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Sample records for antennae galaxies arp

  1. The CARMA Paired Antenna Calibration System: Atmospheric Phase Correction for Millimeter Wave Interferometry and Its Application to Mapping the Ultraluminous Galaxy Arp 193

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B. Ashley; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Carpenter, John M.; Peréz, Laura M.; Lamb, James W.; Woody, David P.; Bock, Douglas C.-J.; Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L.; Curley, Roger; Leitch, Erik M.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Pound, Marc W.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Muchovej, Stephen J.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teng, Stacy H.; Teuben, Peter J.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.; Wu, Dalton

    2016-01-01

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009-2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ˜2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≲6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in 12CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0.″12 × 0.″18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ˜30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ˜104 M⊙ pc-2 we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253.

  2. THE CARMA PAIRED ANTENNA CALIBRATION SYSTEM: ATMOSPHERIC PHASE CORRECTION FOR MILLIMETER WAVE INTERFEROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATION TO MAPPING THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY ARP 193

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B. Ashley; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Vogel, Stuart N.; Curley, Roger; Pound, Marc W.; Mundy, Lee G.; Teng, Stacy H.; Teuben, Peter J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Carpenter, John M. [California Institute of Technology, Department of Astronomy, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Peréz, Laura M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 0, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Lamb, James W.; Woody, David P.; Leitch, Erik M.; Muchovej, Stephen J.; Volgenau, Nikolaus H. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Big Pine, CA 93513 (United States); Bock, Douglas C.-J. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Carlstrom, John E.; Culverhouse, Thomas L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Ave., Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Plambeck, Richard L. [Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

    2016-01-15

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009–2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5 m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1 and 10.4 m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ∼2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator located ≲6° away from the science target. We show that cloud cover does not affect the success of C-PACS. We demonstrate C-PACS in typical use by applying it to the observations of the nearby very luminous infrared galaxy Arp 193 in {sup 12}CO(2-1) at a linear resolution of ≈70 pc (0.″12 × 0.″18), 3 times better than previously published molecular maps of this galaxy. We resolve the molecular disk rotation kinematics and the molecular gas distribution and measure the gas surface densities and masses on 90 pc scales. We find that molecular gas constitutes ∼30% of the dynamical mass in the inner 700 pc of this object with a surface density ∼10{sup 4} M{sub ⊙} pc{sup −2}; we compare these properties to those of the starburst region of NGC 253.

  3. The CARMA Paired Antenna Calibration System: Atmospheric Phase Correction for Millimeter Wave Interferometry and its Application to Mapping the Ultraluminous Galaxy Arp 193

    CERN Document Server

    Zauderer, B Ashley; Vogel, Stuart N; Carpenter, John M; Peréz, Laura M; Lamb, James W; Woody, David P; Bock, Douglas C -J; Carlstrom, John E; Culverhouse, Thomas L; Curley, Roger; Leitch, Erik M; Plambeck, Richard L; Pound, Marc W; Marrone, Daniel P; Muchovej, Stephen J; Mundy, Lee G; Teng, Stacy H; Teuben, Peter J; Volgenau, Nikolaus H; Wright, Melvyn C H; Wu, Dalton

    2014-01-01

    Phase fluctuations introduced by the atmosphere are the main limiting factor in attaining diffraction limited performance in extended interferometric arrays at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths. We report the results of C-PACS, the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy Paired Antenna Calibration System. We present a systematic study of several hundred test observations taken during the 2009-2010 winter observing season where we utilize CARMA's eight 3.5-m antennas to monitor an atmospheric calibrator while simultaneously acquiring science observations with 6.1-m and 10.4-m antennas on baselines ranging from a few hundred meters to ~2 km. We find that C-PACS is systematically successful at improving coherence on long baselines under a variety of atmospheric conditions. We find that the angular separation between the atmospheric calibrator and target source is the most important consideration, with consistently successful phase correction at CARMA requiring a suitable calibrator locate...

  4. Chandra Observations of the Interacting Galaxies NGC 3395/3396 (Arp 270)

    CERN Document Server

    Brassington, N J; Ponman, T J

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a 20 ks high resolution Chandra X-ray observation of the peculiar galaxy pair NGC 3395/3396, a system at a very early stage of merging, and less evolved than the famous Antennae and Mice merging systems. Previously unpublished ROSAT HRI data are also presented. The point source population and the hot diffuse gas in this system are investigated, and compared with other merging galaxy pairs. 16 X-ray point sources are detected in Arp 270, 7 of which are classified as ULXs (Lx > 10^39 erg/s). From spectral fits and the age of the system it seems likely that these are predominantly high mass X-ray binaries. The diffuse gas emits at a global temperature of ~0.5 keV, consistent with temperatures observed in other interacting systems, and we see no evidence of the starburst-driven hot gaseous outflows seen in more evolved systems such as The Mice and The Antennae. It is likely that these features are absent from Arp 270 as the gas has had insufficient time to break out of the ...

  5. SWIFT Observations of the Arp 147 Ring galaxy system

    CERN Document Server

    Fogarty, Lisa; Tecza, Matthias; Clarke, Fraser; Goodsall, Timothy; Houghton, Ryan; Salter, Graeme; Davies, Roger; Kassin, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of Arp 147, a galaxy system comprising a collisionally-created ring galaxy and an early-type galaxy, using the Oxford SWIFT integral field spectrograph (IFS) at the 200-inch Hale telescope. We derive spatially resolved kinematics from the IFS data and use these to study the interaction between the two galaxies. We find the edge-to-edge expansion velocity of the ring is 225 +/- 8 km/s, implying an upper limit on the timescale for the collision of 50 Myrs. We also calculate that the angle of impact for the collision is between 33 degrees-54 degrees, where 0 degrees would imply a perpendicular collision. The ring galaxy is strongly star-forming with the star formation likely to have been triggered by the collision between the two galaxies. We measure some key physical parameters in an integrated and spatially resolved manner for the ring galaxy. Using observed B-I colours and the H-alpha equivalent widths, we conclude that two stellar components (a young and an old population) are require...

  6. ChAInGeS: The Chandra Arp Interacting Galaxies Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Miller, Olivia; Burleson, Jacob A; Nowak, Michael A; Struck, Curtis

    2012-01-01

    We have conducted a statistical analysis of the ultra-luminous X-ray point sources (ULXs; L(X) >= 10^39 erg/s) in a sample of galaxies selected from the Arp Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies. We find a possible enhancement of a factor of ~2-4 in the number of ULXs per blue luminosity for the strongly interacting subset. Such an enhancement would be expected if ULX production is related to star formation, as interacting galaxies tend to have enhanced star formation rates on average. For most of the Arp galaxies in our sample, the total number of ULXs compared to the far-infrared luminosity is consistent with values found earlier for spiral galaxies. This suggests that for these galaxies, ULXs trace recent star formation. However, for the most infrared-luminous galaxies, we find a deficiency of ULXs compared to the infrared luminosity. For these very infrared-luminous galaxies, AGNs may contribute to powering the far-infrared; alternatively, ULXs may be highly obscured in the X-ray in these galaxies and therefore not ...

  7. POST-STARBURST TIDAL TAILS IN THE ARCHETYPICAL ULTRA LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Matsubayashi, K.; Kajisawa, M.; Shioya, Y.; Ideue, Y. [Research Center for Space and Cosmic Evolution, Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Ohyama, Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, R.O.C (China); Nagao, T. [Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwakecho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Murayama, T. [Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University, Aramaki, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Koda, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220, the archetypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy in the local universe. Our sensitive H{alpha} imaging has newly revealed large-scale H{alpha} absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger. One is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly revealed in our deep optical imaging. The size of the H{alpha} absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 7.5 kpc, and the observed H{alpha} equivalent widths are {approx}2 Angstrom-Sign {+-} 0.2 Angstrom-Sign . The sizes of the northern and southern H{alpha}-absorption tidal tails are {approx}5 kpc Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc and {approx}6 kpc Multiplication-Sign 20 kpc, respectively. The observed H{alpha} equivalent widths range from 4 Angstrom-Sign to 7 Angstrom-Sign . In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, causing the two tails. This favors Arp 220 as a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies arising from a compact group of galaxies. Taking our new results into account, we discuss a star formation history in the last 1 Gyr in Arp 220.

  8. Uncovering the deeply embedded AGN activity in the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp299

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso-Herrero, A; Esquej, P; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Pereira-Santaella, M; Almeida, C Ramos; Levenson, N A; Packham, C; Ramos, A Asensio; Mason, R E; Espinosa, J M Rodriguez; Alvarez, C; Colina, L; Aretxaga, I; Diaz-Santos, T; Perlman, E; Telesco, C M

    2013-01-01

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) 8-13micron spectroscopy of the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp299 (IC694+NGC3690) obtained with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The high angular resolution (~0.3-0.6arcsec) of the data allows us to probe nuclear physical scales between 60 and 120pc, which is a factor of 10 improvement over previous MIR spectroscopic observations of this system. The GTC/CC spectroscopy displays evidence of deeply embedded Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) activity in both nuclei. The GTC/CC nuclear spectrum of NGC3690/Arp299-B1 can be explained as emission from AGN-heated dust in a clumpy torus with both a high covering factor and high extinction along the line of sight. The estimated bolometric luminosity of the AGN in NGC3690 is 3.2(+/-0.6)x10^44 erg/s. The nuclear GTC/CC spectrum of IC694/Arp299-A shows 11.3micron polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission stemming from a deeply embedded (A_V~24mag) region of less than 120pc in size. There is also a con...

  9. Post-starburst Tidal Tails in the Archetypical Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Taniguchi, Y; Kajisawa, M; Shioya, Y; Ohyama, Y; Nagao, T; Ideue, Y; Murayama, T; Koda, J

    2012-01-01

    We present our new deep optical imaging and long-slit spectroscopy for Arp 220 that is the archetypical ULIRG in the local universe. Our sensitive Ha imaging has newly revealed large-scale, Ha absorption, i.e., post-starburst regions in this merger; one is found in the eastern superbubble and the other is in the two tidal tails that are clearly reveled in our deep optical imaging. The size of Ha absorption region in the eastern bubble is 5 kpc x 7.5 kpc and the observed Ha equivalent widths are ~2 A +- 0.2 A. The sizes of the northern and southern Ha-absorption tidal tails are ~5 kpc x 10 kpc and ~6 kpc x 20 kpc, respectively. The observed Ha equivalent widths range from 4 A to 7 A. In order to explain the presence of the two post-starburst tails, we suggest a possible multiple-merger scenario for Arp 220 in which two post-starburst disk-like structures merged into one, and then caused the two tails. This favors that Arp 220 is a multiple merging system composed of four or more galaxies, arising from a compac...

  10. Studying the spatially resolved Schmidt-Kennicutt law in interacting galaxies: the case of Arp 158

    CERN Document Server

    Boquien, Médéric; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Braine, Jonathan; Bournaud, Frédéric; Brinks, Elias; Charmandaris, Vassilis

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that star formation in mergers does not seem to follow the same Schmidt-Kennicutt (KS) relation as in spiral disks, presenting a higher star formation rate (SFR) for a given gas column density. In this paper we study why and how different models of star formation arise. To do so we examine the process of star formation in the interacting system Arp 158 and its tidal debris. We perform an analysis of the properties of specific regions of interest in Arp 158 using observations tracing the atomic and the molecular gas, star formation, the stellar populations as well as optical spectroscopy to determine their exact nature. We also fit their spectral energy distribution with an evolutionary synthesis code. Finally, we compare star formation in these objects to star formation in the disks of spiral galaxies and mergers. Abundant molecular gas is found throughout the system and the tidal tails appear to have many young stars compared to their old stellar content. One of the nuclei is domina...

  11. VLA H53alpha radio recombination line observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp~220

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Rico, C A; Viallefond, F; Zhao, J H; Gómez, Y; Anantharamaiah, K R

    2005-01-01

    We present high angular resolution (0.7'') observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA) of the radio recombination line (RRL) H53alpha and radio continuum emission at 43 GHz from the ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. The 43 GHz continuum emission shows a compact structure (~2'') with two peaks separated by ~1'', the East (E) and West (W) components, that correspond to each galactic nucleus of the merger. The spectral indices for both the E and W components, using radio continuum images at 8.3 and 43 GHz are typical of synchrotron emission (alpha ~ -1.0). Our 43 GHz continuum and H53alpha line observations confirm the flux densities predicted by the models proposed by Anantharamaiah et al. This agreement with the models implies the presence of high-density (~ 100,000 cm^-3) compact HII regions (~ 0.1 pc) in Arp~220. The integrated H53alpha line emission is stronger toward the non-thermal radio continuum peaks, which are also coincident with the peaks of molecular emission of the H2CO. The coi...

  12. Simulating magnetic fields in the Antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kotarba, H; Naab, T; Johansson, P H; Dolag, K; Lesch, H

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent high-resolution simulations of NGC4038/4039 (the "Antennae galaxies") including star formation, supernova feedback and magnetic fields performed with the N-body/SPH code Gadget, in which hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics are followed with the SPH method. We vary the initial magnetic field in the progenitor disks from 1 nG to 1 muG. At the time of the best match with the central region of the Antennae system the magnetic field has been amplified by compression and shear flows to an equilibrium field of approximately 10 muG, independent of the initial seed field. This simulations are a proof of the principle that galaxy mergers are efficient drivers for the cosmic evolution of magnetic fields. We present a detailed analysis of the magnetic field structure in the central overlap region. Simulated radio and polarization maps are in good morphological and quantitative agreement with the observations. In particular, the two cores with the highest synchrotron intensity and ridges of r...

  13. The merger Seyfert galaxy Arp 220. Line and continuum absorption and emission

    CERN Document Server

    Contini, M

    2012-01-01

    The line and continuum spectra of the merger galaxy Arp 220 are analysed with the aim of investigating the ionizing and heating sources. We refer to radio, optical, infrared and X-ray spectra. The results show that in agreement with other merger galaxies, the optical lines are emitted from gas photoionised by the AGN and heated by the shocks in the extended NLR. The infrared lines are better explained by the emission from gas close to the starburst. The starburst dominates the infrared emission. [OI] and [CI] lines in the far-infrared are formed in the internal region of extended clouds and are therefore absorbed, while [CII] lines are emitted from the external edges of outflowing clouds. The O/H relative abundances are about solar and N/H are higher than solar by a factor of 1.5, throughout the starburst region, while in the AGN extended NLR the O/H ratio is half solar. A relatively high dust-to-gas ratio is indicated by modelling the dust reprocessed radiation peak consistently with bremsstrahlung emitted f...

  14. Upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux from the ULIRG Arp 220 and other galaxies with VERITAS

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischhack, Henrike

    2015-01-01

    The cores of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are very dense environments, with a high rate of star formation and supernova explosions. They are thought to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and are predicted to emit $\\gamma$-rays in the GeV to TeV range. So far, no ULIRG has been detected in $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220, the closest ULIRG to Earth, has been well studied, and detailed models of $\\gamma$-ray production in this galaxy are available. They predict a rather hard $\\gamma$-ray spectrum up to several TeV. Due to its large rate of star formation, high gas density, and its close proximity to Earth, Arp 220 is thought to be a very good candidate for observations in very-high-energy (VHE; 100 GeV - 100 TeV) $\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220 was observed by the VERITAS telescopes for more than 30 hours with no significant excess over the cosmic-ray background. The upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux of Arp 220 derived from these observations are the most sensitive limits presented so far and are starting ...

  15. First detection of GeV emission from an ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Liu, Ruo-Yu; Tang, Qing-Wen; Wang, Jun-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) that has star-formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense efforts of search. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of $\\sim 6.3 \\sigma $ using 7.5 years of \\textsl {Fermi} Large Area Telescope observation. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it obeys the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high density gas makes Arp 220 an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova remnants ...

  16. Upper limits on the VHE $\\gamma$-ray flux fromthe ULIRG Arp 220 and other galaxies with VERITAS

    OpenAIRE

    Fleischhack, Henrike; VERITAS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The cores of ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) are very dense environments, with a high rate of star formation and supernova explosions. They are thought to be sites of cosmic-ray acceleration, and are predicted to emit $\\gamma$-rays in the GeV to TeV range. So far, no ULIRG has been detected in$\\gamma$-rays. Arp 220, the closest ULIRG to Earth, has been well studied, and detailed models of $\\gamma$-ray production in this galaxy are available. They predict a rather hard...

  17. AMMONIA AS A TEMPERATURE TRACER IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS GALAXY MERGER Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, Juergen [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Henkel, Christian; Weiss, Axel [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Braatz, James A., E-mail: jott@nrao.edu, E-mail: chenkel@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: aweiss@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de, E-mail: jbraatz@nrao.edu [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    We present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) and Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) observations of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and the 1.2 cm radio continuum toward the ultraluminous infrared galaxy merger Arp 220. We detect the NH{sub 3}(1,1), (2,2), (3,3), (4,4), (5,5), and (6,6) inversion lines in absorption against the unresolved, (62 {+-} 9) mJy continuum source at 1.2 cm. The peak apparent optical depths of the ammonia lines range from {approx}0.05 to 0.18. The absorption lines are well described by single-component Gaussians with central velocities in between the velocities of the eastern and western cores of Arp 220. Therefore, the ammonia likely traces gas that encompasses both cores. The absorption depth of the NH{sub 3}(1,1) line is significantly shallower than expected based on the depths of the other transitions. The shallow (1,1) profile may be caused by contamination from emission by a hypothetical, cold ({approx}< 20 K) gas layer with an estimated column density of {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. This layer would have to be located behind or away from the radio continuum sources to produce the contaminating emission. The widths of the ammonia absorption lines are {approx}120-430 km s{sup -1}, in agreement with those of other molecular tracers. We cannot confirm the extremely large line widths of up to {approx}1800 km s{sup -1} previously reported for this galaxy. Using all of the ATCA detections except for the shallow (1,1) line, we determine a rotational temperature of (124 {+-} 19) K, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of T{sub kin} = (186 {+-} 55) K. Ammonia column densities depend on the excitation temperature. For excitation temperatures of 10 K and 50 K, we estimate N(NH{sub 3}) = (1.7 {+-} 0.1) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} and (8.4 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}, respectively. The relation scales linearly for possible higher excitation temperatures. Our observations are

  18. Kinematics and excitation of the nuclear spiral in the active galaxy Arp 102B

    CERN Document Server

    Couto, Guilherme S; Axon, David J; Robinson, Andrew; Kharb, Preeti; Riffel, Rogemar A

    2013-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional analysis of the gaseous excitation and kinematics of the inner 2.5 x 1.7 kpc^2 of the LINER/Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 102B, from optical spectra obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini North telescope at a spatial resolution of 250 pc. Emission-line flux maps show the same two-armed nuclear spiral we have discovered in previous observations with the HST-ACS camera. One arm reaches 1 kpc to the east and the other 500 pc to the west, with a 8.4 GHz VLA bent radio jet correlating with the former. The gas density is highest (500 - 900 cm^(-3)) at the nucleus and in the northern border of the east arm, at a region where the radio jet seems to be deflected. Channel maps show blueshifts but also some redshifts at the eastern arm and jet location which can be interpreted as originated in the front and back walls of an outflow pushed by the radio jet, suggesting also that the outflow is launched close to the plane of the sky. We estimate a mass outflow rate along the ea...

  19. UNCOVERING THE DEEPLY EMBEDDED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS ACTIVITY IN THE NUCLEAR REGIONS OF THE INTERACTING GALAXY Arp 299

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Herrero, A. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-UC, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Roche, P. F. [Astrophysics Department, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Esquej, P.; Colina, L. [Centro de Astrobiología, CSIC-INTA, E-28035 Madrid (Spain); González-Martín, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Rodríguez Espinosa, J. M.; Alvarez, C. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Pereira-Santaella, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Levenson, N. A. [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Packham, C. [University of Texas at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mason, R. E. [Gemini Observatory, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Aretxaga, I. [INAOE, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Díaz-Santos, T. [Spitzer Science Center, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Perlman, E. [Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Telesco, C. M., E-mail: aalonso@ifca.unican.es [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2013-12-10

    We present mid-infrared (MIR) 8-13 μm spectroscopy of the nuclear regions of the interacting galaxy Arp 299 (IC 694+NGC 3690) obtained with CanariCam (CC) on the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). The high angular resolution (∼0.''3-0.''6) of the data allows us to probe nuclear physical scales between 60 and 120 pc, which is a factor of 10 improvement over previous MIR spectroscopic observations of this system. The GTC/CC spectroscopy displays evidence of deeply embedded active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in both nuclei. The GTC/CC nuclear spectrum of NGC 3690/Arp 299-B1 can be explained as emission from AGN-heated dust in a clumpy torus with both a high covering factor and high extinction along the line of sight. The estimated bolometric luminosity of the AGN in NGC 3690 is 3.2 ± 0.6 × 10{sup 44} erg s{sup –1}. The nuclear GTC/CC spectrum of IC 694/Arp 299-A shows 11.3 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission stemming from a deeply embedded (A{sub V} ∼ 24 mag) region of less than 120 pc in size. There is also a continuum-emitting dust component. If associated with the putative AGN in IC 694, we estimate that it would be approximately five times less luminous than the AGN in NGC 3690. The presence of dual AGN activity makes Arp 299 a good example to study such phenomena in the early coalescence phase of interacting galaxies.

  20. Constraining Gamma-Ray Emission from Luminous Infrared Galaxies with Fermi-LAT; Tentative Detection of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Rhiannon D; Thompson, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Star-forming galaxies produce gamma-rays primarily via pion production, resulting from inelastic collisions between cosmic ray protons and the interstellar medium (ISM). The dense ISM and high star formation rates of luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs and ULIRGs) imply that they should be strong gamma-ray emitters, but so far only NGC 1068 has been detected. Theoretical models for their emission depend on the unknown fraction of cosmic ray protons that escape these galaxies before interacting. We analyze Fermi Large Area Telescope data for 82 of the brightest IRAS LIRGs and ULIRGs on the sky. We examine each system individually and carry out a stacking analysis to constrain their gamma-ray fluxes. We report the detection of the nearest ULIRG Arp 220 (3.44sigma above background), with a gamma-ray flux (0.8-100 GeV) of 3.2e-10 phot cm^-2 s^-1 (1.5e42 ergs s^-1 at 77 Mpc). We also derive upper limits for the stacked LIRGs and ULIRGs. The gamma-ray luminosity of Arp 220 and the stacked upper lim...

  1. ISO-SWS spectroscopy of Arp 220 : A highly obscured starburst galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Genzel, R; Sternberg, A; Egami, E; Kunze, D; Rigopoulou, D; Bauer, OH; Feuchtgruber, H; Moorwood, AFM; deGraauw, T

    1996-01-01

    We report the first 2.4 - 45 mu m spectroscopic study of Arp 220 obtained with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer onboard ISO. Observations of mid infrared lines penetrate deep into the highly obscured regions where the luminosity originates and give direct clues to their sources of excitation. From

  2. Optical imaging and high spatial resolution 21 cm H I observations of the peculiar galaxy NGC 2782 (Arp 215)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Beverly J.

    1994-01-01

    We have used the Very Large Array (VLA) B and C Arrays to make 21 cm H I observations of the peculiar galaxy NGC 2782 (Arp 215). These observations are complementary to previously published D Array VLA data, which revealed the presence of a long (5 min to 54 kpc) H I plume near the western side of this galaxy. We have also obtained BVRI H alpha images of the main body of this galaxy using the McDonald Observatory 30 inch telescope. The optical images of this galaxy show a strong stellar tail extending to the east, opposite the H I plume. Within the disk of NGC 2782, unsharp masking of the optical images at all 4 broadband wavelengths reveals three bright 'ripples', separated by approximately 15 sec. The light profiles across these ripples are symmetric, without a sharp outer edge. H alpha is strong at the starburst nucleus and along the northern and western sections of the inner ripple. The new higher resolution H I data show that the atomic gas is very clumpy. We have identified ten H I clumps in the long western plume, with H I masses of approximately 10(exp 8) solar mass, similar to those of dwarf galaxies, and column densities of approximately 10(exp 21) cm(exp -2) over surface areas of approximately 10 kpc(exp 2). No CO (1-0) emission has been detected from this plume, suggesting that it is material stripped from the outer edge of a disk galaxy. The H alpha peaks, in contrast, are generally not coincident with H I peaks. No H I is seen at the tip of the eastern extension. The H I distribution near this structure is ring-like rather than tail-like as in the optical data. We have detected redshifted H I absorption toward the central continuum source, indicating gas infall into the nuclear region. Using a restricted 3-body dynamical model, we have successfully reproduced the basic properties of NGC 2782 with an off-center collision between two galaxies, where a lower mass disk companion (M(sub 2)/M(sub 1) approximately 0.25) collides almost head-on with a larger

  3. CALIFA Spectroscopy of the Interacting Galaxy NGC 5394 (Arp 84): Starbursts, Enhanced [NII]6584 and Signs of Outflows and Shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Roche, Nathan; Gomes, Jean Michel; Papaderos, Polychronis; Lagos, Patricio; Sanchez, Sebastian F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the spiral galaxy NGC 5394, which is strongly interacting with the larger spiral NGC 5395 (the pair is Arp 84), using optical integral-field spectroscopy from the CALIFA survey. Spatially-resolved equivalent-widths, emission-line ratios and kinematics reveal many features related to the interaction, which has reshaped the galaxy. $\\rm H\\alpha$ maps (with other diagnostic emission lines) show a concentrated central ($r<1$ kpc) starburst and three less luminous star-forming regions (one knot far out in the northern arm), and we estimate the dust-corrected total star-formation rate as 3.39 $\\rm M_{\\odot}yr^{-1}$. However, much of the galaxy, especially the outer tidal arms, has a post-starburst spectrum, evidence of a more extensive episode of star-formation a few $\\times 10^8$ yr ago, triggered by the previous perigalacticon. The $\\rm [NII]6584/H\\alpha$ ratio is high in the nucleus, reaching 0.63 at the centre, which we interpret as related to high electron density ($n_e\\simeq 750$ $\\rm cm^{-3...

  4. THE FIRST DETECTION OF GeV EMISSION FROM AN ULTRALUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXY: Arp 220 AS SEEN WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fang-Kun; Wang, Xiang-Yu [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Ruo-Yu [Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Tang, Qing-Wen [School of Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Jun-Feng, E-mail: xywang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)

    2016-04-20

    Cosmic rays (CRs) in starburst galaxies produce high-energy gamma-rays by colliding with the dense interstellar medium. Arp 220 is the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy that has star formation at extreme levels, so it has long been predicted to emit high-energy gamma-rays. However, no evidence of gamma-ray emission was found despite intense search efforts. Here we report the discovery of high-energy gamma-ray emission above 200 MeV from Arp 220 at a confidence level of ∼6.3σ using 7.5 years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations. The gamma-ray emission shows no significant variability over the observation period and it is consistent with the quasi-linear scaling relation between the gamma-ray luminosity and total infrared luminosity for star-forming galaxies, suggesting that these gamma-rays arise from CR interactions. As the high-density medium of Arp 220 makes it an ideal CR calorimeter, the gamma-ray luminosity can be used to measure the efficiency of powering CRs by supernova (SN) remnants given a known supernova rate in Arp 220. We find that this efficiency is about 4.2 ± 2.6% for CRs above 1 GeV.

  5. The isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5426/27 (Arp 271)

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes-Carrera, I; Amram, P; Dultzin-Hacyan, D; Cruz-Gonzalez, I; Salo, H; Laurikainen, E; Bernal, A; Ambrocio-Cruz, P; Le Coarer, E

    2003-01-01

    We present H alpha observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5426/27 using the scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer PUMA. The velocity field, various kinematical parameters and rotation curve for each galaxy were derived. The FWHM map and the residual velocities map were also computed to study the role of non-circular motions of the gas. Most of these motions can be associated with the presence of spiral arms and structure such as central bars. We found a small bar-like structure in NGC 5426, a distorted velocity field for NGC 5427 and a bridge-like feature between both galaxies which seems to be associated with NGC 5426. Using the observed rotation curves, a range of possible masses was computed for each galaxy. These were compared with the orbital mass of the pair derived from the relative motion of the participants. The rotation curve of each galaxy was also used to fit different mass distribution models considering the most common theoretical dark halo models. An analysis of the interaction ...

  6. The nuclear and extended infrared emission of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 2992 and the interacting system Arp 245

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bernete, I; Acosta-Pulido, J A; Alonso-Herrero, A; Sánchez-Portal, M; Castillo, M; Pereira-Santaella, M; Esquej, P; González-Martín, O; Díaz-Santos, T; Roche, P; Fisher, S; Pović, M; García, A M Pérez; Valtchanov, I; Packham, C; Levenson, N A

    2015-01-01

    We present subarcsecond resolution infrared (IR) imaging and mid-IR spectroscopic observations of the Seyfert 1.9 galaxy NGC 2992, obtained with the Gemini North Telescope and the Gran Telescopio CANARIAS (GTC). The N-band image reveals faint extended emission out to ~3 kpc, and the PAH features detected in the GTC/CanariCam 7.5-13 micron spectrum indicate that the bulk of this extended emission is dust heated by star formation. We also report arcsecond resolution MIR and far-IR imaging of the interacting system Arp 245, taken with the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. Using these data, we obtain nuclear fluxes using different methods and find that we can only recover the nuclear fluxes obtained from the subarcsecond data at 20-25 micron, where the AGN emission dominates. We fitted the nuclear IR spectral energy distribution of NGC 2992, including the GTC/CanariCam nuclear spectrum (~50 pc), with clumpy torus models. We then used the best-fitting torus model to decompose the Spitzer/...

  7. CLOSE-UP OF STAR FORMATION IN ANTENNAE GALAXY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across. [Left images] The collision triggers the birth of new stars in brilliant blue star clusters, the brightest of which contains roughly a million stars. The star clusters are blue because they are very young, the youngest being only a few million years old, a mere blink of the eye on the astronomical time scale. [Right images] These close-up views of the cores of each galaxy show entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center. The nucleus of NGC 4038 (lower right) is obscured by dust which dims and reddens starlight by scattering the shorter, bluer wavelengths. This is also the reason the young star clusters in the dusty regions appear red instead of blue. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

  8. The HI and Ionized Gas Disk of the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1144 = Arp 118 A Violently Interacting Galaxy with Peculiar Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bransford, M A; McCain, C F; Freeman, K C

    1999-01-01

    We present observations of the distribution and kinematics of neutral and ionized gas in NGC 1144, a galaxy that forms part of the Arp 118 system. Ionized gas is present over a huge spread in velocity (1100 km/s) in the disk of NGC 1144, but HI emission is detected over only 1/3 of this velocity range, in an area that corresponds to the NW half of the disk. In the nuclear region of NGC 1144, a jump in velocity in the ionized gas component of 600 km/s is observed. Faint, narrow HI absorption lines are also detected against radio sources in the SE part of the disk of NGC 1144, which includes regions of massive star formation and a Seyfert nucleus. The peculiar HI distribution, which is concentrated in the NW disk, seems to be the inverse of the molecular distribution which is concentrated in the SE disk. Although this may partly be the result of the destruction of HI clouds in the SE disk, there is circumstantial evidence that the entire HI emission spectrum of NGC 1144 is affected by a deep nuclear absorption ...

  9. Infrared outburst in Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Seppo; Meikle, Peter; Kotak, Rubina; Perez-Torres, Miguel; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Alberdi, Antxon

    2011-05-01

    Arp 299 is one of the nearest examples of a luminous infrared galaxy. We discovered a strong outburst in Arp 299 which is apparent at infrared (IR) wavelengths but not in the optical indicating emission from warm dust and a high extinction. This source could originate from an IR 'dust echo' resulting either from a highly obscured outburst in an active galactic nucleus or an energetic supernova. To continue our study of the origin of this outburst we propose short IRAC observations.

  10. ASTE Simultaneous HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) Observations of the Two Luminous Infrared Galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Imanishi, Masatoshi; Yamada, Masako; Tamura, Yoichi; Kohno, Kotaro

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of HCN(J=4-3) and HCO+(J=4-3) observations of two luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), NGC 4418 and Arp 220, made using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The ASTE wide-band correlator provided simultaneous observations of HCN(4-3) and HCO+(4-3) lines, and a precise determination of their flux ratios. Both galaxies showed high HCN(4-3) to HCO+(4-3) flux ratios of >2, possibly due to AGN-related phenomena. The J = 4-3 to J = 1-0 transition flux ratios for HCN (HCO+) are similar to those expected for fully thermalized (sub-thermally excited) gas in both sources, in spite of HCN's higher critical density. If we assume collisional excitation and neglect an infrared radiative pumping process, our non-LTE analysis suggests that HCN traces gas with significantly higher density than HCO+. In Arp 220, we separated the double-peaked HCN(4-3) emission into the eastern and western nuclei, based on velocity information. We confirmed that the eastern nucleus showed a higher HCN(4-3)...

  11. Star Cluster Dissolution in Arp 284

    CERN Document Server

    Peterson, Bradley W; Smith, Beverly J; Hancock, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We present results from a study of proto-globular cluster candidates in the interacting galaxy system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5). Studies of the Antennae and M51 have suggested that the majority of these star clusters dissolve within 20 Myr due to mass loss. We obtain cluster colors using archival \\emph{HST} data, and estimate ages and extinctions for over 150 clusters using evolutionary synthesis models. We find that clusters in NGC 7714 are generally less than 20 Myr old, while the data in the bridge is too limited to allow good estimates for individual clusters. We also examine {H {\\sc ii}} region complexes with lower-resolution \\emph{GALEX} and ground-based H$\\alpha$ images. Several of these regions appear to be much older than the detected clusters within them, which may indicate the presence of an older, unresolved population of low mass or dispersed clusters.

  12. Two Populations of Molecular Clouds in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Lisa H; Ho, Luis C

    2012-01-01

    Super star clusters --- extremely massive clusters found predominately in starburst environments --- are essential building blocks in the formation of galaxies and thought to dominate star formation in the high-redshift universe. However, the transformation from molecular gas into these ultra-compact star clusters is not well understood. To study this process, we used the Submillimeter Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to obtain high angular resolution (~1.5" or 160 pc) images of the Antennae overlap region in CO(2--1) to search for the molecular progenitors of the super star clusters. We resolve the molecular gas distribution into a large number of clouds, extending the differential cloud mass function down to a 5\\sigma completeness limit of 3.8x10^5 M_sun. We identify a distinct break in the mass function around log M_mol/M_sun ~ 6.5, which separates the molecular clouds into two distinct populations. The smaller, less massive clouds reside in more quiescent areas in the region, while the larger,...

  13. An upper limit to polarized submillimetre emission in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Seiffert, M; Scott, D; Halpern, M; Seiffert, Michael; Borys, Colin; Scott, Douglas; Halpern, Mark

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of pointed observations of the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at 850 microns using the polarimeter on the SCUBA instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. We find a Bayesian 99 per cent confidence upper limit on the polarized emission for Arp 220 of 1.54 per cent, averaged over the 15 arcsec beam-size. Arp 220 can serve as a proxy for other, more distant such galaxies. This upper limit constrains the magnetic field geometry in Arp 220 and also provides evidence that polarized ULIRGs will not be a major contaminant for next-generation cosmic microwave background polarization measurements.

  14. A parsec-resolution simulation of the Antennae galaxies: Formation of star clusters during the merger

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, Florent; Duc, Pierre-Alain

    2014-01-01

    We present a hydrodynamical simulation of an Antennae-like galaxy merger at parsec resolution, including a multi-component model for stellar feedback and reaching numerical convergence in the global star formation rate for the first time. We analyse the properties of the dense stellar objects formed during the different stages of the interaction. Each galactic encounter triggers a starburst activity, but the varying physical conditions change the triggering mechanism of each starburst. During the first two pericenter passages, the starburst is spatially extended and forms many star clusters. However, the starburst associated to the third, final passage is more centrally concentrated: stars form almost exclusively in the galactic nucleus and no new star cluster is formed. The maximum mass of stars clusters in this merger is more than 30 times higher than those in a simulation of an isolated Milky Way-like galaxy. Antennae-like mergers are therefore a formation channel of young massive clusters possibly leading...

  15. THE PHYSICAL CONDITIONS IN A PRE-SUPER STAR CLUSTER MOLECULAR CLOUD IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, K. E.; Indebetouw, R.; Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Leroy, A. K.; Brogan, C. L.; Hibbard, J.; Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Whitmore, B. C., E-mail: kej7a@virginia.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2015-06-10

    We present an analysis of the physical conditions in an extreme molecular cloud in the Antennae merging galaxies. This cloud has properties consistant with those required to form a globular cluster. We have obtained ALMA CO and 870 μm observations of the Antennae galaxy system with ∼0.″5 resolution. This cloud stands out in the data with a radius of ≲24 pc and mass of >5 × 10{sup 6} M{sub ⊙}. The cloud appears capable of forming a globular cluster, but the lack of associated thermal radio emission indicates that star formation has not yet altered the environment. The lack of thermal radio emission places the cloud in an early stage of evolution, which we expect to be short-lived (≲1 Myr) and thus rare. Given its mass and kinetic energy, for the cloud to be confined (as its appearance strongly suggests) it must be subject to an external pressure of P/k{sub B} ≳ 10{sup 8} K cm{sup −3}–10,000 times higher than typical interstellar pressure. This would support theories that high pressures are required to form globular clusters and may explain why extreme environments like the Antennae are preferred environments for generating such objects. Given the cloud temperature of ∼25 K, the internal pressure must be dominated by non-thermal processes, most likely turbulence. We expect the molecular cloud to collapse and begin star formation in ≲1 Myr.

  16. Dense Gas Fraction and Star Formation Efficiency Variations in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Bigiel, Frank; Blitz, Leo; Bolatto, Alberto D; da Cunha, Elisabete; Rosolowsky, Erik; Sandstrom, Karin; Usero, Antonio; Walter, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    We use the CARMA millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the 12CO(1-0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1-0), HCO+(1-0), CS(2-1), and HNC(1-0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified "supergiant molecular clouds". We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (SFR/H2~IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of 6 within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in mm-wave line emission, whil...

  17. Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE) Observations Of The Antennae Galaxies (ngc4038/ngc4039)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iping, Rosina; Sonneborn, G.; Neff, S.

    2006-06-01

    The brightest UV region of the Antennae galaxies (NGC4038/4039), Knots R/S/T, has been observed with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. The observation used a 30x30 arcsec aperture, encompassing several stellar groups. The high-resolution FUV spectrum detects broad ( 150 km/s FWHM) O VI 1032, 1038 absorption blueward of the systemic velocity (1642 km/s) in the galactic outflow. This outflowing gas has a temperature of a few times 105 K and may dominate the radiative cooling of the supernova-heated interstellar medium. Strong C II 1036, H I 1026, S III 1012, 1015, S IV 1062, 1072 and Si IV 1122, 1128 have symmetric absorption features centered at the systemic velocity. These features probably originate from the OB stellar population in the galaxies. This work has been supported in part by a FUSE Guest Investigator grant from NASA (NAG5-13014) to the Catholic University of America.

  18. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigiel, F. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Street, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blitz, L. [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosolowsky, E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandstrom, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usero, A., E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  19. Two physical regimes for the Giant HII Regions and Giant Molecular Clouds in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, Javier; Beckman, John E; García-Lorenzo, Begoña; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Gutiérrez, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    We have combined observations of the Antennae galaxies from the radio interferometer ALMA (Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array) and from the optical interferometer GH$\\alpha$FaS (Galaxy Halpha Fabry-Perot System). The two sets of observations have comparable angular and spectral resolutions, enabling us to identify 142 giant molecular clouds and 303 HII regions. We have measured, and compare, their basic physical properties (radius, velocity dispersion, luminosity). For the HII regions we find two physical regimes, one for masses $>10^{5.4} \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ of ionized gas, which the gas density increases with gas mass, the other for masses $<10^{5.4} \\mathrm{M_{\\odot}}$ of ionized gas where the gas density decreases with gas mass. For the GMCs we find, in contrast to previous studies in other galaxies over a generally lower mass range of clouds, that the gas density increases with the total gas mass, hinting at two regimes for these clouds if we consider both sources of data. We also find that ...

  20. Dwarf Detachment and Globular Cluster Formation in Arp 305

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, M; Struck, C; Giroux, M L; Hurlock, S

    2009-01-01

    Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDG), concentrations of interstellar gas and stars in the tidal features of interacting galaxies, have been the subject of much scrutiny. The `smoking gun' that will prove the TDG hypothesis is the discovery of independent dwarf galaxies that are detached from other galaxies, but have clear tidal histories. As part of a search for TDGs we are using GALEX to conduct a large UV imaging survey of interacting galaxies selected from the Arp Atlas. As part of that study, we present a GALEX UV and SDSS and SARA optical study of the gas-rich interacting galaxy pair Arp 305. The GALEX UV data reveal much extended diffuse UV emission and star formation outside the disks including a candidate TDG between the two galaxies. We have used a smooth particle hydrodynamics code to model the interaction and determine the fate of the candidate TDG.

  1. Star Cluster Demographics. I. A General Framework and Application to the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, B C; Fall, S M; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali

    2006-01-01

    We present a framework for understanding the demographics of star cluster systems, and develop a toy model which incorporates a universal initial power law mass function, selected formation histories, selected disruption laws, and a convolution with common artifacts and selection effects found in observational data. The model confirms that the observed correlation between the brightest young cluster in a galaxy and the total number of young clusters can be understood as a statistical size-of-sample effect, rather than a difference in the physical process responsible for the formation of the clusters. A comparison is made between different cluster disruption laws and it is shown that the break in the dN/d\\tau diagram used to determine the parameters in the Boutloukos & Lamers model may be produced by incompleteness near the breakpoint. A model of the Antennae galaxies is developed and compared with the observational data. An important component of our model is the use of a "two-stage" disruption process, w...

  2. A multi wavelength study of the young star clusters and interstellar medium in the antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Q; Whitmore, B C; Zhang, Qing; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    2001-01-01

    We report on a multi-wavelength study of the relationship between young star clusters in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9) and their interstellar environment, with the goal of understanding the formation and feedback effects of star clusters in merging galaxies. This is possible for the first time because various new observations (from X-rays to radio wavelengths) have become available in the past several years. Quantitative comparisons are made between the positions of the star clusters (broken into three age groups) and the properties of the interstellar medium by calculating the two-point correlation functions. We find that young star clusters are distributed in a clustered fashion. The youngest star clusters are associated with molecular cloud complexes with characteristic radii of about 1 kpc. In addition, there is a weak tendency for them to be found in regions with steeper CO velocity gradients and higher HI velocity dispersions. No dominant triggering mechanism is identified for the majority of the c...

  3. ISO Images of Starbursts and Active Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Mirabel, I F

    1999-01-01

    We present some highlights from the mid-infrared (5-16 micron) images of mergers of massive galaxies obtained with the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). We have observed: 1) ultraluminous infrared nuclei, 2) luminous dust-enshrouded extranuclear starbursts, and 3) active galaxy nuclei (AGNs). In this contribution we discuss the observations of Arp 299, a prototype for very luminous infrared galaxies, the Antennae which is a prototype of mergers, and Centaurus A which is the closest AGN to Earth. From these observations we conclude the following: 1) the most intense starbursts in colliding systems of galaxies and the most massive stars are dust-enshrouded in regions that appear inconspicuous at optical wavelengths, 2) the most intense nuclear infrared sources are a combination of AGN and starburst activity, 3) the hosts of radio loud AGNs that trigger giant double-lobe structures may be symbiotic galaxies composed of barred spirals inside ellipticals.

  4. THE Arp 220 MERGER ON kpc SCALES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia-Marin, M.; Eckart, A. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, D-50937 Koeln (Germany); Downes, D. [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 St. Martin d' Heres (France); Scharwaechter, J., E-mail: skoenig@dark-cosmology.dk [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2012-07-20

    For the first time, we study the eastern nucleus in greater detail and search for the more extended emission in the molecular gas in different CO line transitions of the famous ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220. Furthermore, we present a model of the merger in Arp 220 on large scales with the help of the CO data and an optical and near-infrared composite Hubble Space Telescope image of the prototypical ULIRG. Using the Plateau de Bure interferometer (PdBI), we obtained CO (2-1) and (1-0) data at wavelengths of 1 and 3 mm in 1994, 1996, 1997, and 2006 at different beam sizes and spatial resolutions. The simulations of the merger in Arp 220 were performed with the Identikit modeling tool. The model parameters that describe the galaxy merger best give a mass ratio of 1:2 and result in a merger of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} yr. The low-resolution CO (1-0) PdBI observations suggest that there are indications for emission {approx}10'' toward the south, as well as to the north and to the west of the two nuclei.

  5. Spitzer-IRS Study of the Antennae Galaxies NGC 4038/39

    CERN Document Server

    Brandl, B R; Brok, M den; Whelan, D G; Groves, B; Van der Werf, P P; Charmandaris, V; Smith, J D; Armus, L; Kennicutt, R C Jr.; Houck, J R

    2009-01-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope, we observed the Antennae galaxies obtaining spectral maps of the entire central region and high signal-to-noise 5-38 um spectra of the two galactic nuclei and six infrared-luminous regions. The total infrared luminosity of our six IR peaks plus the two nuclei is L_IR = 3.8x10^10 L_o, with their derived star formation rates ranging between 0.2 and 2 M_o/yr, with a total of 6.6 M_o/yr. The hardest and most luminous radiation originates from two compact clusters in the southern part of the overlap region, which also have the highest dust temperatures. PAH emission and other tracers of softer radiation are spatially extended throughout and beyond the overlap region, but regions with harder and intenser radiation field show a reduced PAH strength. The strong H_2 emission is rather confined around the nucleus of NGC 4039, where shocks appear to be the dominant excitation mechanism, and the southern part of the overlap region, where it traces the most r...

  6. On the progenitor of the Type Ic SN 2013dk in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Maund, Justyn R; Takáts, Katalin; Fraser, Morgan; Smartt, Stephen J; Benetti, Stefano; Pignata, Giuliano; Sand, David; Valenti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    We report the results of our search for the progenitor candidate of SN 2013dk, a Type Ic supernova (SN) that exploded in NGC 4038 in the Antennae Galaxy system (distance 22.3 Mpc). We compare pre-explosion archival images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) with SN images obtained using adaptive optics images taken with the ESO Very Large Telescope+Naos-Conica. We isolate the SN position to within 3 sigma uncertainty radius of 0.02", and show that there is no detectable point source in any of the HST filter images within the error circle. We set an upper limit to the absolute magnitude of the progenitor to be M_F555W > -5.7. In isolation, this does not allow Wolf-Rayet (WR) star progenitors to be ruled out but SN 2013dk joins the list of undetected supernova Ib/c progenitors. A bright source appears 0.17" away, which is either a single bright supergiant or compact cluster. Although the core is not obviously more extended than other point-like sources, we consider it most likely that it is a compact cl...

  7. XMM-Newton Spectroscopy of Bright ULX Sources in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039)

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Fabbiano, G; Schweizer, F

    2003-01-01

    We report the results of spectral fits to bright ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) obtained through a 41 ksec observation with XMM-Newton. Although emission regions are not resolved as well as in prior Chandra observations, at least four ULXs (X-11, X-16, X-37, and X-44 in the Zezas & Fabbiano scheme) are sufficiently bright and well-separated with XMM-Newton that reliable extractions and spectral analyses are possible. Fits to the source spectra with only the multi-color disk blackbody model give high disk color temperatures (kT = 1.0-1.7 keV); however, none of the spectra are acceptably fit by this model. Source X-37 is not well-fitted by any single component model. Fits with a model consisting of multi-color disk blackbody and power-law components may reveal a cool accretion disk (kT = 0.13 +/- 0.02 keV). Interestingly, when the multi-color disk blackbody plus power-law model is fit to all four ULXs, low temperatures are obtained for each (kT = 0.11-0.21 keV);...

  8. The Age Distribution of Massive Star Clusters in the Antennae Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Fall, S M; Whitmore, B C; Chandar, Rupali; Whitmore, Bradley C.

    2005-01-01

    We determine the age distribution of star clusters in the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9) for two mass-limited samples (M > 3 x 10^4 M_{\\odot} and M > 2 x 10^5 M_{\\odot}). This is based on integrated broadband UBVI and narrowband H-alpha photometry from deep images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope. We find that the age distribution of the clusters declines steeply, approximately as dN/d\\tau \\propto \\tau^{-1}. The median age of the clusters is ~10^7 yr, which we interpret as evidence for rapid disruption ("infant mortality"). It is very likely that most of the young clusters are not gravitationally bound and were disrupted near the times they formed by the energy and momentum input from young stars to the interstellar matter of the protoclusters. At least 20% and possibly all stars form in clusters and/or associations, including those that are unbound and short-lived.

  9. First bounds on the very high energy gamma-ray emission from Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Albert, J

    2006-01-01

    Using the Major Atmospheric Gamma Imaging Cherenkov Telescope (MAGIC), we have observed the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 for about 15 hours. No significant signal was detected within the dedicated amount of observation time. The first upper limits to the very high energy $\\gamma$-ray flux of Arp 220 are herein reported and compared with theoretical expectations.

  10. Parsec-scale magnetic fields in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    McBride, James; Heiles, Carl; Bower, Geoffrey C; Sarma, Anuj P

    2014-01-01

    We present the first very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) detections of Zeeman splitting in another galaxy. We used Arecibo Observatory, the Green Bank Telescope, and the Very Long Baseline Array to perform dual-polarization observations of OH maser lines in the merging galaxy Arp 220. We measured magnetic fields of $\\sim$1-5 mG associated with three roughly parsec-sized clouds in the nuclear regions of Arp 220. Our measured magnetic fields have comparable strengths and the same direction as features at the same velocity identified in previous Zeeman observations with Arecibo alone. The agreement between single dish and VLBI results provides critical validation of previous Zeeman splitting observations of OH megamasers that used a single large dish. The measured magnetic field strengths indicate that magnetic energy densities are comparable to gravitational energy in OH maser clouds. We also compare our total intensity results to previously published VLBI observations of OH megamasers in Arp 220. We find ...

  11. Resolving the buried starburst in Arp299

    CERN Document Server

    Charmandaris, V; Gull, G

    2002-01-01

    We present new 37.7 micron far-infrared imaging of the infrared luminous (L_IR ~ 5.16x10^{11} L_sun) interacting galaxy Arp299 (= IC694 + NGC3690). We show that the 38 micron flux, like the 60 and 100 micron emission, traces the luminosity of star forming galaxies, but at considerably higher spatial resolution. Our data establish that the major star formation activity of the galaxy originates from a point source in its eastern component, IC694, which is inconspicuous in the optical, becoming visible only at the near and mid-infrared. We find that IC694 is two times more luminous than NGC3690, contributing to more than 46% of the total energy output of the system at this wavelength. The spectral energy distribution of the different components of the system clearly shows that IC694, has 6 times the infrared luminosity of M82 and it is the primary source responsible for the bolometric luminosity of Arp299.

  12. Arp 220 - IC 4553/4: understanding the system and diagnosing the ISM

    CERN Document Server

    Baan, W A

    2007-01-01

    Arp220 is a nearby system in final stages of galaxy merger with powerful ongoing star-formation at and surrounding the two nuclei. Arp 220 was detected in HI absorption and OH Megamaser emission and later recognized as the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy also showing powerful molecular and X-ray emissions. In this paper we review the available radio and mm-wave observational data of Arp 220 in order to obtain an integrated picture of the dense interstellar medium that forms the location of the powerful star-formation at the two nuclei.

  13. The Arp 220 merger on kpc scales

    CERN Document Server

    König, S; Eckart, A; Downes, D; Scharwächter, J

    2012-01-01

    For the first time we study the Eastern nucleus in greater detail and search for the more extended emission in the molecular gas in different CO line transitions of the famous ULIRG Arp 220. Furthermore we present a model of the merger in Arp 220 on large scales with the help of the CO data and an optical and near-infrared composite HST image of the prototypical ULIRG. Using the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) we obtained CO(2-1) and (1-0) data at wavelengths of 1 and 3 mm in 1994, 1996, 1997 and 2006 at different beam sizes and spatial resolutions. The simulations of the merger in Arp 220 were performed with the Identikit modeling tool. The model parameters that describe the galaxy merger best give a mass ratio of 1:2 and result in a merger of ~6x10^8 yrs. The low resolution CO(1-0) PdBI observations suggest that there are indications for emission ~10" towards the south, as well as to the north and to the west of the two nuclei.

  14. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Colin J.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Smith, Harding E.; Lonsdale, Carol J.

    2006-08-01

    We have used a very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) array at 18 cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 μJy beam-1, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 μJy. Comparison with high-sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4+/-2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, although the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzzling differences, and differential free-free absorption, synchrotron aging, and expansion losses may all be playing a role. Comparison with the nearby starburst galaxy M82 supports the hypothesis that the activity in Arp 220 is essentially a scaled-up version of that in M82.

  15. Inner structure and global kinematics: arp 220 revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, S; Garcia-Marin, M; Eckart, A [University of Cologne, Zuelpicher Str. 77, 50937 Koeln (Germany); Dowries, D [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimetrique, Domaine Universitaire, 38406 St. Martin d' HEres (France)], E-mail: skoenig@phl.uni-koeln.de

    2008-10-15

    With an infrared luminosity of 10{sup 12.2}L{sub o-dot}, Arp 220 is one of the prototypical Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies. It's high IR luminosity, the presence of tidal tails detected in the optical, the double infrared and radio nuclei, and the perturbed optical ionized gas kinematics measured at large scales support the fact that Arp 220 is the late phase of an on-going merger. This, along with the most accepted evolutionary theories for ULIRGs, indicate that Arp 220 may evolve into an intermediate mass elliptical galaxy. Nonetheless, there are several questions that still remain open, such as the exact location and number of nuclei, their relation with the X-ray emission, and the kinematic behavior of the galaxy at different scales. Here we give an overview of what we know about Arp 220 up-to-date, regarding the NIR and radio regime, and report on new insights in kinematics and the structure on larger spatial scales of the merger making use of IRAM PdBI observations.

  16. Robotic Reverberation Mapping of Arp 151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, S.; Sand, D. J.; Barth, A. J.; Horne, K.; Treu, T.; Raganit, L.; Boroson, T.; Crawford, S.; Pancoast, A.; Pei, L.; Romero-Colmenero, E.; Villforth, C.; Winkler, H.

    2015-11-01

    We present the first results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network's Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) Key Project, a large program devoted to using the robotic resources of LCOGT to perform time domain studies of active galaxies. We monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp 151 (Mrk 40) for ∼200 days with robotic imagers and with the FLOYDS robotic spectrograph at Faulkes Telescope North. Arp 151 was highly variable during this campaign, with V-band light curve variations of ∼0.3 mag and Hβ flux changing by a factor of ∼3. We measure robust time lags between the V-band continuum and the Hα, Hβ, and Hγ emission lines, with {τ }{cen}={13.89}-1.41+1.39, {7.52}-1.06+1.43, and {7.40}-1.32+1.50 days, respectively. The lag for the He iiλ4686 emission line is unresolved. We measure a velocity-resolved lag for the Hβ line, which is clearly asymmetric with higher lags on the blue wing of the line that decline to the red, possibly indicative of radial inflow, and is similar in morphology to past observations of the Hβ transfer function shape. Assuming a virialization factor of f = 5.5, we estimate a black hole mass of {M}{BH}={6.2}-1.2+1.4 × 106 M⊙, also consistent with past measurements for this object. These results represent the first step to demonstrate the powerful robotic capabilities of LCOGT for long-term AGN time domain campaigns that human intensive programs cannot easily accomplish. Arp 151 is now one of just a few AGNs where the virial product is known to remain constant against substantial changes in Hβ lag and luminosity.

  17. Robotic Reverberation Mapping of Arp 151

    CERN Document Server

    Valenti, S; Barth, A J; Horne, K; Treu, T; Raganit, L; Boroson, T; Crawford, S; Pancoast, A; Pei, L; Romero-Colmenero, E; Villforth, C; Winkler, H

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results from the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) Network's Active Galactic Nuclei Key Project, a large program devoted to using the robotic resources of LCOGT to perform time domain studies of active galaxies. We monitored the Seyfert 1 galaxy Arp~151 (Mrk~40) for $\\sim$200 days with robotic imagers and with the FLOYDS robotic spectrograph at Faulkes Telescope North. Arp~151 was highly variable during this campaign, with $V$-band light curve variations of $\\sim$0.3 mag and H$\\beta$ flux changing by a factor of $\\sim$3. We measure robust time lags between the $V$-band continuum and the H$\\alpha$, H$\\beta$ and H$\\gamma$ emission lines, with $\\tau_\\mathrm{cen} = 13.89^{+1.39}_{-1.41}$, 7.52$^{+1.43}_{-1.06}$ and 7.40$^{+1.50}_{-1.32}$ days, respectively. The lag for the \\ion{He}{2} $\\lambda4686$ emission line is unresolved. We measure a velocity-resolved lag for the H$\\beta$ line, which is clearly asymmetric with higher lags on the blue wing of the line which decline to the ...

  18. Detection of a ~20 kpc coherent magnetic field in the outskirt of merging spirals: the Antennae galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Aritra; Kepley, Amanda A; Robishaw, Timothy; Zweibel, Ellen G; Gallagher, John S

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field properties of NGC 4038/9 (the `Antennae' galaxies), the closest example of a late stage merger of two spiral galaxies. Wideband polarimetric observations were performed using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array between 2 and 4 GHz. Rotation measure synthesis and Faraday depolarization analysis was performed to probe the magnetic field strength and structure at spatial resolution of $\\sim1$ kpc. Highly polarized emission from the southern tidal tail is detected with intrinsic fractional polarization close to the theoretical maximum ($0.62\\pm0.18$), estimated by fitting the Faraday depolarization with a volume that is both synchrotron emitting and Faraday rotating containing random magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are well aligned along the tidal tail and the Faraday depths shows large-scale smooth variations preserving its sign. This suggests the field in the plane of the sky to be regular up to $\\sim20$ kpc, which is the largest detected regular field structure on gala...

  19. On the association of the ultraluminous X-ray sources in the Antennae galaxies with young stellar clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Poutanen, Juri; Valeev, Azamat F; Sholukhova, Olga; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the ultra-luminous X-ray sources (ULXs) in the nearby galaxies is a matter of debates. One of the popular hypothesis associates them with accretion at a sub-Eddington rate on to intermediate mass black holes. Another possibility is a stellar-mass black hole in a high-mass X-ray binary accreting at super-Eddington rates. In this paper we find a highly significant association between brightest X-ray sources in the Antennae galaxies and stellar clusters. On the other hand, we show that most of the X-ray sources are located outside of these clusters. We study clusters associated with the ULXs using the ESO Very Large Telescope spectra and the Hubble Space Telescope data together with the theoretical evolutionary tracks and determine their ages to be below 5 Myr. This implies that the ULX progenitor masses certainly exceed 40 and for some objects are closer to 100 solar masses. We also estimate the ages of clusters situated close to the less luminous X-ray sources (with luminosity in the range 3x10^3...

  20. Detection of a ˜20 kpc coherent magnetic field in the outskirt of merging spirals: the Antennae galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aritra; Mao, S. A.; Kepley, Amanda A.; Robishaw, Timothy; Zweibel, Ellen G.; Gallagher, John. S.

    2016-09-01

    We present a study of the magnetic field properties of NGC 4038/9 (the `Antennae' galaxies), the closest example of a late stage merger of two spiral galaxies. Wideband polarimetric observations were performed using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array between 2 and 4 GHz. Rotation measure synthesis and Faraday depolarization analysis was performed to probe the magnetic field strength and structure at spatial resolution of ˜1 kpc. Highly polarized emission from the southern tidal tail is detected with intrinsic fractional polarization close to the theoretical maximum (0.62 ± 0.18), estimated by fitting the Faraday depolarization with a volume that is both synchrotron emitting and Faraday rotating containing random magnetic fields. Magnetic fields are well aligned along the tidal tail and the Faraday depths shows large-scale smooth variations preserving its sign. This suggests the field in the plane of the sky to be regular up to ˜20 kpc, which is the largest detected regular field structure on galactic scales. The equipartition field strength of ˜8.5~μG of the regular field in the tidal tail is reached within a few 100 Myr, likely generated by stretching of the galactic disc field by a factor of 4-9 during the tidal interaction. The regular field strength is greater than the turbulent fields in the tidal tail. Our study comprehensively demonstrates, although the magnetic fields within the merging bodies are dominated by strong turbulent magnetic fields of ˜20~μG in strength, tidal interactions can produce large-scale regular field structure in the outskirts.

  1. A Focused, Hard X-ray Look at Arp 299 with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Ptak, A; Zezas, A; Lehmer, B; Yukita, M; Wik, D; Antoniou, V; Argo, M K; Ballo, L; Bechtol, K; Boggs, S; Della Ceca, R; Christensen, F E; Craig, W W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Krivonos, R; Maccarone, T J; Stern, D; Tatum, M; Venters, T; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We report on simultaneous observations of the local starburst system Arp 299 with NuSTAR and Chandra, which provides the first resolved images of this galaxy up to energies of ~ 45 keV. Fitting the 3-40 keV spectrum reveals a column density of $N_{\\rm H}$ ~ 4 x10^{24} cm^{-2}, characteristic of a Compton-thick AGN, and a 10-30 keV luminosity of 1.2x 10^{43} ergs s^{-1}. The hard X-rays detected by NuSTAR above 10 keV are centered on the western nucleus, Arp 299-B, which previous X-ray observations have shown to be the primary source of neutral Fe-K emission. Other X-ray sources, including Arp 299-A, the eastern nucleus which is also thought to harbor an AGN, as well as X-ray binaries, contribute $\\lesssim 10%$ to the 10-20 keV emission from the Arp 299 system. The lack of significant emission above 10 keV other than that attributed to Arp 299-B suggests that: a) any AGN in Arp 299-A must be heavily obscured ($N_{\\rm H}$ > 10^{24} cm^{-2}) or have a much lower luminosity than Arp 299-B and b) the extranuclear ...

  2. ALMA observations of the dense and shocked gas in the nuclear region of NGC 4038 (Antennae galaxies)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Junko; Watanabe, Yoshimasa; Iono, Daisuke; Wilner, David J.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Ohashi, Satoshi; Kawabe, Ryohei; Saito, Toshiki; Komugi, Shinya

    2017-02-01

    We present 1″(Antennae galaxies, with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. Three molecules (CN, CH3OH, and HNCO) were detected for the first time in the nuclear region of NGC 4038. High-resolution mapping reveals a systematic difference in distributions of different molecular species and continuum emission. Active star-forming regions identified by the 3 mm and 850 μm continuum emission are offset from the gas-rich region associated with the HCN (1-0) and CO (3-2) peaks. The CN (1-0)/HCN (1-0) line ratios are enhanced (CN/HCN ≃ 0.8-1.2) in the star-forming regions, suggesting that the regions are photon dominated. The large molecular gas mass (108 M⊙) within a 0{^''.}6 (˜60 pc) radius of the CO (3-2) peak and a high dense gas fraction (>20%) suggested by the HCN (1-0)/CO (3-2) line ratio may signify a future burst of intense star formation there. The shocked gas traced in the CH3OH and HNCO emission indicates sub-kpc-scale molecular shocks. We suggest that the molecular shocks may be driven by collisions between inflowing gas and the central massive molecular complex.

  3. VLBI Images of 49 Radio Supernovae in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Lonsdale, C J; Lonsdale, C J; Smith, H E; Thrall, H; Diamond, Philip J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Smith, Harding E.; Thrall, Hannah

    2006-01-01

    We have used a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) array at 18cm wavelength to image the nucleus of the luminous IR galaxy Arp 220 at ~1 pc linear resolution, and with very high sensitivity. The resulting map has an rms of 5.5 microJy/beam, and careful image analysis results in 49 confirmed point sources ranging in flux density from 1.2 mJy down to ~60 microJy. Comparison with high sensitivity data from 12 months earlier reveals at least four new sources. The favored interpretation of these sources is that they are radio supernovae, and if all new supernovae are detectable at this sensitivity, a resulting estimate of the supernova rate in the Arp 220 system is 4 +/- 2 per year. The implied star formation rate is sufficient to power the entire observed far-infrared luminosity of the galaxy. The two nuclei of Arp 220 exhibit striking similarities in their radio properties, though the western nucleus is more compact, and appears to be ~3 times more luminous than the eastern nucleus. There are also some puzz...

  4. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, S.; Aalto, S.; Sakamoto, K.; González-Alfonso, E.; Muller, S.; Henkel, C.; García-Burillo, S.; Aladro, R.; Costagliola, F.; Harada, N.; Krips, M.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Mühle, S.; van der Werf, P.; Viti, S.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The origin of the enormous luminosities of the two opaque nuclei of Arp 220, the prototypical ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, remains a mystery because we lack observational tools to explore the innermost regions around the nuclei. Aims: We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp 220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Methods: The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provided simultaneous observations of HCN, HCO+, and vibrationally excited HCN v2 = 1f emission. Their J = 4-3 and 3-2 transitions were observed at a matching resolution of ~0.5'', which allows us to isolate the emission from the two nuclei. Results: The HCN and HCO+ lines within the ground-vibrational state poorly describe the central ~100 pc region around the nuclei because there are strong effects of cool absorbing gas in the foreground and severe line blending that is due to the prolific molecular emission of Arp 220. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total LFIR, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN v2 = 1f is observed to be marginally resolved in ~60 × 50 pc regions inside the dusty ~100 pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO+ emission (VWN = 5342 ± 4 and VEN = 5454 ± 8 km s-1, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within r ~ 25-30 pc based on the HCN v2 = 1f line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction fg = 0.1) of 3 ± 0.3 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (WN) and 1.1 ± 0.1 × 104 M⊙ pc-2 (EN). The 4-3/3-2 flux density ratio could be consistent with optically thick emission, which would further constrain the size of the emitting region to >15 pc (EN) and >22 pc

  5. The Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) Revisited: ACS and NICMOS Observations of a Prototypical Merger

    CERN Document Server

    Whitmore, Bradley C; Schweizer, Francois; Rothberg, Barry; Leitherer, Claus; Rieke, Marcia; Rieke, George; Blair, W P; Mengel, S; Alonso-Herrero, A

    2010-01-01

    The ACS and NICMOS have been used to obtain new HST images of NGC 4038/4039 ("The Antennae"). These new observations allow us to better differentiate compact star clusters from individual stars, based on both size and color. We use this ability to extend the cluster luminosity function by approximately two magnitudes over our previous WFPC2 results, and find that it continues as a single power law, dN/dL propto L^alpha with alpha=-2.13+/-0.07, down to the observational limit of Mv~-7. Similarly, the mass function is a single power law dN/dM propto M^beta with beta=-2.10+/-0.20 for clusters with ages t<3x10^8 yr, corresponding to lower mass limits that range from 10^4 to 10^5 Msun, depending on the age range of the subsample. Hence the power law indices for the luminosity and mass functions are essentially the same. The luminosity function for intermediate-age clusters (i.e., ~100-300 Myr old objects found in the loops, tails, and outer areas) shows no bend or turnover down to Mv~-6, consistent with relaxat...

  6. Spectral monitoring of AGNSs: Preliminary results for Ark 564 and Arp 102B

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Ilic, D; Kovacevic, A; Kovacevic, J; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H

    2012-01-01

    We present preliminary results of the long term spectral monitoring of two active galactic nuclei with different broad line shapes: Ark 564 and Arp 102B. Ark 564 is a bright nearby narrow line Syfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy with relatively narrow permitted optical emission lines and a high FeII/H${\\beta}$ ratio, while Arp 102B is a nearby broad-line radio galaxy with broad double-peaked Balmer emission lines. The spectra of Ark 564 were observed during 11-year period (1999-2009) and the spectra of Arp 102B in the 12-year period (1998-2009), with SAO 6-m and 1-m telescopes (Russia) and the GHAO 2.1-m telescope (Cananea, Mexico).

  7. Infrared Spectroscopy of a Massive Obscured Star Cluster in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with NIRSPEC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert; Graham; McLean; Becklin; Figer; Larkin; Levenson; Teplitz; Wilcox

    2000-04-10

    We present infrared spectroscopy of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/9) with the near-infrared spectrometer (NIRSPEC) at the W. M. Keck Observatory. We imaged the star clusters in the vicinity of the southern nucleus (NGC 4039) with 0&farcs;39 seeing in the K band using NIRSPEC's slit-viewing camera. The brightest star cluster revealed in the near-IR [MK&parl0;0&parr0; approximately -17.9] is insignificant optically but is coincident with the highest surface brightness peak in the mid-IR (12-18 µm) Infrared Space Observatory image presented by Mirabel et al. We obtained high signal-to-noise ratio 2.03-2.45 µm spectra of the nucleus and the obscured star cluster at R approximately 1900. The cluster is very young ( approximately 4 Myr), massive (M approximately 16x106 M middle dot in circle), and compact (with a density of approximately 115 M middle dot in circle pc-3 within a 32 pc half-light radius), assuming a Salpeter initial mass function (0.1-100 M middle dot in circle). Its hot stars have a radiation field characterized by Teff approximately 39,000 K, and they ionize a compact H ii region with ne approximately 104 cm-3. The stars are deeply embedded in gas and dust (AV approximately 9-10 mag), and their strong far-ultraviolet field powers a clumpy photodissociation region with densities nH greater, similar105 cm-3 on scales of approximately 200 pc, radiating LH21-0S&parl0;1&parr0;=9600 L middle dot in circle.

  8. Mid-infrared diagnostics of starburst galaxies: clumpy, dense structures in star-forming regions in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039)

    CERN Document Server

    Snijders, Leonie; van der Werf, Paul P

    2007-01-01

    Recently, mid-infrared instruments have become available on several large ground-based telescopes, resulting in data sets with unprecedented spatial resolution at these long wavelengths. In this paper we examine 'ground-based-only' diagnostics, which can be used in the study of star-forming regions in starburst galaxies. By combining output from the stellar population synthesis code Starburst 99 with the photoionization code Mappings, we model stellar clusters and their surrounding interstellar medium, focusing on the evolution of emission lines in the N- and Q-band atmospheric windows (8-13 and 16.5-24.5 micron respectively) and those in the near-infrared. We address the detailed sensitivity of various emission line diagnostics to stellar population age, metallicity, nebular density, and ionization parameter. Using our model results, we analyze observations of two stellar clusters in the overlap region of the Antennae galaxies obtained with VLT Imager and Spectrometer for mid Infrared (VISIR). We find eviden...

  9. Arp 299-A: More than "just" a prolific supernova factory

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Torres, Miguel A; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Bondi, Marco; Polatidis, Antonis

    2010-01-01

    We present partial results from our monitoring of the nuclear region of the starburst galaxy IC 694 (=Arp 299-A) at radio wavelengths, aimed at discovering recently exploded CCSNe, as well as to determine their rate of explosion, which carries crucial information on star formation rates and starburst scenarios at work. Two epochs of eEVN observations at 5.0 GHz, taken in 2008, revealed the presence of a rich cluster of compact radio emitting sources in the central 150 pc of the nuclear starburst in Arp 299A. The large brightness temperatures observed for the compact sources indicate a non-thermal origin for the observed radio emission, implying that most, if not all, of those sources were young radio supernovae (RSNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). More recently, contemporaneous EVN observations at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz taken in 2009 have allowed us to shed light on the compact radio emission of the parsec-scale structure in the nucleus of Arp 299-A. Namely, our EVN observations have shown that one of the compact V...

  10. Two Populations of Young Massive Star Clusters in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Longden, R; Scoville, N Z; Wilson, Christine D.; Harris, William E.; Longden, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    We present new optical observations of young massive star clusters in Arp 220, the nearest ultraluminous infrared galaxy, taken in UBVI with the Hubble Space Telescope ACS/HRC camera. We find a total of 206 probable clusters whose spatial distribution is centrally concentrated toward the nucleus of Arp 220. We use model star cluster tracks to determine ages, luminosities, and masses for 14 clusters with complete UBVI indices or previously published near-infrared data. We estimate rough masses for 24 additional clusters with I < 24 mag from BVI indices alone. The clusters with useful ages fall into two distinct groups: a ``young'' population (< 10 Myr) and an intermediate-age population (~300 Myr). There are many clusters with masses clearly above 10^6 Msun and possibly even above 10^7 Msun in the most extreme instances. These masses are high enough that the clusters being formed in the Arp 220 starburst can be considered as genuine young globular clusters. In addition, this study allows us to extend the...

  11. The unbearable opaqueness of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Martín, S; Sakamoto, K; González-Alfonso, E; Muller, S; Henkel, C; García-Burillo, S; Aladro, R; Costagliola, F; Harada, N; Krips, M; Martín-Pintado, J; Mühle, S; van der Werf, P; Viti, S

    2016-01-01

    We explore the potential of imaging vibrationally excited molecular emission at high angular resolution to better understand the morphology and physical structure of the dense gas in Arp~220 and to gain insight into the nature of the nuclear powering sources. Vibrationally excited emission of HCN is detected in both nuclei with a very high ratio relative to the total $L_{FIR}$, higher than in any other observed galaxy and well above what is observed in Galactic hot cores. HCN $v_2=1f$ is observed to be marginally resolved in $\\sim60\\times50$~pc regions inside the dusty $\\sim100$~pc sized nuclear cores. Its emission is centered on our derived individual nuclear velocities based on HCO$^+$ emission ($V_{WN}=5342\\pm4$ and $V_{EN}=5454\\pm8$~\\kms, for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively). With virial masses within $r\\sim25-30$~pc based on the HCN~$v_2=1f$ line widths, we estimate gas surface densities (gas fraction $f_g=0.1$) of $3\\pm0.3\\times10^4~M_\\odot~\\rm pc^{-2}$ (WN) and $1.1\\pm0.1\\times10^4~M_\\odo...

  12. An Automated approach for Preventing ARP Spoofing Attack using Static ARP Entries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. AbdelSalam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available ARP spoofing is the most dangerous attack that threats LANs, this attack comes from the way the ARP protocol works, since it is a stateless protocol. The ARP spoofing attack may be used to launch either denial of service (DoS attacks or Man in the middle (MITM attacks. Using static ARP entries is considered the most effective way to prevent ARP spoofing. Yet, ARP spoofing mitigation methods depending on static ARP have major drawbacks. In this paper, we propose a scalable technique to prevent ARP spoofing attacks, which automatically configures static ARP entries. Every host in the local network will have a protected non-spoofed ARP cache. The technique operates in both static and DHCP based addressing schemes, and Scalability of the technique allows protecting of a large number of users without any overhead on the administrator. Performance study of the technique has been conducted using a real network. The measurement results have shown that the client needs no more than one millisecond to register itself for a protected ARP cache. The results also shown that the server can a block any attacker in just few microsecond under heavy traffic.

  13. ARP Storm Detection and Prevention Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vidya

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP is used by computers to map network addresses (IP to physical addresses (MAC. The protocol has proved to work well under regular circumstances, but it was not designed to cope with malicious hosts. By performing ARP storming attacks, an intruder can create Denial of Service (DoS in another host and prevent it's functioning or just cause network slowdowns. Several methods to mitigate, detect and prevent these attacks do exist at the router level and through certain customized software tools. In this paper we propose an algorithm to detect the ARP storm at the local sub network level within the ARP boundary in real-time and in offline mode. In real-time, the software detects dynamically, the IPs from which the ARP storm emanates. The inexpensive and portable software developed can be implemented in SOHOs in each machine in the local network. The attempt was successful and also effective in terms of cost, portability and ease of use. The offline packet analysis software, detects all the possible malicious IPs that are responsible for the ARP storm from among the packets captured in real-time using Wireshark. The proposed method also suggests the means of preventing the ARP storm.

  14. Laboratory-scale integrated ARP filter test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. There is a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. This task attempted to simulate the entire ARP process, including multiple batches (5), washing, chemical cleaning, and blending the feed with heels and recycle streams. The objective of the tests was to determine whether one of these processes is causing excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter. The authors conducted the tests with feed solutions containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 simulant supernate with no MST.

  15. Extreme dust disks in Arp 220 as revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, C D; Glenn, J; Maloney, P R; Spinoglio, L; Pereira-Santaella, M

    2014-01-01

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution ($0.36 \\times 0.20^{\\prime\\prime}$) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick ($\\tau_{434\\mu m} = 5.3$), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque ($\\tau_{434\\mu m} = 1.7$). We derive full-width half-maximum diameters of $ 76 \\times \\le 70$ pc and $123 \\times 79$ pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for ($83 ^{+65}_{-38}$ (calibration) $^{+0}_{-34}$ (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus ($ \\log(\\sigma T^4) = 14.3\\pm 0.2 ^{+0}_{-0.7}$ in units of L$_\\odot$ kpc$^{-2}$) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an AGN or a "hot starburst", although the exact value depends sensitively on the bri...

  16. The Automatic Galaxy Collision Software

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Beverly J; Pfeiffer, Phillip; Perkins, Sam; Barkanic, Jason; Fritts, Steve; Southerland, Derek; Manchikalapudi, Dinikar; Baker, Matt; Luckey, John; Franklin, Coral; Moffett, Amanda; Struck, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    The key to understanding the physical processes that occur during galaxy interactions is dynamical modeling, and especially the detailed matching of numerical models to specific systems. To make modeling interacting galaxies more efficient, we have constructed the `Automatic Galaxy Collision' (AGC) code, which requires less human intervention in finding good matches to data. We present some preliminary results from this code for the well-studied system Arp 284 (NGC 7714/5), and address questions of uniqueness of solutions.

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Kinematics of Arp 270 (NGC 3395) (Zaragoza-Cardiel+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J.; Font-Serra, J.; Beckman, J. E.; Blasco-Herrera, J.; Garcia-Lorenzo, B.; Camps, A.; Gonzalez-Martin, O.; Ramos Almeida, C.; Loiseau, N.; Gutierrez, L.

    2013-03-01

    We have observed the Arp 270 system (NGC 3395 and NGC 3396) in Hα emission using the Galaxy Hα Fabry-Perot spectrometer on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). In NGC 3396, which is edge-on to us, we detect gas inflow towards the centre, and also axially confined opposed outflows, characteristic of galactic superwinds, and we go on to examine the possibility that there is a shrouded AGN in the nucleus. The combination of surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion information enabled us to measure the radii, FWHM, and the masses of 108 HII regions in both galaxies. (3 data files).

  18. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  19. ALMA Imaging of HCN, CS and dust in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Manohar, Swarnima; Zschaechner, Laura; Yun, Min; Koda, Jin; Sanders, David; Murchikova, Lena; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Genzel, Reinhard; Hernquist, Lars; Tacconi, Linda; Brown, Robert; Narayanan, Desika; Hayward, Christopher C; Barnes, Joshua; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Davies, Richard; van der Werf, Paul; Fomalont, Edward

    2014-01-01

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.4 - 0.6arcsec resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ~0.25arcsec resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate ISM masses for Arp 220 East, West and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2 and 1.6x10^9 msun within radii of 69, 65 and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n_H2 ~10^5 cm^-3 at R < 50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n_H2 ~2x10^...

  20. Applications of Laser and Synchrotron Based ARPES to Photocathode Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rameau J.; Smedley J.; Muller, E.; Kidd, T.; Johnson, P.; Allen, P.; Carr, L.; Valla, T.

    2010-10-12

    Laser angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) provides unique information about angle and energy distribution of photoelectrons. Laser ARPES gives unique insight into how NEA materials work. ARPES combined with some ancillary measurements gives a very complete picture of system electronic physics. For H:C[100] there is now a clear program for engineering as well as development analogous systems. ARPES well suited for identifying 'ideal' photocathodes with intrinsically low emittance and high QE.

  1. Feedback in the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/9): I. High-Resolution Infrared Spectroscopy of Winds from Super Star Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, A; Graham, J

    2007-06-05

    We present high-resolution (R {approx} 24,600) near-IR spectroscopy of the youngest super star clusters (SSCs) in the prototypical starburst merger, the Antennae Galaxies. These SSCs are young (3-7 Myr old) and massive (10{sup 5}-10{sup 7} M{sub {circle_dot}} for a Kroupa IMF) and their spectra are characterized by broad, extended Brackett {gamma} emission, so we refer to them as emission-line clusters (ELCs) to distinguish them from older SSCs. The Br {gamma} lines of most ELCs have supersonic widths (60-110 km s{sup -1} FWHM) and non-Gaussian wings whose velocities exceed the clusters escape velocities. This high-velocity unbound gas is flowing out in winds that are powered by the clusters massive O and W-R stars over the course of at least several crossing times. The large sizes of some ELCs relative to those of older SSCs may be due to expansion caused by these outflows; many of the ELCs may not survive as bound stellar systems, but rather dissipate rapidly into the field population. The observed tendency of older ELCs to be more compact than young ones is consistent with the preferential survival of the most concentrated clusters at a given age.

  2. Serendipitous discovery of the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A

    CERN Document Server

    Perez-Torres, Miguel A; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Bondi, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Context: The dusty nuclear regions of luminous infra-red galaxies (LIRGs) are heated by either an intense burst of massive star formation, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or a combination of both. Disentangling the contribution of each of those putative dust-heating agents is a challenging task, and direct imaging of the innermost few pc can only be accomplished at radio wavelengths, using very high-angular resolution observations. Aims: We observed the nucleus A of the interacting starburst galaxy Arp 299, using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz. Our aim was to characterize the compact sources in the innermost few pc region of Arp 299-A, as well as to detect recently exploded core-collapse supernovae. Methods: We used the European VLBI Network (EVN) to image the 1.7 and 5.0 GHz compact radio emission of the parsec-scale structure in the nucleus of Arp 299-A with milliarcsecond resolution. Results: Our EVN observations show that one of the compact VLBI sources, A...

  3. ISO observations of the interacting galaxy Markarian 297: with the powerful supernova remnant 1982aa

    CERN Document Server

    Metcalfe, L; Burgdorf, M; Clavel, J; Coia, D; Delaney, M; Gallais, P; Hanlon, L; Laureijs, R; Leech, K; McBreen, B; O'Halloran, B; Smith, N

    2005-01-01

    Markarian (Mkn) 297 is a complex system with two interacting galaxies. Observations were made with ISO using ISOCAM, ISOPHOT and LWS. We present ISOCAM maps at 6.7, 7.7, 12 and 14.3 microns which, with PHT-S spectrometry of the central interacting region, probe the dust obscured star formation and dust properties. ISOCAM reveals that the strongest emission region in the four MIR bands is completely unremarkable at visible and near-IR (e.g. 2MASS) wavelengths, and does not coincide with the nuclear region of either colliding galaxy. It shares this striking characteristic with the overlap region of the colliding galaxies in the Antennae (NGC 4038, 4039), the intragroup region of Stephan's Quintet, and IC 694 in the interacting system Arp 299. At 15 microns, the hidden source in Mkn 297 is, respectively, 14.6 and 3.8 times more luminous than the hidden sources in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) and Stephan's Quintet. Numerical simulations indicate that we see the Mkn 297 interaction about 1.5 x 10e8 years after the...

  4. Serendipitous discovery of the long-sought active galactic nucleus in Arp 299-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Bondi, M.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The dusty nuclear regions of luminous infra-red galaxies (LIRGs) are heated by either an intense burst of massive star formation, an active galactic nucleus (AGN), or a combination of both. Disentangling the contribution of each of those putative dust-heating agents is a challenging task, and direct imaging of the innermost few pc can only be accomplished at radio wavelengths, using very high-angular resolution observations. Aims: We observed the nucleus A of the interacting starburst galaxy Arp 299, using very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) radio observations at 1.7 and 5.0 GHz. Our aim was to characterize the compact sources in the innermost few pc region of Arp 299-A, as well as to detect recently exploded core-collapse supernovae. Methods: We used the European VLBI Network (EVN) to image the 1.7 and 5.0 GHz compact radio emission of the parsec-scale structure in the nucleus of Arp 299-A with milliarcsecond resolution. Results: Our EVN observations show that one of the compact VLBI sources, A1, previously detected at 5.0 GHz, has a flat spectrum between 1.7 and 5.0 GHz and is the brightest source at both frequencies. Our 1.7 GHz EVN image shows also diffuse, low-surface brightness emission extending westwards from A1 and displays a prominent core-jet structure. Conclusions: The morphology, radio luminosity, spectral index and ratio of radio-to-X-ray emission of the A1-A5 region is consistent with a low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN), and rules out the possibility that it is a chain of young radio supernovae (RSNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs). We therefore conclude that A1-A5 is the long-sought AGN in Arp 299-A. This finding may suggest that both starburst and AGN are frequently associated phenomena in mergers.

  5. The Core-Collapse Supernova Rate in Arp299 Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Alberdi, Antxon; Perez-Torres, Miguel Angel; Kankare, Erkki; Ryder, Stuart D

    2011-01-01

    We present a study of the CCSN rate in nuclei A and B1 of the luminous infrared galaxy Arp299, based on 11 years of Very Large Array monitoring of their radio emission at 8.4 GHz. Significant variations in the nuclear radio flux density can be used to identify the CCSN activity in the absence of high-resolution very long baseline interferometry observations. In the case of the B1-nucleus, the small variations in its measured diffuse radio emission are below the fluxes expected from radio supernovae, thus making it well-suited to detect RSNe through flux density variability. In fact, we find strong evidence for at least three RSNe this way, which results in a lower limit for the CCSN rate of 0.28 +/- 0.16 per year. In the A-nucleus, we did not detect any significant variability and found a SN detection threshold luminosity which allows only the detection of the most luminous RSNe known. Our method is basically blind to normal CCSN explosions occurring within the A-nucleus, which result in too small variations ...

  6. The far-infrared spectrum of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Fischer, J; Cernicharo, J

    2004-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H$_2$O, CH, NH, and NH$_3$, as well as in the [O I] 63 $\\mu$m line and emission in the [C II] 158 $\\mu$m line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 $\\mu$m is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2$''$) that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus and the extended region. The H$_2$O column density is also high toward the nucleus and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward Sgr B2 near the Galactic Center. M...

  7. Black hole in the West Nucleus of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, D

    2007-01-01

    We present new observations with the IRAM Interferometer, in its longest-baseline configuration, of the CO(2-1) line and the 1.3mm dust radiation from the Arp 220 nuclear region. The dust source in the West nucleus has a size of 0.19 x 0.13 arcsec and a 1.3mm brightness temperature of 90K. This implies that the dust ring in the West nucleus has a high opacity, with tau = 1 at 1.1mm. Not only is the dust ring itself optically thick in the submm and far-IR, but it is surrounded by the previously-known, rapidly rotating molecular disk of size 0.5 arcsec that is also optically thick in the mid-IR. The molecular ring is cooler than the hot dust disk because the CO(2-1) line is seen in absorption against the dust disk. The dust ring is massive (1E9 solar masses), compact (radius 35pc), and hot (true dust temperature 170K). It resembles rather strikingly the dust ring detected around the quasar APM 08279+52, and is most unlike the warm, extended dust sources in starburst galaxies. Because there is a strong temperatu...

  8. Dust enshrouded star-forming activity in Arp 299

    CERN Document Server

    Gallais, P; Le Floc'h, E; Mirabel, I F; Sauvage, M; Vigroux, L; Laurent, O

    2004-01-01

    We present mid-infrared spectro-imaging (5 - 16 microns) observations of the infrared luminous interacting system Arp 299 (=Mrk171 =IC694+NGC3690) obtained with the ISOCAM instrument aboard ISO. Our observations show that nearly 40% of the total emission at 7 and 15 microns is diffuse, originating from the interacting disks of the galaxies. Moreover, they indicate the presence of large amounts of hot dust in the main infrared sources of the system and large extinctions toward the nuclei. While the observed spectra have an overall similar shape, mainly composed of Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIB) in the short wavelength domain, a strong continuum at ~ 13 microns and a deep silicate absorption band at 10 microns, their differences reveal the varying physical conditions of each component. For each source, the spectral energy distribution (SED) can be reproduced by a linear combination of a UIB "canonical" spectral template and a hot dust continuum due to a 230-300 K black body, after independently applying an e...

  9. Tidal bridge and tidal dwarf candidates in the interacting system Arp194

    CERN Document Server

    Zasov, Anatoly; Egorov, Oleg; Afanasiev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Arp194 is a system of recently collided galaxies, where the southern galaxy (S) passed through the gaseous disc of the northern galaxy (N) which in turn consists of two close components. This system is of special interest due to the presence of regions of active star-formation in the bridge between galaxies, the brightest of which (the region A) has a size of at least 4 kpc. We obtained three spectral slices of the system for different slit positions at the 6-m telescope of SAO RAS. We estimated the radial distribution of line-of-sight velocity and velocity dispersion as well as the intensities of emission lines and oxygen abundance $12+\\log(\\mathrm{O/H})$. The gas in the bridge is only partially mixed chemically and spatially: we observe the O/H gradient with the galactocentric distances both from S and N galaxies and a high dispersion of O/H in the outskirts of N-galaxy. Velocity dispersion of the emission-line gas is the lowest in the star-forming sites of the bridge and exceeds 50-70 km/s in the disturbed...

  10. Smart antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Godara, Lal Chand

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenna GainPhased Array AntennaPower Pattern Beam Steering Degree of Freedom Optimal AntennaAdaptive AntennaSmart AntennaSummary NARROWBAND PROCESSINGSignal Model Conventional BeamformerNull Steering BeamformerOptimal BeamformerOptimization Using Reference SignalBeam Space Processing Effect of ErrorsNotation and AbbreviationsReferencesADAPTIVE PROCESSINGSample Matrix Inversion AlgorithmUnconstrained Least Mean Squares AlgorithmNormalized Least Mean Squares AlgorithmConstrained

  11. Fourpoint antenna

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Wideband antennas with omnidirectional coverage have both military and commercial applications. In one embodiment, the Planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA) is composed of a single flat element vertically mounted above a ground plane. A geometry of Planar Inverted Cone Antenna (PICA) is based on the conventional circular-disc antenna with trimmed top part having the shape of a planar-inverted cone, in a second embodiment, the Fourpoint antenna also provides balanced impedance over the operating...

  12. ALMA IMAGING OF HCN, CS, AND DUST IN ARP 220 AND NGC 6240

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoville, Nick; Manohar, Swarnima; Murchikova, Lena [California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [North American ALMA Science Center, National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Walter, Fabian; Zschaechner, Laura [Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Yun, Min [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Sanders, David; Barnes, Joshua [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, HI 96822 (United States); Thompson, Todd [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Robertson, Brant; Tacconi, Linda; Narayanan, Desika [Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson AZ 85721 (United States); Genzel, Reinhard; Davies, Richard [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik (MPE), Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brown, Robert [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22901 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [TAPIR 350-17, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kartaltepe, Jeyhan [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); and others

    2015-02-10

    We report ALMA Band 7 (350 GHz) imaging at 0.''4-0.''6 resolution and Band 9 (696 GHz) at ∼0.''25 resolution of the luminous IR galaxies Arp 220 and NGC 6240. The long wavelength dust continuum is used to estimate interstellar medium masses for Arp 220 east and west and NGC 6240 of 1.9, 4.2, and 1.6 × 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}within radii of 69, 65, and 190 pc. The HCN emission was modeled to derive the emissivity distribution as a function of radius and the kinematics of each nuclear disk, yielding dynamical masses consistent with the masses and sizes derived from the dust emission. In Arp 220, the major dust and gas concentrations are at radii less than 50 pc in both counter-rotating nuclear disks. The thickness of the disks in Arp 220 estimated from the velocity dispersion and rotation velocities are 10-20 pc and the mean gas densities are n{sub H{sub 2}}∼10{sup 5} cm{sup –3} at R <50 pc. We develop an analytic treatment for the molecular excitation (including photon trapping), yielding volume densities for both the HCN and CS emission with n {sub H2} ∼ 2 × 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}. The agreement of the mean density from the total mass and size with that required for excitation suggests that the volume is essentially filled with dense gas, i.e., it is not cloudy or like swiss cheese.

  13. Tidal bridge and tidal dwarf candidates in the interacting system Arp194

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasov, Anatoly V.; Saburova, Anna S.; Egorov, Oleg V.; Afanasiev, Viktor L.

    2016-11-01

    Arp194 is a system of recently collided galaxies, where the southern galaxy (S) passed through the gaseous disc of the northern galaxy (N) which in turn consists of two close components. This system is of special interest due to the presence of regions of active star formation in the bridge between galaxies, the brightest of which (the region A) has a size of at least 4 kpc. We obtained three spectral slices of the system for different slit positions at the 6-m telescope of SAO RAS. We estimated the radial distribution of line-of-sight velocity and velocity dispersion as well as the intensities of emission lines and oxygen abundance 12 + log (O/H). The gas in the bridge is only partially mixed chemically and spatially: we observe the O/H gradient with the galactocentric distances both from S and N galaxies and a high dispersion of O/H in the outskirts of N-galaxy. Velocity dispersion of the emission-line gas is the lowest in the star-forming sites of the bridge and exceeds 50-70 km s-1 in the disturbed region of N-galaxy. Based on the SDSS photometrical data and our kinematical profiles we measured the masses of stellar population and the dynamical masses of individual objects. We confirm that the region A is the gravitationally bound tidal dwarf with the age of 107-108 yr, which is falling on to the parent S-galaxy. There is no evidence of the significant amount of dark matter in this dwarf galaxy.

  14. Evidence of nuclear disks in starburst galaxies from their radial distribution of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Illana, R.; Pérez-Torres, M. Á.; Alberdi, A.

    2012-04-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are expected to be responsible for triggering massive star formation and possibly accretion onto a supermassive black hole, by providing large amounts of dense molecular gas down to the central kiloparsec region. Several scenarios to drive the gas further down to the central ~100 pc, have been proposed, including the formation of a nuclear disk around the black hole, where massive stars would produce supernovae. Here, we probe the radial distribution of supernovae and supernova remnants in the nuclear regions of the starburst galaxies M 82, Arp 299-A, and Arp 220, by using high-angular resolution (≲ 0.''1) radio observations published in the literature (for M 82 and Arp 220), or obtained by ourselves from the European VLBI Network (Arp 299-A). Our main goal was to characterize the nuclear starbursts in those galaxies and thus test scenarios that propose that nuclear disks of sizes ~100 pc form in the central regions of starburst galaxies. We obtained the radial distribution of supernovae (SNe) in the nuclear starbursts of M 82, Arp 299-A, and Arp 220, and derived scale-length values for the putative nuclear disks powering the bursts in those central regions. The scale lengths for the (exponential) disks range from ~20-30 pc for Arp 299-A and Arp 220, up to ~140 pc for M 82. The radial distribution of SNe for the nuclear disks in Arp 299-A and Arp 220 is also consistent with a power-law surface density profile of exponent γ = 1, as expected from detailed hydrodynamical simulations of nuclear disks. Our results support scenarios where a nuclear disk of size ~100 pc is formed in (U)LIRGs, and sustained by gas pressure, in which case the accretion onto the black hole could be lowered by supernova feedback. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  15. The core-collapse supernova rate in Arp 299 revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cañizales, C.; Mattila, S.; Alberdi, A.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Kankare, E.; Ryder, S. D.

    2011-08-01

    We present a study of the core-collapse supernova (CCSN) rate in nuclei A and B1, of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299, based on ˜11 yr of Very Large Array (VLA) monitoring of their radio emission at 8.4 GHz. Significant variations in the nuclear radio flux density can be used to identify the CCSN activity in the absence of high-resolution very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations. In the case of the B1-nucleus, the small variations in its measured diffuse (synchrotron plus free-free) radio emission are below the fluxes expected from radio supernovae (RSNe), thus making it well-suited to detect RSNe through flux density variability. In fact, we find strong evidence for at least three RSNe this way, which results in a lower limit for the CCSN rate (νSN) of >0.28+0.27-0.15 yr-1. This value agrees within the uncertainties with the infrared (IR) luminosity based SN rate estimate, and with previously reported radio estimates. In the A-nucleus, we did not detect any significant variability and found a SN detection threshold luminosity of ≈3.1 × 1028 erg s-1 Hz-1, allowing only the detection of the most luminous RSNe known. Our method is basically blind to normal CCSN explosions occurring within the A-nucleus, which result in too small variations in the nuclear flux density, remaining diluted by the strong diffuse emission of the nucleus itself. Additionally, we have attempted to find near-IR (NIR) counterparts for the earlier reported RSNe in the Arp 299 nucleus A, by comparing NIR adaptive optics images from the Gemini-N Telescope with contemporaneous observations from the European VLBI Network (EVN). However, we were not able to detect NIR counterparts for the reported radio SNe within the innermost regions of nucleus A. While our NIR observations were sensitive to typical CCSNe at ˜300 mas (or 70 pc projected distance) from the centre of the nucleus A, suffering from extinction up to AV˜ 15 mag, they were not sensitive to such highly

  16. DS-ARP: a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks based on routing trace for ubiquitous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Min Su; Lee, Jae Dong; Jeong, Young-Sik; Jeong, Hwa-Young; Park, Jong Hyuk

    2014-01-01

    Despite the convenience, ubiquitous computing suffers from many threats and security risks. Security considerations in the ubiquitous network are required to create enriched and more secure ubiquitous environments. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is a protocol used to identify the IP address and the physical address of the associated network card. ARP is designed to work without problems in general environments. However, since it does not include security measures against malicious attacks, in its design, an attacker can impersonate another host using ARP spoofing or access important information. In this paper, we propose a new detection scheme for ARP spoofing attacks using a routing trace, which can be used to protect the internal network. Tracing routing can find the change of network movement path. The proposed scheme provides high constancy and compatibility because it does not alter the ARP protocol. In addition, it is simple and stable, as it does not use a complex algorithm or impose extra load on the computer system.

  17. Inflowing gas onto a compact obscured nucleus in Arp 299A: Herschel spectroscopic studies of H2O and OH

    CERN Document Server

    Falstad, N; Aalto, S; Fischer, J

    2016-01-01

    Aims. We probe the physical conditions in the core of Arp 299A and try to put constraints to the nature of its nuclear power source. Methods. We used Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared and submillimeter observations of H2O and OH rotational lines in Arp 299A to create a multi-component model of the galaxy. In doing this, we employed a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. Results. Nine H2O lines in absorption and eight in emission as well as four OH doublets in absorption and one in emission, are detected in Arp 299A. No lines of the 18O isotopologues, which have been seen in compact obscured nuclei of other galaxies, are detected. The absorption in the ground state OH doublet at 119 {\\mu}m is found redshifted by ~175 km/s compared to other OH and H2O lines, suggesting a low excitation inflow. We find that at least two components are required in order to account for the excited molecular line spectrum. The inner component has a radius of 20-25 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (> 3e13 ...

  18. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  19. Reconfigurable antenna pattern verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor); Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method of verifying programmable antenna configurations is disclosed. The method comprises selecting a desired antenna configuration from a plurality of antenna configuration patterns, with the selected antenna configuration forming at least one reconfigurable antenna from reconfigurable antenna array elements. The method validates the formation of the selected antenna configuration to determine antenna performance of the at least one reconfigurable antenna.

  20. Initiating an error budget of the DORIS ground antenna position: Genesis of the Starec antenna type C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunier, J.; Auriol, A.; Tourain, C.

    2016-12-01

    The DORIS system measures distances between phase centers of onboard and ground antennas to determine the position of the satellites in their orbits. To this end, the ground antenna phase center position must be known in a terrestrial reference frame. Its position is linked and defined with respect to the antenna reference point (ARP), a conventional physical point for which coordinates are assigned. Although the determination of the ARP position with respect to ground markers can be achieved by traditional surveys, the connection with the actual measurement point (phase center) is far more difficult to determine. This is the main concern explored in this paper. Regardless of the need for a good antenna characterization, CNES and IGN jointly worked to establish a first error budget of the ground antenna position. With this aim in view, each component was clearly identified and studied separately. We distinguished between errors from manufacturing and from site surveying and, on the other hand, errors affecting horizontal and vertical position. The knowledge of the antenna geometry and the guarantee of a good reproducibility in the manufacturing process are essential. Based on these requirements, we have defined new manufacturing specifications to create a new antenna type: Starec type C. Compared to the previous antenna (Starec type B), the standard uncertainty of the 2 GHz phase center position in the vertical direction has been reduced from 5 mm to 1 mm. Following this work, we provide for the new Starec antenna (type C) total uncertainties involved in the ground antenna positioning in a local reference frame: 2 mm in the horizontal plane, 2.5 mm for the vertical component and 3.2 mm in three-dimensional combination. We also propose for DORIS new definitions of conventional points and a new method to determine ground antennas position that were not possible before this manufacturing specifications change.

  1. The Far-Infrared Spectrum of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Alfonso, Eduardo; Smith, Howard A.; Fischer, Jacqueline; Cernicharo, Jose

    2005-01-01

    ISO/LWS grating observations of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220 shows absorption in molecular lines of OH, H(sub 2)O, CH, NH, and NH(sub 3), as well as in the [O I] 63 micron line and emission in the [C II] 158 micron line. We have modeled the continuum and the emission/absorption of all observed features by means of a non-local radiative transfer code. The continuum from 25 to 1300 microns is modeled as a warm (106 K) nuclear region that is optically thick in the far-infrared, attenuated by an extended region (size 2") that is heated mainly through absorption of nuclear infrared radiation. The molecular absorption in the nuclear region is characterized by high excitation due to the high infrared radiation density. The OH column densities are high toward the nucleus (2 - 6 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and the extended region (approximately 2 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)). The H(sub 2)O column density is also high toward the nucleus (2 - 10 x 10(exp 17) cm(exp -2)) and lower in the extended region. The column densities in a halo that accounts for the absorption by the lowest lying levels are similar to what are found in the diffuse clouds toward the star forming regions in the Sgr B2 molecular cloud complex near the Galactic Center. Most notable are the high column densities found for NH and NH(sub 3) toward the nucleus, with values of approximately 1.5 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2) and approximately 3 x 10(exp 16) cm(exp -2), respectively, whereas the NH(sub 2) column density is lower than approximately 2 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2). A combination of PDRs in the extended region and hot cores with enhanced H(sub 2)O photodissociation and a possible shock contribution in the nuclei may explain the relative column densities of OH and H(sub 2)O, whereas the nitrogen chemistry may be strongly affected by cosmic ray ionization. The [C II] 158 micron line is well reproduced by our models and its deficit relative to the CII/FIR ratio in normal and starburst galaxies is suggested to

  2. EXTREME DUST DISKS IN Arp 220 AS REVEALED BY ALMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rangwala, N.; Glenn, J.; Maloney, P. R. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, 389-UCB, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Spinoglio, L.; Pereira-Santaella, M. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2014-07-10

    We present new images of Arp 220 from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array with the highest combination of frequency (691 GHz) and resolution (0.''36 × 0.''20) ever obtained for this prototypical ultraluminous infrared galaxy. The western nucleus is revealed to contain warm (200 K) dust that is optically thick (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 5.3), while the eastern nucleus is cooler (80 K) and somewhat less opaque (τ{sub 434} {sub μm} = 1.7). We derive full width at half-maximum diameters of 76 × ≤ 70 pc and 123 × 79 pc for the western and eastern nucleus, respectively. The two nuclei combined account for (83{sub −38}{sup +65} (calibration) {sub −34}{sup +0} (systematic))% of the total infrared luminosity of Arp 220. The luminosity surface density of the western nucleus (log (σT{sup 4})=14.3±0.2{sub −0.7}{sup +0} in units of L {sub ☉} kpc{sup –2}) appears sufficiently high to require the presence of an active galactic nucleus (AGN) or a ''hot starburst'', although the exact value depends sensitively on the brightness distribution adopted for the source. Although the role of any central AGN remains open, the inferred mean gas column densities of (0.6-1.8) × 10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} mean that any AGN in Arp 220 must be Compton-thick.

  3. Reconfigurable antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhard, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    This lecture explores the emerging area of reconfigurable antennas from basic concepts that provide insight into fundamental design approaches to advanced techniques and examples that offer important new capabilities for next-generation applications. Antennas are necessary and critical components of communication and radar systems, but sometimes their inability to adjust to new operating scenarios can limit system performance. Making antennas reconfigurable so that their behavior can adapt with changing system requirements or environmental conditions can ameliorate or eliminate these restricti

  4. Microstrip Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj Mehta

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article presents an overview of the microstrip patch antenna and its design techniques. Basically a microstrip patch antenna comprises of a trace of copper or any other metal of any geometry on one side of a standard printed circuit board substrate with other side grounded. The antenna is fed using various feeding techniques like coaxial strip line aperture coupling or proximity coupling techniques. The working principle and the radiation mechanism have also been described. The ...

  5. Antenna Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Currently it is possible to measure all the characteristics of an antenna with a good accuracy. Far-field ranges do not have a very good accuracy, due to parasitic reflections for the outdoor ranges and because of the limited distance between the source antenna and the tested antenna for the indoor ranges. The compact range allows one to obtain a direct farfield cut in a relatively short time. The near-field techniques are the most accurate and the most convenient for global antenna radiation...

  6. Antenna toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Joe Carr has provided radio amateurs and short-wave listeners with the definitive design guide for sending and receiving radio signals with Antenna Toolkit 2nd edition.Together with the powerful suite of CD software, the reader will have a complete solution for constructing or using an antenna - bar the actual hardware! The software provides a simple Windows-based aid to carrying out the design calculations at the heart of successful antenna design. All the user needs to do is select the antenna type and set the frequency - a much more fun and less error prone method than using a con

  7. Cosmic Rays, Gamma-Rays, & Neutrinos in the Starburst Nuclei of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Yoast-Hull, Tova M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2015-01-01

    The cores of Arp 220, the closest ultra-luminous infrared starburst galaxy, provide an opportunity to study interactions of cosmic rays under extreme conditions. In this paper, we model the populations of cosmic rays produced by supernovae in the central molecular zones of both starburst nuclei. We find that ~65 - 100% of cosmic rays are absorbed in these regions due to their huge molecular gas contents, and thus, the nuclei of Arp 220 nearly complete proton calorimeters. As the cosmic ray protons collide with the interstellar medium, they produce secondary electrons that are also contained within the system and radiate synchrotron emission. Using results from chi-squared tests between the model and the observed radio spectral energy distribution, we predict the emergent gamma-ray and high-energy neutrino spectra and find the magnetic field to be at milligauss levels. Because of the extremely intense far-infrared radiation fields, the gamma-ray spectrum steepens significantly at TeV energies due to gamma-gamm...

  8. P-Cygni Profiles of Molecular Lines toward Arp 220 Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Wilner, David J; Black, John H; Conway, John E; Costagliola, Francesco; Peck, Alison B; Spaans, Marco; Wang, Junzhi; Wiedner, Martina C

    2009-01-01

    We report ~100 pc (0.3") resolution observations of (sub)millimeter HCO+ and CO lines in the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220. The lines peak at two merger nuclei, with HCO+ being more spatially concentrated than CO. Asymmetric line profiles with blueshifted absorption and redshifted emission are discovered in HCO+(3-2) and (4-3) toward the two nuclei and in CO(3-2) toward one nucleus. We suggest that these P-Cygni profiles are due to ~100 km/s outward motion of molecular gas from the nuclei. This gas is most likely outflowing from the inner regions of the two nuclear disks rotating around individual nuclei, clearing the shroud around the luminosity sources there.

  9. HST/WFC3 Observations of an Off-Nuclear Superbubble in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Kelly E; Lu, Jessica R; Allen, Mark G; Rupke, David; Calzetti, Daniela; Davies, Richard I; Dopita, Michael A; Engel, Hauke; Heckman, Timothy M; Leitherer, Claus; Sanders, David B

    2015-01-01

    We present a high spatial resolution optical and infrared study of the circumnuclear region in Arp 220, a late-stage galaxy merger. Narrowband imaging using HST/WFC3 has resolved the previously observed peak in H$\\alpha$+[NII] emission into a bubble-shaped feature. This feature measures 1.6" in diameter, or 600 pc, and is only 1" northwest of the western nucleus. The bubble is aligned with the western nucleus and the large-scale outflow axis seen in X-rays. We explore several possibilities for the bubble origin, including a jet or outflow from a hidden active galactic nucleus (AGN), outflows from high levels of star formation within the few hundred pc nuclear gas disk, or an ultraluminous X-ray source. An obscured AGN or high levels of star formation within the inner $\\sim$100 pc of the nuclei are favored based on the alignment of the bubble and energetics arguments.

  10. Multi-transition study of the peculiar merger Arp 299

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qian; Zhu, Ming

    2017-08-01

    We present a multi-transition study to investigate the physical properties of dust and molecular gas in the archetypical merger Arp 299 by using data including James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) 850 and 450 μm observations, Herschel 500, 350, 250, 160 and 70 μm continuum maps, as well as the CO(3-2), CO(4-3) low-J CO lines and CO(11-10), CO(13-12), CO(14-13) high-J CO lines. The CO(3-2) and CO(4-3) lines are observed by JCMT, and the CO(11-10), CO(13-12), CO(14-13) lines are available on the Herschel Science Archive. The resolution of the Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) CO(11-10) data is similar to that of the JCMT CO(3-2) line, while the resolution of the SPIRE/FTS CO(13-12) and Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) CO(14-13) data is similar to that of JCMT CO(4-3), allowing us to obtain accurate line ratios of {I}{{CO}({{11-10}})}/{I}{{CO}({{3-2}})}, {I}{{CO}({{13-12}})}/{I}{{CO}({{4-3}})} and {I}{{CO}({{14-13}})}/{I}{{CO}({{4-3}})}. By modeling the spectral energy distribution of the continuum data, we conclude that two components (cold and warm) exist in the dust, with the warm component occupying a small percent of the total dust mass. We further use a radiative transfer analysis code, RADEX, to calculate the density, temperature and column density of warm gas in the central region, which shows that the kinetic temperature {T}{{kin}} is in the range 110 to 150 K and hydrogen density n({{{H}}}{{2}}) is in the range {10}4.7-{10}5.5{{{cm}}}{{-3}}. We show that the hot dust is located in the central region of IC 694 with a radius of ˜ 4″ and estimate that the warm gas mass is in the range 3.8× {10}7{M}⊙ to 7.7× {10}7{M}⊙ , which contains 5.0%-15.0% of the total H2 mass for the region of IC 694. We also calculate the star formation rate of the galaxy in particular, which is much higher than that of the Milky Way.

  11. Notch Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.

    2004-01-01

    Notch antennas, also known as the tapered slot antenna (TSA), have been the topics of research for decades. TSA has demonstrated multi-octave bandwidth, moderate gain (7 to 10 dB), and symmetric E- and H- plane beam patterns and can be used for many different applications. This chapter summarizes the research activities on notch antennas over the past decade with emphasis on their most recent advances and applications. This chapter begins with some discussions on the designs of single TSA; then follows with detailed discussions of issues associated with TSA designs and performance characteristics. To conclude the chapter, some recent developments in TSA arrays and their applications are highlighted.

  12. Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of NGC 4418 and Arp 220: H2O, H2^{18}O, OH, ^{18}OH, O^0, HCN and NH3

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Contursi, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Spoon, H W W; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Sternberg, A; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2011-01-01

    Herschel/PACS spectroscopy of the (ultra)luminous infrared galaxies NGC 4418 and Arp 220 reveals high excitation in H2O, OH, HCN, and NH3. In NGC 4418, absorption lines were detected with E_lower>800 K (H2O), 600 K (OH), 1075 K (HCN), and 600 K (NH3), while in Arp 220 the excitation is somewhat lower. While clear outflow signatures are seen in Arp 220 as has been seen in previous studies, in NGC 4418 the lines tracing its outer regions are redshifted relative to the nucleus, suggesting an inflow with Mdot~100 K) nuclear continuum components, together with a more extended and colder component that is much more prominent and massive in Arp 220. A chemical dichotomy is found in both sources: on the one hand, the nuclear regions have high H2O abundances, ~0.5x10^{-5}, and high HCN/H2O and HCN/NH3 column density ratios of 0.2-0.7 and 6-9, respectively, indicating a chemistry typical of evolved hot cores where grain mantle evaporation has occurred. On the other hand, the high OH abundance, with OH/H2O ratios of ~0....

  13. Spectral optical monitoring of the double peaked emission line AGN Arp 102B: II. Variability of the broad line properties

    CERN Document Server

    Popovic, L C; Ilic, D; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Valdes, J R; Leon-Tavares, J; Bochkarev, N G; Patino-Alvarez, V; Torrealba, J

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a long-term (26 years, from 1987 to 2013) variability in the broad spectral line properties of the radio galaxy Arp 102B, an active galaxy with broad double-peaked emission lines. We use observations presented in Paper I (Shapovalova et al. 2013) in the period from 1987 to 2011, and a new set of observations performed in 2012--2013. To explore the BLR geometry, and clarify some contradictions about the nature of the BLR in Arp 102B we explore variations in the H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$ line parameters during the monitored period. We fit the broad lines with three broad Gaussian functions finding the positions and intensities of the blue and red peaks in H$\\alpha$ and H$\\beta$. Additionally we fit averaged line profiles with the disc model. We find that the broad line profiles are double-peaked and have not been changed significantly in shapes, beside an additional small peak that, from time to time can be seen in the blue part of the H$\\alpha$ line. The positions of the blue and red peaks { have n...

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of star formation in galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Sara C.; Ho, Paul T. P.; Turner, Jean L.

    1987-01-01

    The Brackett alpha and beta lines with 7.2 seconds angular and 350 km/s velocity resolution were observed in 11 infrared-bright galaxies. From these measurements extinctions, Lyman continuum fluxes, and luminosities due to OB stars were derived. The galaxies observed to date are NGC3690, M38, NGC 5195, Arp 220, NGC 520, NGC660, NGC1614, NGC 3079, NGC 6946, NGC 7714, and Maffei 2, all of which were suggested at some time to be starburst ogjects. The contributions of OB stars to the luminosities of these galaxies can be quantified from the measurements and range from insignificant to sufficient to account for the total energy output. The OB stellar luminosities observed are as high as 10 to the 12th solar luminosities in the galaxy NGC 1614. It is noteworthy that star formation can play very different roles in the infrared energy output of galaxies of similar luminosity, as for example Arp 220 and NGC 1614. In addition to probing the star formation process in these galaxies, the Brackett line measurements, when compared to radio and infrared continuum results, have revealed some unexpected and at present imperfectly understood phenomena: in some very luminous sources the radio continuum appears to be suppressed relative to the infrared recombination lines; in many galaxies there is a substantial excess of 10 micron flux over that predicted from simple models of Lyman alpha heating of dust if young stars are the only significant energy source.

  15. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Matsumori, Haruka [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel [Department of Biology of the Cell Nucleus, Institute of Molecular Genetics of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, v.v.i., Vídeňská 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic); Goldberg, Ilya G. [Image Informatics and Computational Biology Unit, Laboratory of Genetics, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, 251 Bayview Boulevard, Suite 100, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Nakao, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo 102-0076 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriko [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Institute of Molecular Embryology and Genetics, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Chuo-ku, Kumamoto 860-0811 (Japan); Harata, Masahiko, E-mail: mharata@biochem.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi 1-1, Aoka-ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis. - Highlights: • ARP6, an actin related protein, is important for nucleolar function and structure. • A population of ARP6 is localized in the center of nucleolus. • Depletion of ARP6 resulted in aberrant shape of the nucleolus. • ARP6 maintains the active rDNA transcription under high glucose. • ARP6 is required for the repression of rDNA transcription under starvation.

  16. Interacting Galaxies with MOND

    CERN Document Server

    Tiret, O

    2007-01-01

    We compare N-body simulations performed in MOND with analogs in Newtonian gravity with dark matter (DM). We have developed a code which solves the Poisson equation in both gravity models. It is a grid solver using adaptive mesh refinement techniques, allowing us to study isolated galaxies as well as interacting galaxies. Galaxies in MOND are found to form bars faster and stronger than in the DM model. In Newton dynamics, it is difficult to reproduce the observed high frequency of strong bars, while MOND appears to fit better the observations. Galaxy interactions and mergers, such as the Antennae, are also simulated with Newton and MOND dynamics. In the latter, dynamical friction is much weaker, and merging time-scales are longer. The formation of tidal dwarf galaxies in tidal tails are also compared in MOND and Newton+DM models.

  17. Evidence of Nuclear Disks from the Radial Distribution of CCSNe in Starburst Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Ángel; Alberdi, Antxon

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are expected to be responsible for triggering massive star formation and possibly accretion onto a supermassive black hole, by providing large amounts of dense molecular gas down to the central kiloparsec region. Several scenarios to drive the gas further down to the central ˜ 100 pc, have been proposed, including the formation of a nuclear disk around the black hole, where massive stars would produce supernovae. Here, we probe the radial distribution of supernovae and supernova remnants in the nuclear regions of the starburst galaxies M82, Arp 299-A, and Arp 220, by using high-angular resolution (≲ 0.'1) radio observations. We derived scale-length values for the putative nuclear disks, which range from ˜ 20-30 pc for Arp 299-A and Arp 220, up to ˜ 140 pc for M82. The radial distribution of SNe for the nuclear disks in Arp 299-A and Arp 220 is also consistent with a power-law surface density profile of exponent γ = 1, as expected from detailed hydrodynamical simulations of nuclear disks. This study is detailed in Herrero-Illana, Perez-Torres, and Alberdi [11].

  18. Circularly polarized antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Steven; Zhu, Fuguo

    2013-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive insight into the design techniques for different types of CP antenna elements and arrays In this book, the authors address a broad range of topics on circularly polarized (CP) antennas. Firstly, it introduces to the reader basic principles, design techniques and characteristics of various types of CP antennas, such as CP patch antennas, CP helix antennas, quadrifilar helix antennas (QHA), printed quadrifilar helix antennas (PQHA), spiral antenna, CP slot antennas, CP dielectric resonator antennas, loop antennas, crossed dipoles, monopoles and CP horns. Adva

  19. Diamond dipole active antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, Igor N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  20. MOX Cross-Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2003-07-01

    The use of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel in commercial nuclear power reactors operated in Europe has expanded rapidly over the past decade. The predicted characteristics of MOX fuel such as the nuclide inventories, thermal power from decay heat, and radiation sources are required for design and safety evaluations, and can provide valuable information for non-destructive safeguards verification activities. This report describes the development of computational methods and cross-section libraries suitable for the analysis of irradiated MOX fuel with the widely-used and recognized ORIGEN-ARP isotope generation and depletion code of the SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) code system. The MOX libraries are designed to be used with the Automatic Rapid Processing (ARP) module of SCALE that interpolates appropriate values of the cross sections from a database of parameterized cross-section libraries to create a problem-dependent library for the burnup analysis. The methods in ORIGEN-ARP, originally designed for uranium-based fuels only, have been significantly upgraded to handle the larger number of interpolation parameters associated with MOX fuels. The new methods have been incorporated in a new version of the ARP code that can generate libraries for low-enriched uranium (LEU) and MOX fuel types. The MOX data libraries and interpolation algorithms in ORIGEN-ARP have been verified using a database of declared isotopic concentrations for 1042 European MOX fuel assemblies. The methods and data are validated using a numerical MOX fuel benchmark established by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Working Group on burnup credit and nuclide assay measurements for irradiated MOX fuel performed as part of the Belgonucleaire ARIANE International Program.

  1. Stochastic `Beads on a String' in the Accretion Tail of Arp 285

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, B J; Hancock, M; Giroux, M L; Appleton, P N; Charmandaris, V; Reach, W; Hurlock, S; Hwang, J -S

    2008-01-01

    We present Spitzer infrared, GALEX UV, and SDSS and SARA optical images of the peculiar interacting galaxy pair Arp 285 (NGC 2856/4), and compare with a new numerical model of the interaction. We estimate the ages of clumps of star formation in these galaxies using population synthesis models, carefully considering the uncertainties on these ages. This system contains a striking example of `beads on a string': a series of star formation complexes ~1 kpc apart. These `beads' are found in a tail-like feature that is perpendicular to the disk of NGC 2856, which implies that it was formed from material accreted from the companion NGC 2854. The extreme blueness of the optical/UV colors and redness of the mid-infrared colors implies very young stellar ages (~4 - 20 Myrs) for these star forming regions. Spectral decomposition of these `beads' shows excess emission above the modeled stellar continuum in the 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron bands, indicating either contributions from interstellar matter to these fluxes or a ...

  2. ARP101 inhibits α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis by regulation of autophagy in melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sung; Jo, Yoon Kyung; Park, So Jung; Chang, Huikyoung; Shin, Ji Hyun; Choi, Eun Sun; Kim, Jun Bum; Seok, Su Hyeon; Kim, Jae-Sung; Oh, Jeong Su; Kim, Myoung-Hwan; Lee, Eunjoo H; Cho, Dong-Hyung

    2013-12-11

    Autophagy is a cooperative process between autophagosomes and lysosomes that degrades cellular organelles. Although autophagy regulates the turnover of cellular components, its role in melanogenesis is not clearly established. Previously, we reported that ARP101 induces autophagy in various cancer cells. Here, we show that ARP101 inhibits melanogenesis by regulation of autophagy. ARP101 inhibited α-MSH-stimulated melanin synthesis and suppressed the expression of tyrosinase and TRP1 in immortalized mouse melanocytes. ARP101 also induced autophagy in melanocytes. Knockdown of ATG5 reduced both anti-melanogenic activity and autophagy mediated by ARP101 in α-MSH treated melanocytes. Electron microscopy analysis further revealed that autophagosomes engulf melanin or melanosome in α-MSH and ARP101-treated cells. Collectively, our results suggest that ARP101 inhibits α-MSH-stimulated melanogenesis through the activation of autophagy in melanocytes.

  3. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of Arp 220 at 150 MHz. A kpc-scale star forming disk surrounding nuclei with shocked outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenius, E.; Conway, J. E.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Aalto, S.; Barcos-Muñoz, L.; König, S.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Deller, A. T.; Moldón, J.; Gallagher, J. S.; Yoast-Hull, T. M.; Horellou, C.; Morabito, L. K.; Alberdi, A.; Jackson, N.; Beswick, R.; Carozzi, T. D.; Wucknitz, O.; Ramírez-Olivencia, N.

    2016-09-01

    Context. Arp 220 is the prototypical ultra luminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG). Despite extensive studies, the structure at MHz-frequencies has remained unknown because of limits in spatial resolution. Aims: This work aims to constrain the flux and shape of radio emission from Arp 220 at MHz frequencies. Methods: We analyse new observations with the International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) telescope, and archival data from the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We model the spatially resolved radio spectrum of Arp 220 from 150 MHz to 33 GHz. Results: We present an image of Arp 220 at 150 MHz with resolution 0.̋65 × 0.̋35, sensitivity 0.15 mJy beam-1, and integrated flux density 394 ± 59 mJy. More than 80% of the detected flux comes from extended (6''≈ 2.2 kpc) steep spectrum (α = -0.7) emission, likely from star formation in the molecular disk surrounding the two nuclei. We find elongated features extending 0.3'' (110 pc) and 0.9'' (330 pc) from the eastern and western nucleus respectively, which we interpret as evidence for outflows. The extent of radio emission requires acceleration of cosmic rays far outside the nuclei. We find that a simple three component model can explain most of the observed radio spectrum of the galaxy. When accounting for absorption at 1.4 GHz, Arp 220 follows the FIR/radio correlation with q = 2.36, and we estimate a star formation rate of 220 M⊙ yr-1. We derive thermal fractions at 1 GHz of less than 1% for the nuclei, which indicates that a major part of the UV-photons are absorbed by dust. Conclusions: International LOFAR observations shows great promise to detect steep spectrum outflows and probe regions of thermal absorption. However, in LIRGs the emission detected at 150 MHz does not necessarily come from the main regions of star formation. This implies that high spatial resolution is crucial for accurate estimates of star formation rates for such galaxies

  4. A Motion Estimation Algorithm Using DTCWT and ARPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Y. Oktiawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a hybrid motion estimation algorithm utilizing the Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT and the Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS block is presented. The proposed algorithm first transforms each video sequence with DTCWT. The frame n of the video sequence is used as a reference input and the frame n+2 is used to find the motion vector. Next, the ARPS block search algorithm is carried out and followed by an inverse DTCWT. The motion compensation is then carried out on each inversed frame n and motion vector. The results show that PSNR can be improved for mobile device without depriving its quality. The proposed algorithm also takes less memory usage compared to the DCT-based algorithm. The main contribution of this work is a hybrid wavelet-based motion estimation algorithm for mobile devices. Other contribution is the visual quality scoring system as used in section 6.

  5. Characterization of Two Classes of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Arp2/3 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, B.; Tomasevic, N; Russell, A; Pierce, D; Jia, Z; McCormick, C; Hartman, J; Sakowicz, R; Pollard, T

    2009-01-01

    Polymerization of actin filaments directed by the actin-related protein (Arp)2/3 complex supports many types of cellular movements. However, questions remain regarding the relative contributions of Arp2/3 complex versus other mechanisms of actin filament nucleation to processes such as path finding by neuronal growth cones; this is because of the lack of simple methods to inhibit Arp2/3 complex reversibly in living cells. Here we describe two classes of small molecules that bind to different sites on the Arp2/3 complex and inhibit its ability to nucleate actin filaments. CK-0944636 binds between Arp2 and Arp3, where it appears to block movement of Arp2 and Arp3 into their active conformation. CK-0993548 inserts into the hydrophobic core of Arp3 and alters its conformation. Both classes of compounds inhibit formation of actin filament comet tails by Listeria and podosomes by monocytes. Two inhibitors with different mechanisms of action provide a powerful approach for studying the Arp2/3 complex in living cells.

  6. Superluminal antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, John; Earley, Lawrence M.; Krawczyk, Frank L.; Potter, James M.; Romero, William P.; Wang, Zhi-Fu

    2017-03-28

    A superluminal antenna element integrates a balun element to better impedance match an input cable or waveguide to a dielectric radiator element, thus preventing stray reflections and consequent undesirable radiation. For example, a dielectric housing material can be used that has a cutout area. A cable can extend into the cutout area. A triangular conductor can function as an impedance transition. An additional cylindrical element functions as a sleeve balun to better impedance match the radiator element to the cable.

  7. UWB planar antenna technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments of the ultra-wideband(UWB)planar antennas are reviewed,where the progress in UWB plate monopole antennas,UWB printed monopole antennas and the UWB printed slot antennas is introduced and compared.In addition,the UWB printed antennas with the band-notched functions are also presented.

  8. High Resolution Observations of Molecular Lines in Arp 220: Kinematics, Morphology, and Limits on the Applicability of the Ammonia Thermometer

    CERN Document Server

    Zschaechner, Laura K; Walter, Fabian; Meyer, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Scoville, Nick

    2016-01-01

    We observe Arp 220, the nearest Ultra-Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG), over 4 GHz in the K and Ka bands. We provide constraints for the kinematics,morphology, and identify molecular species on scales resolving both nuclei (0.6" or 230 pc). We detect multiple molecular species, including hydroxyl in both cores. We tentatively detect H2O at 21.84 GHz in both nuclei, indicating the likely presence of maser emission. The observed frequency range also contains metastable ammonia transitions from (J,K) = (1,1) to (5,5), as well as the (9,9) inversion line, which, together are a well-known thermometer of dense molecular gas. Furthermore, the non-metastable (4,2) and (10,9) and possibly the (3,1) lines are also detected. We apply a standard temperature analysis to Arp 220. However, the analysis is complicated in that standard LTE assumptions do not hold. There are indications that a substantial fraction of ammonia could be in the non-metastable transitions as opposed to only the metastable ones. Thus, the non-metast...

  9. The radio spectra of the compact sources in Arp 220: A mixed population of supernovae and supernova remnants

    CERN Document Server

    Parra, R; Diamond, P J; Thrall, H; Lonsdale, C J; Smith, H E; Parra, Rodrigo; Conway, John E.; Diamond, Philip J.; Thrall, Hannah; Lonsdale, Colin J.; Lonsdale, Carol J.; Smith, Harding E.

    2006-01-01

    We report the first detection at multiple radio wavelengths (13, 6 and 3.6 cm) of the compact sources within both nuclei of the Ultra Luminous Infra-Red Galaxy Arp 220. We present the radio spectra of the 18 detected sources. In just over half of the sources we find that these spectra and other properties are consistent with the standard model of powerful Type IIn supernovae interacting with their pre-explosion stellar wind. The rate of appearance of new radio sources identified with these supernova events suggests that an unusually large fraction of core collapse supernovae in Arp 220 are highly luminous; possibly implying a radically different stellar initial mass function or stellar evolution compared to galactic disks. Another possible explanation invokes very short (~3 x 10^5 year) intense (~10^3 M_Sol year^-1) star formation episodes with a duty cycle of ~10%. A second group of our detected sources, consisting of the brightest and longest monitored sources at 18 cm do not easily fit the radio supernova ...

  10. CO J=6--5 in Arp 220: strong effects of dust on high-J CO lines

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulos, Padeli P; van der Werf, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We report new single dish CO J=6--5 line observations for the archetypal Ultra Luminous Infrared Galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope atop Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The J=6--5 line is found to be faint, with brightness temperature ratios (6--5)/(1--0), (6--5)/(3--2) of R_{65/10} = 0.080+/-0.017 and R_{65/32} = 0.082+/-0.019, suggesting very low excitation conditions that cannot be reconciled with the warm and very dense molecular gas present in one of the most extreme starbursts in the local Universe. We find that an optically thick dust continuum, with tau(f>350 GHz)>=1 for the bulk of the warm dust and gas in Arp 220, submerges this line to an almost black body curve, reducing its flux, and {\\it affecting its CO Spectral Line Energy Distribution (SLED) at high frequencies}. This also resolves the CII line deficiency in this object, first observed by {\\it ISO}: the near absence of that line is a dust optical depth effect, not a dense Photodissociation Region (PDR) phenomenon. Finally we b...

  11. A functional profile of gene expression in ARPE-19 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Dianna A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal pigment epithelium cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of age related macular degeneration. Their morphological, molecular and functional phenotype changes in response to various stresses. Functional profiling of genes can provide useful information about the physiological state of cells and how this state changes in response to disease or treatment. In this study, we have constructed a functional profile of the genes expressed by the ARPE-19 cell line of retinal pigment epithelium. Methods Using Affymetrix MAS 5.0 microarray analysis, genes expressed by ARPE-19 cells were identified. Using GeneChip® annotations, these genes were classified according to their known functions to generate a functional gene expression profile. Results We have determined that of approximately 19,044 unique gene sequences represented on the HG-U133A GeneChip® , 6,438 were expressed in ARPE-19 cells irrespective of the substrate on which they were grown (plastic, fibronectin, collagen, or Matrigel. Rather than focus our subsequent analysis on the identity or level of expression of each individual gene in this large data set, we examined the number of genes expressed within 130 functional categories. These categories were selected from a library of HG-U133A GeneChip® annotations linked to the Affymetrix MAS 5.0 data sets. Using this functional classification scheme, we were able to categorize about 70% of the expressed genes and condense the original data set of over 6,000 data points into a format with 130 data points. The resulting ARPE-19 Functional Gene Expression Profile is displayed as a percentage of ARPE-19-expressed genes. Conclusion The Profile can readily be compared with equivalent microarray data from other appropriate samples in order to highlight cell-specific attributes or treatment-induced changes in gene expression. The usefulness of these analyses is based on the assumption that the numbers of genes

  12. Star Formation History In Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chien, Li-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are known to trigger starbursts. Young massive star clusters formed in interacting galaxies and mergers may become young globular clusters. The ages of these clusters can provide clues about the timing of interaction-triggered events, and thus provide an important way to reconstruct the star formation history of merging galaxies. Numerical simulations of galaxy mergers can implement different star formation rules. For instance, star formation dependent on gas density or triggered by shocks, predicts significantly different star formation histories. To test the validity of these models, multi-object spectroscopy was used to map the ages of young star clusters throughout the bodies and tails of a series of galaxy mergers at different stages (Arp 256, NGC 7469, NGC 4676, Arp 299, IC 883 and NGC 2623). We found that the cumulative distribution of ages becomes shallower as the stage of merger advances. This result suggests a trend of cluster ages as a function of merger stage. In NGC 4676 we fo...

  13. Presence of Arp Specifically Contributes to Joint Tissue Edema Associated with Early-Onset Lyme Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hove, Petronella R.; Haldorson, Gary J; Magunda, Forgivemore; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Antiserum to the Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-related protein, Arp, has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis in immunodeficient mice. To directly investigate the requirement for this lipoprotein in the generation of Lyme arthritis, we utilized targeted deletion to generate a B. burgdorferi clone that lacked only the arp gene locus. Infection of Lyme disease-susceptible C3H/HeN mice with the arp deletion mutant demonstrated significantly reduced tibiotarsal joint swelling during the fir...

  14. The nuclear starburst in Arp 299-A: From the 5.0 GHz VLBI radio light-curves to its core-collapse supernova rate

    CERN Document Server

    Bondi, M; Herrero-Illana, R; Alberdi, A

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear region of the Luminous Infra-red Galaxy Arp 299-A hosts a recent ($\\simeq 10$ Myr), intense burst of massive star formation which is expected to lead to numerous core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Previous VLBI observations, carried out with the EVN at 5.0 GHz and with the VLBA at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz, resulted in the detection of a large number of compact, bright, non-thermal sources in a region $\\lsim$150 pc in size. We aim at establishing the nature of all non-thermal, compact components in Arp 299-A, as well as estimating its core-collapse supernova rate. We use multi-epoch European VLBI Network (EVN) observations taken at 5.0 GHz to image with milliarcsecond resolution the compact radio sources in the nuclear region of Arp 299-A. We also use one single-epoch 5.0 GHz Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) observation to image the extended emission in which the compact radio sources --traced by our EVN observations-- are embedded. Twenty-six compact sources are detected, 8 of them...

  15. Evidence of nuclear disks in starburst galaxies from their radial distribution of supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero-Illana, R; Alberdi, A

    2012-01-01

    Galaxy-galaxy interactions are expected to be responsible for triggering massive star formation and possibly accretion onto a supermassive black hole, by providing large amounts of dense molecular gas down to the central kiloparsec region. Several scenarios to drive the gas further down to the central ~100 pc, have been proposed, including the formation of a nuclear disk around the black hole, where massive stars would produce supernovae. Here, we probe the radial distribution of supernovae and supernova remnants in the nuclear regions of the starburst galaxies M82, Arp 299-A, and Arp 220, by using high-angular resolution (< 0."1) radio observations published in the literature (for M82 and Arp 220), or obtained by ourselves from the European VLBI Network (Arp 299-A). Our main goal was to characterize the nuclear starbursts in those galaxies and thus test scenarios that propose that nuclear disks of sizes ~100 pc form in the central regions of starburst galaxies. We obtained the radial distribution of super...

  16. Optical antennas and plasmonics

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Q-Han

    2009-01-01

    Optical antenna is a nanoscale miniaturization of radio or microwave antennas that is also governed by the rule of plasmonics. We introduce various types of optical antenna and make an overview of recent developments in optical antenna research. The role of local and surface plasmons in optical antenna is explained through antenna resonance and resonance conditions for specific metal structures are explicitly obtained. Strong electric field is shown to exist within a highly localized region o...

  17. Presence of Arp specifically contributes to joint tissue edema associated with early-onset Lyme arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Petronella R; Haldorson, Gary J; Magunda, Forgivemore; Bankhead, Troy

    2014-01-01

    Antiserum to the Borrelia burgdorferi arthritis-related protein, Arp, has been shown to prevent or reduce arthritis in immunodeficient mice. To directly investigate the requirement for this lipoprotein in the generation of Lyme arthritis, we utilized targeted deletion to generate a B. burgdorferi clone that lacked only the arp gene locus. Infection of Lyme disease-susceptible C3H/HeN mice with the arp deletion mutant demonstrated significantly reduced tibiotarsal joint swelling during the first 6 weeks of infection compared to a wild-type control. The severity of joint swelling was restored to wild-type levels in mice infected with an arp mutant clone complemented in cis. Interestingly, the reduced swelling of joint tissues exhibited by mice infected with the arp deletion mutant did not directly correspond to reduced underlying arthritis. Histopathology data at 2 weeks postinfection showed some reduction in arthritis severity caused by the arp mutant clone; however, by 8 weeks, no significant difference was observed between joint tissues infected by the wild-type or arp mutant clones. The spirochete load in the joint tissues of mice infected with the arp mutant was found to be greater than that exhibited by the wild-type control. Our findings demonstrate that this lipoprotein contributes to the generation of early-onset joint swelling and suggests that arp expression has a negative secondary effect on total spirochete numbers in joint tissues.

  18. Antennas in inhomogeneous media

    CERN Document Server

    Galejs, Janis; Fock, V A; Wait, J R

    2013-01-01

    Antennas in Inhomogeneous Media details the methods of analyzing antennas in such inhomogeneous media. The title covers the complex geometrical configurations along with its variational formulations. The coverage of the text includes various conditions the antennas are subjected to, such as antennas in the interface between two media; antennas in compressible isotropic plasma; and linear antennas in a magnetoionic medium. The selection also covers insulated loops in lossy media; slot antennas with a stratified dielectric or isotropic plasma layers; and cavity-backed slot antennas. The book wil

  19. The nature of supernovae 2010O and 2010P in Arp 299 - I. Near-infrared and optical evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Kankare, E; Ryder, S; Fraser, M; Pastorello, A; Elias-Rosa, N; Romero-Canizales, C; Alberdi, A; Hentunen, V -P; Herrero-Illana, R; Kotilainen, J; Perez-Torres, M -A; Vaisanen, P

    2013-01-01

    We present near-infrared and optical photometry, plus optical spectroscopy of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) 2010O and 2010P that exploded in two different components of an interacting luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299 within only a few days of one another. SN 2010O is found to be photometrically and spectroscopically similar to many normal Type Ib SNe and our multiwavelength observations of SN 2010P suggest it to be a Type IIb SN. No signs of clear hydrogen features or interaction with the circumstellar medium are evident in the optical spectrum of SN 2010P. We derive estimates for the host galaxy line-of-sight extinctions for both SNe, based on both light-curve and spectroscopic comparison finding consistent results. These methods are also found to provide much more robust estimates of the SN host galaxy reddening than the commonly used empirical relations between extinction and equivalent width of Na I D absorption features. The SN observations also suggest that different extinction laws are ...

  20. Kinematics of Arp 270: gas flows, nuclear activity, and two regimes of star formation

    CERN Document Server

    Zaragoza-Cardiel, J; Beckman, J E; Blasco-Herrera, J; García-Lorenzo, B; Camps, A; Gonzalez-Martin, O; Almeida, C Ramos; Loiseau, N; Gutiérrez, L

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the Arp 270 system (NGC 3395 & NGC 3396) in H{\\alpha} emission using the GH{\\alpha}FaS Fabry-Perot spectrometer on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope (La Palma). In NGC 3396, which is edge-on to us, we detect gas inflow towards the centre, and also axially confined opposed outflows, characteristic of galactic superwinds, and we go on to examine the possibility that there is a shrouded AGN in the nucleus. The combination of surface brightness, velocity and velocity dispersion information enabled us to measure the radii, FWHM, and the masses of 108 HII regions in both galaxies. We find two distinct modes of physical behaviour, for high and lower luminosity regions. We note that the most luminous regions show especially high values for their velocity dispersions and hypothesize that these occur because the higher luminosity regions form from higher mass, gravitationally bound clouds while those at lower luminosity HII regions form within molecular clouds of lower mass, which are pressure co...

  1. High-Resolution Radio Continuum Measurements of the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Barcos-Muñoz, Loreto; Evans, Aaron S; Privon, George C; Armus, Lee; Condon, Jim; Mazzarella, Joseph M; Meier, David S; Momjian, Emmanuel; Murphy, Eric J; Ott, Juerguen; Reichardt, Ashely; Sakamoto, Kazushi; Sanders, David B; Schinnerer, Eva; Stierwalt, Sabrina; Surace, Jason A; Thompson, Todd A; Walter, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These images have both the angular resolution to study detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the system and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, and with a resolution of 0".081 x 0".063 (29.9 x 23.3 pc), we resolve the emission surrounding both nuclei and conclude that is mostly synchrotron in nature. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (~ mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate high luminosity surface densities of $\\mathrm{\\Sigma_{IR} \\sim 4.2^{+1.6}_{-0.7} \\...

  2. The nature of supernovae 2010O and 2010P in Arp 299 - II. Radio emission

    CERN Document Server

    Romero-Cañizales, C; Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Kankare, E; Bauer, F E; Ryder, S D; Mattila, S; Conway, J E; Beswick, R J; Muxlow, T W B

    2014-01-01

    We report radio observations of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe), 2010O and 2010P, which exploded within a few days of each other in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299. Whilst SN 2010O remains undetected at radio frequencies, SN 2010P was detected (with an astrometric accuracy better than 1 milli arcsec in position) in its optically thin phase in epochs ranging from ~1 to ~3yr after its explosion date, indicating a very slow radio evolution and a strong interaction of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium. Our late-time radio observations toward SN 2010P probe the dense circumstellar envelope of this SN, and imply a mass-loss rate (Msun/yr) to wind velocity (in units of 10 km/s) ratio of (3.0-5.1)E-05, with a 5 GHz peak luminosity of ~1.2E+27 erg/s/Hz on day ~464 after explosion. This is consistent with a Type IIb classification for SN 2010P, making it the most distant and most slowly evolving Type IIb radio SN detected to date.

  3. The nature of supernovae 2010O and 2010P in Arp 299 - II. Radio emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cañizales, C.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Alberdi, A.; Kankare, E.; Bauer, F. E.; Ryder, S. D.; Mattila, S.; Conway, J. E.; Beswick, R. J.; Muxlow, T. W. B.

    2014-05-01

    We report radio observations of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe), 2010O and 2010P, which exploded within a few days of each other in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299. Whilst SN 2010O remains undetected at radio frequencies, SN 2010P was detected (with an astrometric accuracy better than 1 milli arcsec in position) in its optically thin phase in epochs ranging from ˜1 to ˜3 yr after its explosion date, indicating a very slow radio evolution and a strong interaction of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium. Our late-time radio observations towards SN 2010P probe the dense circumstellar envelope of this SN, and imply dot{M} [ {M_{⊙} yr^{-1}}] / v_{wind} [10 km s^{-1}] =(3.0-5.1) × 10-5, with a 5 GHz peak luminosity of ˜1.2 × 1027 erg s- 1 Hz- 1 on day ˜464 after explosion. This is consistent with a Type IIb classification for SN 2010P, making it the most distant and most slowly evolving Type IIb radio SN detected to date.

  4. The Submillimeter Array 1.3 mm line survey of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S; Martin-Pintado, J; Aalto, S; Zhao, J -H; Peck, A B; Petitpas, G R; Greve, T; Monje, R; Greve, T R; An, T

    2010-01-01

    We present the first aperture synthesis unbiased spectral line survey toward an extragalactic object. The survey covered the 40 GHz frequency range between 202 and 242 GHz of the 1.3 mm atmospheric window. We find that 80% of the observed band shows molecular emission, with 73 features identified from 15 molecular species and 6 isotopologues. The 13C isotopic substitutions of HC3N and transitions from H2(18)O, 29SiO, and CH2CO are detected for the first time outside the Galaxy. Within the broad observed band, we estimate that 28% of the total measured flux is due to the molecular line contribution, with CO only contributing 9% to the overall flux. We present maps of the CO emission at a resolution of 2.9"x1.9" which, though not enough to resolve the two nuclei, recover all the single-dish flux. The 40 GHz spectral scan has been modelled assuming LTE conditions and abundances are derived for all identified species. The chemical composition of Arp 220 shows no clear evidence of an AGN impact on the molecular em...

  5. Feeding and feedback in radio galaxies of the local universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Guilherme dos Santos

    2016-10-01

    We present integral field spectroscopic data covering the inner kiloparsecs of four radio galaxies of the local Universe (zGMOS-IFU instrument of the Gemini telescopes. We use these data to analyze the gas excitation and kinematics via two-dimensional maps. Using the flux distributions of the emission lines, we identify extended emission in ionized gas up to the edges of the observed field, which corresponds to 1.7 kpc x 2.5 kpc for Arp 102B, 2.5 kpc x 3.4 kpc for Pictor A, 4.0 kpc x 5.8 kpc for 3C 33 and 4.3 kpc x 6.2 kpc for 4C +29.30. The extended line emitting gas displays structures resembling rotating disks, spiral arms and bars. Line ratios indicate that both photons from the nuclear source and shocks originated in the interaction of the radio jet with circumnuclear gas are ionizing mechanisms of the gas. Line ratio values are typical of Seyfert galaxies for 3C 33 and 4C +29.30, while intermediate values between Seyferts and LINERs are observed in Arp 102B. Pictor A galaxy, however, shows low values of [NII]/Ha=0.15-0.25, expected for HII regions. We suggest that these values are observed due to the low gas metallicity (12+log(O/H)=8.39). Centroid velocity maps show that the gas kinematics is dominated by rotation only in Arp 102B and 3C 33. Outflows are observed in the galaxies Arp 102B, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30. We obtain mass outflow rates of 0.32-0.49 Msun per year, but the outflow kinetic power is small, ranging 0.04-0.07% of the AGN bolometric luminosity, indicating that the feedback has little impact in the host galaxies evolution. The high masses of ionized gas, ranging from 7.4E7 to 4.6E8 Msun, and the fact that these galaxies are early-type, suggest an external origin of the gas. Indeed, it is observed evidence of interaction with companion galaxies in Arp 102B, Pictor A and 4C +29.30. We suggest that the capture of mass has triggered the nuclear activity in these galaxies, with the high masses feeding not only the SMBH but also being a possible source

  6. Computer controlled antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raumann, N. A.

    1972-01-01

    The application of small computers using digital techniques for operating the servo and control system of large antennas is discussed. The advantages of the system are described. The techniques were evaluated with a forty foot antenna and the Sigma V computer. Programs have been completed which drive the antenna directly without the need for a servo amplifier, antenna position programmer or a scan generator.

  7. Optical antenna gain. I - Transmitting antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM-00 mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  8. Optical antenna gain. 1: transmitting antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, B J; Degnan, J J

    1974-09-01

    The gain of centrally obscured optical transmitting antennas is analyzed in detail. The calculations, resulting in near- and far-field antenna gain patterns, assume a circular antenna illuminated by a laser operating in the TEM(00) mode. A simple polynomial equation is derived for matching the incident source distribution to a general antenna configuration for maximum on-axis gain. An interpretation of the resultant gain curves allows a number of auxiliary design curves to be drawn that display the losses in antenna gain due to pointing errors and the cone angle of the beam in the far field as a function of antenna aperture size and its central obscuration. The results are presented in a series of graphs that allow the rapid and accurate evaluation of the antenna gain which may then be substituted into the conventional range equation.

  9. The structural basis of actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Isabelle; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Amann, Kurt J; Egile, Coumaran; Nickell, Stephan; Nicastro, Daniela; Li, Rong; Pollard, Thomas D; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2008-03-10

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex mediates the formation of branched actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells and in the comet tails moving certain intracellular pathogens. Crystal structures of the Arp2/3 complex are available, but the architecture of the junction formed by the Arp2/3 complex at the base of the branch was not known. In this study, we use electron tomography to reconstruct the branch junction with sufficient resolution to show how the Arp2/3 complex interacts with the mother filament. Our analysis reveals conformational changes in both the mother filament and Arp2/3 complex upon branch formation. The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits reorganize into a dimer, providing a short-pitch template for elongation of the daughter filament. Two subunits of the mother filament undergo conformational changes that increase stability of the branch. These data provide a rationale for why branch formation requires cooperative interactions among the Arp2/3 complex, nucleation-promoting factors, an actin monomer, and the mother filament.

  10. PWR Cross Section Libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, Carolyn [Texas A& M University; Ilas, Germina [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% 235U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time.

  11. Expression and Functional Identification of arpA in E. coli%大肠杆菌arpA基因的表达及功能鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶张欢; 赵旵军; 郑恩霞; 朱国萍

    2010-01-01

    E.coli的arpA基因位于异柠檬酸脱氢酶激酶(aceK)基因和异柠檬酸裂解酶调节因子基因(iclR)之间.根据E.coli基因组序列设计引物,利用PCR技术扩增了arpA基因,并将其克隆入pET-28b(+).经IPTG诱导,ArpA蛋白可以获得高效表达.通过细菌染色体同源重组技术,构建arpA基因敲除菌株ΔarpA-MG1655.ΔarpA-MG1655在葡萄糖-MOPS培养基中的生长速率和野生型E.coli MG1655的生长速率很接近,前者约是后者的95%.ΔarpA-MG1655在乙酸-MOPS培养基中的生长速率几乎与野生型E.coli MG1655一样,说明ArpA对细菌在乙酸-MOPS培养基中的生长没有明显的影响,对乙酰辅酶A合成酶(Acs)没有明显的调控作用.ArpA包含锚蛋白重复序列,与很多真核生物包含锚蛋白重复序列的蛋白质高度同源,分子系统学分析认为一些在病毒和细菌中发现的锚蛋白重复类似蛋白,可能是进化过程中基因水平迁移的结果.

  12. Height biases and scale variations in VLBI networks due to antenna gravitational deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondanza, Claudio; Sarti, Pierguido; Petrov, Leonid; Negusini, Monia

    2010-05-01

    The impact of signal path variations (SPVs) caused by antenna gravity deformations on geodetic VLBI results is evaluated for the first time. Elevation-dependent models of SPV for Medicina and Noto (Italy) telescopes were derived from a combination of terrestrial surveying methods to account for gravitational deformations. After applying these models, estimates of the antenna reference point (ARP) positions are shifted upward by 8.9 mm and 6.7 mm, respectively. The impact on other parameters is negligible. To infer the impact of antenna gravity deformations on the entire VLBI network, lacking measurements for other telescopes, we rescaled the SPV models of Medicina and Noto for other antennas according to their size. The effects are changes in VLBI heights in the range [-3,73] mm and a significant net scale increase of 0.3 - 0.8 ppb. This demonstrates the need to include SPV models in routine VLBI data analysis.

  13. The nuclear starburst in Arp 299-A: from the 5.0 GHz VLBI radio light-curves to its core-collapse supernova rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondi, M.; Pérez-Torres, M. A.; Herrero-Illana, R.; Alberdi, A.

    2012-03-01

    Context. The nuclear region of the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299-A hosts a recent ( ≃ 10 Myr) intense burst of massive star formation that is expected to lead to numerous core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). Previous VLBI observations, carried out with the European VLBI Network (EVN) at 5.0 GHz and with the VLBA at 2.3 and 8.4 GHz, resulted in the detection of many compact, bright, non-thermal sources in a region ≲ 150 pc in size. Aims: We aim to establish the nature of all non-thermal compact components in Arp 299-A, as well as to estimate its core-collapse supernova rate. While the majority of the compact components are expected to be young radio supernovae (RSNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs), a definitive classification is still lacking. Yet, this is very relevant for eventually establishing the CCSN rate, as well as the star formation rate, for this galaxy. Methods: We used multi-epoch EVN observations taken at 5.0 GHz to image the compact radio sources in the nuclear region of Arp 299-A with milliarcsecond resolution. We also used one single-epoch 5.0 GHz Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) observation to image the extended emission in which these compact radio sources are embedded. Results: We present the first 5.0 GHz radio light-curve (spanning ~2.5 yr) of all compact components in the nuclear starburst of Arp 299-A. Twenty-six compact sources are detected, eight of which are new objects. The properties of all detected objects are consistent with them being a mixed population of CCSNe and SNRs. We find clear evidence for at least two new CCSNe, implying a lower limit to the CCSN rate of νSN ≳ 0.80 SN/yr, indicating that the bulk of the current star formation in Arp 299-A is taking place in the innermost ~150 pc.A few more objects show variability consistent with them being recently exploded SNe, but only future observations will clarify this point. Our MERLIN observations trace a region of diffuse extended emission that

  14. Theoretical modelling of the diffuse emission of gamma-rays from extreme regions of star formation: The case of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, D F

    2004-01-01

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary an...

  15. Flexible plasma linear antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiansen; Wang, Shengzheng; Wu, Huafeng; Liu, Yue; Chang, Yongmeng; Chen, Xinqiang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we introduce a type of plasma antenna that was fabricated using flexible materials and excited using a 5-20 kHz alternating current (ac) power supply. The results showed that the antenna characteristics, including the impedance, the reflection coefficient (S11), the radiation pattern, and the gain, can be controlled rapidly and easily by varying both the discharge parameters and the antenna shapes. The scope for reconfiguration is greatly enhanced when the antenna shape is changed from a monopole to a helix configuration. Additionally, the antenna polarization can also be adjusted by varying the antenna shapes.

  16. Infrared polarimetry and the magnetic field in external galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry Jay

    1990-01-01

    Here researchers report for the first time infrared polarimetry of the normal edge on spiral NGC 4565 and the interacting pair NGC 3690/IC 694 (Arp 299). These observations, as well as previous observations, were made with the Minnesota Infrared Polarimeter on the Space Infrared Telescope Facility during the past year. The goal is to explore the magnetic field geometry in these galaxies and to determine the extent to which the field is ordered and uniform.

  17. The actin family protein ARP6 contributes to the structure and the function of the nucleolus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Haruka; Kalendova, Alzbeta; Hozak, Pavel; Goldberg, Ilya G; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Saitoh, Noriko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-08-21

    The actin family members, consisting of actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), are essential components of chromatin remodeling complexes. ARP6, one of the nuclear ARPs, is part of the Snf-2-related CREB-binding protein activator protein (SRCAP) chromatin remodeling complex, which promotes the deposition of the histone variant H2A.Z into the chromatin. In this study, we showed that ARP6 influences the structure and the function of the nucleolus. ARP6 is localized in the central region of the nucleolus, and its knockdown induced a morphological change in the nucleolus. We also found that in the presence of high concentrations of glucose ARP6 contributed to the maintenance of active ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription by placing H2A.Z into the chromatin. In contrast, under starvation, ARP6 was required for cell survival through the repression of rDNA transcription independently of H2A.Z. These findings reveal novel pleiotropic roles for the actin family in nuclear organization and metabolic homeostasis.

  18. HIGH-RESOLUTION RADIO CONTINUUM MEASUREMENTS OF THE NUCLEAR DISKS OF Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcos-Muñoz, L.; Evans, A. S.; Privon, G. C.; Stierwalt, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, 530 McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Leroy, A. K.; Condon, J.; Reichardt, A. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Armus, L. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, MC 220-6, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Mazzarella, J. M.; Murphy, E. J. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Meier, D. S. [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Momjian, E.; Ott, J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, 1003 Lopezville Road, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Sakamoto, K. [Academia Sinica, Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Sanders, D. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96816 (United States); Schinnerer, E.; Walter, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Surace, J. A. [Spitzer Science Center, MS 314-6, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Thompson, T. A., E-mail: ldb7et@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We present new Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array radio continuum images of the nuclei of Arp 220, the nearest ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. These new images have both the angular resolution to study the detailed morphologies of the two nuclei that power the galaxy merger and sensitivity to a wide range of spatial scales. At 33 GHz, we achieve a resolution of 0.''081 × 0.''063 (29.9 × 23.3 pc) and resolve the radio emission surrounding both nuclei. We conclude from the decomposition of the radio spectral energy distribution that a majority of the 33 GHz emission is synchrotron radiation. The spatial distributions of radio emission in both nuclei are well described by exponential profiles. These have deconvolved half-light radii (R {sub 50d}) of 51 and 35 pc for the eastern and western nuclei, respectively, and they match the number density profile of radio supernovae observed with very long baseline interferometry. This similarity might be due to the fast cooling of cosmic rays electrons caused by the presence of a strong (∼mG) magnetic field in this system. We estimate extremely high molecular gas surface densities of 2.2{sub −1.0}{sup +2.1}×10{sup 5} (east) and 4.5{sub −1.9}{sup +4.5}×10{sup 5} (west) M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}, corresponding to total hydrogen column densities of N {sub H} = 2.7{sub −1.2}{sup +2.7}×10{sup 25} (east) and 5.6{sub −2.4}{sup +5.5}×10{sup 25} cm{sup –2} (west). The implied gas volume densities are similarly high, n{sub H{sub {sub 2}}}∼3.8{sub −1.6}{sup +3.8}×10{sup 4} (east) and ∼11{sub −4.5}{sup +12}×10{sup 4} cm{sup –3} (west). We also estimate very high luminosity surface densities of Σ{sub IR}∼4.2{sub −0.7}{sup +1.6}×10{sup 13} (east) and Σ{sub IR}∼9.7{sub −2.4}{sup +3.7}×10{sup 13} (west) L{sub ⊙} kpc{sup −2}, and star formation rate surface densities of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 3.7} {sup ±} {sup 0.1} (east) and Σ{sub SFR} ∼ 10{sup 4.1} {sup ±} {sup 0.1}(west) M

  19. Structures of Local Galaxies Compared to High Redshift Star-forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Petty, Sara M; Gallagher, John S; Gardner, Jonathan P; Lotz, Jennifer M; Mountain, C Matt; Smith, Linda J

    2009-01-01

    The rest-frame far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 8, NGC 520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) are compared with 54 galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 46 galaxies at z ~ 4 observed in the GOODS-ACS field. The nearby sample is artificially redshifted to z ~ 1.5 and 4. We compare the simulated galaxy morphologies to real z ~ 1.5 and 4 UV-bright galaxy morphologies. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second-order moment of the brightest 20% of the galaxy's flux (M_20), and the Sersic index (n). We explore the use of nonparametric methods with 2D profile fitting and find the combination of M_20 with n an efficient method to classify galaxies as having merger, exponential disk, or bulge-like morphologies. When classified according to G and M_20, 20/30% of real/simulated galaxies at z ~ 1.5 and 37/12% at z ~ 4 have bulge-like morphologies. The rest have merger-like or intermediate distributions. Alternatively, when classified according to the Se...

  20. Apigenin Attenuates Oxidative Injury in ARPE-19 Cells thorough Activation of Nrf2 Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Xinrong Xu; Min Li; Weiwei Chen; Haitao Yu; Yan Yang; Li Hang

    2016-01-01

    The current study was aimed at evaluating the therapeutic implication of apigenin and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. The tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) at 200 μM was used to induce oxidative stress-associated injury in ARPE-19 cells. Apigenin at concentrations less than 800 μM did not cause cytotoxic effects on ARPE-19 cells. Cell viability assay showed that apigenin at 200 μM significantly promoted cell survival in t-BHP-treated ARPE-19 cells. Additionally, apigenin at 100 μM signi...

  1. MERLIN radio observations of two recent supernovae in Arp299: SN2010O & SN2010P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beswick, R. J.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Mattila, S.; Garrington, S. T.; Kankare, E.; Ryder, S.; Alberdi, A.; Romero-Canizales, C.

    2010-02-01

    We report MERLIN radio observations of the two recent supernovae in Arp299; SN2010P and SN2010O (CBET #2145 and CBET #2144, respectively). Observations of Arp299 were made between 1900UT 29th Jan 2010 and 0150UT 1st Feb 2010 at 4994MHz. The previously known compact radio structure of Arp299, including the nuclear starburst components associated with A=IC694 and B1=the southernmost nucleus of NGC3690 are detected (Neff, Ulvestad & Teng 2004, ApJ, 611, 186; Ulvestad 2009 AJ, 138, 152; Perez-Torres et al 2009, A&A 507, 17).

  2. Antenna Pattern Range (APR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheAntenna Pattern Range (APR)features a non-metallic arch with a trolley to move the transmit antenna from the horizon to zenith. At the center of the ground plane,...

  3. Antenna Structure Registrate

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This file is an extract of the Antenna Structure Registrate (ASR). The ASR consists of antenna structures that are more than 60.96 meters (200 feet) in height or...

  4. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  5. Cross Resonant Optical Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Huang, J. S.; Duò, L.; Finazzi, M.; Hecht, B.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  6. The Antenna Bride and Bridegroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    northern Chile, will provide astronomers with the world's most advanced tool for exploring the Universe at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA will detect fainter objects and be able to produce much higher-quality images at these wavelengths than any previous telescope system. Scientists are eager to use this transformational capability to study the first stars and galaxies that formed in the early Universe, to learn long-sought details about how stars are formed, and to trace the motion of gas and dust as it whirls toward the surface of newly-formed stars and planets. "The success of this test is fundamental proof that the hardware and software now under development for ALMA will work to produce a truly revolutionary astronomical tool," said Massimo Tarenghi, the ALMA Director. In addition to the leading-edge electronic and electro-optical hardware and custom software that proved itself by producing ALMA's first fringes, the system's antennas are among the most advanced in the world. The stringent requirements for the antennas included extremely precise reflecting surfaces, highly accurate ability to point at desired locations in the sky, and the ability to operate reliably in the harsh, high-altitude environment of the ALMA site. The ALMA Test Facility operates the two prototype antennas built by Alcatel Alenia Space and European Industrial Engineering in Europe, and by VertexRSI (USA). These antennas were evaluated individually at the ATF. Both prototypes were equipped with electronic equipment for receiving, digitizing and transmitting signals to a central facility, where the signals are combined to make the antennas work together as a single astronomical instrument. "The successful achievement of recording the first fringes with two ALMA antennas is certainly an important milestone in the scientific program," said Hans Rykaczewski, the European ALMA Project Manager. "It is encouraging and adds to our motivation to see that the principles of ALMA work - not

  7. Coherently combining antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  8. Spitzer Observations of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Higdon, Sarah J U

    2007-01-01

    We present Spitzer observations of Tidal Dwarf Galaxies (TDGs) in three interacting systems: NGC 5291, Arp105 and Stephan's Quintet. The spectra show bright emission from polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nebular lines and warm molecular hydrogen, characteristic of recent episodes of star formation. The PAH emission that falls in the IRAC 8.0 micron band leads to the TDGs having an extremely red IRAC color, with [4.5] - [8.0] > 3. The emission from PAHs is characterized by a model with mainly neutral 100-C PAH atoms.

  9. Ring galaxies as the cradle for ULXs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anna

    2015-08-01

    Ring galaxies are unique laboratories where the effects of galaxy interactions can be studied and the final stages of stellar evolution investigated. They are characterized by high star formation rates (SFR) and low metallicity, which favours the formation of high mass remnants. The few ring galaxies for which high resolution X-ray data are available show enhanced X-ray emission, and large numbers of Ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Due to the peculiar morphology of ring galaxies, detected point sources in the ring are very likely to be physically associated with the galaxy, reducing the problem of contamination from spurious sources which affects other samples. However the evidence in the X-ray band is based on a very scanty sample of four galaxies.In order to find an unbiased sample with which to compare these findings, we have selected all the peculiar galaxies labelled as collisional rings with a spectroscopic redshift z<0.02 from the Arp & Madore `Catalogue of southern peculiar galaxies and associations'. This selection produces a sample of 12 galaxies which we have observed with Chandra and XMM-Newton. We will discuss the results of these observations and support for current models that propose low metallicity environments as the ideal cradle for ULXs. We will compare the results from this statistically selected sample with those from brighter and known ring galaxies in order to asses the likelihood to find IMBHs due to collision events. We will address the presence of other signs of interaction, from high SFR to multiwavelenght morphology and spectra (eg. IR, Halpha..).

  10. Sixth Harmonic of A Nd:YVO4 Laser Generation In KBBF for ARPES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yong; LIU Guo-Dong; DONG Xiao-Li; ZHOU Xing-Jiang; WANG Gui-Ling; LI Cheng-Ming; PENG Qin-Jun; CUI Da-Fu; XU Zu-Yan; WANG Xiao-Yang; ZHU Yong; CHEN Chuang-Tian

    2008-01-01

    @@ We report that a deep ultraviolet (DUV)laser from the sixth harmonic of a 1064nm laser has been firstly used as light source in an ultrahigh energy-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy(ARPES).The wavelength is 177.3nm obtained by using the second harmonic KBe2BO3F2 crystal with a frequency tripled 1064nm Nd:YVO4 laser.The large flux(1014-1015 photons/s)and narrow line width (0.26meV)are suitable for the ultrahigh-energy resolution ARPEs.The laser-ARPES can be a powerful tool to study the electronic structure at and near the Fermi level of the superconductor and correlated materials,The laser-ARPES has worked more than 500h already.

  11. The gas content of peculiar galaxies: strongly interacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casasola, V; Galletta, G

    2004-01-01

    A study of the gas content in 1038 interacting galaxies, essentially selected from Arp, Arp and Madore, Vorontsov-Velyaminov catalogues and some of the published literature, is presented here. The data on the interstellar medium have been extracted from a number of sources in the literature and compared with a sample of 1916 normal galaxies. The mean values for each of the different ISM tracers (FIR, 21 cm, CO lines, X-ray) have been estimated by means of survival analysis techniques, in order to take into account the presence of upper limits. From the data it appears that interacting galaxies have a higher gas content than normal ones. Galaxies classified as ellipticals have both a dust and gas content one order of magnitude higher than normal. Spirals have in most part a normal dust and HI content but an higher molecular gas mass. The X-ray luminosity also appears higher than that of normal galaxies of same morphological type, both including or excluding AGNs. We considered the alternative possibilities tha...

  12. Expression and purification of human ARP1 protein and rapid preparation of polyclonal antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mingjuan; Zou, Rongjiang; Dong, Xiaoyi; Zong, Ying; Gao, Yun; Wang, Lianghua; Jiao, Binghua

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-related protein 1 (ARP1) is one of the antiangiogenic factors and plays an important role in endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and blood vessel network formation. Here a rapid method to prepare ARP1 polyclonal antibody in 1 month was developed. The gene of fibrinogen homology domain (FD) for ARP1 was cloned and the protein was expressed in a soluble form of MBP-FD fused protein. The MBP-FD protein was purified using amylose affinity chromatography of maltose-binding protein. Polyclonal antibodies against MBP-FD were obtained through immunization in BALB/c mice. The titer was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the antibody specificity was assessed by Western blot. The full-length ARP1 protein in stable form expressed in transfected human large lung cancer cell lines NCI-H460 was detected by immunocytochemistry (ICC) analysis using ARP1 polyclonal antibodies. The result shows that the antibody possesses good specificity and sensitivity. This work provides a substantial base for the further studies of ARP1 function and associated mechanisms. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  13. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Scoville, Nick; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Bout, Paul Vanden; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well-resolved for the first time.In the more luminous West nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends to 0.2\\arcsec radius (80 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ($\\tau_{\\rm 2.6mm} \\sim1$) at $\\lambda = 2.6$ mm with a dust emission brightness temperature $\\sim120$ K. The column of ISM at this nucleus is $\\rm N_{H2} \\geq 2\\times10^{26}$ cm$^{-2}$, corresponding to A$_V = 10^6$ mag and 1000 gr cm$^{-2}$. The East nucleus is somewhat more elongated with radial extent 0.3\\arcsec or $\\sim120$ pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles sampled every 50 mas, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves and velocity dispersio...

  14. Two Compton-Thick Active Nuclei in Arp 220?

    CERN Document Server

    Paggi, Alessandro; Risaliti, Guido; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band spectral imaging with sub-pixel resolution of the Chandra-ACIS archival observation of the ULIRG merger Arp 220 strongly suggests two Compton thick nuclei, spatially coincident with the infrared and radio emitting nuclear clusters, and separated by 1" (~ 365 pc at a distance of 76 Mpc). These previously undetected highly obscured AGNs - West (W) and East (E) - are imaged, and separated from neighboring sources, in the 6-7 keV band, where the Fe-K lines dominate the emission. The western nucleus is also detected at energies above 7 keV. We estimate Fe-K equivalent width ~ 1 keV or possibly greater for both sources, and observed 2-10 keV luminosities L_X < 3.2 x 10^40 erg/s (W) and <1.3 x 10^40 erg/s (E). From the observed Fe-K lines luminosities{, and assuming on the basis of the XMM-Newton spectrum that 40% of this may be from the 6.4 keV component, we evaluate 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities L_X ~ 1 x 10^42 erg/s (W) and L_X ~ 0.4 x 10^42 erg/s (E). The inferred X-ray luminosity is at least...

  15. The Arecibo Arp 220 Spectral Census I: Discovery of the Pre-Biotic Molecule Methanimine and New Cm-wavelength Transitions of Other Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Salter, C J; Catinella, B; Lebron, M; Lerner, M S; Minchin, R; Momjian, E

    2008-01-01

    An on-going Arecibo line search between 1.1 and 10 GHz of the prototypical starburst/megamaser galaxy, Arp 220, has revealed a spectrum rich in molecular transitions. These include the ``pre-biotic'' molecules: methanimine (CH$_{2}$NH) in emission, three $v_{2}=1$ direct l-type absorption lines of HCN, and an absorption feature likely to be from either $^{18}$OH or formic acid (HCOOH). In addition, we report the detection of two, possibly three, transitions of $\\lambda$4-cm excited OH not previously detected in Arp~220 which are seen in absorption, and a possible absorption feature from the 6.668-GHz line of methanol. This marks the first distant extragalactic detection of methanimine, a pre-biotic molecule. Also, if confirmed, the possible methanol absorption line presented here would represent the first extragalactic detection of methanol at a distance further than 10 Mpc. In addition, the strong, previously undetected, cm-wave HCN $v_{2}=1$ direct l-type lines will aid the study of dense molecular gas and ...

  16. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galametz, M.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Immer, K.; Humphreys, E.; Aladro, R.; De Breuck, C.; Ginsburg, A.; Madden, S. C.; Møller, P.; Arumugam, V.

    2016-10-01

    We present a line survey of the ultraluminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA (Swedish-European Southern Observatory PI receiver for APEX) Band 5 instrument on APEX (Atacama Pathfinder Experiment). We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3) and HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2 = 1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favour a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC and HCO+ refine our knowledge of the interstellar medium physical conditions in Arp 220.

  17. Water, methanol and dense gas tracers in the local ULIRG Arp 220: Results from the new SEPIA Band 5 Science Verification campaign

    CERN Document Server

    Galametz, M; Immer, K; Humphreys, E; Aladro, R; De Breuck, C; Ginsburg, A; Madden, S C; Møller, P; Arumugam, V

    2016-01-01

    We present a line survey of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Arp 220, taken with the newly installed SEPIA Band 5 instrument on APEX. We illustrate the capacity of SEPIA to detect the 183.3 GHz H2O 31,3-22,0 line against the atmospheric H2O absorption feature. We confirm the previous detection of the HCN(2-1) line, and detect new transitions of standard dense gas tracers such as HNC(2-1), HCO+(2-1), CS(4-3), C34S(4-3), HC3N(20-19). We also detect HCN(2-1) v2=1 and the 193.5 GHz methanol (4-3) group for the first time. The absence of time variations in the megamaser water line compared to previous observations seems to rule out an AGN nuclear origin for the line. It could, on the contrary, favor a thermal origin instead, but also possibly be a sign that the megamaser emission is associated with star-forming cores washed-out in the beam. We finally discuss how the new transitions of HCN, HNC, HCO+ refine our knowledge of the ISM physical conditions in Arp 220.

  18. Subarcsecond international LOFAR radio images of Arp 220 at 150 MHz: A kpc-scale star forming disk surrounding nuclei with shocked outflows

    CERN Document Server

    Varenius, E; Martí-Vidal, I; Aalto, S; Barcos-Muñoz, L; König, S; Pérez-Torres, M A; Deller, A T; Moldón, J; Gallagher, J S; Yoast-Hull, T M; Horellou, C; Morabito, L K; Alberdi, A; Jackson, N; Beswick, R; Carozzi, T D; Wucknitz, O; Ramírez-Olivencia, N

    2016-01-01

    We analyse new observations with the International Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) telescope, and archival data from the Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA). We model the spatially resolved radio spectrum of Arp 220 from 150 MHz to 33 GHz. We present an image of Arp 220 at 150 MHz with resolution $0.65''\\times0.35''$, sensitivity 0.15 mJy beam$^{-1}$, and integrated flux density $394\\pm59$ mJy. More than 80% of the detected flux comes from extended ($6''\\approx$2.2 kpc) steep spectrum ($\\alpha=-0.7$) emission, likely from star formation in the molecular disk surrounding the two nuclei. We find elongated features extending $0.3''$ (110 pc) and $0.9''$ (330 pc) from the eastern and western nucleus respectively, which we interpret as evidence for outflows. The extent of radio emission requires acceleration of cosmic rays far outside the nuclei. We find that a simple three component model can explain most of the observed radio spectrum of the galaxy...

  19. Dielectrically Loaded Biconical Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusseibeh, Fouad Ahmed

    1995-01-01

    Biconical antennas are of great interest to those who deal with broadband applications including the transmission/reception of pulses. In particular, wide-angle conical antennas are an attractive choice in many applications including Electronic Support Measures (ESM) and the measurements of transient surface currents and charge densities on aircraft. Dielectric loading in the interior region of a conical antenna can be used to reduce the size of the antenna especially at low frequencies and/or for structural strength. Therefore, having an analytical solution for the input impedance and the frequency response is very helpful in optimizing the design and understanding the behavior of the antenna. From the quasi-analytical solution for the input impedance and the electric field of a wide-angle conical antenna, it can be seen that the dielectric loading in the antenna region improves the input impedance at low frequencies, but increases the number of resonance points and the magnitude of these peaks. When an inhomogeneous dielectric load is used, the magnitude of the resonance peaks is decreased (depending on the way the load is distributed), improving the input impedance of the antenna significantly. Introducing a dielectric load in the interior region of an electrically short receiving cone makes the antenna behave as an electrically longer antenna. However, this is not true for the case for electrical1y long antennas. For the case of pulse transmission, the dielectric load affects only the amplitude. Of course, if the dielectric fills the whole space, both transmitting and receiving antennas behave as electrically longer antennas.

  20. Microstrip antennas in subsurface sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volgyi, Ferenc

    2000-07-01

    This paper reviews the various applications of microstrip antennas with special emphasis on subsurface sensing, microwave moisture measurement and nondestructive testing of dielectric materials. With reference to the literature, we first describe the commonly used GPR-antennas, the printed Vivaldi-antennas, and microstrip antennas used in moisture content measurement. Furthermore, attention is given to the problems of new antenna technologies, showing examples for active integrated antennas, a photonic band gap patch antenna and a silicon micromachined patch antenna. The reminder of the paper summarizes relevant R&D activities in microstrip antennas at BUTE/DMT, focusing on near-field experiments, monitoring of particleboards and WLAN- applications of patch radiators.

  1. Inflowing gas onto a compact obscured nucleus in Arp 299A. Herschel spectroscopic studies of H2O and OH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falstad, N.; González-Alfonso, E.; Aalto, S.; Fischer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We probe the physical conditions in the core of Arp 299A and try to put constraints on the nature of its nuclear power source. Methods: We used Herschel Space Observatory far-infrared and submillimeter observations of H2O and OH rotational lines in Arp 299A to create a multi-component model of the galaxy. In doing this, we employed a spherically symmetric radiative transfer code. Results: Nine H2O lines in absorption and eight in emission, as well as four OH doublets in absorption and one in emission, are detected in Arp 299A. No lines of the 18O isotopologues, which have been seen in compact obscured nuclei of other galaxies, are detected. The absorption in the ground state OH 2Π3/2-2Π3/2(5/2)+-(3/2)- doublet at 119 μm is found redshifted by 175 km s-1 compared with other OH and H2O lines, suggesting a low excitation inflow. We find that at least two components are required in order to account for the excited molecular line spectrum. The inner component has a radius of 20-25 pc, a very high infrared surface brightness (≳3 × 1013L⊙kpc-2), warm dust (Td > 90 K), and a large H2 column density (NH2 > 1024 cm-2). The modeling also indicates high nuclear H2O (1-5 × 10-6) and OH (0.5-5 × 10-5) abundances relative to H nuclei. The outer component is larger (50-100 pc) with slightly cooler dust (70-90 K) and molecular abundances that are approximately one order of magnitude lower. In addition to the two components that account for the excited OH and H2O lines, we require a much more extended inflowing component to account for the OH 2Π3/2-2Π3/2(5/2)+-(3/2)- doublet at 119 μm. Conclusions: The Compton-thick nature of the core makes it difficult to determine the nature of the buried power source, but the high surface brightness indicates that it is an active galactic nucleus and/or a dense nuclear starburst. Our results are consistent with a composite source. The high OH/H2O ratio in the nucleus indicates that ion-neutral chemistry induced by X-rays or

  2. Pre-Starbursts in Luminous IR Galaxies?

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Y; Hwang, C Y; Lo, K Y; Veilleux, S; Gao, Yu; Gruendl, Robert A.

    1997-01-01

    We present first results of our on-going BIMA Key Project: imaging the CO(1-0) emission from a sample of 10 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) that are at various merging stages, with special emphasis on systems apparently in the early/intermediate stages of merging. We present here CO images with $\\sim 5''$ resolution. An important result is the recognition of a plausible pre-starburst phase in some early LIRG mergers (e.g., Arp 302 and NGC 6670). Our initial analysis suggests that a merger-induced starburst phase may not begin before the nuclear separation between the merging galaxies reaches roughly 10 kpc. The surface gas density seems to increase from a few times $10^2 \\Msun pc^{-2} to >10^3 \\Msun pc^{-2}$ while the prominent CO extent systematically decreases as merging progresses.

  3. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  4. Antenna applications of superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, R. C.

    1991-09-01

    The applicability of superconductors to antennas is examined. Potential implementations that are examined are superdirective arrays; electrically small antennas; tuning and matching of these two; high-gain millimeter-wavelength arrays; and kinetic inductance slow wave structures for array phasers and traveling wave array feeds. It is thought that superdirective arrays and small antennas will not benefit directly, but their tuning/matching networks will undergo major improvements. Miniaturization of antennas will not be aided, but much higher gain millimeter-wave arrays will be realizable. Kinetic inductance slow-wave lines appear advantageous for improved array phasers and time delay, as well as for traveling-wave array feeds.

  5. Tunable Handset Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Foroozanfard, Ehsan; Morris, Art

    2017-01-01

    With the future LTE auction for TV white spaces at 600 MHz, there is a strong need for efficient handset antennas operating at very low frequencies. This paper shows a tunable antenna covering the LTE bands from 600 MHz to 2.6 GHz. The antenna uses state-of-the-art MEMS tunable capacitors in order...... to reconfigure its operating frequency. In this work, the design mitigates the tuning loss with a tunable extended ground plane. The resulting dual-resonant antenna exhibits a peak total efficiency of -3.9 dB at 600 MHz....

  6. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  7. MASTER TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island State Dept. of Education, Providence.

    SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE FURNISHING AND INSTALLATION OF TELEVISION MASTER ANTENNA SYSTEMS FOR SECONDARY AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS ARE GIVEN. CONTRACTOR REQUIREMENTS, EQUIPMENT, PERFORMANCE STANDARDS, AND FUNCTIONS ARE DESCRIBED. (MS)

  8. ALMA Resolves the Nuclear Disks of Arp 220

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoville, Nick; Murchikova, Lena; Walter, Fabian; Vlahakis, Catherine; Koda, Jin; Vanden Bout, Paul; Barnes, Joshua; Hernquist, Lars; Sheth, Kartik; Yun, Min; Sanders, David; Armus, Lee; Cox, Pierre; Thompson, Todd; Robertson, Brant; Zschaechner, Laura; Tacconi, Linda; Torrey, Paul; Hayward, Christopher C.; Genzel, Reinhard; Hopkins, Phil; van der Werf, Paul; Decarli, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    We present 90 mas (37 pc) resolution ALMA imaging of Arp 220 in the CO (1-0) line and continuum at λ =2.6 {mm}. The internal gas distribution and kinematics of both galactic nuclei are well resolved for the first time. In the west nucleus, the major gas and dust emission extends out to 0.″2 radius (74 pc); the central resolution element shows a strong peak in the dust emission but a factor of 3 dip in the CO line emission. In this nucleus, the dust is apparently optically thick ({τ }2.6{mm}∼ 1) at λ =2.6 {mm} with a dust brightness temperature of ∼147 K. The column of interstellar matter at this nucleus is {N}{{H}2}≥slant 2× {10}26 cm‑2, corresponding to ∼900 gr cm‑2. The east nucleus is more elongated with radial extent 0.″3 or ∼111 pc. The derived kinematics of the nuclear disks provide a good fit to the line profiles, yielding the emissivity distributions, the rotation curves, and velocity dispersions. In the west nucleus, there is evidence of a central Keplerian component requiring a central mass of 8 × 108 {M}ȯ . The intrinsic widths of the emission lines are {{Δ }}v({FWHM})=250 (west) and 120 (east) km s‑1. Given the very short dissipation timescales for turbulence (≲105 years), we suggest that the line widths may be due to semicoherent motions within the nuclear disks. The symmetry of the nuclear disk structures is impressive, implying the merger timescale is significantly longer than the rotation period of the disks.

  9. Optimization of Storage Temperature for Cultured ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Pasovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The establishment of future retinal pigment epithelium (RPE replacement therapy is partly dependent on the availability of tissue-engineered RPE cells, which may be enhanced by the development of suitable storage methods for RPE. This study investigates the effect of different storage temperatures on the viability, morphology, and phenotype of cultured RPE. Methods. ARPE-19 cells were cultured under standard conditions and stored in HEPES-buffered MEM at nine temperatures (4°C, 8°C, 12°C, 16°C, 20°C, 24°C, 28°C, 32°C, and 37°C for seven days. Viability and phenotype were assessed by a microplate fluorometer and epifluorescence microscopy, while morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Results. The percentage of viable cells preserved after storage was highest in the 16°C group (48.7%±9.8%; P<0.01 compared to 4°C, 8°C, and 24°C–37°C; P<0.05 compared to 12°C. Ultrastructure was best preserved at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C. Expression of actin, ZO-1, PCNA, caspase-3, and RPE65 was maintained after storage at 16°C compared to control cells that were not stored. Conclusion. Out of nine temperatures tested between 4°C and 37°C, storage at 12°C, 16°C, and 20°C was optimal for maintenance of RPE cell viability, morphology, and phenotype. The preservation of RPE cells is critically dependent on storage temperature.

  10. Morphology and Kinematics of Warm Molecular Gas in the Nuclear Region of Arp 220 as Revealed by ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Rangwala, Naseem; Wilson, Christine; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia; Spinoglio, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Cycle-0 observations of the CO J = 6-5 line in the advanced galaxy merger Arp 220. This line traces warm molecular gas, which dominates the total CO luminosity. The CO emission from the two nuclei is well resolved by the 0.39" x 0.22" beam and the exceptional sensitivity and spatial/spectral resolution reveal new complex features in the morphology and kinematics of the warm gas. The line profiles are asymmetric between the red and blue sides of the nuclear disks and the peak of the line emission is offset from the peak of the continuum emission in both nuclei by about 100 pc in the same direction. CO self-absorption is detected at the centers of both nuclei but it is much deeper in the eastern nucleus. We also clearly detect strong, highly redshifted CO absorption located near the southwest side of each nucleus. For the eastern nucleus, we reproduce the major line profile features with a simple kinematic model of a highly turbulent, rotating disk with a substan...

  11. First Results from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project: The Mass of the Black Hole in Arp 151

    CERN Document Server

    Bentz, Misty C; Barth, Aaron J; Baliber, Nairn; Bennert, Nicola; Canalizo, Gabriela; Filippenko, Alexei V; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Gates, Elinor L; Greene, Jenny E; Hidas, Marton G; Hiner, Kyle D; Lee, Nicholas; Li, Weidong; Malkan, Matthew A; Minezaki, Takeo; Serduke, Frank J D; Shiode, Joshua H; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Steele, Thea N; Stern, Daniel; Street, Rachel A; Thornton, Carol E; Treu, Tommaso; Wang, Xiaofeng; Woo, Jong-Hak; Yoshii, Yuzuru

    2008-01-01

    We have recently completed a 64-night spectroscopic monitoring campaign at the Lick Observatory 3-m Shane telescope with the aim of measuring the masses of the black holes in 13 nearby (z < 0.05) Seyfert 1 galaxies with expected masses in the range ~10^6-10^7 M_sun. We present here the first results from this project -- the mass of the central black hole in Arp 151. Strong variability throughout the campaign led to an exceptionally clean Hbeta lag measurement in this object of 4.25(+0.68/-0.66) days in the observed frame. Coupled with the width of the Hbeta emission line in the variable spectrum, we determine a black hole mass of (7.1 +/- 1.2)x10^6 M_sun, assuming the Onken et al. normalization for reverberation-based virial masses. We also find velocity-resolved lag information within the Hbeta emission line which clearly shows infalling gas in the Hbeta-emitting region. Further detailed analysis may lead to a full model of the geometry and kinematics of broad line region gas around the central black hole...

  12. The Hooked Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook

  13. Luminosity profiles of advanced mergers of galaxies using 2MASS data

    CERN Document Server

    Chitre, A; Chitre, Aparna; Jog, Chanda J.

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 27 disturbed galaxies that show signs of interaction but have a single nucleus were selected from the Arp and the Arp-Madore catalogues. For these, the K_s band images from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) are analysed to obtain their radial luminosity profiles and other structural parameters. We find that in spite of their similar optical appearance, the sample galaxies vary in their dynamical properties, and fall into two distinct classes. The first class consists of galaxies which can be described by a single r^{1/4} law and the second class consists of galaxies that show an outer exponential disk. A few galaxies that have disturbed profiles cannot be fit into either of the above classes. However, all the galaxies are similar in all other parameters such as the far-infrared colours, the molecular hydrogen content and the central velocity dispersion. Thus, the dynamical parameters of these sets seem to be determined by the ratio of the initial masses of the colliding galaxies. We propose th...

  14. Theoretical Modelling of the Diffuse Emission of (gamma)-rays From Extreme Regions of Star Formation: The Case of Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, D F

    2004-07-09

    Our current understanding of ultraluminous infrared galaxies suggest that they are recent galaxy mergers in which much of the gas in the former spiral disks, particularly that located at distances less than 5 kpc from each of the pre-merger nuclei, has fallen into a common center, triggering a huge starburst phenomenon. This large nuclear concentration of molecular gas has been detected by many groups, and estimates of molecular mass and density have been made. Not surprisingly, these estimates were found to be orders of magnitude larger than the corresponding values found in our Galaxy. In this paper, a self-consistent model of the high energy emission of the super-starburst galaxy Arp 220 is presented. The model also provides an estimate of the radio emission from each of the components of the central region of the galaxy (western and eastern extreme starbursts, and molecular disk). The predicted radio spectrum is found as a result of the synchrotron and free-free emission, and absorption, of the primary and secondary steady population of electrons and positrons. The latter is output of charged pion decay and knock-on leptonic production, subject to a full set of losses in the interstellar medium. The resulting radio spectrum is in agreement with sub-arcsec radio observations, what allows to estimate the magnetic field. In addition, the FIR emission is modeled with dust emissivity, and the computed FIR photon density is used as a target for inverse Compton process as well as to give account of losses in the {gamma}-ray scape. Bremsstrahlung emission and neutral pion decay are also computed, and the {gamma}-ray spectrum is finally predicted. Future possible observations with GLAST, and the ground based Cherenkov telescopes are discussed.

  15. Substrate integrated antennas and arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Yu Jian

    2015-01-01

    Substrate Integrated Antennas and Arrays provides a single source for cutting-edge information on substrate integrated circuits (SICs), substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) feeding networks, SIW slot array antennas, SIC traveling-wave antennas, SIW feeding antennas, SIW monopulse antennas, and SIW multibeam antennas. Inspired by the author's extensive research, this comprehensive book:Describes a revolutionary SIC-based antenna technique with the potential to replace existing antenna technologiesExamines theoretical and experimental results connected to electrical and mechanical performanceExp

  16. Milestones in Broadcasting: Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Media in Education and Development, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Briefly describes the development of antennas in the prebroadcast era (elevated antenna, selectivity to prevent interference between stations, birth of diplex, directional properties, support structures), as well as technological developments used in long-, medium-, and short-wave broadcasting, VHF/FM and television broadcasting, and satellite…

  17. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  18. Rotatable high-resolution ARPES system for tunable linear-polarization geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasawa, H.; Schwier, E. F.; Zheng, M.; Kojima, Y.; Hayashi, H.; Jiang, J.; Higashiguchi, M.; Aiura, Y.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.

    2017-01-01

    A rotatable high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) system has been developed to utilize tunable linear-polarization geometries on the linear undulator beamline (BL-1) at Hiroshima Synchrotron Radiation Center. By rotating the whole ARPES measurement system, the photoelectron detection plane can be continuously changed from parallel to normal against the electric field vector of linearly polarized undulator radiation. This polarization tunability enables us to identify the symmetry of the initial electronic states with respect to the mirror planes, and to selectively observe the electronic states based on the dipole selection rule in the photoemission process. Specifications of the rotatable high-resolution ARPES system are described, as well as its capabilities with some representative experimental results. PMID:28664891

  19. ANTENNA OF RADIO CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Ilnytskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to current issues in the field of radio monitoring. In this article was considered the antenna of radio control, which represents a grid from three vibrators. Threelement antenna array provides simultaneous control of two radio electronic devices that radiates at frequencies that are close to each other. Antenna system using simple technical means provides noise suppression, even if noise will have the same frequency as useful signal. This makes it possible to use the antenna system in conditions of multibeam wave propagation under the adjustment on the most intense by the power beam. Antenna system makes it possible to measure the electromagnetic field intensity, congestion of the frequency spectrum, direction of noise electromagnetic waves incidence, noise electric field intensity.

  20. Handbook of antenna technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Duixian; Nakano, Hisamatsu; Qing, Xianming; Zwick, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Handbook of Antenna Technologies aims to present the rapid development of antenna technologies, particularly in the past two decades, and also showcasing the newly developed technologies and the latest applications. The handbook will provide readers with the comprehensive updated reference information covering theory, modeling and optimization methods, design and measurement, new electromagnetic materials, and applications of antennas. The handbook will widely cover not only all key antenna design issues but also fundamentals, issues related to antennas (transmission, propagation, feeding structure, materials, fabrication, measurement, system, and unique design challenges in specific applications). This handbook will benefit the readers as a full and quick technical reference with a high-level historic review of technology, detailed technical descriptions and the latest practical applications.

  1. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc, max ≈ 95 K and (Bi 1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc, max ≈ 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major differences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to (π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is

  2. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies of cuprate superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palczewski, Ari Deibert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is comprised of three different angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) studies on cuprate superconductors. The first study compares the band structure from two different single layer cuprates Tl2Ba2CuO6+δ (Tl2201) Tc,max ~95 K and (Bi1.35Pb0.85)(Sr1.47La0.38)CuO6+δ (Bi2201) Tc,max 35 K. The aim of the study was to provide some insight into the reasons why single layer cuprate's maximum transition temperatures are so different. The study found two major di erences in the band structure. First, the Fermi surface segments close to ( π,0) are more parallel in Tl2201 than in Bi2201. Second, the shadow band usually related to crystal structure is only present in Bi2201, but absent in higher Tc Tl2201. The second study looks at the different ways of doping Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ (Bi2212) in-situ by only changing the post bake-out vacuum conditions and temperature. The aim of the study is to systematically look into the generally overlooked experimental conditions that change the doping of a cleaved sample in ultra high vacuum (UHV) experiments. The study found two major experimental facts. First, in inadequate UHV conditions the carrier concentration of Bi2212 increases with time, due to the absorption of oxygen from CO2/CO molecules, prime contaminants present in UHV systems. Second, in a very clean UHV system at elevated temperatures (above about 200 K), the carrier concentration decreases due to the loss of oxygen atoms from the Bi-O layer. The final study probed the particle-hole symmetry of the pseudogap phase in high temperature superconducting cuprates by looking at the thermally excited bands above the Fermi level. The data showed a particle-hole symmetric pseudogap which symmetrically closes away from the nested FS before the node. The data is consistent with

  3. OrigenArp Primer: How to Perform Isotopic Depletion and Decay Calculations with SCALE/ORIGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Stephen M [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    The SCALE (Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation) computer software system developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is widely used and accepted around the world for nuclear analyses. ORIGEN-ARP is a SCALE isotopic depletion and decay analysis sequence used to perform point-depletion calculations with the well-known ORIGEN-S code using problem-dependent cross sections. Problem-dependent cross-section libraries are generated using the ARP (Automatic Rapid Processing) module using an interpolation algorithm that operates on pre-generated libraries created for a range of fuel properties and operating conditions. Methods are provided in SCALE to generate these libraries using one-, two-, and three-dimensional transport codes. The interpolation of cross sections for uranium-based fuels may be performed for the variables burnup, enrichment, and water density. An option is also available to interpolate cross sections for mixed-oxide (MOX) fuels using the variables burnup, plutonium content, plutonium isotopic vector, and water moderator density. This primer is designed to help a new user understand and use ORIGEN-ARP with the OrigenArp Windows graphical user interface in SCALE. It assumes that the user has a college education in a technical field. There is no assumption of familiarity with nuclear depletion codes in general or with SCALE/ORIGEN-ARP in particular. The primer is based on SCALE 6 but should be applicable to earlier or later versions of SCALE. Information is included to help new users, along with several sample problems that walk the user through the different input forms and menus and illustrate the basic features. References to related documentation are provided. The primer provides a starting point for the nuclear analyst who uses SCALE/ORIGEN-ARP. Complete descriptions are provided in the SCALE documentation. Although the primer is self-contained, it is intended as a companion volume to the SCALE documentation. The SCALE Manual is

  4. Nucleation promoting factors regulate the expression and localization of Arp2/3 complex during meiosis of mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    Full Text Available The actin nucleation factor Arp2/3 complex is a main regulator of actin assembly and is involved in multiple processes like cell migration and adhesion, endocytosis, and the establishment of cell polarity in mitosis. Our previous work showed that the Arp2/3 complex was involved in the actin-mediated mammalian oocyte asymmetric division. However, the regulatory mechanisms and signaling pathway of Arp2/3 complex in meiosis is still unclear. In the present work, we identified that the nucleation promoting factors (NPFs JMY and WAVE2 were necessary for the expression and localization of Arp2/3 complex in mouse oocytes. RNAi of both caused the degradation of actin cap intensity, indicating the roles of NPFs in the formation of actin cap. Moreover, JMY and WAVE2 RNAi decreased the expression of ARP2, a key component of Arp2/3 complex. However, knock down of Arp2/3 complex by Arpc2 and Arpc3 siRNA microinjection did not affect the expression and localization of JMY and WAVE2. Our results indicate that the NPFs, JMY and WAVE2, are upstream regulators of Arp2/3 complex in mammalian oocyte asymmetric division.

  5. ALMA Observatory Equipped with its First Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    High in the Atacama region of northern Chile one of the world’s most advanced telescopes has just passed a major milestone. The first of many state-of-the-art antennas has been handed over to the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project. ALMA is being built by a global partnership whose North American partners are led by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). With ALMA, astronomers will study the cool Universe, the molecular gas and tiny dust grains from which stars, planetary systems, galaxies and even life are formed. ALMA will provide new, much-needed insights into the formation of stars and planets, and will reveal distant galaxies in the early Universe, which we see as they were over ten billion years ago. ALMA will initially comprise 66 high-precision antennas, with the option to expand in the future. There will be an array of fifty 12-meter diameter antennas, acting together as a single giant telescope, and a compact array composed of 7-meter and 12-meter antennas. The first 12-meter antenna to be handed over to the observatory was built by Mitsubishi Electric Corporation for the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, one of the ALMA partners. It will shortly be joined by North American and European antennas. “Our Japanese colleagues have produced this state-of-the-art antenna to exacting specifications. We are very excited about the handover because now we can fully equip this antenna for scientific observations,” said Thijs de Graauw, ALMA Director. Antennas arriving at the ALMA site undergo a series of tests to ensure that they meet the strict requirements of the telescope. The antennas have surfaces accurate to less than the thickness of a human hair, and can be pointed precisely enough to pick out a golf ball at a distance of 9 miles. “The handover of the first Japanese antenna is the crowning achievement of the ALMA Project to date,” said Adrian Russell, the North American ALMA Project Director at NRAO. The

  6. RF MEMS Based Reconfigurable Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N.

    2004-01-01

    The presentation will first of all address the advantages of RF MEMS circuit in antenna applications and also the need for electronically reconfigurable antennas. Next, discuss some of the recent examples of RF MEMS based reconfigurable microstrip antennas. Finally, conclude the talk with a summary of MEMS antenna performance.

  7. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which

  8. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (VHH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, N. van den; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5′- or 3′-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment VHH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which

  9. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (VHH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, N. van den; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5′- or 3′-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment VHH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which pro

  10. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which pr

  11. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (V-HH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, van den N.; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, van den C.A.M.J.J.; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5'- or 3'-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment V-HH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which pr

  12. Production of bifunctional proteins by Aspergillus awamori: Llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment (VHH) R9 coupled to Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase (ARP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, V.; Roelofs, M.S.; Dries, N. van den; Goosen, T.; Verrips, C.T.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den; Lokman, B.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Arthromyces ramosus peroxidase gene (arp) was genetically fused to either the 5′- or 3′-terminal ends of the gene encoding llama variable heavy chain antibody fragment VHH R9, resulting in the fusion expression cassettes ARP-R9 or R9-ARP. Aspergillus awamori transformants were obtained which pro

  13. Optimisation of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Hamchary

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available When choosing the most appropriate microstrip antenna configuration for particular applications, the kind of excitation of the radiating element is an essential factor that requires careful considerations. For controlling the distribution of energy of the linear or planar array of elements and for coupling energy to the individual elements, a wide variety of feed mechanisms are available. In this paper, the coaxial antenna feeding is assumed and the best (optimised feeding is found. Then, antenna characteristics such as radiation pattern, return loss, input impedance, and VSWR are obtained.

  14. Metallicity evolution in mergers of disk galaxies with black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.

    2016-10-01

    We use the TreeSPH simulation code Gadget-3 including a recently improved smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) module, a detailed metallicity evolution model and sophisticated subresolution feedback models for supernovae and supermassive black holes in order to study the metallicity evolution in disk galaxy mergers. In addition, we examine the simulated morphology, star formation histories, metallicity gradients and kinematic properties of merging galaxies and merger remnants. We will compare our simulation results with observations of the early-type Centaurus A galaxy and the currently colliding Antennae galaxies.

  15. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...

  16. First two ALMA antennas successfully linked

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. ALMA, which will start scientific observations in 2011, is the most powerful telescope for observing the cool Universe -- molecular gas and dust as well as the relic radiation of the Big Bang. ALMA will study the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself, and will address some of the deepest questions of our cosmic origins. ALMA will operate at wavelengths of 0.3 to 9.6 mm. At these wavelengths, a high, dry site is needed for the telescope to be able to see through the Earth's atmosphere. This is why ALMA is being built on the breathtaking 5000-metre-high plateau of Chajnantor in the Atacama region of Chile, the highest astronomy site in the world. ALMA will offer unprecedented sensitivity and resolution. The 12-metre antennas will have reconfigurable baselines ranging from 15 m to 16 km. ALMA will have a resolution ten times better than the Hubble Space Telescope. The ALMA project is a partnership between the scientific communities of East Asia, Europe and North America with Chile. ESO is the European partner in ALMA. ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in the Atacama Desert region of Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor.

  17. Antennas from theory to practice

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Practical, concise and complete reference for the basics of modern antenna design Antennas: from Theory to Practice discusses the basics of modern antenna design and theory. Developed specifically for engineers and designers who work with radio communications, radar and RF engineering, this book offers practical and hands-on treatment of antenna theory and techniques, and provides its readers the skills to analyse, design and measure various antennas. Key features: Provides thorough coverage on the basics of transmission lines, radio waves and propag

  18. Pathway of actin filament branch formation by Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltzner, Christopher C; Pollard, Thomas D

    2008-03-14

    A spectroscopic assay using pyrene-labeled fission yeast Arp2/3 complex revealed that the complex binds to and dissociates from actin filaments extremely slowly with or without the nucleation-promoting factor fission yeast Wsp1-VCA. Wsp1-VCA binds both Arp2/3 complex and actin monomers with high affinity. These two ligands have only modest impacts on the interaction of the other ligand with VCA. Simulations of a mathematical model based on the kinetic parameters determined in this study and elsewhere account for the full time course of actin polymerization in the presence of Arp2/3 complex and Wsp1-VCA and show that an activation step, postulated to follow binding of a ternary complex of Arp2/3 complex, a bound nucleation-promoting factor, and an actin monomer to an actin filament, has a rate constant at least 0.15 s(-1). Kinetic parameters determined in this study constrain the process of actin filament branch formation during cellular motility to one main pathway.

  19. ARPE-19 cell growth and cell functions in euglycemic culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimsath, Ernest G; Unda, Richard; Vidro, Eileen; Muniz, Albert; Villazana-Espinoza, Elia T; Tsin, Andrew

    2006-12-01

    Human retinal pigmented epithelial cells (ARPE-19) grown in euglycemic media (5.5 mM) had lower cell number, significantly different cell morphology, and lower levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the culture media than those grown in hyperglycemic media (18 mM) customarily used for culturing ARPE-19 cells. Although it has been shown that within a 24-hour period, all-trans retinoic acid significantly reduces VEGF secretion by retinal pigmented epithelial cells (grown in 18 mM glucose), such an inhibitory effect was not observed in cells grown in 5.5 mM glucose. Our results suggest that ARPE-19 cells grown in euglycemic media exhibit distinctly different cell growth, cell differentiation, and cell functions in comparison to cells grown in hyperglycemic media. Because euglycemic conditions provide a physiological glucose environment, this glucose concentration must be included in all future investigations of the mechanism of diabetic retinopathy when studying VEGF secretion by ARPE-19 cells.

  20. Impact of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP) on ARP filter performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. One potential method for increasing filter flux is to adjust the axial velocity and transmembrane pressure (TMP). SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate the effects of axial velocity and transmembrane pressure on crossflow filter flux. The objective of the testing was to determine whether increasing the axial velocity at the ARP could produce a significant increase in filter flux. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate and 2.5 g MST/L, processing the slurry through a bench-scale crossflow filter unit at varying axial velocity and TMP, and measuring filter flux as a function of time.

  1. Research and application of ARP protocol vulnerability attack and defense technology based on trusted network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Huixing

    2017-03-01

    With the continuous development of network technology and the rapid spread of the Internet, computer networks have been around the world every corner. However, the network attacks frequently occur. The ARP protocol vulnerability is one of the most common vulnerabilities in the TCP / IP four-layer architecture. The network protocol vulnerabilities can lead to the intrusion and attack of the information system, and disable or disable the normal defense function of the system [1]. At present, ARP spoofing Trojans spread widely in the LAN, the network security to run a huge hidden danger, is the primary threat to LAN security. In this paper, the author summarizes the research status and the key technologies involved in ARP protocol, analyzes the formation mechanism of ARP protocol vulnerability, and analyzes the feasibility of the attack technique. Based on the summary of the common defensive methods, the advantages and disadvantages of each defense method. At the same time, the current defense method is improved, and the advantage of the improved defense algorithm is given. At the end of this paper, the appropriate test method is selected and the test environment is set up. Experiment and test are carried out for each proposed improved defense algorithm.

  2. Impact Of Sodium Oxalate, Sodium Aluminosilicate, and Gibbsite/Boehmite on ARP Filter Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Burket, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-11-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently treating radioactive liquid waste with the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). Recently, the low filter flux through the ARP of approximately 5 gallons per minute has limited the rate at which radioactive liquid waste can be treated. Salt Batch 6 had a lower processing rate and required frequent filter cleaning. Savannah River Remediation (SRR) has a desire to understand the causes of the low filter flux and to increase ARP/MCU throughput. SRR requested SRNL to conduct bench-scale filter tests to evaluate whether sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, or aluminum solids (i.e., gibbsite and boehmite) could be the cause of excessive fouling of the crossflow or secondary filter at ARP. The authors conducted the tests by preparing slurries containing 6.6 M sodium Salt Batch 6 supernate, 2.5 g MST/L slurry, and varying concentrations of sodium oxalate, sodium aluminosilicate, and aluminum solids, processing the slurry through a bench-scale filter unit that contains a crossflow primary filter and a dead-end secondary filter, and measuring filter flux and transmembrane pressure as a function of time. Among the conclusions drwn from this work are the following: (1) All of the tests showed some evidence of fouling the secondary filter. This fouling could be from fine particles passing through the crossflow filter. (2) The sodium oxalate-containing feeds behaved differently from the sodium aluminosilicate- and gibbsite/boehmite-containing feeds.

  3. WAVE binds Ena/VASP for enhanced Arp2/3 complex-based actin assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havrylenko, Svitlana; Noguera, Philippe; Abou-Ghali, Majdouline; Manzi, John; Faqir, Fahima; Lamora, Audrey; Guérin, Christophe; Blanchoin, Laurent; Plastino, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The WAVE complex is the main activator of the Arp2/3 complex for actin filament nucleation and assembly in the lamellipodia of moving cells. Other important players in lamellipodial protrusion are Ena/VASP proteins, which enhance actin filament elongation. Here we examine the molecular coordination between the nucleating activity of the Arp2/3 complex and the elongating activity of Ena/VASP proteins for the formation of actin networks. Using an in vitro bead motility assay, we show that WAVE directly binds VASP, resulting in an increase in Arp2/3 complex-based actin assembly. We show that this interaction is important in vivo as well, for the formation of lamellipodia during the ventral enclosure event of Caenorhabditis elegans embryogenesis. Ena/VASP's ability to bind F-actin and profilin-complexed G-actin are important for its effect, whereas Ena/VASP tetramerization is not necessary. Our data are consistent with the idea that binding of Ena/VASP to WAVE potentiates Arp2/3 complex activity and lamellipodial actin assembly.

  4. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumei Luo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C; knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  5. Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles-Loaded Poly(ɛ-caprolactone Nanofiber as Substrate for ARPE-19 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Henrique Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glass nanoparticles-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone nanofibers (BIOG PCL nanofibers were synthesized and evaluated as substrates for ocular cells (ARPE-19. BIOG PCL nanofibers were characterized using SEM, FTIR, and DSC, and the in vitro degradation profile was also investigated. The in vitro ocular biocompatibility of nanofibers was exploited in Müller glial cells (MIO-M1 cells and in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM; and the proliferative capacity, cytotoxicity, and functionality were evaluated. Finally, ARPE-19 cells were seeded onto BIOG PCL nanofibers and they were investigated as supports for in vitro cell adhesion and proliferation. SEM images revealed the incorporation of BIOG nanoparticles into PCL nanofibers. Nanoparticles did not induce modifications in the chemical structure and semicrystalline nature of PCL in the nanofiber, as shown by FTIR and DSC. MIO-M1 cells exposed to BIOG PCL nanofibers showed viability, and they were able to proliferate and to express GFAP, indicating cellular functionality. Moreover, nanofibers were well tolerated by CAM. These findings suggested the in vitro ocular biocompatibility and absence of toxicity of these nanofibers. Finally, the BIOG nanoparticles modulated the protein adsorption, and, subsequently, ARPE-19 cells adhered and proliferated onto the nanostructured supports, establishing cell-substrate interactions. In conclusion, the biodegradable and biocompatible BIOG PCL nanofibers supported the ARPE-19 cells.

  6. Yeast Actin-Related Protein ARP6 Negatively Regulates Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Yeast Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yumei; Chen, Zikai; Zhu, Detu; Tu, Haitao; Pan, Shen Quan

    2015-01-01

    The yeasts, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia pastoris, are single-cell eukaryotic organisms that can serve as models for human genetic diseases and hosts for large scale production of recombinant proteins in current biopharmaceutical industry. Thus, efficient genetic engineering tools for yeasts are of great research and economic values. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (AMT) can transfer T-DNA into yeast cells as a method for genetic engineering. However, how the T-DNA is transferred into the yeast cells is not well established yet. Here our genetic screening of yeast knockout mutants identified a yeast actin-related protein ARP6 as a negative regulator of AMT. ARP6 is a critical member of the SWR1 chromatin remodeling complex (SWR-C); knocking out some other components of the complex also increased the transformation efficiency, suggesting that ARP6 might regulate AMT via SWR-C. Moreover, knockout of ARP6 led to disruption of microtubule integrity, higher uptake and degradation of virulence proteins, and increased DNA stability inside the cells, all of which resulted in enhanced transformation efficiency. Our findings have identified molecular and cellular mechanisms regulating AMT and a potential target for enhancing the transformation efficiency in yeast cells.

  7. Array Antenna Limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Jonsson, B L G; Hussain, N

    2013-01-01

    This letter defines a physical bound based array figure of merit that provides a tool to compare the performance of both single and multi-band array antennas with respect to return-loss, thickness of the array over the ground-plane, and scan-range. The result is based on a sum-rule result of Rozanov-type for linear polarization. For single-band antennas it extends an existing limit for a given fixed scan-angle to include the whole scan-range of the array, as well as the unit-cell structure in the bound. The letter ends with an investigation of the array figure of merit for some wideband and/or wide-scan antennas with linear polarization. We find arrays with a figure of merit >0.6 that empirically defines high-performance antennas with respect to this measure.

  8. Electrically driven optical antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-09-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  9. Atacama Compact Array Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Saito, Masao; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Naoi, Takahiro; Yamada, Masumi; Saito, Hiro; Ikenoue, Bungo; Kato, Yoshihiro; Morita, Kou-ichiro; Mizuno, Norikazu; Iguchi, Satoru

    2011-01-01

    We report major performance test results of the Atacama Compact Array (ACA) 7-m and 12-m antennas of ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array). The four major performances of the ACA antennas are all-sky pointing (to be not more than 2.0 arcsec), offset pointing (to be < 0.6 arcsec) surface accuracy (< 25(20) micrometer for 12(7)m-antenna), stability of path-length (15 micrometer over 3 min), and high servo capability (6 degrees/s for Azimuth and 3 degrees/s for Elevation). The high performance of the ACA antenna has been extensively evaluated at the Site Erection Facility area at an altitude of about 2900 meters. Test results of pointing performance, surface performance, and fast motion capability are demonstrated.

  10. Nonlinear plasmonic antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeeb Bin Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to traditional optical elements, plasmonic antennas made from nanostructured metals permit the localization of electromagnetic fields on length scales much smaller than the wavelength of light. This results in huge amplitudes for the electromagnetic field close to the antenna being conducive for the observation of nonlinear effects already at moderate pump powers. Thus, these antennas exhibit a promising potential to achieve optical frequency conversion and all-optical control of light at the nano-scale. This opens unprecedented opportunities for ultrafast nonlinear spectroscopy, sensing devices, on-chip optical frequency conversion, nonlinear optical metamaterials, and novel photon sources. Here, we review some of the recent advances in exploiting the potential of plasmonic antennas to realize robust nonlinear applications.

  11. Dielectric Covered Planar Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llombart Juan, Nuria (Inventor); Lee, Choonsup (Inventor); Chattopadhyay, Goutam (Inventor); Gill, John J. (Inventor); Skalare, Anders J. (Inventor); Siegel, Peter H. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An antenna element suitable for integrated arrays at terahertz frequencies is disclosed. The antenna element comprises an extended spherical (e.g. hemispherical) semiconductor lens, e.g. silicon, antenna fed by a leaky wave waveguide feed. The extended spherical lens comprises a substantially spherical lens adjacent a substantially planar lens extension. A couple of TE/TM leaky wave modes are excited in a resonant cavity formed between a ground plane and the substantially planar lens extension by a waveguide block coupled to the ground plane. Due to these modes, the primary feed radiates inside the lens with a directive pattern that illuminates a small sector of the lens. The antenna structure is compatible with known semiconductor fabrication technology and enables production of large format imaging arrays.

  12. Polarized Antenna Splitting Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larkoski, Andrew J.; Peskin, Michael E.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17

    We consider parton showers based on radiation from QCD dipoles or 'antennae'. These showers are built from 2 {yields} 3 parton splitting processes. The question then arises of what functions replace the Altarelli-Parisi splitting functions in this approach. We give a detailed answer to this question, applicable to antenna showers in which partons carry definite helicity, and to both initial- and final-state emissions.

  13. Optical antenna gain. II - Receiving antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, J. J.; Klein, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    Expressions are developed for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver, involving losses due to (1) incoming light blockage by central obscuration, (2) energy spillover at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distribution (uniform, Gaussian, and matched).

  14. The Arp2/3 complex has essential roles in vesicle trafficking and transcytosis in the mammalian small intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Kang; Sumigray, Kaelyn D; Lechler, Terry

    2015-06-01

    The Arp2/3 complex is the only known nucleator of branched F-actin filaments. Work in cultured cells has established a wide array of functions for this complex in controlling cell migration, shape, and adhesion. However, loss of Arp2/3 complex function in tissues has yielded cell type-specific phenotypes. Here we report essential functions of the Arp2/3 complex in the intestinal epithelium. The Arp2/3 complex was dispensable for intestinal development, generation of cortical F-actin, and cell polarity. However, it played essential roles in vesicle trafficking. We found that in the absence of ArpC3, enterocytes had defects in the organization of the endolysosomal system. These defects were physiologically relevant, as transcytosis of IgG was disrupted, lipid absorption was perturbed, and neonatal mice died within days of birth. These data highlight the important roles of the Arp2/3 complex in vesicle trafficking in enterocytes and suggest that defects in cytoplasmic F-actin assembly by the Arp2/3 complex, rather than cortical pools, underlie many of the phenotypes seen in the mutant small intestine.

  15. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  16. Novel identification of Dermacentor variabilis Arp2/3 complex and its role in rickettsial infection of the arthropod vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natthida Petchampai

    Full Text Available Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG Rickettsia species must be able to infect both vertebrate and arthropod host cells. The host actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3 complex is important in the invasion process and actin-based motility for several intracellular bacteria, including SFG Rickettsia in Drosophila and mammalian cells. To investigate the role of the tick Arp2/3 complex in tick-Rickettsia interactions, open reading frames of all subunits of the protein including Arp2, Arp3, ARPC1, ARPC2, ARPC3, ARPC4, and ARPC5 were identified from Dermacentor variabilis. Amino acid sequence analysis showed variation (ranging from 25-88% in percent identity compared to the corresponding subunits of the complex from Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus, Homo sapiens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Potential ATP binding sites were identified in D. variabilis (Dv Arp2 and Arp3 subunits as well as five putative WD (Trp-Asp motifs which were observed in DvARPC1. Transcriptional profiles of all subunits of the DvArp2/3 complex revealed greater mRNA expression in both Rickettsia-infected and -uninfected ovary compared to midgut and salivary glands. In response to R. montanensis infection of the tick ovary, the mRNA level of only DvARPC4 was significantly upregulated compared to uninfected tissues. Arp2/3 complex inhibition bioassays resulted in a decrease in the ability of R. montanensis to invade tick tissues with a significant difference in the tick ovary, indicating a role for the Arp2/3 complex in rickettsial invasion of tick cells. Characterization of tick-derived molecules associated with rickettsial infection is imperative in order to better comprehend the ecology of tick-borne rickettsial diseases.

  17. Galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Silk, Joseph; Dvorkin, Irina

    2015-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In Lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In Lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  18. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......-the-art cosmological simulation, Illustris, follow a tight relation between star formation rate and stellar mass. This relation agrees well with the observed relation at a redshift of z = 0 and z = 4, but at intermediate redshifts of z ' 2 the normalisation is lower than in real observations. This is highlighted...... of GRB host galaxies is affected by the fact that GRBs appear mainly to happen in low-metallicity galaxies. Solving this problem will make it possible to derive the total cosmic star formation rate more reliably from number counts of GRBs....

  19. Star clusters as tracers of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S

    2009-01-01

    Star clusters represent the most common 'mode' of star formation. They are found in all types of environments, cascading down from galaxy groups and merging pairs through starbursts to normal galaxies and dwarves and even isolated regions in extragalactic space. As they maintain a link to the overall star formation in a system, they can be used as tracers of the star formation history of environments located at distances prohibitive to the study of individual stars. This makes them ideally suited to the study of mergers and interactions in galaxy pairs and groups. In this work we present observations of the star cluster populations in the local starburst galaxy M82, post-interaction spiral NGC 6872, the "Antennae" merging pair and two compact groups, "Stephan's Quintet" and HCG 7. In each case, we extract information on the clusters and their hosts using mainly HST photometry and Gemini spectroscopy.

  20. Fully compressive tides in galaxy mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Renaud, Florent; Naab, Thorsten; Theis, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The disruptive effect of galactic tides is a textbook example of gravitational dynamics. However, depending on the shape of the potential, tides can also become fully compressive. When that is the case, they might trigger or strengthen the formation of galactic substructures (star clusters, tidal dwarf galaxies), instead of destroying them. We perform N-body simulations of interacting galaxies to quantify this effect. We demonstrate that tidal compression occurs repeatedly during a galaxy merger, independently of the specific choice of parameterization. With a model tailored to the Antennae galaxies, we show that the distribution of compressive tides matches the locations and timescales of observed substructures. After extending our study to a broad range of parameters, we conclude that neither the importance of the compressive tides (~15% of the stellar mass) nor their duration (~ 10 Myr) are strongly affected by changes in the progenitors' configurations and orbits. Moreover, we show that individual clumps ...

  1. Mapping the Milky Way Galaxy with LISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Jose A.; Littenberg, Tyson

    2012-01-01

    Gravitational wave detectors in the mHz band (such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, or LISA) will observe thousands of compact binaries in the galaxy which can be used to better understand the structure of the Milky Way. To test the effectiveness of LISA to measure the distribution of the galaxy, we simulated the Close White Dwarf Binary (CWDB) gravitational wave sky using different models for the Milky Way. To do so, we have developed a galaxy density distribution modeling code based on the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The code uses different distributions to construct realizations of the galaxy. We then use the Fisher Information Matrix to estimate the variance and covariance of the recovered parameters for each detected CWDB. This is the first step toward characterizing the capabilities of space-based gravitational wave detectors to constrain models for galactic structure, such as the size and orientation of the bar in the center of the Milky Way

  2. Coordinates and 2MASS and OGLE identifications for all stars in Arp's 1965 finding chart for Baade's Window

    CERN Document Server

    Church, Ross P; Feltzing, Sofia

    2011-01-01

    Aims: We seek to provide 2MASS and OGLE identifications and coordinates for all stars in the finding chart published by Arp\\,(1965). This chart covers the low extinction area around NGC 6522, also known as Baade's window, at coordinates (l,b)=(1.02,-3.92). Methods: A cross correlation, using numerical techniques, was performed between a scan of the original finding chart from Arp (1965) and 2MASS and OGLE-II images and stellar coordinates. Results: We provide coordinates for all stars in Arp's finding chart and 2MASS and OGLE identifications wherever possible. Two identifications in quadrant II do not appear in the original finding chart.

  3. 浅论ARP病毒的防与治%Talking on the Prevention and Treatment of ARP Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李竞

    2011-01-01

    Campus network attacks are often subjected to ARP virus,resulting in the network can not function properly.This paper analyzes the principle of ARP virus attacks,fault diagnosis,made the ARP virus prevention and treatment of the strategy.%校园网经常遭受ARP病毒的攻击,致使网络无法正常运行。本文分析了AP,.P病毒的攻击原理,故障诊断,提出了AKP病毒的防与治的策略。

  4. Cup Cylindrical Waveguide Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Roberto J.; Darby, William G.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.; Breen, Daniel P.

    2008-01-01

    The cup cylindrical waveguide antenna (CCWA) is a short backfire microwave antenna capable of simultaneously supporting the transmission or reception of two distinct signals having opposite circular polarizations. Short backfire antennas are widely used in mobile/satellite communications, tracking, telemetry, and wireless local area networks because of their compactness and excellent radiation characteristics. A typical prior short backfire antenna contains a half-wavelength dipole excitation element for linear polarization or crossed half-wavelength dipole elements for circular polarization. In order to achieve simultaneous dual circular polarization, it would be necessary to integrate, into the antenna feed structure, a network of hybrid components, which would introduce significant losses. The CCWA embodies an alternate approach that entails relatively low losses and affords the additional advantage of compactness. The CCWA includes a circular cylindrical cup, a circular disk subreflector, and a circular waveguide that serves as the excitation element. The components that make it possible to obtain simultaneous dual circular polarization are integrated into the circular waveguide. These components are a sixpost polarizer and an orthomode transducer (OMT) with two orthogonal coaxial ports. The overall length of the OMT and polarizer (for the nominal middle design frequency of 2.25 GHz) is about 11 in. (approximately equal to 28 cm), whereas the length of a commercially available OMT and polarizer for the same frequency is about 32 in. (approximately equal to 81 cm).

  5. Electrochemically Programmable Plasmonic Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shi; Zhang, Kai; Yu, Zhiping; Fan, Jonathan A

    2016-07-26

    Plasmonic antennas are building blocks in advanced nano-optical systems due to their ability to tailor optical response based on their geometry. We propose an electrochemical approach to program the optical properties of dipole antennas in a scalable, fast, and energy-efficient manner. These antennas comprise two arms, one serving as an anode and the other a cathode, separated by a solid electrolyte. As a voltage is applied between the antenna arms, a conductive filament either grows or dissolves within the electrolyte, modifying the antenna load. We probe the dynamics of stochastic filament formation and their effects on plasmonic mode programming using a combination of three-dimensional optical and electronic simulations. In particular, we identify device operation regimes in which the charge-transfer plasmon mode can be programmed to be "on" or "off." We also identify, unexpectedly, a strong correlation between DC filament resistance and charge-transfer plasmon mode frequency that is insensitive to the detailed filament morphology. We envision that the scalability of our electrochemical platform can generalize to large-area reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces for on-chip and free-space applications.

  6. Les galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Francoise

    2016-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made on galaxy formation and evolution in recent years, and new issues. The old Hubble classification according to the tuning fork of spirals, lenticulars and ellipticals, is still useful but has given place to the red sequence, the blue cloud and the green valley, showing a real bimodality of types between star forming galaxies (blue) and quenched ones (red). Large surveys have shown that stellar mass and environment density are the two main factors of the evolution from blue to red sequences. Evolution is followed directly with redshift through a look-back time of more than 12 billion years. The most distant galaxy at z=11. has already a stellar mass of a billion suns. In an apparent anti-hierarchical scenario, the most massive galaxies form stars early on, while essentially dwarf galaxies are actively star-formers now. This downsizing feature also applies to the growth of super-massive black holes at the heart of each bulgy galaxy. The feedback from active nuclei is essential to explain the distribution of mass in galaxies, and in particular to explain why the fraction of baryonic matter is so low, lower by more than a factor 5 than the baryonic fraction of the Universe. New instruments just entering in operation, like MUSE and ALMA, provide a new and rich data flow, which is developed in this series of articles.

  7. Spiral-like Light Profiles but Elliptical-like Kinematics in Mergers of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Jog, C J; Jog, Chanda J.; Chitre, Aparna

    2002-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that a merger of two spiral galaxies results in a remnant with an elliptical-like surface-brightness profile. Surprisingly, our recent study (Chitre & Jog 2002) of the 2MASS data for twenty-seven advanced mergers of galaxies has shown that half of these have a light distribution that decreases exponentially with radius. Such a distribution normally characterizes a rotationally supported disk in a spiral galaxy. Here we show from kinematic data for two of these mergers, Arp 224 and Arp 214, that the main support against gravitational collapse comes from pressure due to random motion of stars as seen in an elliptical galaxy rather than from rotation. The origin of the unusual combination of properties seen here is a puzzle. The standard theoretical N-body models in the literature cannot account for these systems. Further observational and dynamical studies of this new class of merger remnants are needed, and would be important for understanding merger dynamics and galaxy evolution.

  8. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  9. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  10. Hemispheric ultra-wideband antenna.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brocato, Robert Wesley

    2006-04-01

    This report begins with a review of reduced size ultra-wideband (UWB) antennas and the peculiar problems that arise when building a UWB antenna. It then gives a description of a new type of UWB antenna that resolves these problems. This antenna, dubbed the hemispheric conical antenna, is similar to a conventional conical antenna in that it uses the same inverted conical conductor over a ground plane, but it also uses a hemispheric dielectric fill in between the conductive cone and the ground plane. The dielectric material creates a fundamentally new antenna which is reduced in size and much more rugged than a standard UWB conical antenna. The creation of finite-difference time domain (FDTD) software tools in spherical coordinates, as described in SAND2004-6577, enabled this technological advance.

  11. Galileo satellite antenna modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steigenberger, Peter; Dach, Rolf; Prange, Lars; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The space segment of the European satellite navigation system Galileo currently consists of six satellites. Four of them belong to the first generation of In-Orbit Validation (IOV) satellites whereas the other two are Full Operational Capability (FOC) satellites. High-precision geodetic applications require detailed knowledge about the actual phase center of the satellite and receiver antenna. The deviation of this actual phase center from a well-defined reference point is described by phase center offsets (PCOs) and phase center variations (PCVs). Unfortunately, no public information is available about the Galileo satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs, neither for the IOV, nor the FOC satellites. Therefore, conventional values for the IOV satellite antenna PCOs have been adopted for the Multi-GNSS experiment (MGEX) of the International GNSS Service (IGS). The effect of the PCVs is currently neglected and no PCOs for the FOC satellites are available yet. To overcome this deficiency in GNSS observation modeling, satellite antenna PCOs and PCVs are estimated for the Galileo IOV satellites based on global GNSS tracking data of the MGEX network and additional stations of the legacy IGS network. Two completely independent solutions are computed with the Bernese and Napeos software packages. The PCO and PCV values of the individual satellites are analyzed and the availability of two different solutions allows for an accuracy assessment. The FOC satellites are built by a different manufacturer and are also equipped with another type of antenna panel compared to the IOV satellites. Signal transmission of the first FOC satellite has started in December 2014 and activation of the second satellite is expected for early 2015. Based on the available observations PCO estimates and, optionally PCVs of the FOC satellites will be presented as well. Finally, the impact of the new antenna model on the precision and accuracy of the Galileo orbit determination is analyzed.

  12. Cassegrain-Antenna Gain Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, V.; Cha, A. G.; Mittra, R.

    1986-01-01

    Modified antenna feed with dual-shaped subreflectors yields 10-to20-percent improvement in efficiency of existing large-aperture paraboloidal or Cassegrainian antennas. Such offset dual-shaped subreflector (DSS) feed brings gain of existing paraboloid or Cassegrain antennas up to that of reflector antennas of more recent design at cost considerably lower than for reshaping existing reflecting surfaces. Mathematical procedures developed for synthesizing nearly optimum shapes for DSS elements of new feeds.

  13. Hyperbolic thermal antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Barbillon, Grégory; Biehs, Svend-Age; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A thermal antenna is an electromagnetic source which emits in its surrounding, a spatially coherent field in the infrared frequency range. Usually, its emission pattern changes with the wavelength so that the heat flux it radiates is weakly directive. Here, we show that a class of hyperbolic materials, possesses a Brewster angle which is weakly dependent on the wavelength, so that they can radiate like a true thermal antenna with a highly directional heat flux. The realization of these sources could open a new avenue in the field of thermal management in far-field regime.

  14. Antennas on circular cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1959-01-01

    antenna in a circular cylinder. By a procedure similar to the one used by Silver and Saunders, expressions have been derived for the field radiated from an arbitrary surface current distribution on a cylinder surface coaxial with a perfectly conducting cylinder. The cases where the space between the two...... cylindrical surfaces have the sane characteristic constants and different constants are treated separately. Extensive numerical computations of the field radiated from the slot antennas described here are being carried out, but no numerical results are yet available...

  15. Printed MIMO antenna engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sharawi, Mohammad S

    2014-01-01

    Wireless communications has made a huge leap during the past two decades. The multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) technology was proposed in the 1990's as a viable solution that can overcome the data rate limit experienced by single-input-single-output (SISO) systems. This resource is focused on printed MIMO antenna system design. Printed antennas are widely used in mobile and handheld terminals due to their conformity with the device, low cost, good integration within the device elements and mechanical parts, as well as ease of fabrication.A perfect design companion for practicing engineers

  16. Satellite communication antenna technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittra, R. (Editor); Imbriale, W. A. (Editor); Maanders, E. J. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    A general overview of current technology in the field of communication satellite antennas is presented. Among the topics discussed are: the design of multiple beam systems; frequency reuse; and polarization control of antenna measurements. Consideration is also given to: contour beam synthesis; dual shaped reflector synthesis; beam shaping; and offset reflector design. The applications of the above technologies to present and future generations of communications satellites is considered, with emphasis given to such systems as: the Intelsats; the Defense Satellite Communications System, (DSCS-III); Satellite Business System (SBS), and Comstar.

  17. Antennas fundamentals, design, measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Maurice

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive revision (3rd Edition) is a senior undergraduate or first-year graduate level textbook on antenna fundamentals, design, performance analysis, and measurements. In addition to its use as a formal course textbook, the book's pragmatic style and emphasis on the fundamentals make it especially useful to engineering professionals who need to grasp the essence of the subject quickly but without being mired in unnecessary detail. This new edition was prepared for a first year graduate course at Southern Polytechnic State University in Georgia. It provides broad coverage of antenna

  18. Wireless Distributed Antenna MIMO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to system applications of multicore optical fibers. One embodiment relates to a base transceiver station for a wireless telecommunication system comprising a plurality of antenna units arranged in a MIMO configuration and adapted for transmission and/or reception...... of radio-frequency signals, an optical transmitter in the form of an electro-optic conversion unit for each of said plurality of antenna units, each electro-optic conversion unit adapted for converting an RF signal into an optical signal, a plurality of a single core optical fibers for guiding the optical...

  19. Aperture optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This contribution reviews the studies on subwavelength aperture antennas in the optical regime, paying attention to both the fundamental investigations and the applications. Section 2 reports on the enhancement of light-matter interaction using three main types of aperture antennas: single subwavelength aperture, single aperture surrounded by shallow surface corrugations, and subwavelength aperture arrays. A large fraction of nanoaperture applications is devoted to the field of biophotonics to improve molecular sensing, which are reviewed in Section 3. Lastly, the applications towards nano-optics (sources, detectors and filters) are discussed in Section 4.

  20. Non-standard antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Le Chevalier, Francois; Staraj, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This book aims at describing the wide variety of new technologies and concepts of non-standard antenna systems - reconfigurable, integrated, terahertz, deformable, ultra-wideband, using metamaterials, or MEMS,  etc, and how they open the way to a wide range of applications, from personal security and communications to multifunction radars and towed sonars, or satellite navigation systems, with space-time diversity on transmit and receive. A reference book for designers  in this lively scientific community linking antenna experts and signal processing engineers.

  1. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  2. China's Largest Radio Antenna System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ After three-and-half-year efforts, the National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) has constructed two arrays of radio antennae: a 50m antenna at Miyun Station in Beijing and a 40m antenna in Kunming, capital of southwest China's Yunnan Province.

  3. Sludge Batch 4 Simulant Flowsheet Studies with ARP and MCU: Impact of MCU Organics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baich, M. A.; Herman, C. C.; Eibling, R. E.; Williams, M. F.; Smith, F. G.

    2005-07-01

    Two facilities for treating the salt currently being stored in the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks are currently planned to begin operations during the processing of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The Immobilization Technology Section (ITS) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) via Technical Task Request (TTR) HLW/DWPF/TTR-2004-0031 (Washburn, 2004) to evaluate the impacts on DWPF processing for streams from the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Side Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). In particular, the TTR requests SRNL to validate the existing process flowsheet and establish a coupled operations flowsheet for use with SB4. The flowsheet runs are required so an evaluation of potential chemical processing issues, quantification of the potential hydrogen generation rates, and estimation of the required acid stoichiometry can be made. Previous testing (Baich et. al., 2003) was performed for incorporating ARP/MST in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) and recommendations were made to DWPF on possible flowsheet options. However, since that time, some changes have occurred to the ARP facility processing strategy, and material balances have been revised (Subosits, 2004). Thus, testing with updated compositions was necessary. Since the MCU is a new design and project, no CPC flowsheet studies have been performed for this stream. This testing will validate the previously recommended ARP stream addition methods based on the new information and based on the need to also incorporate the MCU stream. The basic principle of solvent extraction is to use a sparingly soluble diluent material that carries an extractant that will complex with the cesium ions in the caustic HLW solution. The decontaminated aqueous stream (raffinate) is then sent to Saltstone for disposal. The cesium contained in the organic phase (solvent) can then be stripped into an aqueous phase ready for transfer to the DWPF. The solvent is

  4. Enhanced Positioning Algorithm of ARPS for Improving Accuracy and Expanding Service Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuman Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The airborne relay-based positioning system (ARPS, which employs the relaying of navigation signals, was proposed as an alternative positioning system. However, the ARPS has limitations, such as relatively large vertical error and service restrictions, because firstly, the user position is estimated based on airborne relays that are located in one direction, and secondly, the positioning is processed using only relayed navigation signals. In this paper, we propose an enhanced positioning algorithm to improve the performance of the ARPS. The main idea of the enhanced algorithm is the adaptable use of either virtual or direct measurements of reference stations in the calculation process based on the structural features of the ARPS. Unlike the existing two-step algorithm for airborne relay and user positioning, the enhanced algorithm is divided into two cases based on whether the required number of navigation signals for user positioning is met. In the first case, where the number of signals is greater than four, the user first estimates the positions of the airborne relays and its own initial position. Then, the user position is re-estimated by integrating a virtual measurement of a reference station that is calculated using the initial estimated user position and known reference positions. To prevent performance degradation, the re-estimation is performed after determining its requirement through comparing the expected position errors. If the navigation signals are insufficient, such as when the user is outside of airborne relay coverage, the user position is estimated by additionally using direct signal measurements of the reference stations in place of absent relayed signals. The simulation results demonstrate that a higher accuracy level can be achieved because the user position is estimated based on the measurements of airborne relays and a ground station. Furthermore, the service coverage is expanded by using direct measurements of reference

  5. ARP2/3-dependent growth in the plant kingdom: SCARs for life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto eYanagisawa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the human experience SCARs are permanent reminders of past events, not always based on bad decisions, but always those in which an interplay of opposing forces leaves behind a clear record in the form of some permanent watery mark. During plant morphogenesis, SCARs are important proteins that reflect an unusual evolutionary outcome, in which the plant kingdom relies heavily on this single class of actin-related protein (ARP 2/3 complex activator to dictate the time and place of actin filament nucleation. This unusually simple arrangement may serve as a permanent reminder that cell shape control in plants is fundamentally different from that of crawling cells in mammals that use the power of actin polymerization to define and maintain cell shape. In plant cells, actin filaments indirectly affect cell shape by determining the transport properties of organelles and cargo molecules that modulate the mechanical properties of the wall. It is becoming increasingly clear that polarized bundles of actin filaments operate at whole cell spatial scales to organize the cytoplasm and dictate the patterns of long-distance intracellular transport and secretion. The number of actin-binding proteins and actin filament nucleators that are known to participate in the process of actin network formation are rapidly increasing. In plants, formins and ARP2/3 are two important actin filament nucleators. This review will focus on ARP2/3, and the apparent reliance of most plant species on the SCAR/WAVE regulatory complex as the sole pathway for ARP2/3 activation.

  6. SCAR is a primary regulator of Arp2/3-dependent morphological events in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Zallen, Jennifer A.; Cohen, Yehudit; Hudson, Andrew M.; Cooley, Lynn; Wieschaus, Eric; Schejter, Eyal D.

    2002-01-01

    The Arp2/3 complex and its activators, Scar/WAVE and Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp), promote actin polymerization in vitro and have been proposed to influence cell shape and motility in vivo. We demonstrate that the Drosophila Scar homologue, SCAR, localizes to actin-rich structures and is required for normal cell morphology in multiple cell types throughout development. In particular, SCAR function is essential for cytoplasmic organization in the blastoderm, axon development in the ...

  7. Structural analysis of the transitional state of Arp2/3 complex activation by two actin-bound WCAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkowska, Malgorzata; Rebowski, Grzegorz; Kast, David J; Dominguez, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Actin filament nucleation and branching by Arp2/3 complex is activated by nucleation-promoting factors (NPFs), whose C-terminal WCA region contains binding sites for actin (W) and Arp2/3 complex (CA). It is debated whether one or two NPFs are required for activation. Here we present evidence in support of the two-NPF model and show that actin plays a crucial role in the interactions of two mammalian NPFs, N-WASP and WAVE2, with Arp2/3 complex. Competition between actin-WCA and glia maturation factor (GMF) for binding to Arp2/3 complex suggests that during activation the first actin monomer binds at the barbed end of Arp2. Based on distance constraints obtained by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we define the relative position of the two actin-WCAs on Arp2/3 complex and propose an atomic model of the 11-subunit transitional complex.

  8. Regulation of N-WASP and the Arp2/3 complex by Abp1 controls neuronal morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roser Pinyol

    Full Text Available Polymerization and organization of actin filaments into complex superstructures is indispensable for structure and function of neuronal networks. We here report that knock down of the F-actin-binding protein Abp1, which is important for endocytosis and synaptic organization, results in changes in axon development virtually identical to Arp2/3 complex inhibition, i.e., a selective increase of axon length. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrate that Abp1 interacts directly with N-WASP, an activator of the Arp2/3 complex, and releases the autoinhibition of N-WASP in cooperation with Cdc42 and thereby promotes N-WASP-triggered Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin polymerization. In line with our mechanistical studies and the colocalization of Abp1, N-WASP and Arp2/3 at sites of actin polymerization in neurons, we reveal an essential role of Abp1 and its cooperativity with Cdc42 in N-WASP-induced rearrangements of the neuronal cytoskeleton. We furthermore show that introduction of N-WASP mutants lacking the ability to bind Abp1 or Cdc42, Arp2/3 complex inhibition, Abp1 knock down, N-WASP knock down and Arp3 knock down, all cause identical neuromorphological phenotypes. Our data thus strongly suggest that these proteins and their complex formation are important for cytoskeletal processes underlying neuronal network formation.

  9. X-ray emission from spiral galaxies with normal and low-activity nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuricin, G. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Astronomia); Bertotti, G. (Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics, Trieste (Italy)); Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M. (Trieste Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Astronomia Centro Interuniversitario Regionale per l' Astrofisica e la Cosmologia (CIRAC), Trieste (Italy))

    1991-05-15

    A statistical analysis of the soft X-ray emission from spiral galaxies with normal and low-luminosity active nuclei (LINERs and Seyfert 2) - derived from published observations obtained with the Einstein Observatory - has revealed a number of previously unrecognised characteristics of the X-ray emission. Seyfert 2 galaxies (the least powerful X-ray sources of the Seyfert class) turn out to be, on average, stronger X-ray emitters (per unit light) than non-Seyfert galaxies, whereas galaxies with LINER nuclei and H II-region-like nuclei exhibit X-ray emissions of comparable strength. We have verified that the X-ray luminosity (per unit light) is linked to the total H {alpha} emission-line strength. Remarkably, more enhanced X-ray emission (per unit light) has been found in Arp atlas galaxies, in galaxies included in the Atlas and Catalogue of Interacting Galaxies of Vorontsov-Vel'yaminov, and in interacting galaxies compared to normal galaxies. (Author).

  10. Validation of Emulated Omnidirectional Antenna Output Using Directive Antenna Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejselbæk, Johannes; Karstensen, Anders; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present validation of a method for constructing a virtual omnidirectional antenna in the azimuth plane. The virtual omnidirectional antenna utilizes a combination of data from directive horn antennas. The aim is to utilize the high gain of the horn antenna to improve the dynamic...... range of channel sounding measurements conducted in the centimeter and millimeter wave bands. The resulting complex impulse response from the virtual omnidirectional antenna is used to find the power-delay-profile (PDP). This is then compared to measurements conducted at the same time using a real...... omnidirectional antenna. The validation shows that the synthesized omnidirectional is capable of predicting main components and the slope of the PDP. Further, it is shown that by choosing angular sampling steps corresponding to the half power beam width (HPBW) of the used antenna similar power levels can...

  11. Guard Against ARP Viruses in LAN%局域网内ARP病毒的防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    单广翠; 陈瑾

    2014-01-01

    With the development of computer network and Internet,network security has been paid more and more attention and concern,communication LAN virus affects seriously the safety of network information,one of the most representative of the virus is ARP virus.Due to the spread of the ARP virus in the LAN and other computers on the offensive,in order to ensure the safety and smooth lfow of information,ARP prevention and removal work has become an important part in network security.%随着计算机网络技术的不断发展,局域网安全问题越来越受到人们的重视和关注,局域网内病毒的传播严重影响着网络信息的安全性,其中最具代表性的病毒就是ARP病毒。由于ARP病毒在局域网内的传播及对其他计算机的攻击性,为了确保信息的安全与畅通,ARP病毒的预防及清除工作已经成为了网络安全中的重要事情。

  12. Hsp90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin inhibits the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The antiproliferative effect of the Hsp90 inhibitor 17-AAG (17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin on human retinal pigment epithelial cells is investigated. Methods MTT and flow cytometry were used to study the antiproliferative effects of the 17-AAG treatment of ARPE-19 cells. 2D gel electrophoresis (2-DE and mass spectrometry were applied to detect the altered expression of proteins, which was verified by real-time PCR. Gene Ontology analysis and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA were utilized to analyze the signaling pathways, cellular location, function, and network connections of the identified proteins. And SOD assay was employed to confirm the analysis. Results 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Proteomic analysis revealed that the expression of 94 proteins was altered by a factor of more than 1.5 following exposure to 17-AAG. Of these 94, 87 proteins were identified. Real-time PCR results indicated that Hsp90 and Hsp70, which were not identified by proteomic analysis, were both upregulated upon 17-AAG treatment. IPA revealed that most of the proteins have functions that are related to oxidative stress, as verified by SOD assay, while canonical pathway analysis revealed glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. Conclusions 17-AAG suppressed the proliferation of ARPE-19 cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and possibly by oxidative stress.

  13. Excited OH+, H2O+, and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    González-Alfonso, E; Bruderer, S; Müller, H S P; Graciá-Carpio, J; Sturm, E; Lutz, D; Poglitsch, A; Feuchtgruber, H; Veilleux, S; Contursi, A; Sternberg, A; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Verma, A; Christopher, N; Davies, R; Genzel, R; Tacconi, L

    2012-01-01

    We report on Herschel/PACS observations of absorption lines of OH+, H2O+ and H3O+ in NGC 4418 and Arp 220. Excited lines of OH+ and H2O+ with E_lower of at least 285 and \\sim200 K, respectively, are detected in both sources, indicating radiative pumping and location in the high radiation density environment of the nuclear regions. Abundance ratios OH+/H2O+ of 1-2.5 are estimated in the nuclei of both sources. The inferred OH+ column and abundance relative to H nuclei are (0.5-1)x10^{16} cm-2 and \\sim2x10^{-8}, respectively. Additionally, in Arp 220, an extended low excitation component around the nuclear region is found to have OH+/H2O+\\sim5-10. H3O+ is detected in both sources with N(H3O+)\\sim(0.5-2)x10^{16} cm-2, and in Arp 220 the pure inversion, metastable lines indicate a high rotational temperature of ~500 K, indicative of formation pumping and/or hot gas. Simple chemical models favor an ionization sequence dominated by H+ - O+ - OH+ - H2O+ - H3O+, and we also argue that the H+ production is most likely...

  14. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  15. Community Antenna Television (CATV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    The number of households hooked up to cable television or community antenna television (CATV) is expanding rapidly, and Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has been developing regulations since 1962 to guide the growth of the industry. By 1965 the FCC had claimed jurisdiction over all CATV systems in the U. S. This jurisdiction was challenged…

  16. MEMS Tunable Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    Addressing low frequency bands is challenging on small platforms. Tunability is a promising solution to cover the bandwidth required for 4G mobile communication. The work presents two designs and shows that for comparable efficiency and bandwidth, the tunable antenna occupies half the volume...

  17. Evolutionary optimization of optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Kiunke, Markus; Hecht, Bert

    2012-01-01

    The design of nano-antennas is so far mainly inspired by radio-frequency technology. However, material properties and experimental settings need to be reconsidered at optical frequencies, which entails the need for alternative optimal antenna designs. Here a checkerboard-type, initially random array of gold cubes is subjected to evolutionary optimization. To illustrate the power of the approach we demonstrate that by optimizing the near-field intensity enhancement the evolutionary algorithm finds a new antenna geometry, essentially a split-ring/two-wire antenna hybrid which surpasses by far the performance of a conventional gap antenna by shifting the n=1 split-ring resonance into the optical regime.

  18. Quartz antenna with hollow conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Benabou, Elie

    2002-01-01

    A radio frequency (RF) antenna for plasma ion sources is formed of a hollow metal conductor tube disposed within a glass tube. The hollow metal tubular conductor has an internal flow channel so that there will be no coolant leakage if the outer glass tube of the antenna breaks. A portion of the RF antenna is formed into a coil; the antenna is used for inductively coupling RF power to a plasma in an ion source chamber. The antenna is made by first inserting the metal tube inside the glass tube, and then forming the glass/metal composite tube into the desired coil shape.

  19. Antenna theory analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Balanis, Constantine A

    2005-01-01

    The discipline of antenna theory has experienced vast technological changes. In response, Constantine Balanis has updated his classic text, Antenna Theory, offering the most recent look at all the necessary topics. New material includes smart antennas and fractal antennas, along with the latest applications in wireless communications. Multimedia material on an accompanying CD presents PowerPoint viewgraphs of lecture notes, interactive review questions, Java animations and applets, and MATLAB features. Like the previous editions, Antenna Theory, Third Edition meets the needs of e

  20. OBSERVATIONS OF Arp 220 USING HERSCHEL-SPIRE: AN UNPRECEDENTED VIEW OF THE MOLECULAR GAS IN AN EXTREME STAR FORMATION ENVIRONMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangwala, Naseem; Maloney, Philip R.; Glenn, Jason; Kamenetzky, Julia [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 1255 38th street, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Wilson, Christine D.; Mentuch, Erin; Schirm, Maximilien R. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1 (Canada); Rykala, Adam [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Queens Buildings The Parade, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Isaak, Kate [ESA Astrophysics Missions Division, ESTEC, PO Box 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Bendo, George J. [UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jordell Bank Center for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Boselli, Alessandro [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, UMR6110 CNRS, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille (France); Bradford, Charles M. [JPL, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Clements, D. L. [Astrophysics Group, Imperial College, Blackett Laboratory, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Fulton, Trevor; Imhof, Peter [Blue Sky Spectroscopy Inc, Suite 9-740 4th Avenue South, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 0N9 (Canada); Madden, Suzanne C.; Sauvage, Marc [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sacchi, Nicola [Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); and others

    2011-12-10

    We present Herschel Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver Fourier Transform Spectrometer (Herschel SPIRE-FTS) observations of Arp 220, a nearby ultra-luminous infrared galaxy. The FTS provides continuous spectral coverage from 190 to 670 {mu}m, a wavelength region that is either very difficult to observe or completely inaccessible from the ground. The spectrum provides a good measurement of the continuum and detection of several molecular and atomic species. We detect luminous CO (J = 4-3 to 13-12) and water rotational transitions with comparable total luminosity {approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} L{sub Sun }; very high-J transitions of HCN (J = 12-11 to 17-16) in absorption; strong absorption features of rare species such as OH{sup +}, H{sub 2}O{sup +}, and HF; and atomic lines of [C I] and [N II]. The modeling of the continuum shows that the dust is warm, with T = 66 K, and has an unusually large optical depth, with {tau}{sub dust} {approx} 5 at 100 {mu}m. The total far-infrared luminosity of Arp 220 is L{sub FIR} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. Non-LTE modeling of the extinction corrected CO rotational transitions shows that the spectral line energy distribution of CO is fit well by two temperature components: cold molecular gas at T {approx} 50 K and warm molecular gas at T {approx} 1350{sup +280}{sub -100} K (the inferred temperatures are much lower if CO line fluxes are not corrected for dust extinction). These two components are not in pressure equilibrium. The mass of the warm gas is 10% of the cold gas, but it dominates the CO luminosity. The ratio of total CO luminosity to the total FIR luminosity is L{sub CO}/L{sub FIR} {approx} 10{sup -4} (the most luminous lines, such as J = 6-5, have L{sub CO,J=6-5}/L{sub FIR} {approx} 10{sup -5}). The temperature of the warm gas is in excellent agreement with the observations of H{sub 2} rotational lines. At 1350 K, H{sub 2} dominates the cooling ({approx}20 L{sub Sun} M{sup -1}{sub

  1. Applying the Analytic Theory of Colliding Ring Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Struck, Curtis

    2009-01-01

    An analytic theory of the waves in colliding ring galaxies was presented some years ago, but the observations where not of sufficient quality then to make quantitative comparisons. Well-resolved observations of a few systems are now available to make such comparisons, and structure imaged in several dozen systems, derived from the recent compilation of Madore, Nelson and Petrillo and the Galaxy Zoo project, can further constrain the theory. Systems with two rings are especially useful for deriving such constraints. After examining the implications of recent observations of ring sizes and structure, I extend the analytic theory, investigate limiting cases, and present several levels of approximation. The theory is especially simple in the case of nearly flat rotation curves. I present observational comparisons for a few systems, including: Arp 10, the Cartwheel and AM2136-492. The fit is quite good over a large range of cases. For the Cartwheel there are discrepancies, but the areas of disagreement are suggest...

  2. Circumnuclear gaseous kinematics and excitation of four local radio galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, G. S.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Axon, D. J.; Robinson, A.; Riffel, R. A.; Kharb, P.; Lena, D.; Schnorr-Müller, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present our results using optical integral field spectroscopy of four nearby (zGMOS in Gemini North and South telescopes. The field-of-view probes a circumnuclear region of ≍3.5"×5", with average spatial resolution of ≍0.6". In this presentation, we will resume our results for two galaxies of our sample, Arp 102B and Pictor A, which are already published (Couto et al. 2013, 2016), as well as discuss the preliminary results for the other two, 3C 33 and 4C +29.30. While these galaxies present different characteristics, like radio jet morphology, they display in common signatures of interactions or merger events.

  3. Predicting Antenna Parameters from Antenna Physical Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    for a linear array is [Ref. 3: pp. 43-44]: G = erDo (dimensionless) (3.20) G(dB) = 101og1 0 (etD,) (dB) (3.21) As a result of constructing the linear...transmission line. Therefore, the gain of the antenna is: G = erDo (dimensionless) (7.19) G(dB) = 101og1 0 (ecDo) (dB) (7.20) A caged dipole in free...surface, and the distance (r’) from the origin to the projection of point (P) onto the z = 0 plane. The primed angles in Figure 8.1 correspond to the

  4. Integrated Solar Panel Antennas for Cube Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work presents an innovative solution for small satellite antennas by integrating slot antennas and solar cells on the same panel to save small satellite surface real estate and to replace deployed wire antennas for certain operational frequencies. The two main advantages of the proposed antenna are: 1) the antenna does not require an expensive deployment mechanism that is required by dipole antennas; 2) the antenna does not occupy as much valuable surface real estate as patch ante...

  5. Integrated Solar Panel Antennas for Cube Satellites

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud, Mahmoud N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work presents an innovative solution for small satellite antennas by integrating slot antennas and solar cells on the same panel to save small satellite surface real estate and to replace deployed wire antennas for certain operational frequencies. The two main advantages of the proposed antenna are: 1) the antenna does not require an expensive deployment mechanism that is required by dipole antennas; 2) the antenna does not occupy as much valuable surface real estate as patch ante...

  6. A Reconfigurable Radiation Pattern Annular Slot Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, NA; Radhi, A; Nilavalan, R

    2016-01-01

    This paper contemplate a theoretical analysis of a pattern reconfigurable antenna using annular slot antenna operating in low frequency. A shorting pin is inserted to allow the annular slot antenna to have an omnidirectional radiation pattern like a monopole antenna. The reconfigurable antenna consists of numerous metal cylinders arranged around the annular slot antenna. By controlling pin diodes associated with the metal cylinders, the antenna is capable of working up in different dire...

  7. Altered Expression of ARP2/3 Complex Signaling Pathway Genes in Prefrontal Layer 3 Pyramidal Cells in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Dibyadeep; Arion, Dominique; Roman, Kaitlyn M; Volk, David W; Lewis, David A

    2017-02-01

    Lower dendritic spine density on layer 3 pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia, whereas psychosis is associated with excessive dopamine release in the striatum. These findings may be related via excitatory projections from the DLPFC to the ventral mesencephalon, the location of dopamine cells projecting to the striatum. Consistent with this hypothesis, deletion of the actin-related protein-2/3 (ARP2/3) complex, which regulates the actin cytoskeleton supporting dendritic spines, produced spine loss in cortical pyramidal cells and striatal hyperdopaminergia in mice. The authors sought to determine whether the ARP2/3 complex is altered in schizophrenia. In matched pairs of schizophrenia and comparison subjects, transcript levels of ARP2/3 complex signaling pathway were assessed in laser-microdissected DLPFC layer 3 and 5 pyramidal cells and layer 3 parvalbumin interneurons, and in total DLPFC gray matter. Transcript levels of ARP2/3 complex subunits and of nucleation promotion factors that regulate the ARP2/3 complex were significantly lower in DLPFC layer 3 and 5 pyramidal cells in schizophrenia. In contrast, these transcripts were unaltered, or only modestly changed, in parvalbumin interneurons and DLPFC gray matter. Down-regulation of the ARP2/3 complex signaling pathway, a common final pathway for multiple signaling cascades that regulate the actin cytoskeleton, would compromise the structural stability of spines, leading to their loss. In concert with findings from deletion of the ARP2/3 complex in mice, these findings support the idea that spine deficits in the DLPFC may contribute to subcortical hyperdopaminergia in schizophrenia.

  8. BAND-9 ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE [N II] 122 μm LINE AND FIR CONTINUUM IN TWO HIGH-z GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Brisbin, Drew; Stacey, Gordon J. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Nikola, Thomas [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Hailey-Dunsheath, Steve [California Institute of Technology, Mail Code 301-17, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Falgarone, Edith, E-mail: ferkinhoff@mpia.de [LERMA, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris and ENS (France)

    2015-06-20

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of two high-redshift systems (SMMJ02399-0136 at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.8 and the Cloverleaf QSO at z{sub 1} ∼ 2.5) in their rest-frame 122 μm continuum (ν{sub sky} ∼ 650 GHz, λ{sub sky} ∼ 450 μm) and [N ii] 122 μm line emission. The continuum observations with a synthesized beam of ∼0.″ 25 resolve both sources and recover the expected flux. The Cloverleaf is resolved into a partial Einstein ring, while SMMJ02399-0136 is unambiguously separated into two components: a point source associated with an active galactic nucleus and an extended region at the location of a previously identified dusty starburst. We detect the [N ii] line in both systems, though significantly weaker than our previous detections made with the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer. We show that this discrepancy is mostly explained if the line flux is resolved out due to significantly more extended emission and longer ALMA baselines than expected. Based on the ALMA observations we determine that ≥75% of the total [N ii] line flux in each source is produced via star formation. We use the [N ii] line flux that is recovered by ALMA to constrain the N/H abundance, ionized gas mass, hydrogen- ionizing photon rate, and star formation rate. In SMMJ02399-0136 we discover it contains a significant amount (∼1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) of unobscured star formation in addition to its dusty starburst and argue that SMMJ02399-0136 may be similar to the Antennae Galaxies (Arp 244) locally. In total these observations provide a new look at two well-studied systems while demonstrating the power and challenges of Band-9 ALMA observations of high-z systems.

  9. The Human Arp2/3 Complex Is Composed of Evolutionarily Conserved Subunits and Is Localized to Cellular Regions of Dynamic Actin Filament Assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, Matthew D.; Angela H. DePace; Verma, Suzie; Iwamatsu, Akihiro; Mitchison, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. The human complex consists of seven subunits which include the actin related proteins Arp2 and Arp3, and five others referred to as p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20-Arc, and p16-Arc (Arp complex). We have determined the predicted amino acid sequence of all seven subunits. Each has homologues in diverse eukaryotes, implying that the structure and function of the complex has been conserved through evol...

  10. Multifunctional Antenna Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-25

    acquisition and processing server scheme. An Android smartphone application ( app ) provides the user interface for the system and can be used to select the...Dynamic Tethering of a Phased Array to an Android Smartphone , IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, (06 2013): 0. doi: 10.1109/TAP...modes of flight, and hover. The Android smartphone system was connected to a nine-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU) through an Arduino

  11. Circuit realization microwave antennas-oscillator on strip antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Golynskyy, V. D.; Prudyus, I. N.

    2009-01-01

    Showing special feature of development circuitries microwave transistors antennasoscillator on strip dielectric-resonator-antennas. Showing circuitries and technical characteristics of developed microwave antennasoscillator on strip.

  12. 47 CFR 80.863 - Antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.863 Section 80.863... Antenna system. (a) An antenna system must be installed which is as nondirectional and as efficient as is... construction of the required antenna must insure operation in time of emergency. (b) If the required antenna...

  13. 47 CFR 80.866 - Spare antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spare antenna. 80.866 Section 80.866... Spare antenna. A spare transmitting antenna completely assembled for immediate erection must be provided. If the installed transmitting antenna is suspended between supports, this spare antenna must be...

  14. Spectral optical monitoring of a double-peaked emission line AGN Arp 102B: I. Variability of spectral lines and continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Shapovalova, A I; Burenkov, A N; Chavushyan, V H; Ilic, D; Kollatschny, W; Kovacevic, A; Bochkarev, N G; Valdes, J R; Torrealba, J; Patino-Alvarez, V; Leon-Tavares, J; Benitez, E; Carrasco, L; Dultzin, D; Mercado, A; Zhdanova, V E

    2013-01-01

    Here we present results of the long-term (1987-2010) optical spectral monitoring of the broad line radio galaxy Arp 102B, a prototype of active galactic nuclei with the double-peaked broad emission lines, usually assumed to be emitted from an accretion disk. To explore the structure of the broad line region (BLR), we analyze the light curves of the broad H\\alpha and H\\beta lines and the continuum flux. We aim to estimate the dimensions of the broad-line emitting regions and the mass of the central black hole. We use the CCF to find lags between the lines and continuum variations. We investigate in more details the correlation between line and continuum fluxes, moreover we explore periodical variations of the red-to-blue line flux ratio using Lomb-Scargle periodograms. The line and continuum light curves show several flare-like events. The fluxes in lines and in the continuum are not showing a big change (around 20%) during the monitoring period. We found a small correlation between the line and continuum flux...

  15. SMA Imaging of CO(3-2) Line and 860 micron Continuum of Arp 220 : Tracing the Spatial Distribution of Luminosity

    CERN Document Server

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Wiedner, Martina C; Wang, Zhong; Peck, Alison B; Zhang, Qizhou; Petitpas, Glen R; Ho, Paul T P; Wilner, David J

    2008-01-01

    We used the Submillimeter Array (SMA) to image 860 micron continuum and CO(3-2) line emission in the ultraluminous merging galaxy Arp 220, achieving a resolution of 0.23" (80 pc) for the continuum and 0.33" (120 pc) for the line. The CO emission peaks around the two merger nuclei with a velocity signature of gas rotation around each nucleus, and is also detected in a kpc-size disk encompassing the binary nucleus. The dust continuum, in contrast, is mostly from the two nuclei. The beam-averaged brightness temperature of both line and continuum emission exceeds 50 K at and around the nuclei, revealing the presence of warm molecular gas and dust. The dust emission morphologically agrees with the distribution of radio supernova features in the east nucleus, as expected when a starburst heats the nucleus. In the brighter west nucleus, however, the submillimeter dust emission is more compact than the supernova distribution. The 860 micron core, after deconvolution, has a size of 50-80 pc, consistent with recent 1.3...

  16. Efficient Placement of Directional Antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Feng [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-20

    Directional antenna is an technology for the proliferation of wireless networks. In centralized wireless network, wireless devices communicate through base stations. Directed antennas are placed on base stations and form a backbone of communication. The communication between base stations and wireless devices can be interfered due to a large number of wireless device. Methodically positioning and orienting directed antennas can help to reduce the interference while saving energy. An integer linear programming is developed for siting and directing antennas on multiple base stations, and this formulation can be extended to model non-overlapping channels. Through the integer programming formulation, optimal antenna positions can be used to analyze the performance of directed antennas with different parameters like the number base stations and the number of non-overlapping channels.

  17. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  18. Miniaturization of Spherical Magnetodielectric Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle

    The fundamental limitations in performance of electrically small antennas (ESAs) - and how far these may be approached - have been of great interest for over a century. Particularly over the past few decades, it has become increasingly relevant and important, to approach these limits in view...... to the important antenna parameters of radiation efficiency e and impedance bandwidth. For single-mode antennas the fundamental minimum Q is the Chu lower bound. In this Ph.D. dissertation, the topic is miniaturization of spherical antennas loaded by an internal magnetodielectric core. The goal is to determine......, quantify, and assess the effects of an internal material loading upon antenna performance, including its potentials towards miniaturization. Emphasis have been upon performing an exhaustive and exact analysis of rigorous validity covering a large class of spherical antennas. In the context of this study...

  19. Stretchable antenna for wearable electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-04-13

    Various examples are provided for stretchable antennas that can be used for applications such as wearable electronics. In one example, a stretchable antenna includes a flexible support structure including a lateral spring section having a proximal end and at a distal end; a metallic antenna disposed on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metallic antenna extending along the lateral spring section from the proximal end; and a metallic feed coupled to the metallic antenna at the proximal end of the lateral spring section. In another example, a method includes patterning a polymer layer disposed on a substrate to define a lateral spring section; disposing a metal layer on at least a portion of the lateral spring section, the metal layer forming an antenna extending along the portion of the lateral spring section; and releasing the polymer layer and the metal layer from the substrate.

  20. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  1. Antenna for Ultrawideband Channel Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhekov, Stanislav Stefanov; Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    A novel compact antenna for ultrawideband channel sounding is presented. The antenna is composed of a symmetrical biconical antenna modified by adding a cylinder and a ring to each cone. A feeding coaxial cable is employed during the simulations in order to evaluate and reduce its impact...... on the antenna performance. The optimized antenna demonstrates S11 below -10 dB and a stable omnidirectional radiation pattern robust against the cable effect over the frequency band 1.5-41 GHz despite its compactness (the maximum electrical dimension is of 0.29max, where max is the free space wavelength...... at the lowest frequency of operation). A prototype of the antenna is fabricated and tested. The simulated and measured S11 are in a good agreement. Measured radiation patterns confirm the pattern stability in terms of the direction of maximum radiation and 3 dB beamwidth....

  2. Antenna Calibration and Measurement Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochblatt, David J.; Cortes, Manuel Vazquez

    2012-01-01

    A document describes the Antenna Calibration & Measurement Equipment (ACME) system that will provide the Deep Space Network (DSN) with instrumentation enabling a trained RF engineer at each complex to perform antenna calibration measurements and to generate antenna calibration data. This data includes continuous-scan auto-bore-based data acquisition with all-sky data gathering in support of 4th order pointing model generation requirements. Other data includes antenna subreflector focus, system noise temperature and tipping curves, antenna efficiency, reports system linearity, and instrument calibration. The ACME system design is based on the on-the-fly (OTF) mapping technique and architecture. ACME has contributed to the improved RF performance of the DSN by approximately a factor of two. It improved the pointing performances of the DSN antennas and productivity of its personnel and calibration engineers.

  3. [Cloning and functional research of Arp2/3-P40/ARPC1 subunit of Sf9 cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shi-Li; Mu, Jing-Fang; Zhang, Yong-Li; Chen, Xin-Wen; Wang, Yun; Li, Lu-Lin

    2012-11-01

    The baculovirus-induced actin polymerization is mainly associated with the virus nucleocapsid protein P78/83, which is homologous with WASP proteins that can activate Arp2/3 complex and induce the actin polymerization. In order to explore the role of Arp2/3 complex in the baculovirus replication, the P40 subunit of Arp2/3 complex from Sf9 (Spodoptera frugiperda 9) cell line was cloned and characterized. Immunofluorescent microscopy assay indicated that P40 was recruited to the inner-side of nuclear membrane during virus infection, which was in accordance with nuclear F-actin distribution in virus-infected cells as documented in our previous research, suggesting P40 could be used to track Arp2/3 complex subcellular distribution changes during virus infection. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that P40 interacted with P78/83 only in virus-infected cells, suggesting that actin polymerization induced by P78/83-Arp2/3 complex during baculovirus infection was regulated by some unidentified virus factors.

  4. Optical antenna gain. 2: receiving antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, J J; Klein, B J

    1974-10-01

    Expressions are derived for the gain of a centrally obscured, circular optical antenna when used as the collecting and focusing optics in a laser receiver which include losses due to (1) blockage of the incoming light by the central obscuration, (2) the spillover of energy at the detector, and (3) the effect of local oscillator distribution in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. Numerical results are presented for direct detection and for three types of local oscillator distributions (uniform, Gaussian, and matched) in the case of heterodyne or homodyne detection. The results are presented in several graphs that allow the rapid evaluation of receiver gain for an arbitrary set of telescope and detector parameters. It is found that, for uniform illumination by the LO, the optimum SNR is obtained when the detector radius is approximately 0.74 times the Airy disk radius. The use of an optimized Gaussian (spot size = 0.46 times the Airy disk radius) improves the receiver gain by less than 1 dB. Theuse results are insensitive to the size of the central obscuration.

  5. Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    08-2015 Publication Slotted Antenna with Anisotropic Covering David A. Tonn et al Naval Under Warfare Center Division, Newport 1176 Howell St...NUWC 300055 Distribution A An antenna includes a tubular, conductive radiator having a longitudinal slot formed therein from a first end of the...conductive radiator to a second end of the conductive radiator. An antenna feed can be joined to the conductive radiator adjacent to and across the slot

  6. A distributed array antenna system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, R.; Kovitz, J.

    1986-01-01

    The Space Station communication system will use microwave frequency radio links to carry digitized information from sender to receiver. The ability of the antenna system to meet stringent requirements on coverage zones, multiple users, and reliability will play an important part in the overall multiple access communication system. This paper will describe the configuration of a multibeam conformal phased array antenna and the individual microwave integrated components incoporated into this antenna system.

  7. NBHA Reduces Acrolein-lnduced Changes in ARPE-19 Cells: Possible Involvement of TGFβ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidro-Kotchan, Eileen; Yendluri, Bharat Bhushan; Le-Thai, Terrie; Tsin, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Acrolein, a toxic, reactive aldehyde formed metabolically and environmentally, has been implicated in the damage to and dysfunction of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) that accompanies age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Our purpose was to investigate the potential of acrolein to influence the release of transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGFβ2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), to assess the ability of N-benzylhydroxylamine (NBHA) to prevent the effect of acrolein on cytokine release and reduction of viable cells, and to explore the pathway by which acrolein might be causing the increase of VEGF. Materials and Methods Confluent ARPE-19 cells were treated with acrolein and/or NBHA. They were also pretreated with SIS3, a specific inhibitor of SMAD 3, and ZM39923, a JAK3 inhibitor, before being treated with acrolein. Viable cells were counted; ELISA was used to measure the TGFβ2 and/or VEGF in the conditioned media. Results Acrolein was shown to reduce the number of viable ARPE-19 cells and to upregulate the release of the proangiogenic cytokines TGFβ2 and VEGF. Co-treatment with 200 μM NBHA significantly reduced the effects of acrolein on viable cell number and TGFβ2 release. Pretreatment of the cells with SIS3 partially blocked the action of acrolein on decreased viable cell number and VEGF upregulation, suggesting that part of the effects of acrolein are mediated by the increased levels of TGFβ and its signaling. Conclusions Our results suggest that the action of acrolein on the reduction of viability and VEGF increase by ARPE-19 cells is partially mediated by TGFβ2. By reducing the effects of acrolein, NBHA and SIS3 could be potential pharmacological agents in the prevention and progression of acrolein-induced damage to the RPE that relates to AMD. PMID:21309688

  8. A mechanism of leading-edge protrusion in the absence of Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suraneni, Praveen; Fogelson, Ben; Rubinstein, Boris; Noguera, Philippe; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit; Mogilner, Alex; Li, Rong

    2015-03-01

    Cells employ protrusive leading edges to navigate and promote their migration in diverse physiological environments. Classical models of leading-edge protrusion rely on a treadmilling dendritic actin network that undergoes continuous assembly nucleated by the Arp2/3 complex, forming ruffling lamellipodia. Recent work demonstrated, however, that, in the absence of the Arp2/3 complex, fibroblast cells adopt a leading edge with filopodia-like protrusions (FLPs) and maintain an ability to move, albeit with altered responses to different environmental signals. We show that formin-family actin nucleators are required for the extension of FLPs but are insufficient to produce a continuous leading edge in fibroblasts lacking Arp2/3 complex. Myosin II is concentrated in arc-like regions of the leading edge in between FLPs, and its activity is required for coordinated advancement of these regions with formin-generated FLPs. We propose that actomyosin contraction acting against membrane tension advances the web of arcs between FLPs. Predictions of this model are verified experimentally. The dependence of myosin II in leading-edge advancement helps explain the previously reported defect in directional movement in the Arpc3-null fibroblasts. We provide further evidence that this defect is cell autonomous during chemotaxis. © 2015 Suraneni et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. Antenna arrays a computational approach

    CERN Document Server

    Haupt, Randy L

    2010-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of antenna array topics that are becoming increasingly important in wireless applications, particularly in design and computer modeling. Signal processing and numerical modeling algorithms are explored, and MATLAB computer codes are provided for many of the design examples. Pictures of antenna arrays and components provided by industry and government sources are presented with explanations of how they work. Antenna Arrays is a valuable reference for practicing engineers and scientists in wireless communications, radar, and remote sensing, and an excellent textbook for advanced antenna courses.

  10. Metamaterial-based "sabre" antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafdallah Ouslimani, Habiba; Yuan, Tangjie; Kanane, Houcine; Priou, Alain; Collignon, Gérard; Lacotte, Guillaume

    2014-05-01

    The "sabre" antenna is an array of two monopole elements, vertically polarized with omnidirectional radiation patterns, and placed on either side of a composite material on the tail of an airplane. As an in-phase reflector plane, the antenna uses a compact dual-layer high-impedance surface (DL-HIS) with offset mushroom-like Sivenpiper square shape unit cells. This topology allows one to control both operational frequency and bandgap width, while reducing the total height of the antenna to under λ0/36. The designed antenna structure has a wide bandwidth higher than 24% around 1.4 GHz. The measurements and numerical simulations agree very well.

  11. Spiral Microstrip Antenna with Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, David G. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A spiral microstrip antenna having resistor elements embedded in each of the spiral arms is provided. The antenna is constructed using a conductive back plane as a base. The back plane supports a dielectric slab having a thickness between one-sixteenth and one-quarter of an inch. A square spiral, having either two or four arms, is attached to the dielectric slab. Each arm of the spiral has resistor elements thereby dissipating an excess energy not already emitted through radiation. The entire configuration provides a thin, flat, high gain, wide bandwidth antenna which requires no underlying cavity. The configuration allows the antenna to be mounted conformably on an aircraft surface.

  12. The Interaction of Arp2/3 Complex with Actin: Nucleation, High Affinity Pointed End Capping, and Formation of Branching Networks of Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyche Mullins, R.; Heuser, John A.; Pollard, Thomas D.

    1998-05-01

    The Arp2/3 complex is a stable assembly of seven protein subunits including two actin-related proteins (Arp2 and Arp3) and five novel proteins. Previous work showed that this complex binds to the sides of actin filaments and is concentrated at the leading edges of motile cells. Here, we show that Arp2/3 complex purified from Acanthamoeba caps the pointed ends of actin filaments with high affinity. Arp2/3 complex inhibits both monomer addition and dissociation at the pointed ends of actin filaments with apparent nanomolar affinity and increases the critical concentration for polymerization at the pointed end from 0.6 to 1.0 μ M. The high affinity of Arp2/3 complex for pointed ends and its abundance in amoebae suggest that in vivo all actin filament pointed ends are capped by Arp2/3 complex. Arp2/3 complex also nucleates formation of actin filaments that elongate only from their barbed ends. From kinetic analysis, the nucleation mechanism appears to involve stabilization of polymerization intermediates (probably actin dimers). In electron micrographs of quick-frozen, deep-etched samples, we see Arp2/3 bound to sides and pointed ends of actin filaments and examples of Arp2/3 complex attaching pointed ends of filaments to sides of other filaments. In these cases, the angle of attachment is a remarkably constant 70 ± 7 degrees. From these in vitro biochemical properties, we propose a model for how Arp2/3 complex controls the assembly of a branching network of actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells.

  13. Ferrite attenuator modulation improves antenna performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, J. C.; Larson, S. G.; Shorkley, F. H.; Williams, B. T.

    1970-01-01

    Ferrite attenuator inserted into appropriate waveguide reduces the gain of the antenna element which is causing interference. Modulating the ferrite attenuator to change the antenna gain at the receive frequency permits ground tracking until the antenna is no longer needed.

  14. Small Antennas for Wireless Micro-Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rainer Wansch

    2002-01-01

    This paper will describe the topology of wireless micro-systems networks and some of their key components. In particular we will deal with the antennas: loops, helices, F-antennas, patches and dielectrically loaded antennas.

  15. Millimeter and submillimeter wave antenna structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebiez, Gabriel M. (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An integrated circuit antenna structure for transmitting or receiving millimeter and/or submillimeter wave radiation having an antenna relatively unimpaired by the antenna mounting arrangment is disclosed herein. The antenna structure of the present invention includes a horn disposed on a substrate for focusing electromagnetic energy with respect to an antenna. The antenna is suspended relative to the horn to receive or transmit the electromagnetic energy focused thereby.

  16. Ultra wideband antennas design, methodologies, and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Galvan-Tejada, Giselle M; Jardón Aguilar, Hildeberto

    2015-01-01

    Ultra Wideband Antennas: Design, Methodologies, and Performance presents the current state of the art of ultra wideband (UWB) antennas, from theory specific for these radiators to guidelines for the design of omnidirectional and directional UWB antennas. Offering a comprehensive overview of the latest UWB antenna research and development, this book:Discusses the developed theory for UWB antennas in frequency and time domainsDelivers a brief exposition of numerical methods for electromagnetics oriented to antennasDescribes solid-planar equivalen

  17. Microelectromechanical Systems Actuator Based Reconfigurable Printed Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Rainee N. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A polarization reconfigurable patch antenna is disclosed. The antenna includes a feed element, a patch antenna element electrically connected to the feed element, and at least one microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) actuator, with a partial connection to the patch antenna element along an edge of the patch antenna element. The polarization of the antenna can be switched between circular polarization and linear polarization through action of the at least one MEMS actuator.

  18. The SAMI Galaxy Survey: first 1000 galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, J T

    2014-01-01

    The Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph (SAMI) Galaxy Survey is an ongoing project to obtain integral field spectroscopic observations of ~3400 galaxies by mid-2016. Including the pilot survey, a total of ~1000 galaxies have been observed to date, making the SAMI Galaxy Survey the largest of its kind in existence. This unique dataset allows a wide range of investigations into different aspects of galaxy evolution. The first public data from the SAMI Galaxy Survey, consisting of 107 galaxies drawn from the full sample, has now been released. By giving early access to SAMI data for the entire research community, we aim to stimulate research across a broad range of topics in galaxy evolution. As the sample continues to grow, the survey will open up a new and unique parameter space for galaxy evolution studies.

  19. Ultra wide band antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Begaud, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Ultra Wide Band Technology (UWB) has reached a level of maturity that allows us to offer wireless links with either high or low data rates. These wireless links are frequently associated with a location capability for which ultimate accuracy varies with the inverse of the frequency bandwidth. Using time or frequency domain waveforms, they are currently the subject of international standards facilitating their commercial implementation. Drawing up a complete state of the art, Ultra Wide Band Antennas is aimed at students, engineers and researchers and presents a summary of internationally recog

  20. Terahertz antenna electronic chopper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterczewski, L. A., E-mail: lukasz.sterczewski@pwr.edu.pl; Grzelczak, M. P.; Plinski, E. F. [Department of Electronics, Wroclaw University of Technology, 27 Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego St., 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland)

    2016-01-15

    In this paper, we present an electronic circuit used to bias a photoconductive antenna that generates terahertz radiation. The working principles and the design process for the device are discussed in detail. The noise and shape of the wave measurements for a built device are considered. Furthermore, their impact on a terahertz pulse and its spectra is also examined. The proposed implementation is simple to build, robust and offers a real improvement over THz instrumentation due to the frequency tuning. Additionally, it provides for galvanic isolation and ESD protection.

  1. Patch antenna terahertz photodetectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palaferri, D.; Todorov, Y., E-mail: yanko.todorov@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Chen, Y. N.; Madeo, J.; Vasanelli, A.; Sirtori, C. [Laboratoire Matériaux et Phénomènes Quantiques, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, CNRS-UMS 7162, 75013 Paris (France); Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    We report on the implementation of 5 THz quantum well photodetector exploiting a patch antenna cavity array. The benefit of our plasmonic architecture on the detector performance is assessed by comparing it with detectors made using the same quantum well absorbing region, but processed into a standard 45° polished facet mesa. Our results demonstrate a clear improvement in responsivity, polarization insensitivity, and background limited performance. Peak detectivities in excess of 5 × 10{sup 12} cmHz{sup 1/2}/W have been obtained, a value comparable with that of the best cryogenic cooled bolometers.

  2. Discrete X-Ray Source Populations and Star Formation History in Nearby Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zezas, Andreas; Hasan, Hashima (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    This program aims in understanding the connection between the discrete X-ray source populations observed in nearby galaxies and the history of star-formation in these galaxies. The ultimate goal is to use this knowledge in order to constrain X-ray binary evolution channels. For this reason although the program is primarily observational it has a significant modeling component. During the second year of this study we focused on detailed studies of the Antennae galaxies and the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We also performed the initial analysis of the 5 galaxies forming a starburst-age sequence.

  3. An isotonic preparation of 1 mg/ml indocyanine green is not toxic to hyperconfluent ARPE19 cells, even after prolonged exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst; la Cour, Morten

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate the in vitro toxicity of indocyanine green and infracyanine green (ICG) to cultured ARPE19 cells, in particular with respect to the concentration and time dependence of this toxicity. METHODS: ARPE19 cells were grown for at least 1 week past confluence (hyperconfluent cell...

  4. Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, F.

    We review both the observational and theoretical constraints on the evolution of the abundances of heavy elements in gas and stars in galaxies of different morphological type. The main aim of this work is to document the progress made in our understanding of the physical processes regulating the chemical evolution of galaxies during the last sixteen years since the appearance, in this same journal (volume 5, page 287), of the well know review of Beatrice Tinsley, to whom I dedicate this paper. Finally, this article is addressed particularly to readers who do not actively work on galactic chemical evolution and who might use it as a cook book where the main ingredients are discussed and useful recipes can be found.

  5. Galaxy formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, P J

    1998-01-01

    It is argued that within the standard Big Bang cosmological model the bulk of the mass of the luminous parts of the large galaxies likely had been assembled by redshift z approximately 10. Galaxy assembly this early would be difficult to fit in the widely discussed adiabatic cold dark matter model for structure formation, but it could agree with an isocurvature version in which the cold dark matter is the remnant of a massive scalar field frozen (or squeezed) from quantum fluctuations during inflation. The squeezed field fluctuations would be Gaussian with zero mean, and the distribution of the field mass therefore would be the square of a random Gaussian process. This offers a possibly interesting new direction for the numerical exploration of models for cosmic structure formation.

  6. Terminal axonal arborization and synaptic bouton formation critically rely on abp1 and the arp2/3 complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Koch

    Full Text Available Neuronal network formation depends on properly timed and localized generation of presynaptic as well as postsynaptic structures. Although of utmost importance for understanding development and plasticity of the nervous system and neurodegenerative diseases, the molecular mechanisms that ensure the fine-control needed for coordinated establishment of pre- and postsynapses are still largely unknown. We show that the F-actin-binding protein Abp1 is prominently expressed in the Drosophila nervous system and reveal that Abp1 is an important regulator in shaping glutamatergic neuromuscular junctions (NMJs of flies. STED microscopy shows that Abp1 accumulations can be found in close proximity of synaptic vesicles and at the cell cortex in nerve terminals. Abp1 knock-out larvae have locomotion defects and underdeveloped NMJs that are characterized by a reduced number of both type Ib synaptic boutons and branches of motornerve terminals. Abp1 is able to indirectly trigger Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin nucleation and interacts with both WASP and Scar. Consistently, Arp2 and Arp3 loss-of-function also resulted in impairments of bouton formation and arborization at NMJs, i.e. fully phenocopied abp1 knock-out. Interestingly, neuron- and muscle-specific rescue experiments revealed that synaptic bouton formation critically depends on presynaptic Abp1, whereas the NMJ branching defects can be compensated for by restoring Abp1 functions at either side. In line with this presynaptic importance of Abp1, also presynaptic Arp2 and Arp3 are crucial for the formation of type Ib synaptic boutons. Interestingly, presynaptic Abp1 functions in NMJ formation were fully dependent on the Arp2/3 complex, as revealed by suppression of Abp1-induced synaptic bouton formation and branching of axon terminals upon presynaptic Arp2 RNAi. These data reveal that Abp1 and Arp2/3 complex-mediated actin cytoskeletal dynamics drive both synaptic bouton formation and NMJ branching. Our

  7. Chemically Distinct Nuclei and Outflowing Shocked Molecular Gas in Arp 220

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnard, R; Garcia-Burillo, S; Carpio, J Graciá; Fischer, J; Fuente, A; González-Alfonso, E; Hailey-Dunsheath, S; Neri, R; Sturm, E; Usero, A; Planesas, P

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5mm and 1.2mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI), imaging the two nuclear disks in H$^{13}$CN$(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, H$^{13}$CO$^+(1 - 0)$ and $(3 - 2)$, and HN$^{13}$C$(3 - 2)$ as well as SiO$(2 - 1)$ and $(6 - 5)$, HC$^{15}$N$(3 - 2)$, and SO$(6_6 - 5_5)$. The gas traced by SiO$(6 - 5)$ has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO$^+(3 - 2)$. Spatial offsets $0.1''$ north and south of the continuum centre in the emission and absorption of the SiO$(6 - 5)$ P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of $\\sim40$ pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO$(6 - 5)$ and H$^{13}$CO$^+(3 - 2)$ by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H$^{13}$CO$^+$ emission ...

  8. Nutraceutical with Resveratrol and Omega-3 Fatty Acids Induces Autophagy in ARPE-19 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, Ali; Reinisalo, Mika; Petrovski, Goran; Sinha, Debasish; Olmiere, Céline; Karjalainen, Reijo; Kaarniranta, Kai

    2016-05-11

    Impaired autophagic and proteasomal cleansing have been documented in aged retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Omega-3 fatty acids and resveratrol have many positive homeostatic effects in RPE cells. In this work, ARPE-19 cells were treated with 288 ng of Resvega, containing 30 mg of trans resveratrol and 665 mg of omega-3 fatty acids, among other nutrients, with proteasome inhibitor MG-132 or autophagy inhibitor bafilomycin A1 up to 48 h. Autophagy markers p62/SQSTM1 (p62) and LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3) were analyzed by Western blotting. Fluorescence microscopy with mCherry-GFP-LC3 plasmid was applied to study the autophagy flux, and cytoprotective effects were investigated with colorimetric MTT and LDH assays. Resvega induced autophagy by showing increased autolysosome formation and autophagy flux, and the change in the p62 and LC3 protein levels further confirmed the fluorescent microscopy results. Moreover, Resvega provided a clear cytoprotection under proteasome inhibition. These findings highlight the potential of the nutraceuticals containing resveratrol, omega-3 fatty acids and other nutrients in the prevention of ARPE-19 cell damage.

  9. Forgetting is regulated via Musashi-mediated translational control of the Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziselimovic, Nils; Vukojevic, Vanja; Peter, Fabian; Milnik, Annette; Fastenrath, Matthias; Fenyves, Bank Gabor; Hieber, Petra; Demougin, Philippe; Vogler, Christian; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Papassotiropoulos, Andreas; Stetak, Attila

    2014-03-13

    A plastic nervous system requires the ability not only to acquire and store but also to forget. Here, we report that musashi (msi-1) is necessary for time-dependent memory loss in C. elegans. Tissue-specific rescue demonstrates that MSI-1 function is necessary in the AVA interneuron. Using RNA-binding protein immunoprecipitation (IP), we found that MSI-1 binds to mRNAs of three subunits of the Arp2/3 actin branching regulator complex in vivo and downregulates ARX-1, ARX-2, and ARX-3 translation upon associative learning. The role of msi-1 in forgetting is also reflected by the persistence of learning-induced GLR-1 synaptic size increase in msi-1 mutants. We demonstrate that memory length is regulated cooperatively through the activation of adducin (add-1) and by the inhibitory effect of msi-1. Thus, a GLR-1/MSI-1/Arp2/3 pathway induces forgetting and represents a novel mechanism of memory decay by linking translational control to the structure of the actin cytoskeleton in neurons.

  10. PWR ENDF/B-VII cross-section libraries for ORIGEN-ARP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A and M Univ., 3133 TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-3133 (United States); Ilas, G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    New pressurized water reactor (PWR) cross-section libraries were generated for use with the ORIGEN-ARP depletion sequence in the SCALE nuclear analysis code system. These libraries are based on ENDF/B-VII nuclear data and were generated using the two-dimensional depletion sequence, TRITON/NEWT, in SCALE 6.1. The libraries contain multiple burnup-dependent cross-sections for seven PWR fuel designs, with enrichments ranging from 1.5 to 6 wt% {sup 235}U. The burnup range has been extended from the 72 GWd/MTU used in previous versions of the libraries to 90 GWd/MTU. Validation of the libraries using radiochemical assay measurements and decay heat measurements for PWR spent fuel showed good agreement between calculated and experimental data. Verification against detailed TRITON simulations for the considered assembly designs showed that depletion calculations performed in ORIGEN-ARP with the pre-generated libraries provide similar results as obtained with direct TRITON depletion, while greatly reducing the computation time. (authors)

  11. Application of iterative phase-retrieval algorithms to ARPES orbital tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliuiev, P.; Latychevskaia, T.; Osterwalder, J.; Hengsberger, M.; Castiglioni, L.

    2016-09-01

    Electronic wave functions of planar molecules can be reconstructed via inverse Fourier transform of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) data, provided the phase of the electron wave in the detector plane is known. Since the recorded intensity is proportional to the absolute square of the Fourier transform of the initial state wave function, information about the phase distribution is lost in the measurement. It was shown that the phase can be retrieved in some cases by iterative algorithms using a priori information about the object such as its size and symmetry. We suggest a more generalized and robust approach for the reconstruction of molecular orbitals based on state-of-the-art phase-retrieval algorithms currently used in coherent diffraction imaging (CDI). We draw an analogy between the phase problem in molecular orbital imaging by ARPES and of that in optical CDI by performing an optical analogue experiment on micrometer-sized structures. We successfully reconstruct amplitude and phase of both the micrometer-sized objects and a molecular orbital from the optical and photoelectron far-field intensity distributions, respectively, without any prior information about the shape of the objects.

  12. Antennas for light and plasmons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikken, Dirk Jan Willem

    2015-01-01

    Antennas have been used for over a century as emitters, scatterers and receivers of electromagnetic waves. All wireless communication devices, such as radio, mobile phones and satellite communication are strongly dependent on the capability of an antenna to localize propagating electromagnetic waves

  13. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  14. Tunable Antennas for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Art; Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Shin, J

    2014-01-01

    Modern mobile terminal design has been driven by the user interface and broadband connectivity. Real world RF performance has substantially fallen recently which impacts data rates, battery life and often causes lost connections. This has been caused by changing antenna location and reduced antenna...

  15. Millimeter-wave antenna measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, J.A.G.; Dijk, R. van; Herben, M.H.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    A novel approach is presented to accurately measure the scattering parameters as well as the radiation pattern of planar antennas that operate in the millimeter-wave frequency band. To avoid interconnection problems, RF probes have been used to connect to the antenna. These RF probes are normally us

  16. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...

  17. Broadband antenna with frequency scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shekaturin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of this study. The main advantage of frequency scanning is simplicity of implementation. At this point, multifunctional usage of microwave modules is an urgent task, as well as their maximum simpler and cheaper. Antenna design and operation. The study is aimed at providing electric antenna with frequency scanning. It was based on the log-periodic antenna due to its wideband and negotiation capability over the entire operating frequency range. For this distribution line is bent in an arc of a circle in a plane blade while vibrators are arranged along the radius. Computer modeling of antennas with frequency scanning. Modeled with a non-mechanical motion antenna beam emitters representing system for receiving a radio frequency signal on mobile objects calculated for 1.8 GHz ... 4.2 GHz. The simulation was performed in a software environment for numerical modeling of electromagnetic «Feko 5.5». Analysis of the interaction of radiation is based on the method of moments. Findings. The result of this work is to propose a new design of the antenna with a frequency scanning method as agreed in a wide frequency range. In the studied technical solution provided by the rotation of NAM in the frequency range, and the matching of the antenna to the feed line is maintained. Application of this type of antennas on the proposed technical solution in communication systems will improve the communication reliability by maintaining coordination in the frequency range

  18. The Ultrawideband Leaky Lens Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Marliani, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel directive and nondispersive antenna is presented: the ultrawideband (UWB) leaky lens. It is based on the broad band Cherenkov radiation occurring at a slot printed between different infinite homogeneous dielectrics. The first part of the paper presents the antenna concept and the UWB design.

  19. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations...

  20. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  1. Slot-Coupled Barbel Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kasper Lüthje; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant.......A novel slot-coupled barbel antenna is designed and analyzed. A sensitivity analysis performed in order to improve the bandwidth, while the center frequency is kept constant....

  2. Galaxy Disks

    CERN Document Server

    van der Kruit, P C

    2011-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galactic disks is particularly important for understanding how galaxies form and evolve, and the cause of the variety in which they appear to us. Ongoing large surveys, made possible by new instrumentation at wavelengths from the ultraviolet (GALEX), via optical (HST and large groundbased telescopes) and infrared (Spitzer) to the radio are providing much new information about disk galaxies over a wide range of redshift. Although progress has been made, the dynamics and structure of stellar disks, including their truncations, are still not well understood. We do now have plausible estimates of disk mass-to-light ratios, and estimates of Toomre's $Q$ parameter show that they are just locally stable. Disks are mostly very flat and sometimes very thin, and have a range in surface brightness from canonical disks with a central surface brightness of about 21.5 $B$-mag arcsec$^{-2}$ down to very low surface brightnesses. It appears that galaxy disks are not maximal, except possibly in ...

  3. "Galaxy," Defined

    CERN Document Server

    Willman, Beth

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of low luminosity and low surface brightness astronomical objects challenge traditional notions of both galaxies and star clusters. To address this challenge, we propose a definition of galaxy that does not depend on a cold dark matter model of the universe: A galaxy is a gravitationally bound collection of stars whose properties cannot be explained by a combination of baryons and Newton's laws of gravity. We use this definition to critically examine the classification of ultra-faint dwarfs, globular clusters, ultra-compact dwarfs, and tidal dwarfs. While kinematic studies provide an effective diagnostic of the definition in many regimes, they can be less useful for compact or very faint systems. To explore the utility of using the [Fe/H] spread as a diagnostic, we use published spectroscopic [Fe/H] measurements of 16 Milky Way dwarfs and 24 globular clusters to uniformly calculate their [Fe/H] spreads and associated uncertainties. Our principal results are: (i) no known, old star cluster wit...

  4. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies keystones of galaxy evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Gallagher, S C; Gallagher, S; Wyse, F G

    1994-01-01

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  5. Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Agio, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate subwavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interaction, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.

  6. Optical antennas as nanoscale resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agio, Mario

    2012-02-07

    Recent progress in nanotechnology has enabled us to fabricate sub-wavelength architectures that function as antennas for improving the exchange of optical energy with nanoscale matter. We describe the main features of optical antennas for enhancing quantum emitters and review the designs that increase the spontaneous emission rate by orders of magnitude from the ultraviolet up to the near-infrared spectral range. To further explore how optical antennas may lead to unprecedented regimes of light-matter interactions, we draw a relationship between metal nanoparticles, radio-wave antennas and optical resonators. Our analysis points out how optical antennas may function as nanoscale resonators and how these may offer unique opportunities with respect to state-of-the-art microcavities.

  7. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q.......Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for the stored energies obtained through the vector spherical wave theory, it is shown that a magnetic-coated metal core reduces the internal stored energy of both TM1m and TE1m modes simultaneously, so that a self-resonant antenna with the Q approaching the fundamental minimum is created. Numerical results...

  8. A physical model for z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Desika; Dey, Arjun; Hayward, Christopher C.; Cox, Thomas J.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Brodwin, Mark; Jonsson, Patrik; Hopkins, Philip F.; Groves, Brent; Younger, Joshua D.; Hernquist, Lars

    2010-09-01

    We present a physical model for the origin of z ~ 2 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), a class of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) selected at 24μm which are particularly optically faint (F24μm/FR > 1000). By combining N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations of high-redshift galaxy evolution with 3D polychromatic dust radiative transfer models, we find that luminous DOGs (with F24 >~ 0.3mJy at z ~ 2) are well modelled as extreme gas-rich mergers in massive (~5 × 1012-1013Msolar) haloes, with elevated star formation rates (SFR; ~500-1000Msolaryr-1) and/or significant active galactic nuclei (AGN) growth , whereas less luminous DOGs are more diverse in nature. At final coalescence, merger-driven DOGs transition from being starburst dominated to AGN dominated, evolving from a `bump' to a power-law (PL) shaped mid-IR (Infrared Array Camera, IRAC) spectral energy distribution (SED). After the DOG phase, the galaxy settles back to exhibiting a `bump' SED with bluer colours and lower SFRs. While canonically PL galaxies are associated with being AGN dominated, we find that the PL mid-IR SED can owe both to direct AGN contribution and to a heavily dust obscured stellar bump at times that the galaxy is starburst dominated. Thus, PL galaxies can be either starburst or AGN dominated. Less luminous DOGs can be well-represented either by mergers or by massive (Mbaryon ~ 5 × 1011Msolar) secularly evolving gas-rich disc galaxies (with SFR >~ 50Msolaryr-1). By utilizing similar models as those employed in the submillimetre galaxy (SMG) formation study of Narayanan et al., we investigate the connection between DOGs and SMGs. We find that the most heavily star-forming merger-driven DOGs can be selected as submillimetre galaxies, while both merger-driven and secularly evolving DOGs typically satisfy the BzK selection criteria. The model SEDs from the simulated galaxies match observed data reasonably well, though Mrk 231 and Arp 220 templates provide

  9. Galaxies Collide to Create Hot, Huge Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This image of a pair of colliding galaxies called NGC 6240 shows them in a rare, short-lived phase of their evolution just before they merge into a single, larger galaxy. The prolonged, violent collision has drastically altered the appearance of both galaxies and created huge amounts of heat turning NGC 6240 into an 'infrared luminous' active galaxy. A rich variety of active galaxies, with different shapes, luminosities and radiation profiles exist. These galaxies may be related astronomers have suspected that they may represent an evolutionary sequence. By catching different galaxies in different stages of merging, a story emerges as one type of active galaxy changes into another. NGC 6240 provides an important 'missing link' in this process. This image was created from combined data from the infrared array camera of NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope at 3.6 and 8.0 microns (red) and visible light from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green and blue).

  10. The Galaxy End Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eales, Stephen; de Vis, Pieter; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Appah, Kiran; Ciesla, Laure; Duffield, Chris; Schofield, Simon

    2017-03-01

    A common assumption is that galaxies fall in two distinct regions of a plot of specific star formation rate (SSFR) versus galaxy stellar mass: a star-forming galaxy main sequence (GMS) and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red and dead galaxies'. Starting from a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies designed to contain most of the stellar mass in this volume, and thus representing the end-point of ≃12 billion years of galaxy evolution, we investigate the distribution of galaxies in this diagram today. We show that galaxies follow a strongly curved extended GMS with a steep negative slope at high galaxy stellar masses. There is a gradual change in the morphologies of the galaxies along this distribution, but there is no clear break between early-type and late-type galaxies. Examining the other evidence that there are two distinct populations, we argue that the 'red sequence' is the result of the colours of galaxies changing very little below a critical value of the SSFR, rather than implying a distinct population of galaxies. Herschel observations, which show at least half of early-type galaxies contain a cool interstellar medium, also imply continuity between early-type and late-type galaxies. This picture of a unitary population of galaxies requires more gradual evolutionary processes than the rapid quenching process needed to explain two distinct populations. We challenge theorists to predict quantitatively the properties of this 'Galaxy End Sequence'.

  11. Microstrip antenna on tunable substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, K. A.; Varadan, Vijay K.; Varadan, Vasundara V.; Mohanan, P.

    1995-05-01

    The tunable patch antenna configurations are becoming popular and attractive in many aspects. This was mainly due to the advent of ferrite thin film technology and tunable substrate materials. The integration of monolithic microwave circuits and antennas are becoming easy today. In the development of magnetic tuning of microstrip patch on ferrite substrate is presented by Rainville and Harackewiez. Radiation characteristics of such antennas are presented by Pozer. Band width and radiation characteristics of such tunable antennas are measured and compared. Usually the substrate losses are considered in the analysis and metallization losses are assumed to be ideal. The analysis of magnetic tunable radiator including metallization and ferrite substrate losses are presented. However, all such tuning and integration of circuits and antennas are mainly on ferrite substrate due to magnetic tuning. Recently, Varadan et al. established that the BaxSr1-xTiO3 series ferroelectric materials such as Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) are well suited for microwave phase shifter applications. It could be possible to change the dielectric constant of these materials more than 50% depending on the BST composition, by changing the applied bias voltage. Also, the porosity of BST can be controlled during processing to produce dielectric constants in the range of 15 to 1500, with some trade off in tunability. In this paper, we are presenting the possibility of designing a microstrip patch antenna on such tunable substrate. Such antennas are having the major advantage of electronic tunability and compact size.

  12. KEY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE MIXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J.; Edwards, T.; Williams, V.

    2009-10-05

    At the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF), decontaminated salt solution (DSS) is combined with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) Saltstone. After transfer to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) the hydration reactions initiated during the contact of the premix and salt solution continue during the curing period to produce the hardened waste form product. The amount of heat generated from hydration and the resultant temperature increase in the vaults depend on the composition of the decontaminated salt solution being dispositioned as well as the grout formulation (mix design). This report details the results from Task 3 of the Saltstone Variability Study for FY09 which was performed to identify, and quantify when possible, those factors that drive the performance properties of the projected ARP/MCU Batches. A baseline ARP/MCU mix (at 0.60 water to cementitious materials (w/cm) ratio) was established and consisted of the normal premix composition and a salt solution that was an average of the projected compositions of the last three ARP/MCU batches developed by T. A. Le. This task introduced significant variation in (1) wt % slag, w/cm ratio, and wt % portland cement about the baseline mix and (2) the temperature of curing in order to better assess the dependence of the performance properties on these factors. Two separate campaigns, designated Phase 10 and Phase 11, were carried out under Task 3. Experimental designs and statistical analyses were used to search for correlation among properties and to develop linear models to predict property values based on factors such as w/cm ratio, slag concentration, and portland cement concentration. It turns out that the projected salt compositions contained relatively high amounts of aluminate (0.22 M) even though no aluminate was introduced due to caustic aluminate removal from High Level Waste. Previous

  13. Metal Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Neil F. (Inventor); Hodges, Richard E. (Inventor); Zawadzki, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a patch antenna comprises a planar conductive patch attached to a ground plane by a support member, and a probe connector in electrical communication with the conductive patch arranged to conduct electromagnetic energy to or from the conductive patch, wherein the conductive patch is disposed essentially parallel to the ground plane and is separated from the ground plane by a spacing distance; wherein the support member comprises a plurality of sides disposed about a central axis oriented perpendicular to the conductive patch and the ground plane; wherein the conductive patch is solely supported above the ground plane by the support member; and wherein the support member provides electrical communication between the planer conductive patch and the ground plane.

  14. 47 CFR 95.1213 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1213 Section 95.1213... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1213 Antennas. No antenna for a MedRadio transmitter shall be configured for permanent outdoor use. In addition, any MedRadio antenna used...

  15. Thermal Loss in High-Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Bahramzy, Pevand; Svendsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tunable antennas are very promising for future generations of mobile communications, where antennas are required to cover a wide range operating bands. This letter aims at characterizing the loss mechanism of tunable antennas. Tunable antennas typically exhibit a high Quality factor (Q), which can...

  16. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1013 Antennas. (a) The maximum allowable... this chapter, at the band edges. (b) AMTS stations must employ directional antennas. (c) Antennas...

  17. Metamaterial antennas: the most successful metamaterial technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinbjerg, Olav

    2015-01-01

    The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas.......The Thomson Reuters Web of Science™ lists more than 1500 journal articles related to metamaterial antennas from 2001 to 2015; this paper overviews some major objectives of such antennas....

  18. Double Structure Broadband Leaky Wave Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Dijk, R. van; Filippo, M.

    2011-01-01

    A leaky wave antenna contains a first and a second leaky wave antenna structure back to back against each other. Each antenna structure comprises a dielectric body and an elongated wave carrying structure, such as a slot in a conductive ground plane. In each leaky wave antenna structure the body and

  19. Double Structure Broadband Leaky Wave Antenna

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Dijk, R. van; Filippo, M.

    2011-01-01

    A leaky wave antenna contains a first and a second leaky wave antenna structure back to back against each other. Each antenna structure comprises a dielectric body and an elongated wave carrying structure, such as a slot in a conductive ground plane. In each leaky wave antenna structure the body and

  20. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  1. 47 CFR 73.69 - Antenna monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna monitors. 73.69 Section 73.69... Broadcast Stations § 73.69 Antenna monitors. (a) Each station using a directional antenna must have in operation at the transmitter site an FCC authorized antenna monitor. (b) In the event that the...

  2. 47 CFR 95.51 - Antenna height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna height. 95.51 Section 95.51... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.51 Antenna height. (a) Certain antenna structures used in... this chapter. (b) The antenna for a small base station or for a small control station must not be...

  3. PdBI U/LIRG Survey (PULS): Dense molecular gas in Arp 220 and NGC 6240

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Kazimierz; Downes, Dennis

    2017-07-01

    Aims: We present new IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer observations of Arp 220 in HCN, HCO+, HN13C J = 1 - 0, C2H N = 1 - 0, SiO J = 2 - 1, HNCO Jk,k' = 50,4 - 40,4, CH3CN(6-5), CS J = 2 - 1 and 5-4 and 13CO J = 1 - 0 and 2-1 and of NGC 6240 in HCN, HCO+J = 1 - 0 and C2H N = 1 - 0. In addition, we present Atacama Large Millimeter/submill-meter Array science verification observations of Arp 220 in CS J = 4 - 3 and CH3CN(10-9). Various lines are used to analyse the physical conditions of the molecular gas including the [12CO]/[13CO] and [12CO]/[C18O] abundance ratios. These observations will be made available to the public. Methods: We create brightness temperature line ratio maps to present the different physical conditions across Arp 220 and NGC 6240. In addition, we use the radiative transfer code RADEX and a Monte Carlo Markov chain likelihood code to model the 12CO, 13CO and C18O lines of Arp 220 at 2'' ( 700 pc) scales, where the 12CO and C18O measurements were obtained from literature. Results: Line ratios of optically thick lines such as 12CO show smoothly varying ratios while the line ratios of optically thin lines such as 13CO show a east-west gradient across Arp 220. The HCN/HCO+ line ratio differs between Arp 220 and NGC 6240, where Arp 220 has line ratios above 2 and NGC 6240 below 1. The radiative transfer analysis solution is consistent with a warm ( 40 K), moderately dense ( 103.4 cm-3) molecular gas component averaged over the two nuclei. We find [12CO]/[13CO] and [12CO]/[C18O] abundance ratios of 90 for both. The abundance enhancement of C18O can be explained by stellar nucleosynthesis enrichment of the interstellar medium.

  4. The collinear coaxial array antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, D. J.; Williams, D.

    1981-03-01

    A design of a coaxial vertical antenna proposed in the ARRL antenna handbook is analyzed. A numerical analysis was carried out using the moment method. A variety of antenna configurations in the 160 MHz design frequency are analyzed and current distribution, gain, polar diagrams and impedances are calculated. The analysis is carried out for simple configurations and extended to a case with 16 repeated center sections. The effects of using lossy cable in the construction is also investigated. A defect in the original ARRL design is rectified. An array of an overall length 5.33 wavelengths is shown to have a gain of 10.69 dB.

  5. DUAL BAND MONOPOLE ANTENNA DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Jithu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The WLAN and Bluetooth applications become popular in mobile devices, integrating GSM and ISM bands operation in one compact antenna, can reduce the size of mobile devices. Recently, lot many investigations are carried out in designing a dual band antennas with operating frequencies in GSM band and in ISM band for mobile devices. Printed monopoles are under this investigation. In this paper, dual-band printed monopoles are presented to operate at GSM band i.e. 900 MHz and ISM band i.e. 2.4 GHz. We intend to observe the antenna characteristics on the network analyzer and verify the theoretical results with the practical ones.

  6. Microstrip and printed antenna design

    CERN Document Server

    Bancroft, Randy

    2009-01-01

    The approach in this book is historical and practical. It covers abasic designsa in more detail than other microstrip antenna books that tend to skip important electrical properties and implementation aspects of these types of antennas. Examples include: quarter-wave patch, quarter by quarter patch, detailed design method for rectangular circularly polarized patch, the use of the TM11 (linear and broadside CP), TM21 (monopole CP pattern) and TM02 (monopole linear) circular patch modes in designs, dual-band antenna designs which allow for independent dual-band frequencies. Limits on broadband m

  7. Measurement of mobile antenna systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arai, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    If you're involved with the design, installation or maintenance of mobile antenna systems, this thoroughly revised and updated edition of a classic Artech book offers you the most current and comprehensive coverage of all the mandatory measurement techniques you need for your work in the field. This Second Edition presents critical new material in key areas, including radiation efficiency measurement, mobile phone usage position, and MIMO (multiple-input/multiple-output) antennas.This unique resource provides in-depth examinations of all relevant mobile antenna measurement theories, along with

  8. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  9. Fermi surface and band structure of BiPd from ARPES studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohani, H.; Mishra, P.; Gupta, Anurag; Awana, V. P. S.; Sekhar, B. R.

    2017-03-01

    We present a detailed electronic structure study of the non-centrosymmetric superconductor BiPd based on our angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements and Density Functional Theory (DFT) based calculations. We observe a high intensity distribution on the Fermi surface (FS) of this compound resulting from various electron and hole like bands which are present in the vicinity of the Fermi energy (Ef). The near Ef states are primarily composed of Bi-6p with a little admixture of Pd-4dx2-y2/zy orbitals. There are various spin-orbit split bands involved in the crossing of Ef making a complex FS. The FS mainly consists of multi sheets of three dimensions which disfavor the nesting between different sheets of the FS. Our comprehensive study elucidates that BiPd could be a s-wave multiband superconductor.

  10. Wideband Antennas for Modern Radar Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Yu-Jiun; Lai, Chieh-Ping

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, the basics of the antenna and phased array are reviewed and different wideband antennas for modern radar systems are presented. The concepts of the radome and frequency selective surface are also reviewed. The main contents include important parameters of the antenna, and theory and design consideration of the array antenna. Various wideband antennas are introduced and their performances are demonstrated, including: (1) for the phased array radar, the slotted waveguide array ...

  11. Electrically floating, near vertical incidence, skywave antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Allen A.; Kaser, Timothy G.; Tremblay, Paul A.; Mays, Belva L.

    2014-07-08

    An Electrically Floating, Near Vertical Incidence, Skywave (NVIS) Antenna comprising an antenna element, a floating ground element, and a grounding element. At least part of said floating ground element is positioned between said antenna element and said grounding element. The antenna is separated from the floating ground element and the grounding element by one or more electrical insulators. The floating ground element is separated from said antenna and said grounding element by one or more electrical insulators.

  12. Genomic analysis of the biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf29Arp with evidence of T3SS and T6SS gene expression on plant roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, Muriel; Boutin, Morgane; Gazengel, Kévin; Rispe, Claude; Gauthier, Jean-Pierre; Guillerm-Erckelboudt, Anne-Yvonne; Lebreton, Lionel; Barret, Matthieu; Daval, Stéphanie; Sarniguet, Alain

    2013-06-01

    Several bacterial strains of the Pseudomonas genus provide plant growth stimulation, plant protection against pests or bioremediation. Among these bacteria, P. fluorescens Pf29Arp reduces the severity of take-all, a disease caused by the pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) on wheat roots. In this study, we obtained a draft genome of Pf29Arp and subsequent comparative genomic analyses have revealed that this bacterial strain is closely related to strains of the 'P. brassicacearum-like' subgroup including P. brassicacearum ssp. brassicacearum NFM421 and P. fluorescens F113. Despite an overall chromosomal organization similar to these strains, a number of features including antibiotic synthesis gene clusters from secondary metabolism are not found in the Pf29Arp genome. But Pf29Arp possesses different protein secretion systems including type III (T3SS) and type VI (T6SS) secretion systems. Pf29Arp is the first Pseudomonas sp. strain described with four T6SS clusters (cluster I, II, III and IV). In addition, some protein-coding genes involved in the assembly of these secretion systems are basally expressed during Pf29Arp colonization of healthy wheat roots and display different expression patterns on necrotized roots caused by Ggt. These data suggest a role of T3SS and T6SS in the Pf29Arp adaptation to different root environments.

  13. The new 34-meter antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompa, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    The new 34-m high efficiency Azimuth - Elevation antenna configuration, including its features, dynamic characteristics and performance at 8.4-GHz frequencies is described. The current-technology features of this antenna produce a highly reliable configuration by incorporation of a main wheel and track azimuth support, central pintle pivot bearing, close tolerance surface panels and all-welded construction. Also described are basic drive controls that, as slaved to three automatic microprocessors, provide accurate and safe control of the antenna's steering tasks. At this time antenna installations are completed at Goldstone and Canberra and have operationally supported the Voyager - Uranus encounter. A third installation is being constructed currently in Madrid and is scheduled for completion in late 1986.

  14. Electrically-driven optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Kern, Johannes; Prangsma, Jord C; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Unlike radiowave antennas, optical nanoantennas so far cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or via optically active materials in their proximity. Here, we demonstrate direct electrical driving of an optical nanoantenna featuring an atomic-scale feed gap. Upon applying a voltage, quantum tunneling of electrons across the feed gap creates broadband quantum shot noise. Its optical frequency components are efficiently converted into photons by the antenna. We demonstrate that the properties of the emitted photons are fully controlled by the antenna architecture, and that the antenna improves the quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude with respect to a non-resonant reference system. Our work represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometer scale, e.g. for on-chip wireless data communication, electrically driven single- and multiphoton sources, as well as for background-free linear and nonlinear spectroscopy and sensing with nanometer...

  15. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  16. Inflatable Antennas Support Emergency Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Glenn Research Center awarded Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts to ManTech SRS Technologies, of Newport Beach, California, to develop thin film inflatable antennas for space communication. With additional funding, SRS modified the concepts for ground-based inflatable antennas. GATR (Ground Antenna Transmit and Receive) Technologies, of Huntsville, Alabama, licensed the technology and refined it to become the world s first inflatable antenna certified by the Federal Communications Commission. Capable of providing Internet access, voice over Internet protocol, e-mail, video teleconferencing, broadcast television, and other high-bandwidth communications, the systems have provided communication during the wildfires in California, after Hurricane Katrina in Mississippi, and following the 2010 Haiti earthquake.

  17. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  18. Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-30

    68 , (11), 10. 51. Adachi, S., Properties of aluminium gallium ...bandwidth products > 100 GHz. 2 UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA Los Angeles Nanopillar Optical Antenna Avalanche Detectors A dissertation... products > 100 GHz. 6 iii The dissertation of Pradeep

  19. Aligning a Receiving Antenna Array to Reduce Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongeling, Andre P.; Rogstad, David H.

    2009-01-01

    A digital signal-processing algorithm has been devised as a means of aligning (as defined below) the outputs of multiple receiving radio antennas in a large array for the purpose of receiving a desired weak signal transmitted by a single distant source in the presence of an interfering signal that (1) originates at another source lying within the antenna beam and (2) occupies a frequency band significantly wider than that of the desired signal. In the original intended application of the algorithm, the desired weak signal is a spacecraft telemetry signal, the antennas are spacecraft-tracking antennas in NASA s Deep Space Network, and the source of the wide-band interfering signal is typically a radio galaxy or a planet that lies along or near the line of sight to the spacecraft. The algorithm could also afford the ability to discriminate between desired narrow-band and nearby undesired wide-band sources in related applications that include satellite and terrestrial radio communications and radio astronomy. The development of the present algorithm involved modification of a prior algorithm called SUMPLE and a predecessor called SIMPLE. SUMPLE was described in Algorithm for Aligning an Array of Receiving Radio Antennas (NPO-40574), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 30, No. 4 (April 2006), page 54. To recapitulate: As used here, aligning signifies adjusting the delays and phases of the outputs from the various antennas so that their relatively weak replicas of the desired signal can be added coherently to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for improved reception, as though one had a single larger antenna. Prior to the development of SUMPLE, it was common practice to effect alignment by means of a process that involves correlation of signals in pairs. SIMPLE is an example of an algorithm that effects such a process. SUMPLE also involves correlations, but the correlations are not performed in pairs. Instead, in a partly iterative process, each signal is appropriately weighted

  20. Search for gamma-ray emission from star-forming galaxies with Fermi LAT

    CERN Document Server

    Rojas-Bravo, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have found a positive correlation between the star-formation rate of galaxies and their gamma-ray luminosity. Galaxies with a high star-formation rate are expected to produce a large amount of high-energy cosmic rays, which emit gamma-rays when interacting with the interstellar medium and radiation fields. We search for gamma-ray emission from a sample of galaxies within and beyond the Local Group with data from the LAT instrument onboard the Fermi satellite. We exclude recently detected galaxies (NGC 253, M82, NGC 4945, NGC 1068, NGC 2146, Arp 220) and use seven years of cumulative Pass 8 data from the LAT in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range. No new detections are seen in the data and upper limits for the gamma- ray fluxes are calculated. The correlation between gamma-ray luminosity and infrared luminosity for galaxies obtained using our new upper limits is in agreement with a previously published correlation, but the new upper limits imply that some galaxies are not as efficient gamma-ray emitter...

  1. 1.2 Meter Shielded Cassegrain Antenna for Close-Packed Radio Interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Patrick M; Huang, Yau-De; Chen, Ming-Tang; Han, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Kai-Yang; Altamirano, Pablo; Granet, Christophe; Ho, Paul T P; Huang, Chih-Wei L; Kesteven, Michael; Li, Chao-Te; Liao, Yu-Wei; Liu, Guo-Chin; Nishioka, Hiroaki; Ong, Ching-Long; Oshiro, Peter; Umetsu, Keiichi; Wang, Fu-Cheng; Wu, Jiun-Huei Proty

    2010-01-01

    Interferometric millimeter observations of the cosmic microwave background and clusters of galaxies with arcmin resolutions require antenna arrays with short spacings. Having all antennas co-mounted on a single steerable platform sets limits to the overall weight. A 25 kg lightweight novel carbon-fiber design for a 1.2 m diameter Cassegrain antenna is presented. The finite element analysis predicts excellent structural behavior under gravity, wind and thermal load. The primary and secondary mirror surfaces are aluminum coated with a thin TiO$_2$ top layer for protection. A low beam sidelobe level is achieved with a Gaussian feed illumination pattern with edge taper, designed based on feedhorn antenna simulations and verified in a far field beam pattern measurement. A shielding baffle reduces inter-antenna coupling to below $\\sim$ -135 dB. The overall antenna efficiency, including a series of efficiency factors, is estimated to be around 60%, with major losses coming from the feed spillover and secondary block...

  2. Living antennas on communication satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lumholt, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Crises change the global pattern of communication. The communications problems occur because the satellites are optimized to cover specific geographic areas, and these areas cannot be altered once the satellites are in Earth orbit. An effective solution to the problem is to equip communication...... satellites with "living" antennas that can adjust their radiation coverage areas according to the new demands. The development of living antennas is, therefore, among the focus areas identified and supported by the European Space Agency, ESA....

  3. Radar techniques using array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wirth, Wulf-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Radar Techniques Using Array Antennas is a thorough introduction to the possibilities of radar technology based on electronic steerable and active array antennas. Topics covered include array signal processing, array calibration, adaptive digital beamforming, adaptive monopulse, superresolution, pulse compression, sequential detection, target detection with long pulse series, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), moving target detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR), target imaging, energy management and system parameter relations. The discussed methods are confirmed by simulation stud

  4. Antenna design for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhijun

    2017-01-01

    - Integrates state-of-the-art technologies with a special section for step-by-step antenna design - Features up-to-date bio-safety and electromagnetic compatibility regulation compliance and latest standards - Newly updated with MIMO antenna design, measurements and requirements - Accessible to readers of many levels, from introductory to specialist - Written by a practicing expert who has hired and trained numerous engineers

  5. Wideband Antenna for HPM Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurkan Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The measurements of microwave pulses of gigawatt power level have a lot of constraints. A receiving antenna is a starting and core point of the measurement system. Waveguide based and dipole antennas have a limited wide bands, while the use of commercially available wideband antennas is restricted by their maximum peak power acceptances. The design of the wide band antenna with the small effective area was proposed. The characteristics of prototype were obtained in numerical simulations with ANSYS HFSS software and by calibration tests in the frequency band of 1–13 GHz. It has the effective area about the 1 mm2 in X-band and square-law dependence on the wavelength in a wide band. The cross polarization rate is more than 60 dB at the centre position and not less than 30 dB within the range of ±5° in azimuth and elevation angle. The wide beam radiation pattern forces a user to discriminate reflected signals. This antenna could greatly simplify the measurement system, replacing a set of narrow band antennas that connected to several recording channels.

  6. Some Recent Developments of Microstrip Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the microstrip antenna has been extensively studied in the past few decades as one of the standard planar antennas, it still has a huge potential for further developments. The paper suggests three areas for further research based on our previous works on microstrip antenna elements and arrays. One is exploring the variety of microstrip antenna topologies to meet the desired requirement such as ultrawide band (UWB, high gain, miniaturization, circular polarization, multipolarized, and so on. Another is to apply microstrip antenna to form composite antenna which is more potent than the individual antenna. The last is growing towards highly integration of antenna/array and feeding network or operating at relatively high frequencies, like sub-millimeter wave or terahertz (THz wave regime, by using the advanced machining techniques. To support our points of view, some examples of antennas developed in our group are presented and discussed.

  7. Multiple Antenna Systems with Inherently Decoupled Radiators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Knudsen, Mikael B.; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    In multiple antenna systems mutual coupling needs to be minimized. We propose an alternative novel decoupling technique, investigating several multiple antenna configurations for small handsets through measurements and numerical simulations. The influence of different novel designs on performance...... metrics such as total loss, antenna isolation and envelope correlation coefficient are investigated. By varying antenna impedance bandwidth and antenna location with respect to the handset, both Planar Inverted F Antenna (PIFA) and Inverted F Antennas (IFA) were investigated in different UMTS frequency...... bands in proximity with the users body. Results show that antennas may experience very different losses and envelope correlation coefficients depending on their relative position with respect to the handset, as the influence of the users hand is not symmetrical in most cases. Narrow-band antennas...

  8. Magnetic antenna excitation of whistler modes. II. Antenna arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The excitation of whistler modes from magnetic loop antennas has been investigated experimentally. The field topology of the excited wave driven by a single loop antenna has been measured for different loop orientations with respect to the uniform background field. The fields from two or more antennas at different locations are then created by superposition of the single-loop data. It is shown that an antenna array can produce nearly plane waves which cannot be achieved with single antennas. By applying a phase shift along the array, oblique wave propagation is obtained. This allows a meaningful comparison with plane wave theory. The Gendrin mode and oblique cyclotron resonance are demonstrated. Wave helicity and polarization in space and time are demonstrated and distinguished from the magnetic helicity of the wave field. The superposition of two oblique plane whistler modes produces in a “whistler waveguide” mode whose polarization and helicity properties are explained. The results show that single point measurements cannot properly establish the wave character of wave packets. The laboratory observations are relevant for excitation and detection of whistler modes in space plasmas.

  9. Strategies of ARP application (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) for viticultural precision farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Andrenelli, M. C.; Bucelli, P.; Magini, S.; Natarelli, L.; Pellegrini, S.; Perria, R.; Storchi, P.; Vignozzi, N.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Viticultural precision farming needs detailed soil information, which can be obtained by means of remote as well as proximal sensors, besides traditional invasive soil survey. Nevertheless, the use of the new technologies is still in its infancy, because of their costs and the lack of knowledge about the detail actually needed for the viticultural husbandry. The main aim of this work was to test the sensitivity of the ARP methodology (Automatic Resistivity Profiling) in supporting soil survey for viticultural precision farming. In addition, we tried to optimize the detail of geoelectrical measurements and soil sampling to reduce the cost of the integrated survey, maintaining a significant information accuracy for viticulture. Materials and methods Two vineyards in coastal Tuscany (central Italy), about 3.5 ha each, were selected. Vineyard 1 was cultivated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, while vineyard 2 only had Cabernet Sauvignon. Soil survey and geoelectrical investigation were conducted in may 2007. The ARP methodology consists in the injection in soil of electric current through one pair of electrodes mounted on teeth wheels and measuring the resulting potential with other three pairs of electrodes, placed of the same mobile equipment. The electrical resistance of the soil (ER) is expressed as ohm per m. The depth of investigation is a function of the geometry of the electrodes and the soil being probed. Increasing the distance between electrodes will increase the depth while decreasing the measured potential. The innovative character of the ARP technique is represented by the passage of a mobile machinery, able to perform 30,000 measurements per hectare, with a measurement every 0.2 m. The ARP system, equipped with a digital encoder and DGPS system, is transported by a four-wheeled vehicle. It is fitted with three sensors that contemporaneously analyse three distinct levels of the soil, the values of which are represented by maps of

  10. Star Formation in Irregular Galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Deidre; Wolff, Sidney

    1985-01-01

    Examines mechanisms of how stars are formed in irregular galaxies. Formation in giant irregular galaxies, formation in dwarf irregular galaxies, and comparisons with larger star-forming regions found in spiral galaxies are considered separately. (JN)

  11. 计算机网络安全 ARP 攻击行为的防范研究%Computer network security and the precautionary measures against ARP attack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟令健

    2013-01-01

    There are three network attack behaviors: ARP spoofing attack, DHCP spoofing attack, broadcast storm. In a network fault of local area network broken, the three behaviors cause the vast majority of users’ local area network broken, which influences internet users. This article mainly studies on computer network security and the precautionary measures against ARP attack%  计算机网络面临3种网络攻击行为:ARP欺骗攻击、DHCP欺骗攻击、广播风暴。在局域网断网故障中,这3种原因导致的断网占了绝大多数,影响了用户正常上网。本文将主要针对计算机网络安全中的ARP攻击行为及其防范措施进行研究。

  12. Microstrip antenna gain enhancement with metamaterial radome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attachi, S.; Saleh, C.; Bouzouad, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a high gain patch antenna using multilayer FSS radome is proposed for millimeter-wave applications. The antenna operating frequency is 43.5 GHz. The antenna/radome system consists of one, two, three, or four layers of metasurfaces placed in the near-field region of a microstrip patch antenna. The antenna/radome system gain is improved by 9 dBi compared to the patch antenna alone, and the radiation pattern half-power beamwidth is reduces to 20° in both E- and H-planes.

  13. Vehicle antenna development for mobile satellite applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, K.

    1988-01-01

    The paper summarizes results of a vehicle antenna program at JPL in support of a developing U.S. mobile satellite services (MSS) designed to provide telephone and data services for the continental United States. Two classes of circularly polarized vehicle antennas have been considered for the MSS: medium-gain, satellite-tracking antennas with 10-12-dBic gain; and low-gain, azimuthally omnidirectional antennas with 3-5-dBic gain. The design and performance of these antennas are described, and the two antennas are shown to have peculiar advantages and disadvantages.

  14. Broadband Multilayered Array Antenna with EBG Reflector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most broadband microstrip antennae are implemented in the form of slot structure or laminate structure. The impedance bandwidth is broadened, but meanwhile, the sidelobe of the directivity pattern and backlobe level are enlarged. A broadband stacked slot coupling microstrip antenna array with EBG structure reflector is proposed. Test results indicate that the proposed reflector structure can effectively improve the directivity pattern of stacked antenna and aperture coupled antenna, promote the front-to-back ratio, and reduce the thickness of the antenna. Therefore, it is more suitable to be applied as an airborne antenna.

  15. Modern lens antennas for communications engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thornton, John

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the modern design principles and analysis of lens antennas. It gives graduates and RF/Microwave professionals the design insights in order to make full use of lens antennas.  Why do we want to write a book in lens antennas? Because this topic has not been thoroughly publicized, its importance is underestimated. As antennas play a key role in communication systems, recent development in wireless communications would indeed benefit from the characteristics of lens antennas: low profile, and low cost etc.  The major advantages of lens antennas are na

  16. Antennas in matter: Fundamentals, theory, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, R. W. P.; Smith, G. S.; Owens, M.; Wu, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The volume provides an introduction to antennas and probes embedded within or near material bodies such as the earth, the ocean, or a living organism. After a fundamental analysis of insulated and bare antennas, an advanced treatment of antennas in various media is presented, including a detailed study of the electromagnetic equations in homogeneous isotropic media, the complete theory of the bare dipole in a general medium, and a rigorous analysis of the insulated antenna as well as bare and insulated loop antennas. Finally, experimental models and measuring techniques related to antennas and probes in a general dissipative or dielectric medium are examined.

  17. Single Band Helical Antenna in Axial Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parminder Singh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Helical antennas have been widely used in a various useful applications, due to their low weight and low profile conformability, easy and cheap realization.Radiation properties of this antenna are examined both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, an attempt has been made to investigate new helical antenna structure for Applications. CST MWS Software is used for the simulation and design calculations of the helical antennas. The axial ratio, return loss, VSWR, Directivity, gain, radiation pattern is evaluated. Using CST MWS simulation software proposed antenna is designed/simulated and optimized. The antenna exhibits a single band from 0 GHz to 3 GHz for GPS and several satellite applications

  18. Characterising the Dense Molecular Gas in Exceptional Local Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnard, Richard C. A.

    2016-08-01

    The interferometric facilities now coming online (the Atacama Large Millimetre Array (ALMA) and the NOrthern Extended Millimeter Array (NOEMA)) and those planned for the coming decade (the Next Generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) and the Square Kilometre Array (SKA)) in the radio to sub-millimetre regimes are opening a window to the molecular gas in high-redshift galaxies. However, our understanding of similar galaxies in the local universe is still far from complete and the data analysis techniques and tools needed to interpret the observations in consistent and comparable ways are yet to be developed. I first describe the Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) script developed to empower a public radiative transfer code. I characterise both the public code and MCMC script, including an exploration of the effect of observing molecular lines at high redshift where the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) can provide a significant background, as well as the effect this can have on well-known local correlations. I present two studies of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) in the local universe making use of literature and collaborator data. In the first of these, NGC6240, I use the wealth of available data and the geometry of the source to develop a multi-phase, multi-species model, finding evidence for a complex medium of hot diffuse and cold dense gas in pressure equilibrium. Next, I study the prototypical ULIRG Arp 220; an extraordinary galaxy rendered especially interesting by the controversy over the power source of the western of the two merger nuclei and its immense luminosity and dust obscuration. Using traditional grid based methods I explore the molecular gas conditions within the nuclei and find evidence for chemical differentiation between the two nuclei, potentially related to the obscured power source. Finally, I investigate the potential evolution of proto-clusters over cosmic time with sub-millimetre observations of 14 radio galaxies, unexpectedly finding

  19. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  20. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600

  1. The human Arp2/3 complex is composed of evolutionarily conserved subunits and is localized to cellular regions of dynamic actin filament assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M D; DePace, A H; Verma, S; Iwamatsu, A; Mitchison, T J

    1997-07-28

    The Arp2/3 protein complex has been implicated in the control of actin polymerization in cells. The human complex consists of seven subunits which include the actin related proteins Arp2 and Arp3, and five others referred to as p41-Arc, p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20-Arc, and p16-Arc (p omplex). We have determined the predicted amino acid sequence of all seven subunits. Each has homologues in diverse eukaryotes, implying that the structure and function of the complex has been conserved through evolution. Human Arp2 and Arp3 are very similar to family members from other species. p41-Arc is a new member of the Sop2 family of WD (tryptophan and aspartate) repeat-containing proteins and may be posttranslationally modified, suggesting that it may be involved in regulating the activity and/or localization of the complex. p34-Arc, p21-Arc, p20-Arc, and p16-Arc define novel protein families. We sought to evaluate the function of the Arp2/3 complex in cells by determining its intracellular distribution. Arp3, p34-Arc, and p21-Arc were localized to the lamellipodia of stationary and locomoting fibroblasts, as well to Listeria monocytogenes assembled actin tails. They were not detected in cellular bundles of actin filaments. Taken together with the ability of the Arp2/3 complex to induce actin polymerization, these observations suggest that the complex promotes actin assembly in lamellipodia and may participate in lamellipodial protrusion.

  2. Design of LTCC Based Fractal Antenna

    KAUST Repository

    AdbulGhaffar, Farhan

    2010-09-01

    The thesis presents a Sierpinski Carpet fractal antenna array designed at 24 GHz for automotive radar applications. Miniaturized, high performance and low cost antennas are required for this application. To meet these specifications a fractal array has been designed for the first time on Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) based substrate. LTCC provides a suitable platform for the development of these antennas due to its properties of vertical stack up and embedded passives. The complete antenna concept involves integration of this fractal antenna array with a Fresnel lens antenna providing a total gain of 15dB which is appropriate for medium range radar applications. The thesis also presents a comparison between the designed fractal antenna and a conventional patch antenna outlining the advantages of fractal antenna over the later one. The fractal antenna has a bandwidth of 1.8 GHz which is 7.5% of the centre frequency (24GHz) as compared to 1.9% of the conventional patch antenna. Furthermore the fractal design exhibits a size reduction of 53% as compared to the patch antenna. In the end a sensitivity analysis is carried out for the fractal antenna design depicting the robustness of the proposed design against the typical LTCC fabrication tolerances.

  3. On evaluation of ShARP passive rainfall retrievals over snow-covered land surfaces and coastal zones

    CERN Document Server

    Ebtehaj, Ardeshir M; Foufoula-Georgiou, Efi

    2015-01-01

    For precipitation retrievals over land, using satellite measurements in microwave bands, it is important to properly discriminate the weak rainfall signals from strong and highly variable background surface emission. Traditionally, land rainfall retrieval methods often rely on a weak signal of rainfall scattering on high-frequency channels (85 GHz) and make use of empirical thresholding and regression-based techniques. Due to the increased ground surface signal interference, precipitation retrieval over radiometrically complex land surfaces, especially over snow-covered lands, deserts and coastal areas, is of particular challenge for this class of retrieval techniques. This paper evaluates the results by the recently proposed Shrunken locally linear embedding Algorithm for Retrieval of Precipitation (ShARP), over a radiometrically complex terrain and coastal areas using the data provided by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite. To this end, the ShARP retrieval experiments are performed ove...

  4. CHEMICALLY DISTINCT NUCLEI AND OUTFLOWING SHOCKED MOLECULAR GAS IN Arp 220

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnard, R.; Greve, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Garcia-Burillo, S.; Fuente, A.; Usero, A.; Planesas, P. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Observatorio de Madrid, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Carpio, J. Graciá; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Sturm, E. [Max-Planck-Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Giessenbachstraße 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fischer, J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, 4555 Overlook Ave SW, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); González-Alfonso, E.; Neri, R., E-mail: richard.tunnard.13@ucl.ac.uk [Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Departamento de Física y Matemáticas, Campus Universitario, E-28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-10

    We present the results of interferometric spectral line observations of Arp 220 at 3.5 mm and 1.2 mm from the Plateau de Bure Interferometer, imaging the two nuclear disks in H{sup 13}CN(1-0) and (3-2), H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(1-0) and (3-2), and HN{sup 13}C(3-2) as well as SiO(2-1) and (6-5), HC{sup 15}N(3-2), and SO(6{sub 6}-5{sub 5}). The gas traced by SiO(6-5) has a complex and extended kinematic signature including a prominent P Cygni profile, almost identical to previous observations of HCO{sup +}(3-2). Spatial offsets 0.''1 north and south of the continuum center in the emission and absorption of the SiO(6-5) P Cygni profile in the western nucleus (WN) imply a bipolar outflow, delineating the northern and southern edges of its disk and suggesting a disk radius of ∼40 pc, consistent with that found by ALMA observations of Arp 220. We address the blending of SiO(6-5) and H{sup 13}CO{sup +}(3-2) by considering two limiting cases with regards to the H{sup 13}CO{sup +} emission throughout our analysis. Large velocity gradient modeling is used to constrain the physical conditions of the gas and to infer abundance ratios in the two nuclei. Our most conservative lower limit on the [H{sup 13}CN]/[H{sup 13}CO{sup +}] abundance ratio is 11 in the WN, compared with 0.10 in the eastern nucleus (EN). Comparing these ratios to the literature we argue on chemical grounds for an energetically significant active galactic nucleus in the WN driving either X-ray or shock chemistry, and a dominant starburst in the EN.

  5. An extremely prolific supernova factory in the buried nucleus of the starburst galaxy IC 694

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez-Torres, M A; Alberdi, A; Polatidis, A

    2009-01-01

    Context. The central kiloparsec of many local Luminous Infra-red Galaxies are known to host intense bursts of massive star formation, leading to numerous explosions of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). However, the dust-enshrouded regions where those supernovae explode prevent their detection at optical and near-infrared wavelengths. Aims. We investigate the nuclear region of the starbust galaxy IC 694 (=Arp 299-A) at radio wavelengths, aimed at discovering recently exploded CCSNe, to determine their rate of explosion, which carries crucial information on star formation rates, the initial mass function and starburst scenarios at work. Methods. We use the electronic European VLBI Network to image with milliarcsecond resolution the 5.0 GHz compact radio emission of the inner 150 pc of IC 694. Results. Our observations reveal the presence of a rich cluster of 26 compact radio emitting sources in the central 150 pc of its nuclear starburst region. The large brightness temperatures observed for the compact sources...

  6. Quercetin phospholipid complex significantly protects against oxidative injury in ARPE-19 cells associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin-Rong; Yu, Hai-Tao; Yang, Yan; Hang, Li; Yang, Xue-Wen; Ding, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-05

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness worldwide. Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of dry AMD. Quercetin has potent anti-oxidative activities, but poor bioavailability limits its therapeutic application. Herein, we prepared the phospholipid complex of quercetin (quercetin-PC), characterized its structure by differential scanning calorimetry, infrared spectrum and x-ray diffraction. Quercetin-PC had equilibrium solubility of 38.36 and 1351.27μg/ml in water and chloroform, respectively, which was remarkably higher than those of quercetin alone. Then we established hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative injury model in human ARPE-19 cells to examine the effects of quercetin-PC. Quercetin-PC, stronger than quercetin, promoted cell proliferation, and the proliferation rate was increased to be 78.89% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 400μM. Moreover, quercetin-PC effectively prevented ARPE-19 cells from apoptosis, and the apoptotic rate was reduced to be 3.1% when treated with Quercetin-PC at 200μM. In addition, quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly increased the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-PX, and reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species and MDA in H2O2-treated ARPE-19 cells, but quercetin at 200μM failed to do so. Molecular examinations revealed that quercetin-PC at 200μM significantly activated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and significantly enhanced the expression of target genes HO-1, NQO-1 and GCL by different folds at both mRNA and protein levels. Our current data collectively indicated that quercetin-PC had stronger protective effects against oxidative-induced damages in ARPE-19 cells, which was associated with activation of Nrf2 pathway and its target genes implicated in antioxidant defense.

  7. Non-Reciprocal Optical Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Castro-Lopez, Marta; van Hulst, Niek F

    2014-01-01

    Plasmonics aims to interface photonics and electronics. Finding optical, near-field analogues of much used electro-technical components is crucial to the success of such a platform. Here we present the plasmonic analogue of a non-reciprocal antenna. For non-reciprocality in a plasmonic context, the optical excitation and emission resonances of the antenna need to be an orthogonal set. We show that nonlinear excitation of metal nanoantennas creates a sufficient shift between excitation and emission wavelengths that they can be interpreted as decoupled, allowing for independent tuning of excitation and emission properties along different spatial dimensions. This leads, for given excitation wavelength and polarization, to independent optimization of emission intensity, frequency spectrum, polarization and angular spectrum. Non-reciprocal optical antennas of both gold and aluminum are characterized and shown to be useful as e.g. nonlinear signal transducers or nanoscale sources of widely tunable light.

  8. Biogenic Amines in Insect Antennae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna I. Zhukovskaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect antenna is a multisensory organ, each modality of which can be modulated by biogenic amines. Octopamine (OA and its metabolic precursor tyramine (TA affect activity of antennal olfactory receptor neurons. There is some evidence that dopamine (DA modulates gustatory neurons. Serotonin can serve as a neurotransmitter in some afferent mechanosensory neurons and both as a neurotransmitter and neurohormone in efferent fibers targeted at the antennal vessel and mechanosensory organs. As a neurohormone, serotonin affects the generation of the transepithelial potential by sensillar accessory cells. Other possible targets of biogenic amines in insect antennae are hygro- and thermosensory neurons and epithelial cells. We suggest that the insect antenna is partially autonomous in the sense that biologically active substances entering its hemolymph may exert their effects and be cleared from this compartment without affecting other body parts.

  9. Compact Low Frequency Radio Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnoose, Ratish J.

    2008-11-11

    An antenna is disclosed that comprises a pair of conductive, orthogonal arches and a pair of conductive annular sector plates, wherein adjacent legs of each arch are fastened to one of the annular sector plates and the opposite adjacent pair of legs is fastened to the remaining annular sector plate. The entire antenna structure is spaced apart from a conductive ground plane by a thin dielectric medium. The antenna is driven by a feed conduit passing through the conductive ground plane and dielectric medium and attached to one of the annular sector plates, wherein the two orthogonal arched act as a pair of crossed dipole elements. This arrangement of elements provides a radiation pattern that is largely omni-directional above the horizon.

  10. Galaxy International Mall Unveiled

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    An agreement between Galaxy International Mall (hereinafter referred to as Galaxy) and its three main partners was signed on January 12, 2011, in the city of Tianjin. The partners are Lotte Department

  11. The Void Galaxy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    van de Weygaert, R; Platen, E; Beygu, B; van Gorkom, J H; van der Hulst, J M; Aragon-Calvo, M A; Peebles, P J E; Jarrett, T; Rhee, G; Kovac, K; Yip, C -W

    2011-01-01

    The Void Galaxy Survey (VGS) is a multi-wavelength program to study $\\sim$60 void galaxies. Each has been selected from the deepest interior regions of identified voids in the SDSS redshift survey on the basis of a unique geometric technique, with no a prior selection of intrinsic properties of the void galaxies. The project intends to study in detail the gas content, star formation history and stellar content, as well as kinematics and dynamics of void galaxies and their companions in a broad sample of void environments. It involves the HI imaging of the gas distribution in each of the VGS galaxies. Amongst its most tantalizing findings is the possible evidence for cold gas accretion in some of the most interesting objects, amongst which are a polar ring galaxy and a filamentary configuration of void galaxies. Here we shortly describe the scope of the VGS and the results of the full analysis of the pilot sample of 15 void galaxies.

  12. High-temperature superconductor antenna investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasack, Vincent G.

    1990-10-01

    The use of superconductors to increase antenna radiation efficiency and gain is examined. Although the gain of all normal-metal antennas can be increased through the use of superconductors, some structures have greater potential for practical improvement than others. Some structures suffer a great degradation in bandwidth when replaced with superconductors, while for others the improvement in efficiency is trivial due to the minimal contribution of the conductor loss mechanism to the total losses, or the already high efficiency of the structure. The following antennas and related structures are discussed: electrically small antennas, impedance matching of antennas, microstrip antennas, microwave and millimeter-wave antenna arrays, and superdirective arrays. The greatest potential practical improvements occur for large microwave and millimeter-wave arrays and the impedance matching of antennas.

  13. Multifrequency Printed Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Segovia-Vargas

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of printed antennas loaded with metamaterial particles. This novel technique allows developing printed antennas with interesting features such as multifrequency (simultaneous operation over two or more frequency bands and multifunctionality (e. g. radiation pattern diversity. Moreover, compactness is also achieved and the main advantages of conventional printed antennas (light weight, low profile, low cost ... are maintained. Different types of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas are reviewed: printed dipoles and patch antennas. Several prototypes are designed, manufactured and measured showing good results. Furthermore, simple but accurate equivalent models are proposed. These models allow an easy and quick design of metamaterial-loaded printed antennas. Finally, two interesting applications based on the proposed antennas are reviewed: the patch antennas are used as radiating elements of emerging active RFID systems in the microwave band and the metamaterial-loaded printed dipoles are employed to increase the performance of log-periodic arrays.

  14. VLBI Antenna Calibration via GPS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to investigate and develop an inexpensive system to determine: 1)VLBI antenna properties such as axis-offset, non-intersection of axis and antenna...

  15. International Mapping of Antenna-Measurement Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccia, Luigi; Breinbjerg, Olav; Di Massa, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive international mapping of antenna-measurement facilities. This initiative, conducted within the framework of the Antenna Centre of Excellence (ACE) of the European Union, is oriented toward all institutions having research, development, or operational activities...

  16. Multiband small zeroth-order metamaterial antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakhli, Nabil; Choubani, Fethi; David, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    A novel resonant metamaterial antenna based on the Composite Right/Left-Handed (CRLH) transmission line (TL) model is presented. The proposed small antenna is designed to operate simultaneously over multiple wireless services (UMTS-WLAN-WIMAX)

  17. Mode-matching for Optical Antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Hecht, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The emission rate of a point dipole can be strongly increased in presence of a well-designed optical antenna. Yet, optical antenna design is largely based on radio-frequency rules, ignoring e.g.~ohmic losses and non-negligible field penetration in metals at optical frequencies. Here we combine reciprocity and Poynting's theorem to derive a set of optical-frequency antenna design rules for benchmarking and optimizing the performance of optical antennas driven by single quantum emitters. Based on these findings a novel plasmonic cavity antenna design is presented exhibiting a considerably improved performance compared to a reference two-wire antenna. Our work will be useful for the design of high-performance optical antennas and nanoresonators for diverse applications ranging from quantum optics to antenna-enhanced single-emitter spectroscopy and sensing.

  18. A numerical study of cell merger over Cuba - Part I: implementation of the ARPS/MM5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, D.; Borrajero, I.; Marín, J. C.; Raga, G. B.

    2006-11-01

    On 21 July 2001 a number of severe storms developed over the region of Camaguey, Cuba, which were observed by radar. A numerical simulation was performed in order to realistically reproduce the development of the storms observed that day. The mesoscale model MM5 was used to determine the initial, boundary and update conditions for the storm-scale simulation with the model ARPS. Changes to the source code of ARPS were made in order to assimilate the output from the MM5 as input data and a new land-use file with a 1-km horizontal resolution for the Cuban territory was created. A case representing the merger between cells at different stages of development was correctly reproduced by the simulation and is in good agreement with radar observations. The state of development of each cell, the time when the merger occurred, starting from the formation of clouds, the propagation motion of the cells and the increase in precipitation, due to the growth of the area after the merger, were correctly reproduced. Simulated clouds matched the main characteristics of the observed radar echoes, though in some cases, reflectivity tops and horizontal areas were overestimated. Maximum reflectivity values and the heights where these maximum values were located were in good agreement with radar data, particularly when the model reflectivity was calculated without including the snow. The MM5/ARPS configuration introduced in this study, improved sensibly the ability to simulate convective systems, thereby enhancing the local forecasting of convection in the region.

  19. Linux系统中ARP的编程实现技术%Programming Technology of ARP in Linux System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬霞; 苏广川

    2001-01-01

    简要介绍了TCP/IP互联网中的地址解析协议(ARP)以及Linux系统提供的基于低层的应用程序开发接口(API),重点分析了三种访问数据链路层方法。利用此接口,用C语言开发了ARP协议应用程序。描述了具体编程步骤,并提供了相应的系统调用及程序分析。%The address resolution protocol(ARP)in TCP/IP network and the application program interface(API)supplied in Linux system based on lower level are introduced in this paper, and three operation methods for data link level are especially analyzed, by which the application program for ARP is developed in C language. The concrete programming steps described, the related system calls and program analysis are also provided in this paper.

  20. Perinuclear Arp2/3-driven actin polymerization enables nuclear deformation to facilitate cell migration through complex environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hawa-Racine; Vargas, Pablo; Carpi, Nicolas; Crespo, Carolina Lage; Raab, Matthew; Terriac, Emmanuel; King, Megan C; Jacobelli, Jordan; Alberts, Arthur S; Stradal, Theresia; Lennon-Dumenil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2016-03-15

    Cell migration has two opposite faces: although necessary for physiological processes such as immune responses, it can also have detrimental effects by enabling metastatic cells to invade new organs. In vivo, migration occurs in complex environments and often requires a high cellular deformability, a property limited by the cell nucleus. Here we show that dendritic cells, the sentinels of the immune system, possess a mechanism to pass through micrometric constrictions. This mechanism is based on a rapid Arp2/3-dependent actin nucleation around the nucleus that disrupts the nuclear lamina, the main structure limiting nuclear deformability. The cells' requirement for Arp2/3 to pass through constrictions can be relieved when nuclear stiffness is decreased by suppressing lamin A/C expression. We propose a new role for Arp2/3 in three-dimensional cell migration, allowing fast-moving cells such as leukocytes to rapidly and efficiently migrate through narrow gaps, a process probably important for their function.

  1. Design considerations for low antenna correlation and mutual coupling reduction in multi antenna terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jesper; Jakobsen, Kaj Bjarne

    2007-01-01

    The influence of mutual coupling on the envelope correlation between two identical planar inverted F-antennas (PIFA) are investigated. The capacity of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna system strongly depends on the correlation between the antennas. By placing two antennas in a fixe...

  2. Application of the SWE-to-PWE antenna diagnostics technique to an offset reflector antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Frandsen, Aksel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2008-01-01

    Electrical and mechanical errors in an antenna may seriously affect the antenna's performance. Although their presence is usually detected by anomalies in the antenna's far-field pattern, their identification is normally possible only through an analysis of the antenna's extreme near field. The r...

  3. Mode-matching for Optical Antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Feichtner, Thorsten; Christiansen, Silke; Hecht, Bert

    2016-01-01

    The emission rate of a point dipole can be strongly increased in presence of a well-designed optical antenna. Yet, optical antenna design is largely based on radio-frequency rules, ignoring e.g.~ohmic losses and non-negligible field penetration in metals at optical frequencies. Here we combine reciprocity and Poynting's theorem to derive a set of optical-frequency antenna design rules for benchmarking and optimizing the performance of optical antennas driven by single quantum emitters. Based ...

  4. Optical antenna effect in semiconducting nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, G; Wu, Jian; Lu, Qiujie; Gutierrez, H R; Xiong, Qihua; Pellen, M E; Petko, J S; Werner, D H; Eklund, P C

    2008-05-01

    We report on investigations of the interaction of light with nanoscale antennae made from crystalline GaP nanowires (NWs). Using Raman scattering, we have observed strong optical antenna effects which we identify with internal standing wave photon modes of the wire. The antenna effects were probed in individual NWs whose diameters are in the range 40 optical antenna effect" in semiconducting NWs is essential to the analysis of all electro-optic effects in small diameter filaments.

  5. Optical antenna for photofunctional molecular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Uosaki, Kohei

    2012-02-06

    Optical antennas can enhance the efficiency of photon-molecule interactions. To design efficient antenna structures, it is essential to consider physicochemical aspects in addition to electromagnetic considerations. Specifically, chemical interactions between optical antennas and molecules have to be controlled to enhance the overall efficiency. For this purpose, sphere-plane nanostructures are suitable optical antennas for molecular-modified functional electrode systems when a well-defined electrode is utilized as a platform.

  6. Electromechanically Tunable Suspended Optical Nano-antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Kai; Razinskas, Gary; Feichtner, Thorsten; Grossmann, Swen; Christiansen, Silke; Hecht, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Coupling mechanical degrees of freedom with plasmonic resonances has potential applications in optomechanics, sensing, and active plasmonics. Here we demonstrate a suspended two-wire plasmonic nano-antenna acting like a nano-electrometer. The antenna wires are supported and electrically connected via thin leads without disturbing the antenna resonance. As a voltage is applied, equal charges are induced on both antenna wires. The resulting equilibrium between the repulsive Coulomb force and th...

  7. Wideband irregular-shaped fractal antennas

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesov, V. V.; Krupenin, S. V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm of generating fully reproducible irregular fractal structures for antenna design. Three types of pseudorandom fractal clusters are introduced. The multi-frequency behavior of the irregular-shaped fractal antennas is studied by means of numerical analysis. The antenna behavior is studied under feeder displacement. As shown by numerical results feeder displacements allow one to control the spatial-frequency antenna characteristics.

  8. Dual-Antenna Microwave Reception Without Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, Robert W.

    1994-01-01

    Receiver remains connected to both antennas, transmitter switched to connect it to one or other. Combination of hybrid junction, circulators, and filter provides simultaneous reception paths from both antennas without significantly altering radiation patterns of antennas. Communication system considered for use in spacecraft and in which mechanical switch permitted on downlink but not on uplink. Applicable to terrestrial microwave communication stations subject to dual-antenna requirements.

  9. Estimation of complex permittivity using loop antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna.......A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna....

  10. Estimation of complex permittivity using loop antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna.......A method for estimating the complex permittivity of materials in the vicinity of a loop antenna is proposed. The method is based on comparing measured and numerically calculated input admittances for the loop antenna....

  11. Rectangular dielectric resonator antennas theory and design

    CERN Document Server

    Yaduvanshi, Rajveer S

    2016-01-01

    This book covers resonating modes inside device and gives insights into antenna design, impedance and radiation patterns. It discusses how higher-order modes generation and control impact bandwidth and antenna gain. The text covers new approaches in antenna design by investigation hybrid modes, H_Z and E_Z fields available simultaneously, and analysis and modelling on modes with practical applications in antenna design. The book will be prove useful to students, researchers and professionals alike.

  12. Advanced antennas for SAR spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gail, William B.

    1993-01-01

    Single and multi-frequency antenna concepts were developed to evaluate the feasibility of building large aperture polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems to be launched in low cost vehicles such as the Delta 2. The antennas are 18.9 m long by 2.6 m wide (L-band) and achieve single polarization imaging to an incidence angle of 55 degrees and dual/quad imaging to 42 degrees. When combined with strawman spacecraft designs, both concepts meet the mass and volume constraints imposed by a Delta 2 launch.

  13. Accurate determination of antenna directivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich, Mikael

    1997-01-01

    The derivation of a formula for accurate estimation of the total radiated power from a transmitting antenna for which the radiated power density is known in a finite number of points on the far-field sphere is presented. The main application of the formula is determination of directivity from power......-pattern measurements. The derivation is based on the theory of spherical wave expansion of electromagnetic fields, which also establishes a simple criterion for the required number of samples of the power density. An array antenna consisting of Hertzian dipoles is used to test the accuracy and rate of convergence...

  14. Antenna reconfiguration verification and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Robert C. (Inventor); Meyers, David W. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor); Carlson, Douglas R. (Inventor); Drexler, Jerome P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method of testing the electrical functionality of an optically controlled switch in a reconfigurable antenna is provided. The method includes configuring one or more conductive paths between one or more feed points and one or more test point with switches in the reconfigurable antenna. Applying one or more test signals to the one or more feed points. Monitoring the one or more test points in response to the one or more test signals and determining the functionality of the switch based upon the monitoring of the one or more test points.

  15. Nested-cone transformer antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Carl A.

    1991-01-01

    A plurality of conical transmission lines are concentrically nested to form n output antenna for pulsed-power, radio-frequency, and microwave sources. The diverging conical conductors enable a high power input density across a bulk dielectric to be reduced below a breakdown power density at the antenna interface with the transmitting medium. The plurality of cones maintain a spacing between conductors which minimizes the generation of high order modes between the conductors. Further, the power input feeds are isolated at the input while enabling the output electromagnetic waves to add at the transmission interface. Thus, very large power signals from a pulse rf, or microwave source can be radiated.

  16. ISO Far-IR Spectroscopy of IR-Bright Galaxies and ULIRGs

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, J; Satyapal, S; Greenhouse, M A; Stacey, G J; Bradford, C M; Lord, S D; Brauher, J R; Unger, S J; Clegg, P E; Smith, H A; Melnick, G J; Colbert, J W; Malkan, M A; Spinoglio, L; Cox, P; Harvey, V; Suter, J P; Strelnitski, V S

    1999-01-01

    Based on far-infrared spectroscopy of a small sample of nearby infrared-bright and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) with the ISO Long Wavelength Spectrometer, we find a dramatic progression in ionic/atomic fine-structure emission line and molecular/atomic absorption line characteristics in these galaxies extending from strong [O III]52,88 and [N III]57 micron line emission to detection of only faint [C II]158 micron line emission from gas in photodissociation regions in the ULIRGs. The molecular absorption spectra show varying excitation as well, extending from galaxies in which the molecular population mainly occupies the ground state to galaxies in which there is significant population in higher levels. In the case of the prototypical ULIRG, the merger galaxy Arp 220, the spectrum is dominated by absorption lines of OH, H2O, CH, and [O I]. Low [O III]88 micron line flux relative to the integrated far-infrared flux correlates with low excitation and does not appear to be due to far-infrared extinctio...

  17. ARPES Study of the 3D Topological Insulator Bi2Se 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ahram

    The 3D topological insulator material Bi2Se3 is characterized with angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) energy-momentum intensity spectra at various temperatures. High quality samples with relatively small band gaps and a low energy Dirac point were used. An ideal resolution was deter- mined to be taken at photon energy of 11eV. Scattering interaction at the surface can come from three main sources: electron-phonon, surface impurity, or electron-electron scattering, between the surface and the bulk conduction bands. Momemtum- and Energy- Distribution Curves (MDC and EDC) fits were modeled with Gaussian convoluted Lorentzian and extremely-correlated Fermi liquid theory, respectively. By comparing the binding energy at different temperatures for regions near the Fermi edge and near the Dirac point, and observing an increase in MDC self-energy near the Fermi edge, we conclude that a source of interaction is through phonon coupling channels. By calculating the coupling constant ? from self-energy at various temperatures, we present a very low value of ? = 0.049 +/- 0.007 which supports our conclusion that phonon coupling must be incorporated into the theory to provide accurate fit models. Data was taken at beam line 5-4 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource in Menlo Park, with samples prepared by Genda Gu's group at Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  18. A first principles TDDFT framework for spin and time-resolved ARPES in periodic systems

    CERN Document Server

    De Giovannini, Umberto; Rubio, Angel

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel theoretical approach to simulate spin, time and angular-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES) from first principles that is applicable to surfaces, thin films, few layer systems, and low-dimensional nanostructures. The method is based on a general formulation in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) to describe the real time-evolution of electrons escaping from a surface under the effect of any external (arbitrary) laser field. By extending the so called t-SURFF method to periodic systems one can calculate the final photoelectron spectrum by collecting the flux of the ionization current trough an analysing surface. The resulting approach, that we named t-SURFFP, allows to describe a wide range of irradiation conditions without any assumption on the dynamics of the ionization process allowing for pump-probe simulations on an equal footing. To illustrate the wide scope of applicability of the method we present applications to graphene, mono- and bi-layer WSe$...

  19. Long-term Failure Prediction based on an ARP Model of Global Risk Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin; Moussawi, Alaa; Szymanski, Boleslaw; Korniss, Gyorgy

    Risks that threaten modern societies form an intricately interconnected network. Hence, it is important to understand how risk materializations in distinct domains influence each other. In the paper, we study the global risks network defined by World Economic Forum experts in the form of Stochastic Block Model. We model risks as Alternating Renewal Processes with variable intensities driven by hidden values of exogenous and endogenous failure probabilities. Based on the expert assessments and historical status of each risk, we use Maximum Likelihood Evaluation to find the optimal model parameters and demonstrate that the model considering network effects significantly outperforms the others. In the talk, we discuss how the model can be used to provide quantitative means for measuring interdependencies and materialization of risks in the network. We also present recent results of long-term predictions in the form of predicated distributions of materializations over various time periods. Finally we show how the simulation of ARP's enables us to probe limits of the predictability of the system parameters from historical data and ability to recover hidden variable. Supported in part by DTRA, ARL NS-CTA.

  20. Electron dynamics in the normal state of cuprates: Spectral function, Fermi surface and ARPES data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubov, E. E.

    2016-11-01

    An influence of the electron-phonon interaction on excitation spectrum and damping in a narrow band electron subsystem of cuprates has been investigated. Within the framework of the t-J model an approach to solving a problem of account of both strong electron correlations and local electron-phonon binding with characteristic Einstein mode ω0 in the normal state has been presented. In approximation Hubbard-I it was found an exact solution for the polaron bands. We established that in the low-dimensional system with a pure kinematic part of Hamiltonian a complicated excitation spectrum is realized. It is determined mainly by peculiarities of the lattice Green's function. In the definite area of the electron concentration and hopping integrals a correlation gap may be possible on the Fermi level. Also, in specific cases it is observed a doping evolution of the Fermi surface. We found that the strong electron-phonon binding enforces a degree of coherence of electron-polaron excitations near the Fermi level and spectrum along the nodal direction depends on wave vector module weakly. It corresponds to ARPES data. A possible origin of the experimentally observed kink in the nodal direction of cuprates is explained by fine structure of the polaron band to be formed near the mode -ω0.

  1. Analysis of ARP Attack and Defense%浅析ARP攻击与防御

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄多荣; 马士友

    2012-01-01

    Because of the mode of ARP connection with the establishment of blindness, so the attacker can often use this hole fraudulent connection, the host user to attack, control or steal related data. To prevent attack, it is necessary to make clear the basic principle of the agreement, the attacker using agreement loopholes and attack way, adopting the specific measure.%由于ARP连接方式的建立具有盲目性.所以攻击者往往可以利用这一漏洞进行欺骗性的连接,对主机用户进行攻击、控制或者窃取相关数据资料。要预防攻击,就必须弄清楚协议的基本原理、攻击者利用的协议漏洞和攻击方式.采取针对性的措施。

  2. The Galaxy End Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Eales, Stephen; Smith, Matthew; Appah, Kiran; Ciesla, Laure; Duffield, Chris; Schofield, Simon

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption is that galaxies fall in two distinct regions on a plot of specific star-formation rate (SSFR) versus galaxy stellar mass: a star-forming Galaxy Main Sequence (GMS) and a separate region of `passive' or `red and dead galaxies'. Starting from a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies designed to contain most of the stellar mass in this volume, and thus being a fair representation of the Universe at the end of 12 billion years of galaxy evolution, we investigate the distribution of galaxies in this diagram today. We show that galaxies follow a strongly curved extended GMS with a steep negative slope at high galaxy stellar masses. There is a gradual change in the morphologies of the galaxies along this distribution, but there is no clear break between early-type and late-type galaxies. Examining the other evidence that there are two distinct populations, we argue that the `red sequence' is the result of the colours of galaxies changing very little below a critical value of the SSFR, rather t...

  3. Chandra Locates Mother Lode of Planetary Ore in Colliding Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered rich deposits of neon, magnesium, and silicon in a pair of colliding galaxies known as The Antennae. When the clouds in which these elements are present cool, an exceptionally high number of stars with planets should form. These results may foreshadow the fate of the Milky Way and its future collision with the Andromeda Galaxy. "The amount of enrichment of elements in The Antennae is phenomenal," said Giuseppina Fabbiano of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. at a press conference at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society in Atlanta, Ga. "This must be due to a very high rate of supernova explosions in these colliding galaxies." Fabbiano is lead author of a paper on this discovery by a team of U.S. and U.K. scientists that will appear in an upcoming issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters. When galaxies collide, direct hits between stars are extremely rare, but collisions between huge gas clouds in the galaxies can trigger a stellar baby boom. The most massive of these stars race through their evolution in a few million years and explode as supernovas. Heavy elements manufactured inside these stars are blown away by the explosions and enrich the surrounding gas for thousands of light years. "The amount of heavy elements supports earlier studies that indicate there was a very high rate of relatively recent supernovas, 30 times that of the Milky Way," according to collaborator Andreas Zezas of the CfA. Animation of Colliding Galaxies Animation of Colliding Galaxies The supernova violence also heats the gas to millions of degrees Celsius. This makes much of the matter in the clouds invisible to optical telescopes, but it can be observed by an X-ray telescope. Chandra data revealed for the first time regions of varying enrichment in the galaxies – in one cloud magnesium and silicon are 16 and 24 times as abundant as in the Sun. "These are the kinds of elements that

  4. Satellite galaxies in nearby groups of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Vennik, J

    2015-01-01

    We analyse distribution, kinematics and star-formation (SF) properties of satellite galaxies in three different samples of nearby groups. We find that studied groups are generally well approximated by low-concentration NFW model, show a variety of LOS velocity dispersion profiles and signs of SF quenching in outskirts of dwarf satellite galaxies.

  5. Collapsible structure for an antenna reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trubert, M. R. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A collapsible support for an antenna reflector for use in supporting spacecraft antennas is described. The support has a regid base and a number of struts which are pivoted at the base. The deployment of the struts and their final configuration for supporting the antenna are illustrated.

  6. Isolation between three antennas at 700 MHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Svendsen, Simon; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2015-01-01

    To address the antenna design challenges posed by many frequency bands, introduced with long-term evolution deployment, this study proposes the use of separate transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) narrow-band antennas. In addition, a diversity Rx (Dx) antenna is needed for multiple-input multiple...

  7. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  8. Small X-Band Oscillator Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix A.; Clark, Eric B.; Wilt, David M.; Mueller, Carl H.; Kory, Carol L.; Lambert, Kevin M.

    2009-01-01

    A small, segmented microstrip patch antenna integrated with an X-band feedback oscillator on a high-permittivity substrate has been built and tested. This oscillator antenna is a prototype for demonstrating the feasibility of such devices as compact, low-power-consumption building blocks of advanced, lightweight, phased antenna arrays that would generate steerable beams for communication and remotesensing applications.

  9. 47 CFR 101.517 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 101.517 Section 101.517... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.517 Antennas. (a) Transmitting antennas may be omnidirectional or directional, consistent with coverage and interference requirements....

  10. 47 CFR 101.115 - Directional antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directional antennas. 101.115 Section 101.115... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.115 Directional antennas. (a) Unless otherwise authorized upon specific... antenna adjusted with the center of the major lobe of radiation in the horizontal plane directed...

  11. New Concepts in Electromagnetic Materials and Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2014-0233 NEW CONCEPTS IN ELECTROMAGNETIC MATERIALS AND ANTENNAS Jeffrey Allen, Naftali Herscovici, Brad Kramer, and...Bae-Ian Wu Antennas & Electromagnetics Technology Branch Multispectral Sensing & Detection Division JANUARY 2015 Final Report...Signature// //Signature// BRADLEY A. KRAMER, Program Manager TONY C. KIM, Branch Chief Antenna & Electromagnetic Technology

  12. 47 CFR 95.859 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.859 Section 95.859... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.859 Antennas. (a) The overall height from ground to topmost tip of the CTS antenna shall not exceed the height necessary to assure adequate service....

  13. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ nondirectional antennas with horizontal only polarization, vertical only polarization, circular polarization...

  14. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    of the antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas...

  15. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  16. Numerical Study of Planar GPR Antenna Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meincke, Peter; Hansen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    The formulation of planar near-field measurements of GPR antennas determines the plane-wave spectra of the GPR antenna in terms of measurements obtained with a buried probe as the GPR antenna moves over a scan plane on the ground. A numerical study investigates how the formulation is affected by (1...

  17. Smart antennas: state of the art

    OpenAIRE

    Boche, Holger; Bourdoux, André; Rodríguez Fonollosa, Javier; Kaiser, Thomas; Molisch, Andreas F.; Utschick, Wolfgang

    2006-01-01

    Aim of this contribution is to illustrate the state of the art of smart antenna research from several perspectives. The bow is drawn from transmitter issues via channel measurements and modeling, receiver signal processing, network aspects, technological challenges towards first smart antenna applications and current status of standardization. Moreover, some future prospects of different disciplines in smart antenna research are given. Peer Reviewed

  18. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards... elevation planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the...

  19. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the radiation, in...

  20. 47 CFR 80.923 - Antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.923 Section 80.923... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.923 Antenna system. An antenna must be provided in accordance with the applicable requirements of § 80.81 of this...

  1. Future Vogues in Handset Antenna Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelosi, Mauro; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2011-01-01

    This paper exemplifies future trends in handset antenna systems, contextualizing their historical evolution and anticipating novel paradigms. It is shown through numerical simulations how narrow-band antennas used in transceiver separation mode can reduce the total loss in presence of the user......’s hand, improving at the same time the antenna isolation....

  2. Antenna Construction and Propagation of Radio Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on antenna construction and propagation of radio waves is designed to provide communicators with instructions in the selection and/or construction of the proper antenna(s) for use with current field radio equipment. Introductory materials include…

  3. Orthogonal antenna architecture for MIMO handsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatomirescu, Alexandru; Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a method for decorrelating the antenna elements of a MIMO system in a compact handheld terminal at low bands. The architecture of the antenna system induces orthogonal currents over the closely spaced antennas resulting in a correlation free system. Nevertheless, due to the small...

  4. 47 CFR 80.1017 - Antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.1017 Section 80.1017... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1017 Antenna system. (a) An antenna must be provided for nonportable bridge-to-bridge radiotelephone...

  5. 47 CFR 74.737 - Antenna location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna location. 74.737 Section 74.737... Booster Stations § 74.737 Antenna location. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV, TV translator, or TV.... (b) The transmitting antenna should be placed above growing vegetation and trees lying in...

  6. 47 CFR 80.967 - Antenna system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna system. 80.967 Section 80.967... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installation Required for Vessels on the Great Lakes § 80.967 Antenna system. The antenna must be omni-directional, vertically polarized and located as high as practicable...

  7. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  8. Installing the antenna for STELLA

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The 3 metre diameter antenna for the STELLA satellite communication project is lowered into position on the roof of the Computer Building (see Weekly Bulletin 48/79 and CERN Courier 19 (1979) 444). STELLA stands for Satellite Transmission Experiment Linking Laboratories.

  9. Improved Gain Microstrip Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-06

    same as one half wavelength, λ, of a design frequency for reception or transmission by the antenna 10. Patch 16 can be joined to a coaxial feed 18. A...expressed in the appended claims. [0024] The foregoing description of the preferred embodiments of the invention has been presented for purposes of

  10. DSS 13 microprocessor antenna controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosline, R. M.

    1988-01-01

    A microprocessor-based antenna monitor and control system with multiple CPUs are described. The system was developed as part of the unattended station project for DSS 13 and was enhanced for use by the SETI project. The operational features, hardware, and software designs are described, and a discussion is provided of the major problems encountered.

  11. Photogrammetry Of A Parabolic Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, W. D.; Lansing, F. L.; Stoller, F. W.; Lobb, V. B.

    1988-01-01

    Surface measured with accuracy better than 10 to the negative fifth power times diameter. Report describes use of advanced close-range photogrammetry to determine deviations of 34-m-diameter antenna main reflector and subreflector from nominal paraboloidal shapes. Measurements enable removal of linear offsets and angular misalignments of subreflector, with consequent increase of 4 percent in aperture efficiency.

  12. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  13. Nanorod optical antennas for dipolar transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Taminiau, Tim H; van Hulst, Niek F

    2009-01-01

    Optical antennas link objects to light. Here, we analyze metal nanorod antennas as cavities with variable reflection coefficients to derive the interaction of dipolar transitions with radiation through the antenna modes. The presented analytical model accurately describes the complete emission process, and is summarized in a phase-matching equation. We show how antenna modes evolve as they become increasingly more bound, i.e. plasmonic. The results illustrate why efficient antennas should not be too plasmonic, and how subradiant even modes can evolve into weakly-interacting dark modes. Our description is valid for the interaction of nanorods with light in general, and is thus widely applicable.

  14. Forward Scattering of Loaded and Unloaded Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Mats; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Kristensson, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Forward scattering of antennas is related to antenna performance via the forward-scattering sum rule. The forward-scattering sum rule is an integral identity that shows that a weighted integral of the extinction cross section over all spectrum is proportional to the static polarizability...... of the antenna structure. Here, the forward-scattering sum rule is experimentally verified for loaded, short-circuit, and open-circuit cylindrical dipole antennas. It is also shown that the absorption efficiency cannot be greater than 1/2 for reciprocal linearly polarized lossless matched antennas...

  15. Multi-antenna synthetic aperture radar

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wen-Qin

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a well-known remote sensing technique, but conventional single-antenna SAR is inherently limited by the minimum antenna area constraint. Although there are still technical issues to overcome, multi-antenna SAR offers many benefits, from improved system gain to increased degrees-of-freedom and system flexibility. Multi-Antenna Synthetic Aperture Radar explores the potential and challenges of using multi-antenna SAR in microwave remote sensing applications. These applications include high-resolution imaging, wide-swath remote sensing, ground moving target indica

  16. How Do Galaxies Grow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Astronomers have caught multiple massive galaxies in the act of merging about 4 billion years ago. This discovery, made possible by combining the power of the best ground- and space-based telescopes, uniquely supports the favoured theory of how galaxies form. ESO PR Photo 24/08 ESO PR Photo 24/08 Merging Galaxies in Groups How do galaxies form? The most widely accepted answer to this fundamental question is the model of 'hierarchical formation', a step-wise process in which small galaxies merge to build larger ones. One can think of the galaxies forming in a similar way to how streams merge to form rivers, and how these rivers, in turn, merge to form an even larger river. This theoretical model predicts that massive galaxies grow through many merging events in their lifetime. But when did their cosmological growth spurts finish? When did the most massive galaxies get most of their mass? To answer these questions, astronomers study massive galaxies in clusters, the cosmological equivalent of cities filled with galaxies. "Whether the brightest galaxies in clusters grew substantially in the last few billion years is intensely debated. Our observations show that in this time, these galaxies have increased their mass by 50%," says Kim-Vy Tran from the University of Zürich, Switzerland, who led the research. The astronomers made use of a large ensemble of telescopes and instruments, including ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Hubble Space Telescope, to study in great detail galaxies located 4 billion light-years away. These galaxies lie in an extraordinary system made of four galaxy groups that will assemble into a cluster. In particular, the team took images with VIMOS and spectra with FORS2, both instruments on the VLT. From these and other observations, the astronomers could identify a total of 198 galaxies belonging to these four groups. The brightest galaxies in each group contain between 100 and 1000 billion of stars, a property that makes them comparable

  17. Study on ARP spoofing attack detection and defense technology%ARP欺骗攻击的检测及防御技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢金阁; 刘扬

    2012-01-01

    Attackers using ARP spoofing attack network segment host In the LAN, which threaten the LAN security seriously. This paper analyzed the common tricks such as monitor, intercept, and malicious attacks which attackers used, and summarized the IP matched methods based on ARP cheat theory, data frame detection method, Echo time method, ARP response analysis method, tools detection method and so on. A prevent ARP spoofing algorithm is proposed in this paper, which made use of ARP cache update policy, switching equipment control and other strategies to prevent ARP spoofing. This algorithm can reject ARP spoofing, achieve the goals of maintaining network security.%局域网中攻击者利用ARP欺骗对网段内主机进行攻击,严重威胁着局域网的安全.本文通过对攻击者常使用的监听、截获和恶意攻击等ARP欺骗方法的分析,对基于ARP欺骗原理的匹配IP法、数据帧检测法、Echo时间法、ARP应答分析法和工具软件检测法等检测方法进行总结,提出制定ARP缓存更新策略、利用交换设备进行控制等多种防范ARP欺骗的策略,并提出了一种新的防范ARP欺骗算法,从而达到拒绝ARP欺骗、保护网络安全目的.

  18. Using Galaxy Winds to Constrain Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Christopher W.; Klypin, A.; Ceverino, D.; Kacprzak, G.; Klimek, E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of mock quasar spectra of metal absorption lines in the proximity of formed galaxies in cosmological simulation is a highly promising for understanding the role of galaxies in IGM physics, or IGM physics in the role of galaxy formation in context of the cosmic web. Such analysis using neutral hydrogen in the cosmic web has literally revolutionized our understanding of the Lyman alpha forest. We are undertaking a wholesale approach to use powerful Lambda-CDM simulations to interpret absorption line data from redshift 1-3 starbursting galaxies e.g. Lyman break galaxies, etc) The data with which direct quantitative comparison is made are from the DEEP survey (Weiner et al.) and the collective work of Steidel et al. and collaborators. The simulations are performed using the Eulerian Gasdynamics plus N-body Adaptive Refinement Tree (ART) code, which has gas cell resolutions of 20-50 pc. Physical processes implemented in the code include realistic radiative cooling, star formation, metal enrichment and thermal feedback due to type II and type Ia supernovae. We quantitatively compare the spatial and kinematic distribution of HI, MgII, CIV, and OVI of absorption lines over a range of impact parameters for various simulated galaxies as a function of redshift, and discuss key insights for interpreting the underlying temperature, density, and ionization structure of the halo/cosmic-web interface, and the influence of galaxies on its chemical enrichment.

  19. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  20. Broad band antennas and feed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzel, David M.; Twogood, Richard E.

    2017-04-18

    Two or more Vivaldi antennas, consisting of two plates each, each with the antenna's natural impedance of approximately 100 ohms, are placed in parallel to achieve a 50 ohm impedance in the case of two antennas or other impedances (100/n ohms) for more than two antennas. A single Vivaldi antenna plate (half Vivaldi antenna) over a ground plane can also be used to achieve a 50 ohm impedance, or two or more single plates over a ground plane to achieve other impedances. Unbalanced 50 ohm transmission lines, e.g. coaxial cables, can be used to directly feed, the dual Vivaldi (four plate) antenna in a center fed angled center departure, or more desirably, a center fed offset departure configuration.

  1. Improvement of antenna decoupling in radar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Topor, Raluca; Tamas, Razvan D.; Dumitrascu, Ana; Danisor, Alin; Berescu, Serban

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we present a type of antipodal Vivaldi antenna design, which can be used for pulse radiation in UWB communication. The Vivaldi antenna is a special tapered slot antenna with planar structure which is easily to be integrated with transmitting elements and receiving elements to form a compact structure. When the permittivity is very large, the wavelength of slot mode is so short that the electromagnetic fields concentrate in the slot to form an effective and balanced transmission line. Due to its simple structure and small size the Vivaldi antennas are one of the most popular designs used in UWB applications. However, for a two-antenna radar system, there is a high mutual coupling between two such antennas due to open configuration. In this paper, we propose a new method for reducing this effect. The method was validated by simulating a system of two Vivaldi antennas in front of a standard target.

  2. Foldable nanopaper antennas for origami electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Masaya; Komoda, Natsuki; Otsuka, Kanji; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2013-05-21

    Foldable antennas are required for small-sized electronic devices with high portability. Antennas on plastic substrates provide high flexibility and high sensitivity but are not foldable. Antennas on paper substrates are foldable, but their sensitivity is poor because of their coarse surfaces. In this paper, nanopapers with smooth surfaces and high foldability are fabricated from 30 nm wide cellulose nanofibers for use as foldable antenna substrates. Silver nanowires are then printed on the nanopapers to act as antenna lines. These nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires exhibit high sensitivity because of their smooth surfaces and high foldability because of their network structures. Also, their high foldability allows the mechanical tuning of their resonance points over a wide frequency range without using additional components such as condensers and coils. Nanopaper antennas with silver nanowires are therefore suitable for the realization of future foldable electronics.

  3. Integrated broadband bowtie antenna on transparent substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xingyu; Subbaraman, Harish; Zhan, Qiwen; Pan, Zeyu; Chung, Chi-jui; Yan, Hai; Chen, Ray T

    2015-01-01

    The bowtie antenna is a topic of growing interest in recent years. In this paper, we design, fabricate, and characterize a modified gold bowtie antenna integrated on a transparent glass substrate. We numerically investigate the antenna characteristics, specifically its resonant frequency and enhancement factor. We simulate the dependence of resonance frequency on bowtie geometry, and verify the simulation results through experimental investigation, by fabricating different sets of bowtie antennas on glass substrates utilizing CMOS compatible processes and measuring their resonance frequencies. Our designed bowtie antenna provides a strong broadband electric field enhancement in its feed gap. The far-field radiation pattern of the bowtie antenna is measured, and it shows dipole-like characteristics with large beam width. Such a broadband antenna will be useful for a myriad of applications, ranging from wireless communications to electromagnetic wave detection.

  4. Metamaterial-Inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Planar two-dimensional (2D) and volumetric three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically-small antennas that are easy to design; are easy and inexpensive to build; and are easy to test; are reported, i.e., the EZ antenna systems. The proposed 2D and 3D electrical- and magnetic......-based EZ antennas are shown to be naturally matched to a 50 source, i.e., without the introduction of a matching network. It is demonstrated numerically that these EZ antennas have high radiation efficiencies with very good impedance matching between the source and the antenna and, hence, that they have...... high overall efficiencies. The reported 2D and 3D EZ antenna designs are linearly scalable to a wide range of frequencies and yet maintain their easy-to-build characteristics. Several versions of the 2D EZ antennas were fabricated and tested. The measurement results confirm the performance predictions...

  5. MicroRNA-30b-mediated regulation of catalase expression in human ARPE-19 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashidul Haque

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative injury to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and retinal photoreceptors has been linked to a number of retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated gene expression has been extensively studied at transcriptional levels. Also, the post-transcriptional control of gene expression at the level of translational regulation has been recently reported. However, the microRNA (miRNA/miR-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in human RPE cells has not been thoroughly looked at. Increasing evidence points to a potential role of miRNAs in diverse physiological processes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated for the first time in a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 that the post-transcriptional control of gene expression via miRNA modulation regulates human catalase, an important and potent component of cell's antioxidant defensive network, which detoxifies hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 radicals. Exposure to several stress-inducing agents including H(2O(2 has been reported to alter miRNA expression profile. Here, we demonstrated that a sublethal dose of H(2O(2 (200 µM up-regulated the expression of miR-30b, a member of the miR-30 family, which inhibited the expression of endogenous catalase both at the transcript and protein levels. However, antisense (antagomirs of miR-30b was not only found to suppress the miR-30b mimics-mediated inhibitions, but also to dramatically increase the expression of catalase even under an oxidant environment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that a microRNA antisense approach could enhance cytoprotective mechanisms against oxidative stress by increasing the antioxidant defense system.

  6. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Deng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia, which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  7. The Formin Diaphanous Regulates Myoblast Fusion through Actin Polymerization and Arp2/3 Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Su; Bothe, Ingo; Baylies, Mary K

    2015-08-01

    The formation of multinucleated muscle cells through cell-cell fusion is a conserved process from fruit flies to humans. Numerous studies have shown the importance of Arp2/3, its regulators, and branched actin for the formation of an actin structure, the F-actin focus, at the fusion site. This F-actin focus forms the core of an invasive podosome-like structure that is required for myoblast fusion. In this study, we find that the formin Diaphanous (Dia), which nucleates and facilitates the elongation of actin filaments, is essential for Drosophila myoblast fusion. Following cell recognition and adhesion, Dia is enriched at the myoblast fusion site, concomitant with, and having the same dynamics as, the F-actin focus. Through analysis of Dia loss-of-function conditions using mutant alleles but particularly a dominant negative Dia transgene, we demonstrate that reduction in Dia activity in myoblasts leads to a fusion block. Significantly, no actin focus is detected, and neither branched actin regulators, SCAR or WASp, accumulate at the fusion site when Dia levels are reduced. Expression of constitutively active Dia also causes a fusion block that is associated with an increase in highly dynamic filopodia, altered actin turnover rates and F-actin distribution, and mislocalization of SCAR and WASp at the fusion site. Together our data indicate that Dia plays two roles during invasive podosome formation at the fusion site: it dictates the level of linear F-actin polymerization, and it is required for appropriate branched actin polymerization via localization of SCAR and WASp. These studies provide new insight to the mechanisms of cell-cell fusion, the relationship between different regulators of actin polymerization, and invasive podosome formation that occurs in normal development and in disease.

  8. Antenna gain measurements in the intermediate-field zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchidin, Liliana; Bari, Farida; Dumitrascu, Ana; Paun, Mirel; Deacu, Daniela; Tasu, Sorin; Danisor, Alin; Tamas, Razvan D.

    2016-12-01

    Antenna gain is usually evaluated under far-field conditions. Furthermore, Friis transmission formula can solely be applied when antenna size can be neglected with respect to the distance between the measuring antenna and the antenna under test. In this paper, we show that by applying the distance averaging technique the far-field and antenna size constraints can be overcome. Our method was validated by measuring a monopole antenna and a Vivaldi antenna in an open area test site (OATS).

  9. Applying the analytic theory of colliding ring galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, Curtis

    2010-04-01

    An analytic theory of the waves in colliding ring galaxies was presented some years ago, but the observations were not of sufficient quality then to make quantitative comparisons. Well-resolved observations of a few systems are now available to make such comparisons, and structure imaged in several dozen systems, derived from the recent compilation of Madore, Nelson and Petrillo and the Galaxy Zoo project, can further constrain the theory. Systems with two rings are especially useful for deriving such constraints. After examining the implications of recent observations of ring sizes and structure, I extend the analytic theory, investigate limiting cases and present several levels of approximation. The theory is especially simple in the case of nearly flat rotation curves. I present observational comparisons for a few systems, including Arp 10, the Cartwheel and AM 2136-492. The fit is quite good over a large range of cases. For the Cartwheel there are discrepancies, but the areas of disagreement are suggestive of additional factors, such as multiple collisions. A specific prediction of the theory in the case of nearly flat rotation curves is that the ratio of the outward velocities of successive rings approximately equals the ratio of ring sizes. Ring velocities are also shown to scale simply with local circular velocities in this limit.

  10. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  11. Transparent antennas for solar cell integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasin, Tursunjan

    Transparent patch antennas are microstrip patch antennas that have a certain level of optical transparency. Highly transparent patch antennas are potentially suitable for integration with solar panels of small satellites, which are becoming increasingly important in space exploration. Traditional patch antennas employed on small satellites compete with solar cells for surface area. However, a transparent patch antenna can be placed directly on top of solar cells and resolve the issue of competing for limited surface real estate. For such an integration, a high optical transparency of the patch antenna is required from the solar cells' point of view. On the other hand, the antenna should possess at least acceptable radiation properties at the same time. This dissertation focuses on some of the most important concerns from the perspective of small satellite applications. For example, an optimization method to simultaneously improve both optical transparency and radiation efficiency of the antenna is studied. Active integrated antenna design method is extended to meshed patch applications in an attempt to improve the overall power efficiency of the front end communication subsystem. As is well known, circular polarization is immune from Faraday rotation effect in the ionosphere and thus can avoid a 3-dB loss in geo-satellite communication. Therefore, this research also aims to present design methods for circularly polarized meshed patch antennas. Moreover, a meshed patch antenna capable of supporting a high communication data rate is investigated. Lastly, other types of transparent patch antennas are also analyzed and compared to meshed patches. In summary, many properties of transparent patch antennas are examined in order to meet different design requirements.

  12. A numerical study of cell merger over Cuba – Part I: implementation of the ARPS/MM5 models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Raga

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On 21 July 2001 a number of severe storms developed over the region of Camaguey, Cuba, which were observed by radar. A numerical simulation was performed in order to realistically reproduce the development of the storms observed that day. The mesoscale model MM5 was used to determine the initial, boundary and update conditions for the storm-scale simulation with the model ARPS. Changes to the source code of ARPS were made in order to assimilate the output from the MM5 as input data and a new land-use file with a 1-km horizontal resolution for the Cuban territory was created. A case representing the merger between cells at different stages of development was correctly reproduced by the simulation and is in good agreement with radar observations. The state of development of each cell, the time when the merger occurred, starting from the formation of clouds, the propagation motion of the cells and the increase in precipitation, due to the growth of the area after the merger, were correctly reproduced. Simulated clouds matched the main characteristics of the observed radar echoes, though in some cases, reflectivity tops and horizontal areas were overestimated. Maximum reflectivity values and the heights where these maximum values were located were in good agreement with radar data, particularly when the model reflectivity was calculated without including the snow. The MM5/ARPS configuration introduced in this study, improved sensibly the ability to simulate convective systems, thereby enhancing the local forecasting of convection in the region.

  13. Local Arp2/3-dependent actin assembly modulates applied traction force during apCAM adhesion site maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Kenneth B; Schaefer, Andrew W; Schoonderwoert, Vincent T; Creamer, Matthew S; Dufresne, Eric R; Forscher, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Homophilic binding of immunoglobulin superfamily molecules such as the Aplysia cell adhesion molecule (apCAM) leads to actin filament assembly near nascent adhesion sites. Such actin assembly can generate significant localized forces that have not been characterized in the larger context of axon growth and guidance. We used apCAM-coated bead substrates applied to the surface of neuronal growth cones to characterize the development of forces evoked by varying stiffness of mechanical restraint. Unrestrained bead propulsion matched or exceeded rates of retrograde network flow and was dependent on Arp2/3 complex activity. Analysis of growth cone forces applied to beads at low stiffness of restraint revealed switching between two states: frictional coupling to retrograde flow and Arp2/3-dependent propulsion. Stiff mechanical restraint led to formation of an extensive actin cup matching the geometric profile of the bead target and forward growth cone translocation; pharmacological inhibition of the Arp2/3 complex or Rac attenuated F-actin assembly near bead binding sites, decreased the efficacy of growth responses, and blocked accumulation of signaling molecules associated with nascent adhesions. These studies introduce a new model for regulation of traction force in which local actin assembly forces buffer nascent adhesion sites from the mechanical effects of retrograde flow. © 2017 Buck et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  14. Photo-generated THz antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, G.; Tyagi, H. K.; Mulder, P.; Bauhuis, G. J.; Schermer, J. J.; Rivas, J. Gómez

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic resonances in conducting structures give rise to the enhancement of local fields and extinction efficiencies. Conducting structures are conventionally fabricated with a fixed geometry that determines their resonant response. Here, we challenge this conventional approach by demonstrating the photo-generation of THz linear antennas on a flat semiconductor layer by the structured optical illumination through a spatial light modulator. Free charge carriers are photo-excited only on selected areas, which enables the realization of different conducting antennas on the same sample by simply changing the illumination pattern, thus without the need of physically structuring the sample. These results open a wide range of possibilities for the all-optical spatial control of resonances on surfaces and the concomitant control of THz extinction and local fields.

  15. Antenna Arrays and Automotive Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovich, Victor

    2013-01-01

    This book throws a lifeline to designers wading through mounds of antenna array patents looking for the most suitable systems for their projects. Drastically reducing the research time required to locate solutions to the latest challenges in automotive communications, it sorts and systematizes material on cutting-edge antenna arrays that feature multi-element communication systems with enormous potential for the automotive industry. These new systems promise to make driving safer and more efficient, opening up myriad applications, including vehicle-to-vehicle traffic that prevents collisions, automatic toll collection, vehicle location and fine-tuning for cruise control systems. This book’s exhaustive coverage begins with currently deployed systems, frequency ranges and key parameters. It proceeds to examine system geometry, analog and digital beam steering technology (including "smart" beams formed in noisy environments), maximizing signal-to-noise ratios, miniaturization, and base station technology that ...

  16. Plasmonic Antenna Coupling for QWIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, John

    2007-01-01

    In a proposed scheme for coupling light into a quantum-well infrared photodetector (QWIP), an antenna or an array of antennas made of a suitable metal would be fabricated on the face of what would otherwise be a standard QWIP. This or any such coupling scheme is required to effect polarization conversion: Light incident perpendicularly to the face is necessarily polarized in the plane of the face, whereas, as a matter of fundamental electrodynamics and related quantum selection rules, light must have a non-zero component of perpendicular polarization in order to be absorbed in the photodetection process. In a prior coupling scheme, gratings in the form of surface corrugations diffract normally gles, thereby imparting some perpendicular polarization. Unfortunately, the corrugation- fabrication process increases the overall nonuniformity of a large QWIP array. The proposed scheme is an alternative to the use of surface corrugations.

  17. Omnidirectional antenna having constant phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sena, Matthew

    2017-04-04

    Various technologies presented herein relate to constructing and/or operating an antenna having an omnidirectional electrical field of constant phase. The antenna comprises an upper plate made up of multiple conductive rings, a lower ground-plane plate, a plurality of grounding posts, a conical feed, and a radio frequency (RF) feed connector. The upper plate has a multi-ring configuration comprising a large outer ring and several smaller rings of equal size located within the outer ring. The large outer ring and the four smaller rings have the same cross-section. The grounding posts ground the upper plate to the lower plate while maintaining a required spacing/parallelism therebetween.

  18. The planar parabolic optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, David T; Coenen, Toon; García de Abajo, F Javier; Brongersma, Mark L; Polman, Albert

    2013-01-09

    One of the simplest and most common structures used for directing light in macroscale applications is the parabolic reflector. Parabolic reflectors are ubiquitous in many technologies, from satellite dishes to hand-held flashlights. Today, there is a growing interest in the use of ultracompact metallic structures for manipulating light on the wavelength scale. Significant progress has been made in scaling radiowave antennas to the nanoscale for operation in the visible range, but similar scaling of parabolic reflectors employing ray-optics concepts has not yet been accomplished because of the difficulty in fabricating nanoscale three-dimensional surfaces. Here, we demonstrate that plasmon physics can be employed to realize a resonant elliptical cavity functioning as an essentially planar nanometallic structure that serves as a broadband unidirectional parabolic antenna at optical frequencies.

  19. Galaxy Formation Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Benson, Andrew J

    2010-01-01

    We review the current theory of how galaxies form within the cosmological framework provided by the cold dark matter paradigm for structure formation. Beginning with the pre-galactic evolution of baryonic material we describe the analytical and numerical understanding of how baryons condense into galaxies, what determines the structure of those galaxies and how internal and external processes (including star formation, merging, active galactic nuclei etc.) determine their gross properties and evolution. Throughout, we highlight successes and failings of current galaxy formation theory. We include a review of computational implementations of galaxy formation theory and assess their ability to provide reliable modeling of this complex phenomenon. We finish with a discussion of several "hot topics" in contemporary galaxy formation theory and assess future directions for this field.

  20. Hybrid Maritime Satellite Communication Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Thomas Gunst

    Hybrid antennas for a maritime satellite communication terminal with simultaneous operation at L- and Ka-band have been investigated. The frequency bands of interest are 1; 525:0 1; 660:5 MHz (RX+TX, RHCP), 19:7 20:2 (RX, LHCP) and 29:5 30:0 GHz (TX, RHCP), which are all part of the Inmarsat BGAN...