. First we investigate whether the old stellar population in NGC891, along with a reasonable assumption about the young stellar population, can account for the heating of the dust and the observed far-infrared (FIR) and sub-mm emission. The dust distribution is taken from the model of Xilouris et al. (1999), who used only optical and near-IR observations to determine it. We have found that such a simple model cannot reproduce the SED of NGC891, especially in the sub-mm range. It underestimates by a factor of 2-4 the observed sub-mm flux. A number of possible explanatio...

  18. Aperture Synthesis CO(J=1-0) Observations and Near-Infrared Photometry of the Non-Barred Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5033

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, K; Sakamoto, S; Kawabe, R; Ishizuki, S; Matsushita, S

    2003-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of CO(J=1-0) emission and near-infrared broad-band photometry of the non-barred Seyfert galaxy NGC 5033 (D = 18.7 Mpc) were performed. Our 3".9 x 3".6 resolution CO observations reveal a perturbed distribution and the kinematics of molecular gas in the center of NGC 5033; we find the characteristic gaseous features that are widely observed in barred spiral galaxies, such as two bright CO peaks near the center (separated by ~ 3'' or 270 pc from the nucleus), two offset ridges of CO emission emanating from the CO peaks, and a CO ring (with a radius of ~ 14'' or 1.3 kpc). Double-peaked velocity profiles are also evident near the two CO peaks, implying that these CO peaks are orbit crowding zones in a barred/oval potential. Although NIR data only give an upper limit of the possible bar lengths, due to a large inclination of the NGC 5033 disk (i = 68 deg), our CO data clearly suggests the presence of a small (the semi-major axis of about 12'' - 15'' or 1.1 - 1.4 kpc) nuclear bar (or...

  19. Stellar dynamics in E+E pairs of galaxies. 1: NGC 741/742, 1587/88 and 2672/73. The data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, P.; Rampazzo, R.; Combes, F.; Prugniel, P.; Sulentic, J. W.

    1995-05-01

    We present a kinematic study ofthree E+E galaxy pairs, NGC, 741/642, 1587/1588 (CPG 99) and 2672/2673 (CPG 175) All three pairs show a similar morpological distortion (i.e. the off-centering of inner versus outer isphototes; Davoust & Prungniel 1988) which is ascribed to the ongoing interaction. The data was obtained at the CFHT equipped with the Herzberg Spectrograph at a resolution of 0.88 A px-1 NGC741 and 2673 show significant rotation along the apparent minor axis. Both components of CPG 99 rotate very fast (with no evidence for rotation along the mirror axis of either component). None of the galaxies show abnormally high central velocity dispersion. We report some of the first clear detections of well defined velocity dispersions curves for interacting pairs. They show a systematic decrease with distance from the center, as expected for normal ellipticals. They do not show obvious heating in the outer parts as was previously reported. NGC 741 and 2672 show, respectively, possible U and inverse U-shaped structure in their velocity profiles.

  20. Suzaku Discovery of a Slowly Varying Hard X-ray Continuum from the Type I Seyfert Galaxy NGC 3516

    CERN Document Server

    Noda, Hirofumi; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Shin'ya

    2014-01-01

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by {\\it Suzaku} twice, in 2005 October 12--15 and 2009 October 28--November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ksec and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ksec, respectively. The 2--10 keV luminosity was $2.8 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2005, and $1.6 \\times 10^{41}$ erg s$^{-1}$ in 2009. The 1.4--1.7 keV and 2--10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations by a factor of $\\sim2$ in 2005, while $\\sim 4$ in 2009. In either observation, the 15--45 keV count rate was less variable. The 2--10 keV spectrum in 2005 was significantly more convex than that in 2009. Through a count-count-plot technique, the 2--45 keV signals in both data were successfully decomposed in a model-independent way into two distinct broadband components. One is a variable emission with a featureless spectral shape, and the other is a non-varying hard component accompanied by a prominent Fe-K emission line at 6.33 keV (6.40 keV in the rest frame). The former was fitte...

  1. Correlation and time delays of the X-ray and optical emission of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC3783

    CERN Document Server

    Arevalo, P; Lira, P; Breedt, E; McHardy, I M; Churazov, E

    2009-01-01

    We present simultaneous X-ray and optical B and V band light curves of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC3783 spanning 2 years. The flux in all bands is highly variable and the fluctuations are significantly correlated. As shown before by Stirpe et al. the optical bands vary simultaneously, with a delay of less than 1.5 days but both B and V bands lag the X-ray fluctuations by 3-9 days. This delay points at optical variability produced by X-ray reprocessing and the value of the lag places the reprocessor close to the broad line region. A power spectrum analysis of the light curve, however, shows that the X-ray variability has a power law shape bending to a steeper slope at a time-scale ~2.9 days while the variability amplitude in the optical bands continues to grow towards the longest time-scale covered, ~ 300 days. We show that the power spectra together with the small value of the time delay is inconsistent with a picture where all the optical variability is produced by X-ray reprocessing, though the small amplitude, r...

  2. High-energy emission from NGC 5506, the brightest hard X-ray Narrow Line Seyfert 1 galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Soldi, S; Gehrels, N; De Jong, S; Lubinski, P

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the hard X-ray emission of NGC 5506, the brightest narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxy above 20 keV. All the recent observations by INTEGRAL, Swift and Suzaku have been analysed and spectral analysis during nine separated time periods has been performed. While flux variations by a factor of 2 were detected during the last 7 years, only moderate spectral variations have been observed, with the hint of a hardening of the X-ray spectrum and a decrease of the intrinsic absorption with time. Using Suzaku observations it is possible to constrain the amount of Compton reflection to R = 0.6-1.0, in agreement with previous results on the source. The signature of Comptonisation processes can also be found in the detection of a high-energy cut-off during part of the observations, at Ec = 40-100 keV. When a Comptonisation model is applied to the Suzaku data, the temperature and the optical depth of the Comptonising electron plasma are measured at kT = 60-80 keV and tau = 0.6-1.0, respectively. The properti...

  3. High-frequency excess in the radio continuum spectrum of the type-1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 985

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The Seyfert galaxy NGC 985 is known to show a high-frequency excess in its radio continuum spectrum in a milli-Jansky level on the basis of previous observations at 1.4--15 GHz; a steep spectrum at low frequencies (a spectral index of $\\alpha=-1.10 \\pm 0.03$) changes at ~10 GHz into an inverted spectrum at higher frequencies ($\\alpha=+0.86 \\pm 0.09$). We conduct new observations at 15--43 GHz using the Very Large Array and at 100 GHz using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array. As a result, the high-frequency excess continuing at even higher radio frequencies up to 43 GHz has been confirmed. The non-detection at 100 GHz was not so strong constraint, and therefore the spectral behavior above 43 GHz remains unclear. The astrometric position of the high-frequency excess component coincides with the optical position of the Seyfert nucleus and the low-frequency radio position to an accuracy of 0.1 arcsec, corresponding to ~80 pc; the radio source size is constrained to be <0.02 arcsec, corresponding to <16 pc. We di...

  4. XMM-Newton View of the Multi-Phase Warm Absorber in Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC985

    CERN Document Server

    Krongold, Yair; Santos-Lleo, Maria; Nicastro, Fabrizio; Elvis, Martin; Brickhouse, Nancy; Andrade-Velazquez, Mercedes; Binette, Luc; Mathur, Smita

    2008-01-01

    We present an analysis of an XMM-Newton observation of the Seyfert 1 Galaxy NGC 985. The EPIC spectra present strong residuals to a single power-law model, indicating the presence of ionized absorbing gas and a soft excess. A broad-band fit to the EPIC and RGS spectra shows that the continuum can be well fit with a power-law and a blackbody component. The RGS can be modeled either with two or three absorption components. In the two absorber model the low-ionization one, accounts for the presence of the Fe M-shell unresolved transition array (Fe VII-XIII), and the high ionization component is required by the presence of several Fe L-shell transitions. The data suggest the presence of a third ionized component with higher ionization, so that the Fe L-shell absorption features are produced by two different components (one producing absorption by Fe XVII-XX, and the other absorption by Fe XX-XXII). However, the presence of the third absorbing component cannot be detected by means of an isolated absorption line in...

  5. Imaging and spectroscopic observations of a strange elliptical bubble in the northern arm of the spiral galaxy NGC 6946

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, Yuri N

    2016-01-01

    NGC 6946, known as the Fireworks galaxy because of its high supernova rate and high star formation, is embedded in a very extended HI halo. Its northern spiral arm is well detached from the galactic main body. We found that this arm contains a large (~300 pc in size) Red Ellipse, named according to a strong contamination of the H-alpha emission line on its optical images. The ellipse is accompanied by a short parallel arc and a few others still smaller and less regular; a bright star cluster is seen inside these features. The complicated combination of arcs seems to be unique, it is only a bit similar to some SNRs. However, the long-slit spectral data obtained with the Russian 6-m telescope did not confirm the origin of the nebula as a result of a single SN outburst. The emission-line spectrum corresponds to the photoionization by young hot stars with a small contribution of shock ionization. The most likely explanation of the Red Ellipse is a superbbuble created by a collective feedback of massive stars in t...

  6. Submillimetre line spectrum of the Seyfert galaxy NGC1068 from the Herschel-SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Spinoglio, Luigi; Busquet, Gemma; Schirm, Maximilien R P; Wilson, Christine D; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R; Parkin, Tara J; Bendo, George J; Madden, Suzanne C; Wolfire, Mark G; Boselli, Alessandro; Cooray, Asantha; Page, Mathew J

    2012-01-01

    The first complete submillimetre spectrum (190-670um) of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC1068 has been observed with the SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer onboard the {\\it Herschel} Space Observatory. The sequence of CO lines (Jup=4-13), lines from water, the fundamental rotational transition of HF, two o-H_2O+ lines and one line each from CH+ and OH+ have been detected, together with the two [CI] lines and the [NII]205um line. The observations in both single pointing mode with sparse image sampling and in mapping mode with full image sampling allow us to disentangle two molecular emission components, one due to the compact circum-nuclear disk (CND) and one from the extended region encompassing the star forming ring (SF-ring). Radiative transfer models show that the two CO components are characterized by density of n(H_2)=10^4.5 and 10^2.9 cm^-3 and temperature of T=100K and 127K, respectively. The comparison of the CO line intensities with photodissociation region (PDR) and X-ray dominated region (XDR) models, to...

  7. A spectroscopic study of blue supergiant stars in the Sculptor galaxy NGC 55: chemical evolution and distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kudritzki, Rolf; Castro, Norberto; Ho, I-Ting; Bresolin, Fabio; Gieren, Wolfgang; Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Przybilla, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Low resolution (4.5 to 5 Angstroem) spectra of 58 blue supergiant stars distributed over the disk of the Magellanic spiral galaxy NGC 55 in the Sculptor group are analyzed by means of non-LTE techniques to determine stellar temperatures, gravities and metallicities (from iron peak and alpha-elements). A metallicity gradient of -0.22 +/- 0.06$ dex/R_25 is detected. The central metallicity on a logarithmic scale relative to the Sun is [Z] = -0.37 +\\- 0.03. A chemical evolution model using the observed distribution of stellar and interstellar medium gas mass column densities reproduces the observed metallicity distribution well and reveals a recent history of strong galactic mass accretion and wind outflows with accretion and mass-loss rates of the order of the star formation rate. There is an indication of spatial inhomogeneity in metallicity. In addition, the relatively high central metallicity of the disk confirms that two extra-planar metal poor HII regions detected in previous work 1.13 to 2.22 kpc above th...

  8. Probing the physics of narrow-line regions of Seyfert galaxies I: The case of NGC 5427

    CERN Document Server

    Dopita, Michael A; Shastri, Prajval; Kewley, Lisa J; Davies, Rebecca; Sutherland, Ralph; Kharb, Preeti; Jose, Jessy; Hampton, Elise; Jin, Chichuan; Banfield, Julie; Basurah, Hassan; Fischer, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    We have used the Wide Field Spectrograph (WiFeS) on the ANU 2.3m telescope at Siding Spring to observe the nearby, nearly face-on, Seyfert 2 galaxy, NGC 5427. We have obtained integral field spectroscopy of both the nuclear regions and the HII regions in the spiral arms. We have constrained the chemical abundance in the interstellar medium of the extended narrow line region (ENLR) by measuring the abundance gradient in the circum-nuclear \\ion{H}{ii} regions to determine the nuclear chemical abundances, and to use these to in turn determine the EUV spectral energy distribution for comparison with theoretical models. We find a very high nuclear abundance, $\\sim 3.0$ times solar, with clear evidence of a nuclear enhancement of N and He, possibly caused by massive star formation in the extended ($\\sim 100$pc) central disk structure. The circum-nuclear narrow-line region spectrum is fit by a radiation pressure dominated photoionisation model model with an input EUV spectrum from a Black Hole with mass $5\\times10^7...

  9. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and X-ray Observations of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151. II. Physical Conditions in the UV Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, S B; Gabel, J R; Kriss, G A; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; George, I M; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Mushotzky, R F; Turner, T J

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intrinsic absorption in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 using UV spectra from the HST/STIS and FUSE, obtained 2002 May as part of a set of contemporaneous observations that included Chandra/HETGS spectra. In our analysis of the Chandra spectra, we determined that the soft X-ray absorber was the source of the saturated UV lines of O VI, C IV, and N V associated with the absorption feature at a radial velocity of ~ -500 km/sec, which we referred to as component D+E. In the present work, we have derived tighter constrains on the the line-of-sight covering factors, densities, and radial distances of the absorbers. We find that the Equivalent Widths (EWs) of the low-ionization lines associated with D+E varied over the period from 1999 July to 2002 May. The drop in the EWs of these lines between 2001 April and 2002 May are suggestive of bulk motion of gas out of our line-of-sight. If these lines from these two epochs arose in the same sub-component, the transverse velocity of the...

  10. Rapid variability of the iron fluorescence line from the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC6814

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminous broad-band emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to be due to accretion onto a massive black hole. Because X-ray emission shows variability on a faster time-scale than any other wavelength band that has been observed it is assumed to be produced very close to the central energy source. Observations of AGN with the 4,000-cm2 Large Area Counters (LACs) aboard the Ginga satellite have obtained the highest quality data on X-ray variability to date, allowing examination of detailed spectra up to 20 keV in energy on relatively short time-scales. We have observed NGC6814, one of the faster X-ray-variable AGN (δt13 cm for the size of the iron reprocessing region. (author)

  11. Centaurus A - NGC 5128

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, F.P.

    1998-01-01

    This review summarizes the state of the knowledge of the nearby (D = 3.4 Mpc) radio source Centaurus A and its host galaxy NGC 5128. The massive elliptical host galaxy appears to be moderately triaxial. It contains a strongly warped thin disk, rich in gas, dust and young stars, and roughly aligned with the minor axis of the elliptical galaxy. This and other evidence suggests that NGC 5128 has experienced a major merger at least once in its past. The subparsec nucleus is variable at radio and ...

  12. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM THE STARBURST GALAXIES M82 AND NGC 253 WITH THE LARGE AREA TELESCOPE ON FERMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from two starburst galaxies using data obtained with the Large Area Telescope on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Steady point-like emission above 200 MeV has been detected at significance levels of 6.8σ and 4.8σ, respectively, from sources positionally coincident with locations of the starburst galaxies M82 and NGC 253. The total fluxes of the sources are consistent with γ-ray emission originating from the interaction of cosmic rays with local interstellar gas and radiation fields and constitute evidence for a link between massive star formation and γ-ray emission in star-forming galaxies.

  13. High resolution imagery of the clumpy irregular galaxy Markarian 325 = NGC 7673

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coupinot, G.; Hecquet, J. (Observatoire du Pic du Midi, 65 - Bagneres-de-Bigorre (France)); Heidmann, J. (Observatoire de Paris, Section de Meudon, 92 (France))

    1982-05-01

    High resolution imagery of the clumpy irregular galaxy Mkn 325 shows that some clumps have sizes approximately 300 pc while some may still be unresolved and approximately < 100 pc. In spite of dimensions comparable to - or even smaller than - those of the giant H II complex 30 Doradus, one clump has a star formation rate 100 times higher.

  14. High resolution imagery of the clumpy irregular galaxy Markarian 325 = NGC 7673

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High resolution imagery of the clumpy irregular galaxy Mkn 325 shows that some clumps have sizes approximately 300 pc while some may still be unresolved and approximately < 100 pc. In spite of dimensions comparable to - or even smaller than - those of the giant H II complex 30 Doradus, one clump has a star formation rate 100 times higher. (author)

  15. A search for extragalactic H2O maser emission towards IRAS galaxies - Detection of a maser from an infrared-luminous merger, NGC6240

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, Y; Miyoshi, M

    2002-01-01

    We report the result of an on-going survey for 22 GHz H2O maser emission towards infrared luminous galaxies. The observed galaxies were selected primarily from the IRAS bright galaxy sample. The survey has resulted in the detection of one new maser. The new maser was discovered towards the [U]LIRG/merger galaxy NGC6240, which contains a LINER nucleus. This is the first detection of an H2O maser towards this class of galaxy, they are traditionally associated with OH megamaser sources. The detected maser emission is highly redshifted (~ 260-300 km/s) with respect to the adopted systemic velocity of the galaxy, and we identified no other significant emission at velocities < +- 500 km/s relative to the systemic velocity. The presence of high-velocity maser emission implies the possible existence of a rotating maser disk formed in the merging process. The large maser luminosity (~ 40 Lo) suggests that an active galactic nucleus could be the energy source that gives rise to the water emission. Alternatively, the...

  16. A tale of two tails and an off-centered envelope: diffuse light around the cD galaxy NGC 3311 in the Hydra I cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Arnaboldi, Magda; Iodice, Enrica; Gerhard, Ortwin; Coccato, Lodovico

    2012-01-01

    The formation of intracluster light and of the extended halos around brightest cluster galaxies is closely related to morphological transformation, tidal stripping, and disruption of galaxies in clusters. We analyze Ks- and V-band surface photometry as well as deep long-slit spectra, and establish a link between the structures in the light distribution, the absorption line kinematics, and the LOS velocity distributions of nearby galaxies and planetary nebulae (PNs). The central galaxy NGC 3311 is surrounded by an extended symmetric outer halo with n=10 and an additional, off-centered envelope ~ 80" to the North-East. Its luminosity L_V= 1.2x10^{10} +/- 6.0 x 10^8 L_sun corresponds to ~50 % of the luminosity of the symmetric halo in the same region. Based on measured PN velocities, at least part of the off-centered envelope consists of high-velocity accreted stars. We have also discovered two tidal streams in the cluster center, emerging from the dwarf galaxy HCC 026 and from the S0 galaxy HCC 007. The HCC 026...

  17. Tracing the sites of obscured star formation in the Antennae galaxies with Herschel-PACS

    CERN Document Server

    Klaas, Ulrich; Haas, Martin; Krause, Oliver; Schreiber, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    FIR imaging of interacting galaxies allows locating even hidden sites of star formation and measuring of the relative strength of nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation. We want to resolve the star-forming sites in the nearby system of the Antennae. Thanks to the unprecedented sharpness and depth of the PACS camera onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, it is possible for the first time to achieve a complete assessment of individual star-forming knots in the FIR with scan maps at 70, 100, and 160 um. We used clump extraction photometry and SED diagnostics to derive the properties related to star-forming activity. The PACS 70, 100, and 160 um maps trace the knotty structure of the most recent star formation along an arc between the two nuclei in the overlap area. The resolution of the starburst knots and additional multi-wavelength data allow their individual star formation history and state to be analysed. In particular, the brightest knot in the mid-infrared (K1), east of the southern nucleus, exhibits ...

  18. Discovery of a Large Population of Ultraluminous X-ray Sources in the Bulge-less Galaxies NGC 337 and ESO 501-23

    CERN Document Server

    Somers, Garrett; Martini, Paul; Watson, Linda; Grier, Catherine J; Ferrarese, Laura

    2013-01-01

    We have used Chandra observations of eight bulge-less disk galaxies to identify new ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) candidates, study their high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, and search for low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGN). We report the discovery of 16 new ULX candidates in our sample of galaxies. Eight of these are found in the star forming galaxy NGC 337, none of which are expected to be background contaminants. The HMXB luminosity function of NGC 337 implies a star formation rate (SFR) of 6.8$^{+4.4}_{-3.5}$ \\msun\\ yr$^{-1}$, consistent at 1.5$\\sigma$ with a recent state of the art SFR determination. We also report the discovery of a bright ULX candidate (X-1) in ESO 501-23. X-1's spectrum is well fit by an absorbed power law with $\\Gamma = 1.18^{+0.19}_{-0.11}$ and N$\\rm{_H}$ = 1.13$^{+7.07}_{-1.13} \\times 10^{20}$ cm$^{-2}$, implying a 0.3-8 keV flux of $1.08^{+0.05}_{-0.07} \\times 10^{-12}$ \\esc. Its X-ray luminosity (L$_X$) is poorly constrained due to uncertainties in the host gala...

  19. SMA Observations of the Extended CO(6-5) Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC253

    CERN Document Server

    Krips, Melanie; Peck, Alison; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Neri, Roberto; Gurwell, Mark; Petitpas, Glen; Zhao, Jun-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the $^{12}$CO(6-5) line and 686GHz continuum emission in NGC253 with the Submillimeter Array at an angular resolution of ~4arcsec. The $^{12}$CO(6-5) emission is clearly detected along the disk and follows the distribution of the lower $^{12}$CO line transitions with little variations of the line ratios in it. A large-velocity gradient analysis suggests a two-temperature model of the molecular gas in the disk, likely dominated by a combination of low-velocity shocks and the disk wide PDRs. Only marginal $^{12}$CO(6-5) emission is detected in the vicinity of the expanding shells at the eastern and western edges of the disk. While the eastern shell contains gas even warmer (T$_{\\rm kin}$>300~K) than the hot gas component (T$_{\\rm kin}$=300K) of the disk, the western shell is surrounded by gas much cooler (T$_{\\rm kin}$=60K) than the eastern shell but somewhat hotter than the cold gas component of the disk (for similar H$_2$ and CO column densities), indicative of different (or differe...

  20. Mapping the Kinematics of the Narrow-Line Region in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151

    CERN Document Server

    Das, V; Hutchings, J B; Deo, R P; Krämer, S B; Gull, T R; Kaiser, M E; Nelson, C H; Weistrop, D

    2005-01-01

    Using The Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph HST's STIS, observations of the OIII emission from the narrow-line region (NLR) of NGC 4151 were obtained and radial velocities determined. Five orbits of HST time were used to obtain spectra at five parallel slit configurations, at a position angle of 58 degrees, with spatial resolution 0.2 arcseconds across and 0.1 arcseconds along each slit. A spectral resolving power of ~ 9,000 with the G430M grating gave velocity measurements accurate to ~ 34 km/s. A kinematic model was generated to match the radial velocities, for comparison to previous kinematic models of biconical radial outflow developed for low-dispersion spectra at two slit positions. The new high-resolution spectra permit the measurement of accurate velocity dispersions for each radial-velocity component. The full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) reaches a maximum of 1000 km/s near the nucleus, and generally decreases with increasing distance to about 100 km/s in the extended narr...

  1. A rare example of low surface-brightness radio lobes in a gas-rich early-type galaxy: the story of NGC 3998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Bradley S.; Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Nyland, Kristina; Serra, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    We study the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3998. This galaxy is known to host a low-power radio AGN with a kpc-size one-sided jet and a large, nearly polar H i disc. It is therefore a good system to study to understand the relation between the availability of cold-gas and the triggering of AGNs in galaxies. Our new WSRT data reveal two faint, S-shaped radio lobes extending out to ~10 kpc from the galaxy centre. Remarkably, we find that the inner H i disc warps back towards the stellar mid-plane in a way that mirrors the warping of the radio lobes. We suggest that the polar H i disc was accreted through a minor merger, and that the torques causing it to warp in the inner regions are also responsible for feeding the AGN. The "S" shape of the radio lobes would then be due to the radio jets adapting to the changing angular momentum of the accreted gas. The extended radio jets are likely poorly collimated, which would explain their quick fading and, therefore, their rarity in galaxies similar to NGC 3998. The fuelling of the central super-massive black hole is likely occurring via "discrete events", suggested by the observed variability of the radio core and the extremely high core dominance, which we attribute to the formation and ejection of a new jet resulting from a recent fuelling event. The reduced radiocontinuum image and HI datacube (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A94

  2. A two-arm gaseous spiral in the inner 200 pc of the early-type galaxy NGC 2974: signature of an inner bar

    OpenAIRE

    Emsellem, Eric; Goudfrooij, Paul; Ferruit, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    TIGER integral-field spectrography and HST/WFPC2 imaging of the E3 galaxy NGC 2974 are used to derive the kinematics of the stellar and ionized gas components in its central 500 pc. We derive a numerical two-integral distribution function from a MGE mass model using the HQ formalism. The TIGER as well as published long-slit stellar kinematics are well fitted with this self-consistent model, requiring neither the addition of a significant mass contribution from a hidden disc structure, nor the...

  3. Cosmic rays and the magnetic field in the nearby starburst galaxy NGC253 III. Helical magnetic fields in the nuclear outflow

    OpenAIRE

    Heesen, Volker; Beck, Rainer; Krause, Marita; Dettmar, Ralf-Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic fields are a good tracer for gas compression by shock waves, which can be caused by interaction of star-formation driven outflows from individual star formation sites as described in the chimney model. We study the magnetic field structure in the central part of the nuclear starburst galaxy NGC 253 with spatial resolutions between 40 and 150 pc to detect any filamentary emission associated with the nuclear outflow. New VLA observations at 3 cm with 7.5" resolution were combined with ...

  4. A SUZAKU DISCOVERY OF A SLOWLY VARYING HARD X-RAY CONTINUUM FROM THE TYPE I SEYFERT GALAXY NGC 3516

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bright type I Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 was observed by Suzaku twice, in 2005 October 12-15 and 2009 October 28-November 2, for a gross time coverage of 242 and 544 ks and a net exposure of 134 and 255 ks, respectively. The 2-10 keV luminosity was 2.8 × 1041 erg s–1 in 2005 and 1.6 × 1041 erg s–1 in 2009. The 1.4-1.7 keV and 1.7-10 keV count rates both exhibited peak-to-peak variations of a factor of ∼2 in 2005 and ∼4 in 2009. In both observations, the 15-45 keV count rate was less variable. The 2-10 keV spectrum in 2005 was significantly more convex than that in 2009. Through a count-count plot technique, the 2-45 keV signals in both sets of data were successfully decomposed in a model-independent way into two distinct broadband components. One is a variable emission with a featureless spectral shape, and the other is a non-varying hard component accompanied by a prominent Fe-K emission line at 6.33 keV (6.40 keV in the rest frame). The former was successfully fitted by an absorbed power-law model, while the latter requires a new hard continuum in addition to a reflection component from distant materials. The spectral and variability differences between the two observations are mainly attributed to long-term changes of this new hard continuum, which was stable on timescales of several hundreds of kiloseconds.

  5. THE VIRUS-P EXPLORATION OF NEARBY GALAXIES (VENGA): THE X {sub CO} GRADIENT IN NGC 628

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, Guillermo A. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Schruba, Andreas [Astronomy Department, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States); Evans, Neal J. II; Jogee, Shardha; Song, Mimi; Gebhardt, Karl; Heiderman, Amanda; Marinova, Irina; Weinzirl, Tim [Astronomy Department, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Bolatto, Alberto; Fisher, David; Vogel, Stuart [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Leroy, Adam K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Van den Bosch, Remco C. E. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Drory, Niv [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico DF (Mexico); Fabricius, Maximilian [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, D-85740 Garching (Germany)

    2013-02-20

    We measure the radial profile of the {sup 12}CO(1-0) to H{sub 2} conversion factor (X {sub CO}) in NGC 628. The H{alpha} emission from the VENGA integral field spectroscopy is used to map the star formation rate (SFR) surface density ({Sigma}{sub SFR}). We estimate the molecular gas surface density ({Sigma}{sub H2}) from {Sigma}{sub SFR} by inverting the molecular star formation law (SFL), and compare it to the CO intensity to measure X {sub CO}. We study the impact of systematic uncertainties by changing the slope of the SFL, using different SFR tracers (H{alpha} versus far-UV plus 24 {mu}m), and CO maps from different telescopes (single-dish and interferometers). The observed X {sub CO} profile is robust against these systematics, drops by a factor of two from R {approx} 7 kpc to the center of the galaxy, and is well fit by a gradient {Delta}log(X {sub CO}) = 0.06 {+-} 0.02 dex kpc{sup -1}. We study how changes in X {sub CO} follow changes in metallicity, gas density, and ionization parameter. Theoretical models show that the gradient in X {sub CO} can be explained by a combination of decreasing metallicity, and decreasing {Sigma}{sub H2} with radius. Photoelectric heating from the local UV radiation field appears to contribute to the decrease of X {sub CO} in higher density regions. Our results show that galactic environment plays an important role at setting the physical conditions in star-forming regions, in particular the chemistry of carbon in molecular complexes, and the radiative transfer of CO emission. We caution against adopting a single X {sub CO} value when large changes in gas surface density or metallicity are present.

  6. FORMATION OF DENSE MOLECULAR GAS AND STARS AT THE CIRCUMNUCLEAR STARBURST RING IN THE BARRED GALAXY NGC 7552

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present millimeter molecular line complemented by optical observations, along with a reanalysis of archival centimeter H I and continuum data, to infer the global dynamics and determine where dense molecular gas and massive stars preferentially form in the circumnuclear starburst ring of the barred-spiral galaxy NGC 7552. We find diffuse molecular gas in a pair of dust lanes each running along the large-scale galactic bar, as well as in the circumnuclear starburst ring. We do not detect dense molecular gas in the dust lanes, but find such gas concentrated in two knots where the dust lanes make contact with the circumnuclear starburst ring. When convolved to the same angular resolution as the images in dense gas, the radio continuum emission of the circumnuclear starburst ring also exhibits two knots, each lying downstream of an adjacent knot in dense gas. The results agree qualitatively with the idea that massive stars form from dense gas at the contact points, where diffuse gas is channeled into the ring along the dust lanes, and later explode as supernovae downstream of the contact points. Based on the inferred rotation curve, however, the propagation time between the respective pairs of dense gas and centimeter continuum knots is about an order of magnitude shorter than the lifetimes of OB stars. We discuss possible reasons for this discrepancy, and conclude that either the initial mass function is top-heavy or massive stars in the ring do not form exclusively at the contact points where dense molecular gas is concentrated.

  7. SMA Observations of the Extended 12CO(J = 6–5) Emission in the Starburst Galaxy NGC 253

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krips, M.; Martín, S.; Peck, A. B.; Sakamoto, K.; Neri, R.; Gurwell, M.; Petitpas, G.; Zhao, Jun-Hui

    2016-04-01

    We present observations of the 12CO(J = 6–5) line and 686 GHz continuum emission in NGC 253 with the Submillimeter Array at an angular resolution of ∼4″. The 12CO(J = 6–5) emission is clearly detected along the disk and follows the distribution of the lower 12CO line transitions with little variation of the line ratios. A large velocity gradient analysis suggests a two-temperature model of the molecular gas in the disk, likely dominated by a combination of low-velocity shocks and the disk-wide photodissociation regions. Only marginal 12CO(J = 6–5) emission is detected in the vicinity of the expanding shells at the eastern and western edges of the disk. While the eastern shell contains gas even warmer (Tkin > 300 K) than the hot gas component (Tkin = 300 K) of the disk, the western shell is surrounded by gas much cooler (Tkin = 60 K) than the eastern shell but somewhat hotter than the cold gas component of the disk (for similar H2 and CO column densities), indicative of different (or differently efficient) heating mechansisms. The continuum emission at 686 GHz in the disk agrees well in shape and size with that at lower (sub)millimeter frequencies, exhibiting a spectral index consistent with thermal dust emission. We find dust temperatures of ∼10–30 K and largely optically thin emission. However, our fits suggest a second (more optically thick) dust component at higher temperatures ({T}{{d}}\\gt 60 K), similar to the molecular gas. We estimate a global dust mass of ∼106 {M}ȯ for the disk, translating into a gas-to-dust mass ratio of a few hundred, consistent with other nearby active galaxies.

  8. A multi-wavelength study of the Magellanic-type galaxy NGC 4449. I. Modelling the spectral energy distribution, the ionisation structure and the star formation history

    CERN Document Server

    Karczewski, O Ł; Page, M J; Baes, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; De Looze, I; Ferreras, I; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Kuin, N P M; Lebouteiller, V; Madden, S C; Pohlen, M; Rémy-Ruyer, A; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L

    2013-01-01

    We present an integrated photometric spectral energy distribution (SED) of NGC 4449 from the far-UV to the sub-mm, including new observations acquired by Herschel. We include integrated UV photometry from Swift/UVOT using a measurement technique which is appropriate for extended sources with coincidence loss. The available multi-wavelength data is used to infer a range of ages, metallicities and star formation rates (SFR) for the underlying stellar populations, as well as the composition and the total mass of dust in NGC 4449. Our analysis of the global optical spectrum of NGC 4449 fitted using the spectral fitting code STARLIGHT suggests that the majority of stellar mass resides in old (>~ 1 Gyr old) and metal-poor (Z/Zsolar ~ 0.2) populations, with the first onset of star formation activity deduced to have taken place at an early epoch, approximately 12 Gyr ago. A simple chemical evolution model, suitable for a galaxy continuously forming stars, suggests a ratio of carbon to silicate dust mass comparable to...

  9. Spectral Components in the Optical Emission of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 5548 and the Comparison of Intrinsic Nuclear Spectra with Accreting Corona Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kuraszkiewicz, J K; Czerny, B

    1997-01-01

    We study the extensively monitored Seyfert galaxy NGC 5548 and compare its nuclear emission with models of accretion disk with accreting corona. To obtain the intrinsic nuclear spectra from the observed spectra we had to estimate and subtract the contribution from circumnuclear components such as stars, the Balmer continuum and blended FeII lines, and the FC2 extended, featureless continuum. The true nuclear spectra were compared with a two parameter model of the accreting disk with an accreting corona, described by the mass of the central black hole and viscosity. The model that best fitted the data was for M_{BH}=1.4e8 solar masses and the viscosity parameter alpha=0.033. Such a low viscosity parameter was necessary to produce the sufficient amount of X-rays. The vertical outflow of mass from corona in the form of wind had to be neglected in our model in order to fit into high and low states that NGC 5548 underwent. The model also predicts the behavior of the overall opt/UV/X continuum of NGC 5548 during th...

  10. The Globular Cluster System of the Coma cD Galaxy NGC 4874 from Hubble Space Telescope ACS and WFC3/IR Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Hyejeon; Chies-Santos, Ana L; Jee, M James; Jensen, Joseph B; Peng, Eric W; Lee, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    We present new HST optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of the rich globular cluster (GC) system of NGC 4874, the cD galaxy in the core of the Coma cluster (Abell 1656). NGC 4874 was observed with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys in the F475W (g) and F814W (I) passbands and the Wide Field Camera 3 IR Channel in F160W (H). The GCs in this field exhibit a bimodal optical color distribution with more than half of the GCs falling on the red side at g-I > 1. Bimodality is also present, though less conspicuously, in the optical-NIR I-H color. Consistent with past work, we find evidence for nonlinearity in the g-I versus I-H color-color relation. Our results thus underscore the need for understanding the detailed form of the color-metallicity relations in interpreting observational data on GC bimodality. We also find a very strong color-magnitude trend, or "blue tilt," for the blue component of the optical color distribution of the NGC 4874 GC system. A similarly strong trend is present for the overall mean...

  11. Simultaneous Ultraviolet and X-ray Observations of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 4151. I. Physical Conditions in the X-ray Absorbers

    CERN Document Server

    Krämer, S B; Crenshaw, D M; Gabel, J R; Turner, T J; Gull, T R; Hutchings, J B; Kriss, G A; Mushotzky, R F; Netzer, H; Peterson, B M; Behar, E; Behar, Ehud

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the intrinsic X-ray absorption in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151 using Chandra/HETGS data obtained 2002 May, as part of a program which included simultaneous UV spectra using HST/STIS and FUSE. NGC 4151 was in a relatively low flux state during the observations reported here, although roughly 2.5 times as bright in the 2 --10 keV band as during a Chandra observation in 2000. The soft X-ray band was dominated by emission lines, which show no discernible variation in flux between the two observations. The 2002 data show the presence of a very highly ionized absorber, in the form of H-like and He-like Mg, Si, and S lines, as well as lower ionization gas via the presence of inner-shell absorption lines from lower-ionization species of these elements. The former is too highly ionized to be radiatively accelerated in a sub-Eddington source such as NGC 4151. We find that the lower ionization gas had a column density a factor of ~ 3 higher during the 2000 observation. If due to bulk m...

  12. Infrared Line Emission in the Interacting Region of Arp 244 (the Antennae) Colliding Molecular Cloud Complexes ?

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, M C; Lo, K Y; Kim, D C

    2001-01-01

    We report velocity-resolved spectroscopy of infrared hydrogen recombination lines in the interacting region of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039). It generally has been assumed that the active star formation found there is due to the interaction of the disks of the two galaxies and \\citet{lee01} have observed two molecular cloud complexes, separated in velocity by $\\sim$100 km s$^{-1}$, in the southern part of this region. Our measurements imply that the two cloud complexes are moving away from each other. This result poses interesting questions about the physical mechanisms leading to starbursts in Arp 244 and other interacting galaxies.

  13. Hot ammonia in the center of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 3079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakai, Naomasa; Seta, Masumichi; Salak, Dragan; Hagiwara, Kenzaburo; Nagai, Makoto; Ishii, Shun; Yamauchi, Aya

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of ammonia observations toward the center of NGC 3079. The NH3(J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion lines were detected in absorption with the Tsukuba 32 m telescope, and the NH3(1, 1) through (6, 6) lines with the VLA, although the profile of NH3(3, 3) was in emission in contrast to the other transitions. The background continuum source, whose flux density was ˜ 50 mJy, could not be resolved with the VLA beam of ≲ 0{^''.}09 × 0{^''.}08. All ammonia absorption lines have two distinct velocity components: one is at the systemic velocity and the other is blueshifted, and both components are aligned along the nuclear jets. For the systemic components, the relatively low temperature gas is extended more than the high temperature gas. The blueshifted NH3(3, 3) emission can be regarded as ammonia masers associated with shocks by strong winds probably from newly formed massive stars or supernova explosions in dense clouds in the nuclear megamaser disk. Using para-NH3(1, 1), (2, 2), (4, 4), and (5, 5) lines with VLA, we derived the rotational temperature Trot = 120 ± 12 K and 157 ± 19 K for the systemic and blueshifted components, respectively. The total column densities of NH3(0, 0)-(6, 6), assuming Tex ≈ Trot, were (8.85 ± 0.70) × 1016 cm-2 and (4.47 ± 0.78) × 1016 cm-2 for the systemic and blueshifted components, respectively. The fractional abundance of NH3 relative to molecular hydrogen H2 for the systemic and blueshifted was [NH3]/[H2] = 1.3 × 10-7 and 6.5 × 10-8, respectively. We also found the F = 4-4 and F = 5-5 doublet lines of OH 2Π3/2 J = 9/2 in absorption, which could be fitted by two velocity components, systemic and redshifted components. The rotational temperature of OH was estimated to be Trot, OH ≥ 175 K, tracing hot gas associated with the interaction of the fast nuclear outflow with dense molecular material around the nucleus.

  14. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski; Zycki; Done; Valinia; Blanco; Rothschild; Turek

    2000-06-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Seyfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV; its absorption column is probably the largest that still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with solar abundances implies a column of 4.5+0.4-0.4x1024 cm(-2). Using a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on timescales shorter than the light-travel time through it. The rapid (with a timescale of approximately 1 day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 discovered by us with RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Instead, the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle less than 10 degrees, and it is likely to be the same disk of material that is responsible for the water maser emission observed in NGC 4945. Local number counts of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies show a large population of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) which are proposed to make up the cosmic X-ray background (CXRB). However, for this to be the case, the absorption geometry in the context of axially symmetric unification schemes must have the obscuring material subtending a large scale height-contrary to our inferences about NGC 4945-implying that NGC 4945 is not a prototype of obscured AGNs postulated to make up the CXRB. The small solid angle of the absorber, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4x106 M( middle dot in circle)) from megamaser measurements, allows a

  15. Ionization processes in a local analogue of distant clumpy galaxies: VLT MUSE IFU spectroscopy and FORS deep images of the TDG NGC 5291N

    CERN Document Server

    Fensch, J; Weilbacher, P M; Boquien, M; Zackrisson, E

    2016-01-01

    We present IFU observations with MUSE@VLT and deep imaging with FORS@VLT of a dwarf galaxy recently formed within the giant collisional HI ring surrounding NGC 5291. This TDG-like object has the characteristics of typical z=1-2 gas-rich spiral galaxies: a high gas fraction, a rather turbulent clumpy ISM, the absence of an old stellar population, a moderate metallicity and star formation efficiency. The MUSE spectra allow us to determine the physical conditions within the various complex substructures revealed by the deep optical images, and to scrutinize at unprecedented spatial resolution the ionization processes at play in this specific medium. Starburst age, extinction and metallicity maps of the TDG and surrounding regions were determined using the strong emission lines Hbeta, [OIII], [OI], [NII], Halpha and [SII] combined with empirical diagnostics. Discrimination between different ionization mechanisms was made using BPT--like diagrams and shock plus photoionization models. Globally, the physical condit...

  16. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  17. THE ACS NEARBY GALAXY SURVEY TREASURY. VII. THE NGC 4214 STARBURST AND THE EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION HISTORY ON DWARF MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 ultraviolet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at MF814W ∼ - 0.2. All of the optical data reach the main-sequence turnoff for stars younger than ∼300 Myr and the blue He-burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ∼75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at present. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many gigayears. As previously noted by others, we also find the galaxy has recently ramped up production consistent with its bright UV luminosity and its population of UV-bright massive stars. In the central field we find UV point sources with F336W magnitudes as bright as -9.9. These are as bright as stars with masses of at least 52-56 Msun and ages near 4 Myr in stellar evolution models. Assuming a standard initial mass function, our CMD is well fitted by an increase in star formation rate beginning 100 Myr ago. The stellar populations of this late-type dwarf are compared with those of NGC 404, an early-type dwarf that is also the most massive galaxy in its local environment. The late-type dwarf appears to have a similar high fraction of ancient stars, suggesting that these dominant galaxies may form at early epochs even if they have low total mass and very different present-day morphologies.

  18. Non-axisymmetric structure in the satellite dwarf galaxy NGC 2976: Implications for its dark/bright mass distribution and evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valenzuela, Octavio; Hernandez-Toledo, Hector; Cano, Mariana; Pichardo, Bárbara [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autonóma de Mexico, A.P. 70-264, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Puerari, Ivanio [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Optica y Electrónica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro 1, 72840 Sta. Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Buta, Ronald [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Groess, Robert, E-mail: octavio@astro.unam.mx [School of Computational and Applied Mathematics, University of Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, WITS 2050 (South Africa)

    2014-02-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81, NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bisymmetric distortion; however, the stellar bar presence is controversial. This controversy motivated the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 as presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics used in spiral galaxies in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m = 2 Fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsec, consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 μm surface brightness, and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas-rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The bar-like feature is offset close to 20° from the disk position angle, in agreement with kinematic estimations. The kinematic jumps related to the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess, and the nuclear X-ray source (active galactic nucleus/starburst) might be produced by the central bar. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of disks inside triaxial dark halos suggest that the two symmetric spots at 130 arcsec and the narrow arms may be produced by gas at turning points in an elliptical disk, or, alternatively, the potential ellipticity can be produced by a tidally induced strong stellar bar/arms; in both cases the rotation curve interpretation is, importantly, biased. The M81 group is a natural candidate to trigger the bisymmetric distortion and the related evolution as suggested by the H I tidal bridge detected by Chynoweth et al. We conclude that both mechanisms, the gas-rich bar and spiral arms triggered by the environment (tidal stirring) and primordial halo triaxiality, can explain most of the NGC 2976 non-circular motions, mass redistribution, and nuclear activity

  19. THE REMARKABLE WARPED AND TWISTED GAS DISK IN NGC 3718

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sparke, Linda S.; van Moorsel, Gustaaf; Schwarz, Ulrich J.; Vogelaar, Martin

    2009-01-01

    We have mapped NGC 3718, a nearby bright galaxy in a loose group, and its companion NGC 3729 in the 21 cm line of neutral hydrogen. NGC 3718 is a strikingly unusual galaxy with a strong straight dust lane across the center, peculiar diffuse spiral arms, and an extended disk of neutral hydrogen. Earl

  20. The ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury VII. The NGC 4214 Starburst and the Effects of Star Formation History on Dwarf Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Benjamin F; Gilbert, Karoline M; Seth, Anil C; Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Dolphin, Andrew E

    2011-01-01

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) optical observations obtained as part of the ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey Treasury (ANGST) as well as early release Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) ultra-violet and infrared observations of the nearby dwarf starbursting galaxy NGC 4214. Our data provide a detailed example of how covering such a broad range in wavelength provides a powerful tool for constraining the physical properties of stellar populations. The deepest data reach the ancient red clump at M_F814W -0.2. All of the optical data reach the main sequence turnoff for stars younger than ~300 Myr, and the blue He burning sequence for stars younger than 500 Myr. The full CMD-fitting analysis shows that all three fields in our data set are consistent with ~75% of the stellar mass being older than 8 Gyr, in spite of showing a wide range in star formation rates at the present day. Thus, our results suggest that the scale length of NGC 4214 has remained relatively constant for many Gyr. A...

  1. Non-Axisymmetric Structure in the Satellite Dwarf Galaxy NGC2976: Implications for its Dark/Bright Mass Distribution and Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Valenzuela, O; Cano-Díaz, M; Puerari, I; Buta, R; Pichardo, B; Groess, R

    2013-01-01

    We present the result of an extensive search for non-axisymmetric structures in the dwarf satellite galaxy of M81: NGC 2976, using multiwavelength archival observations. The galaxy is known to present kinematic evidence for a bysimmetric distortion, anyhow the stellar bar presence is controversial, due to the possible interpretation of NGC 2976 presenting an elliptical disk triggered by a prolate dark matter halo. We applied diagnostics in order to detect stellar bars or spiral arms. The m=2 fourier phase has a jump around 60 arcsecs consistent with a central bar and bisymmetric arms. The CO, 3.6 $\\mu$ surface brightness and the dust lanes are consistent with a gas rich central bar and possibly with gaseous spiral arms. The kinematic jumps related with the dust lanes suggest that the bar perturbation in the disk kinematics is non-negligible and the reported non-circular motions, the central gas excess and the nuclear X-ray source (AGN/Starburst) might be produced by the central bar. SPH simulations of disks i...

  2. Geometrical evidence for dark matter: X-ray constraints on the mass of the elliptical galaxy NGC 720

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buote, David A.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1994-01-01

    We describe (1) a new test for dark matter and alternate theories of gravitation based on the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed form for the potential, of the optical light, (2) a technique to measure the shapes of the total gravitating matter and dark matter of an ellipsoidal system which is insensitive to the precise value of the temperature of the gas and to modest temperature gradients, and (3) a new method to determine the ratio of dark mass to stellar mass that is dependent on the functional forms for the visible star, gas and dark matter distributions, but independent of the distance to the galaxy or the gas temperature. We apply these techniques to X-ray data from the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) of the optically flattened elliptical galaxy NGC 720; the optical isophotes have ellipticity epsilon approximately 0.40 extending out to approximately 120 sec. The X-ray isophotes are significantly elongated, epsilon = 0.20-0.30 for semimajor axis a approximately 100 sec. The major axes of the optical and X-ray isophotes are misaligned by approximately 30 deg +/- 15 deg. Spectral analysis of the X-ray data reveals no evidence of temperature gradients or anisotropies and demonstrates that a single-temperature plasma (T approximately 0.6 keV) having subsolar heavy element abundances and a two-temperature model having solar abundances describe the spectrum equally well. Considering only the relative geometries of the X-ray and optical surface brightness distributions and an assumed functional form for the potential of the optical light, we conclude that matter distributed like the optical light cannot produce the observed ellipticities of the X-ray isophotes, independent of the gas pressure, the gas temperature, and the value of the stellar mass; this comparison assumes a state of quasi-hydrostatic equilibrium so that the three-dimensional surfaces of the gas emissivity trace the three

  3. STELLAR LIFETIME AND ULTRAVIOLET PROPERTIES OF THE OLD METAL-RICH GALACTIC OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791: A PATHWAY TO UNDERSTAND THE ULTRAVIOLET UPTURN OF ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolutionary properties of the old metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC 6791 are assessed based on deep UB photometry and Two Micron All Sky Survey JK data. For the 4739 stars in the cluster, bolometric luminosity and effective temperature have been derived from theoretical (U – B) and (J – K) color fitting. The derived H-R diagram has been matched with the UVBLUE grid of synthetic stellar spectra to obtain the integrated spectral energy distribution (SED) of the system, together with a full set of UV (Fanelli) and optical (Lick) narrowband indices. The total bolometric magnitude of NGC 6791 is Mbol6791 = –6.29, with a color (B – V)6791 = 0.97. The cluster appears to be a fairly good proxy of standard elliptical galaxies, although with significantly bluer infrared colors, a shallower 4000 Å Balmer break, and a lower Mg2 index. The confirmed presence of a dozen hot stars along their extreme horizontal-branch evolution leads the cluster SED to consistently match the properties of the most active UV-upturn galaxies, with 1.7% ± 0.4% of the total bolometric luminosity emitted shortward of 2500 Å. The cluster helium abundance results in Y6791 = 0.30 ± 0.04, while the post-main-sequence (PMS) implied stellar lifetime from star number counts fairly agrees with the theoretical expectations from both the PADOVA and BASTI stellar tracks. A PMS fuel consumption of 0.43 ± 0.01 M☉ is found for NGC 6791 stars, in close agreement with the estimated mass of cluster He-rich white dwarfs. Such a tight figure may lead one to suspect that a fraction of the cluster stellar population does not actually reach the minimum mass required to effectively ignite He in the stellar core.

  4. The X-ray Power Density Spectrum of the Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4945: Analysis and Application of the Method of Light Curve Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Martin; /SLAC

    2010-12-16

    The study of the power density spectrum (PDS) of fluctuations in the X-ray flux from active galactic nuclei (AGN) complements spectral studies in giving us a view into the processes operating in accreting compact objects. An important line of investigation is the comparison of the PDS from AGN with those from galactic black hole binaries; a related area of focus is the scaling relation between time scales for the variability and the black hole mass. The PDS of AGN is traditionally modeled using segments of power laws joined together at so-called break frequencies; associations of the break time scales, i.e., the inverses of the break frequencies, with time scales of physical processes thought to operate in these sources are then sought. I analyze the Method of Light Curve Simulations that is commonly used to characterize the PDS in AGN with a view to making the method as sensitive as possible to the shape of the PDS. I identify several weaknesses in the current implementation of the method and propose alternatives that can substitute for some of the key steps in the method. I focus on the complications introduced by uneven sampling in the light curve, the development of a fit statistic that is better matched to the distributions of power in the PDS, and the statistical evaluation of the fit between the observed data and the model for the PDS. Using archival data on one AGN, NGC 3516, I validate my changes against previously reported results. I also report new results on the PDS in NGC 4945, a Seyfert 2 galaxy with a well-determined black hole mass. This source provides an opportunity to investigate whether the PDS of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 galaxies differ. It is also an attractive object for placement on the black hole mass-break time scale relation. Unfortunately, with the available data on NGC 4945, significant uncertainties on the break frequency in its PDS remain.

  5. HI emission and absorption in nearby, gas-rich galaxies II. -- sample completion and detection of intervening absorption in NGC 5156

    CERN Document Server

    Reeves, S N; Allison, J R; Koribalski, B S; Curran, S J; Pracy, M B; Phillips, C J; Bignall, H E; Reynolds, C

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a survey for intervening 21cm HI absorption in a sample of 10 nearby, gas-rich galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All-Sky Survey (HIPASS). This follows the six HIPASS galaxies searched in previous work and completes our full sample. In this paper we searched for absorption along 17 sightlines with impact parameters between 6 and 46 kpc, making one new detection. We also obtained simultaneous HI emission-line data, allowing us to directly relate the absorption-line detection rate to the HI distribution. From this we find the majority of the non-detections in the current sample are because sightline does not intersect the HI disc of the galaxy at sufficiently high column density, but that source structure is also an important factor. The detected absorption-line arises in the galaxy NGC 5156 ($z = 0.01$) at an impact parameter of 19 kpc. The line is deep and narrow with an integrated optical depth of 0.82 km s$^{-1}$. High resolution Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) images at...

  6. A search for supernova remnants in the nearby spiral galaxy M 74 (NGC 628)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonbaş, E.; Akyüz, A.; Balman, Ş.; Özel, M. E.

    2010-07-01

    An optical search was carried out for supernova remnants (SNRs) in the Sc type nearby spiral galaxy M 74, using ground-based observations at the TUBITAK National Observatory (TUG, Antalya/Turkey) and the Special Astrophysics Observatory (SAO, Russia). Observations were supplemented by the spectral analysis of archived X-ray data from XMM-Newton and Chandra. The survey of M 74 covered ~9 arcmin2 with [S II], Hα, and their continuum filters. Interference filter images of M 74 were obtained the with the 1.5 m Russian Turkish Telescope (RTT150) at TUG and spectral data taken with the 6 m Bolsoi Azimuthal Telescope (BTA) at SAO. The emission nebulae with continuum-subtracted line ratio values of [S II]λλ6716,6731 /Hα ≥ 0.4 are identified as SNRs. Follow-up spectroscopy confirmed optical SNR identifications. We have identified nine new SNR candidates in M 74 with [S II]/Hα ≥ 0.4 as the basic criterion. The [S II]/Hα ratio ranges from 0.40 to 0.91 and Hα intensities from 2.8 × 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1 to 1.7 × 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1. We also present spectral follow-up observations of these SNR candidates, however, we are able to spectrally confirm only three of them (SNR2, SNR3, and SNR5). The lack of confirmation for the rest might come from contamination by the nearby H II emission regions, as well as from the inaccurate positioning of the long slit on these objects. In addition, we searched the XMM-Newton and Chandra Observatory archival data for the X-ray counterparts to the optically identified candidates. We find positional coincidence with only three SNR candidates, SNR1, SNR2, and SNR8. The spectrum of SNR2 yields a shock temperature of 10.8 keV with an ionization timescale of 1.6 × 1010 s cm-3, indicating a relatively young remnant in an early Sedov phase, which is not supported by our optical wavelength analysis. Given the high luminosity of 1039 erg s-1 and the characteristics of the X-ray spectrum, we favor an ultra luminous X-ray source interpretation for

  7. Astrophysical and Structural Parameters of the Open Clusters NGC 6866, NGC 7062, and NGC 2360

    CERN Document Server

    Gunes, O; Bonatto, C

    2012-01-01

    We derive astrophysical and structural parameters of the poorly studied open clusters NGC 6866, NGC 7062, and NGC 2360 based on filtered 2MASS (J, J -H) diagrams, and stellar radial density profiles. The field star decontamination technique is utilised for selecting high-probability cluster members. The E(B -V) reddening values of the three clusters derived from 2MASS JHKs agree with those inferred from UBV and uvby-{\\beta} photometries. We find that the core mass function slopes are flatter than the halo's for the three clusters. The large core and cluster radii of NGC 6866 and NGC 2360 indicate an expanded core, which may suggest the presence of stellar mass black-holes. NGC 2360 is located in the third quadrant (l = 229.80), where Giant Molecular Clouds are scarce that, together with its relatively large mass (~ 1800 msun), might explain its longevity(~ 1.8Gyr) in the Galaxy.

  8. Spatially resolving a starburst galaxy at hard X-ray energies: NuSTAR, CHANDRA, AND VLBA observations of NGC 253

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wik, D. R.; Lehmer, B. D.; Hornschemeier, A. E.;

    2014-01-01

    intermediate state black hole X-ray binaries. The global X-ray emission of the galaxy-dominated by the off-nuclear ULX and nuclear sources, which are also likely ULXs-falls steeply (photon index ≳ 3) above 10 keV, consistent with other NuSTAR-observed ULXs, and no significant excess above the background is...... the first time. As a follow up to our initial study of its nuclear region, we present the first results concerning the full galaxy from simultaneous NuSTAR, Chandra, and Very Long Baseline Array monitoring of the local starburst galaxy NGC 253. Above ~10 keV, nearly all the emission is concentrated...... within 100" of the galactic center, produced almost exclusively by three nuclear sources, an off-nuclear ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX), and a pulsar candidate that we identify for the first time in these observations. We detect 21 distinct sources in energy bands up to 25 keV, mostly consisting of...

  9. Near- to Mid- Infrared Imaging and Spectroscopy of Two Buried AGNs of the Nearby Merging Galaxy NGC 6240 with Subaru/IRCS+AO and GTC/CanariCam

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Tamami I; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Packham, Chris; Almeida, Cristina Ramos; Nikutta, Robert; OmairaGonzález-Mart\\'\\in,; Perlman, Eric; Saito, Yuriko; Levenson, Nancy A

    2014-01-01

    We report near-infrared K', L', and M' band imaging observations of the nearby merging galaxy NGC 6240 with the Infrared Camera and Spectrograph on the Subaru telescope. The observations were performed with the assistance of the Subaru Adaptive Optics System, and the achieved spatial resolutions were around 0.10--0.20$^{\\prime\\prime}$. We also obtained new mid-infrared imaging in the Si-2 filter band (8.7$\\mu$m) and N-band (7.5--13$\\mu$m) spectroscopy of this galaxy with the CanariCam on the Gran Telescopio Canarias with a spatial resolution of 0.4--0.5$^{\\prime\\prime}$. In the K' band image the two nuclei of the galaxy each show a double-peak suggesting the complex geometry of the source, while the L', M', and Si-2 band images show single compact structures in each of the two nuclei. Assuming that the center core observed at wavelengths longer than 3.8$\\mu$m is associated with dust heated by the buried AGN, we re-evaluated the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the southern nucleus from 2 to 30$\\mu$m wi...

  10. Dynamical Constraints on The Masses of the Nuclear Star Cluster and Black Hole in the Late-Type Spiral Galaxy NGC 3621

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, A J; Bentz, M C; Greene, J E; Ho, L C

    2008-01-01

    NGC 3621 is a late-type (Sd) spiral galaxy with an active nucleus, previously detected through mid-infrared [Ne V] line emission. Archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images reveal that the galaxy contains a bright and compact nuclear star cluster. We present a new high-resolution optical spectrum of this nuclear cluster, obtained with the ESI Spectrograph at the Keck Observatory. The nucleus has a Seyfert 2 emission-line spectrum at optical wavelengths, supporting the hypothesis that a black hole is present. The line-of-sight stellar velocity dispersion of the cluster is sigma=43+/-3 km/s, one of the largest dispersions measured for any nuclear cluster in a late-type spiral galaxy. Combining this measurement with structural parameters measured from archival HST images, we carry out dynamical modeling based on the Jeans equation for a spherical star cluster containing a central point mass. The maximum black hole mass consistent with the measured stellar velocity dispersion is 3*10^6 solar masses. If the blac...

  11. Search for sub-millimeter H2O masers in active galaxies - the detection of a 321 GHz H2O maser in NGC4945

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Doi, Akihiro; Miyoshi, Makoto; Edwards, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    We present further results of a search for extragalactic submillimeter H2O masers using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The detection of a 321 GHz H2O maser in the nearby Type 2 Seyfert galaxy, the Circinus galaxy, has previously been reported, and here the spectral analysis of four other galaxies is described. A 321 GHz H2O maser is newly detected toward the center of NGC 4945, a nearby Type 2 Seyfert. The maser shows Doppler-shifted velocity features with velocity ranges similar to those of the 22 GHz H2O maser, however the non-contemporaneous observations also show differences in velocity offsets. The sub-parsec-scale distribution of the 22 GHz H2O masers revealed by earlier VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observations suggests that the submillimeter masers could arise in an edge-on rotating disk. The maser features remain unresolved at the synthesized beam of ~0.54 (~30 pc) and are located toward the 321 GHz continuum peak within errors. There is some evidence for a high-...

  12. The influence of diffuse scattered light I. The PSF and its role to observations of the edge-on galaxy NGC 5907

    CERN Document Server

    Sandin, Christer

    2014-01-01

    All telescopes and instruments are to some degree affected by scattered light. It is possible to estimate the amount of such scattered light, and even correct for it, with a radially extended point spread function (PSF). The outer parts of the PSF have only rarely been determined, since they are faint and therefore difficult to measure. A mostly complete overview of existing properties and measurements of radially extended PSFs is presented, to both show their similarities and to indicate how bright extended objects can be used to measure the faintest regions. The importance of the far wings of the PSF and their possible temporal variations are demonstrated in three edge-on galaxy models. The same study is applied to the first edge-on galaxy where earlier observations reveal a halo, NGC 5907. All PSFs were collected in two diagrams, after they were offset or normalized, when that was possible. Surface-brightness structures of edge-on galaxies were modelled and analysed to study scattered-light haloes that res...

  13. The Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 2110: Hard X-Ray Emission Observed by NuStar and Variability of the Iron K-Alpha Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.; Lu, T. N.; Arevalo, P.; Balokovic, M.; Ballantyne, D.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Stern, D.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM-Newton, Suzaku, BeppoSAX, Chandra and Swift. Simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift broad band spectra (in the 3-80 keV range) indicate a cutoff energy E(sub c) greater than 210 keV, with no detectable contribution from Compton reflection. NGC 2110 is one of the very few sources where no evidence for distant Compton thick scattering is found and, by using temporal information collected over more than a decade, we investigate variations of the iron K(alpha) line on time scales of years. The Fe K alpha line is likely the sum of two components: one constant (originating from distant Compton-thick material) and the other one variable and linearly correlated with the source flux (possibly arising from Compton-thin material much closer to the black hole).

  14. NGC1600 - Cluster or Field Elliptical?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Rodney M.; Martinez, Vicent J; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Ballesteros, Fernando J.; Ortiz-Gil, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    A study of the galaxy distribution in the field of the elliptical galaxy NGC1600 has been undertaken. Although this galaxy is often classified as a member of a loose group, all the neighbouring galaxies are much fainter and could be taken as satellites of NGC1600. The number density profile of galaxies in the field of this galaxy shows a decline with radius, with evidence of a background at approximately 1.3 Mpc. The density and number density profile are consistent with that found for other ...

  15. The Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110: hard X-ray emission observed by NuSTAR and variability of the iron Kα line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Bianchi, S.;

    2015-01-01

    We present NuSTAR observations of the bright Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 2110 obtained in 2012, when the source was at the highest flux level ever observed, and in 2013, when the source was at a more typical flux level. We include archival observations from other X-ray satellites, namely XMM-Newton, Suz...... linearly correlated with the source flux (possibly arising from Compton-thin material much closer to the black hole)....... found and, by using temporal information collected over more than a decade, we investigate variations of the iron Kα line on time-scales of years. The Fe K alpha line is likely the sum of two components: one constant (originating from distant Compton-thick material) and the other one variable and...

  16. Are the Youngsters Home? A Search for Young Clusters in the Merger Remnant NGC 2655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, Thomas Bernard; Rothberg, Barry; Kuhn, Olga

    2016-01-01

    We are studying star clusters in NGC 2655, a shell elliptical galaxy that is likely a post-merger remnant and may yet still be forming new stars. Our project consists of two parts. The first goal is to put together a pipeline for taking raw images and transforming them into a final calibrated set of data. The algorithms we have developed will be useful for all astronomers who use the Large Binocular Cameras (LBCs) at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) located on Mount Graham in Arizona. The LBCs are two widefield f/1.45 cameras each mounted at prime focus for each mirror of the LBT. The LBCs each have a 23' x 25' field of view (FOV) and optimized for 0.3-0.6 microns on the left mirror and 0.5-1.0 microns on the right mirror.The second goal is to effectively take a population census of young star clusters (YSCs) and Globular Clusters (GCs) in a galaxy undergoing a transformation from two spiral galaxies into an elliptical galaxy. NGC 2655 may be a future version of our Milky Way after it collides and merges with the Andromeda Galaxy. Stars are born in groups and clusters. When mergers occur between spiral galaxies, vast reservoirs of gas are turned into stars and these stars all form together in large clusters with masses ranging from 10^{4}-10^{7} M_{⊙}. As seen in major mergers like the Antennae and NGC 3256, thousands of such star clusters are formed during and after a galaxy merger. However, NGC 2655 is clearly an elliptical galaxy with strong indications of having undergone a recent major merger. Thus, it represents a transition object, allowing us to study both the GC and possibly YSC populations. Although similar studies have been undertaken for a handful of other similar transition objects (i.e. NGC 1316), they have all been done using imagers with rather small FOVs (˜ 2-6'). The large FOV of the LBCs allow us to capture not only the entire galaxy, but a large region surrounding the galaxy, making it possible to obtain a better census of GCs and YSCs

  17. CHANDRA observations of the NGC 1550 galaxy group: Implication for the temperature and entropy profiles of 1 keV galaxy groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, M.; Forman, W.; Vikhlinin, A.; Hornstrup, Allan; Jones, C.; Murray, S.S.

    2003-01-01

    that within similar to 60 kpc, where the gas cooling time is less than a Hubble time, the gas temperature decreases continuously toward the center, implying the existence of a cooling core. The temperature also declines beyond similar to 100 kpc (or 0.1r(vir)). The temperature pro. le of NGC 1550 is...

  18. UB CCD photometry of the old, metal rich, open clusters NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, G; Bertone, E; Buson, L

    2013-01-01

    We report on a UV-oriented imaging survey in the fields of the old, metal-rich open clusters, NGC 6791, NGC 6819 and NGC 7142. These three clusters represent both very near and ideal stellar aggregates to match the distinctive properties of the evolved stellar populations, as in elliptical galaxies and bulges of spirals. The CMD of the three clusters is analyzed in detail, with special emphasis to the hot stellar component. We report, in this regard, one new extreme horizontal-branch star candidate in NGC 6791. For NGC 6819 and 7142, the stellar luminosity function points to a looser radial distribution of faint lower Main Sequence stars, either as a consequence of cluster dynamical interaction with the Galaxy or as an effect of an increasing fraction of binary stars toward the cluster core, as actually observed in NGC 6791 too.

  19. The JCMT Nearby Galaxies Legacy Survey III: Comparisons of cold dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, molecular gas, and atomic gas in NGC 2403

    CERN Document Server

    Bendo, G J; Warren, B E; Brinks, E; Butner, H M; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Courteau, S; Irwin, J; Israel, F P; Knapen, J H; Leech, J; Matthews, H E; Muehle, S; Petitpas, G; Serjeant, S; Tan, B K; Tilanus, R P J; Usero, A; Vaccari, M; van der Werf, P; Vlahakis, C; Wiegert, T; Zhu, M

    2009-01-01

    We used 3.6, 8.0, 70, 160 micron Spitzer Space Telescope data, James Clerk Maxwell Telescope HARP-B CO J=(3-2) data, National Radio Astronomy Observatory 12 meter telescope CO J=(1-0) data, and Very Large Array HI data to investigate the relations among PAHs, cold (~20 K) dust, molecular gas, and atomic gas within NGC 2403, an SABcd galaxy at a distance of 3.13 Mpc. The dust surface density is mainly a function of the total (atomic and molecular) gas surface density and galactocentric radius. The gas-to-dust ratio monotonically increases with radius, varying from ~100 in the nucleus to ~400 at 5.5 kpc. The slope of the gas-to-dust ratio is close to that of the oxygen abundance, suggesting that metallicity strongly affects the gas-to-dust ratio within this galaxy. The exponential scale length of the radial profile for the CO J=(3-2) emission is statistically identical to the scale length for the stellar continuum-subtracted 8 micron (PAH 8 micron) emission. However, CO J=(3-2) and PAH 8 micron surface brightne...

  20. Stellar lifetime and ultraviolet properties of the old metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC6791: a pathway to understand the UV upturn of elliptical galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzoni, Alberto; Carraro, Giovanni; Buson, Lucio

    2012-01-01

    The evolutionary properties of the old metal-rich Galactic open cluster NGC6791 are assessed, based on deep UB photometry and 2Mass JK data. For 4739 stars in the cluster, bolometric luminosity and effective temperature have been derived from theoretical (U-B) and (J-K) color fitting. The derived H-R diagram has been matched with the UVBLUE grid of synthetic stellar spectra to obtain the integrated SED of the system, together with a full set UV (Fanelli) and optical (Lick) narrow-band indices. The cluster appears to be a fairly good proxy of standard elliptical galaxies, although with significantly bluer infrared colors, a shallower 4000A Balmer break, and a lower Mg2 index. The confirmed presence of a dozen hot stars, along their EHB evolution, leads the cluster SED to consistently match the properties of the most active UV-upturn galaxies, with 1.7+/-0.4% of the total bolometric luminosity emitted shortward of 2500A. The cluster Helium abundance results Y=0.30 +/-0.04, while the Post-MS implied stellar life...