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Sample records for antenatal micronutrient supplementation

  1. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on lung function in mid-childhood: follow-up of a double-blind randomised controlled trial in Nepal

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    Devakumar, D; Stocks, J; Ayres, JG; Kirkby, J; Yadav, SK; Saville, NM; Devereux, G; Wells, JCK; Manandhar, DS; Costello, A; Osrin, D

    2015-01-01

    A randomised trial of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in Nepalese women increased birthweight and weight at two years of age in offspring, compared with those born to mothers who only received iron and folic acid supplements. Further follow-up of this cohort provided an opportunity to investigate the effect of antenatal multiple micronutrients on subsequent lung function, by measuring spirometry at 7-9 years of age in children born in the trial. 841 children (80% of the cohort) were seen at mean (SD) 8.5 (0.4) years. Technically successful spirometry results were obtained in 793 children (94.3%), 50% of whom had been randomised to micronutrient supplementation. Background characteristics, including anthropometry, were similar in the two allocation groups. Lung function was also similar, mean (95%CI) difference in z-scores (supplementation – control) being −0.08 (−0.19, 0.04) for FEV1; −0.05 (−0.17, 0.06) for FVC and −0.04 (−0.15, 0.07) for FEV1/FVC. Compared with healthy White children, FEV1 and FVC in the ‘healthy’ Nepalese children were ~1 z-score (~13%) lower, with no difference in FEV1/FVC. We conclude that, compared with routine iron and folic acid, multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy has no effect on spirometric lung function in Nepalese children at 8.5 years of age. PMID:25700386

  2. Effects of antenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on lung function in mid-childhood: follow-up of a double-blind randomised controlled trial in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devakumar, Delan; Stocks, Janet; Ayres, Jon G; Kirkby, Jane; Yadav, Sushil K; Saville, Naomi M; Devereux, Graham; Wells, Jonathan C K; Manandhar, Dharma S; Costello, Anthony; Osrin, David

    2015-06-01

    A randomised trial of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation in Nepalese women increased birthweight and weight at 2 years of age in offspring, compared to those born to mothers who only received iron and folic acid supplements. Further follow-up of this cohort provided an opportunity to investigate the effect of antenatal multiple micronutrients on subsequent lung function by measuring spirometry at 7-9 years of age in C: hildren born during the trial. 841 children (80% of the cohort) were seen at mean±sd 8.5±0.4 years. Technically successful spirometry results were obtained in 793 (94.3%) children, 50% of whom had been randomised to micronutrient supplementation. Background characteristics, including anthropometry, were similar in the two allocation groups. Lung function was also similar, mean (95% CI) difference in z-scores (supplementation minus control) was -0.08 (-0.19-0.04), -0.05 (-0.17-0.06) and -0.04 (-0.15-0.07) for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity and FEV1/FVC, respectively. Compared with healthy white children, FEV1 and FVC in the "healthy" Nepalese children were ∼1 (∼13%) z-score lower, with no difference in FEV1/FVC. We conclude that, compared with routine iron and folic acid, multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy has no effect on spirometric lung function in Nepalese children at 8.5 years of age.

  3. Cluster-Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial to Compare Supplement Consumption and Adherence to Different Dosing Regimens for Antenatal Calcium and Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation to Prevent Preeclampsia and Anaemia: Rationale and Design of the Micronutrient Initiative Study.

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    Omotayo, Moshood O; Dickin, Katherine L; Chapleau, Gina M; Martin, Stephanie L; Chang, Christopher; Mwanga, Erick O; Kung'u, Jacqueline K; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-11-17

    To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca) intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC). WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose) regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 µg folic acid) taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill) with IFA taken as above. Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Unit of randomization is the healthcare facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources. Significance for public healthPre-eclampsia is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Based on clinical evidence of significant reduction in risk of pre-eclampsia, the WHO recommends including calcium (Ca) supplementation in antenatal care services in settings with inadequate dietary Ca intakes. A

  4. Cluster-randomized non-inferiority trial to compare supplement consumption and adherence to different dosing regimens for antenatal calcium and iron-folic acid supplementation to prevent preeclampsia and anaemia: rationale and design of the Micronutrient Initiative study

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    Moshood O. Omotayo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: To prevent pre-eclampsia in populations with insufficient dietary calcium (Ca intake, the World Health Organisation (WHO recommends routine Ca supplementation during antenatal care (ANC. WHO guidelines suggest a complex dosing regimen, requiring as many as 5 pill-taking events per day when combined with iron and folic acid (IFA supplements. Poor adherence may undermine public health effectiveness, so simpler regimens may be preferable. This trial will compare the effect of the WHO-recommended (higher-dose regimen vs. a simpler, lower-dose regimen on supplement consumption and pill-taking behaviours in Kenyan ANC clients. Design and methods: This is a parallel, non-inferiority, cluster-randomized trial; we examined 16 primary care health facilities in Kenya, 1047 pregnant women between 16-30 weeks gestational age. Higher-dose regimen: 1.5 g elemental calcium in 3 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill and IFA (60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid taken with evening dose. Lower-dose regimen: 1.0 g calcium in 2 separate doses (500 mg Ca/pill with IFA taken as above. Measurements: Primary outcome is Ca pills consumed per day, measured by pill counts. Secondary outcomes include IFA pills consumed per day, client knowledge, motivation, social support, and satisfaction, measured at 4 to 10 weeks post-enrolment. Statistical analyses: Unit of randomization is the health-care facility; unit of analysis is individual client. Intent-to-treat analysis will be implemented with multi-level models to account for clustering. Expected public health impact: If pregnant women prescribed lower doses of Ca ingest as many pills as women prescribed the WHO-recommended regimen, developing a lower-dose recommendation for antenatal Ca and IFA supplementation programs could save resources.

  5. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection

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    Visser, Marianne E; Durao, Solange; Sinclair, David; Irlam, James H; Siegfried, Nandi

    2017-01-01

    Background Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. Objectives To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women). Search methods We performed literature searches from January 2010 to 18 November 2016 for new randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplements since the previous review included all trials identified from searches prior to 2010. We searched the CENTRAL (the Cochrane Library), Embase, and PubMed databases. Also we checked the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and the ClinicalTrials.gov trials registers. We also checked the reference lists of all new included trials. Selection criteria We included RCTs that compared supplements that contained either single, dual, or multiple micronutrients with placebo, no treatment, or other supplements. We excluded studies that were primarily designed to investigate the role of micronutrients for the treatment of HIV-positive participants with metabolic morbidity related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, morbidity, and disease progression. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, and appraised trial quality for risk of bias. Where possible, we presented results as risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous variables, as hazard ratios (HRs) for time-to-event data, and as mean differences (MD) for continuous variables, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Since we were often unable to pool the outcome

  6. Effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and under-2-years child mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gregers Stig; Friis, Henrik; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2010-01-01

    A number of trials on maternal multi-micronutrient supplementation (MMS) have found a benefical effect on birth weight, but few have demonstrated a beneficial effect on infant survival. We examined the effect of two different preparations of antenatal MMS on fetal loss and under-2-years child...

  7. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

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    Caroline M. Gallagher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study (n = 991. We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements, along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR or Adequate Intake (AI where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements.

  8. Maternal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation Has Limited Impact on Micronutrient Status of Bangladeshi Infants Compared with Standard Iron Folic Acid Supplementation

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    We examined the impact of type of maternal micronutrient supplement, time of introduction of a prenatal food supplement and the two interventions combined on micronutrient status of infants in rural Bangladesh. In a community trial, 4436 pregnant women were randomized to Early or Usual start of food...

  9. Impact of multiple micronutrient vs. iron - folic acid supplements on maternal anemia and micronutrient status in pregnancy

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    Background. Multiple micronutrient (MMN) supplements could increase hemoglobin and improve micronutrient status of pregnant women more than iron ± folic acid supplements alone. Objective. To compare the effects of MMN vs. iron ± folic acid supplements on hemoglobin and micronutrient status of pregn...

  10. Micronutrient Supplement Use and Diet Quality in University Students

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    Adam R. Wiltgren

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Many national and international public health organisations recommend achieving nutrient adequacy through consumption of a wide variety of nutritious foods. Despite this, dietary supplement sales continue to increase. Understanding the characteristics of micronutrient supplement users and the relationship with diet quality can help develop effective public health interventions to reduce unnecessary consumption of vitamin and mineral supplements. Participants (n = 1306 were a convenience sample of students studying first year food and nutrition. Data was collected via a Food and Diet Questionnaire (FDQ and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Supplement users were defined as participants who indicated consuming any listed supplement as frequently as once a month or more. Diet quality was assessed using a Dietary Guideline Index (DGI score. Prevalence of supplement use was high in this study population with 56% of participants reporting supplement use; the most popular supplements consumed were multivitamins (28% and vitamin C (28%. A higher DGI score was significantly associated with an increased likelihood of supplement use (mean: 105 ± 18 vs. 109 ± 17, p = 0.001. Micronutrient supplement use was associated with a higher DGI score, suggesting that supplements are more likely to be used by those who are less likely to require them.

  11. Main issues in micronutrient supplementation in phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammardo, A. M.; Robert, M.; Rocha, J. C.; van Rijn, M.; Ahring, K.; Belanger-Quintana, A.; MacDonald, A.; Dokoupil, K.; Ozel, H. Gokmen; Goyens, P.; Feillet, F.

    2013-01-01

    For almost all patients with PKU, a low phenylalanine diet is the basis of the treatment despite a widely varying natural protein tolerance. A vitamin and mineral supplement is essential and it is commonly added to a phenylalanine-free (phe-free) source of L-amino acids. In PKU, many phe-free

  12. Should infant girls receive micronutrient supplements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Christine Stabell; Lund, Sofia; Fisker, Ane

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have proposed the hypothesis that the combination of vitamin A supplementation and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccination may be associated with increased mortality in girls. Recent zinc/folic acid (FA) and iron supplementation trials did not find any beneficial effects...... on mortality. We reviewed the studies for evidence of a negative interaction between zinc/folic acid/iron and DTP vaccination in girls. METHODS: Based on the published papers, we calculated age- and sex-specific mortality estimates. No vaccination status data were provided. RESULTS: Both zinc/FA and iron...... seemed to have a sex- and age-differential effect, the effect being less beneficial in the youngest girls who are most likely to have DTP vaccine as their most recent vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Like vitamin A, zinc/FA and iron may not benefit the youngest girls. The question is whether this is inherent...

  13. Decreased serum homocysteine levels after micronutrient supplementation in older people

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    Pusparini Pusparini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a gradual impairment in cognitive function. The elderly also show a high prevalence of undernutrition, whereas nutrition plays an important role in the metabolism of neuronal cells and enzymes. Homocysteine is an amino acid resulting from methionine metabolism and is dependent on intake of vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and folic acid. Homocysteine is said to play a role in cognitive function. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of micronutrient supplementation for 6 months on serum homocysteine levels and cognitive function in older people. This study was an experimental study of pre-post test design, carried out in Mampang subdistrict, South Jakarta. A total of 94 elderly people was recruited for this study, consisting of 44 females and 50 males. Serum homocysteine level was assessed by fluorescent polarization immunoassay and cognitive function by means of the mini mental state examination (MMSE before and after micronutrient supplementation. Mean serum homocysteine concentration after supplementation decreased significantly to 14.8 ± 5.8 mmol/L, compared with mean serum homocysteine level of 15.9 ± 5.9 mmol/L before supplementation (p=0.000. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors influencing post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender (â=-0.350; p=0.000, education (â=0.510; p=0.000 and post-supplementation homocysteine levels (â=-0.201; p=0.000, while age, pre-supplementation homocysteine levels and BMI did not affect MMSE scores. Homocysteine concentration decreased significantly after 6 months of supplementation. The factors affecting post-supplementation MMSE scores were gender, level of education, and post-supplementation homocysteine level.

  14. Micronutrient deficiency and treatment adherence in a randomized controlled trial of micronutrient supplementation in ART-naive persons with HIV.

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    Louise Balfour

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The MAINTAIN study is an on-going RCT comparing high-dose micronutrient and anti-oxidant supplementation versus recommended daily allowance (RDA vitamins in slowing HIV immune deficiency progression in ART-naïve people with HIV infection. OBJECTIVE: We planned analysis of the first 127 participants to determine the baseline prevalence of serum micronutrient deficiencies and correlates, as well as tolerance and adherence to study interventions. METHODS: Participants receive eight capsules twice daily of 1 high-dose or 2 RDA supplements for two years and are followed-up quarterly for measures of immune deficiency progression, safety and tolerability. Regression analysis was used to identify correlates of micronutrient levels at baseline. Adherence was measured by residual pill count, self-report using the General Treatment Scale (GTS and short-term recall HIV Adherence Treatment Scale (HATS. RESULTS: Prior micronutrient supplementation (within 30 days was 27% at screening and 10% of study population, and was not correlated with baseline micronutrient levels. Low levels were frequent for carotene (24%80% in 75% of participants. CONCLUSION: Micronutrient levels in asymptomatic HIV+ persons are in keeping with population norms, but micronutrient deficiencies are frequent. Adherence levels are high, and will permit a valid evaluation of treatment effects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00798772.

  15. Effect of micronutrient supplementation on treatment outcomes in children with intrathoracic tuberculosis

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    Lodha, Rakesh; Mukherjee, Aparna; Singh, Varinder

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Micronutrients play an important role in immune function. To our knowledge, there have been no comprehensive studies on the role of micronutrient supplementation in children with tuberculosis. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of micronutrient supplementation in children treated...... with either zinc alone, micronutrients without zinc, micronutrients in combination with zinc, or a placebo. Main outcomes were weight gain and an improvement in a chest X-ray (CXR) lesion assessed at 6 mo of treatment. RESULTS: A total of 403 children were enrolled and randomly assigned. A microbiological...... diagnosis of tuberculosis was confirmed in 179 children (44.4%). The median (95% CI) increase in weight-for-age z score at 6 mo was not significantly different between subjects who received micronutrients [0.75 (0.66, 0.84)] and those who did not receive micronutrients [0.76 (0.67, 0.85)] and between...

  16. Translating formative research findings into a behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and iron and folic acid supplementation in western Kenya.

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    Martin, Stephanie L; Seim, Gretchen L; Wawire, Salome; Chapleau, Gina M; Young, Sera L; Dickin, Katherine L

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization now recommends integrating calcium supplements into antenatal micronutrient supplementation programmes to prevent pre-eclampsia, a leading cause of maternal mortality. As countries consider integrating calcium supplementation into antenatal care (ANC), it is important to identify context-specific barriers and facilitators to delivery and adherence. Such insights can be gained from women's and health workers' experiences with iron and folic acid (IFA) supplements. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 pregnant and post-partum women and 20 community-based and facility-based health workers in Kenya to inform a calcium and IFA supplementation programme. Interviews assessed awareness of anaemia, pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; ANC attendance; and barriers and facilitators to IFA supplement delivery and adherence. We analyzed interviews inductively using the constant comparative method. Women and health workers identified poor diet quality in pregnancy as a major health concern. Neither women nor health workers identified pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, anaemia or related symptoms as serious health threats. Women and community-based health workers were unfamiliar with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and considered anaemia symptoms normal. Most women had not received IFA supplements, and those who had received insufficient amounts and little information about supplement benefits. We then developed a multi-level (health facility, community, household and individual) behaviour change strategy to promote antenatal calcium and IFA supplementation. Formative research is an essential first step in guiding implementation of antenatal calcium supplementation programmes to reduce pre-eclampsia. Because evidence on how to implement successful calcium supplementation programmes is limited, experiences with antenatal IFA supplementation can be used to guide programme development.

  17. Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on plasmodium infection in Kenyan women. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection

  18. Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on plasmodium infection in Kenyan women. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection

  19. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants.

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    Tran, Thach Duc; Fisher, Jane; Hanieh, Sarah; Tran, Tuan; Simpson, Julie Anne; Tran, Ha; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants' Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and anaemia of daily iron-folic acid (IFA), twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN) and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam. Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS) which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT) of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18); weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12) and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27) were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43), weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54) and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48) groups than in the OS. Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants. Universal provision of free intermittent iron supplements is warranted.

  20. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and beta-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent worldwide, and a major cause of infant death. Supplementation with multiple micronutrients during pregnancy might improve micronutrient status of the newborn, thereby reducing morbidity and death. Moreover, maternal supplementation migh

  1. Intake of micronutrients among Danish adult users and non-users of dietary supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Spagner, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the intake of micronutrients from the diet and from supplements in users and non-users of dietary supplements, respectively, in a representative sample of the Danish adult population. A specific objective was to identify the determinants of supplement use. Design: A cross...... in a personal interview. The quantification of the micronutrient contribution from supplements was estimated from a generic supplement constructed from data on household purchases. Nutrient intakes from the diet were obtained from a self-administered 7-day pre-coded dietary record. Median intakes of total...... nutrients from the diets of users and non-users of supplements were analysed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results: Sixty percent of females and 51% of males were users of supplements. With the exception of vitamin D, the intake of micronutrients from the diet was adequate at the group level for all age...

  2. Micronutrients and pregnancy; effect of supplementation on pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review

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    Zerfu Taddese Alemu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Every year more than 20 million infants are born with low birth weight worldwide. About 3.6 million infants die during the neonatal period. More than one third of child deaths are thought to be attributable to maternal and child under nutrition. Objectives To systematically review the effect of supplementing various combinations and types of micronutrients on the course and outcomes of pregnancy. Methods Electronic search of Medline, Pub Med, Health Internetwork access to Research Initiative, and Google Scholar databases was conducted. Outcomes of interest were birth weight, low birth weight, small size for gestational age, prenatal mortality and neonatal mortality. After exclusion of irrelevant /incomplete ones, 17 out of 115 articles were considered for the final analysis. Findings Majority of the articles reviewed favored the supplementation of micronutrients to pregnant mother. Some studies suggested calcium supplementation is associated with a significant protective benefit in the prevention of pre-eclampsia. The remaining articles reviewed, showed significant benefit of Multiple Micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing low birth weight, small for Gestational Age births as compared to the usual iron-folate supplements. Conclusions Supplying micronutrients, mainly multiple micronutrients have beneficial effect in reducing the risk of low birth weight and other complications. Further studies at various combination and doses of micronutrient supplements are recommended.

  3. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal.

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    Christian, Parul; Shrestha, Jaibar; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Jiang, Tianan; Wagner, Tracey; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2003-11-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the main causes of anemia during pregnancy, although other micronutrient deficiencies may play a role. We examined the effects of daily antenatal and postnatal supplementation with four combinations of micronutrients on maternal hematologic indicators in a double-masked randomized controlled community trial. Communities, called sectors, were randomly assigned to supplementation with folic acid (400 microg), folic acid plus iron (60 mg), folic acid plus iron and zinc (30 mg) and folic acid plus iron, zinc and 11 other micronutrients, each at the approximate recommended daily allowance for pregnancy all given with vitamin A as retinol acetate (1000 microg retinol equivalent), or vitamin A alone as the control group. Hemoglobin (Hb) and indicators of iron status were assessed at baseline and at 32 wk of gestation. At 6-wk postpartum, Hb assessment was repeated using a finger stick. Severely anemic women (Hb iron status. Hb concentrations were 14 g/L, [95% confidence limits (CL), 8.3-19.2], 10.0 g/L (CL, 5.2-14.8) and 9.4 g/L (CL, 4.7-14.1) higher in the groups receiving folic acid plus iron, folic acid plus iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients, respectively, relative to the control. Anemia in the third trimester was reduced by 54% with folic acid plus iron, by 48% with folic acid plus iron and zinc and by 36% with folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients supplementation, relative to the control (P iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients provided no additional benefit in improving maternal hematologic status during pregnancy compared with folic acid plus iron. The level of compliance and baseline Hb concentrations modified the effect of iron.

  4. Antenatal Iron Supplementation Regimens for Pregnant Women in Rural Vietnam and Subsequent Haemoglobin Concentration and Anaemia among Their Infants.

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    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available Little evidence about the effects of antenatal iron supplementation on infant anaemia is available. The aim was to compare effects on six-month-old infants' Haemoglobin (Hb concentration and anaemia of daily iron-folic acid (IFA, twice-weekly IFA with or without other micronutrients (MMN and usual antenatal care in rural Vietnam.Secondary data analysis from: a prospective population-based observational study (OS which examined effects of antenatal psychosocial factors, anaemia and iron deficiency on infant development and health; and a three-arm cluster randomised trial (CRT of different antenatal iron supplementation regimens. In the OS 497 women (<20 weeks gestation from 50 randomly-selected communes participated, and in the CRT 1,258 pregnant women (<16 weeks gestation in 104 communes were allocated randomly to trial arms. The main outcome was six-month-old infant Hb concentration. Baseline data included women's socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive health, Hb and serum ferritin. Mean differences in infant Hb and odds ratios of infant anaemia between CRT arms and OS were calculated by multivariable regression models, controlling for baseline differences and clustering, using robust standard errors. Infant anaemia prevalence was 68.6% in the OS, 47.2% daily IFA, 53.5% weekly IFA, and 50.3% MMN conditions. After adjustment, mean infant haemoglobin levels in daily IFA (mean difference = 0.95 g/dL; 95%CI 0.7-11.18; weekly IFA (0.91; 95%CI 0.69-1.12 and MMN (1.04; 95%CI 0.8-1.27 were higher than in the OS. After adjustment there were lower odds ratios of anaemia among infants in the daily IFA (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.22-0.43, weekly IFA (0.38; 95%CI 0.26-0.54 and MMN (0.33; 95%CI 0.23-0.48 groups than in the OS.Infant anaemia is a public health problem in Vietnam and other resource-constrained countries. All supplementation regimens could have clinically significant benefits for Hb and reduce anaemia risk among six-month-old infants

  5. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements

  6. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-01-01

    .... The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy...

  7. Prenatal Micronutrient Supplementation Is Not Associated with Intellectual Development of Young School-Aged Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Zeng, Lingxia; Wang, Duolao; Yang, Wenfang; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2015-08-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is often prescribed during pregnancy. The effects of prenatal iron and multimicronutrient supplementation on intellectual development in young school-aged children are less than clear. The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of prenatal iron plus folic acid or multiple micronutrient (including iron and folic acid) supplementation vs. folic acid supplementation on the intellectual development of young school-aged children in rural China. Young school-aged children (aged 7-10 y, n = 1744) of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with various combinations of micronutrients and remained residents in 2 rural counties in China were followed. We measured their intellectual development by Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition (WISC-IV). The WISC-IV generated the Full-Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Working Memory Index (WMI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI). Multilevel analyses were used to assess the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on the intellectual development of children. The mean differences in FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI, respectively, were not significant between prenatal folic acid supplementation and either iron plus folic acid [-0.34 (P = 0.65), -0.06 (P = 0.95), -0.22 (P = 0.76), -0.01 (P = 0.99), and -1.26 (P = 0.11)] or multimicronutrient [-0.39 (P = 0.60), -0.64 (P = 0.48), 0.11 (P = 0.87), -0.43 (P = 0.59), and -0.34; (P = 0.65)] supplementation after adjusting for confounders. There is no evidence to suggest a different effect on intellectual development between prenatal iron plus folic acid, multimicronutrient supplementation, and prenatal folic acid supplementation in children aged 7-10 y. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN08850194. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt for HIV-infected adults taking HAART in London, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemsworth, Jaimie Caitlin; Hekmat, Sharareh; Reid, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus has devastating effects worldwide. The burden is less pronounced, but still present in Canada where approximately 64,000 men and women are HIV positive. The virus and the life-saving antiretroviral therapies often contribute to diarrhea and other gastrointestinal disturbances. Certain probiotic organisms, such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, have been shown to alleviate diarrhea as well as delay the decline of CD4 lymphocytes in some subjects. In addition, micronutrient formulae have been used extensively among HIV positive persons as a cost-effective method for improving quality of life and immune function. The objective of the present study was to combine probiotics and micronutrients into an affordable and highly palatable nutritional supplement and assess outcomes in 21 HIV-positive participants receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy in London, Ontario, Canada. The design was a randomized, double blind, three-period, cross-over controlled trial with three different formulations of supplemented yogurt; micronutrient and probiotic (A), micronutrient alone (B) and probiotic alone (C). The period of intake for each of the types was 30 days with a 14 day wash-out period between the intervention types. The mean increase in CD4 was greatest with B (41 cells/µL, SD 221). Supplement A showed a mean change of +19 cells/µL (SD 142) and supplement C a mean change of - 7 cells/µL (SD 154). All yogurt types caused an increase in subjective energy and ability to perform daily activity scores. According to the safety measures taken to assess the tolerance of the yogurt, there were no adverse events and the yogurt was well-tolerated. These preliminary findings suggest that micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt may support immune function among people living with HIV.

  9. Micronutrient deficiencies and supplementation in anorexia and bulimia nervosa: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setnick, Jessica

    2010-04-01

    Anorexia and bulimia nervosa are characterized by unbalanced eating patterns that include inadequate dietary intake of various nutrients. Conservation mechanisms resulting from starvation and/or self-prescribed nutrient supplements can result in laboratory values that appear within normal limits. These artificially inflated values drop to dangerous levels in some patients once rehydration and refeeding begin. Electrolyte status must be closely monitored during this time to prevent complications. Other micronutrient deficiencies can be corrected with adequate dietary intake, but patients with eating disorders are unlikely to consume such an adequate diet immediately upon entering treatment, so they may benefit from supplementation. Depleted nutrient stores require longer supplementation than acute inadequacies in nutrient intake. This review compiles the findings reported to date regarding micronutrient deficiencies and supplementation for patients with anorexia and bulimia. Because of the widely varying eating practices from patient to patient and the current lack of data controlling for nutrient self-supplementation, nutrition assessment performed by a nutrition professional via food intake history may be more practical than laboratory tests and more accurate than current food intake for determining potential micronutrient deficiencies.

  10. Impact of multi-micronutrient supplementation on growth and morbidity of HIV-infected South African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij, van J.M.A.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; Kok, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Poor growth, micronutrient deficiencies and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory infections occur frequently in HIV-infected children. We investigated whether multi-micronutrient supplementation would improve the growth performance and reduce the number of episodes of diarrhea and/or of respiratory

  11. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdad, Aamer; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-13

    Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST) model. We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD), related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs). Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR) 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that balanced protein energy supplementation during

  12. The effect of folic acid, protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements in pregnancy on stillbirths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhutta Zulfiqar A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnancy is a state of increased requirement of macro- and micronutrients, and malnourishment or inadequate dietary intake before and during pregnancy, can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes including stillbirths. Many nutritional interventions have been proposed during pregnancy according to the nutritional status of the mother and baseline risk factors for different gestational disorders. In this paper, we have reviewed three nutritional interventions including peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation, balanced protein energy supplementation and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy. This paper is a part of a series to estimate the effect of interventions on stillbirths for input to Live Saved Tool (LiST model. Methods We systematically reviewed all published literature to identify studies evaluating effectiveness of peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation in reducing neural tube defects (NTD, related stillbirths and balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy in reducing all-cause stillbirths. The primary outcome was stillbirths. Meta-analyses were generated where data were available from more than one study. Recommendations were made for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST model based on rules developed by the Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG. Results There were 18 studies that addressed peri-conceptional folic acid supplementation for prevention of neural tube defects (NTDs. Out of these, 7 studies addressed folic acid supplementation while 11 studies evaluated effect of folic acid fortification. Pooled results from 11 fortification studies showed that it reduces primary incidence of NTDs by 41 % [Relative risk (RR 0.59; 95 % confidence interval (CI 0.52-0.68]. This estimate has been recommended for inclusion in the LiST as proxy for reduction in stillbirths. Pooled results from three studies considered to be of low quality and suggest that

  13. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  14. Effect of Micronutrient Supplementation on the Growth of Preschool Children in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between micronutrient supplementation and children growth. Methods A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 156 growth retarded preschool children. They were randomly assigned to five groups: supplemental control (S-control,n=28), zinc supplementation(+Zn, 3.5mg Zn/day, n=34), zinc and calcium supplementation (+ZnCa,3.5mg Zn+250mg Ca/day, n=37), zinc and calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+ZnCaVA,3.5mgZn +250mgCa+200gVA/day, n=28), Calcium and vitamin A supplementation (+CaVA,250mgCa + 200gVA/day, n=29). Another 34 children with normal height were selected as normal control (N-control). Supplementation continued for twelve months. Results The height gain in +Zn group (7.84cm per year) and +ZnCa group (7.70 cm per year) was significantly higher than that in S-control group (6.74 cm per year, P<0.05); The weight gain in +ZnCaVA group (2.55kg per year)and +CaVA group (2.57 kg per year) was also significantly higher than that in S-control group (2.19kg per year, P<0.05); The average days of illness in each supplementation group were lower than that in S-control (13 days per year compared with 23 days per year). No significant difference was observed on bone age. Conclusion Zinc and Zinc+Calcium supplementation can improve the height gain,and vitamin A can improve weight gain in growth retarded preschool children, but do not affect the maturity of bone. Micronutrient supplementation can lower the morbidity of these children.

  15. [Facilitators and barriers for the consumption of a micronutrient supplement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante-Izeta, Ericka; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Théodore, Florence; Nava, Fernanda; Villanueva, María Angeles; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan Angel

    2008-01-01

    To define and explore the sociocultural factors that could enhance (facilitators) or interfere with (barriers) the adequate consumption of a nutritional supplement (NS) by children from 6 to 59 months of age, provided as part of the national program Oportunidades. Qualitative study in rural communities of Chiapas and Veracruz. Forty-four semi-structured interviews and 25 focus groups were conducted with mothers and other key informants. The framework analysis approach was used. Facilitators. The NS is free, is highly accessible, is positively accepted and mothers believe the physicians recommendations. Barriers. Lack of adequate storage and distribution, poverty conditions, intrahousehold dilution (within the family members), beliefs regarding child feeding and the purpose of the NS. Results shows the incongruence between the Programs recommendations and the preferences and practices of the target population and provides important elements to be considered in the promotion of the NS .

  16. Micronutrient intakes in a group of UK vegans and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightowler, H J; Davies, G J

    2000-06-01

    Micronutrient intakes and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements were investigated in 26 vegans, comprising 17 non-supplement users (NSU) and nine supplement users (SU), consuming their habitual diet. Micronutrient intakes were estimated using a four-day weighed record and the contribution of self-selected dietary supplements was assessed according to the manufacturers' declarations on the packaging. Mean daily intakes from food sources were similar in NSU and SU. Dietary supplements significantly increased intakes of riboflavin (p B12 and selenium (Se) were below the appropriate lower reference nutrient intake (LRNI) in 80% and 65% of NSU respectively. After supplements, 33% of SU remained below the LRNI for vitamin B12 and 33% below the LRNI for Se. Some vegans who took supplements were not taking certain micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet the RNIs but were taking a mix of micronutrients, some of which they needed and others which they did not need. Some vegans who did not take supplements had a potential need for the addition of supplements to their diets. Advice on the appropriate usage of dietary supplements for those on a vegan diet is needed.

  17. Micronutrient supplementation improves physical performance measures in Asian Indian school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Mario; Pauline, Maria; Unni, Uma S; Parikh, Panam; Thomas, Tinku; Bharathi, A V; Avadhany, Sandhya; Muthayya, Sumithra; Mehra, Ruchika; Kurpad, Anura V

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrients are important in physical work capacity and therefore performance. The impact of a multi-micronutrient-fortified nutritional beverage on physical performance measures among clinically healthy school-age children was assessed in a double-blind (for test and placebo groups), placebo-controlled, randomized trial in children aged between 7 and 10.5 y (n = 300). The participants with height- and weight-for-age Z-scores between 0 and ≥ -3 were randomized to 1 of 3 study arms: fortified choco-malt beverage powder (F), matched energy equivalent unfortified placebo (U), and untreated control (C). Participants in the F and C groups were given 40 g fortified (19 key vitamins and minerals) and unfortified choco-malt beverage, respectively, daily for 120 d. Primary efficacy outcomes included endurance and aerobic capacity using a 20-m shuttle test and step test. Other physical performance measures included speed (40-m sprint), visual reaction time, maximal hand grip, and forearm static endurance. Micronutrient status included thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, iron, pyridoxal phosphate, and vitamins B-12 and C. All measurements were made at baseline and the end of the intervention. There was a within-subject increase in aerobic capacity and whole body endurance (P < 0.05) accompanied by a significant improvement in the status of iron thiamin, riboflavin, pyridoxal phosphate, folate, and vitamins C and B-12 in the F group compared to the within-subject changes in the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). The study suggests that multiple micronutrient supplementation in similar populations may be beneficial in improving micronutrient status and enhancing aerobic capacity and endurance in children.

  18. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (ptaurine was supplemented (ptaurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (ptaurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (ptaurine can significantly improve the IUGR fetal brain development.

  19. Effect of Preventive Supplementation with Zinc and Other Micronutrients on Non-Malarial Morbidity in Tanzanian Pre-School Children : A Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, Jacobien; Schouten, Laura R. A.; Ottenhof, Maarten J.; Mank, Theo G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Mbugi, Erasto V.; Demir, Ayse Y.; Kraaijenhagen, Rob J.; Savelkou, Huub F. J.; Verhoef, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background: The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malari

  20. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on non-malarial morbidity in Tanzanian pre-school children: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.; Schouten, L.R.A.; Ottenhof, M.; Mank, T.; Uges, D.R.A.; Mbugi, E.V.; Demir, A.Y.; Kraaijenhagen, R.J.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malaria

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Stewart, Christine P.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences to the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanism and association research links antenatal multiple micronutrients to plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce risks of being born low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure may persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring. PMID:27032981

  2. Micronutrient deficiencies in pregnancy worldwide: health effects and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Schulze, Kerry J; Stewart, Christine P; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2016-05-01

    Micronutrients, vitamins and minerals accessible from the diet, are essential for biologic activity. Micronutrient status varies widely throughout pregnancy and across populations. Women in low-income countries often enter pregnancy malnourished, and the demands of gestation can exacerbate micronutrient deficiencies with health consequences for the fetus. Examples of efficacious single micronutrient interventions include folic acid to prevent neural tube defects, iodine to prevent cretinism, zinc to reduce risk of preterm birth, and iron to reduce the risk of low birth weight. Folic acid and vitamin D might also increase birth weight. While extensive mechanistic and association research links multiple antenatal micronutrients with plausible materno-fetal health advantages, hypothesized benefits have often been absent, minimal or unexpected in trials. These findings suggest a role for population context in determining health responses and filling extensive gaps in knowledge. Multiple micronutrient supplements reduce the risks of being born with low birth weight, small for gestational age or stillborn in undernourished settings, and justify micronutrient interventions with antenatal care. Measurable health effects of gestational micronutrient exposure might persist into childhood but few data exists on potential long-term benefits. In this Review, we discuss micronutrient intake recommendations, risks and consequences of deficiencies, and the effects of interventions with a particular emphasis on offspring.

  3. Micronutrients supplementation and nutritional status in cognitively impaired elderly persons: a two-month open label pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Arnim, Christine A F; Dismar, Stephanie; Ott-Renzer, Cornelia S; Noeth, Nathalie; Ludolph, Albert C; Biesalski, Hans K

    2013-11-15

    Malnutrition is a widespread problem in elderly people and is associated with cognitive decline. However, interventional studies have produced ambiguous results. For this reason, we wanted to determine the effect of micronutrient supplementation on blood and tissue levels and on general nutritional status in persons with mild or moderate cognitive impairment. We performed a 2-month, open-label trial, administering a daily micronutrient supplement to 42 memory clinic patients with mild cognitive deficits. Blood levels of antioxidants, zinc, and B vitamins were determined before and after supplementation. In addition, we assessed metabolic markers for B vitamins and intracellular (buccal mucosa cell [BMC]) antioxidant levels. Nutritional status was assessed by using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Blood levels of B vitamins, folic acid, lutein, β-carotene, α-carotene, and α-tocopherol increased significantly. Decreases in homocysteine levels and the thiamine pyrophosphate effect and an increase in holotranscobalamin were observed. We found no increase in intracellular antioxidant levels of BMC. The MNA score in subjects at risk for malnutrition increased significantly, mainly owing to better perception of nutritional and overall health status. Micronutrient supplementation improved serum micronutrient status, with improved metabolic markers for B vitamins but not for intracellular antioxidant status, and was associated with improved self-perception of general health status. Our data underline the necessity of determining micronutrient status and support the use of additional assessments for general health and quality of life in nutritional supplementation trials.

  4. Effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy on maternal and birth outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoob Mohammad

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives/background Given the widespread prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries, supplementation with multiple micronutrients rather than iron-folate alone, could be of potential benefit to the mother and the fetus. These benefits could relate to prevention of maternal complications and reduction in other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA births, low birth weight, stillbirths, perinatal and neonatal mortality. This review evaluates the evidence of the impact of multiple micronutrient supplements during pregnancy, in comparison with standard iron-folate supplements, on specific maternal and pregnancy outcomes of relevance to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST. Data sources/review methods A systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted. Search engines used were PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the WHO regional databases and hand search of bibliographies. A standardized data abstraction and Child Health Epidemiology Reference (CHERG adaptation of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE technique were used for data abstraction and overall quality of evidence. Meta-analyses were performed to calculate summary estimates of utility to the LiST model for the specified outcome of incidence of SGA births. We also evaluated the potential impact of multiple micronutrients on neonatal mortality according to the proportion of deliveries occurring in facilities (using a threshold of 60% to indicate functionality of health systems for skilled births. Results We included 17 studies for detailed data abstraction. There was no significant benefit of multiple micronutrients as compared to iron folate on maternal anemia in third trimester [Relative risk (RR = 1.03; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.87 – 1.22 (random model]. Our analysis, however, showed a significant reduction in SGA by 9% [RR = 0.91; 95% CI: 0.86 – 0.96 (fixed model]. In the fixed model

  5. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimentel, Suzana Peres; Casarin, Renato Correa; Ribeiro, Fernanda Vieira; Cirano, Fabiano Ribeiro; Rovaris, Karla; Haiter, Francisco; Casati, Marcio Zaffalon

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18) or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18), based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT) examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and the bone volume (BV/TV). Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05). Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants. PMID:27008256

  6. Impact of micronutrients supplementation on bone repair around implants: microCT and counter-torque analysis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Peres Pimentel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of natural substances and micronutritional approaches has been suggested as a therapeutic alternative to benefit the bone healing associated with no side effects. Nevertheless, the influence of micronutritional interventions with therapeutic proprieties on the bone repair has yet to be intensely evaluated, and no evidence is available exploring the impact of micronutrient supplementation on the peri-implant bone healing. Objective This study investigated the effect of micronutrients supplementation on the bone repair around implants. Material and Methods One screw-shaped titanium implant was inserted in each tibia of each rat, which were assigned to: daily administration, for 30 d, of the placebo solution (Placebo group-n:18 or micronutrients supplementation (Micronutrients group-n:18, based on calcium, magnesium, zinc, and vitamin D3 intake. After, the animals were sacrificed. One of the implants was removed by applying a counter-torque force to evaluate the force to rupture the bone-implant interface. The other implant was evaluated by microcomputed tomography (CT examination to determine the bone-to-implant contact (BIC and the bone volume (BV/TV. Results No statistically significant differences were observed between the groups for both counter-torque values and microCT parameters (p>0.05. Conclusion Within the limits of this study, micronutrients supplementation did not provide additional benefits to the bone healing around dental implants.

  7. Knowledge about folic acid supplementation in women presenting for antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, S; Mullaney, L; McKeating, A; Farren, M; McCartney, D; Turner, M J

    2016-11-01

    The incidence of neural tube defects (NTDs) in Ireland has increased in recent years. This study examines knowledge about folic acid (FA) supplementation for the prevention of NTDs among women presenting for antenatal care. Women were recruited at their convenience in the first trimester after sonographic confirmation of an ongoing singleton pregnancy. A detailed questionnaire was completed under the supervision of a research dietitian. Clinical and socio-demographic details were collected. Of the 587 women studied, 96% took FA during early pregnancy. Of these, 56.4% cited brain/spinal development or the prevention of brain/spinal defects, spina bifida or NTDs as the reason for taking FA. Multivariate analysis showed that women who were experiencing material deprivation or who were living in Ireland knowledgeable about the benefits of FA supplementation (Pknowledge about the importance of FA in improving pregnancy outcomes.

  8. The effect of iron and multi-micronutrient supplementation on Ascaris lumbricoides reinfection among Zambian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nchito, Mbiko; Geissler, P Wenzel; Mubila, Likezo; Friis, Henrik; Olsen, Annette

    2009-03-01

    A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was conducted among schoolchildren in Chawama, Lusaka, Zambia, to determine the effect of iron and multi-micronutrients on reinfection with Ascaris lumbricoides. Supplementation was given on every school day for 10 months. Baseline A. lumbricoides prevalence and geometric mean intensity among positives were 43.4% and 2526 eggs per gram (epg) faeces, respectively. Serum ferritin or=12microg/l (4728 vs. 2036epg, P=0.033). Of 406 children recruited, 378 (93.1%) were examined at baseline and all infected children were treated and cure ascertained. The mean number of tablets taken per week was 2.5, giving 50% compliance. At six months 283 (74.9%) children complied, and reinfection intensities in those receiving iron were lower than in those receiving placebo (1600 vs. 3085epg, P=0.056). This effect disappeared at 10 months, where 215 (56.9%) complied. Iron had no effect on A. lumbricoides reinfection rates and multi-micronutrients had no effect on reinfection rates or intensities. Iron appears to affect reinfection intensity with A. lumbricoides, but further investigations are required to confirm this effect and elucidate the mechanisms involved.

  9. Short-Term Micronutrient Supplementation Reduces the Duration of Pneumonia and Diarrheal Episodes in HIV-Infected Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Villiers, de F.P.R.; MacIntyre, U.E.; Kok, F.J.

    2010-01-01

    The duration of pneumonia and of diarrhea is reported to be longer in HIV-infected than in uninfected children. We assessed the effect of a multi-micronutrient supplement on the duration of hospitalization in HIV-infected children. In a double-blind, randomized trial, HIV-infected children (4–24 mo)

  10. Optimization of micronutrient supplement for enhancing biogas production from food waste in two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Ajay; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Giannis, Apostolos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to enhance the biogas productivity of two-phase thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) using food waste (FW) as the primary substrate. The influence of adding four trace metals (Ca, Mg, Co, and Ni) as micronutrient supplement in the methanogenic phase of the thermophilic system was investigated. Initially, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was applied to determine the optimal concentration of micronutrients in batch experiments. The results showed that optimal concentrations of 303, 777, 7 and 3mg/L of Ca, Mg, Co and Ni, respectively, increased the biogas productivity as much as 50% and significantly reduced the processing time. The formulated supplement was tested in continuous two-phase thermophilic AD system with regard to process stability and productivity. It was found that a destabilized thermophilic AD process encountering high VFA accumulation recovered in less than two weeks, while the biogas production was improved by 40% yielding 0.46L CH4/gVSadded/day. There was also a major increase in soluble COD utilization upon the addition of micronutrient supplement. The results of this study indicate that a micronutrient supplement containing Ca, Mg, Co and Ni could probably remedy any type of thermophilic AD process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmstadt, Gary L; Osendarp, Saskia J M; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Feldman, Candace; Van Raaij, Joop M A; Baqui, Abdullah H; Hautvast, J G A J; Fuchs, George J

    2012-04-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc or placebo, respectively. The mothers received zinc supplementation from 12-16 weeks' gestation until delivery, and the infants were followed up until 6 months of age. Among the infants of mothers who received zinc supplementation during the antenatal period, 10.6% had at least 1 episode of impetigo compared with 19.6% of the infants of mothers in the placebo group (P = 0.01). Infants in the treatment group had a 54% reduction in incidence rate of episodes of impetigo when compared with infants in the placebo group (P = 0.01). The effect of zinc supplementation was more pronounced among male infants (64% reduction) and intrauterine growth restricted and low birth weight infants (73% reduction) and among infants of mothers with increased parity (60% reduction) or decreased socioeconomic status (71% reduction).

  12. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Warthon-Medina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6–17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe or multiple micronutrients (MMN including zinc (451 in each group. The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36–48 months was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child’s cognitive development requires further investigation.

  13. The Long Term Impact of Micronutrient Supplementation during Infancy on Cognition and Executive Function Performance in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warthon-Medina, Marisol; Qualter, Pamela; Zavaleta, Nelly; Dillon, Stephanie; Lazarte, Fabiola; Lowe, Nicola M

    2015-08-07

    Brain growth and development are critically dependent on several micronutrients. During early development cellular activity may be sensitive to micronutrient deficiencies, however the evidence from human studies is equivocal. The objective of this study was to examine the long-term cognitive and social-emotional effects of multiple micronutrient supplementation compared with iron supplementation alone, administered during infancy. This study was a follow-up to an initial randomized, double-blind controlled trial (RCT) in 2010 in which 902 infants, aged 6-17 months, from Lima, Peru, were given daily supplements of either iron (Fe) or multiple micronutrients (MMN) including zinc (451 in each group). The supplementation period for both groups was six months. In 2012, a subsample of 184 children from the original cohort (now aged 36-48 months) was randomly selected to participate in a follow-up trial and was assessed for intelligence, working memory, inhibition, and executive function. The tests showed no significant differences between the supplementation groups though there were some gender differences, with girls displaying higher scores than boys across both groups on the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) Verbal IQ sentences subtest, the Day-Night cognitive test and on the Brief Infant-Toddler Social Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) social competency, and boys scoring higher than girls in problem behaviour. The results indicate that MMN supplementation had no long term additional effects on cognitive function compared with iron supplementation alone. The timing of supplement administration for maximum impact on a child's cognitive development requires further investigation.

  14. Daily multi-micronutrient supplementation during tuberculosis treatment increases weight and grip strength among HIV-uninfected but not HIV-infected patients in Mwanza, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    PrayGod, George; Range, Nyagosya; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Undernutrition is common among tuberculosis (TB) patients. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation during TB treatment on weight, body composition, and handgrip strength. A total of 865 patients with smear-positive (PTB+) or -negative (PTB......-) pulmonary TB were randomly allocated to receive a daily biscuit with or without multi-micronutrients for 60 d during the intensive phase of TB treatment. Weight, arm fat area, arm muscle area, and handgrip strength were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 5 mo. At 2 mo, the multi-micronutrient...... supplementation led to a higher handgrip gain (1.22 kg; 95% CI = 0.50, 1.94; P = 0.001) but had no effects on other outcomes. The effects of multi-micronutrient supplementation were modified by HIV infection (P-interaction = 0.002). Among HIV- patients, multi-micronutrient supplementation increased weight gain...

  15. Improved appetite after multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months in HIV-infected South African children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; Macintyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of multi-micronutrient supplementation on the appetite of HIV-infected children. HIV-infected children (6-24 months) who had previously been hospitalized were enrolled into a double-blind randomized trial, and given daily multi-micronutrient supplements or placebos for six months. Appetite tests were performed at enrollment and after three and six months. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial cereal test food served after an overnight fast according to standardized procedures. Body weights and total amount of test food eaten were measured. In total, 99 children completed the study (50 on supplements and 49 on placebos). Amounts eaten per kilogram body weight in the supplement group at enrollment and after six months were 36.7+/-17.7 g/kg (mean+/-SD) and 41.3+/-15.0 g/kg respectively, while the amounts in the placebo group were 47.1+/-14.9 g/kg and 45.7+/-13.1g/kg respectively. The change in amount eaten per kilogram body weight over six months was significantly higher in the supplement group (4.7+/-14.7 g/kg) than in the placebo group (-1.4+/-15.1g/kg). Multi-micronutrient supplementation for six months seems to significantly improve the appetite of HIV-infected children.

  16. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement. PMID:28212284

  17. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floris Wardenaar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub- elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  18. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Van Rooij, Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; De Vries, Jeanne

    2017-02-15

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h dietary recalls with accompanying nutritional supplement questionnaires. In the majority of both users and non-users of dietary supplements, vitamin D intake was below the estimated average requirement (AR) if supplements were not included in the analysis. Including dietary supplements improved vitamin D intake, but still a part of the athletes, both men and women, reported an intake below the AR. Non-users of dietary supplements were particularly at risk for low intakes of vitamins B1, B2, B3 and vitamins A, C and selenium. Mean iron intake was reported below the AR in a substantial group of women, both users and non-users. The use of sport nutrition products contributed only slightly to micronutrient intake. A small prevalence of athletes using dietary supplements showed intakes of some micronutrients above the Upper Level. In conclusion, both users and non-users of nutritional supplements reported inadequate intake of micronutrients. For most micronutrients, use of nutritional supplements does not completely compensate for intakes below AR. Athletes should consider making better food choices and the daily use of a low-dosed multivitamin supplement.

  19. IMPACT OF MICRONUTRIENT FORTIFIED FOOD SUPPLEMENT ON NUTRITIONAL PROFILE AMONG GINNING WOMEN WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Sridevi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Ginning factory discharges large amount of cotton dust, which might decrease haematological indices among the selected subjects. An attempt was made to study the haematological indices of women labourers located in the urban areas of Tirupur and Erode Districts of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 150 non-pregnant, non-lactating adult women performing varied textile tasks and aged between 20 to 60 years were identified randomly from ginning (n=150 (gin house, gutter and sorting sections industries. Socio demographic, work pattern, nutritional and health status were assessed by administering a questionnaire. Further, to correct micronutrient deficiency, iron and folic acid fortified soy biscuits were formulated. Intervention study was conducted among the selected moderate anaemic ginners (n=20. l00 g of micronutrient fortified soy biscuit containing 13.5 g of protein, 8.4 mg of iron (ferrous fumarate and 120 µg of folic acid was supplemented to experimental group of women as a midmorning and midevening snack for a period of four months. Therapeutic efficacy of food supplement was studied by assessing their anthropometric and haematological conditions at pre and post supplementation period. Anthropometric indices showed an improvement in weight (48.7 ± 4.98 to 51.5 ± 6.25 and BMI (19.02 to 23.04. Haematological indices revealed that the mean haemoglobin of experimental group improved to 11.04 ± 0.56 g/dl from 9.1 ± 0.67. Similarly increase in serum iron from 61.9 ± 3.24 to 65.0 ± 2.95 µg/dl was noticed and showed a significant difference at 1 per cent. Improvement in total protein (6.62 ± 0.49 to 8.11 ± 0.20 g/dl, albumin (3.9 ± 0.36 to 4.73 ± 0.31 g/dl and globulin (2.82 ± 0.24 to 3.8 ± 0.29 g/dl showed significant difference at 1 per cent level. Similarly, an increase in Total WBC count (7326 ± 19.5 to 9725 ± 25.5 cumm, reduction in lymphocyte (942.16 ± 3.6 to 35.2 ± 2.2 per cent seen among the ginning women workers.

  20. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h di

  1. Micronutrient Intakes in 553 Dutch Elite and Sub-Elite Athletes: Prevalence of Low and High Intakes in Users and Non-Users of Nutritional Supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wardenaar, Floris; Brinkmans, Naomi; Ceelen, Ingrid; Rooij, Van Bo; Mensink, Marco; Witkamp, Renger; Vries, De Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether athletes meet micronutrient recommendations and whether the adequacy of their intake is related to the use of dietary supplements, sport nutrition products or a combination. Micronutrient intakes of 553 Dutch (sub-) elite athletes were assessed using web-based 24-h

  2. Multiple micronutrient supplementation improves vitamin B12 and folate concentrations of HIV infected children in Uganda: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolann Bjørn J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on vitamin B12 and folate has hither to not been reported in African HIV infected children. This paper describes vitamin B12 and folate status of Ugandan HIV infected children aged 1-5 years and reports the effect of multiple micronutrient supplementation on serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations. Methods Of 847 children who participated in a multiple micronutrient supplementation trial, 214 were assessed for vitamin B12 and folate concentrations pre and post supplementation. One hundred and four children were randomised to two times the recommended dietary allowance (RDA of a 14 multiple micronutrient supplement (MMS and 114 to a 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins (MV. Serum vitamin B12 was measured by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay and folate by a competitive protein-binding assay using Modular E (Roche automatic analyzer. Vitamin B12 concentrations were considered low if less than 221picomoles per litre (pmol/L and folate if Results Vitamin B12 was low in 60/214 (28% and folate in 62/214 (29.0% children. In the MMS group, the median concentration (IQR of vitamin B12 at 6 months was 401.5 (264.3 - 518.8 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 285.5 (216.5 - 371.8 pmol/L, p 12 at 6 months was 288.5 (198.8 - 391.0 pmol/L compared to the baseline of 280.0 (211.5 - 386.3 pmol/L while the median (IQR folate concentrations at 6 months were 16.5 (11.7 - 22.1 nmol/L compared to 15.7 (11.9 - 22.1 nmol/L at baseline. There was a significant difference in the MMS group in both vitamin B12 and folate concentrations but no difference in the MV group. Conclusions Almost a third of the HIV infected Ugandan children aged 1-5 years had low serum concentrations of vitamin B12 and folate. Multiple micronutrient supplementation compared to the 'standard of care' supplement of 6 multivitamins improved the vitamin B12 and folate status of HIV infected children in Uganda

  3. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF IRON SUPPLEMENTS IN SOUTH INDIAN ANTENATAL WOMEN WITH IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA

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    Geetha

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia is the most common nutritional disorder in the world. It is a major public health problem particularly among pregnant women with adverse effects on the mother and the new born. Iron supplementation is universally recommended to correct or prevent iron deficiency. AIMS & OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of three oral iron preparations in anemic pregnant women of more than 14 weeks of gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Randomized Control trial, done at Tagore Medical College and Hospital, Chennai. 60 antenatal women were selected; they were divided into three groups, 20 in each group. They were treated with Carbonyl iron, ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate. Hemoglobin estimation was done at 0 day, 30th and 60th day. Adverse effects were monitored. RESULTS: Data analysis showed an increase in haemoglobin levels in all three groups after the 30th day (p<0.05. Carbonyl iron showed highly significant increase (p<0.05 in the haemoglobin level as compared to the other two drugs at the end of the 60th day. CONCLUSION: Carbonyl iron is superior in efficacy when compared to ferrous sulphate and ferrous fumarate and is better tolerated. So carbonyl iron is safe in pregnancy and can be given as a supplement to treat iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy.

  4. Organoleptic properties, ease of use, and perceived health effects are determinants of acceptability of micronutrient supplements among poor Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sera L; Blanco, Ilian; Hernandez-Cordero, Sonia; Pelto, Gretel H; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2010-03-01

    We assessed the acceptability of 3 micronutrient supplements for pregnant and lactating women: micronutrient powder (Sprinkles), a fortified food (Nutrivida), and tablets. Pregnant or lactating beneficiaries of the Oportunidades program participating in a cluster randomized supplementation trial in urban Mexico were surveyed about the acceptability of 1 of 3 supplements (n = 268). Semistructured interviews (n = 40) were also conducted with a subset of women in the trial and from adjacent rural areas. Acceptability of the supplements was evaluated based on women's perceptions and experiences with organoleptic qualities, ease of use, and perceived health effects (positive and negative). The median Likert scale ranking of organoleptic and use qualities for all 3 supplements was "I liked it" (2 on a scale of 1-5). However, responses to open-ended survey questions and semistructured interviews indicated decided preferences. Tablets and Sprinkles were strongly preferred over Nutrivida. In interviews, women expressed dislike of the smell, taste, and texture of Nutrivida; they found it cumbersome to store and prepare and reported the most negative effects with it. Between tablets and Sprinkles, tablets were preferred because of the absence of perceptible taste or smell and the simplicity of use. This study provides valuable insights into our currently limited understanding of women's perceptions and preferences among supplements by broadening the concept of acceptability beyond organoleptic properties. Such an analytical approach is useful for identifying both appropriate nutritional supplements within a given sociocultural context as well as the information that should be included in nutrition education to improve adherence.

  5. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars-Åke

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling.METHODS...

  6. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars Ake

    2014-01-01

    .... We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling...

  7. Bioavailability of iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin C in the IRIS multi-micronutrient supplement: effect of combination with a milk-based cornstarch porridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Fernanda; Jandel, Doris; Hoenicke, Imke; Pietrzk, Klaus; Gross, Rainer; Trugo, Nadia M; Donangelo, Carmen M

    2003-09-01

    The effect of combining a multi-micronutrient supplement with a milk-based cornstarch porridge on the bioavailability of iron, zinc, folate, and vitamin C was evaluated using the plasma curve response over time (8 hours) in healthy women. Three tests were carried out in a crossover design: S (multi-micronutrient supplement), MS (multi-micronutrient supplement plustest meal), and M (test meal). Relative bioavailability was determined as the percent ratio of the area under the curve (AUC) in MS corrected by M, and AUC in S. Compared to S, AUC in MS was smaller for iron (p porridge is small. Therefore, the tested meal is a suitable vehicle for the multi-micronutrient supplement.

  8. Multiple micronutrient supplementation for improving cognitive performance in children: systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilander, A.; Gera, T.; Sachdev, H.S.; Transler, C.; Knaap, van der H.; Kok, F.J.; Osendarp, S.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although multiple micronutrient interventions have been shown to benefit children's intellectual development, a thorough evaluation of the totality of evidence is currently lacking to direct public health policy. Objective: This study aimed to systematically review the present literature

  9. Rationale, design, methodology and sample characteristics for the Vietnam pre-conceptual micronutrient supplementation trial (PRECONCEPT: a randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Phuong H

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight and maternal anemia remain intractable problems in many developing countries. The adequacy of the current strategy of providing iron-folic acid (IFA supplements only during pregnancy has been questioned given many women enter pregnancy with poor iron stores, the substantial micronutrient demand by maternal and fetal tissues, and programmatic issues related to timing and coverage of prenatal care. Weekly IFA supplementation for women of reproductive age (WRA improves iron status and reduces the burden of anemia in the short term, but few studies have evaluated subsequent pregnancy and birth outcomes. The Preconcept trial aims to determine whether pre-pregnancy weekly IFA or multiple micronutrient (MM supplementation will improve birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status compared to the current practice of prenatal IFA supplementation only. This paper provides an overview of study design, methodology and sample characteristics from baseline survey data and key lessons learned. Methods/design We have recruited 5011 WRA in a double-blind stratified randomized controlled trial in rural Vietnam and randomly assigned them to receive weekly supplements containing either: 1 2800 μg folic acid 2 60 mg iron and 2800 μg folic acid or 3 MM. Women who become pregnant receive daily IFA, and are being followed through pregnancy, delivery, and up to three months post-partum. Study outcomes include birth outcomes and maternal and infant iron status. Data are being collected on household characteristics, maternal diet and mental health, anthropometry, infant feeding practices, morbidity and compliance. Discussion The study is timely and responds to the WHO Global Expert Consultation which identified the need to evaluate the long term benefits of weekly IFA and MM supplementation in WRA. Findings will generate new information to help guide policy and programs designed to reduce the burden of anemia in women and

  10. Vitamin and mineral supplements have a nutritionally significant impact on micronutrient intakes of older adults attending senior centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Allisha; Remig, Valentina; Holcomb, Carol Ann; Herald, Thomas J; Baybutt, Richard C

    2010-04-01

    Older adults frequently report use of vitamin and mineral (VM) supplements, although the impact of supplements on dietary adequacy remains largely unknown. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate micronutrient intakes of older adults with emphasis on identifying nutrients most improved by VM supplements, nutrients most likely to remain inadequate, and nutrients most likely consumed in excess. Community-based volunteers were recruited from senior centers and completed a questionnaire querying demographic data, current health status, and VM supplement use. Participants (n = 263) were then contacted by telephone to complete two 24-hour diet recalls and confirm VM supplement use. Dietary adequacy was determined by comparing the ratio of mean dietary intake to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Dietary consumption was lowest for vitamins D and E, calcium, and magnesium. VM supplementation most improved intakes of vitamins E, D, B(6), folic acid, and calcium. Participants were most likely to exceed the Tolerable Upper Limit with supplementation of niacin, folic acid, and vitamin A.

  11. The science and practice of micronutrient supplementations in nutritional anemia: an evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Mike, Leigh Ann

    2014-08-01

    Nutritional anemia is the most common type of anemia, affecting millions of people in all age groups worldwide. While inadequate access to food and nutrients can lead to anemia, patients with certain health status or medical conditions are also at increased risk of developing nutritional anemia. Iron, cobalamin, and folate are the most recognized micronutrients that are vital for the generation of erythrocytes. Iron deficiency is associated with insufficient production of hemoglobin. Deficiency of cobalamin or folate leads to impaired synthesis of deoxyribonucleic acid, proteins, and cell division. Recent research has demonstrated that the status of copper and zinc in the body can significantly affect iron absorption and utilization. With an increasing number of patients undergoing bariatric surgical procedures, more cases of anemia associated with copper and zinc deficiencies have also emerged. The intestinal absorption of these 5 critical micronutrients are highly regulated and mediated by specific apical transport mechanisms in the enterocytes. Health conditions that persistently alter the histology of the upper intestinal architecture, expression, or function of these substrate-specific transporters, or the normal digestion and flow of these key micronutrients, can lead to nutritional anemia. The focus of this article is to review the science of intestinal micronutrient absorption, discuss the clinical assessment of micronutrient deficiencies in relation to anemia, and suggest an effective treatment plan and monitoring strategies using an evidence-based approach.

  12. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaei, Shirin; Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-12-01

    The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and similar ferritin and folate concentrations in Bangladeshi

  13. A Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplement Produces Higher Maternal Vitamin B-12 Concentrations and Similar Folate, Ferritin, and Zinc Concentrations as the Standard 60-mg Iron Plus 400-μg Folic Acid Supplement in Rural Bangladeshi Women12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Anisur; Raqib, Rubhana; Lönnerdal, Bo; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on maternal micronutrient status are not well known. Objective: We compared the efficacy and effectiveness of 3 different micronutrient supplements on maternal micronutrient status when combined with food supplementation. Methods: In the MINIMat (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention, Matlab) trial in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomly assigned to daily intake of 3 types of micronutrient capsules: 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F), 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F), or multiple micronutrient supplements (MMNs) combined with early (week 9 of pregnancy) or usual (week 20 of pregnancy) food supplementation in a 2 by 3 factorial design. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B-12, folate, ferritin, and zinc were analyzed before the start of micronutrient supplementation (week 14) and at week 30 of pregnancy in 641 randomly selected women. An electronic monitoring device was used to measure the number of capsules taken. The effectiveness of food and micronutrient regimens as well as efficacy per capsule in maternal micronutrient status were analyzed by ANOVA and general linear models. Results: At week 30 of pregnancy, women in the MMN group had higher geometric mean concentrations of vitamin B-12 than women in the Fe60F group (119 compared with 101 pmol/L, respectively); no other differences in effectiveness of micronutrient and food regimens were observed. A dose-response relation between the number of capsules taken and concentrations of folate and ferritin was observed for all micronutrient supplements. Fe30F had lower efficacy per capsule in increasing ferritin concentrations within the first tertile of capsule intake than did Fe60F and MMNs. Because ferritin reached a plateau for all types of micronutrient supplements, there was no difference between the regimens in their effectiveness. Conclusion: Compared with Fe60F, MMNs produced higher maternal vitamin B-12 and

  14. The effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on cognition and mood during pregnancy and postpartum in Indonesia: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth L Prado

    Full Text Available Maternal caregiving capacity, which is affected in part by cognition and mood, is crucial for the health of mothers and infants. Few interventions aim to improve maternal and infant health through improving such capacity. Multiple micronutrient (MMN supplementation may improve maternal cognition and mood, since micronutrients are essential for brain function. We assessed mothers who participated in the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT, a double-blind cluster-randomized trial in Indonesia comparing MMN supplementation to iron and folic acid (IFA during pregnancy and until three months postpartum. We adapted a set of well-studied tests of cognition, motor dexterity, and mood to the local context and administered them to a random sample of 640 SUMMIT participants after an average of 25 weeks (SD = 9 of supplementation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Controlling for maternal age, education, and socio-economic status, MMN resulted in a benefit of 0.12 SD on overall cognition, compared to IFA (95%CI 0.03-0.22, p = .010, and a benefit of 0.18 SD on reading efficiency (95%CI 0.02-0.35, p = .031. Both effects were found particularly in anemic (hemoglobin<110 g/L; overall cognition: B = 0.20, 0.00-0.41, p = .055; reading: B = 0.40, 0.02-0.77, p = .039 and undernourished (mid-upper arm circumference<23.5 cm; overall cognition: B = 0.33, 0.07-0.59, p = .020; reading: B = 0.65, 0.19-1.12, p = .007 mothers. The benefit of MMN on overall cognition was equivalent to the benefit of one year of education for all mothers, to two years of education for anemic mothers, and to three years of education for undernourished mothers. No effects were found on maternal motor dexterity or mood. This is the first study demonstrating an improvement in maternal cognition with MMN supplementation. This improvement may increase the quality of care mothers provide for their infants, potentially partly mediating effects of maternal MMN

  15. Optimizing nitrification in biological rapid sand filters: Diagnosing and supplementing micronutrients needed for proper filter performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Carson Odell; Wagner, Florian Benedikt; Boe-Hansen, Rasmus

    Nitrification is an important biological process commonly used in biological drinking water filters to remove ammonium from drinking water. Recent research has shown that a lack of micronutrients could be limiting the performance of these filters. Because nitrification is a biological process, ca...... to be an important diagnostic tool that could decrease regulatory hurdles, and save time and money....

  16. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of

  17. Zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementation to reduce diarrhea and respiratory disease in South African children: a randomized controlled trial.

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    Kany-Kany Angelique Luabeya

    Full Text Available Prophylactic zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce diarrhea and respiratory illness in children in many developing countries, but its efficacy in children in Africa is uncertain.To determine if zinc, or zinc plus multiple micronutrients, reduces diarrhea and respiratory disease prevalence.Randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.Rural community in South Africa.THREE COHORTS: 32 HIV-infected children; 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers; and 187 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers.Children received either 1250 IU of vitamin A; vitamin A and 10 mg of zinc; or vitamin A, zinc, vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E, and K and copper, iodine, iron, and niacin starting at 6 months and continuing to 24 months of age. Homes were visited weekly.Primary outcome was percentage of days of diarrhea per child by study arm within each of the three cohorts. Secondary outcomes were prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms and percentage of children who ever had pneumonia by maternal report, or confirmed by the field worker.Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, median percentage of days with diarrhea was 2.3% for 49 children allocated to vitamin A; 2.5% in 47 children allocated to receive vitamin A and zinc; and 2.2% for 46 children allocated to multiple micronutrients (P = 0.852. Among HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers, median percentage of days of diarrhea was 2.4% in 56 children in the vitamin A group; 1.8% in 57 children in the vitamin A and zinc group; and 2.7% in 52 children in the multiple micronutrient group (P = 0.857. Only 32 HIV-infected children were enrolled, and there were no differences between treatment arms in the prevalence of diarrhea. The prevalence of upper respiratory symptoms or incidence of pneumonia did not differ by treatment arms in any of the cohorts.When compared with vitamin A alone, supplementation with zinc, or with zinc and multiple

  18. Multiple micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in low-income countries: a meta-analysis of effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsmans, Carine; Fisher, David J; Osmond, Clive; Margetts, Barrie M; Fall, Caroline H D

    2009-12-01

    Multiple micronutrient deficiencies are common among women in low-income countries and may adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. To conduct a meta-analysis of the effects on stillbirths and on early and late neonatal mortality of supplementation during pregnancy with multiple micronutrients compared with iron-folic acid in recent randomized, controlled trials. Twelve randomized, controlled trials were included in the analysis (Bangladesh; Burkina Faso; China; Guinea-Bissau; Indramayu and Lombok, Indonesia; Mexico; Sarlahi and Janakur, Nepal; Niger; Pakistan; and Zimbabwe), all providing approximately 1 recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of multiple micronutrients or iron-folic acid to presumed HIV-negative women. Supplementation providing approximately I RDA of multiple micronutrients did not decrease the risk of stillbirth (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16), early neonatal mortality (OR = 1.23; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.59), late neonatal mortality (OR = 0.94; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.23), or perinatal mortality (OR = 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.33). Our meta-analysis provides consistent evidence that supplementation providing approximately 1 RDA of multiple micronutrients during pregnancy does not result in any reduction in stillbirths or in early or late neonatal deaths compared with iron-folic acid alone.

  19. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  20. Factors associated with not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia: the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titaley, Christiana Rialine; Dibley, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    This analysis examined factors associated with non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements in Indonesia. Data from the 2002/2003 and 2007 Indonesia Demographic and Health Surveys (IDHS) were used, providing survival information for 26,591 most recent deliveries over the five-year period prior to each survey. The main outcome variable was non-use of iron/folic acid supplements. Using logistic regression, we examined the role of external environment, predisposing, enabling, need factors, and previous utilization of other maternal care services in non-use of antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. Mothers from outer Java- Bali Region and rural areas (OR=1.73, 95% CI: 1.48-2.03) had increased odds for not using antenatal iron/folic acid supplements. The likelihood for not using the supplements increased with the reduction of household wealth index and parental education. The odds increased amongst mothers with low autonomy on her own health care (OR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), high birth-rank infants, mothers with low knowledge of obstetric complications and low exposure to mass media. Enabling factors associated with increased odds for non-use of iron/folic acid supplements included mothers reporting money to pay health services (OR=1.28, 95% CI: 1.13- 1.44) and distance to health services (OR=1.20, 95% CI: 1.02-1.40) were major problems. Our study demonstrated the importance of antenatal care as a distribution channel of the supplements. Increasing community awareness, coverage and access to health services along with strengthening counselling sessions during antenatal care and community participation in health programs are necessary to improve the uptake of iron/folic acid supplements, to increase infant survival in Indonesia.

  1. Effect of supplementation with a lipid-based nutrient supplement on the micronutrient status of children aged 6–18 months living in the rural region of Intibucá, Honduras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) have been effective in the treatment of acute malnutrition among children. We evaluated the use of LNS supplementation for improving the micronutrient status of young children. Methods: A 12-month randomised controlled trial was conducted among chil...

  2. The effects of periconceptional risk factor exposure and micronutrient supplementation on birth defects in Shaanxi Province in Western China.

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    Wenfang Yang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To understand the current prevalence and main types of birth defects, 2 assess the periconceptional exposure of factors associated with birth defects in Shaanxi Province, and 3 provide scientific evidence for local governments to formulate services for the primary prevention of birth defects. METHODS: We sampled 16,541 households from 128 townships in 16 counties/districts in Shaanxi province using a multi-stage random sampling method. Among them, 10,544 women who had live born or stillborn infants with gestational age ≥ 28 weeks between 2008 and 2009 were interviewed using a structured questionnaire designed to collect information about periconceptional risk factor exposure, health care service utilization, and micronutrient supplements. Logistic regression was performed to assess the risk factors associated with birth defects and adjustments were made for imbalanced social-demographic characteristics between case and control groups. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital birth defect in Shaanxi province was 14.3/1000 births. The environment risk factors associated with birth defects include unhealthy lifestyle (Alcohol, odds ratio (OR: 3.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.64-7.91; Smoking, OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.99-1.75; Drink strong tea, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.27-2.59, exposure to heavy pollution (OR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.01-2.30, maternal diseases (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.35-2.33, drug use (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.51-2.95, maternal chemical pesticide exposure (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.16-4.57, and adverse pregnancy history (OR: 10.10, 95% CI: 7.55-13.53. Periconceptional folic acid or multiple micronutrients including folic acid supplementation, was associated with a reduced rate of birth defects (OR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-0.998. CONCLUSIONS: Health care service utilization, unhealthy lifestyle factors, and environment risk factors seem to be associated with birth defects in Shaanxi province. Governmental agencies should focus on effective primary

  3. Programmatic effects of a large-scale multiple-micronutrient supplementation trial in Indonesia: using community facilitators as intermediaries for behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Anita V; Asrilla, Zaitu; Kadha, Josephine K; Sebayang, Susy; Apriatni, Mandri; Sulastri, Ari; Sunarsih, Euis; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2009-06-01

    Clinical trials can serve as an opportunity gateway for enhanced health benefits to the target population, above and beyond the specific intervention being tested. The Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a randomized, controlled clinical trial in Lombok, Indonesia, found that supplementation during pregnancy with multiple micronutrients reduced 90-day infant mortality by nearly 20% as compared with iron-folic acid. This trial was designed as both a program and research trial and used community facilitators to serve as liaisons between the study and the pregnant women. This analysis documents the programmatic impacts of SUMMIT on health-seeking and early infant mortality resulting from community facilitators' field activities. Data on compliance, human resource practices, health-seeking, and health outcomes from the 31,290 SUMMIT enrollees were analyzed. Overall compliance with either iron-folic acid or multiple micronutrients was high in the program, at 85.0%. Early prenatal care visits increased significantly. Sixty-three percent of primiparous women used a skilled birth attendant (SBA); among multiparous women, the rate of use of a SBA rose from 35% for the last birth to 53%. Use of a SBA resulted in a 30% reduction in early infant mortality (RR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.83; p < .0001), independently of any reductions due to multiple micronutrients. The community facilitators played a central role in improving health-seeking; however, the quality of the community facilitators' performance was associated with the impact of the micronutrient supplement on infant health. In a subsample of community facilitators, better-performing facilitators were found to markedly improve the overall impact of the multiple micronutrients on early infant mortality (RR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.49 to 0.92; p = .0117). In contrast, infants of women with poorly performing community facilitators were found to derive no additional benefit from the multiple

  4. Effects of Prenatal Multiple Micronutrient Supplementation on Fetal Growth Factors: A Cluster-Randomized, Controlled Trial in Rural Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Nanayakkara-Bind, Ashika; Arguello, Margia; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ali, Hasmot; Wu, Lee; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation improves birth weight through increased fetal growth and gestational age, but whether maternal or fetal growth factors are involved is unclear. Our objective was to examine the effect of prenatal MM supplementation on intrauterine growth factors and the associations between growth factors and birth outcomes in a rural setting in Bangladesh. In a double-blind, cluster-randomized, controlled trial of MM vs. iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation, we measured placental growth hormone (PGH) at 10 weeks and PGH and human placental lactogen (hPL) at 32 weeks gestation in maternal plasma (n = 396) and insulin, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and IGF binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in cord plasma (n = 325). Birth size and gestational age were also assessed. Early pregnancy mean (SD) BMI was 19.5 (2.4) kg/m2 and birth weight was 2.68 (0.41) kg. There was no effect of MM on concentrations of maternal hPL or PGH, or cord insulin, IGF-1, or IGFBP-1. However, among pregnancies of female offspring, hPL concentration was higher by 1.1 mg/L in the third trimester (95% CI: 0.2, 2.0 mg/L; p = 0.09 for interaction); and among women with height pregnancy nutritional status and sex of the offspring, but this should be examined in other studies. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00860470 PMID:26431336

  5. Antenatal iron and folic acid supplementation use by pregnant women in Khartoum, Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullahi, Hala; Gasim, Gasim I.; Saeed, Ahmed; Imam, Abdulmutalab M; Adam, Ishag

    2014-01-01

    Background Anaemia during pregnancy can lead to adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. The WHO recommends that all pregnant women in areas where anaemia is prevalent receive supplements of iron and folic acid. However, due to many factors, the use of iron and folic acid supplementation is still low in many countries. This study was conducted to assess the rates of iron-folic supplementation and the associated factors during pregnancy and the effects of taking iron-folic acid supplementation...

  6. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  7. Micronutrients in Pregnancy in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Darnton-Hill

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC, especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world’s pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures

  8. Micronutrients in pregnancy in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnton-Hill, Ian; Mkparu, Uzonna C

    2015-03-10

    Pregnancy is one of the more important periods in life when increased micronutrients, and macronutrients are most needed by the body; both for the health and well-being of the mother and for the growing foetus and newborn child. This brief review aims to identify the micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) likely to be deficient in women of reproductive age in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMIC), especially during pregnancy, and the impact of such deficiencies. A global prevalence of some two billion people at risk of micronutrient deficiencies, and multiple micronutrient deficiencies of many pregnant women in LMIC underline the urgency to establishing the optimal recommendations, including for delivery. It has long been recognized that adequate iron is important for best reproductive outcomes, including gestational cognitive development. Similarly, iodine and calcium have been recognized for their roles in development of the foetus/neonate. Less clear effects of deficiencies of zinc, copper, magnesium and selenium have been reported. Folate sufficiency periconceptionally is recognized both by the practice of providing folic acid in antenatal iron/folic acid supplementation and by increasing numbers of countries fortifying flours with folic acid. Other vitamins likely to be important include vitamins B12, D and A with the water-soluble vitamins generally less likely to be a problem. Epigenetic influences and the likely influence of micronutrient deficiencies on foetal origins of adult chronic diseases are currently being clarified. Micronutrients may have other more subtle, unrecognized effects. The necessity for improved diets and health and sanitation are consistently recommended, although these are not always available to many of the world's pregnant women. Consequently, supplementation programmes, fortification of staples and condiments, and nutrition and health support need to be scaled-up, supported by social and cultural measures. Because of the life

  9. Equity in adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child mortality: results from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Rubina; Streatfield, Peter Kim; Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Lindholm, Lars; Persson, Lars Ake

    2014-01-07

    Evidence is often missing on social differentials in effects of nutrition interventions. We evaluated the adherence to and effect of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementations on mortality before the age of five years in different social groups as defined by maternal schooling. Data came from the MINIMat study (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions, Matlab), a randomized trial of prenatal food supplementation (invitation early, about 9 weeks [E], or at usual time, about 20 weeks [U] of pregnancy) and 30 mg or 60 mg iron with 400 μgm folic acid, or multiple micronutrients (Fe30F, Fe60F, MMS) resulting in six randomization groups, EFe30F, UFe30F, EFe60F, UFe60F, EMMS, and UMMS (n = 4436). Included in analysis after omissions (fetal loss and out-migration) were 3625 women and 3659 live births of which 3591 had information on maternal schooling. The study site was rural Matlab, Bangladesh. The main stratifying variable was maternal schooling dichotomized as mortality, but the EMMS supplementation reduced the social difference in mortality risk (using standard program and schooling mortality in children before the age of five years and reduced the gap in child survival chances between social groups. The pattern of adherence to the supplementations was complex; women with less education adhered more to food supplementation while those with more education had higher adherence to micronutrients. ISRCTN16581394.

  10. Combined intensive nutrition education and micronutrient powder supplementation improved nutritional status of mildly wasted children on Nias Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayati, Dyah A; Scherbaum, Veronika; Purwestri, Ratna C; Wirawan, Nia N; Suryantan, Julia; Hartono, Susan; Bloem, Maurice A; Pangaribuan, Rosnani V; Biesalski, Hans K; Hoffmann, Volker; Bellows, Anne C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of intensive nutrition education (INE) with or without the provision of micronutrient powder (MNP) on the nutritional status of mildly wasted children in Nias, Indonesia, two groups of mildly wasted (>=-1.5 to =6 to nutrition education program (NNE) with or without MNP (n=50 both respectively). WHZ, weight, height, haemoglobin (Hb) level, and morbidity data were assessed at admission, during the study, and at individual discharge. Children's weight gain (g/kg body weight/day) was highest in INE+MNP group (2.2±2.1), followed by INE (1.1±0.9), NNE+MNP (0.3±0.5) and NNE (0.3±0.4) group. In both MNP intervention groups (INE+MNP, NNE+MNP), supplements significantly increased Hb value (g/L) of respective children (10.0±10.0; pnutrition education supported by MNP supplementation produced the best results regarding weight gain and haemoglobin status of mildly wasted children.

  11. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on non-malarial morbidity in Tanzanian pre-school children: a randomized trial.

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    Jacobien Veenemans

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The efficacy of preventive zinc supplementation against diarrhea and respiratory illness may depend on simultaneous supplementation with other micronutrients. We aimed to assess the effect of supplementation with zinc and multiple micronutrients on diarrhea and other causes of non-malarial morbidity. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rural Tanzanian children (n = 612 aged 6-60 months and with height-for-age z-score < -1.5 SD were randomized to daily supplementation with zinc (10 mg alone, multi-nutrients without zinc, multi-nutrients with zinc, or placebo. Children were followed for an average of 45 weeks. During follow-up, we recorded morbidity episodes. We found no evidence that concurrent supplementation with multi-nutrients influenced the magnitude of the effect of zinc on rates of diarrhea, respiratory illness, fever without localizing signs, or other illness (guardian-reported illness with symptoms involving skin, ears, eyes and abscesses, but excluding trauma or burns. Zinc supplementation reduced the hazard rate of diarrhea by 24% (4%-40%. By contrast, multi-nutrients seemed to increase this rate (HR; 95% CI: 1.19; 0.94-1.50, particularly in children with asymptomatic Giardia infection at baseline (2.03; 1.24-3.32. Zinc also protected against episodes of fever without localizing signs (0.75; 0.57-0.96, but we found no evidence that it reduced the overall number of clinic visits. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that the efficacy of zinc supplements in reducing diarrhea rates is enhanced by concurrent supplementation with other micronutrients. By reducing rates of fever without localizing signs, supplementation with zinc may reduce inappropriate drug use with anti-malarial medications and antibiotics. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00623857.

  12. Adjunctive micronutrient supplementation for pulmonary tuberculosis Suplementación con micronutrientes como tratamiento adjunto para tuberculosis pulmonar

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    Rodrigo X Armijos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of micronutrient supplementation on tuberculosis (TB patient outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was conducted in pulmonary TB patients undergoing directly observed treatment short course/ tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado (TAES/ DOTS at IMSS in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, who were recruited during August 2005-July 2006. Consecutive patients received zinc and vitamin A supplements or matched placebo for four months. Dietary intake, blood zinc and vitamin A, immune response (IFN-γ,TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA, and sputum smear conversion were measured. RESULTS: The proportion of micronutrient compared to placebo group subjects with a negative sputum smear by month 3 was significantly increased (p= 0.03. This occurred subsequent to increased TNF-α and IFN-γ and decreased IL-'0 observed at month 2. Micronutrient supplementation appeared to accelerate the beneficial therapeutic effect of chemotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: The earlier elimination of bacilli from sputum was associated with improved zinc status and Th' immune response. The therapeutic effect of vitamin A was less evident.OBJETIVO: Determinar el efecto de la suplementación con zinc y vitamina A o placebo en pacientes tratados por tuberculosis (TB. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un ensayo aleatorizado en pacientes tuberculosos que iniciaron el tratamiento acortado estrictamente supervisado/ directly observed treatment short course (TAES/DOTS en las clínicas del IMSS, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México, reclutados durante agosto 2005-julio 2006. A cada paciente en forma aleatoria se le designó un código para recibir ya sea micronutrientes o placebo por cuatro meses, bajo el diseño doble ciego. Se evaluó la ingesta dietética, niveles de zinc y vitamina A en sangre, respuesta inmune (IFN-γ,TNF-α, IL-l0 mRNA en sangre y bacilo ácido alcohol resistente (BAAR en esputo. RESULTADOS: Al

  13. Patient adherence in following a prescribed diet and micronutrient supplements after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy: our experience during 1 year of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavo, L; Scalera, G; Pilone, V; De Sena, G; Ciorra, F R; Barbarisi, A

    2017-02-01

    One of the most effective surgeries for sustainable weight loss in morbidly obese patients is laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). The present study aimed to assess the adherence of LSG patients with respect to following post-operative dietary requirements and micronutrient supplementation, as well as to investigate their perceived barriers in achieving optimal adherence. Retrospective data analysis was performed (3, 6, 9 and 12 months after LSG) using the medical records of 96 morbidly obese patients who had undergone LSG at our institution during 2011-2013. Data collected from patient records were: adherence to prescribed diet; adherence to prescribed consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals; use of prescribed micronutrient supplements; and barriers to diet and micronutrient therapy adherence. Data were analysed using spss, version 14.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). At 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-LSG, the rates of patient non-adherence to a prescribed diet were 39%, 45%, 51% and 74%, respectively. In particular, there was a low consumption of fruit, vegetables, legumes and cereals compared to the post-surgery prescription. In addition, the rates of patient non-adherence to prescribed micronutrient supplements at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months post-LSG were 43%, 51%, 59% and 67%, respectively. The main reasons for patient non-adherence to diet were poor self-discipline (72%) and poor family support (11%) whereas difficulty swallowing pills or capsules (61%) and cost (20%) were reported as the main barriers to post-LSG adherence. Morbidly obese patients who have undergone LSG do not follow exactly the post-operative dietary guidelines, including micronutrient therapy. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  14. Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity and Anti-Ageing Biomarkers after Diet Micronutrient Supplementation

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    Aneta Balcerczyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies confirm an important effect of diet, lifestyle and physical activity on health status, the ageing process and many metabolic disorders. This study focuses on the influence of a diet supplement, NucleVital®Q10 Complex, on parameters related to redox homeostasis and ageing. An experimental group of 66 healthy volunteer women aged 35–55 supplemented their diet for 12 weeks with the complex, which contained omega-3 acids (1350 mg/day, ubiquinone (300 mg/day, astaxanthin (15 mg/day, lycopene (45 mg/day, lutein palmitate (30 mg/day, zeaxanthine palmitate (6 mg/day, L-selenomethionine (330 mg/day, cholecalciferol (30 µg/day and α-tocopherol (45 mg/day. We found that NucleVital®Q10 Complex supplementation significantly increased total antioxidant capacity of plasma and activity of erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, with slight effects on oxidative stress biomarkers in erythrocytes; MDA and 4-hydroxyalkene levels. Apart from the observed antioxidative effects, the tested supplement also showed anti-ageing activity. Analysis of expression of SIRT1 and 2 in PBMCs showed significant changes for both genes on a mRNA level. The level of telomerase was also increased by more than 25%, although the length of lymphocyte telomeres, determined by RT-PCR, remained unchanged. Our results demonstrate beneficial effects concerning the antioxidant potential of plasma as well as biomarkers related to ageing even after short term supplementation of diet with NucleVital®Q10 Complex.

  15. Efficacy of micronutrient supplementation on skin aging and seasonal variation: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study

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    Fanian F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ferial Fanian,1,2 Sophie Mac-Mary,3 Adeline Jeudy,1,2 Thomas Lihoreau,1,2 Rafat Messikh,1,2 Jean-Paul Ortonne,4 Jean-Marie Sainthillier,3 Ahmed Elkhyat,1,2 Alexandre Guichard,1,2 Kamran Hejazi Kenari,1,2 Philippe Humbert1,2,5,61Center for Studies and Research on the Integument (CERT, Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; 2Clinical Investigation Center, CIC-BT 506, CHRU Besançon, France; 3SKINEXIGENCE, University Hospital of Jean Minjoz, Besançon, France; 4Department of Dermatology, University Hospital of L'archet, Nice, France; 5University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; 6INSERM 1098, Structure Fédérative de Recherche, Besançon, FranceBackground: Several studies have confirmed dramatic changes in skin surface parameters during the winter months. Although there are many studies supporting the positive effects of topical treatment, there are no published studies demonstrating the effects of oral supplementation in the prevention of negative skin changes during winter. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an oral micronutrient supplement in preventing the negative effects of winter weather on skin quality using noninvasive biometrologic instruments.Methods: This study included 80 healthy female volunteers aged 35–55 years with phototype II–IV skin. Randomization was balanced. Two tablets of a micronutrient supplement (Perfectil® Platinum or placebo were administered once daily for 4 months. The volunteers were examined at baseline, after 4 months, and 6 weeks after termination of treatment (month 5.5. The evaluation included skin microrelief by Visioscan® as the main outcome, and the secondary outcomes were results on standard macrophotography, skin tension by Reviscometer®, skin high-frequency ultrasound, and self-assessment.Results: For all pseudoroughness and microrelief indicators, there was a significant increase from baseline to month 4 in the placebo group (P<0

  16. Impact of foliar application of nano micronutrient fertilizers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the growth and yield components of barley under supplemental irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI; Tahereh AMANZADEH; Sabaghnia, Naser; Shahryar DASHTI

    2016-01-01

    Nano-fertilizers are new generation of the synthetic fertilizers which contain readily available nutrients in nano scale range. Nano fertilizers are preferred largely due to their efficiency and environment friendly nature compared to conventional chemical fertilizers. To evaluate the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient nano-fertilizer (iron and zinc) and nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2) solution on grain yield and its components in barley under supplemental irrigation conditions, a field e...

  17. Micronutrient supplementation adherence and influence on the prevalences of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies in preemies with a corrected age of six months

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    Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de Freitas

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze adherence to the recommended iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines for preemies, the factors associated with this adherence, and the influence of adherence on the occurrence of anemia and iron, zinc and vitamin A deficiencies. METHODS: This prospective cohort study followed 58 preemies born in 2014 until they reached six months corrected age. The preemies were followed at a referral secondary health service and represented 63.7% of the preterm infants born that year. Outcomes of interest included high or low adherence to iron, zinc and multivitamin supplementation guidelines; prevalence of anemia; and prevalences of iron, zinc, and vitamin A deficiencies. The prevalence ratios were calculated by Poisson regression. RESULTS: Thirty-eight (65.5% preemies presented high adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines. At six months of corrected age, no preemie had vitamin A deficiency. The prevalences of anemia, iron deficiency and zinc deficiency were higher in the low-adherence group but also concerning in the high-adherence group. Preemies with low adherence to micronutrient supplementation guidelines were 2.5 times more likely to develop anemia and 3.1 times more likely to develop zinc deficiency. Low maternal education level increased the likelihood of nonadherence to all three supplements by 2.2 times. CONCLUSIONS: Low maternal education level was independently associated with low adherence to iron, zinc and vitamin A supplementation guidelines in preemies, which impacted the prevalences of anemia and iron and zinc deficiencies at six months of corrected age.

  18. Effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on impetigo in infants in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darmstadt, G.L.; Osendarp, S.J.M.; Ahmed, S.; Feldman, C.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Baqui, A.H.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Fuchs, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the effects of maternal zinc supplementation on skin infections among infants in poor urban areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted among 199 and 221 Bangladeshi infants whose mothers were administered 30 mg daily of zinc

  19. Compliance to micronutrient supplementation in children 3 to 24 months of age from a semi-rural community in Mexico

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    Fernando López-Flores

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify associated factors to compliance for multiple micronutrient (MM or iron and vitamin A (IVITA supplementation, in children (3 to 24 months old. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A database (n=465 children from a randomized, controlled, clinical trial, carried out in a semi-rural setting in Mexico, was analyzed. The compliance rate of MM and IVITA supplements was calculated. Adequate compliance rate (AC>80%, and its association with children and households characteristics, was determined. RESULTS: The compliance mean was high (MM:78.2%, IVITA:80.1%; pOBJETIVO: Identificar factores asociados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos con micronutrimentos múltiples (MM o con hierro y vitamina A (FEVITA en niños (80% y su asociación con varias características. RESULTADOS: El cumplimiento fue alto (MM: 78.2%, FEVITA: 80.1%; p<0.05. Los momios de CA fueron 59% mayores en niños del grupo FEVITA que en MM (p=0.052. Escolaridad materna (p<0.001, peso al nacer del niño (p=0.003, porcentaje de tiempo con tos (p<0.001 y con fiebre (p=0.024 y marginalmente, la condición indígena materna (p=0.071 se asociaron con el CA. CONCLUSIONES: La alta tasa de cumplimiento fue consistente con otros estudios. Es necesaria mayor investigación sobre factores fisiológicos, culturales, sociales y operativos relacionados con el cumplimiento del consumo de suplementos.

  20. KAJIAN INTERAKSI ZAT BESI DENGAN ZAT GIZI MIKRO LAIN DALAM SUPLEMENTASI (REVIEW OF INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IRON AND OTHER MICRONUTRIENTS IN SUPPLEMENTATION Endi Ridwan1

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    Endi Ridwan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Micronutrients play a necessary and important role in the metabolism. One way to improve micronutrient deficiency condition is by supplementing these nutrients, both single or in combination. The impact of nutritional supplementation with a combination of two substances is the interaction of the nutrients, either synergistic or antagonistic. Some interactions of iron with other micronutrients, such as the iron with zinc, vitamin A, copper and vitamin C that are commonly found in several studies shows that iron supplementation with zinc causes a synergistic effect when they are  given along with food and drink. However, iron and zinc complete each other if they are given only with drinks. Supplementation of iron combined with vitamin A produce a synergistic Interaction. This supplementation can increase the levels of iron and vitamin A simultaneously. Iron and copper can not be given in combination because they compete in the process of absorption in the intestine. The combine supplementation of iron and vitamin C has a significant impact in increasing the iron status of anemia subjects. The supplementation of combine nutrition should consider the condition of the subject, food consumption, mode of administration and the absorption of these nutrients in the body. Keywords: iron, other micronutrients, supplementation, interaction, administration     ABSTRAK Zat gizi mikro sangat diperlukan dan berperan penting dalam metabolisme tubuh. Salah satu cara untuk memperbaiki kekurangan zat gizi mikro adalah dengan suplementasi zat gizi tersebut secara tunggal atau kombinasi. Dampak dari suplementasi kombinasi dua zat gizi adalah terjadinya interaksi dari kedua zat gizi, baik secara sinergis ataupun antagonis. Beberapa interaksi zat besi dengan zat gizi mikro lain, seperti antara zat besi dengan zat seng (zinc, vitamin A, tembaga dan vitamin C yang sering dijumpai dalam beberapa penelitian mengungkapkan bahwa suplementasi zat besi dengan zinc

  1. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuetz, Wolfgang; Carrara, Verena I; Mc Gready, Rose; Lee, Sue J; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Po, Basi; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Grune, Tilman; Biesalski, Hans K; Nosten, François H

    2016-01-26

    Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF), supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN) supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533) and 2006 (n = 515) were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil) and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP) and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  2. Impact of Food Rations and Supplements on Micronutrient Status by Trimester of Pregnancy: Cross-Sectional Studies in the Maela Refugee Camp in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient fortified flour (MFF, supplementary food rations and micronutrient (MN supplements may prevent deficiencies among pregnant women. Objectives of cross-sectional surveys in 2004 (n = 533 and 2006 (n = 515 were to assess the impact of new food rations (flour, oil and supplements on MN status by trimester of pregnancy in the Maela refugee camp. Hemoglobin, iron status, zinc, retinol, β-carotene and tryptophan decreased, while α-/γ-tocopherol and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF increased from first to third trimester. In 2006, mean zinc and α-tocopherol for each trimester was significantly higher than in 2004. The weeks of supplemented thiamine and folic acid were positively correlated with thiamine diphosphate (TDP and 5-MTHF, but not for ferrous sulfate as iron deficiency was observed in 38.5% of third-trimester women. Frequent consumption of fish paste and owning a garden or animal were associated with significantly higher iron status, retinol, β-carotene, and 5-MTHF. In conclusion, MFF and supplementary oil were most likely to explain improved zinc and α-tocopherol status, while thiamine and folate supplements ensured high TDP and 5-MTHF in late pregnancy. MN supplements, MN-rich staple food, small gardens, and programs to improve iron compliance are promising strategies to prevent MN deficiencies during pregnancy in vulnerable populations.

  3. Implications of US Nutrition Facts Label Changes on Micronutrient Density of Fortified Foods and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBurney, Michael I; Hartunian-Sowa, Sonia; Matusheski, Nathan V

    2017-06-01

    The US FDA published new nutrition-labeling regulations in May 2016. For the first time since the implementation of the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, the Daily Value (DV) for most vitamins will change, as will the units of measurement used in nutrition labeling for some vitamins. For some food categories, the Reference Amounts Customarily Consumed (RACCs) will increase to reflect portions commonly consumed on a single occasion. These regulatory changes are now effective, and product label changes will be mandatory beginning 26 July 2018. This commentary considers the potential impact of these regulatory changes on the vitamin and mineral contents of foods and dietary supplements. Case studies examined potential effects on food fortification and nutrient density. The updated DVs may lead to a reduction in the nutrient density of foods and dietary supplements with respect to 8 vitamins (vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B-6, vitamin B-12, biotin, and pantothenic acid) and 6 minerals (zinc, selenium, copper, chromium, molybdenum, and chloride), and have mixed effects on 2 vitamins where the amount required per serving is affected by chemical structure (i.e., form) (natural vitamin E compared with synthetic vitamin E and folic acid compared with folate). Despite an increased DV for vitamin D, regulations limit food fortification. The adoption of Dietary Folate Equivalents for folate labeling may lead to reductions in the quantity of folic acid voluntarily added per RACC. Finally, because of increased RACCs in some food categories to reflect portions that people typically eat at one time, the vitamin and mineral density of these foods may be affected adversely. In totality, the United States is entering an era in which the need to monitor dietary intake patterns and nutritional status is unprecedented. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Plasma Micronutrient Concentrations Are Altered by Antiretroviral Therapy and Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements in Lactating HIV-Infected Malawian Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Adair, Linda S; Allen, Lindsay H; Shahab-Ferdows, Setarah; Hampel, Daniela; Chasela, Charles S; Tegha, Gerald; Daza, Eric J; Corbett, Amanda; Davis, Nicole L; Kamwendo, Deborah; Kourtis, Athena P; van der Horst, Charles M; Jamieson, Denise J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of antiretroviral therapy with or without micronutrient supplementation on the micronutrient concentrations of HIV-infected lactating women in resource-constrained settings. Objective: We examined associations of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) with concentrations of selected micronutrients in HIV-infected Malawian women at 24 wk postpartum. Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–based triple therapy. LNS (140 g/d) met energy and micronutrient requirements of lactation. Multivariable linear regression tested the association of HAART and LNS, plus their interaction, with micronutrient concentrations, controlling for season, baseline viral load, and baseline CD4 count. Results: We found significant HAART by LNS interactions for folate (P = 0.051), vitamin B-12 (P < 0.001), and transferrin receptors (TfRs) (P = 0.085). HAART was associated with lower folate (with LNS: −27%, P < 0.001; without LNS: −12%, P = 0.040) and higher TfR concentrations (with LNS: +14%, P = 0.004; without LNS: +28%, P < 0.001), indicating iron deficiency. LNS increased folate (with HAART: +17%, P = 0.037; without HAART: +39%, P < 0.001) and decreased TfR concentrations (with HAART only: −12%, P = 0.023). HAART was associated with lower vitamin B-12 concentrations only when LNS was present (−18%, P = 0.001), whereas LNS increased vitamin B-12 only when no HAART was present (+27%, P < 0.001). HAART, but not LNS, was associated with higher retinol-binding protein (RBP; +10%, P = 0.007). We detected no association of HAART or LNS with selenium, ferritin, or hemoglobin. Conclusion: The association of HAART with lower folate, iron

  5. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    OpenAIRE

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and increased risk of diarrhoea and respiratory infections. Micronutrient deficiencies are common in HIV-infected children. The poor growth, diarrhoea and respiratory infections seen in HIV-infected children may be partly ...

  6. Micronutrients and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Caroline H D; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Rao, Shobha; Davies, Anna A; Brown, Nick; Farrant, Hannah J W

    2003-05-01

    Fetal undernutrition affects large numbers of infants in developing countries, with adverse consequences for their immediate survival and lifelong health. It manifests as intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), defined as birth weight fetus is nourished by a complex supply line that includes the mother's diet and absorption, endocrine status and metabolism, cardiovascular adaptations to pregnancy and placental function. Micronutrients are essential for growth, and maternal micronutrient deficiency, frequently multiple in developing countries, may be an important cause of IUGR. Supplementation of undernourished mothers with micronutrients has several benefits but there is little hard evidence of improved fetal growth. However, this has been inadequately tested. Most trials have only used single micronutrients and many were inconclusive because of methodological problems. Several food-based studies (some uncontrolled) suggest benefits from improving maternal dietary quality with micronutrient-dense foods. One trial of a multivitamin supplement (HIV-positive mothers, Tanzania) showed increased birth weight and fewer fetal deaths. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials of adequate sample size and including measures of effectiveness are needed in populations at high risk of micronutrient deficiency and IUGR and should include food-based interventions and better measurements of fetal growth, maternal metabolism, and long-term outcomes in the offspring.

  7. Compliance with Iron-Folate Supplement and Associated Factors among Antenatal Care Attendant Mothers in Misha District, South Ethiopia: Community Based Cross-Sectional Study

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    Abinet Arega Sadore

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In Ethiopia, higher proportions of pregnant women are anemic. Despite the efforts to reduce iron deficiency anemia during pregnancy, only few women took an iron supplement as recommended. Thus, this study aimed to assess compliance with iron-folate supplement and associated factors among antenatal care attendant mothers in Misha district, South Ethiopia. Method. Community based cross-sectional study supported with in-depth interview was conducted from March 1 to March 30, 2015. The sample size was determined using single population proportion to 303. Simple random sampling technique was used to select the study participants. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Results. The compliance rate was found to be 39.2%. Mothers knowledge of anemia (AOR = 4.451, 95% CI = (2.027,9.777, knowledge of iron-folate supplement (AOR = 3.509, 95% CI = (1.442,8.537, and counseling on iron-folate supplement (AOR = 4.093, 95% CI = (2.002,8.368 were significantly associated with compliance to iron-folate supplement. Conclusions. Compliance rate of iron-folate supplementation during pregnancy remains very low. This study showed that providing women with clear instructions about iron-folate tablet intake and educating them on the health benefits of the iron-folate tablets can increase compliance with iron-folate supplementation.

  8. Effects of prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation on child growth from birth to 54 months of age: a randomized trial in Bangladesh

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    Khan Ashraful

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of information on the optimal timing of food supplementation to malnourished pregnant women and possible combined effects of food and multiple micronutrient supplementations (MMS on their offspring's growth. We evaluated the effects of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on postnatal child growth. The hypothesis was that prenatal MMS and early invitation to food supplementation would increase physical growth in the offspring during 0-54 months and a combination of these interventions would further improve these outcomes. Methods In the large, randomized MINIMat trial (Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab, Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were enrolled between November 2001 and October 2003 and their children were followed until March 2009. Participants were randomized into six groups comprising 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe30F, 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid (Fe60F or MMS combined with either an early (immediately after identification of pregnancy or a later usual (at the time of their choosing, i.e., usual care in this community program invitation to food supplementation. The anthropometry of 3267 children was followed from birth to 54 months, and 2735 children were available for analysis at 54 months. Results There were no differences in characteristics of mothers and households among the different intervention groups. The average birth weight was 2694 g and birth length was 47.7 cm, with no difference among intervention groups. Early invitation to food supplementation (in comparison with usual invitation reduced the proportion of stunting from early infancy up to 54 months for boys (p = 0.01, but not for girls (p = 0.31. MMS resulted in more stunting than standard Fe60F (p = 0.02. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on the growth outcome. Conclusions Early food supplementation in pregnancy reduced the occurrence of stunting during 0

  9. Dietary supplements for the lactating adolescent mother: influence on plasma micronutrients Suplementos dietéticos para la madre adolescente en periodo de lactancia: su influencia en micronutrientes del plasma

    OpenAIRE

    A. M. Correia-Santos; K. Bolognini Pereira; R. Erthal Santelli; G. Teles Boaventura; V. Blondet de Azeredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The nutritional status of micronutrients in lactating adolescent women is crucial to guarantee an adequate secretion of these in breast milk and, consequently, an adequate nutritional status of children. Hence, more attention should be given to micronutrient status of adolescent mother who breastfeed. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of multimicronutrients supplementation upon nutritional status of iron, copper, zinc and calcium of lactating adolescent mother from low ...

  10. Provision of lipid-based nutrient supplements to Honduran children increases their dietary macro- and micronutrient intake without displacing other foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Reinhart, Greg A; Bentley, Margaret E

    2015-12-01

    Inadequate energy intake and poor diet quality are important causes of chronic child undernutrition. Strategies for improving diet quality using lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) are currently being tested in several countries. To date, information on children's dietary intakes during LNS use is available only from Africa. In this study, we collected 24-h dietary recalls at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months on Honduran children (n = 298) participating in a cluster-randomised trial of LNS. Generalised estimating equations were used to examine differences in number of servings of 12 food groups in the LNS and control arms, and multi-level mixed effects models were used to compare macro- and micronutrient intakes. Models accounted for clustering and adjusted for child's age, season and breastfeeding status. Mean daily servings of 12 food groups did not differ by study arm at baseline and remained similar throughout the study with the exception of groups that were partially or entirely supplied by LNS (nuts and nut butters, fats, and sweets). Baseline intakes of energy, fat, carbohydrates, protein, folate and vitamin A, but not vitamin B12, iron and zinc were lower in the LNS than control arm. The change in all macro- and micronutrients from baseline to each study visit was larger for the LNS arm than the control, except for carbohydrates from baseline to 9 months. These findings indicate that LNS improved the macro- and micronutrient intakes of young non-malnourished Honduran children without replacing other foods in their diet.

  11. Oral Contraceptive Use, Micronutrient Deficiency, and Obesity among Premenopausal Females in Korea: The Necessity of Dietary Supplements and Food Intake Improvement.

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    Boyoung Park

    Full Text Available This study addressed the associations between oral contraceptive (OC use and obesity as measured by recording the body mass index (BMI of premenopausal females, and possible interactions with micronutrient intake were considered. A group of 39,189 premenopausal females aged 35-59 were included in the analysis; they were in the Health Examinee cohort. Participant BMIs were calculated from anthropometric measurements, and females with a BMI≥25kg/m2 were considered obese. Individual OC use, age at first OC use, duration of OC use, nutrient intake, and other covariates were measured with a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression with an interaction term was applied to identify the odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI between OC use and obesity along with consideration of micronutrient intake interactions. OC use is associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.20, and females who used OCs for more than 6 months over their lifetimes were more likely to be obese (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.32 compared with those who used OCs for <6 months. There were interaction effects between phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, niacin, vitamin C intake and total duration of OC use on being obesity (P-value<0.05. When stratified by micronutrient intake, the associations between total OC use duration and obesity were present only among those with calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, B1, B2, C, niacin, and folate intakes below the recommended levels. Efforts to estimate nutrient intake and prevent micronutrient depletion with supplements or food should be considered by clinicians for females who take OC for a long period.

  12. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased the prevalence of anaemia and improved iron status, whereas weekly iron supplementation only improved iron status in Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Nguyen Trung; Sandalinas, Fanny; de Sesmaisons, Agnès; Laillou, Arnaud; Tam, Nguyen Phuong; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Bruyeron, Olivier; Wieringa, Frank Tammo; Berger, Jacques

    2012-10-28

    In Vietnam, nutrition interventions do not target school children despite a high prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies. The present randomised, placebo-controlled study evaluated the impact of providing school children (n 403) with daily multiple micronutrient-fortified biscuits (FB) or a weekly Fe supplement (SUP) on anaemia and Fe deficiency. Micronutrient status was assessed by concentrations of Hb, and plasma ferritin (PF), transferrin receptor (TfR), Zn and retinol. After 6 months of intervention, children receiving FB or SUP had a significantly better Fe status when compared with the control children (C), indicated by higher PF (FB: geometric mean 36·9 (95% CI 28·0, 55·4) μg/l; SUP: geometric mean 46·0 (95% CI 33·0, 71·7) μg/l; C: geometric mean 34·4 (95% CI 15·2, 51·2) μg/l; P children receiving FB (mean 5·6 (sd 2·2) mg/kg body weight) and SUP (mean 6·1 (sd 2·5) mg/kg body weight) compared with the C group (mean 4·2 (sd 3·3) mg/kg body weight, P Children receiving FB had better weight-for-height Z-scores after the intervention than children receiving the SUP (P = 0·009). Vitamin A deficiency at baseline modified the intervention effect, with higher Hb concentrations in vitamin A-deficient children receiving FB but not in those receiving the SUP. This indicates that vitamin A deficiency is implicated in the high prevalence of anaemia in Vietnamese school children, and that interventions should take other deficiencies besides Fe into account to improve Hb concentrations. Provision of biscuits fortified with multiple micronutrients is effective in reducing anaemia prevalence in school children.

  13. Micronutrient deficiency in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhan, M K; Sommerfelt, H; Strand, T

    2001-05-01

    Malnutrition increases morbidity and mortality and affects physical growth and development, some of these effects resulting from specific micronutrient deficiencies. While public health efforts must be targeted to improve dietary intakes in children through breast feeding and appropriate complementary feeding, there is a need for additional measures to increase the intake of certain micronutrients. Food-based approaches are regarded as the long-term strategy for improving nutrition, but for certain micronutrients, supplementation, be it to the general population or to high risk groups or as an adjunct to treatment must also be considered. Our understanding of the prevalence and consequences of iron, vitamin A and iodine deficiency in children and pregnant women has advanced considerably while there is still a need to generate more knowledge pertaining to many other micronutrients, including zinc, selenium and many of the B-vitamins. For iron and vitamin A, the challenge is to improve the delivery to target populations. For disease prevention and growth promotion, the need to deliver safe but effective amounts of micronutrients such as zinc to children and women of fertile age can be determined only after data on deficiency prevalence becomes available and the studies on mortality reduction following supplementation are completed. Individual or multiple micronutrients must be used as an adjunct to treatment of common infectious diseases and malnutrition only if the gains are substantial and the safety window sufficiently wide. The available data for zinc are promising with regard to the prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia. It should be emphasized that there must be no displacement of important treatment such as ORS in acute diarrhea by adjunct therapy such as zinc. Credible policy making requires description of not only the clinical effects but also the underlying biological mechanisms. As findings of experimental studies are not always feasible to extrapolate to

  14. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and inc

  15. Multi-micronutrient supplementation in HIV-infected South African children : effect on nutritional s tatus, diarrhoea and respiratory infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mda, S.

    2011-01-01

      Background: The nutritional status of HIV-infected children is reported to be poor. Diarrhoea and acute respiratory infections tend to be more common and severe in HIV-infected children than in uninfected ones. Deficiencies of micronutrients may result in poor growth and

  16. The impact of micronutrient supplementation in alcohol-exposed pregnancies on information processing skills in Ukrainian infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives: The role that micronutrients play in ameliorating the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure was explored in a clinical trial conducted in the Ukraine. Cardiac orienting responses during a habituation/dishabituation learning paradigm were obtained from 6-12 month-olds to assess neurodevelop...

  17. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12 reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Kemse

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids. L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. RESULTS: Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (p<0.01 for both systolic and diastolic BP; lower (p<0.01 pup weight; higher dam plasma homocysteine (p<0.05 and dam and offspring malondialdehyde (MDA (p<0.01, lower (p<0.05 placental and offspring liver DHA and higher (p<0.01 tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-ά levels as compared to control. Individual micronutrient supplementation did not offer much benefit. In contrast, combined supplementation lowered systolic BP, homocysteine, MDA and placental TNF-ά levels in dams and liver MDA and protein carbonyl in the offspring as compared to PIH group. CONCLUSION: Key constituents of one carbon cycle (folic acid, vitamin B12 and DHA may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  18. Dietary intake and micronutrient status of adolescents: effect of vitamin and trace element supplementation on indices of status and performance in tests of verbal and non-verbal intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southon, S; Wright, A J; Finglas, P M; Bailey, A L; Loughridge, J M; Walker, A D

    1994-06-01

    Relationships between micronutrient intake and status, and micronutrient status and performance in tests of intelligence were investigated in a group of adolescents (13-14 years old). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record method, coupled with the collection of duplicate diets. Vitamin and trace mineral intakes calculated using food composition tables were compared with those obtained by direct analysis of duplicate diets. Micronutrient status was judged via a range of biochemical indices measured in blood samples taken after a 12-15 h fast. Blood samples were taken both before and after a 16-week period of vitamin and trace mineral supplementation. Individual tests of verbal and nonverbal intelligence were also performed pre- and post-supplementation. The results of this study indicate that the use of food table data may lead to substantial over- or underestimation of the intake of several micronutrients. In general, the total calculated or analysed amount of a specific micronutrient consumed did not adequately predict status, as judged by a range of biochemical indices. There were significant changes in status measurements over the 16-week study period, irrespective of supplementation, and these changes were markedly influenced by the initial status of the subject. There was no effect of supplementation on performance in tests of intelligence. However, there was a significant association between plasma ascorbic acid and initial non-verbal intelligence quotient (IQ) in the boys, and between whole blood glutathione peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9) activity and non-verbal and verbal IQ in both sexes. These findings are discussed in relation to other recent studies of the influence of micronutrient supplementation on the psychological performance of children.

  19. Oral Contraceptive Use, Micronutrient Deficiency, and Obesity among Premenopausal Females in Korea: The Necessity of Dietary Supplements and Food Intake Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2016-01-01

    This study addressed the associations between oral contraceptive (OC) use and obesity as measured by recording the body mass index (BMI) of premenopausal females, and possible interactions with micronutrient intake were considered. A group of 39,189 premenopausal females aged 35-59 were included in the analysis; they were in the Health Examinee cohort. Participant BMIs were calculated from anthropometric measurements, and females with a BMI≥25kg/m2 were considered obese. Individual OC use, age at first OC use, duration of OC use, nutrient intake, and other covariates were measured with a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression with an interaction term was applied to identify the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between OC use and obesity along with consideration of micronutrient intake interactions. OC use is associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.04-1.20), and females who used OCs for more than 6 months over their lifetimes were more likely to be obese (OR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.01-1.32) compared with those who used OCs for intake and total duration of OC use on being obesity (P-valueintake, the associations between total OC use duration and obesity were present only among those with calcium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin A, B1, B2, C, niacin, and folate intakes below the recommended levels. Efforts to estimate nutrient intake and prevent micronutrient depletion with supplements or food should be considered by clinicians for females who take OC for a long period.

  20. Increased Hyaluronan Acid Binding Ability of Spermatozoa Indicating a Better Maturity, Morphology, and Higher DNA Integrity After Micronutrient Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lipovac

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the hyaluronan-binding ability of spermatozoa is useful in predicting the ability of spermatozoa to fertilise oocytes during in vitro fertilisation (IVF. Recent publications discuss an influence of micronutrients on sperm quality. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effect of a non-prescription nutraceutical containing eight micronutrients on sperm-hyaluronan binding assay (SHBA values among males with idiopathic sub-/infertility, using an open comparative pilot study. The study took place at the Outpatient Fertility Centre IMI, Vienna, Austria, and involved 67 sub-/infertile males. Sub-/infertile males were invited to participate and take two daily capsules of the active compound for a 3-month period between the first and the follow-up semen analysis. Each capsule contained L-carnitine, L-arginine, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione, selenium, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, and folic acid (Profertil®. 40 sub-/infertile men receiving no active treatment served as controls; this was measured by change in SHBA after 3 months. It was found that SHBA values significantly increased after 3 months of treatment with the active compound, from a median baseline value of 56.0% to 74% (p<0.05. This represented a 19.7% increase compared to baseline, which was significantly higher than the 2.1% decrease observed in the control group. The rate of subjects displaying an increase in SHBA values after 3 months was significantly higher in the active group (74.6% versus 30.0%, p=0.0001, which showed that sub-/infertile men treated with the active micronutrient compound displayed increased SHBA ability. However, more research is necessary to get detailed information on this specific subject.

  1. Effect of vitamin D, calcium and multiple micronutrients supplementation on lipid profile in pre-menopausal Bangladeshi garment factory workers with hypovitaminosis D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Zahirul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Akhtaruzzaman, Mohammad; Kärkkäinen, Merja; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel

    2014-12-01

    Elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in sera are both well-known risk factors of coronary heart disease. Adequate vitamin D status is important for optimal function of many organs and tissues of our body. There is continuing controversy about the effect of adequate vitamin D consumption on serum lipids and lipoproteins. The present study assessed the effect of vitamin D, calcium and multiple micronutrients supplementation on the lipid profile in Bangladeshi young female garment factory workers who have hypovitaminosis D. This placebo-controlled intervention trial conducted over a period of one year randomly assigned a total of 200 apparently healthy subjects aged 16-36 years to 4 groups. The subjects received daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D (VD group) or 400 IU of vitamin D+600 mg of calcium lactate (VD-Ca group), or multiple micronutrients with 400 IU of vitamin-D+600 mg of calcium lactate (MMN-VD-Ca group), or the group consuming placebo (PL group). Serum concentrations of lipid and lipoprotein, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) were measured at baseline and after one year of follow-up. No significant changes in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were observed in the supplemented groups compared to the placebo group. Supplementation had a positive effect (p<0.05) on very low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triacylglycerol (TAG). A negative correlation between changes in serum iPTH and HDL-C was observed, which indicated that subjects with the greatest decline in S-iPTH had the greatest increase in HDL-C. The results suggest that consumption of adequate vitamin D with calcium or MMN for one-year may have no impact on serum lipid profile in the subjects studied. Longer-term clinical trials with different doses of supplemental vitamin D are warranted in evaluating the

  2. Effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognition through 2 y of age in rural Bangladesh: the JiVitA-3 Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Parul; Kim, Jeongyong; Mehra, Sucheta; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Ali, Hasmot; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Wu, Lee; Klemm, Rolf; Labrique, Alain B; West, Keith P

    2016-10-01

    Childhood undernutrition may have prenatal origins, and the impact of prenatal interventions on postnatal growth is not well known. We assessed the effects of prenatal multiple micronutrient (MM) supplementation on child growth and cognitive development. In a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Bangladesh, prenatal MM supplementation compared with iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation was examined for its impact on growth assessed longitudinally from birth up to 24 mo of age (n = 8529) and, in a subsample (n = 734), on cognitive function at 24 mo of age by use of the Bayley scales of infant and toddler development-third edition test. Prevalence of stunting at birth [length for age z score (LAZ): prenatal MM-exposed children sustained a higher mean predicted LAZ of ∼0.10 at 1 and 3 mo and 0.06 at 6 mo of age compared with children in the IFA group. Supplementation reduced the prevalence of stunting at 1 (RR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.92, 0.98) and 3 (RR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.94) mo of age. Differences between groups were absent by 6, 12, and 24 mo of age, when nearly 50% of children had stunted growth. Ponderal and linear growth velocities were somewhat slower from 3 to 12 mo of age in the MM group than in the IFA group, but not from 12 to 24 mo of age. There was no difference between groups on composite scores of cognition, language, and motor performance at 24 mo of age. In this Bangladeshi trial, maternal pre- and postnatal MM supplementation resulted in improvements in LAZ and reduction in stunting through 3 mo of age, but not thereafter and had no impact on cognitive and motor function at 2 y. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT000860470. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Micronutrients in Oncological Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Gröber

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional supplements are widely used among patients with cancer who perceive them to be anticancer and antitoxicity agents. Depending on the type of malignancy and the gender 30%–90% of the cancer patients supplement their diets with antioxidant and immuno-stabilizing micronutrients, such as selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin D, often without the knowledge of the treating physician. From the oncological viewpoint, there are justifiable concerns that dietary supplements decrease the effectiveness of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Recent studies, however, have provided increasing evidence that treatment is tolerated better—with an increase in patient compliance and a lower rate of treatment discontinuations—when micronutrients, such as selenium, are added as appropriate to the patient’s medication. Nutritional supplementation tailored to an individual’s background diet, genetics, tumor histology, and treatments may yield benefits in subsets of patients. Clinicians should have an open dialogue with patients about nutritional supplements. Supplement advice needs to be individualized and come from a credible source, and it is best communicated by the physician.

  4. Effect of maternal multiple micronutrient supplementation on fetal loss and infant death in Indonesia: a double-blind cluster-randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, A H; Jahari, A B; Sebayang, S K; Aditiawarman; Apriatni, M; Harefa, B; Muadz, H; Soesbandoro, S D A; Tjiong, R; Fachry, A; Shankar, A V; Atmarita; Prihatini, S; Sofia, G

    2008-01-19

    Maternal nutrient supplementation in developing countries is generally restricted to provision of iron and folic acid (IFA). Change in practice toward supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) has been hindered by little evidence of the effects of MMN on fetal loss and infant death. We assessed the effect of maternal supplementation with MMN, compared with IFA, on fetal loss and infant death in the setting of routine prenatal care services. In a double-blind cluster-randomised trial in Lombok, Indonesia, we randomly assigned 262 midwives to distribute IFA (n=15 ,86) or MMN (n=15,804) supplements to 31 290 pregnant women through government prenatal care services that were strengthened by training and community-based advocacy. Women obtained supplements, to be taken daily, every month from enrolment to 90 days post partum. The primary outcome was early infant mortality (deaths until 90 days post partum). Secondary outcomes were neonatal mortality, fetal loss (abortions and stillbirths), and low birthweight. Analysis was by intention to treat. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN34151616. Infants of women consuming MMN supplements had an 18% reduction in early infant mortality compared with those of women given IFA (35.5 deaths per 1000 livebirths vs 43 per 1000; relative risk [RR] 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.95, p=0.010). Infants whose mothers were undernourished (mid upper arm circumference <23.5 cm) or anaemic (haemoglobin <110 g/L) at enrolment had a reduction in early infant mortality of 25% (RR 0.75, 0.62-0.90, p=0.0021) and 38% (RR 0.62, 0.49-0.78, p<0.0001), respectively. Combined fetal loss and neonatal deaths were reduced by 11% (RR 0.89, 0.81-1.00, p=0.045), with significant effects in undernourished (RR 0.85, 0.73-0.98, p=0.022) or anaemic (RR 0.71, 0.58-0.87, p=0.0010) women. A cohort of 11 101 infants weighed within 1 h of birth showed a 14% (RR 0.86, 0.73-1.01, p=0.060) decreased risk of low

  5. A combined supplementation of omega-3 fatty acids and micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) reduces oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemse, Nisha G; Kale, Anvita A; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier studies have highlighted that an altered one carbon metabolism (vitamin B12, folic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid) is associated with preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is also known to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. The current study examines whether maternal folic acid, vitamin B12 and omega-3 fatty acid supplementation given either individually or in combination can ameliorate the oxidative stress markers in a rat model of pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Pregnant Wistar rats were assigned to control and five treatment groups: PIH; PIH + vitamin B12; PIH + folic acid; PIH + Omega-3 fatty acids and PIH + combined micronutrient supplementation (vitamin B12 + folic acid + omega-3 fatty acids). L-Nitroarginine methylester (L-NAME; 50 mg/kg body weight/day) was used to induce hypertension during pregnancy. Blood Pressure (BP) was recorded during pregnancy and dams were dissected at d20 of gestation. Animals from the PIH group demonstrated higher (pvitamin B12 and DHA) may play a role in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation in preeclampsia.

  6. An Animal-Source Food Supplement Increases Micronutrient Intakes and Iron Status among Reproductive-Age Women in Rural Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Andrew G; Ngu, Tu; Nga, Hoang T; Quyen, Phi N; Hong Anh, Pham T; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the impact of local animal-source foods (ASFs) on the nutritional status of reproductive-age women in developing countries.Objective: We hypothesized that a midmorning snack of local ASF for 6 mo would reduce dietary micronutrient deficiencies [usual intake less than the estimated average requirement (EAR)] and improve blood biomarkers of iron, zinc, and vitamins A and B-12 status among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women in rural Vietnam.Methods: One hundred seventeen women, 18-30 y old, were randomly assigned to receive either an ASF (mean: 144 kcal, 8.9 mg Fe, 2.7 mg Zn, 1050 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 5.5 μg vitamin B-12) or a control snack (mean: 150 kcal, 2.0 mg Fe, 0.9 mg Zn, 0 μg retinoic acid equivalent vitamin A, and 0 μg vitamin B-12) 5 d/wk for 6 mo. Usual nutrient intakes were estimated by repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Blood samples were collected at baseline and 3 and 6 mo. Because of the relation between nutritional status and inflammation, serum C-reactive protein, α-1-acid-glycoprotein, and urinary tract infections (UTIs) were also monitored.Results: Eighty-nine women (47 in the ASF group and 42 controls) completed the study. In the ASF group, intakes of iron and vitamins A and B-12 below the EAR were eliminated, and the prevalence of a low zinc intake was reduced to 9.6% compared with 64.7% in controls (P vitamin B-12 concentrations did not differ. UTI relative risk was 3.9 (P < 0.05) among women assigned to the ASF group who had a low whole-body iron status at baseline.Conclusions: Adding a small amount of locally produced ASF to the diets of reproductive-age Vietnamese women improved micronutrient intakes and iron status. However, the increased UTI incidence in women in the ASF group with initially lower iron stores warrants further investigation. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Individual and structural environmental influences on utilization of iron and folic acid supplementation among pregnant women in Harare, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinago, Chiwoneso B; Annang Ingram, Lucy; Blake, Christine E; Frongillo, Edward A

    2017-07-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Zimbabweans with serious health and social implications. Due to a lack of a national micronutrient food fortification policy, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Care established a policy for the prevention of maternal micronutrient deficiencies, which centres on pregnant women receiving daily iron and folic acid (IFA) at their first antenatal care visit and throughout pregnancy. Despite these efforts, utilization of IFA supplementation in pregnancy in Zimbabwe is low. This study aimed to understand the experiences and knowledge of IFA supplementation among pregnant women and healthcare workers in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the influence of health-service and social environments on utilization. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted in Shona and English, with pregnant women (n = 24) and healthcare workers (n = 14) providing direct antenatal care services to pregnant women in two high-density community clinics. Data were analysed thematically using NVivo 10. Influences on utilization were at the individual and structural environmental levels. Reasons for low utilization of IFA supplementation included forgetting to take IFA, side effects, misconceptions about IFA, limited access to nutrition information, delayed entry or non-uptake of antenatal care and social norms of pregnant women for IFA supplementation. Utilization was enhanced by knowledge of risks and benefits of supplementation, fear of negative health complications with non-utilization, family support and healthcare worker recommendation for supplementation. Study findings can inform approaches to strengthen micronutrient supplementation utilization to improve the micronutrient status of pregnant women to decrease maternal mortality and improve overall maternal and child health in Zimbabwe. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men. Effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vézina, D; Mauffette, F; Roberts, K D; Bleau, G

    1996-01-01

    In order to verify the hypothesis that selenium (Se) and vitamin E (Vit E) could improve male fertility, nine oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men were supplemented for a period of 6 mo with Se and Vit E. Compared to the baseline period (presupplementation) of 4 mo, statistically significant increases were observed for Se and Vit E levels, sperm motility, percent live, and percent normal spermatozoa. These improvements are likely to be "supplementation-dependent," since all of the parameters returned to baseline values during the posttreatment period. None of the couples reported a pregnancy during the study. The HPLC analysis conducted on the serum of one of the patients showed the existence of at least six different Se-containing peaks, whose Se content was affected by supplementation. The mechanism(s) involved in these improvements of semen parameters is presently under investigation.

  9. Early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation in pregnancy does not affect body composition in offspring at 54 months: follow-up of the MINIMat randomised trial, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Ashraful Islam; Kabir, Iqbal; Hawkesworth, Sophie; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Arifeen, Shams; Frongillo, Edward A; Persson, Lars Åke

    2015-07-01

    Growth patterns in early life are associated with later health. The effect of nutrition during in utero development on later body composition is unclear. We evaluated whether prenatal early invitation to food and/or multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) in pregnancy has an effect on offspring body composition at 54 months of age. In Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab trial (ISRCTN16581394) in Bangladesh, 4436 pregnant women were randomised into six equally sized groups: double-masked supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or 60 mg Fe and 400 μg folic acid, or MMS (15 micronutrients), was combined with a randomised early invitation (around 9 weeks) or a usual invitation (around 20 weeks) to start food supplementation (608 kcal 6 days per week). At 54 months, the body composition of the offspring was assessed by leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis. Of the 3267 live singletons with birth anthropometry, 2290 children were measured at 54 months, representing 70% of the live births. There was no interaction between the food and micronutrient supplementation on body composition outcomes. There were no significant differences in a range of anthropometric and body composition measurements, including weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, head circumference, skinfold thickness, and fat mass and fat-free mass between the different prenatal food and micronutrient groups using an intention-to-treat analysis. This analysis shows that early invitation to food supplementation and MMS provided to rural Bangladeshi women during pregnancy did not affect offspring body composition at 54 months of age. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effect of preventive supplementation with zinc and other micronutrients on malaria and diarrhoeal morbidity in African children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenemans, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Zinc is important for innate and adaptive immune responses to infection. Preventive zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the incidence of acute diarrhoea by 20%. Few trials have evaluated its effect against malaria. Because trial results for both outcomes are inconsistent,

  11. Maternal knowledge and use of a micronutrient supplement was improved with a programmatically feasible intervention in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvecchio, Anabelle; Pelto, Gretel H; Escalante, Erika; Monterrubio, Erick; Habicht, J P; Nava, Fernanda; Villanueva, Maria-Angeles; Safdie, Margarita; Rivera, J A

    2007-02-01

    In Mexico, the potential impact on child malnutrition from a nutritional supplement (papilla) delivered through a conditional transfer program (Oportunidades) was attenuated by problems of household utilization. A behavioral change through communication intervention was developed to improve supplement utilization. Our study assessed the efficacy of this intervention through the results of a randomized trial. In 2 states (Veracruz and Chiapas) 2 clusters of communities were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. Data were obtained from 176-198 mothers in intervention and control communities using a survey questionnaire at preintervention baseline and at a 5-mo follow-up. Concordance between reported and observed behaviors was examined through an observational substudy. The 4 behavioral recommendations were: 1) prepare papilla as a pap; 2) administer the preparation every day; 3) administer it between breakfast and dinner; and 4) administer it only to target children. The intervention resulted in a significant increase (POportunidades Program.

  12. The micronutrient supplements, zinc sulphate and folic acid, did not ameliorate sperm functional parameters in oligoasthenoteratozoospermic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raigani, M; Yaghmaei, B; Amirjannti, N; Lakpour, N; Akhondi, M M; Zeraati, H; Hajihosseinal, M; Sadeghi, M R

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of folic acid and zinc sulphate supplementation on the improvement of sperm function in subfertile oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) men. Eighty-three OAT men participated in a 16-week intervention randomised, double-blind clinical trial with daily treatment of folic acid (5 mg day(-1) ) and zinc sulphate (220 mg day(-1) ), or placebo. Before and after treatment, semen and blood samples were obtained for determining sperm concentration, motility, and morphology, sperm viability, sperm mitochondrial function, sperm chromatin status using toluidine blue, aniline blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining; and semen and blood folate, zinc, B12 , total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. Sperm concentration (×10(6)  ml(-1) ) increased in subfertile men receiving the combined treatment of folic acid and zinc sulphate and also in the group receiving only folic acid treatment; however, it was not statistically significant (P = 0.056 and P = 0.05, respectively). Sperm chromatin integrity (%) increased significantly in subfertile men receiving only zinc sulphate treatment (P = 0.048). However, this improvement in sperm quality was not significant after adjusting placebo effect. This study showed that zinc sulphate and folic acid supplementation did not ameliorate sperm quality in infertile men with severely compromised sperm parameters, OAT. Male infertility is a multifactorial disorder, and also nutritional factors play an important role in results of administration of supplementation on sperm parameters. However, these results should be confirmed by multiple studies in larger populations of OAT men.

  13. Apolipoprotein E4 influences growth and cognitive responses to micronutrient supplementation in shantytown children from northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet S Mitter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Apolipoprotein E4 may benefit children during early periods of life when the body is challenged by infection and nutritional decline. We examined whether apolipoprotein E4 affects intestinal barrier function, improving short-term growth and long-term cognitive outcomes in Brazilian shantytown children. METHODS: A total of 213 Brazilian shantytown children with below-median height-for-age z-scores (HAZ received 200,000 IU of retinol (every four months, zinc (40 mg twice weekly, or both for one year, with half of each group receiving glutamine supplementation for 10 days. Height-for-age z-scores, weight-for-age z-scores, weight-forheight z-scores, and lactulose:mannitol ratios were assessed during the initial four months of treatment. An average of four years (range 1.4-6.6 later, the children underwent cognitive testing to evaluate non-verbal intelligence, coding, verbal fluency, verbal learning, and delayed verbal learning. Apolipoprotein E4 carriage was determined by PCR analysis for 144 children. RESULTS: Thirty-seven children were apolipoprotein E4(+, with an allele frequency of 13.9%. Significant associations were found for vitamin A and glutamine with intestinal barrier function. Apolipoprotein E4(+ children receiving glutamine presented significant positive Pearson correlations between the change in height-for-age z-scores over four months and delayed verbal learning, along with correlated changes over the same period in weight-for-age z-scores and weight-for-height z-scores associated with non-verbal intelligence quotients. There was a significant correlation between vitamin A supplementation of apolipoprotein E4(+ children and improved delta lactulose/mannitol. Apolipoprotein E4(- children, regardless of intervention, exhibited negative Pearson correlations between the change in lactulose-to-mannitol ratio over four months and verbal learning and non-verbal intelligence. CONCLUSIONS: During development, apolipoprotein E4 may

  14. Women's situation for micronutrients supplementation during pregnancy and its effects on pregnancy outcome%妇女孕期增补微量营养素的情况及其对妊娠结局的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸秀英; 杨芬

    2016-01-01

    A present, the global widespread micronutrient deficiencies. Especially during pregnancy, unreasonable nutrition structure, not only affect maternal health, may also directly affect fetal growth and development. Therefore, understanding micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy, and its influence on pregnancy outcome, is particularly important. This article has carried on the elaboration from two aspects: the status quo of micronutrient supplements during pregnancy at home and abroad, and its effect on pregnancy outcome.%目前全球广泛存在微量营养素缺乏的问题,特别是在孕期,不合理的营养结构不仅会影响母体自身的健康状况,还会直接影响胎儿的生长和发育。因此了解孕期微量营养素的补充情况及其对妊娠结局的影响显得尤为重要。结合现有的研究报道,本文将从国内外孕期微量营养素补充的现况及其对妊娠结局影响两个方面进行论述。

  15. Impact of foliar application of nano micronutrient fertilizers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on the growth and yield components of barley under supplemental irrigation

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    Mohsen JANMOHAMMADI

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-fertilizers are new generation of the synthetic fertilizers which contain readily available nutrients in nano scale range. Nano fertilizers are preferred largely due to their efficiency and environment friendly nature compared to conventional chemical fertilizers. To evaluate the effects of foliar spray of micronutrient nano-fertilizer (iron and zinc and nano-titanium dioxide (nTiO2 solution on grain yield and its components in barley under supplemental irrigation conditions, a field experiment was carried out in the semi-arid highland region of Maragheh, Iran. Barley plants were separately treated with of chelated nano-scale zinc oxide (ZnO and ferric oxide (Fe2O3 suspensions during tillering stage, booting and milky stages. Results revealed that days to anthesis and maturity significantly increased after application of both nano-fertilizers. Furthermore, a considerable improvement was observed in grain mass, spike length, number of the grains per spike, chlorophyll content, grain yield and harvest index by application of nano-fertilizer. However the impact of nano zinc fertilizer was more prominent than iron. Foliar application of nTiO2 positively affected some morphophysiological characteristics like as days to anthesis, chlorophyll content and straw yield. The results suggest that the delivery of Zn into barley seedling through spray of nano-fertilizer can be an efficient nutrient management strategy in semi-arid regions. Overall, our result indicated that the integration of nanotechnology in fertilizer products can improve fertilizer use efficiency and significantly increase of barley yield. However, plant response to nanoparticles significantly depend on concentration and time of application as well as size, shape, and surface functionalization of the particles.

  16. High Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Time among Antenatal and Postnatal Care Attendant Mothers in Governmental Health Centers in Akaki Kality Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreamlak, Bisratemariam; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Atnafu, Azeb

    2017-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Iron/Folic Acid supplementation with optimal adherence can effectively prevent anemia in pregnancy. However, studies that address this area of adherence are very limited. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the adherence and to identify factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake during pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care follow up in Akaki kality sub city. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 557 pregnant women attending antenatal and postnatal care service. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The mothers were interviewed and the collected data was cleaned and entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 and analyzed by R version 3.2.0. Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression Model was fitted to identify the factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake. Adjusted Incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength and significance of the association. Result More than 90% of the mothers were supplemented with at least one Iron/Folic Acid supplement from pill per week during their pregnancy time. Sixty percent of the mothers adhered (took four or more tablets per week) (95%CI, 56%—64.1%). Higher IRR of Iron/Folic Acid supplementation was observed among women: who received health education; which were privately employed; who achieved secondary education; and who believed that Iron/Folic Acid supplements increase blood, whereas mothers who reported a side effect, who were from families with relatively better monthly income, and who took the supplement when sick were more likely to adhere. Conclusion Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid supplement during their pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care was found to be high. Activities that would address the

  17. Effects of micronutrients on metal toxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Peraza, M A; Ayala-Fierro, F; Barber, D S; Casarez, E; Rael, L T

    1998-01-01

    There is growing evidence that micronutrient intake has a significant effect on the toxicity and carcinogenesis caused by various chemicals. This paper examines the effect of micronutrient status on the toxicity of four nonessential metals: cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic. Unfortunately, few studies have directly examined the effect of dietary deficiency or supplementation on metal toxicity. More commonly, the effect of dietary alteration must be deduced from the results of mechanistic st...

  18. Adverse metabolic consequences of nutritional support: micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husami, T; Abumrad, N N

    1986-10-01

    The role of total parenteral nutrition in cancer patients is still a matter of controversy. Over the last decade there has been a heightened interest in the interaction of micronutrients with tumor cells. A review of the literature reveals that the question of feeding or suppressing the tumor by supplementing micronutrients remains unanswered. Prospective studies are needed to define the requirements of vitamins and trace elements in the cancer patient.

  19. Plasma micronutrient concentrations are altered by antiretroviral therapy and lipid-based nutrient supplements in lactating HIV-infected Malawian women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods: Plasma micronutrient concentrations were measured in a subsample (n = 690) of Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition (BAN) study participants who were randomly assigned at delivery to receive HAART, LNS, HAART+LNS, or no HAART/no LNS (control). HAART consisted of protease inhibitor–b...

  20. A randomized cross over trial of tolerability and compliance of a micronutrient supplement with low iron separated from calcium vs high iron combined with calcium in pregnant women [ISRCTN56071145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couturier Bernard

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prenatal micronutrient combinations with high iron content are associated with high rates of gastrointestinal symptoms. This coupled with nausea and vomiting of pregnancy results in women often discontinuing their multivitamins. A new prescription supplement (PregVit® that separates iron from calcium in two tablets – morning and evening, has lower elemental iron content (35 mg, but results in similar extent of iron absorption when compared to another supplement containing (60 mg of elemental iron (Materna®. The objectives of this study were to compare tolerability and compliance with PregVit® vs. a supplement with high iron content (Materna®, in pregnant women. Methods Randomized, crossover open labeled study in 135 pregnant women attending outpatient clinics in Ontario and Quebec. Results Use of PregVit® was associated with a 30% reduction in constipation rate as compared to Materna®. Both products demonstrated similar compliance rates. Compliance of Materna® was negatively associated with the severity of nausea and vomiting of pregnancy. No such correlation was found for PregVvit®. Conclusion PregVit®, a supplement with lower iron content (35 mg, has significantly decreased constipation rates as compared to 60 mg iron- Materna and has similar compliance rates. High iron content in multivitamin supplements is associated with adverse effects in pregnancy.

  1. Antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, Zaleha Abdullah; Basri, Hashimah; Md Isa, Zaleha; Ahmad, Shuhaila; Shamsuddin, Khadijah; Mohd Amin, Rahmah

    2014-04-01

    To determine the adequacy of antenatal calcium intake in Malaysia, and the influencing factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among postnatal women who delivered in two tertiary hospitals. Data were collected from antenatal cards, hospital documents and diet recall on daily milk and calcium intake during pregnancy. SPSS version 19.0 was used for statistical analyses. A total of 150 women were studied. The total daily calcium intake was 834 ± 43 mg (mean ± standard error of the mean), but the calcium intake distribution curve was skewed to the right with a median intake of 725 mg daily. When calcium intake from milk and calcium supplements was excluded, the daily dietary calcium intake was only 478 ± 25 mg. Even with inclusion of milk and calcium supplements, more than a third (n=55 or 36.7%) of the women consumed less than 600 mg calcium in their daily diet. The adequacy of daily calcium intake was not influenced by maternal age, ethnicity, income or maternal job or educational status as well as parity. The daily dietary calcium intake of the Malaysian antenatal population is far from adequate without the addition of calcium supplements and milk. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Chronic heart failure and micronutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, K K; Clark, A L; Cleland, J G

    2001-06-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with weight loss, and cachexia is a well-recognized complication. Patients have an increased risk of osteoporosis and lose muscle bulk early in the course of the disease. Basal metabolic rate is increased in HF, but general malnutrition may play a part in the development of cachexia, particularly in an elderly population. There is evidence for a possible role for micronutrient deficiency in HF. Selective deficiency of selenium, calcium and thiamine can directly lead to the HF syndrome. Other nutrients, particularly vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, are antioxidants and may have a protective effect on the vasculature. Vitamins B6, B12 and folate all tend to reduce levels of homocysteine, which is associated with increased oxidative stress. Carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and creatine supplementation have resulted in improved exercise capacity in patients with HF in some studies. In this article, we review the relation between micronutrients and HF. Chronic HF is characterized by high mortality and morbidity, and research effort has centered on pharmacological management, with the successful introduction of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-adrenergic antagonists into routine practice. There is sufficient evidence to support a large-scale trial of dietary micronutrient supplementation in HF.

  3. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D.; Williams, Paula J.

    2011-01-01

    Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies. PMID:21918714

  4. The Importance of Antioxidant Micronutrients in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiten D. Mistry

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy places increased demands on the mother to provide adequate nutrition to the growing conceptus. A number of micronutrients function as essential cofactors for or themselves acting as antioxidants. Oxidative stress is generated during normal placental development; however, when supply of antioxidant micronutrients is limited, exaggerated oxidative stress within both the placenta and maternal circulation occurs, resulting in adverse pregnancy outcomes. The present paper summarises the current understanding of selected micronutrient antioxidants selenium, copper, zinc, manganese, and vitamins C and E in pregnancy. To summarise antioxidant activity of selenium is via its incorporation into the glutathione peroxidase enzymes, levels of which have been shown to be reduced in miscarriage and preeclampsia. Copper, zinc, and manganese are all essential cofactors for superoxide dismutases, which has reduced activity in pathological pregnancy. Larger intervention trials are required to reinforce or refute a beneficial role of micronutrient supplementation in disorders of pregnancies.

  5. Redistribution of vitamin A after iron supplementation in Indonesion infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.T.; Dijkhuizen, M.A.; West, C.E.; Thurnham, D.I.; Muhilal,; Meer, van der J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Deficiencies of iron and vitamin A are prevalent worldwide. Single-micronutrient supplementation is widely used to combat these deficiencies. However, micronutrient deficiencies often occur concurrently, and there are many interactions between micronutrients. Objective: This study invest

  6. Preconception Micronutrient Supplementation with Iron and Folic Acid Compared with Folic Acid Alone Affects Linear Growth and Fine Motor Development at 2 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Gonzalez-Casanova, Ines; Young, Melissa F; Truong, Truong Viet; Hoang, Hue; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Son; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Martorell, Reynaldo; Ramakrishnan, Usha

    2017-08-01

    Background: Maternal health and nutrition play a crucial role in early child growth and development. However, little is known about the benefits of preconception micronutrient interventions beyond the role of folic acid (FA) and neural tube defects.Objective: We evaluated the impact of weekly preconception multiple micronutrient (MM) or iron and folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child growth and development through the age of 2 y compared with FA alone.Methods: We followed 1599 offspring born to women who participated in a randomized controlled trial of preconception supplementation in Vietnam. Women received weekly supplements that contained either 2800 μg FA, 60 mg Fe and 2800 μg FA, or 15 MMs including IFA, from baseline until conception followed by daily prenatal IFA supplements until delivery. Child anthropometry was measured at birth and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo. Child development was measured with the use of the Bayley Scales for Infant Development III at 24 mo.Results: The groups were similar for baseline maternal and offspring birth characteristics. At 24 mo of age, the offspring in the IFA group had significantly higher length-for-age z scores (LAZs) (0.14; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.26), reduced risk of being stunted (0.87; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.99), and smaller yearly decline in LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.15) than the offspring in the FA group. Similar trends were found for the offspring in the MM group compared with the FA group for LAZs (0.10; 95% CI: -0.02, 0.22) and the risk of being stunted (0.88; 95% CI: 0.77, 1.01). Offspring in the IFA group had improved motor development (P = 0.03), especially fine motor development (0.41; 95% CI: 0.05, 0.77), at the age of 24 mo, but there were no differences for measures of cognition or language.Conclusions: Preconception supplementation with IFA improved linear growth and fine motor development at 2 y of age compared with FA. Future studies should examine whether these effects persist and improve child health and

  7. Study Protocol for a Randomized Double Blind, Treatment Control Trial Comparing the Efficacy of a Micronutrient Formula to a Single Vitamin Supplement in the Treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Retallick-Brown

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The recent addition of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (5th ed. has highlighted the seriousness of this disorder. Many alternatives to psychoactive medication in the form of vitamins, minerals, and plant extracts have been trialled by women seeking a natural treatment approach. We plan to explore whether a well validated micronutrient formula, EMPowerplus Advanced, can outperform a recognized single nutrient treatment, vitamin B6, for the treatment of Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS. Methods: This will be a randomized treatment control study. Eighty women will be recruited and assigned to one of two treatment groups; EMPowerplus Advanced or vitamin B6. Baseline daily data will be collected for an initial two cycles, followed by three months of active treatment. A natural follow up will take place three cycles post treatment. Results: The primary outcome measure will be PMS change scores as based on results from the Daily Record of Severity of Problems (DRSP. The number of treatment responders for each of the two groups will yield a comparison score between the two treatments, with participants deemed as a responder if they show a total PMS score improvement of 50% from their baseline scores on the DRSP. Conclusion: If a micronutrient formula proves more effective for treating PMS, not only does it give women suffering from the condition a viable treatment option, but it may also suggest one cause of PMS; that is insufficient minerals and vitamins.

  8. Utilización de micronutrientes en nutrición parenteral en los hospitales españoles Micronutrient supplementation in parenteral nutrition in Spanish hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fernández-Ferreiro

    2011-06-01

    immediately after the addition of the micronutrients to avoid their decay. Nowadays, it has been observed that with multilayer bags, ternary mixtures and sunlight protection vitamins degradation is minimal. Daily intake of micronutrients is necessary in the critically ill, malnourished or long-term PN patients. Aiming at knowing the schedules of use of micronutrients in PN in Spanish hospitals and the way PN bags are prepared regarding the factors conditioning their stability, we undertook a telephone survey to the pharmacists in charge of PN at the different hospitals. We compared the data obtained with those from other surveys performed in 2001 and 2003. Pharmacists from 97 hospitals answered the questionnaire (answer rate 88%. The hospital sizes ranged 104-1728 beds. As compared to the data form preceding years, we observed a better adequacy to the current recommendations, although there are still 30% of the hospitals that administer micronutrients on an every other day basis independent of the clinical situation of the patients. In most of the hospitals, multilayer bags are used and/or sunlight protection and ternary mixtures. According to these results showing the different criteria for administering vitamins and oligoelements in PN solutions, it seems necessary to elaborate consensus documents that adapt to the reality of the diverse practices besides promoting the performance of well-designed clinical studies establishing the requirements under special clinical situations.

  9. Combination of Micronutrients for Bone (COMB) Study: Bone Density after Micronutrient Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genuis, Stephen J.; Bouchard, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    Along with other investigations, patients presenting to an environmental health clinic with various chronic conditions were assessed for bone health status. Individuals with compromised bone strength were educated about skeletal health issues and provided with therapeutic options for potential amelioration of their bone health. Patients who declined pharmacotherapy or who previously experienced failure of drug treatment were offered other options including supplemental micronutrients identified in the medical literature as sometimes having a positive impact on bone mineral density (BMD). After 12 months of consecutive supplemental micronutrient therapy with a combination that included vitamin D3, vitamin K2, strontium, magnesium and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), repeat bone densitometry was performed. The results were analyzed in a group of compliant patients and demonstrate improved BMD in patients classified with normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic bone density. According to the results, this combined micronutrient supplementation regimen appears to be at least as effective as bisphosphonates or strontium ranelate in raising BMD levels in hip, spine, and femoral neck sites. No fractures occurred in the group taking the micronutrient protocol. This micronutrient regimen also appears to show efficacy in individuals where bisphosphonate therapy was previously unsuccessful in maintaining or raising BMD. Prospective clinical trials are required to confirm efficacy. PMID:22291722

  10. The Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART): rationale, design, and methods of a randomized, controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy for the primary prevention of asthma and allergies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litonjua, Augusto A; Lange, Nancy E; Carey, Vincent J; Brown, Stacey; Laranjo, Nancy; Harshfield, Benjamin J; O'Connor, George T; Sandel, Megan; Strunk, Robert C; Bacharier, Leonard B; Zeiger, Robert S; Schatz, Michael; Hollis, Bruce W; Weiss, Scott T

    2014-05-01

    There is intense interest in the role of vitamin D in the development of asthma and allergies. However, studies differ on whether a higher vitamin D intake or status in pregnancy or at birth is protective against asthma and allergies. To address this uncertainty, the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial (VDAART) was developed. VDAART is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women to determine whether prenatal supplementation can prevent the development of asthma and allergies in women's offspring. A secondary aim is to determine whether vitamin D supplementation can prevent the development of pregnancy complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, and gestational diabetes. Women were randomized to the treatment arm of 4000IU/day of vitamin D3 plus a daily multivitamin that contained 400IU of vitamin D3 or the placebo arm of placebo plus a multivitamin that contained 400IU daily of vitamin D3. Women who were between the gestational ages of 10 and 18 weeks were randomized from three clinical centers across the United States - Boston Medical Center, Washington University in St. Louis, and Kaiser Permanente Southern California Region (San Diego, CA). Supplementation took place throughout pregnancy. Monthly monitoring of urinary calcium to creatinine ratio was performed in addition to medical record review for adverse events. Offspring are being evaluated quarterly through questionnaires and yearly during in-person visits until the 3rd birthday of the child. Ancillary studies will investigate neonatal T-regulatory cell function, maternal vaginal flora, and maternal and child intestinal flora.

  11. Low micronutrient intake may accelerate the degenerative diseases of aging through allocation of scarce micronutrients by triage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Bruce N.

    2006-01-01

    Inadequate dietary intakes of vitamins and minerals are widespread, most likely due to excessive consumption of energy-rich, micronutrient-poor, refined food. Inadequate intakes may result in chronic metabolic disruption, including mitochondrial decay. Deficiencies in many micronutrients cause DNA damage, such as chromosome breaks, in cultured human cells or in vivo. Some of these deficiencies also cause mitochondrial decay with oxidant leakage and cellular aging and are associated with late onset diseases such as cancer. I propose DNA damage and late onset disease are consequences of a triage allocation response to micronutrient scarcity. Episodic shortages of micronutrients were common during evolution. Natural selection favors short-term survival at the expense of long-term health. I hypothesize that short-term survival was achieved by allocating scarce micronutrients by triage, in part through an adjustment of the binding affinity of proteins for required micronutrients. If this hypothesis is correct, micronutrient deficiencies that trigger the triage response would accelerate cancer, aging, and neural decay but would leave critical metabolic functions, such as ATP production, intact. Evidence that micronutrient malnutrition increases late onset diseases, such as cancer, is discussed. A multivitamin-mineral supplement is one low-cost way to ensure intake of the Recommended Dietary Allowance of micronutrients throughout life. PMID:17101959

  12. The Oportunidades program's fortified food supplement, but not improvements in the home diet, increased the intake of key micronutrients in rural Mexican children aged 12-59 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Silva, Ivonne; Rivera, Juan A; Leroy, Jef L; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2013-05-01

    Mexico's Oportunidades program provides conditional cash transfers, nutrition education, health services, and fortified food supplements for the young children of poor families. We have documented the effects of the program on growth and reduction of anemia. To better understand the impact pathways and disentangle the relative effects on dietary intake of the food supplements compared with other program components, we analyzed data from a randomized effectiveness evaluation of the Oportunidades program in rural children aged 12-59 mo. All Oportunidades beneficiaries received the cash transfers and the health and education components, but some children did not consume the supplements. The children's diet was evaluated using a single 24-h recall. The impact was estimated using multiple linear regression models with community-level random effects. Comparisons were made among children who received all the benefits of Oportunidades, including the fortified food supplement (SG), beneficiaries of the program who did not consume the food supplement (NSG), and the control group (CG). Relative to the NSG and CG, respectively, the SG consumed greater amounts of [mean (95% CI)]: energy, 94 (28, 160) and 111 (43, 180) kcal/d; iron, 7.6 (6.3, 8.9) and 7.7 (6.5, 9.0) mg/d; zinc, 7.5 (6.4, 8.6) and 7.6 (6.5, 8.7) mg/d; and vitamin A, 0.109 (0.071, 0.147) and 0.120 (0.080, 0.159) mg retinol equivalents/d. No differences were found between the NSG and CG (P > 0.05). To conclude, the Oportunidades program had a positive impact on the diet of children. The effects of the program on dietary intake resulted from the food supplement and not from improvements in the home diet. Our findings are useful for identifying which program components contributed to the effects on the nutritional status of children.

  13. The efficacy of micronutrient supplementation in reducing the prevalence of anaemia and deficiencies of zinc and iron among adolescents in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness of combined iron and zinc over the iron- or zinc-only supplementation in correcting deficiency and possible interactive effects in a group of adolescent school children. Subjects and methods: Schoolchildren (n=821) of 12–16 years of age were randomized into ...

  14. [Micronutrients in parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Lorenzo, A; Alvarez, J; Bermejo, T; Gomis, P; Piñeiro, G

    2009-01-01

    At a multidisciplinary debate, and after reviewing the evidence available as well as experts' opinion, the IV Baxter-SENPE Working Panel established the indications and managemente guidelines for micronutrients (water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins, and oligoelements or trace elements) in parenteral nutrition. It was concluded about the convenience of daily intake of micronutrients with diferent options regarding deficiente or excessive dosages, administration systems, interactions, monitoring, and cots-effectiveness.

  15. Micronutrients in cereal crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hamnér, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Seven elements essential for plants are defined as micronutrients: boron (B), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn). Deficiency of these nutrients can cause yield losses in crops and impaired crop quality. The overall aim of this thesis work was to increase the knowledge how micronutrients in Swedish cereal crops are affected by nutrient management and soil properties in order to improve crop status and avoid yield losses. Data from long term and s...

  16. Dietary supplements for the lactating adolescent mother: influence on plasma micronutrients Suplementos dietéticos para la madre adolescente en periodo de lactancia: su influencia en micronutrientes del plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Correia-Santos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The nutritional status of micronutrients in lactating adolescent women is crucial to guarantee an adequate secretion of these in breast milk and, consequently, an adequate nutritional status of children. Hence, more attention should be given to micronutrient status of adolescent mother who breastfeed. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of multimicronutrients supplementation upon nutritional status of iron, copper, zinc and calcium of lactating adolescent mother from low socioeconomic status in Rio de Janeiro/Brazil. Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. During 60 days, 36 adolescents were allocated into two groups: supplemented group (SG with 17 volunteers, receiving daily multimicronutrients supplement and the placebo group (PG with 19 volunteers, receiving an inert compound. Plasma iron, copper, zinc and calcium and hemoglobin were determined at 7, 11 and 15 of the postpartum weeks (PPW. The effect of supplementation was analyzed by analysis of variance, comparing the differences between groups and within groups. Results: The average age of volunteers was 17.1 ± 0.8 for the supplemented group and 16.3 ± 1.4 for the placebo group. We observed an increase in the mean concentration of zinc (p Introducción: Debido a lo estado nutricional relativo a los micronutrientes de la nutriz ser de fundamental importancia para la adecuada secreción de leche materna, y en consecuencia un adecuado estado nutricional de los niños, se debe prestar una mayor atención a la situación de los micronutrientes de la madre lactante. El trabajo tuvo como objetivo estudiar la influencia de la suplementácion con multimicronutrientes en lo estado nutricional de lo hierro, cobre, zinc y lo calcio de madres lactantes adolescentes de bajo nivel socioeconómico en Rio de Janeiro/Brasil. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio con un ensayo clínico, aleatorizado, controlado con placebo. Durante 60 días, 36 jóvenes lactantes

  17. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia van der Kam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here we report on the trial that took place in Goronyo, a rural region of northwest Nigeria with high morbidity and malnutrition rates.We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF and a micronutrient powder (MNP on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (<-2 for non-malnourished and <-3 for moderately malnourished children, mid-upper arm circumference <115 mm, or oedema, whichever came first. Of the 2,213 randomised participants, 50.0% were female and the mean age was 20.2 (standard deviation 11.2 months; 160 (7.2% were lost to follow-up, 54 (2.4% were

  18. Effect of Short-Term Supplementation with Ready-to-Use Therapeutic Food or Micronutrients for Children after Illness for Prevention of Malnutrition: A Randomised Controlled Trial in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kam, Saskia; Salse-Ubach, Nuria; Roll, Stephanie; Swarthout, Todd; Gayton-Toyoshima, Sayaka; Jiya, Nma Mohammed; Matsumoto, Akiko; Shanks, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) treats more than 300,000 severely malnourished children annually. Malnutrition is not only caused by lack of food and poor infant and child feeding practices but also by illnesses. Breaking the vicious cycle of illness and malnutrition by providing ill children with nutritional supplementation is a potentially powerful strategy for preventing malnutrition that has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, MSF investigated whether incidence of malnutrition among ill children <5 y old could be reduced by providing a fortified food product or micronutrients during their 2-wk convalescence period. Two trials, one in Nigeria and one in Uganda, were conducted; here we report on the trial that took place in Goronyo, a rural region of northwest Nigeria with high morbidity and malnutrition rates. Methods and Findings We investigated the effect of supplementation with ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) and a micronutrient powder (MNP) on the incidence of malnutrition in ill children presenting at an outpatient clinic in Goronyo during February to September 2012. A three-armed, partially-blinded, randomised controlled trial was conducted in children diagnosed as having malaria, diarrhoea, or lower respiratory tract infection. Children aged 6 to 59 mo were randomised to one of three arms: one sachet/d of RUTF; two sachets/d of micronutrients or no supplement (control) for 14 d for each illness over 6 mo. The primary outcome was the incidence of first negative nutritional outcome (NNO) during the 6 mo follow-up. NNO was a study-specific measure used to indicate occurrence of malnutrition; it was defined as low weight-for-height z-score (<−2 for non-malnourished and <−3 for moderately malnourished children), mid-upper arm circumference <115 mm, or oedema, whichever came first. Of the 2,213 randomised participants, 50.0% were female and the mean age was 20.2 (standard deviation 11.2) months; 160 (7.2%) were lost to

  19. Vitamin A supplementation during pregnancy for maternal and newborn outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Mary E; van den Broek, Nynke; Dou, Lixia; Othman, Mohammad

    2015-10-27

    (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.99, five trials; South Africa, Nepal, Indonesia, Tanzania, UK, low quality evidence) and maternal anaemia (RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.94; three studies, moderate quality evidence). 2) Vitamin A alone versus micronutrient supplements without vitamin AVitamin A alone compared to micronutrient supplements without vitamin A does not decrease maternal clinical infection (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.18, two trials, 591 women). No other primary or secondary outcomes were reported 3) Vitamin A with other micronutrients versus micronutrient supplements without vitamin AVitamin A supplementation (with other micronutrients) does not decrease perinatal mortality (RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.10 to 2.69; one study, low quality evidence), maternal anaemia (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.09; three studies, low quality evidence), maternal clinical infection (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.80 to 1.13; I² = 45%, two studies, low quality evidence) or preterm birth (RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.93; one study, low quality evidence).In HIV-positive women vitamin A supplementation given with other micronutrients was associated with fewer low birthweight babies (vitamin A supplementation to reduce maternal or perinatal mortality. However, the populations studied were probably different with regard to baseline vitamin A status and there were problems with follow-up of women. There is good evidence that antenatal vitamin A supplementation reduces maternal night blindness, maternal anaemia for women who live in areas where vitamin A deficiency is common or who are HIV-positive. In addition the available evidence suggests a reduction in maternal infection, but these data are not of a high quality.

  20. Multiple micronutrient supplementation and dietary energy intake in pregnant women Suplementación con micronutrimentos múltiples y consumo de eneregía en mujeres embarazadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Flores

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dietary intake of women supplemented with multiple micronutrients (MM or iron only during pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Design: Randomized, double-blind, controlled community-based trial. Setting: One semi-urban community in Central Mexico. Subjects: Pregnant women identified before week 13 of pregnancy, willing to provide informed consent. Interventions: Women were randomly assigned to receive daily supplementation with MM or iron only from recruitment until delivery. Supplements were delivered to the participants' home and compliance observed daily. Dietary intake was assessed by repeat 24-hr recall. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests and multiple regression analysis to determine the impact of MM supplementation on dietary intake of energy and select micronutrients. RESULTS: During the third trimester, women in the MM group consumed more energy and iron from dietary sources than women in the iron only group. After adjustment for differences between the groups at baseline, women in the MM group consumed 111.3 kcal/day more (pOBJETIVO: Comparar la dieta de mujeres suplementada con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM o sólo con hierro durante el embarazo. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Diseño: ensayo comunitario, aleatorizado, controlado, doble ciego. Lugar: una comunidad semiurbana en el México central. Participantes: mujeres embarazadas identificadas antes de la semana 13 de embarazo, dispuestas a entregar el consentimiento informado. Actividades: las mujeres fueron asignadas en forma aleatoria a recibir suplementación diaria con MM o exclusivamente hierro desde el reclutamiento hasta el parto. Los suplementos se entregaron en la casa de las participantes y se observó su cumplimiento con frecuencia diaria. El consumo dietético fue valorado por mediciones repetidas de recordatorio de alimentos de 24 h. Los datos se analizaron mediante pruebas no paramétricas y análisis de regresión múltiple, para determinar el

  1. Gut health immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory functions of gut enzyme digested high protein micro-nutrient dietary supplement-Enprocal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwar Rupinder K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enprocal is a high-protein micro-nutrient rich formulated supplementary food designed to meet the nutritional needs of the frail elderly and be delivered to them in every day foods. We studied the potential of Enprocal to improve gut and immune health using simple and robust bioassays for gut cell proliferation, intestinal integrity/permeability, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities. Effects of Enprocal were compared with whey protein concentrate 80 (WPC, heat treated skim milk powder, and other commercially available milk derived products. Results Enprocal (undigested and digested (Enprocal D selectively enhanced cell proliferation in normal human intestinal epithelial cells (FHs74-Int and showed no cytotoxicity. In a dose dependent manner Enprocal induced cell death in Caco-2 cells (human colon adencarcinoma epithelial cells. Digested Enprocal (Enprocal D: gut enzyme cocktail treated maintained the intestinal integrity in transepithelial resistance (TEER assay, increased the permeability of horseradish peroxidase (HRP and did not induce oxidative stress to the gut epithelial cells. Enprocal D upregulated the surface expression of co-stimulatory (CD40, CD86, CD80, MHC I and MHC II molecules on PMA differentiated THP-1 macrophages in coculture transwell model, and inhibited the monocyte/lymphocyte (THP-1/Jurkat E6-1 cells-epithelial cell adhesion. In cytokine secretion analyses, Enprocal D down-regulated the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α and up-regulated IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-10. Conclusion Our results indicate that Enprocal creates neither oxidative injury nor cytotoxicity, stimulates normal gut cell proliferation, up regulates immune cell activation markers and may aid in the production of antibodies. Furthermore, through downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, Enprocal appears to be beneficial in reducing the effects of chronic gut inflammatory diseases such as

  2. Perspectives on parenteral micronutrient shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirtallo, Jay M

    2015-02-01

    Micronutrients are essential components of parenteral nutrition (PN). Problems related to deficiency and toxicity occur during routine practice, which could be related to the content of commercial sources, inadequate prescribed doses, and the high frequency of at-risk patients receiving PN. Shortages of commercial products result in increased risk of deficiency. Even though there are recommendations to conserve supplies for those at highest risk, practices that provide no micronutrients or doses less than desired are not safe. This article reviews the evidence describing patients at risk for micronutrient deficiency, the rationale for micronutrient product reformulation, and characteristics of deficiency observed during shortages of micronutrient products.

  3. Facilitadores y barreras para el consumo del complemento alimenticio del Programa Oportunidades Facilitators and barriers for the consumption of a micronutrient supplement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericka Escalante-Izeta

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar y explorar los factores socioculturales que facilitan u obstaculizan el consumo recomendado de un complemento alimenticio (CA repartido en todo el país como parte del Programa Oportunidades en niños de 6 a 59 meses de edad. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio cualitativo en comunidades rurales de los estados de Chiapas y Veracruz. Se realizaron 44 entrevistas semiestructuradas y se organizaron 25 grupos focales de madres beneficiarias e informantes clave. El análisis se efectuó bajo el enfoque fenomenológico. RESULTADOS: Los facilitadores fueron gratuidad, gran accesibilidad, aceptabilidad favorable del CA y alta credibilidad de las madres en las recomendaciones médicas; las barreras fueron problemas de almacenamiento y distribución, condiciones de pobreza, dilución intrafamiliar, creencias y conocimientos. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados permitieron sugerir elementos para promover el CA, así como identificar las incongruencias culturales y sociales entre las recomendaciones del programa y las prácticas y preferencias de la población objetivo.OBJECTIVE: To define and explore the sociocultural factors that could enhance (facilitators or interfere with (barriers the adequate consumption of a nutritional supplement (NS by children from 6 to 59 months of age, provided as part of the national program Oportunidades. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Qualitative study in rural communities of Chiapas and Veracruz. Forty-four semi-structured interviews and 25 focus groups were conducted with mothers and other key informants. The framework analysis approach was used. RESULTS: Facilitators. The NS is free, is highly accessible, is positively accepted and mothers believe the physicians’ recommendations. Barriers. Lack of adequate storage and distribution, poverty conditions, intrahousehold dilution (within the family members, beliefs regarding child feeding and the purpose of the NS. CONCLUSION: Results shows the incongruence between the Program

  4. Dietary supplements for the lactating adolescent mother: influence on plasma micronutrients Suplementos dietéticos para la madre adolescente en periodo de lactancia: su influencia en micronutrientes del plasma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. M. Correia-Santos; K. Bolognini Pereira; R. Erthal Santelli; G. Teles Boaventura; V. Blondet de Azeredo

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The nutritional status of micronutrients in lactating adolescent women is crucial to guarantee an adequate secretion of these in breast milk and, consequently, an adequate nutritional status of children...

  5. Micronutrient intake and risk of prostate cancer in a cohort of middle-aged, Danish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Larsen, Signe B.; Friis, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Micronutrients may protect against prostate cancer. However, few studies have had high-quality assessment of both dietary and supplemental consumption of micronutrients, rendering possible different source-specific effects difficult to discern. This study evaluates associations between...... with questionnaire-based information on diet, supplements, and lifestyle. Hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer associated with micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results: During follow-up (1993-2010), 1,571 prostate cancer cases were identified. Supplemental folic acid...... folate or for the other studied micronutrients, regardless of source. We found no significant effect modification by alcohol intake and BMI in relation to any micronutrient. Conclusion: Our study may indicate an inverse association between folic acid and prostate cancer; however, the inverse association...

  6. Breastfeeding: Vitamin D Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Vitamin D Supplementation Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... not provide infants with an adequate intake of vitamin D. Most breastfed infants are able to synthesize ...

  7. Suplementação de micronutrientes na senescência: implicações nos mecanismos imunológicos Micronutrients supplementation during the senescence: implications for the immunological functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rita Carvalho Garbi Novaes

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de indivíduos idosos em detrimento de indivíduos jovens compreende um quadro comum na população mundial. As estimativas indicam que, em 2050, cerca de 22% da população mundial serão constituídos por indivíduos idosos. As mudanças no sistema imune do indivíduo idoso ocorrem acentuadamente na imunidade mediada por células, caracterizada pelo aumento do número de linfócitos T imaturos (CD2+CD3-, decréscimo do número de linfócitos T virgens (CD45RA, aumento dos linfócitos de memória (CD45RO, e aumento das células helper T2, com decréscimo das helper T1. Embora as mudanças na resposta humoral sejam menores no envelhecimento, a menor especificidade e afinidade dos anticorpos nos indivíduos idosos constituem uma diferenciação da resposta imune. Estudos recentes demonstram que no envelhecimento a suplementação de micronutrientes específicos exerce efeitos benéficos sobre o sistema imune.The increase of the elderly population is a world-wide common phenomenon. According to some projections, in the year 2050, older people will constitute about 22% of the world population. Immune system deregulation in aging individuals is mainly a result of changes in cell mediated immunity, characterized by an increased number of immature T lymphocytes (CD2+CD3-, a decrease of T virgin lymphocytes (CD45RA, an increase of memory T lymphocytes (CD45RO, and by an increase in T helper 2 cells associated with a decrease in T helper 1 subset. Although changes in humoral immunity are less accentuated in the aging process, lower affinity for antigens and a narrower spectrum of the antibodies were observed in older people, as a dysfunction of immune response. Recent studies show that, in the aging, the supplementation of specific micronutrients is effective in restoring the normal immune response.

  8. Using commercial advertising agencies in micronutrient promotion: lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M P

    1998-01-01

    Lack of knowledge, beliefs about food, customs, and poverty are the main factors preventing millions of people from eating enough micronutrient-rich foods. Globally, more than 2 billion people are at risk of iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiencies. Opportunities for Micronutrient Intervention (OMNI), a 5-year project funded by the Office of Health and Nutrition, US Agency for International Development, is dedicated to preventing and controlling micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. OMNI's general approaches to reducing micronutrient deficiencies include fortification, supplementation, and dietary diversification. For all of those approaches, the project has stressed a social marketing methodology to define and motivate feasible behavior changes which will benefit maternal and child health and nutrition. The Manoff Group, the OMNI partner most responsible for behavior change, has had many positive experiences using social marketing to address micronutrient malnutrition, breast-feeding, and child feeding in many countries. Focusing mainly upon supplementation and dietary diversification, OMNI's experience to date in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Ecuador, and Bolivia is summarized.

  9. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; Hansen, Tue H; Allin, Kristine H; Hoppe, Camilla; Fagt, Sisse; Lausten, Mia S; Gøbel, Rikke J; Vestergaard, Henrik; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf

    2015-10-30

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients was assessed and subsequently compared to an age-range-matched group of 1,257 omnivorous individuals from the general Danish population. Moreover, the vegan dietary and supplementary intake was compared to the 2012 Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Dietary intake differed significantly between vegans and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p vegans the intake of macro- and micronutrients (including supplements) did not reach the NNR for protein, vitamin D, iodine and selenium. Among vegan women vitamin A intake also failed to reach the recommendations. With reference to the NNR, the dietary content of added sugar, sodium and fatty acids, including the ratio of PUFA to SFA, was more favorable among vegans. At the macronutrient level, the diet of Danish vegans is in better accordance with the NNR than the diet of the general Danish population. At the micronutrient level, considering both diet and supplements, the vegan diet falls short in certain nutrients, suggesting a need for greater attention toward ensuring recommended daily intake of specific vitamins and minerals.

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with growth restriction%孕鼠补充牛磺酸减少胎儿生长受限胎鼠脑细胞凋亡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓凤; 滕慧云; 刘敬; 杨娜; 任晓暾

    2013-01-01

    论 FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡显著增多.孕鼠补充牛磺酸可以显著减少FGR胎鼠脑细胞凋亡,其机制可能与牛磺酸能够促进GDNF表达和减少caspase-3表达有关.%Objective To explore the effect of antenatal taurine supplementation on cerebral apoptosis and the expression of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and caspase-3 in fetal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR).Methods Fifteen pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups:control group,FGR model group (model group) and FGR with antenatal taurine supplementation group (taurine group).Taurine was added into the diet of taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/(kg · d) from the 12th day of gestation until natural delivery.Two appropriate for gestational age (AGA) newborn rats were randomly selected from each mother in control group and two FGR fetal rats were randomly selected from each mother both in model and taurine groups.Apoptosis of neural cells in the brain was detected by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL).Changes in protein expression of GDNF and caspase-3 were detected by immunohistochemistry.Levene method,one-way ANOVA and SNK-test,or Kruskal Wallis rank sum test and Tamhane’ s test were applied for statistical analysis.Results (1)The total amounts of fetal rats in control group,model group and taurine group were 65,60 and 59.The mean body weight of fetal rats were (6.36±0.44) g,(4.55 ± 0.45) g and (5.11±0.67) g,respectively.All fetal rats developed FGR in model group,while 76.3%(45/59) of fetal rats were FGR in taurine group.Therefore,FGR model was successfully established.(2) In control group,there were few expression of TUNEL positive cells in cerebral cortex.A large amount of TUNEL positive cells were found in the cortex,hippocampal and white matter area in model group,but less positive cells were identified in taurine group than in model group.The amount of apoptotic brain cells in the three groups

  11. Prenatal multiple micronutrient supplementation impact on biochemical indicators during pregnancy and postpartum Efecto de la suplementación prenatal con micronutrimentos múltiples en indicadores bioquímicos durante el embarazo y el posparto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando García-Guerra

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis was to test the impact of daily supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MM during pregnancy on Zn, vitamin A and folate status compared to iron only (Fe. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out during 1997-2000 in a semi-urban community in Morelos state, Mexico. Women were randomly assigned to MM (n= 249 or Fe (n= 258 and received supplements daily (6 d/wk under supervision by the field team from recruitment (approximately 9 weeks pregnancy until delivery. Blood samples were collected on a sub-sample of women at baseline, 32 weeks pregnancy and one month postpartum (1PP and assessed for serum zinc, retinol and whole blood folate (baseline and 1PP only. A breast milk sample was extracted at 1PP and assessed for retinol content. RESULT: At baseline there was no significant difference between supplementation groups in mean Zn, retinol or folate concentrations or the prevalence of deficiencies (Zn 12.2%, vitamin A 2.8%, folate 5.3%. Mean change in Zn and retinol concentrations from baseline to 32 weeks pregnancy did not differ between groups or between baseline and 1PP for Zn, retinol or folate. At 1PP, there was a tendency (p= 0.09 towards a lower prevalence of folate deficiency/depletion in the MM group (10.0% than the Fe group (18.5%. CONCLUSIONS: MM supplementation during pregnancy did not improve zinc or vitamin A status compared to Fe only. There is some indication that folate status may have improved with MM supplementation despite low prevalence of deficiency. While lack of response in serum retinol may be explained by generally adequate status, the lack of impact on zinc status requires further exploration.OBJETIVO: Evaluar el efecto de la suplementación diaria con múltiples micronutrimentos (MM durante el embarazo en el estado de zinc, vitamina A y folato comparado con la suplementación sólo con hierro (Fe. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó en una comunidad semiurbana en

  12. REVIEW OF FOCUSSED ANTENATAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Antenatal care is a comprehensive antepartum programme which involves a coordinated approach to medical care , continuous risk assessment , and psychological support that optimally begins before conception and extends throughout the postpartum period and int erconceptional period . [1] One of major responsibility of obstetrician providing antenatal care is to identify high risk factors based on past history, examination and investigation results. The objective of antenatal care therefore is to assure that every wanted pregnancy results in the delivery of a healthy baby without impairing the mothers health . [2] In a 1914 study by Williams antenatal care reduced fetal mortality by 40%

  13. From micronutrient recommendations to policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Raats, Monique M.; Barnett, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To achieve the nutritional goals stipulated by micronutrient recommendations, greater attention must be paid to the behavioural routes to such nutritional outcomes. Coopting stakeholders and consumers into decisions regarding micronutrient recommendations is an important step...... towards achieving a greater link between micronutrient recommendations and behaviour. This study aims to examine the rationale and processes associated with consumer and stakeholder involvement in setting micronutrient recommendations across Europe. Subjects/Methods: Using the contacts established through...... the Eurreca network of excellence (commissioned by the European Commission), the research involved in-depth desk research of key documents and communication channels linked to the process of setting micronutrient recommendations across seven countries: the United Kingdom, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain...

  14. Effect of micronutrient and probiotic fortified yogurt on immune-function of anti-retroviral therapy naive HIV patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); J. Changalucha (John); N.L. Butamanya (Nicodemus); S. Hekmat (Sharareh); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving t

  15. Effect of micronutrient and probiotic fortified yogurt on immune-function of anti-retroviral therapy naive HIV patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); J. Changalucha (John); N.L. Butamanya (Nicodemus); S. Hekmat (Sharareh); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving t

  16. Helicobacterpy loriinfection and micronutrient deficiencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javed Yakoob; Wasim Jafri; Shahab Abid

    2003-01-01

    It is known that deficiencies of micronutrients due to infections increase morbidity and mortality. This phenomenon depicts itself conspicuously in developing countries.Deficiencies of iron, vitamins A, E, C, B12, etc are widely prevalent among populations living in the third world countries. Helicobacterpylori (Hpylori) infection has a high prevalence throughout the world. Deficiencies of several micronutrients due to Hpylori infection may be concomitantly present and vary from subtle sub-clinical states to severe clinical disorders. These essential trace elementsl micronutrients are involved in host defense mechanisms,maintaining epithelial cell integrity, glycoprotein synthesis,transport mechanisms, myocardial contractility, brain development, cholesterol and glucose metabolism. In this paper Hpyloriinfection in associaed with various micronutrients deficiencies is briefly reviewed.

  17. Adequate dosing of micronutrients for different age groups in the life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienz, Denise; Cori, Hector; Hornig, Dietrich

    2003-09-01

    Many studies of micronutrient supplementation in developing countries have used single-nutrient supplements with either vitamins or minerals. However, people in these countries often suffer from multiple, rather than single, micronutrient deficiencies. The objective of this paper is to discuss the factors that go into determining the adequate dosing of vitamins and/or minerals for people of different ages. To elaborate on the adequacy of micronutrient doses in supplements, a model described by the US FNB was used, which calculates the difference between the mean observed intake for an individual and the estimated average requirement for a life stage and gender group. This model allows estimating the degree of confidence that a certain nutrient intake (from supplements and diet) is adequate. The US/Canadian DRI values have been used as the basis for these calculations, from which it can be concluded that a daily supplement of one RDA of each micronutrient is adequate to cover the personal requirements of all individuals in each respective age and gender group of the population, provided that 20 to 40% of an RDA is supplied by the diet--likely a realistic value for developing countries. DRI values vary significantly between different age groups, reflecting changing needs over a life cycle. With the objective of a supplement to be adequate and safe, the design of a one-for-all supplement covering all age groups is not realistic. Such a supplement would either underscore or surpass the required intake of some of the age groups. Additionally the dosage of certain micronutrients might exceed the upper level of intake for lower age groups. Therefore, it is suggested that three different supplements following the one RDA concept for all micronutrients be developed for research use in developing countries for the following age groups; 1 to 3 years, 4 to 13 years, and females > 14 years (excluding during pregnancy).

  18. Antenatal cardiotocography and intrauterine death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solum, T; Sjöberg, N O

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the reliability of antenatal cardiotocography (CTG) in predicting fetal death. During a 4-year period, 1 455 patients eith risk pregnancies have been routinely monitored with antenatal CTG. The total number of tracings amounted to more than 10 000. Five cases of fetal death occurred, in all of which pathological CTG patterns were found. Our experience in the present study indicates that antenatal CTG is a reliable technique for the predicting of fetal death and its use should reduce fetal mortality rates.

  19. Micronutrients in women's reproductive health: I. Vitamins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontic-Vucinic, Olivera; Sulovic, Nenad; Radunovic, Nebojsa

    2006-01-01

    Proper nutritional status of women before, during, and after pregnancy is an important element of reproductive health. It maintains maternal health and reduces the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome, birth defects and chronic disease in children later in postnatal life. Pregnancy creates a special metabolic demand for high-quality nutrients. With careful food selection, it is possible to obtain most of the recommended levels of nutrients. Apart from the dietary intake, nutrition is highly dependant on economic status, social and cultural environment, and personal habits of the mother. Nutritional imbalance could cause detrimental effects to the pregnant woman, influence pregnancy outcome, and impair breast milk composition. Despite the extensive research, we still do not have a complete understanding how nutritional status of the mother influences her health as well as fetal growth and development. It is well known that fetal growth and development is strongly linked with maternal supply of essential nutrients, e.g. vitamins. The exact role of the variety of micronutrients in fetal growth and development has yet to be explored in detail. It is estimated that up to 30% of pregnant women suffer from a vitamin deficiency. Without supplementation, about 75% would show a deficit of at least one vitamin. Moreover, multivitamin deficit combinations often co-exist, and subclinical depletations are probably common; consequences could be severe. Studies carried on in developing countries have shown that improving micronutrient intake in deficient women can reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Also, proper maternal intake of important micronutrients directly enhances the quality of breast milk. To meet the increasing demands during pregnancy and the breastfeeding period women should not be dependent only upon the dietary intake: adequate reserve is essential for the successful pregnancy outcome.

  20. Micronutrient intake in relation to all-cause mortality in a prospective Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Olsen, Anja Viendahl; Christensen, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background: Few studies have considered source-specific micronutrient intake in relation to mortality under the consideration that dietary and supplemental intake could exhibit different effects. Objective: To evaluate the association between intake of vitamin C, E, folate, beta-carotene from diet...... and supplements, and overall mortality. Furthermore, to examine effect modification by smoking, alcohol intake, and BMI and to investigate if the effect of supplement use differs with dietary micronutrient intake. Methods and Material: In a prospective cohort study of 55,453 middle-aged Danes, information...... regarding diet, supplement use, and lifestyle was collected through questionnaires. During follow-up, 6,767 deaths were identified and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of mortality related to micronutrient intake were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The present study found no effect...

  1. SAFETY OF MICRONUTRIENTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various . studies have been performed to determine a safe daily level for prolonged intake of vitamin supplementation in adults. Table I summarises the proposed safe level of intake in relation to the ..... zinc absorption, although much controversy exists on this ... an iron salt, the absorption is also better than when it is part of.

  2. The influence of micronutrients on oral and general health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willershausen B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of the present clinical pilot study was to examine the influence of a combination of micronutrients on individuals with high stress experience. Methods 40 healthy students (28 female, 12 male with a mean age of 27.1 ± 3.0 years, experiencing high examination stress, were chosen. After approval of the ethics commission, one group of students (n = 19 took a combination of micronutrients (Orthomol vital m/f for three months, whereas other students (n = 21 served as control group. All participants underwent at the beginning and at the end of the trial a dental examination, a determination of 10 periodontal pathogens, a salivary and a blood analysis. In addition, the participants filled in a questionnaire on nutrition, quality of life and degree of stress experienced during their final examinations. Results The evaluation of the results, obtained at the end of the trial period, showed that for all students a slight worsening of oral hygiene and an increased consumption of unhealthy food could be observed. The intake of the micronutrients led to a slight improvement of the degree of gingival inflammation in comparison to the control group. The blood analysis showed an increase in vitamin (vitamin C, vitamin E and zinc concentrations, and a lower increase in CRP. In the male subjects, a decrease in the serum concentrations of triglycerides (p = 0.073 and LDL (p = 0.048 was observed. Conclusions This pilot study shows that micronutrients, taken during periods of high stress experience, had a beneficial effect on inflammatory processes and helped reduce the level of some of the plasma lipids in males, and thus can be recommended for supplementing the diet. However, additional studies with a higher number of subjects, also suffering from periodontal disease, are necessary to show the effect of a micronutrient supplementation more clearly.

  3. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and

  4. Micronutrients and Diabetic Retinopathy A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Flanagan, Declan W.; Adler, Amanda I.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and ma

  5. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants

    OpenAIRE

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Straeten, Dominique Van Der

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populati...

  6. Anaerobic digestion of catering wastes: effect of micronutrients and retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climenhaga, M A; Banks, C J

    2008-01-01

    Source-separated foodwastes collected from a campus catering facility were processed in bench-scale single-stage anaerobic digesters. The feedstock contained a varied mix of fruits, vegetables, meats and fried foods. A constant organic loading rate (OLR) was maintained with differing hydraulic retention times (HRT). Regular addition of trace elements or prolonged retention time allowed stable digestion at high total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) levels. Reactors on HRT of 25, 50, and 100 days with no micronutrient supplementation exhibited methanogenic failure after approximately 40, 100 and 90 days respectively, while duplicate reactors with micronutrient supplementation maintained stable digestion. An extended HRT of 180 days has so far allowed continued digestion (for reactors with and without micronutrient supplementation) at levels of ammonia nitrogen exceeding 5.7 g l(-1) and volatile fatty acid levels exceeding 15 g l(-1), usually considered inhibitory or toxic.

  7. Nutrition (Micronutrients) in Child Growth and Development: A Systematic Review on Current Evidence, Recommendations and Opportunities for Further Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Lo, Clifford W

    2017-10-01

    An important aspect of malnutrition is deficiency of different micronutrients during pregnancy or early childhood. We systematically reviewed the role of nutrition in child growth (weight or height gain) and development. A comprehensive literature search was done on PubMed/Cochrane Library browsing through 38,795 abstracts until December 31, 2016 to select systematic reviews/meta-analyses and individual randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of micronutrient supplementation. Micronutrients studied included iron, iodine, folate, zinc, calcium, magnesium, selenium, vitamin D, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, and multiple micronutrients. We summarize evidence with details and results of RCTs, highlight strengths/weaknesses, and critically interpret findings. Effects of breastfeeding-promotion, food-supplementation (complementary and school feeding), conditional-cash-transfers, and integrated nutrition/psychosocial interventions are discussed. Based on this evidence we make policy and programmatic recommendations for supplementation to mothers and children at high-risk of deficiency.

  8. MICRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF BREAST MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that in exclusively breast - fed infants , breast milk is the sole source of the nutrition for the first few months of life , it is important to have accurate data on its composition. Various studies have been done on factors affecting the concentration of microelements in breast milk. Through this article we tried to address the iron , zinc , copper content of breast milk wh ich is most essential micronutrients for growth of infant. A wide range of values for iron in the breast milk (0.1 – 1.6 mg/l , Zn and Cu were 625 (475 - 889 microgram/l and 239 (200 - 296 microgram/l respectively have been reported in the literature in all s tages of lactation. Concentration of micronutrients is high in colostrum and decreases during the lactation period. Maternal serum levels of microelements have no correlation with those in breast milk. Various studies have shown mineral , multivitamin , supp lementation or maternal diet does not affect breast milk micronutrient concentration. Mother’s age , parity , anthropometry , smoking habits , socioeconomic status , residing area(rural/urban , environment , use of oral contraceptive do not have an influence on the micronutrient content of the mother’s milk .

  9. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-03

    Sep 3, 2017 ... supplements to all pregnant women to prevent anaemia as recommended by World ... women with folate and iron supplements and nutrition education. ... formulated as follows: (i) To determine the ..... Trends in antenatal care ...

  10. Essential and Nonessential Micronutrients and Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, Kristen M.; Serra, Monica C.

    The purpose of this chapter is to review the role of micronutrients in sport. Attention is given to the function of micronutrients in the body, examples of quality dietary sources of each micronutrient, and an assessment of the literature examining how the recommended daily intake of a micronutrient may or may not change with exercise. The discussion includes plausible biological mechanisms of proposed performance enhancement and current research to support or negate these claims. Water-soluble vitamins, fat-soluble vitamins, macrominerals, and select microminerals are discussed in detail, and a comprehensive table reviewing all micronutrients recommendations for the athlete is provided. Practical applications for professionals working with athletes conclude the chapter.

  11. Nutrition in oncology: the case of micronutrients (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhle, Alexander; Zänker, Kurt; Hahn, Andreas

    2010-10-01

    In the course of cancer disease, many oncological patients develop tumor-associated malnutrition characterized by an insufficient supply of macro- and micronutrients. The inadequate nutritional status and the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to it are clinically relevant, as the response to antineoplastic measures, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is diminished, their side effects aggravated and the patient's quality of life and prognosis negatively affected. Therefore, the supportive nutrition care of oncological patients is of central importance. In this context, vitamins, minerals and long-chain omega -3 fatty acids are becoming more and more relevant in oncology although the benefit of such supplements is discussed controversially. Starting from a description of the etiopathogenesis and the pathophysiological consequences of cancer-associated malnutrition, the present study provides an overview of the importance of micronutrients for oncological patients. In the case of reduced food intake and/or inappropriate food choice the use of a multi-vitamin-multimineral supplement administered in physiological doses, i.e. nutrient quantities approximately corresponding to the recommended daily allowances, can be generally recommended. However, to enhance postoperative wound healing, it seems that cancer patients require higher amounts of micronutrients than healthy individuals. Because vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in oncological patients, improvement of vitamin D status is of special interest.

  12. Food Components and Supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parlesak, Alexandr

    2012-01-01

    The major part of food consists of chemical compounds that can be used for energy production, biological synthesis, or maintenance of metabolic processes by the host. These components are defined as nutrients, and can be categorized into macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates, triglycerides......, and alcohol), minerals, and micronutrients. The latter category comprises 13 vitamins and a hand full of trace elements. Many micronutrients are used as food supplements and are ingested at doses exceeding the amounts that can be consumed along with food by a factor of 10–100. Both macro- and micronutrients....... The supplements and contaminants can compete directly with drug oxidation, induce or suppress the expression of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, change the bioavailability of drugs, and, in the case of live bacteria, bring in their own xenobiotic metabolism, including cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. In numerous...

  13. Combating micronutrient deficiency disorders amongst children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Kapil

    2014-11-01

    further deteriorates their micronutrients nutritional status. The direct supplementation of Micronutrients like Vitamin A, Iron   are beneficial in short term but they are not sustainable. We do not know for how many years or generations we need to continue with direct supplementation. The families also develop a culture of dependence on the “state” for nutrition support. We need to look in to the long term but sustainable strategies. There is a need to strengthen the family resources so that family may able to look after the diet of children and prevent micronutrient deficiencies.The Food Fortification is an important intervention. It is sustainable as the cost of fortification is borne by the beneficiaries who consume the fortified foods like the case of Iodized salt. However, an important consideration for the food fortification strategy is that it increases the cost of foods as compared to non-fortified foods. The poor families who do not have resources to buy raw food, they are more constraint for   availability of foods. There is a need of developing Food Fortification strategies which are scientifically sound, operationally feasible and with proven effectiveness before they are implemented in developing countries. We need to assess this food fortification interventions carefully before we launch them.  We also need   to ensure that the poorest to the poor, including families which are below the poverty line   are covered on priority basis.  The issue of implementation of targeted versus universal fortification of foods needs to be considered based on the epidemiological evidence of prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in the region for   judicious utilization of resources. To achieve this, there is a need of joining hands amongst the nutrition scientists, public health specialists and food fortification technologists to shoulder responsibility towards devising effective and practical strategies to overcome the emergent challenges of

  14. Postnatal Imaging of Antenatal Hydronephrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M. Kitchens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiologic imaging of the newborn detected prenatally with hydronephrosis should follow a systematic approach. Upper and lower urinary tract imaging should be performed in most cases in order to determine the etiology and gauge the use of future imaging. An overview of renal ultrasound, voiding cystourethrography, renal scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance urography in the setting of antenatal hydronephrosis are discussed.

  15. Compliance to Iron Supplementation Among Pregnant Women: a Cross Sectional Study in Urban Slum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpanarani J Dutta, Prakash Patel, R K Bansal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Every six out of ten pregnant women were found taking iron supplement pills. As number of antenatal visits and knowledge of dose and duration of iron supplementation pills are independently affecting compliance to iron pills, increasing number of antenatal visits and imparting knowledge about dose and duration of iron supplementation pills will improve compliance to iron pills."

  16. Antenatal treatment in two Dutch families with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A; Been, Jasper V; Struys, Eduard A; Jakobs, Cornelis; Rijper, Elisabeth A M; Willemsen, Michèl A

    2010-03-01

    Incidental reports suggest that antenatal treatment of pyridoxine dependent seizures (PDS) may improve neurodevelopmental outcome of affected patients. Two families with PDS are reported, both with two affected siblings. Antenatal treatment with pyridoxine was instituted during the second pregnancy in each family (50 and 60 mg daily from 3 and 10 weeks of gestation, respectively). Perinatal characteristics and neurodevelopmental outcome at 4 (Family A) and 12 (Family B) years of age were compared between the untreated and treated child within each family. Meconium-stained amniotic fluid was present in both first pregnancies and abnormal foetal movements were noticed in one. In the treated infants, pregnancy and birth were uncomplicated. In family A, postnatal pyridoxine supplementation prevented neonatal seizures. Both children in family A were hypotonic and started walking after 2 years of age; both had white matter changes on MRI, and the first child was treated for squint. IQ was 73 and 98 in the antenatally untreated and treated child, respectively. The second child in family B developed seizures on the seventh day, because pyridoxine maintenance therapy had not been instituted after birth. Seizures responded rapidly to pyridoxine supplementation. MRI showed large ventricles and a mega cisterna magna. IQ was 80 and 106 in the antenatally untreated and treated child respectively. Both children had normal motor development. These results suggest that antenatal pyridoxine supplementation may be effective in preventing intrauterine seizures, decreasing the risk of complicated birth and improving neurodevelopmental outcome in PDS.

  17. The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; El-Sohemy, A.; Hesketh, J.; Kaput, J.; Fenech, M.; Evelo, C.T.; McArdle, H.J.; Bouwman, J.; Lietz, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Kranen, H. van; Elliott, R.; Wopereis, S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Méplan, C.; Perozzi, G.; Allen, L.; Rivero, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it

  18. The Micronutrient Genomics Project: A community-driven knowledge base for micronutrient research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; El-Sohemy, A.; Hesketh, J.; Kaput, J.; Fenech, M.; Evelo, C.T.; McArdle, H.J.; Bouwman, J.; Lietz, G.; Mathers, J.C.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Kranen, H. van; Elliott, R.; Wopereis, S.; Ferguson, L.R.; Méplan, C.; Perozzi, G.; Allen, L.; Rivero, D.

    2010-01-01

    Micronutrients influence multiple metabolic pathways including oxidative and inflammatory processes. Optimum micronutrient supply is important for the maintenance of homeostasis in metabolism and, ultimately, for maintaining good health. With advances in systems biology and genomics technologies, it

  19. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  20. Feeding the brain - The effects of micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance among school-aged children: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Long Fung; Lawlis, Tanya R

    2017-08-01

    Micronutrients are essential for brain development with deficiencies in specific nutrients linked to impaired cognitive function. Interventions are shown to be beneficial to children's mental development, particularly in subjects who were micronutrient-deficient at baseline but results on healthy subjects remain inconsistent. This systematic review evaluated the effect of micronutrient inventions on different cognitive domains. Studies conducted in both developing and developed countries, and trials that investigate the effect of both single and multiple micronutrient intervention were reviewed. Systematic searches of Medline, CINAHL Plus and Academic Search database were undertaken to identify trials published after year 2000. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluate the effect of micronutrients on cognitive performance or academic performance among children aged 4-18 years were included. 19 trials were identified from 18 articles. The major cognitive outcomes assessed included fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, short-term memory, long-term memory, cognitive processing speed, attention and concentration, and school performance. Eight of ten trials assessing fluid intelligence reported significant positive effects of micronutrient supplementation among micronutrient-deficient children, especially those who were iron-deficient or iodine-deficient at baseline. The effects of micronutrient interventions on other domains were inconsistent. Improvement in fluid intelligence among micronutrient-deficient children was consistently reported. Further research is needed to provide more definite evidence on the beneficial effects of micronutrient inventions on other cognitive domains and the effects in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of micronutrients in cell culture: a reflection on viability and genomic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Machado, Miriana; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Bergter, Lothar; Prá, Daniel; Henriques, João Antonio Pêgas

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5-10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.

  2. The Influence of Micronutrients in Cell Culture: A Reflection on Viability and Genomic Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigony, Ana Lúcia Vargas; de Oliveira, Iuri Marques; Bordin, Diana Lilian; Prá, Daniel; Pêgas Henriques, João Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS), which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed. PMID:23781504

  3. The Influence of Micronutrients in Cell Culture: A Reflection on Viability and Genomic Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Vargas Arigony

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients, including minerals and vitamins, are indispensable to DNA metabolic pathways and thus are as important for life as macronutrients. Without the proper nutrients, genomic instability compromises homeostasis, leading to chronic diseases and certain types of cancer. Cell-culture media try to mimic the in vivo environment, providing in vitro models used to infer cells' responses to different stimuli. This review summarizes and discusses studies of cell-culture supplementation with micronutrients that can increase cell viability and genomic stability, with a particular focus on previous in vitro experiments. In these studies, the cell-culture media include certain vitamins and minerals at concentrations not equal to the physiological levels. In many common culture media, the sole source of micronutrients is fetal bovine serum (FBS, which contributes to only 5–10% of the media composition. Minimal attention has been dedicated to FBS composition, micronutrients in cell cultures as a whole, or the influence of micronutrients on the viability and genetics of cultured cells. Further studies better evaluating micronutrients' roles at a molecular level and influence on the genomic stability of cells are still needed.

  4. Effects of Micronutrient Niacin on Treatment Efficiency of Textile Wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wei; HU Hongying; GU Xin; CHE Yuling; WANG Hui; GUO Yufeng; SONG Yudong

    2006-01-01

    Textile wastewater is well known as one of the wastewaters to be most difficultly treated. The effects of niacin on textile wastewater niacin, the physical and chemical indexes of the water samples, such as COD, ammonia and dehydrogenase activities, were analyzed every day with standard methods, and obvious improvement in wastewater treatcould improve the COD removal efficiency signifcantly with removal rates mental condition, addition of niacin had almost no effect on the removal of ase by 130%. It proved that the biological treatment performance of textile wastewater treatment system probably could be optimized through micronutrient niacin supplement.

  5. Soil Micronutrients and Citrus Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    By using nutritional diagnosis of citrus leaves and determining soil micronutrients,the relationship between soil micronutrients and citrus growth in southern China has been studied.Studies showed that there was a significant positive correlation between available micronutrients (such as Zn,Mo,Cu)in the soil and the corresponding nutrients in citrus leaves.Thus,one can roughly learn of the sufficiency or deficiency of certain nutrients in soils by analyzing citrus leaves.Rational spray of Zn B or Mo fertilizer not only improved citrus yields but also increased the total sugar of Satsuma mandarin and of Xinhui orange by 2.9 and 17.2% respectively compared with the control.Spraying Mo fertilizer increased the vitamin C content of Satsuma mandarin juice by 4.7%-8.4%,maturated fruits 7-10 days earlier and gave the peel a brighter color.The ultramicroscopic characteristics of Zn-deficient citrus leaves were investigated under an electron microscope.Results showed that the Zn-deficient leaf cell was characterized mainly by poor cytoplasm,endoplasmic reticula and ribosomes and by big starch grains in the chloroplast.As a result of spraying Zn fertilizer the structure of the cell returned to normal,the cytoplasm became rich and the amount of chloroplast increased.There also appeared a great deal of multiform endoplasmic reticula,thus promoting the photosynthesis of Zn-deficient plants.This provides a cytologico-theoretical basis for fertilization of high-yielding citrus trees.

  6. Phytotoxicity of carbon nanotubes in soybean as determined by interactions with micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaytseva, Olga; Wang, Zhengrui; Neumann, Günter

    2017-02-01

    Carbon nanomaterials released into the environment exert extremely variable effects on living organisms. In this study, we used soybean ( Glycine max) to investigate early responses to seed exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs, outer diameter 20-70 nm, inner diameter 5-10 nm, length of >2 μm). Soybean seeds were imbibed with deionised water (control) or MWCNT suspension (1000 mg L-1) and were analysed for MWCNT contamination using light microscopy. The seedlings vitality status was evaluated by staining with triphenyltetrazolium chloride and measurement of oxidative stress indicators in the root tissue. Micronutrient (Zn, Mn, Cu) availability in different seedling organs was assessed and the effects of antioxidants, and micronutrient supplementation was investigated. Oxidative stress induction by MWCNTs was detectable in radicle tips, coincided with MWCNTs accumulation and was reverted by external application of proline as antioxidant and micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Mn) as cofactors for various enzymes involved in oxidative stress defence. Accordingly, SOD activity increased after Zn supplementation. During germination, the MWCNT treatments reduced Zn translocation from the cotyledons to the seedling and MWCNTs exhibited adsorption potential for Zn and Cu, which may be involved in internal micronutrients immobilisation. This study demonstrates for the first time that MWCNT phytotoxicity is linked with oxidative stress-related disturbances of micronutrient homeostasis.

  7. Utilization Patterns of Antenatal Services Among Pregnant Women: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Area of North Karnataka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.Metgud

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1.To study the profile of antenatal care received 2. To know the factors influencing the utilization Study Design: Longitudinal study.Setting: Shindolli village of Belgaum District Participants: All women (n =130 in this village who were pregnant at the start of the study and who became pregnant during the study. Statistical Analysis: Proportions and Chi-square Test Results: Most of the pregnant women (92.31% were registered for antenatal care, but only 30.00% of them were registered in the 1st trimester of pregnancy. As regards to TT immunization, 70.77% of the pregnant women had received 2 doses or 1 booster dose. Iron and Folic Acid supplementation was taken by 59.68% of the pregnant women. Nearly 39.52 % of pregnant women were provided with full antenatal care. The main antenatal care provider for pregnant women was doctor (64.52%. The provision of full antenatal care package was found to be significantly higher among the pregnant women belonging to social classes I and II and in those who have studied above SSLC. Conclusion: The study shows early and wide spread use of antenatal care, but it also reveals that the antenatal visits occur late in the pregnancy. The literacy of women has significant bearing on utilization of antenatal care by the pregnant women.

  8. Pelayanan antenatal care dalam pengelolaan anemia berhubungan dengan kepatuhan ibu hamil minum tablet besi

    OpenAIRE

    Subarda, Subarda; Hakimi, Mohammad; Helmyati, Siti

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of pregnant women with anemia is still one of nutrition problems in Indonesia. The main cause of this case is low iron supplementation compliance as the effect of lack of antenatal care (ANC) services and lack promotion of anemia prevention and iron tablet benefit.Objective: The study was aimed to know the relationship between ANC services in anemia management with iron supplementation compliance of pregnant women.Method: The study was observational with cross secti...

  9. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Hummelen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use.

  10. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, a Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Hemsworth, Jaimie; Reid, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Low serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical trials of these interventions on the progression of HIV. Vitamin B, C, E, and folic acid have been shown to delay the progression of HIV. Supplementation with selenium, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics has considerable potential, but the evidence needs to be further substantiated. Vitamin A, iron, and zinc have been associated with adverse effects and caution is warranted for their use. PMID:22254046

  11. Metabolic engineering of micronutrients in crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blancquaert, Dieter; De Steur, Hans; Gellynck, Xavier; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2017-02-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a widespread phenomenon, most prevalent in developing countries. Being causally linked to the occurrence of a range of diseases, it affects billions of people worldwide. Enhancing the content of micronutrients in crop products through biotechnology is a promising technique to fight micronutrient malnutrition worldwide. Micronutrient fortification of food products has been implemented in a number of Western countries, but remains inaccessible for poor rural populations in a major part of the developing world. Moreover, evidence of the negative impacts of this practice on human health, at least for some vitamins, is accumulating. Biofortification of crop plants-the enhancement of vitamins and minerals through plant biotechnology-is a promising alternative or complement in the battle against micronutrient deficiencies. Owing to a growing knowledge about vitamin metabolism, as well as mineral uptake and reallocation in plants, it is today possible to enhance micronutrient levels in crop plants, offering a sustainable solution to populations with a suboptimal micronutrient intake. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  12. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Kaganov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population.

  13. Micronutrients and sickle cell disease, effects on growth, infection and vaso-occlusive crisis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Louise H; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Brabin, Bernard J; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2012-08-01

    Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) exhibit signs of poor growth, increased susceptibility to infection and recurrent episodes of painful vaso-occlusive crises. Micronutrient deficiencies may increase susceptibility to these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the strength of evidence for improved outcomes related to micronutrient interventions. Six randomized-controlled trials of moderate quality met the inclusion criteria. Zinc supplementation was associated with improved growth and decreased incidence of infection and is a promising intervention in the management of SCD patients. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with limited reduction in vaso occlusive crises. This review identifies key knowledge gaps, which are important research priorities for nutritional interventions.

  14. Mapping low intake of micronutrients across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mensink, G. B. M.; Fletcher, R.; Gurinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative......, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country....

  15. Deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils: Limitations of knowledge and future research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews present knowledge concerning deficiencies and toxicities of trace elements and micronutrients in tropical soils. The myth that all tropical soils are highly leached and nutrient-poor is challenged. Continuing use of the term laterite by ecologists and geologists is criticized and adoption of plinthite is urged. The trace element content of plinthite and its possible influence on micronutrient availability are described. Micronutrient limitations of tropical agriculture are related to soil type and formation, and the special problem of aluminum toxicity in acid soils is discussed in both agricultural and ecological contexts. Studies of micronutrient cycling in tropical forests or savannas are needed to supplement the emerging picture of the complexities of major element cycles in these ecosystems.

  16. Micronutrient-Fortified Rice Can Increase Hookworm Infection Risk: A Cluster Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechje de Gier

    Full Text Available Fortification of staple foods is considered an effective and safe strategy to combat micronutrient deficiencies, thereby improving health. While improving micronutrient status might be expected to have positive effects on immunity, some studies have reported increases in infections or inflammation after iron supplementation.To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren.A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program. Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice n = 506. Intestinal parasite infection was measured in fecal samples by Kato-Katz method at baseline and after three and seven months. In a subgroup (N = 330, fecal calprotectin was measured by ELISA as a marker for intestinal inflammation.Baseline prevalence of hookworm infection was 18.6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%.Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where baseline prevalence was high (>15%, and only by UltraRice_original in schools with low baseline prevalence. Neither hookworm infection nor fortified rice was related to fecal calprotectin.Consumption of rice fortified with micronutrients can increase hookworm prevalence, especially in environments with high infection pressure. When considering fortification of staple foods, a careful risk-benefit analysis is warranted, taking into account severity of micronutrient deficiencies and local

  17. Prevention of Mutation, Cancer, and Other Age-Associated Diseases by Optimizing Micronutrient Intake

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    Bruce N. Ames

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I review three of our research efforts which suggest that optimizing micronutrient intake will in turn optimize metabolism, resulting in decreased DNA damage and less cancer as well as other degenerative diseases of aging. (1 Research on delay of the mitochondrial decay of aging, including release of mutagenic oxidants, by supplementing rats with lipoic acid and acetyl carnitine. (2 The triage theory, which posits that modest micronutrient deficiencies (common in much of the population accelerate molecular aging, including DNA damage, mitochondrial decay, and supportive evidence for the theory, including an in-depth analysis of vitamin K that suggests the importance of achieving optimal micronutrient intake for longevity. (3 The finding that decreased enzyme binding constants (increased Km for coenzymes (or substrates can result from protein deformation and loss of function due to an age-related decline in membrane fluidity, or to polymorphisms or mutation. The loss of enzyme function can be compensated by a high dietary intake of any of the B vitamins, which increases the level of the vitamin-derived coenzyme. This dietary remediation illustrates the importance of understanding the effects of age and polymorphisms on optimal micronutrient requirements. Optimizing micronutrient intake could have a major effect on the prevention of cancer and other degenerative diseases of aging.

  18. Thanatophoric dysplasia: Antenatal to postmortem

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    Chanabasappa V Chavadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thanatophoric dwarfism (TD, literally meaning death seeking dwarf, is the most common form of lethal bone dysplasia characterized by severe micromelia, extra folds of skin and narrow chest. Other signs include small ribs, underdeveloped lungs, cloverleaf skull, hypertelorism and protuberant abdomen. A short neck, depressed nasal bridge and hypoplastic mandible may also be present. Hydrocephalus is uncommon but is another poor prognostic sign. The diagnosis is usually made with the ultrasonography in the second trimester. Based on the morphological characters, this condition is sub-divided into type 1 and type 2. Fetuses with this condition are either still-born or die shortly after birth. Antenatal sonographic, postpartum radiological and autopsy findings of a case of type 1 TD with a relatively uncommon association of hydrocephalus is discussed.

  19. EURRECA—Framework for Aligning Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Grammatikaki, E.; Matthys, C.; Raats, M.M.; Contor, L.

    2013-01-01

    There is currently no standard approach for deriving micronutrient recommendations, and large variations exist across Europe, causing confusion among consumers, food producers, and policy makers. More aligned information could influence dietary behaviors and potentially lead to a healthier populatio

  20. Micronutrients in Soils, Crops, and Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Umesh C.; Wu, Kening; Liang, Siyuan

    Micronutrient concentrations are generally higher in the surface soil and decrease with soil depth. In spite of the high concentration of most micronutrients in soils, only a small fraction is available to plants. Micronutrients, also known as trace elements, are required in microquantities but their lack can cause serious crop production and animal health problems. Crops vary considerably in their response to various micronutrients. Brassicas and legumes are highly responsive to molybdenum (Mo) and boron (B), whereas corn and other cereals are more responsive to zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu). Micronutrient deficiencies are more common in humid temperate regions, as well as in humid tropical regions, because of intense leaching associated with high precipitation. Soil pH is one of the most important factors affecting the availability of micronutrients to plants. With increasing pH, the availability of these nutrients is reduced with the exception of Mo whose availability increases as soil pH increases. In most plant species, leaves contain higher amounts of nutrients than other plant parts. Therefore, whenever possible, leaves should be sampled to characterize the micronutrient status of crops. Deficiency symptoms for most micronutrients appear on the younger leaves at the top of the plant, whereas toxicity symptoms generally appear on the older leaves of plants. As summarized by Deckers and Steinnes, micronutrient deficiencies are widespread in developing countries, which have much poorer soil resources than the fertile soils of Europe and North America. Many of these areas lie in the humid tropics with extremely infertile, highly weathered, and/or highly leached soils, which are intensely deficient in nutrients. The rest of such soils are in the semiarid and areas adjacent to the latter, where alkaline and calcareous soil conditions severely limit the availability of micronutrients to plants. Frequently, the Cu, iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), Zn, and selenium (Se) levels

  1. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Ansary, Ali; Kulier, Regina; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse gestational outcomes. Objectives To examine whether supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 October 2011), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (31 October 2011), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 October 2011) and also contacted relevant organisations (8 April 2011). Selection criteria Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. Main results The search strategy identified 34 potentially eligible references. We included six trials assessing a total of 1023 women, excluded eight studies, and 10 studies are still ongoing. Five trials involving 623 women compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation/placebo and one trial with 400 women compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium versus no supplementation. Only one trial with 400 women reported on pre-eclampsia: women who received 1200 IU vitamin D along with 375 mg of elemental calcium per day were as likely to develop pre-eclampsia as women who received no supplementation (average risk ratio (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 1.35). Data from four trials

  2. Effect of Micronutrient and Probiotic Fortified Yogurt on Immune-Function of Anti-Retroviral Therapy Naive HIV Patients  

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    J. Dik F. Habbema

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronutrient supplementation has been shown to reduce the progression of HIV but does not have an effect on the intestinal barrier or the intestinal microbiota of HIV patients. Studies have suggested that probiotics could potentially complement micronutrients in preserving the immune-function of HIV patients. Objective: Assess the impact of micronutrient supplemented probiotic yogurt on the immune function of HIV patients. Design: We performed a randomized, double blind, controlled trial with CD4 count as primary outcome among HIV patients naïve to anti-retroviral treatment. Secondary outcomes included hematological parameters, incidence of diarrhea and clinical symptoms. A total of 112 HIV patients were randomized to receive a micronutrient fortified yogurt with (n = 55 or without additional probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (n = 57 for four weeks. Results: An average decline in CD4 count of −70 cells/μL (95% CI: −154 to −15 was observed in the micronutrient, probiotic group versus a decrease of −63 cells/μL (95% CI: −157 to −30 in the micronutrient control group (p = 0.9. Additional probiotic supplementation was well tolerated and not associated with adverse events. No difference between groups was detected in incidence of diarrhea or clinical symptoms. An improvement of hemoglobin levels was observed for all subjects, based upon a mean difference from baseline of 1.4 g/L (SD = 6 (p = 0.02. Conclusion: The addition of probiotics to a micronutrient fortified yogurt was well tolerated by HIV patients but was not associated with a further increase in CD4 count after one month.

  3. Micronutrients attenuate progression of prostate cancer by elevating the endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis, Platelet Factor-4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleshner Neil E

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Longstanding evidence implicates an inadequate diet as a key factor in the onset and progression of prostate cancer. The purpose herein was to discover, validate and characterize functional biomarkers of dietary supplementation capable of suppressing the course of prostate cancer in vivo. Methods The Lady transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops prostate cancer received a diet supplemented with a micronutrient cocktail of vitamin E, selenium and lycopene ad libitum. A proteomic analysis was conducted to screen for serum biomarkers of this dietary supplementation. Candidate peptides were validated and identified by sequencing and analyzed for their presence within the prostates of all mice by immunohistochemistry. Results Dietary supplementation with the combined micronutrients significantly induced the expression of the megakaryocyte-specific inhibitor of angiogenesis, platelet factor-4 (P = 0.0025. This observation was made predominantly in mice lacking tumors and any manifestations associated with progressive disease beyond 37 weeks of life, at which time no survivors remained in the control group (P Conclusion We present unprecedented data whereby these combined micronutrients effectively promotes tumor dormancy in early prostate cancer, following initiation mutations that may drive the angiogenesis-dependent response of the tumor, by inducing platelet factor-4 expression and concentrating it at the tumor endothelium through enhanced platelet binding.

  4. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwalla, Nahla; Al Dhaheri, Ayesha Salem; Radwan, Hadia; Alfawaz, Hanan Abdullah; Fouda, Mona A.; Al-Daghri, Nasser Mohammed; Zaghloul, Sahar; Blumberg, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government-sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East. PMID:28273802

  5. Early Supplemental Feeding and Spontaneous Play in West Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walka, Helen; Pollitt, Ernesto; Triana, Nina; Jahari, Abas B.

    This study examined the effects of nutritional supplements on the duration and level of spontaneous play of 55 mildly to moderately malnourished toddlers living within the tea plantations of West Java, Indonesia. Infants were randomly assigned by their day care centers to one of three supplement groups: (1) energy and micronutrient supplements;…

  6. Fibrochondrogenesis, an Antenatal and Postnatal Correlation

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    Nischal G Kundaragi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrochondrogenesis is a rare, neonatally lethal osteochondrodysplasia, with autosomal recessive inheritance. It differs from other lethal dwarfisms in that it leads to broad, long-bone metaphyses (dumb-bell shaped and pear-shaped vertebral bodies. We report a case of fibrochondrogenesis with severe pear-shaped platyspondyly, suspected antenatally, and give a comprehensive pictorial review of the antenatal ultrasound and postnatal radiographic findings. Only few cases of fibrochondrogenesis are diagnosed before the termination of pregnancy.

  7. Antenatal hypnosis training and childbirth experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, Anette; Uldbjerg, Niels; Zachariae, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience.......Childbirth is a demanding event in a woman's life. The aim of this study was to explore whether a brief intervention in the form of an antenatal course in self-hypnosis to ease childbirth could improve the childbirth experience....

  8. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavanya S

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 500 antenatal women in their first or second trimesters were screened over a period of 2 years for asymptomatic bacteriuria. Out of them, 8.4% (42 were culture positive. A control group of 100 non-pregnant women, both married and unmarried, was also simultaneously screened. The control group yielded an overall culture positivity of 3% (4% in the married non-pregnant women and 2% in the unmarried women. Primigravida had highest percent culture positivity of 66.6%. The incidence was higher in less than 20 years age group i.e. 71.42%. Of the screening tests, Gram stained smear when compared with the standard loop method, showed the highest sensitivity of 95.2%. The specificity of the screening tests was high [Gram stained smear (98.6%, catalase test (97.1% and pus cell count(96.5%]. Escherichia coli was the most common organism isolated in the test and control groups. The organisms were sensitive to cephalexin, nitrofurantoin, amoxycillin and norfloxacin in decreasing order. Incidence of prematurity was 75% and that of low birth weight was 50% in untreated patients.

  9. Antenatal Bartter Syndrome: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramesh Bhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Bartter syndrome (ABS is a rare autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder. The defective chloride transport in the loop of Henle leads to fetal polyuria resulting in severe hydramnios and premature delivery. Early onset, unexplained maternal polyhydramnios often challenges the treating obstetrician. Increasing polyhydramnios without apparent fetal or placental abnormalities should lead to the suspicion of this entity. Biochemical analysis of amniotic fluid is suggested as elevated chloride level is usually diagnostic. Awareness, early recognition, maternal treatment with indomethacin, and amniocentesis allow the pregnancy to continue. Affected neonates are usually born premature, have postnatal polyuria, vomiting, failure to thrive, hypercalciuria, and subsequently nephrocalcinosis. Hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis, secondary hyperaldosteronism and hyperreninaemia are other characteristic features. Volume depletion due to excessive salt and water loss on long term stimulates renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system resulting in juxtaglomerular hyperplasia. Clinical features and electrolyte abnormalities may also depend on the subtype of the syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis and timely indomethacin administration prevent electrolyte imbalance, restitute normal growth, and improve activity. In this paper, authors present classification, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications, and prognosis of ABS.

  10. Developmental effects of micronutrient supplementation and malaria in Zanzibari children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Children’s development is affected by the interplay of internal and external factors and changes in one factor can precipitate changes in multiple developmental domains. Objective: To test a theoretical model of children’s development we used structural equation modeling to fit the model...

  11. [Advances in the knowledge of the use of micronutrients in artificial nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz García, M; Pérez Menéndez-Conde, C; Bermejo Vicedo, T

    2011-01-01

    Micronutrients are defined as those compounds necessary for the adequate physiological status of the organism and that may be administered through the daily diet either enteral or parenteral. The term micronutrient encompasses the vitamins and oligoelements, also termed trace elements. Vitamins cannot be synthesized by the organism and are categorized in two groups: water-soluble vitamins (the vitamin B group, C, folic acid, and biotin) and lipid-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K). Oligoelements are found in small amounts in the human body, and copper, cobalt, chrome, iron, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, and zinc are considered to be essential. The important role of micronutrients in critically-ill patients has been demonstrated, and their influence on the immune system, cancer, burnt, septic, and poly-traumatized patients has extensively been put in evidence. It is important to establish the micronutrients demands for each individual in order to achieve an adequate intake. However, there is little evidence on the necessary intake to achieve proper physiological functioning under different pathologies; therefore, studies bringing light to this situation are needed. The aim of this review is to update the current state of knowledge on micronutrients supplementation in the adult population with pathologies such as cancer, coronary and cardiovascular disease, bowel inflammatory disease, short-bowel syndrome, cystic fibrosis, liver disease, renal failure, respiratory failure, the surgical patient, big-burnt patient, pancreatitis, poly-traumatized patients, sepsis and HIV. After the bibliographical search, we describe the current state of knowledge regarding micronutrients intake in artificial nutrition under the above-mentioned pathologies.

  12. Sex-Specific Muscular Maturation Responses Following Prenatal Exposure to Methylation-Related Micronutrients in Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Michael; Trakooljul, Nares; Reyer, Henry; Zeyner, Annette; Muráni, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Supplementation of micronutrients involved in DNA methylation, particularly during pregnancy, is recommended because of its impacts on human health, but further evidence is needed regarding the effects of over-supplementation and differences between sexes. Here, a porcine model was used to assess effects of maternal supplementation with one-carbon-cycle compounds during prenatal and postnatal stages on offspring muscle development. Sows received either a standard diet (CON) or a standard diet supplemented with folate, B6, B12, methionine, choline, and zinc (MET) throughout gestation. Myogenesis-, growth-, and nutrient utilization-related transcript expression was assessed using quantitative PCR. Organismal phenotype and gene expression effects differed significantly between males and females. Male MET-offspring showed increased fetal weight during late pregnancy but decreased live weight postnatally, with compensatory transcriptional responses comprising myogenic key drivers (Pax7, MyoD1, myogenin). In contrast, female weights were unaffected by diet, and mRNA abundances corresponded to a phenotype of cellular reorganization via FABP3, FABP4, SPP1 and Insulin-like Growth Factor-signaling. These findings in an animal model suggest that supplementation during pregnancy with methylation-related micronutrients can promote sex-specific myogenic maturation processes related to organismal growth and muscle metabolism. The usage of maternal dietary supplements should be more carefully considered regarding its ability to promote fetal and postnatal health. PMID:28106759

  13. Addressing the risk of inadequate and excessive micronutrient intakes: traditional versus new approaches to setting adequate and safe micronutrient levels in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike J. Bruins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fortification of foods consumed by the general population or specific food products or supplements designed to be consumed by vulnerable target groups is amongst the strategies in developing countries to address micronutrient deficiencies. Any strategy aimed at dietary change needs careful consideration, ensuring the needs of at-risk subgroups are met whilst ensuring safety within the general population. This paper reviews the key principles of two main assessment approaches that may assist developing countries in deciding on effective and safe micronutrient levels in foods or special products designed to address micronutrient deficiencies, that is, the cut-point method and the stepwise approach to risk–benefit assessment. In the first approach, the goal is to shift population intake distributions such that intake prevalences below the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and above the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL are both minimized. However, for some micronutrients like vitamin A and zinc, a narrow margin between the EAR and UL exists. Increasing their intakes through mass fortification may pose a dilemma; not permitting the UL to be exceeded provides assurance about the safety within the population but can potentially leave a proportion of the target population with unmet needs, or vice versa. Risk–benefit approaches assist in decision making at different micronutrient intake scenarios by balancing the magnitude of potential health benefits of reducing inadequate intakes against health risks of excessive intakes. Risk–benefit approaches consider different aspects of health risk including severity and number of people affected. This approach reduces the uncertainty for policy makers as compared to classic cut-point methods.

  14. Antioxidant Micronutrients and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Diabetes: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmento, Roberta Aguiar [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Flávia Moraes [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Sbruzzi, Graciele [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Schaan, Beatriz D' Agord [Instituto de Cardiologia do Rio Grande do Sul - Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Almeida, Jussara Carnevale de, E-mail: jussara.carnevale@gmail.com [Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre - Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Departamento de Medicina Interna - Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Inverse associations between micronutrient intake and cardiovascular outcomes have been previously shown, but did not focus on diabetic patients. To systematically review the role of micronutrients in the development/presence of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes. We searched Medline, Embase, and Scopus (January/1949-March/2012) for observational studies that evaluated micronutrients and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with diabetes, and then selected and extracted the data (two independent reviewers). From the 15 658 studies identified, five were included, comprising three case-control and two cohorts, with a follow-up of 7-15 years. A meta-analysis was not performed due to the different antioxidant micronutrients (types and measurement methods) and outcomes evaluated. The micronutrients assessed were vitamin C intake in diet and/ or supplementation, chromium and selenium in toenail samples, and α-tocopherol and zinc in serum levels. Intake of > 300 mg of vitamin C through supplementation was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke (RR 1.69-2.37). High levels of α-tocopherol in serum were associated with 30% lower CAD risk in another study (HR 0.71; 95%CI 0.53-0.94). Among minerals (zinc, selenium, and chromium), an inverse association between zinc and CAD was observed; levels lower than 14.1 μmol/L were associated with an increased risk for CAD (RR 1.70; 95%CI 1.21-2.38). The information available on this issue is scarce. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of these nutrients in the cardiovascular risk of patients with diabetes.

  15. Micronutrients and cancer aetiology: the epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T

    1994-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies occur most commonly in poor countries and, therefore, are most likely to be associated with cancers common in these countries. Epidemiological studies are hampered by inaccurate measurement of micronutrient intake and by the correlations between intakes of many nutrients. The strongest evidence for a protective effect of micronutrients is for oesophageal cancer. The identity of the micronutrients is not certain, but may include retinol, riboflavin, ascorbic acid and Zn; alcohol, smoking and dietary nitrosamines increase the risk for oesophageal cancer. For stomach cancer there is good evidence that fruit and vegetables are protective. The protective effect of these foods might be largely due to ascorbic acid, but other nutrients and non-nutrients may also be important; the risk for stomach cancer is increased by salt, some types of preserved foods, and by infection of the stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori. The risk for lung cancer appears to be reduced by a high intake of fruit and vegetables, but it is not clear which agents are responsible and the major cause of lung cancer is cigarette smoking. Diet is probably the major determinant of the risk for colo-rectal cancer; there is evidence that fruit and vegetables and fibre reduce risk and that meat and animal fat increase risk, but there is no convincing evidence that these relationships are mediated by micronutrients. The risk for cervical cancer is inversely related to fruit and vegetable consumption and, therefore, to consumption of carotenoids and ascorbic acid, but the major cause of this cancer is human papillomavirus and it is not yet clear whether the dietary associations indicate a true protective effect or whether they are due to confounding by other variables. The evidence that micronutrients are important in the aetiology of either breast cancer or prostate cancer is weak, but the possible roles of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol and alpha-tocopherol in prostate

  16. EURRECA—Evidence-Based Methodology for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Bouwman, J.; Brown, K.A.; Cavelaars, A.E.J.M.; Collings, R.; Grammatikaki, E.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Gurinovic, M.; Harvey, L.J.; Hermoso, M.; Hurst, R.; Kremer, S.H.A.; Ngo, J.; Novakovic, R.; Raats, M.M.; Rollin, F.; Serra-Majem, L.; Souverein, O.W.; Timotijevic, L.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence explored the process of setting micronutrient recommendations to address the variance in recommendations across Europe. Work centered upon the transparent assessment of nutritional requirements via a series of systema

  17. EURRECA—Principles and Future for Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, M.; Contor, L.; Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.; Groot, L.C.P.Q.M. de; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.; Gurinovic, M.; Koletzko, B.; Ommen, B. van; Raats, M.M.; Veer, P. van 't

    2013-01-01

    The EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence (NoE) explored an approach for settingmicronutrient recommendations, which would address the variation in recommendations across Europe. Therefore, a framework for deriving and using micronutrient Dietary Reference Va

  18. Effects of Antenatal Corticosteroids in Preterm Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Gon Wang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal corticosteroid administration is one of the most effective methods to improve perinatal outcomes. It reduces the incidence of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates. Antenatal corticosteroids are also effective in treating maternal hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelet count syndrome. However, complications in neonates and mothers may occur when antenatal corticosteroids are given, including infection, sepsis and maternal pulmonary edema. The National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference recommends treatment regimens of either two 12 mg doses of betamethasone given intramuscularly 24 hours apart or four 6 mg doses of dexamethasone given intramuscularly 12 hours apart between 24 and 34 weeks of gestation in pregnancies at risk for preterm delivery. The benefits are most apparent when the corticosteroids are administered between 24 hours and 7 days before delivery. In principle, antenatal steroid therapy should not be routinely repeated in patients with preterm labor. For preterm premature rupture of membranes at less than 30–32 weeks of gestation, antenatal corticosteroids are also suggested as long as there is no evidence of infection.

  19. Micronutrients-incorporated calcium phosphate particles with protective effect on osteoporotic bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Zhang, L; Yang, X; Li, Z; Sun, X; Lin, M; Yang, G; Gou, Z

    2013-01-01

    Supplementation of individual micronutrient is inadequate for maintaining bone function because single micronutrient can not contribute significantly a positive remodeling balance. We developed the highly integrated, stably dietary multi-micronutrients with good bioavailability and low adverse effect on the improvement of bone consolidation in osteoporosis. The trace element-codoped calcium phosphate (teCaP) particles were prepared in the modified body fluid and carefully evaluated. Rats, aged 3 months, were ovariectomized and when 6 month intervened with the conditioned, low, moderate, and high teCaP diets. The teCaP particles showed highly dissolvable in stomach juice-mimicing acidic solutions. Three months after intervention, the body weight increase showed remarkable differences among the low teCaP diet (~52 g), moderate teCaP diet (~34 g) and high teCaP diet (~23 g) group. In particular, the intake of moderate teCaP greatly improved the retention of trace elements in femural bone for better protection against the skeletal weakening, and resulted in a significant increase of bone mineral density (104.06%) in comparison with the conventional high calcium plus vitamin D3 diet (Control group). These investigations improve our understanding of micronutrient retention on bone consolidation in osteoporotic bone tissue, and also provide new mild wet-chemical approach to prepare potent nutritionally effective edible complements to synergistically relieve bone degeneration and prevent osteoporosis.

  20. [Micronutrients and tropical viral infections: one aspect of pathogenic complexity in tropical medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, D

    1999-01-01

    In tropical zones, uncertain living conditions, inadequate food intake, and poor medical facilities enhance unnecessary morbidity and mortality especially involving infants and young children. In addition to protein-caloric malnutrition, deficiencies in essential micronutrients have a specific health impact. Such deficiencies can be the direct cause of disease such as vitamin A deficiency and blindness or have a promoting effect by compromising immune status and increasing susceptibility to and severity of infectious diseases especially of viral origin. The promoting effect of micronutrient deficiency plays a significant role in measles, rotavirus-related diarrhea, and, to a certain extent, progression of HIV infection. Several examples are described to illustrate the relationship between tropical viral infection and micronutrients including vitamin A, selenium, and various other antioxidants. These examples highlight the effect of infectious disease on micronutritional status (vitamin A and measles) and the need to develop reliable, practical tools to evaluate the relevance and effectiveness of dietary supplementation. In any case, improving living conditions and health programs such as the Expanded Vaccination Program are required and illustrate a transverse approach for prevention of infectious and non-infectious tropical disease. The relationship between micronutrients and infection is only one aspect of the multifactorial reality that must be dealt with in tropical medicine.

  1. Intake of macro- and micronutrients in Danish vegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nadja B; Madsen, Mia L; H Hansen, Tue

    2015-01-01

    Since information about macro- and micronutrient intake among vegans is limited we aimed to determine and evaluate their dietary and supplementary intake. Seventy 18-61 years old Danish vegans completed a four-day weighed food record from which their daily intake of macro- and micronutrients...... and the general Danish population in all measured macro- and micronutrients (p ...

  2. Antenatal imaging of cutis verticis gyrata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Ana [Starship Hospital, Department of Paediatric Cardiology, Auckland (New Zealand); Perry, David [Starship Children' s Hospital, Radiology Department, Auckland (New Zealand); Battin, Malcolm [Auckland City Hospital, Newborn Services, National Women' s Health, Auckland (New Zealand); University of Auckland, Department of Paediatrics, Auckland (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    Cutis verticis gyrata (CVG) is a skin condition characterized by thick folds and deep furrows, resembling a cortical gyral pattern. There is a recognized but rare association with Noonan syndrome. We report the antenatal imaging, including three-dimensional surface-rendered sonography and MRI, of a fetus with CVG who was subsequently diagnosed with Noonan syndrome. The case illustrates the antenatal appearances of congenital CVG and the potential yield of antenatal imaging in excluding a major central nervous system anomaly. This is important because without prior knowledge of this condition and its imaging characteristics, it is possible to get a false impression of an underlying skull defect on mid-trimester imaging. (orig.)

  3. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...... scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  4. Number and timing of antenatal HIV testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy, Hanh; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: HIV testing for pregnant women is an important component for the success of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). A lack of antenatal HIV testing results in loss of benefits for HIV-infected mothers and their children. However, the provision of unnecessary...... repeat tests at a very late stage of pregnancy will reduce the beneficial effects of PMTCT and impose unnecessary costs for the individual woman as well as the health system. This study aims to assess the number and timing of antenatal HIV testing in a low-income setting where PMTCT programmes have been...... scaled up to reach first level health facilities. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted among 1108 recently delivered mothers through face-to-face interviews following a structured questionnaire that focused on socio-economic characteristics, experiences of antenatal care and HIV...

  5. Micronutrient Fortification of Food: Issues for Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoffry

    2015-01-01

    More than 2 billion individuals globally suffer some degree of deficiency of one or more micronutrients, with the largest numbers in Africa and Asia. Fortification of foods with vitamins and minerals is a proven public health intervention. In Asia, salt iodization, fortified flour and condiments such as fish sauce and soy sauce are reaching hundreds of millions. However, many individuals still do not have adequate intakes of numerous micronutrients, and better fortification strategies and practices will help to alleviate these deficiencies. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) has supported research and scientific dialog about technical and health issues related to micronutrients. Recent studies have indicated widespread vitamin D deficiency among children in SE Asia, and in India. A new trial shows the efficacy of vitamin D-fortified milk in addressing deficiencies, which may have applicability in school feeding programs in India and other parts of Asia. Infant nutrition is also critical, and complementary foods can play an important role after exclusive breastfeeding in providing critical nutrients. A formulation developed in China, Ying Yang Bao, has shown significant reduction of anemia and improved growth in infants. Fortification in Asia has the potential to greatly reduce micronutrient deficiencies and improve health, but more structured efforts are needed to achieve these goals.

  6. Changing micronutrient intake through (voluntary) behaviour change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Lähteenmäki, Liisa; Grunert, Klaus G

    2012-01-01

    the complexity of mechanisms influencing possible behavioural changes, even though this only targets the intake of a single micronutrient. When considering possible options to promote folate intake, the feasibility of producing the desired outcome should be related to the mechanisms of required changes...

  7. Effects of Antenatal Betamethasone and Dexamethasone in Preterm Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yu Chen

    2005-09-01

    Conclusion: In our study, no significant differences between antenatal betamethasone and dexamethasone were found in complications of preterm neonates. Incomplete courses of antenatal corticosteroids were associated with an increased incidence of RDS compared with complete courses.

  8. Cash Transfers to Increase Antenatal Care Utilization in Kisoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Cash Transfers Antenatal Care, Uganda. African Journal of ... We examined whether modest cash transfers for participation in antenatal ... maternal mortality rates has been debated, it is ..... Outcome effectiveness of community health workers: ...

  9. Antenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Ghana, the importance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antenatal care and pregnancy outcome in Ghana, the importance of women\\'s education. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The antenatal characteristics of 503 pregnant women attending maternal and child

  10. Glycemic management after antenatal corticosteroid therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal corticosteroids (ACS are recommended for use in antenatal mothers at risk of preterm delivery before 34 weeks. One common side-effect of these drugs is their propensity to cause hyperglycemia. A PubMed search was made using terms ′steroid,′ ′dexamethasone,′ ′betamethasone′ with diabetes/glucose. Relevant articles were extracted. In addition, important cross-reference articles were reviewed. This review, based upon this literature search, discusses the available evidence on effects on glycemic status as well as management strategies in women with pre-existing diabetes, gestational diabetes mellitus, as well as normoglycemic women after ACS use in pregnancy.

  11. Zinc supplementation in burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldis-Coutris, Nancy; Gawaziuk, Justin P; Logsetty, Sarvesh

    2012-01-01

    Micronutrient supplementation is a common practice throughout many burn centers across North America; however, uncertainty pertaining to dose, duration, and side effects of such supplements persists. The authors prospectively collected data from 23 hospitalized patients with burn sizes ranging from 10 to 93% TBSA. Each patient received a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement, 50 mg zinc (Zn) daily, and 500 mg vitamin C twice daily. Supplements were administered orally or enterally. Albumin, prealbumin, C-reactive protein, serum Zn, and serum copper were measured weekly during hospital admission until levels were within normal reference range. Our study concluded that 50 mg daily dose of Zn resulted in normal serum levels in 19 of 23 patients at discharge; 50 mg Zn supplementation did not interfere with serum copper levels; and Zn supplements, regardless of administration route, did not result in gastrointestinal side effects.

  12. 孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进生长受限胎鼠神经元与神经干细胞增殖的最佳时机%Optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation for improvement of neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽芳; 李芳; 刘敬; 王华伟

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo determine the optimal timing of antenatal taurine supplementation to improve neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.Methods Twenty-five pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into five groups (five rats in each group): group A was the control group, group B to E were the fetal growth restriction (FGR) model groups with low-protein diet during the experiment, group C, D, and E were supplemented with taurine [300 mg/(kg·d)] at day 9, 11 and 15, respectively. The birth weight of newborn rats was measured after natural delivery. The rats with body weight two standard deviations lower than the average weight in group A were diagnosed as FGR. There were five litters of newborn rats in each group, and two were randomly selected from each litter, resulting in ten newborn rats in each group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) positive cell expression in newborn rat brain tissues were detected by immunohistochemistry. Single factor analysis of variance, LSD tests were used for statistical analysis.ResultsThe average birth weight of newborn rats in group A, B, C, D and E were (6.61±0.45), (4.65±0.23), (5.37±0.17), (5.74±0.21), and (5.00±0.24) g, respectively. Average birth weight was lower in group B than in group A (t=2.447), higher in group D and E than in group B (t=2.306 and 2.306), higher in group D than in group C and E (t=2.306 and 2.306), and the differences were statistically significant (allP0.05). The IOD in group D was higher than that in group E, and the difference was statistically significant (t=4.182,P<0.05).ConclusionsAntenatal taurine supplementation can promote neuron and neural stem cell proliferation in rats with FGR. The effect is most obvious on the 11th day of pregnancy, and may lead to the promotion of brain development.%目的:探讨孕鼠补充牛磺酸促进胎儿生长受限(fetal growth restriction,FGR)胎鼠神经元

  13. Mobile phones improve antenatal care attendance in Zanzibar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Stine; Nielsen, Birgitte B; Hemed, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    measure was four or more antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Secondary outcome measures were tetanus vaccination, preventive treatment for malaria, gestational age at last antenatal care visit, and antepartum referral. RESULTS: The mobile phone intervention was associated with an increase in antenatal...

  14. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  15. Associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota in a group of adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Krause, Lutz; Somerset, Shawn

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) involves chronic inflammation and oxidative stress affecting mainly the respiratory and digestive systems. Survival rates for CF have improved with advances in treatment including nutritional interventions such as micronutrient supplementation. Diet can modulate gut microbiota in the general population with consequences on local and systemic immunity, and inflammation. The gut microbiota appears disrupted and may associate with pulmonary status in CF. This study investigated associations between micronutrient intakes and gut microbiota variations in a group of adults with CF. Faecal microbiota of sixteen free-living adults with CF was profiled by 16ss rDNA sequencing on the GS-FLX platform. Associations were tested between UniFrac distances of faecal microbiota and time-corresponding micronutrient intakes. Associations between relative abundances of bacterial taxa and micronutrient intakes (those showing significant associations with UniFrac distances) were examined by Spearman correlation. Unweighted UniFrac distances were associated with intakes of potassium and antioxidant vitamins C, E and beta-carotene equivalents, whereas weighted UniFrac distances were associated with antioxidant vitamins riboflavin, niacin equivalents, beta-carotene equivalents and vitamin A equivalents. Intakes of beta-carotene equivalents, vitamin C, vitamin E, niacin equivalents and riboflavin correlated negatively with Bacteroides and/or its corresponding higher level taxa. Intakes of beta-carotene equivalents and vitamin E also positively correlated with Firmicutes and specific taxa belonging to Firmicutes. Some micronutrients, particularly antioxidant vitamins, correlated with gut microbiota variations in the studied cohort. Further research is required to clarify whether antioxidant vitamin intakes can influence CF gut microbiota and potential clinical/therapeutic implications in CF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and

  16. Antenatal care in practice: an exploratory study in antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kessy Flora

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential of antenatal care for reducing maternal morbidity and improving newborn survival and health is widely acknowledged. Yet there are worrying gaps in knowledge of the quality of antenatal care provided in Tanzania. In particular, determinants of health workers' performance have not yet been fully understood. This paper uses ethnographic methods to document health workers' antenatal care practices with reference to the national Focused Antenatal Care guidelines and identifies factors influencing health workers' performance. Potential implications for improving antenatal care provision in Tanzania are discussed. Methods Combining different qualitative techniques, we studied health workers' antenatal care practices in four public antenatal care clinics in the Kilombero Valley, south-eastern Tanzania. A total of 36 antenatal care consultations were observed and compared with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Participant observation, informal discussions and in-depth interviews with the staff helped to identify and explain health workers' practices and contextual factors influencing antenatal care provision. Results The delivery of antenatal care services to pregnant women at the selected antenatal care clinics varied widely. Some services that are recommended by the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines were given to all women while other services were not delivered at all. Factors influencing health workers' practices were poor implementation of the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines, lack of trained staff and absenteeism, supply shortages and use of working tools that are not consistent with the Focused Antenatal Care guidelines. Health workers react to difficult working conditions by developing informal practices as coping strategies or "street-level bureaucracy". Conclusions Efforts to improve antenatal care should address shortages of trained staff through expanding training opportunities, including health worker

  17. Control of micronutrient deficiencies in India: obstacles and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, K

    2002-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies of vitamin A, iron, and iodine continue to be of public health significance in India. The government of India initiated national programs to prevent, control and combat these deficiencies and their serious consequences. The interventions involved (1) distribution of iodized salt in the endemic areas, (2) administration of semiannual massive dose of vitamin A to young children, and (3) distribution of iron-folic acid tablets to the vulnerable groups. Evaluations revealed that the biologic impact of these interventions was unsatisfactory. Inadequate allocation of funds (10% of the actual needs) necessary to cover the enormous number of beneficiaries was one of the important obstacles. Consequently, the allocation of supplies to different provinces was far short of the requirements (10-30%). As a result of poor orientation, the functionaries were not adhering to the guidelines, leading to woefully inadequate (1-20%) and irregular coverage. There was no proper monitoring or supervision to make midcourse corrections to improve the functioning. The community was not informed of the purpose and details of each intervention. Hence, it did not utilize the resources completely and remained passive recipients. The community was not aware of the dietary approaches to prevent micronutrient disorders owing to absence of nutrition education. With the adoption of National Nutrition Policy by the government of India, a concerted and focused approach should be adopted. The future strategies should include a mix of short-term supplementation and food-based strategy encompassing food fortification and home gardening. Innovative approaches in information, education, and communication (such as social marketing strategy) for making the interventions sustainable should be adopted.

  18. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  19. Effect and mechanism of micronutrient compound on swimming endurance in mice with nutritional deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-quan WU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the anti-fatigue effect and possible mechanisms of micronutrient compound. Methods One hundred and twenty-five male Kunming mice (SPF were fed following different feeding stuffs: sufficient feed, i.e. AIN-93M feed (corn starch 46.6%, casein 14%, dextrinized corn starch 15.5%, sucrose 10%, soybean oil 4%, fiber 5%, mineral mix 3.5%, vitamin mix 1%, L-cystine 0.18%, choline chloride 0.138% and tert-butylhydroquinone 8 ppm; insufficient feed (composed the same ingredients as the AIN-93M diet, replacing 30%, 50% or 70% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix with corn starch; compound micronutrient-added feed (CMAF, replacing 30% of the content of mineral and vitamin mix of AIN-93M diet with micronutrient compound composed of (g/kg Vit A 0.25, Vit B1 0.3, Vit B2 0.3, Vit B6 0.35, nicotinic acid 1.5, Vit D 0.05, Vit C 50, Vit E 10, calcium carbonate 180, ferrous glycine 1, zinc lactate 1 and corn starch 755.25. The mice were fed for 14 or 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test with a load on their tails to exhaustion. The maximal swimming time was recorded. In another experiment, the Kunming mice were fed with corresponding feed for 28 d, and then subjected to forced swim test for 60 min, thereafter the samples of blood and liver were collected immediately. The serum contents of glucose, lactate, nonprotein nitrogen, nonesterified fatty acids and hepatic glycogen were measured. Results The dietary intake of 30% nutritional insufficient group (30% group was significantly decreased compared with normal control group (fed with AIN-93M diet, (P 0.05. The serum glucose and hepatic glycogen decreased and serum lactate, nonprotein nitrogen and nonesterified fatty acids increased in the control group, which were aggravated in nutrient insufficient group and reversed in micronutrient supplementation group. Conclusions Insufficient intake of micronutrients has significant influence on swimming endurance in mice and compound

  20. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Brown, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants...... in the field of micronutrient recommendations and a case study that focused on mandatory folic acid (FA) fortification. Setting: Questionnaire-based data were collected across thirty-five European countries. The FA fortification case study was conducted in the UK, Norway, Denmark, Germany, Spain, Czech...... of expertise and the terms of reference for the SAC are determined by the government. Where there is no dedicated SAC, the impetus for the development of micronutrient recommendations and the associated policies comes from interested specialists in the area. This is typically linked with an ad hoc selection...

  1. The process of setting micronutrient recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timotijevic, Lada; Barnett, Julie; Brown, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the workings of the nutrition-related scientific advisory bodies in Europe, paying particular attention to the internal and external contexts within which they operate. Design: Desk research based on two data collection strategies: a questionnaire completed by key informants...... Republic and Hungary. Results: Varied bodies are responsible for setting micronutrient recommendations, each with different statutory and legal models of operation. Transparency is highest where there are standing scientific advisory committees (SAC). Where the standing SAC is created, the range...... of a problem area to consider, lack of openness and transparency in the decisions and over-reliance on international recommendations. Conclusions: Even when there is consensus about the science behind micronutrient recommendations, there is a range of other influences that will affect decisions about...

  2. Zinc supplementation in children with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) leads to malabsorption of macro- and micronutrients. Symptomatic zinc deficiency has been reported in CF but little is known about zinc homeostasis in children with CF. Zinc supplementation (Zn suppl) is increasingly common in children with CF but it is not without theoretcial r...

  3. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Maria De-Regil

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. METHODS: Search methods: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015, the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015 and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015. Selection criteria: Randomized and quasi-randomized trials with randomization at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently i assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii extracted data from included studies, and iii assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements

  4. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Regil, Luz Maria; Palacios, Cristina; Lombardo, Lia K; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-14

    Vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency is thought to be common among pregnant women. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy has been suggested as an intervention to protect against adverse pregnancy outcomes. To examine whether oral supplements with vitamin D alone or in combination with calcium or other vitamins and minerals given to women during pregnancy can safely improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (23 February 2015), the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (31 January 2015), the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (28 January 2015) and also contacted relevant organisations (31 January 2015). Randomised and quasi-randomised trials with randomisation at either individual or cluster level, evaluating the effect of supplementation with vitamin D alone or in combination with other micronutrients for women during pregnancy. Two review authors independently i) assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria ii) extracted data from included studies, and iii) assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. In this updated review we included 15 trials assessing a total of 2833 women, excluded 27 trials, and 23 trials are still ongoing or unpublished. Nine trials compared the effects of vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo and six trials compared the effects of vitamin D and calcium with no supplementation. Risk of bias in the majority of trials was unclear and many studies were at high risk of bias for blinding and attrition rates. Vitamin D alone versus no supplementation or a placebo Data from seven trials involving 868 women consistently show that women who received vitamin D supplements alone, particularly on a daily basis, had higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D than those receiving no intervention or placebo, but this

  5. Vitamin A supplementation and BCG vaccination at birth may affect atopy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiraly, N; Benn, Christine Stabell; Biering-Sørensen, S

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that immunogenic interventions such as vaccines and micronutrients may affect atopic sensitization and atopic disease. We aimed to determine whether neonatal BCG vaccination, vitamin A supplementation and other vaccinations affect atopy in childhood....

  6. Antenatal cytogenetic testing in Havana, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez-Rosado, Luis A; Quiñones, Olga; Molina, Odalys; González, Nereida; del Sol, Marylin; Maceiras, Luanda; Bravo, Yomisleidy

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Antenatal cytogenetic testing was started in Havana in 1984, as a diagnostic option for fetal chromosome complement. The techniques applied are amniocyte culture, chorionic villus sampling, cordocentesis and fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells. OBJECTIVE Describe the results of antenatal cytogenetic testing in the cytogenetic laboratory of the Cuba's National Medical Genetics Center in Havana, from 1984 through 2012. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was carried out of the 22,928 pregnant women who had antenatal testing with conclusive results during the period 1984-2012. Information was obtained from laboratory databases for four antenatal diagnostic techniques. Variables studied were: antenatal diagnostic method, indications for genetic testing, type of chromosomal abnormality detected and couple's decision concerning pregnancy continuation if hereditary disease was diagnosed. Results were reported in absolute numbers and percentages. RESULTS Overall positivity was 2.8% (641 cases). Of the total, 20,565 samples were from amniocyte culture (558 positive cases, 2.7%); 1785 chorionic villus sampling (38 positive, 2.1%); 407 cord blood culture (28 positive, 6.9%); and 171 fluorescence in situ hybridization in interphase cells (17 positive, 9.9%). Advanced maternal age was the predominant indication for amniocyte culture and chorionic villus sampling. Positivity was higher for the two less frequently used methods, cordocentesis (6.9% positivity) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (9.9%). The predominant chromosomal abnormality was Down syndrome, with 45.4% of cases detected (291/641; 279 pure lines and 12 mosaic trisomies), followed by Edward syndrome with 12% (77/641, 71 pure lines and 6 mosaics) and Patau syndrome 4.7% (30/641, 27 pure lines and 3 mosaics). Sexual aneuploidy with pure lines affected 6.9% of cases (44/641) and with mosaicism 4.7% (30/641). Structural chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 22.5% of cases

  7. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not

  8. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in popular diet plans

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    Calton Jayson B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has shown micronutrient deficiency to be scientifically linked to a higher risk of overweight/obesity and other dangerous and debilitating diseases. With more than two-thirds of the U.S. population overweight or obese, and research showing that one-third are on a diet at any given time, a need existed to determine whether current popular diet plans could protect followers from micronutrient deficiency by providing the minimum levels of 27 micronutrients, as determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations (FDA Reference Daily Intake (RDI guidelines. Methods Suggested daily menus from four popular diet plans (Atkins for Life diet, The South Beach Diet, the DASH diet, the DASH diet were evaluated. Calorie and micronutrient content of each ingredient, in each meal, were determined by using food composition data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. The results were evaluated for sufficiency and total calories and deficient micronutrients were identified. The diet plans that did not meet 100% sufficiency by RDI guidelines for each of the 27 micronutrients were re-analyzed; (1 to identify a micronutrient sufficient calorie intake for all 27 micronutrients, and (2 to identify a second micronutrient sufficient calorie intake when consistently low or nonexistent micronutrients were removed from the sufficiency requirement. Results Analysis determined that each of the four popular diet plans failed to provide minimum RDI sufficiency for all 27 micronutrients analyzed. The four diet plans, on average, were found to be RDI sufficient in (11.75 ± 2.02; mean ± SEM of the analyzed 27 micronutrients and contain (1748.25 ± 209.57 kcal. Further analysis of the four diets found that an average calorie intake of (27,575 ± 4660.72 would be required to achieve sufficiency in all 27 micronutrients. Six micronutrients (vitamin B7, vitamin D, vitamin E, chromium, iodine and molybdenum were

  9. Supplements in pregnancy: the latest recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, Rosa María

    2016-07-12

    Pregnancy is a challenge from the nutritional point of view, because nutrient requirements are increased and alter its intake can affect maternal and fetal health. Micronutrient defi ciency states are related to preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, abortion and congenital anomalies. Currently, the diet of many expectant mothers is insufficient in micronutrients, in this cases supplementation is necessary. It is recommended supplementation with folic acid in doses of 400 mcg / day and 5 mg/day in risk pregnant, and should begin at least one month before conception and during the first 12 weeks gestation, and extend it throughout pregnancy in mothers with nutritional risk. It is important to keep watch the proper dose of folic acid to prevent possible adverse effects of unmetabolized accumulation in plasma. A high percentage of pregnant women presented iron deficiency anemia, being recommended intermittent use of iron supplements (with lower gastrointestinal alteration and oxidative stress); not recommended for mothers without anemia (hemoglobin> 13.5 g / L). Since calcium absorption is increased up to 40% in gestation, its supplementation is not recommended for mothers with adequate intakes (3 dairy / day), and its use must be reserved to women with inadequate intakes and / or high risk of preeclampsia. Regarding the iodine, there are confl icting positions by different working groups established potassium iodide supplementation in women who do not reach their recommended intake (3 servings of milk and dairy products + 2 g of iodized salt), with their diets. Given that vitamin A and D can be toxic to mother and fetus, it is not recommended its supplementation except in cases of deficiency. Although the use of multiple micronutrients supplements may favorably impact the outcome of pregnancy, more scientific evidence is needed to establish the replacement of iron and folic acid with a multiple micronutrient supplement.

  10. Anthropometric evaluation and micronutrients intake in patients submitted to laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a postoperative period of ≥ 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercachita, Tânia; Santos, Zélia; Limão, Jorge; Carolino, Elisabete; Mendes, Lino

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery is indicated as the most effective treatment for morbid obesity; the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is considered the procedure of choice. However, nutritional deficiency may occur in the postoperative period as a result of reduced gastric capacity and change in nutrients absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. The prescription of vitamin and mineral supplementation is a common practice after RYGB; however, it may not be sufficient to prevent micronutrient deficiencies. The aim of this study was to quantify the micronutrient intake in patients undergoing RYGB and verify if the intake of supplementation would be enough to prevent nutritional deficiencies. The study was conducted on 60 patients submitted to RYGB. Anthropometric, analytical, and nutritional intake data were assessed preoperatively and 1 and 2 years postoperatively. The dietary intake was assessed using 24-h food recall; the values of micronutrients evaluated (vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, and calcium) were compared to the dietary reference intakes (DRI). There were significant differences (p < 0.05) between excess weight loss at the first and second year (69.9 ± 15.3 vs 9.6 ± 62.9 %). In the first and second year after surgery, 93.3 and 94.1 % of the patients, respectively, took the supplements as prescribed. Micronutrient deficiencies were detected in the three evaluation periods. At the first year, there was a significant reduction (p < 0.05) of B12, folic acid, and iron intake. Despite taking vitamin and mineral supplementation, micronutrient deficiencies are common after RYGB. In the second year after surgery, micronutrient intake remains below the DRI.

  11. Feasibility of including green tea products for an analytically verified dietary supplement database

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID) is a federally-funded, publically-accessible dietary supplement database that currently contains analytically derived information on micronutrients in selected adult and children’s multivitamin and mineral (MVM) supplements. Other constituents in di...

  12. Does an Antenatal Care make a difference?

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    Jaspinder Kaur

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Antenatal Care utilization and its effects among booked and unbooked women were studied retrospectively in Obstetrics-Gynaecology Department, Punjab Institute of Medical Sciences, Jalandhar (India during April- June, 2012. Demographic variables, obstetric history and event outcomes were explored. Unbooked (58% status was seen with primiparity, low socioeconomic status (p<0.01 and younger age (p<0.001; 20-25 yrs. 37.21% of unbooked mothers had Anemia (p<0.01 while fetuses of 24.14% mothers developed Fetal Distress. Incidence of Oligohydraminos, Pregnancy Induced Hypertension, Intrauterine Growth Retardation, Preterm Premature Rupture Of Membrane and Preterm Labour were higher among unbooked mothers. Unbooked status had higher Preterm (22.42% and Low Birth Weight babies (51.73%. Majority of mothers of moderate age (40.48%; 26-30yrs, high socioeconomic status (26.20% and multiparity (54.77% booked themselves. The lack of required antenatal care might have led to higher obstetric complications among unbooked mothers. Improving socioeconomic status and women literacy rate may increase the number of booked mothers which may provide them the needed antenatal care.

  13. Antenatal steroids: can we optimize the dose?

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    Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Teliga-Czajkowska, Justyna; Czajkowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The beneficial effects of antenatal steroids in women at risk of preterm birth are evident. A dose of 24 mg appears sufficient, but there are insufficient data to recommend betamethasone or dexamethasone, a single steroid dose, the optimal interval between doses and repeated courses, the gestational age at which treatment is beneficial and the long-term effects of steroid treatment. This review addresses these aspects of antenatal steroid treatment. Recent findings Although the 12-h and 24-h dosing intervals are equivalent with respect to prevention of respiratory distress syndrome, the former enables the completion of treatment in 50% more neonates delivered prematurely. Reducing the single steroid dose in patients at risk for premature birth reduces the associated maternal side effects. An inverse relationship has been demonstrated between the number of corticosteroid courses and foetal growth. The reduced size of exposed foetuses has been attributed to birth at earlier gestational ages and decreased foetal growth. Evidence suggests that antenatal exposure to synthetic glucocorticoids in term-born children has long-lasting effects, which may have important implications in the recommendation of steroids before elective caesarean at term. Summary The short-term and long-term effects of the dosage regimen on the pregnant mother and foetus remain unclear. PMID:24463225

  14. Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy: antenatal prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J M; Chown, B; Lewis, M; Pollock, J M

    1978-03-18

    Of 3533 Rh-negative women who began a pregnancy without detectable Rh antibodies, 62 (1.8%) demonstrated evidence of Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery. All denied transfusions as well as abortions or previous pregnancies not followed by the administration of Rh immune globulin. Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery, which will not be prevented by the administration of Rh immune globulin after delivery, is the most important cause of residual Rh isoimmunization. A clinical trial of antenatal administration of Rh immune globulin, initially at 34 weeks's and subsequently at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation, in 1357 Rh-negative pregnant women who were delivered of Rh-positive babies, was effective in preventing the development of Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery. Antenatal prophylaxis with Rh immune globulin will be necessary if the incidence of Rh isoimmunization is to be reduced to its lowest possible level. Antenatal prophylaxis at 28 weeks' gestation is now an insured service in Manitoba.

  15. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  16. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm(3) ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and omega 3 fatty acids: implications for neurodevelopmental risk in the rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Suchitra; Kale, Anvita; Dangat, Kamini; Sable, Pratiksha; Kulkarni, Asmita; Joshi, Sadhana

    2012-01-01

    Altered maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B(12)) are suggested to be at the heart of intra-uterine programming of adult diseases. We have recently described interactions of folic acid, vitamin B(12) and docosahexaenoic acid in one carbon metabolism that is considered to play a key role in regulation oxidative stress and chromatin methylation. However its impact on fetal oxidative stress and brain fatty acid levels has been relatively unexplored. The present study examined the effect of imbalance in maternal micronutrients (folic acid and vitamin B(12)) and maternal omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on oxidative stress parameters and brain fatty acids and in the offspring at birth. Pregnant female rats were divided into six groups at two levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). Both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. Oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde) and polyunsaturated fatty acid profiles in plasma and brain were analyzed in dam and offspring at d20. Our results for the first time indicate that imbalance in maternal micronutrients (excess maternal folic acid supplementation on a B(12) deficient diet) increases (pacid supplementation was able to restore (p<0.05) the levels of brain DHA in both the vitamin B(12) deficient groups. Our data has implications for implications for neurodevelopmental disorders since micronutrients and DHA are important modulators for neural functioning.

  18. Food-Based Interventions to Modify Diet Quality and Diversity to Address Multiple Micronutrient Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Madhavan K; Augustine, Little Flower; Konapur, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Global data indicate a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron, and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food-based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long-term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro- and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability, and outdoor physical activity/life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behavior change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food-based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  19. Food-based interventions to modify diet quality and diversity to address multiple micronutrient deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan K Nair

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Global data indicates a high prevalence of hidden hunger among population. Deficiencies of certain micronutrients such as folic acid, iodine, iron and vitamin A have long lasting effects on growth and development and therefore have been a National priority from many decades. The strategy implemented so far limits to the use of supplemental sources or fortified foods in alleviating the burden of deficiencies. These approaches however undermine the food based strategies involving dietary diversification as the long term sustainable strategy. There is lack of understanding on the level of evidence needed to implement such strategies and the level of monitoring required for impact evaluation. Dietary diversity concerns how to ensure access for each individual to a quality and safe diet with adequate macro and micronutrients. The key to success in using dietary diversity as a strategy to tackle hidden hunger is in integrating it with the principles of bioavailability, translated to efficient food synergies with due emphasis on food accessibility, affordability and outdoor physical activity/ life style modifications. Promoting enabling environment and sustainable agriculture is crucial for practicing dietary diversification with behaviour change communication as an integral segment. It can be concluded that food based strategies require careful understanding of the factors associated with it and moderate it to form an effective strategy for controlling multiple micronutrient deficiencies.

  20. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark; Wingrove, Kate; Naude, Celeste; Durao, Solange

    2016-09-08

    Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs), guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either "nutrition-specific interventions" (NSpI) or "nutrition-sensitive interventions" (NSeI), was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated.

  1. Evidence Synthesis and Translation for Nutrition Interventions to Combat Micronutrient Deficiencies with Particular Focus on Food Fortification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Over two billion people suffer from micronutrient deficiencies. Food fortification is a prominent nutrition intervention to combat such deficiencies; however, its effectiveness, risks, and ethical implications vary depending on the contexts associated with the deficiency it is addressing and the circumstances with its implementation. The aim of this research was to analyse the profile of nutrition interventions for combating micronutrient deficiency with particular focus on food fortification reported in existing systematic reviews (SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions for nutrition. A review of secondary data available from online databases of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and implementation actions, categorised as either “nutrition-specific interventions” (NSpI or “nutrition-sensitive interventions” (NSeI, was conducted. Currently, there is evidence available for a diversity of food fortification topics, and there has been much translation into action. Indeed, food fortification and micronutrient supplementation interventions and NSpI more broadly dominate the profile of interventions for which there were SRs, guidelines, and policy statements available. The findings demonstrate that, although there is a rational linear relationship between evidence synthesis and translation in formulating policy and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies, the various nutrition interventions available to help combat micronutrient deficiencies are not equally represented in the evidence synthesis and translation processes. Effective and safe policies and actions to combat micronutrient deficiencies require decisions to be informed from a body of evidence that consists of evidence from a variety of interventions. Into the future, investment in making available a higher number of SRs, guidelines and policy statements, and actions of NSeI is indicated.

  2. Micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Gayton, Emma L; Beulens, Joline W J; Flanagan, Declan W; Adler, Amanda I

    2010-01-01

    We have evaluated the evidence for the association between intake and blood levels of micronutrients and diabetic retinopathy. Treatment for diabetic retinopathy requires significant clinical input and specialist ophthalmologic care. Micronutrients, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and magnesium, may interfere with pathologic mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy and potentially alter its risk. We conducted a search of epidemiologic literature in PubMed and Embase from 1988 to May 2008, using keywords for exposures, including magnesium, ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol and antioxidants, and outcomes, including diabetic retinopathy. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed the quality of the studies using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The overall quality of evidence was graded as I (highest), II, or III (lowest). Of the 766 studies identified, we reviewed 15 studies, comprising 4094 individuals. For vitamin C, hospital-based studies reported an inverse association between plasma levels with retinopathy, whereas population-based studies showed no association between dietary intake and retinopathy. For vitamin E, there was no association with dietary intake or plasma levels and retinopathy. For magnesium, a single prospective analysis showed an association between low levels in plasma and progression of retinopathy, but cross-sectional studies reported inconsistent results. In the assessment of quality, population-based studies had higher ratings than hospital-based studies. The evidence suggests that dietary intake or plasma levels of vitamins C and E and magnesium do not seem to be associated with diabetic retinopathy. Because of differences in study designs and measurement of micronutrients, incomplete ascertainment of retinopathy, and residual confounding, these findings require confirmation. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any of the materials discussed in this article. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by

  3. Effect of a mixture of micronutrients, but not of bovine colostrum concentrate, on immune function parameters in healthy volunteers: a randomized placebo-controlled study

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    van der Wielen Reggy PJ

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Supplementation of nutritional deficiencies helps to improve immune function and resistance to infections in malnourished subjects. However, the suggested benefits of dietary supplementation for immune function in healthy well nourished subjects is less clear. Among the food constituents frequently associated with beneficial effects on immune function are micronutrients such as vitamin C, vitamin E, β-carotene and zinc, and colostrum. This study was designed to investigate the effects these ingredients on immune function markers in healthy volunteers. Methods In a double-blind, randomized, parallel, 2*2, placebo-controlled intervention study one hundred thirty-eight healthy volunteers aged 40–80 y (average 57 ± 10 y received one of the following treatments: (1 bovine colostrum concentrate 1.2 g/d (equivalent to ~500 mg/d immunoglobulins, (2 micronutrient mix of 288 mg vitamin E, 375 mg vitamin C, 12 mg β-carotene and 15 mg zinc/day, (3 combination of colostrum and micronutrient mix, or (4 placebo. Several immune function parameters were assessed after 6 and 10 weeks. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Groups were combined to test micronutrient treatment versus no micronutrient treatment, and colostrum treatment versus no colostrum treatment. Results Overall, consumption of the micronutrient mix significantly enhanced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH responses (p Conclusion Consumption of bovine colostrum had no effect on any of the immune parameters assessed. The micronutrient mix enhanced cellular immunity as measured by DTH, with an increased effect by incremental age, but did not affect any of the other immune parameters measured. Although correlations between decreased DTH and enhanced risk of certain infection have been reported, it remains unclear whether and enhanced DTH response actually improves immune defense. The present data suggests that improvement of immune parameters in a population with a

  4. Micronutrient status and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogden, J D; Baker, H; Frank, O; Perez, G; Kemp, F; Bruening, K; Louria, D

    1990-01-01

    This study surveyed serum concentrations of vitamins, electrolytes, and trace elements in subjects seropositive for HIV-1 by ELISA and confirmatory Western blot. Thirty subjects (26 males, 4 females) were recruited at a hospital clinic. Seventeen were classified as having mild or severe ARC (AIDS-related complex), 7 had AIDS, and 6 were asymptomatic. Eight had experienced weight loss of 10 pounds or more in the past 6 months. Most (93%) were anergic to skin test antigens. Percentages of subjects with below normal plasma concentrations include: zinc-30%, calcium-27%, magnesium-30%, carotenes-31%, total choline-50%, and ascorbate-27%. Eighty-seven percent of the subjects had at least one abnormally low value. Percentages with above normal values include: folate-37% and carnitine-37%. Some subjects with above normal values for plasma vitamins reported self-supplementation, usually with large doses. The results suggest that one or more abnormally low concentrations of the plasma micronutrients studied here are likely to be present in the majority of HIV seropositive patients.

  5. Prevention and control of micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berti C

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cristiana Berti,1 Mieke Faber,2 Cornelius M Smuts11Centre for Excellence in Nutrition, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa; 2Non-communicable Diseases Research Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, South AfricaAbstract: Despite strategies employed to tackle micronutrient malnutrition, limited progress has been achieved in the developing countries. Of global concern are deficiencies in iron, vitamin A, zinc, folate, and iodine. This review aims to explore up-to-date scientific evidence on the effect of different micronutrient strategies on biomarkers and health outcomes, and for each strategy, to highlight strengths, limitations, and factors contributing to success or failure. PubMed/MEDLINE and EBSCO databases and Google-indexed scientific literature were searched for relevant articles and documents, limited to human studies reported since 2003. Evidence shows that the most cost-effective approaches to address symptoms of micronutrient malnutrition are targeted supplementation and/or fortification with iron, iodine, zinc, folic acid, vitamin A, and multimicronutrients, provided that households have access to primary health care and that there is consistent long-term coverage, monitoring, adequate marketing, and commercial commitment. Dietary diversification/modification interventions are probably the most sustainable strategies to address causes of deficiency, but permanent solutions are still required in controlling micronutrient malnutrition at both research and public health levels. Furthermore, many scientific gaps remain, hindering the development of robust public health guidance. These gaps are due to the paucity of well-designed community-based studies, lack of information on biological mechanisms behind relationships between micronutrients and outcomes, and inconsistent results. Further adequately powered long-term trials are needed to fill these gaps. Lessons learned from large-scale nutritional

  6. Psychoprophylaxis - Antenatal preparation and actual use during labour

    OpenAIRE

    Bergström, Malin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to study the effects of a model of antenatal education, focusing on natural childbirth preparation by including psychoprophylaxis, breathing and relaxation techniques to cope with labour pain, and the actual use of psychoprophylaxis during labour. Satisfaction with antenatal education and experiences of a subgroup of men with antenatal fear of childbirth were also explored. The principal design was a randomised controlled trial where the new mo...

  7. Women's education level, antenatal visits and the quality of skilled antenatal care: a study of three African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella

    2014-02-01

    Many pregnant women in Africa who access professional antenatal care do not receive all the WHO-recommended components of care. Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data from Kenya, Malawi and Nigeria, this study assesses the relationship of education level with the quality of antenatal care received and highlights how the number of antenatal visits mediates this relationship. The results show that a large proportion of the effect of education level on quality of care is direct, while only a small portion is mediated through the number of antenatal visits. Efforts to improve pregnancy outcomes for under-privileged women should focus on removing structural barriers to access, strengthening the technical and interpersonal skills of providers, and addressing providers' biases and discriminatory practices towards these women. Such efforts should also seek to empower underprivileged women to insist on quality antenatal care by explaining what to expect during an antenatal visit.

  8. Antenatal and postnatal radiologic diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency: a systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandaralage, Sahan P.S. [Gold Coast Hospital and Health Service, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Griffith University, School of Medicine, Southport, Queensland (Australia); Farnaghi, Soheil [Caboolture Hospital, Caboolture, Queensland (Australia); Dulhunty, Joel M.; Kothari, Alka [Redcliffe Hospital, Redcliffe, Queensland (Australia); The University of Queensland, School of Medicine, Herston, Queensland (Australia)

    2016-03-15

    Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency results in impaired activation of enzymes implicated in glucose, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. Antenatal imaging and postnatal imaging are useful in making the diagnosis. Untreated holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency is fatal, while antenatal and postnatal biotin supplementation is associated with good clinical outcomes. Although biochemical assays are required for definitive diagnosis, certain radiologic features assist in the diagnosis of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency. To review evidence regarding radiologic diagnostic features of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in the antenatal and postnatal period. A systematic review of all published cases of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency identified by a search of Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science. A total of 75 patients with holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency were identified from the systematic review, which screened 687 manuscripts. Most patients with imaging (19/22, 86%) had abnormal findings, the most common being subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly and intraventricular hemorrhage. Although the radiologic features of subependymal cysts, ventriculomegaly, intraventricular hemorrhage and intrauterine growth restriction may be found in the setting of other pathologies, these findings should prompt consideration of holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency in at-risk children. (orig.)

  9. The epidemiology of global micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Regan L; West, Keith P; Black, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are essential to sustain life and for optimal physiological function. Widespread global micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) exist, with pregnant women and their children under 5 years at the highest risk. Iron, iodine, folate, vitamin A, and zinc deficiencies are the most widespread MNDs, and all these MNDs are common contributors to poor growth, intellectual impairments, perinatal complications, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Iron deficiency is the most common MND worldwide and leads to microcytic anemia, decreased capacity for work, as well as impaired immune and endocrine function. Iodine deficiency disorder is also widespread and results in goiter, mental retardation, or reduced cognitive function. Adequate zinc is necessary for optimal immune function, and deficiency is associated with an increased incidence of diarrhea and acute respiratory infections, major causes of death in those diversification. It is widely accepted that intervention in the first 1,000 days is critical to break the cycle of malnutrition; however, a coordinated, sustainable commitment to scaling up nutrition at the global level is still needed. Understanding the epidemiology of MNDs is critical to understand what intervention strategies will work best under different conditions.

  10. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in pine bark substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel slag is a byproduct of the steel industry that can be used as a liming agent, but also has a high mineral nutrient content. While micronutrients are present in steel slag, it is not known if the mineral form of the micronutrients would render them available for plant uptake. The objective of...

  11. Antioxidant Micronutrients: Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ANSI Std. Z39.18 W81XWH-08-2-0007 1 Mar 2010 - 28 Feb 2011Annual01-03-2011 Antioxidant Micronutrients : Therapeutic Counter Measures for Chemical...Agents Kedar Prasad, Ph.D. Premier Micronutrient Corporation Novato, CA 94949 The results of the first phase of HD study suggested that exposure to

  12. Quality of antenatal care services at public health facilities of Bahir-Dar special zone, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejigu, Tadese; Woldie, Mirkuzie; Kifle, Yibeltal

    2013-10-26

    Antenatal care (ANC) is one of the evidence based interventions to decrease the probability of bad health outcomes for mothers and their newborns. Effectiveness of antenatal care, however, relies on the quality of care provided during each antenatal care visit. Hence this study attempted to assess the quality of antenatal care services at public health facilities of Bahir-Dar special zone, North Western Ethiopia. A facility based cross-sectional study employing both quantitative and qualitative methods was conducted from March to April 2010 in Bahir-Dar special zone, North Western Ethiopia. Quality of care was measured as a proportion of patients receiving recommended components of care. To measure the indicators, data was collected from 369 pregnant women who attended ANC clinics in eight public health facilities, during the data collection period. Data were collected through exit interviews with ANC attendees, observation during consultation, and in-depth interviews with health care providers. Pregnant mothers attending ANC clinics were found to receive only part of recommended care components. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test, blood group and Rhesus factor tests were done only for 73 (19.8%) and 133 (36.0%) of the women, respectively. Moreover 236 (64.0%) of the mothers missed the opportunity of receiving iron/folic acid supplement during their ANC visit. Three hundred fifty five (96.2%) of the women received tetanus toxoid vaccine. And only 226 (61.2%) of the women had their conjunctiva checked for anemia. Lack of reagents partly explained the problems observed in the provision of recommended care components. Almost half, 175 (47.7%) of the study women were not satisfied and a large proportion of mothers are missing opportunities to receive screening (like blood pressure and weight measurements) and preventive components of antenatal care (iron/folic acid supplementation). Therefore, efforts should be targeted to avoid missed opportunities by

  13. Dietary supplements for aquatic sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Tipton, Kevin D

    2014-08-01

    Many athletes use dietary supplements, with use more prevalent among those competing at the highest level. Supplements are often self-prescribed, and their use is likely to be based on an inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplementation with essential micronutrients may be useful when a diagnosed deficiency cannot be promptly and effectively corrected with food-based dietary solutions. When used in high doses, some supplements may do more harm than good: Iron supplementation, for example, is potentially harmful. There is good evidence from laboratory studies and some evidence from field studies to support health or performance benefits from appropriate use of a few supplements. The available evidence from studies of aquatic sports is small and is often contradictory. Evidence from elite performers is almost entirely absent, but some athletes may benefit from informed use of creatine, caffeine, and buffering agents. Poor quality assurance in some parts of the dietary supplements industry raises concerns about the safety of some products. Some do not contain the active ingredients listed on the label, and some contain toxic substances, including prescription drugs, that can cause health problems. Some supplements contain compounds that will cause an athlete to fail a doping test. Supplement quality assurance programs can reduce, but not entirely eliminate, this risk.

  14. Dietary intake and nutritional status of micronutrients in adults with cystic fibrosis in relation to current recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Somerset, Shawn

    2016-08-01

    An increased prevalence of cystic fibrosis (CF) related complications such as impaired bone health and diabetes has accompanied increased survival of patients with CF. This review was conducted to determine the extent to which adults with CF are meeting current nutrition recommendations for micronutrients in association with CF-related complications management. Although dietary intake and nutritional status in CF has improved significantly in recent decades, micronutrient status seems to have diverged. While vitamin A and E intakes appear adequate, frequent vitamin D and K deficiency/insufficiency and compromised bone health in CF, occurs despite supplementation. Although deficiency of water-soluble vitamins and minerals is uncommon, ongoing surveillance will enhance overall health outcomes, particularly in cases of CF-related liver disease and deteriorated lung function and bone health. Salt and fluid status in CF may also need attention due to diminished thirst sensation and voluntary rehydration. Further investigation in micronutrient status optimisation in CF will inform the development of more effective and targeted nutrition therapies to enable integration of more refined recommendations for micronutrient intakes in CF based on individual needs and disease progression.

  15. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...... was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health...

  16. Use of Antenatal Services in Kampung District, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Zafar

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess factors that influence use of antenatal care services with both quantitative and qualitative designs. Methods used were structured questionnaire interviews and focus group discussions in the Kampung District, Kampot Province in Cambodia with a volunteer sample of 260 postnatal mothers. The outcome measure was factors influencing use of antenatal care services. The results showed that first-time mothers (primigravidas were more likely to use antenatal services than multiparous mothers (OR = 1.87; p = 0.001. Mothers with some school education used antenatal services more than those with no school education (OR = 2.0; p = 0.01. Mothers engaged in professional occupations by virtue of their higher levels of educational attainment were more likely to use antenatal services than those engaged in agriculture (OR = 2.54; p = 0.001. Use of antenatal care services was higher in the districts whose health centers were supported by a foreign nongovernmental organization as compared to other districts with no such support (OR = 2.44; p = 0.001. Although services were generally inadequate, those that existed were underutilized by the mothers. Major factors influencing use of services include distance, lack of transport, and lack of awareness of the benefits of antenatal care by the mothers, thus resulting in a general notion that antenatal care is only important when problems occur during pregnancy. It is concluded that for remote villages, mobile antenatal clinics should be provided to improve access, and greater emphasis should be placed on health educating the mothers about the potential benefits of antenatal care, with special attention to multiparous mothers and those from the lower socio-economic class, among whom use of antenatal services was lowest.

  17. Relative bioavailability of iron and folic acid from a new powdered supplement compared to a traditional tablet in pregnant women

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartman-Craven, Brenda; Christofides, Anna; O'Connor, Deborah L; Zlotkin, Stanley

    2009-01-01

    .... Adherence to current tablet-based supplements is documented to be poor. Recently a powdered form of micronutrients has been developed which may decrease side-effects and thus improve adherence...

  18. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  19. Micronutrient Action Plan Instructional Tool (MAPit): A Training Tool to Support Public Health Professionals' Efforts to Eliminate Micronutrient Malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbon, Suzanne; Nsubuga, Peter; Knowles, Jacky; Bobrow, Emily; Parvanta, Ibrahim; Timmer, Arnold; van der Haar, Frits

    2006-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition (MM) is a global health problem that affects the national socioeconomic stability of an affected country. This article describes a multimedia training tool, the Micronutrient Action Plan instructional tool (MAPit), which has been designed to support public health professionals' efforts to eliminate MM. An overview and…

  20. The role of antioxidant micronutrients in the prevention of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species and a reduction in antioxidant defenses. This leads to oxidative stress, which is partly responsible for diabetic complications. Tight glycemic control is the most effective way of preventing or decreasing these complications. Nevertheless, antioxidant micronutrients can be proposed as adjunctive therapy in patients with diabetes. Indeed, some minerals and vitamins are able to indirectly participate in the reduction of oxidative stress in diabetic patients by improving glycemic control and/or are able to exert antioxidant activity. This article reviews the use of minerals (vanadium, chromium, magnesium, zinc, selenium, copper) and vitamins or cofactors (tocopherol [vitamin E], ascorbic acid [vitamin C], ubidecarenone [ubiquinone; coenzyme Q], nicotinamide, riboflavin, thioctic acid [lipoic acid], flavonoids) in diabetes, with a particular focus on the prevention of diabetic complications. Results show that dietary supplementation with micronutrients may be a complement to classical therapies for preventing and treating diabetic complications. Supplementation is expected to be more effective when a deficiency in these micronutrients exists. Nevertheless, many clinical studies have reported beneficial effects in individuals without deficiencies, although several of these studies were short term and had small sample sizes. However, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial showed that thioctic acid at an oral dosage of 800 mg/day for 4 months significantly improved cardiac autonomic neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Above all, individuals with diabetes should be educated about the importance of consuming adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals from natural food sources, within the constraints of recommended sugar and carbohydrate intake.

  1. Role of micronutrients and natural antioxidants in fighting against HIV; a quick mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of HIV to AIDS, since HIV usually replicates in a highly oxidized condition and CD4+ T lymphocytes can be activated via a cascade of internal oxidative pathways, which enhances the formation of proteins and enzymes. Thus, antioxidants should potentially be useful for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection as a new alternative strategy. Regarding the point that there are various approaches for treating the HIV-positive patients, antioxidant supplementation therapy alongside with other medications possesses many benefits. In fact, antioxidants and micronutrient supplements have been considered as a costly and short-term strategy to improve antioxidant deficiency. If diets come with sufficient education and scientific recommendations, they can provide a low-cost and long-term strategy to reduce oxidative stress, prevent micronutrient deficiency, and slow down HIV progression. This strategy may be applicable and beneficial particularly in countries around coast of Africa, where HIV is most common. Meantime these countries are rich of natural food resources. It seems that a healthy diet is the best way to insure proper nutrient intake, since it contains many nutrients not available in pills.

  2. The Key Role of Government in Addressing the Pandemic of Micronutrient Deficiency Conditions in Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore H. Tulchinsky

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency conditions are a major global public health problem. While the private sector has an important role in addressing this problem, the main responsibility lies with national governments, in cooperation with international agencies and donors. Mandatory fortification of basic foods provides a basic necessary intake for the majority and needs to be supported by provision of essential vitamin and mineral supplements for mothers and children and other high risk groups. Fortification by government mandate and regulation is essential with cooperation by private sector food manufacturers, and in the context of broader policies for poverty reduction, education and agricultural reform. Iron, iodine, vitamin A, vitamin B complex, folic acid, zinc, vitamin D and vitamin B12 are prime examples of international fortification experience achieved by proactive governmental nutrition policies. These are essential to achieve the Millennium Development Goals and their follow-up sustainable global health targets. National governmental policies for nutritional security and initiatives are essential to implement both food fortification and targeted supplementation policies to reduce the huge burden of micronutrient deficiency conditions in Southeast Asia and other parts of the world.

  3. Case report: Antenatal MRI diagnosis of esophageal duplication cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangasami, Rajeswaran; Chandrasekharan, Anupama; Archana, Lal; Santhosh, Joseph

    2009-02-01

    Esophageal duplication cysts are classified as a subgroup of foregut duplication cysts. They are very rare and are predominantly detected in children. Antenatal detection is very rare. We report a case of an esophageal duplication cyst that was accurately identified antenatally by USG and MRI.

  4. Antenatal Ultrasound and Risk of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grether, Judith K.; Li, Sherian Xu; Yoshida, Cathleen K.; Croen, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated antenatal ultrasound (U/S) exposure as a risk factor for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), comparing affected singleton children and control children born 1995-1999 and enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente health care system. Among children with ASD (n = 362) and controls (n = 393), 13% had no antenatal exposure to U/S examinations;…

  5. Lipophilic Micronutrients and Adipose Tissue Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franck Tourniaire

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lipophilic micronutrients (LM constitute a large family of molecules including several vitamins (A, D, E, K and carotenoids. Their ability to regulate gene expression is becoming increasingly clear and constitutes an important part of nutrigenomics. Interestingly, adipose tissue is not only a main storage site for these molecules within the body, but it is also subjected to the regulatory effects of LM. Indeed, several gene regulations have been described in adipose tissue that could strongly impact its biology with respect to the modulation of adipogenesis, inflammatory status, or energy homeostasis and metabolism, among others. The repercussions in terms of health effects of such regulations in the context of obesity and associated pathologies represent an exciting and emerging field of research. The present review will focus on the regulatory effects of vitamin A, D, E and K as well as carotenoids on adipose tissue biology and physiology, notably in the context of obesity and associated disorders.

  6. Micronutrient Antioxidants and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanliang; Ni, Yinhua; Nagata, Naoto; Xu, Liang; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2016-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.

  7. You are what you eat, and so are your children: the impact of micronutrients on the epigenetic programming of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, Kimberly; Vonhögen, Indira G C; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L

    2014-01-01

    The research field of fetal programming has developed tremendously over the years and increasing knowledge suggests that both maternal and paternal unbalanced diet can have long-lasting effects on the health of offspring. Studies implicate that macronutrients play an important role in fetal programming, although the importance of micronutrients is also becoming increasingly apparent. Folic acid and vitamins B2, B6 and B12 are essential for one-carbon metabolism and are involved in DNA methylation. They can therefore influence the programming of the offspring's epigenome. Also, other micronutrients such as vitamins A and C, iron, chromium, zinc and flavonoids play a role in fetal programming. Since it is estimated that approximately 78 % of pregnant women in the US take vitamin supplements during pregnancy, more attention should be given to the long-term effects of these supplements on offspring. In this review we address several different studies which illustrate that an unbalanced diet prior and during pregnancy, regarding the intake of micronutrients of both mother and father, can have long-lasting effects on the health of adult offspring.

  8. Nutritional composition and micronutrient status of home made and commercial weaning foods consumed in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosha TCE; Laswai, H S; Tetens, I

    2000-01-01

    About 50% of young children in Tanzania suffer from protein-energy undernutrition (PEU) while more than 45% of children under the age of five suffer from various micronutrient deficiency disorders. The immediate cause of these conditions is inadequate intake and poor utilization of nutrients, which begins in the weaning period and amplifies in the subsequent years. This study was conducted to assess the potential of some home made and commercial weaning foods commonly consumed in Tanzania to supply adequate amounts of both macro- and micronutrients as recommended in the Tanzania and FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius Standards for cereal/milk-based weaning foods. Six types of home made weaning foods, maize, cassava, millet, sorghum and millet-sardine-peanut composite gruels and plantain pap, and four types of commercial weaning foods, Cerelac- 1, Cerelac-2, Lactogen-1 and Lactogen-2, popularly consumed in Tanzania, were chemically assayed for proximate composition, energy and mineral density. Results of the study indicated that, both the home made and commercial weaning foods were good sources of macro- and micronutrients. When compared with the Codex Alimentarius and Tanzania Bureau of Standards specifications for weaning foods, both home made and commercial weaning foods had some shortcomings in terms of nutrient composition and energy balance. Many of the foods were low in fat. Fe, Ca, Zn and P but high in crude fiber, carbohydrate and magnesium. Ca, Fe and Zn were the most common deficient macro/micronutrients in the home made weaning foods. In spite of these shortcomings, most of the home made and commercial weaning foods were nutritionally sound since they could provide reasonable percentages of the recommended daily allowances for macro/micronutrients and energy. It is suggested that, more efforts must be directed towards increasing the concentration of Ca, Fe and Zn in the home made weaning foods through supplementation of the starchy staples with mineral rich

  9. Vitamin supplementation in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Ensuring that a woman is well-nourished, both before and during pregnancy, is crucial for the health of the woman and that of the unborn child.(1) Maternal deficiency in key nutrients has been linked to pre-eclampsia, restricted fetal growth, neural tube defects, skeletal deformity and low birth weight.(1,2) Many nutritional supplements containing vitamins, minerals and other micronutrients are heavily marketed to women for all stages of pregnancy. However, much of the evidence for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy comes from studies carried out in low-income countries,(3) where women are more likely to be undernourished or malnourished than within the UK population. The challenges lie in knowing which supplements are beneficial and in improving uptake among those at most need. Here we summarise current UK guidance for vitamin supplementation in pregnancy and review the evidence behind it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Uso antenatal do corticosteroide e hemorragia peri-intraventricular Antenatal corticosteroids and intraventricular hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Eduardo de F. Vinagre

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar uma revisão bibliográfica sobre o uso antenatal do corticosteroide na prevenção da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. FONTES DE DADOS: Levantamento bibliográfico por meio do Pubmed e SciELO abrangendo os últimos 20 anos. Foram utilizadas as palavras chaves no idioma inglês: "cerebral hemorrhage", "steroids" e "newborn, infant". SÍNTESES DE DADOS: A hemorragia peri-intraventricular é uma importante patologia nos prematuros, sobretudo nos menores de 34 semanas, devido a suas graves sequelas neurológicas. Uma vez ocorrido o sangramento, não há tratamento específico. Desta forma, a prevenção torna-se o maior objetivo das pesquisas. O resultado da meta-análise de estudos randomizados demonstrou que o corticosteroide antenatal reduz a mortalidade e a incidência da doença de membrana hialina e da hemorragia peri-intraventricular. O efeito protetor na redução do risco da hemorragia peri-intraventricular não está completamente esclarecido. Além de acelerar a maturidade pulmonar, o corticosteroide antenatal estimula a maturação da microvasculatura da matriz germinativa, promove o espessamento da membrana basal, acelera a formação proteica nas junções firmes e estabiliza o fluxo sanguíneo cerebral. Também melhora as condições de nascimento dos fetos pré-termo. CONCLUSÕES: O uso antenatal do corticosteroide associado à implementação de melhores práticas de atendimento ao prematuro tem sido responsável pela evidente redução dos índices dessa doença. Apesar de comprovada eficácia e segurança, não é amplamente utilizado. Medidas devem ser tomadas para estimular seu uso como prática rotineira no atendimento de gestantes com risco de parto prematuro.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on the use of antenatal corticosteroids for the prevention of peri-intraventricular hemorrhage. DATA SOURCE: Bibliography search in Pubmed and SciELO databases covering the past 20 years using the following

  11. Postnatal Treatment in Antenatally Diagnosed Meconium Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, S; Andrei, B; Oancea, M; Licsandru, E; Ivanov, M; Marcu, V; Popa-Stanila, R; Mocanu, M

    2015-01-01

    Meconium peritonitis is a rare prenatal disease with an increased rate of morbidity and mortality in the neonatal period. Distinctive features revealed by prenatal and postnatal ultrasoundmay be present: abdominal calcifications, ascites, polyhydramnios, meconium pseudocyst, echogenic mass and dilated bowel or intestinal obstruction. Establishing clear postnatal treatment and prognosis is difficult because of the heterogeneity of the results obtained by ultrasound. The aim of the study is to determine how prenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis is associated with perinatal management and further evolution. Clinical results are different depending on the presence of antenatal diagnosis of meconium peritonitis and its form, which can be mild or severe. Surgical treatment and management of meconium peritonitis depend on the clinical presentation of the newborn. Meconium peritonitis diagnosed prenatally differs from that of the newborn, not only concerning the mortality rates but also through reduced morbidity and overall better prognosis. Celsius.

  12. Antenatal stress: An Irish case study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carolan-Olah, Mary

    2013-05-16

    BACKGROUND:: stress in pregnancy is common and impacts negatively on women, infants and families. A number of factors contribute to high levels of stress in pregnancy, including financial concerns, marital discord, low support systems and low socio-economic status. OBJECTIVES:: the aim of this study was to evaluate stress anxiety levels and depressive symptoms among low risk women in an area in Ireland that was particularly impacted by the 2008 economic crisis. DESIGN:: a quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Data were collected using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Perceived Stress Scale and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Data was collected at a single time during the second trimester. SETTING:: this paper reports a case study of one maternity service in Ireland. Participants included low risk pregnant women who were attending the hospital clinic for routine antenatal care. RESULTS:: of 150 questionnaires distributed, 74 completed questionnaires were returned indicating a 49.3% return rate. Findings indicated high levels of stress, anxiety and depressive symptomatology among participants. There were no significant difference in mean EPDS score for different age groups (F4,69=2.48, P=0.052), living arrangements (F4,68=0.90, P=0.5) or usual occupation (F4,69=1.45, P=0.2). A score of ≥12 was taken as indicative of probable antenatal depression and 86.5% of participants responded with a score of 12 or above. PSS scores were also high and more than three quarters of respondents scored ≥15 (75.6%) and more than a third had scores ≥20 (35.1%), out of a total score of 40. There was a significant difference in mean PSS score between the different age groups (F4,69=3.60, P=0.010) but not for living arrangements or usual occupation. A STAI score of ≥39 was taken as indicative of antenatal anxiety, and 74.3% of participants responded with a score of 39 or above. There were no significant differences in mean STAI

  13. Teaching antenatal counseling skills to neonatal providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Theophil A; Watson, Katie L; Boss, Renee D

    2014-02-01

    Counseling a family confronted with the birth of a periviable neonate is one of the most difficult tasks that a neonatologist must perform. The neonatologist's goal is to facilitate an informed, collaborative decision about whether life-sustaining therapies are in the best interest of this baby. Neonatologists are trained to provide families with a detailed account of the morbidity and mortality data they believe are necessary to facilitate a truly informed decision. Yet these complicated and intensely emotional conversations require advanced communication and counseling skills that our current fellowship-training strategies are not adequately providing. We review educational models for training neonatology fellows to provide antenatal counseling at the threshold of viability. We believe that training aimed at teaching these skills should be incorporated into the neonatal-perinatal medicine fellowship. The optimal approaches for teaching these skills remain uncertain, and there is a need for continued innovation and outcomes-based research.

  14. Determining Factors of Lipophilic Micronutrient Bioaccessibility in Several Leafy Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwichai, Wichien; Berger, Jacques; Picq, Christian; Avallone, Sylvie

    2016-03-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are still a public health issue in least developed countries. Promoting diet diversification is a promising strategy. Numerous fruits and vegetables are rich in micronutrients, but some of these compounds are poorly bioaccessible. The objective of this study was to identify the biochemical determinants of the micronutrient bioaccessibility in leaves. The contents in cell walls, pectins, tannins, and proteins of the leafy vegetables were assessed, and correlations with the micronutrient bioaccessibitity were explored. The leafy vegetables have interesting nutritional profiles with noticeable amounts in protein, provitamin A (β-carotene), and α-tocopherol for some species. Their cell wall contents greatly varied from 3.4 to 8.7 g/100 g as well as their pectin percentages. Only the perilla and drumstick leaves contained condensed tannins. In fresh leaves, the contents in bioaccessible carotenoids were low. The correlation study highlighted that the carotenoid bioaccessibility was negatively correlated to the pectin contents of the leaves.

  15. Status of micronutrient nutrition in Zimbabwe: A review | Gadaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. More than 65% of the Zimbabwean population live in the rural areas and are food ... malnutrition including vitamin and mineral malnutrition. ... micronutrient deficiencies such as the B-group vitamins, fortification of staple foods,

  16. The role of biofortification in the reduction of micronutrient food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    2013-09-11

    Sep 11, 2013 ... micronutrient food insecurity in developing countries. Uchendu Florence .... Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, Paraguay, India, South. Africa ..... Fortified Cassava. www.globalissues.org/news/2011/12/30/12339. Accessed ...

  17. the role of industry in micronutrient intervention programmes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global control of micronutrient deficiencies is a realistic goal, notwithstanding the ... Roche Products (Pty) Ltd, Chloorkop, Gauteng. ·Ronnie Pankhurst, BSc ... Food quality should be regulated through legislation and effectively enforced.

  18. Nutrition education to improve dietary intake and micronutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-02

    Nov 2, 2010 ... Vitamin A deficiency disorders and iron-deficiency anaemia remain a public health ... are a major risk factor for micronutrient malnutrition. As a key .... Iodine. Identifying iodinated salt. Using unrefined rock salt. Whenever ...

  19. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damms-Machado Antje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32 underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC, zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient

  20. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective1234

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, β-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad f...

  1. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies

  2. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies, food co

  4. Global malnutrition overlaps with pollinator-dependent micronutrient production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin-Kramer, Rebecca; Dombeck, Emily; Gerber, James; Knuth, Katherine A.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Mueller, Megan; Ziv, Guy; Klein, Alexandra-Maria

    2014-01-01

    Pollinators contribute around 10% of the economic value of crop production globally, but the contribution of these pollinators to human nutrition is potentially much higher. Crops vary in the degree to which they benefit from pollinators, and many of the most pollinator-dependent crops are also among the richest in micronutrients essential to human health. This study examines regional differences in the pollinator dependence of crop micronutrient content and reveals overlaps between this dependency and the severity of micronutrient deficiency in people around the world. As much as 50% of the production of plant-derived sources of vitamin A requires pollination throughout much of Southeast Asia, whereas other essential micronutrients such as iron and folate have lower dependencies, scattered throughout Africa, Asia and Central America. Micronutrient deficiencies are three times as likely to occur in areas of highest pollination dependence for vitamin A and iron, suggesting that disruptions in pollination could have serious implications for the accessibility of micronutrients for public health. These regions of high nutritional vulnerability are understudied in the pollination literature, and should be priority areas for research related to ecosystem services and human well-being. PMID:25232140

  5. Bioavailability of Micronutrients from Plant Foods: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

    2016-07-26

    Deficiencies of iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A are widespread in the developing countries, poor bioavailability of these micronutrients from plant-based foods being the major reason for their wide prevalence. Diets predominantly vegetarian are composed of components that enhance as well as inhibit mineral bioavailability, the latter being predominant. However, prudent cooking practices and use of ideal combinations of food components can significantly improve micronutrient bioavailability. Household processing such as heat treatment, sprouting, fermentation and malting have been evidenced to enhance the bioavailability of iron and β-carotene from plant foods. Food acidulants amchur and lime are also shown to enhance the bioavailability of not only iron and zinc, but also of β-carotene. Recently indentified newer enhancers of micronutrient bioaccessibility include sulphur compound-rich Allium spices-onion and garlic, which also possess antioxidant properties, β-carotene-rich vegetables-carrot and amaranth, and pungent spices-pepper (both red and black) as well as ginger. Information on the beneficial effect of these dietary compounds on micronutrient bioaccessibility is novel. These food components evidenced to improve the bioavailability of micronutrients are common ingredients of Indian culinary, and probably of other tropical countries. Fruits such as mango and papaya, when consumed in combination with milk, provide significantly higher amounts of bioavailable β-carotene. Awareness of the beneficial influence of these common dietary ingredients on the bioavailability of micronutrients would help in devising dietary strategies to improve the bioavailability of these vital nutrients.

  6. Micronutrient status and intervention programs in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Geok Lin

    2005-06-01

    Approximately 70% of the world's malnourished children live in Asia, giving that region the highest concentration of childhood malnutrition worldwide. Prevalence of stunting and underweight are high especially in south Asia where one in every two preschool children is stunted. Iron-deficiency anemia affects 40%-50% of preschool and primary schoolchildren. Nearly half of all vitamin A deficiency and xerophthalmia in the world occurs in south and southeast Asia. Iodine deficiency disorders have resulted in high goiter rates in India, Pakistan, and parts of Indonesia. Compared with other developing countries in Asia, the nutrition situation in Malaysia is considerably better, owing to rapid economic and socioeconomic development that has occurred since Malaysia gained its independence in 1957. Prevalence of undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency is markedly lower in Malaysian children. Nonetheless, undernutrition in the form of underweight, stunting, and anemia can be found in poor communities throughout the country. A prevalence of 25% underweight and 35% stunting is reported among young children from poor rural households. Anemia and subclinical forms of vitamin A deficiency were reported in children under 5 years old. Typical of a country in nutrition transition, Malaysia faces the dual burden of malnutrition in children, with the persistence of under-nutrition problems especially among the poor and the emerging overweight problem especially in urban areas. Since 1996, nutrition programs of the government sector are coordinated under the National Plan of Action for Nutrition. These activities and other nutrition intervention efforts by other agencies are discussed in this paper.

  7. Dietary supplements and disease prevention — a global overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are widely used and offer the potential to improve health if appropriately targeted to those in need. Inadequate nutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent conditions that adversely affect global health. Although improvements in diet quality are essential to address t...

  8. Attitude and perceptions of women on routine antenatal ultrasound ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attitude and perceptions of women on routine antenatal ultrasound ... 16 (34.7%) felt that ultrasound should only be done on the doctor's request. ... df=2, P=0.00) were significantly, more favourably disposed to routine scan in pregnancy.

  9. Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Family Planning Methods used by Antenatal Patients in Owo,Nigeria. ... Information obtained from the respondents with the aid of the study instrument ... The reasons for getting pregnant were desire to have more children (79%), and ...

  10. Patterns of Antenatal Care Seeking Behavior in South East Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of age, education, SES, and ANC seeking behavior were analyzed. ... KEY WORDS: Antenatal care, health seeking behavior, inequities, Nigeria, women of childbearing age ..... individual, family or community choice of health care.

  11. PHACE syndrome in antenatally diagnosed posterior fossa anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Pavaman Sindgikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available PHACE is a neurocutaneous syndrome, an acronym to describe patients with facial segmental hemangiomas and other malformations. We describe a newborn antenatally diagnosed to have posterior fossa anomaly and subsequently as PHACE syndrome.

  12. HIV Prevalence amongst Clients Attending Antenatal Clinic at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Medicine. Journal Home ... HIV Prevalence amongst Clients Attending Antenatal Clinic at the Federal Medical Centre, Makurdi. ET Agida, P Abu, ... 2007 to 30 April, 2007 was carried out. Information ... Article Metrics.

  13. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milgrom Jeannette

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Methods Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26–32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161 also completed questionnaires at 10–12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Results Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1. Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2. Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3. Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator

  14. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-04-16

    Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the strong link with depression. The aim of this study was to further elucidate which of some previously identified risk factors are most predictive of three outcome measures: antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress and to examine the relationship between them. Primipara and multiparae women were recruited antenatally from two major hoitals as part of the beyondblue National Postnatal Depression Program 1. In this subsidiary study, 367 women completed an additional large battery of validated questionnaires to identify risk factors in the antenatal period at 26-32 weeks gestation. A subsample of these women (N = 161) also completed questionnaires at 10-12 weeks postnatally. Depression level was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Regression analyses identified significant risk factors for the three outcome measures. (1). Significant predictors for antenatal depression: low self-esteem, antenatal anxiety, low social support, negative cognitive style, major life events, low income and history of abuse. (2). Significant predictors for postnatal depression: antenatal depression and a history of depression while also controlling for concurrent parenting stress, which was a significant variable. Antenatal depression was identified as a mediator between seven of the risk factors and postnatal depression. (3). Postnatal depression was the only significant predictor for parenting stress and also acted as a mediator for other risk factors. Risk factor profiles for

  15. Homemade oral supplements for patients with cancer: descriptive analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Garófolo,Adriana; Alves,Fernanda Rodrigues; Rezende, Maria Aurelia do Carmo

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThis study aimed to describe the development of eight formulations of homemade oral supplements that propose to increase the energy, protein and micronutrient intakes of patients with cancer, analyze its nutritional value and assess its taste using two different fat sources.MethodsThe supplements were based on four ingredients: milk, eggs, sugars and oils for nutritional recovery. the formulations were calculated by the nutritional support software NUTWIN. the nutritional value of th...

  16. Antenatal diagnosis of a Morgagni hernia in the second trimester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Krishan Kumar; Sen, Jyotsna; Rathee, Suresh Kanta; Saini, Jitender

    2008-02-01

    Morgagni hernia is an uncommon type of congenital hernia that is rarely diagnosed antenatally. Herniation of the liver into the fluid-filled pericardial sac resulting in a thoracic mass is a particularly rare form of Morgagni hernia; only 3 cases have been reported in the literature, all with a diagnosis made at 32 weeks' gestation or later. We report a case of Morgagni hernia diagnosed on antenatal sonography at 24 weeks' gestation.

  17. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  18. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  19. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Milgrom Jeannette; Leigh Bronwyn

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite...

  20. Risk factors for antenatal depression, postnatal depression and parenting stress

    OpenAIRE

    Leigh, Bronwyn; Milgrom, Jeannette

    2008-01-01

    Background Given that the prevalence of antenatal and postnatal depression is high, with estimates around 13%, and the consequences serious, efforts have been made to identify risk factors to assist in prevention, identification and treatment. Most risk factors associated with postnatal depression have been well researched, whereas predictors of antenatal depression have been less researched. Risk factors associated with early parenting stress have not been widely researched, despite the stro...

  1. Influence of Preoperative Peripheral Parenteral Nutrition with Micronutrients after Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hsiu-Chih; Hu, Shu-Hui; Yang, Hui-Lan

    2015-01-01

    Background. The inflammatory reactions are stronger after surgery of malnourished preoperative patients. Many studies have shown vitamin and trace element deficiencies appear to affect the functioning of immune cells. Enteral nutrition is often inadequate for malnourished patients. Therefore, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is considered an effective method for providing preoperative nutritional support. TPN needs a central vein catheter, and there are more risks associated with TPN. However, peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN) often does not provide enough energy or nutrients. Purpose. This study investigated the inflammatory response and prognosis for patients receiving a modified form of PPN with added fat emulsion infusion, multiple vitamins (MTV), and trace elements (TE) to assess the feasibility of preoperative nutritional support. Methods. A cross-sectional design was used to compare the influence of PPN with or without adding MTV and TE on malnourished abdominal surgery patients. Results. Both preoperative groups received equal calories and protein, but due to the lack of micronutrients, patients in preoperative Group B exhibited higher inflammation, lower serum albumin levels, and higher anastomotic leak rates and also required prolonged hospital stays. Conclusion. Malnourished patients who receive micronutrient supplementation preoperatively have lower postoperative inflammatory responses and better prognoses. PPN with added fat emulsion, MTV, and TE provides valid and effective preoperative nutritional support. PMID:26000296

  2. A review of longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lisa; Waldie, Karen; D'Souza, Stephanie; Peterson, Elizabeth R; Morton, Susan

    2016-10-01

    Antenatal depression is a known risk factor for postnatal depression; both are common disorders associated with negative impacts on child development. Few studies have followed up women from pregnancy and through the postnatal period to explore how rates of depression change. This review evaluates recent evidence on depression during pregnancy and after childbirth. A search of Embase, PsychINFO, MEDLINE and Cochrane Reviews was carried out to identify longitudinal studies on antenatal and postnatal depression. Studies that measured depression during pregnancy and up to 1 year after childbirth were evaluated against a set of criteria (e.g. less than 50 % attrition). Of the initial 523 studies identified, 16 studies met the final inclusion criteria with a total of 35,419 women. The average rate of antenatal depression across these studies was 17 and 13 % postnatal depression. The longitudinal nature of the studies revealed that on average 39 % of those who experienced antenatal depression went on to have postnatal depression. Similarly, on average, 47 % of those with postnatal depression had also experienced antenatal depression. On average, almost 7 % of women reported significant depressive symptoms in pregnancy that persisted after childbirth. The review provided evidence that rates of depression tend to be higher during pregnancy than in the first year following childbirth. Furthermore, the longitudinal data show that there is much movement between the groups categorised as depressed or not depressed. There is evidence that postnatal depression is often a continuation of existing antenatal depression.

  3. Nutritional Epidemiology of Antenatal Smoking Cessation Among Japanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Suganuma, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the nutritional status before pregnancy, as well as dietary profiles and biomarkers during first trimester, between never-smokers and antenatal quitters among Japanese women. One hundred fifty pregnant women (79 never-smokers and 71 antenatal quitters) from two obstetrics and gynecology clinics were recruited in Japan. Subjects' prepregnancy nutritional status was indicated by their body mass index (BMI). In the first trimester, their dietary profiles were assessed by the Brief Diet-History Questionnaire (BDHQ) and pregnancy outcomes were screened by biomarker tests. Generalized linear regression was used to examine the differences of energy-adjusted dietary intakes and biomarker results between the two smoking groups, with adjustment of maternal age, BMI, gestation week, and parity. The results showed that antenatal quitters were more likely to have a prepregnancy underweight status than never-smokers. During the first trimester, antenatal quitters had significantly higher intakes of unsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants (vegetable lipids and isoflavone), and lower intakes of total cholesterol than never-smokers. Moreover, antenatal quitters had a significantly higher level of serum homocysteine (6.36 nmol/mL vs 4.88 nmol/mL) than never-smokers. In conclusion, antenatal quitters are more likely to have a poor nutritional status before pregnancy than never-smokers. Quitting smoking before pregnancy and having a good nutritional profile during the trimester may not sufficiently reverse the adverse effects of former smoking behaviors on pregnancy outcomes.

  4. Prevalence of antenatal depressive symptoms among women in Sabah, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yusuff, Aza Sherin; Tang, Li; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antenatal depression and to assess whether the common risk factors identified in previous studies were applicable to women in Sabah, Malaysia. A prospective cohort study of 2072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation to complete a self-administered questionnaire regarding their demographic, socioeconomic and health characteristics. The presence of depression was assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 13.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.3%, 15.3%]. Women who were happy with the pregnancy [odds ratio (OR) 0.43, 95% CI 0.21, 0.89] and those with a planned pregnancy (OR 0.45, 95% CI 0.33, 0.60) were less likely to suffer from antenatal depression. Pregnant mothers who were taking oral contraceptives before pregnancy (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.20, 2.22) and women who experienced antenatal anxiety (OR 3.17, 95% CI 2.35, 4.26) appeared to have an increased risk of antenatal depression. A substantial proportion of women suffered from antenatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia. Screening and culturally tailored intervention programs targeting vulnerable subgroups of women in the early stage of pregnancy are recommended to deal with the problem.

  5. Dietary micronutrient intake and atherosclerosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourdudoss, C; Elkan, A-C; Hafström, I; Jogestrand, T; Gustafsson, T; van Vollenhoven, R; Frostegård, J

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of dietary micronutrient intake in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study included 111 SLE patients and 118 age and gender-matched controls. Data on diet (food frequency questionnaires) were linked with data on Systemic Lupus Activity Measure, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and carotid atherosclerotic/echolucent plaque (B-mode ultrasound). Dietary micronutrient intake were compared between SLE patients and controls and in relation to lupus activity and atherosclerosis in SLE. Associations between micronutrient intake and plaque were analyzed through logistic regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Micronutrient intake did not differ between patients and controls, and between lower and higher lupus activity, apart from the fact that phosphorus was associated with SLEDAI > 6. In SLE patients, some micronutrients were associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side. Lower intake of riboflavin and phosphorus was associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (odds ratio (OR) 3.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12-8.40 and OR 4.36, 95% CI 1.53-12.39, respectively). Higher intake of selenium and thiamin was inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.09-0.89 and OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.80, respectively). In addition, higher intake of thiamin was inversely associated with echolucent plaque, left side (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.84). Lower intake of folate was inversely associated with bilateral echolucent plaque (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.13-0.99). SLE patients did not have different dietary micronutrient intake compared to controls. Phosphorus was associated with lupus activity. Riboflavin, phosphorus, selenium and thiamin were inversely associated with atherosclerotic plaque, left side in SLE patients, but not in controls. Dietary micronutrients may play a role in atherosclerosis in SLE. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Malawi: HIV surveillance in antenatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    From October to December 1996, a surveillance for HIV among antenatal clinic attenders (ANC) was conducted in 19 hospitals serving as sentinel sites in Malawi. The sites consisted of 3 urban, 8 semiurban, and 8 rural hospitals drawn from all 3 regions of the country. Findings showed that of the 4163 samples, 793 were HIV positive, giving an overall prevalence of 19%, with a range from 27% in the urban areas to 18% in the semiurban areas and 10% in the rural areas. The age distribution of infection showed that seroprevalence was highest in the 25-29 age group. In terms of syphilis infection, the rate was more common in the southern than in the central or northern regions, but it did not vary according to urban, semiurban, or rural sites or according to age. Overall, the results showed that ANC HIV seroprevalence remained relatively stable from 1994 to 1996, increasing from 17.4% in 1994 to 18% in 1995 and 19% in 1996. Moreover, the national estimate for seroprevalence in the entire population was 6.4%, essentially the same as that for 1995 (6.6%), indicating that the level of HIV infection had been fairly stable since 1993. Continued close monitoring is required to assess whether the incidence of new infection is actually declining, particularly among young people, and to identify what interventions have the greatest impact.

  7. Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Antenatal and Postnatal Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), a condition that occurs due to various reasons, is an important cause of fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It has been defined as a rate of fetal growth that is less than normal in light of the growth potential of that specific infant. Usually, IUGR and small for gestational age (SGA) are used interchangeably in literature, even though there exist minute differences between them. SGA has been defined as having birth weight less than two standard deviations below the mean or less than the 10th percentile of a population-specific birth weight for specific gestational age. These infants have many acute neonatal problems that include perinatal asphyxia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and polycythemia. The likely long-term complications that are prone to develop when IUGR infants grow up includes growth retardation, major and subtle neurodevelopmental handicaps, and developmental origin of health and disease. In this review, we have covered various antenatal and postnatal aspects of IUGR. PMID:27441006

  8. Micronutrient levels and nutritional status of school children living in Northwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    beneficial strategies for micronutrient supplementation and interventions on nutritional deficiencies can be planned. PMID:23237638

  9. Dietary Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary supplements are vitamins, minerals, herbs, and many other products. They can come as pills, capsules, powders, drinks, and energy bars. Supplements do not have to go through the testing that drugs do. Some supplements ...

  10. Role of public-private partnership in micronutrient food fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannar, M G Venkatesh; van Ameringen, Marc

    2003-12-01

    Iron, iodine, and vitamin A deficiencies prevent 30% of the world's population from reaching full physical and mental potential. Fortification of commonly eaten foods with micronutrients offers a cost-effective solution that can reach large populations. Effective and sustainable fortification will be possible only if the public sector (which has the mandate and responsibility to improve the health of the population), the private sector (which has experience and expertise in food production and marketing), and the social sector (which has grass-roots contact with the consumer) collaborate to develop, produce, and promote micronutrient-fortified foods. Food fortification efforts must be integrated within the context of a country's public health and nutrition situation as part of an overall micronutrient strategy that utilizes other interventions as well. Identifying a set of priority actions and initiating a continuous dialogue between the various sectors to catalyze the implementation of schemes that will permanently eliminate micronutrient malnutrition are urgently needed. The partners of such a national alliance must collaborate closely on specific issues relating to the production, promotion, distribution, and consumption of fortified foods. Such collaboration could benefit all sectors: National governments could reap national health, economic, and political benefits; food companies could gain a competitive advantage in an expanding consumer marketplace; the scientific, development, and donor communities could make an impact by achieving global goals for eliminating micronutrient malnutrition; and by demanding fortified foods, consumers empower themselves to achieve their full social and economic potential.

  11. Global burden of maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Hossain, Muttaquina; Sanin, Kazi Istiaque

    2012-01-01

    Maternal and child undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies affect approximately half of the world's population. These conditions include intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), low birth weight, protein-energy malnutrition, chronic energy deficit of women, and micronutrient deficiencies. Although the rates of stunting or chronic protein-energy malnutrition are increasing in Africa, the absolute numbers of stunted children are much higher in Asia. The four common micronutrient deficiencies include those of iron, iodine, vitamin A, and zinc. All these conditions are responsible directly or indirectly for more than 50% of all under-5 deaths globally. According to more recent estimates, IUGR, stunting and severe wasting are responsible for one third of under-5 mortality. About 12% of deaths among under-5 children are attributed to the deficiency of the four common micronutrients. Despite tremendous progress in different disciplines and unprecedented improvement with many health indicators, persistently high undernutrition rates are a shame to the society. Human development is not possible without taking care to control undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. Poverty, food insecurity, ignorance, lack of appropriate infant and young child feeding practices, heavy burden of infectious illnesses, and poor hygiene and sanitation are factors responsible for the high levels of maternal and child undernutrition in developing countries. These factors can be controlled or removed by scaling up direct nutrition interventions and eliminating the root conditions including female illiteracy, lack of livelihoods, lack of women's empowerment, and poor hygiene and sanitation.

  12. The search for a new paradigm to study micronutrient and phytochemical bioavailability: from reductionism to holism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardet, A; Rock, E

    2014-02-01

    The study of micronutrient and phytochemical (MaP, i.e., non-energy nutrients) bioavailability has been mainly studied through a reductionist and pharmacological approach. This has led to associate one health effect to one MaP. However, human interventional studies have given conflicting and disappointing results about MaP supplementation. This is because the health effect is the result of the synergetic action of numerous MaPs supplied by foods and/or diets at nutritional doses. A food is not a drug. Therefore, there is a need for more holistic approach to study MaP bioavailability, then their health effect to achieve general recommendations. This paper aims to hypothesize for such a paradigm shift in this topic and to lay new foundations for research in MaP bioavailability.

  13. Maximum removal rate of propionic acid as a sole carbon source in UASB reactors and the importance of the macro- and micro-nutrients stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jingxing; Mungoni, Lucy Jubeki; Verstraete, Willy; Carballa, Marta

    2009-07-01

    The maximum propionic acid (HPr) removal rate (R(HPr)) was investigated in two lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed (UASB) reactors. Two feeding strategies were applied by modifying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) in the UASB(HRT) and the influent HPr concentration in the UASB(HPr), respectively. The experiment was divided into three main phases: phase 1, influent with only HPr; phase 2, HPr with macro-nutrients supplementation and phase 3, HPr with macro- and micro-nutrients supplementation. During phase 1, the maximum R(HPr) achieved was less than 3 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1) in both reactors. However, the subsequent supplementation of macro- and micro-nutrients during phases 2 and 3 allowed to increase the R(HPr) up to 18.1 and 32.8 g HPr-CODL(-1)d(-1), respectively, corresponding with an HRT of 0.5h in the UASB(HRT) and an influent HPr concentration of 10.5 g HPr-CODL(-1) in the UASB(HPr). Therefore, the high operational capacity of these reactor systems, specifically converting HPr with high throughput and high influent HPr level, was demonstrated. Moreover, the presence of macro- and micro-nutrients is clearly essential for stable and high HPr removal in anaerobic digestion.

  14. Zinc: the missing link in combating micronutrient malnutrition in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S

    2006-02-01

    The first cases of human Zn deficiency were described in the 1960s in the Middle East. Nevertheless, it was not until 2002 that Zn deficiency was included as a major risk factor in the global burden of disease, and only in 2004 did WHO/UNICEF include Zn supplements in the treatment of acute diarrhoea. Despite this recognition Zn is still not included in the UN micronutrient priority list, an omission that will continue to hinder efforts to reduce child and maternal mortality, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases and achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for improved nutrition in developing countries. Reasons for this omission include a lack of awareness of the importance of Zn in human nutrition, paucity of Zn and phytate food composition values and difficulties in identifying Zn deficiency. Major factors associated with the aetiology of Zn deficiency include dietary inadequacies, disease states inducing excessive losses or impairing utilization and physiological states increasing Zn requirements. To categorize countries according to likely risk of Zn deficiency the International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group has developed indirect indicators based on the adequacy of Zn in the national food supplies and/or prevalence of childhood growth stunting. For countries identified as at risk confirmation is required through direct measurements of dietary Zn intake and/or serum Zn in a representative sample. Finally, in at risk countries either national or targeted Zn interventions such as supplementation, fortification, dietary diversification or modification, or biofortification should be implemented, where appropriate, by incorporating them into pre-existing micronutrient intervention programmes.

  15. Efficacy and cost of micronutrient treatment of childhood psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Megan; Vance, Annette; Watters, Amany; Lee, Helen; Bos, Elske; Kaplan, Bonnie J

    2012-01-01

    Psychosis is difficult to treat effectively with conventional pharmaceuticals, many of which have adverse long-term health consequences. In contrast, there are promising reports from several research groups of micronutrient treatment (vitamins, minerals, amino acids and essential fatty acids) of mood, anxiety and psychosis symptoms using a complex formula that appears to be safe and tolerable. We review previous studies using this formula to treat mental symptoms, and present an 11-year-old boy with a 3-year history of mental illness whose parents chose to transition him from medication to micronutrients. Symptom severity was monitored in three clusters: anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder and psychosis. Complete remission of psychosis occurred, and severity of anxiety and obsessional symptoms decreased significantly (pmicronutrient treatment was micronutrient treatment is warranted. PMID:23144350

  16. Dietary Intake of Some Essential Micronutrients in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Based on the data collected in the 1992 national nutrition survey in China, the food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated, and the consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated. Method Dietary data were obtained by using a three days' inventory change plus food weighing in combination with 24 hours recall method for three consecutive days. The food consumption and nutrients intake were calculated in accordance with the Chinese food composition table. The consumption of some micronutrients was evaluated in reference to the Chinese RDAs. Results The average intakes of niacin, ascorbic acid and vitamin E were sufficient, whereas that of zinc, selenium and thiamin were between 80% and 90% RDAs. The consumption of calcium, retinol equivalent and riboflavin was low compared with the Chinese RDAs. Calcium was the most insufficient nutrient in Chinese diet. Conclusion Food fortification seems necessary for improving the nutritional status of some micronutrients in China.

  17. Micronutrient bioavailability: Dietary Reference Intakes and a future perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambidge, K Michael

    2010-05-01

    This article provides a review of how the challenge of bioavailability was approached in establishing the Dietary Reference Intakes, with a special focus on folic acid, vitamin B-12, beta-carotene, iron, selenium, and zinc, the targeted micronutrients for this workshop. In a future perspective, the necessity of having a clear working definition of bioavailability is emphasized. The bioavailability of micronutrients should be considered, with advantage, under subheadings determined by the broad factors that affect bioavailability. Special emphasis is given to giving greater and specific attention to factors involved in the maintenance of homeostasis. These factors, it is argued, are best considered separately from even a broad definition of bioavailability and have the potential to provide new insights into some micronutrient requirements.

  18. Exploiting genotypic variation in plant nutrient accumulation to alleviate micronutrient deficiency in populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Humphries, Julia M; Lyons, Graham H; Graham, Robin D

    2005-01-01

    More than 2 billion people consume diets that are less diverse than 30 years ago, leading to deficiencies in micronutrients, especially iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iodine (I), and also vitamin A. A strategy that exploits genetic variability to breed staple crops with enhanced ability to fortify themselves with micronutrients (genetic biofortification) offers a sustainable, cost-effective alternative to conventional supplementation and fortification programs. This is more likely to reach those most in need, has the added advantages of requiring no change in current consumer behaviour to be effective, and is transportable to a range of countries. Research by our group, along with studies elsewhere, has demonstrated conclusively that substantial genotypic variation exists in nutrient (e.g. Fe, Zn) and nutrient promotor (e.g. inulin) concentrations in wheat and other staple foods. A rapid screening technique has been developed for lutein content of wheat and triticale, and also for pro-vitamin A carotenoids in bread wheat. This will allow cost-effective screening of a wider range of genotypes that may reveal greater genotypic variation in these traits. Moreover, deeper understanding of genetic control mechanisms and development of molecular markers will facilitate breeding programs. We suggest that a combined strategy utilising plant breeding for higher micronutrient density; maximising the effects of nutritional promoters (e.g. inulin, vitamin C) by promoting favourable dietary combinations, as well as by plant breeding; and agronomic biofortification (e.g. adding iodide or iodate as fertiliser; applying selenate to cereal crops by spraying or adding to fertiliser) is likely to be the most effective way to improve the nutrition of populations. Furthermore, the importance of detecting and exploiting beneficial interactions is illustrated by our discovery that in Fe-deficient chickens, circulating Fe concentrations can be restored to normal levels by lutein

  19. Micronutrients in Chilean Inflammatory Bowel Disease patients: Crosssectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Ibáñez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD patients often present with nutritional disorders that affect both macronutrient and micronutrient levels. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies are typically more frequent in Crohn's disease (CD patients than other IBD patients. However, some studies have shown that these deficiencies can also be present in ulcerative colitis (UC patients, even in those in remission. Aims To describe the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in patients diagnosed with IBD and to correlate these micronutrient deficiencies with demographic, clinical and disease characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional study of patients in the IBD program who were 18 years and older was completed. Clinical characteristics and disease activity indexes were assessed. Body Mass Index (BMI, haematocrit, serum albumin, serum iron profile, serum 25(OH D, vitamin B12, folate, zinc and copper were measured. Results Ninety-one patients with IBD were included: 46 patients (50.5 per cent with UC and 45 patients (49.5 per cent with CD. At least one micronutrient deficiency was found in 39.5 per cent of patients, 35.1 per cent had two deficiencies, and 12 per cent had three or more deficiencies. Iron, zinc, copper, and vitamin B12 deficiencies were found in 33 per cent, 22 per cent, 11 per cent and 10 per cent of patients, respectively. No folate deficiencies were found. Low levels of serum 25(OH D were detected in 76 per cent of patients. The mean BMI was 24.3 (SD 3.4, and the mean serum albumin level was 4.0g/l (SD 0.4. Conclusion Micronutrient deficiencies were frequent in our study cohort and did not correlate with macronutrient status. Measurement of macronutrients and micronutrients should become a routine assessment in IBD patients to improve patient care and to avoid negative repercussions on disease activity

  20. Dietary assessment methods for micronutrient intake in elderly people: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ortiz-Andrellucchi, A.; Sanzech-Villegas, A.; Doreste-Alonso, J.; Vries, de J.H.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Serra-Majem, L.

    2009-01-01

    The European micronutrient recommendations aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence seeks to establish clear guidelines for assessing the validity of reported micronutrient intakes among vulnerable population groups. A systematic literature review identified studies validating the methodology used in

  1. Evaluation of dietary diversity scores for assessment of micronutrient intake and food security in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition and food insecurity are widespread global public health problems. Micronutrient deficiencies affect one-third of the global population. Household food insecurity, often results in monotonous diets, a contributing factor to malnutrition. Consuming a varied diet comprised of

  2. Response of polar front phytoplankton and bacterial community to micronutrient amendments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jain, A.; Meena, R.M.; Naik, R.K.; Gomes, J.; Bandekar, M.; Bhat, M.; Mesquita, A.; Ramaiah, N.

    , to examine the responses of phytoplankton as well as bacterial community (BC) to these micronutrient amendments. Total chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration increased significantly (P<0.01) in all micronutrient-enriched microcosms (MEM), with the incubation...

  3. EURRECA: development of tools to improve the alignment of micronutrient recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, C.; Bucchini, L.; Busstra, M.C.; Cavelaars, A.J.E.M.; Eleftheriou, P.; Garcia-Alvarez, A.; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Gurinovic, M.; Ommen, van B.; Contor, L.

    2010-01-01

    Approaches through which reference values for micronutrients are derived, as well as the reference values themselves, vary considerably across countries. Harmonisation is needed to improve nutrition policy and public health strategies. The EURRECA (EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned, htt

  4. Micronutrient density and stability in West African pearl millet – potential for biofortification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bürger, Anna; Jensen, Henning Høgh; Gondah, Jadah

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet (Cenchrus americanus (L.) Morrone) is one of the most important cereals in West and Central Africa (WCA). Human populations in WCA are strongly affected by micronutrient deficiencies. Biofortification, the development of pearl millet varieties with enhanced micronutrient levels...

  5. Including expectant fathers in antenatal education programmes in Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, J M; Nalbant, H; Bulut, A; Sahip, Y

    2001-11-01

    In this article we present the results of three studies investigating methods for including men in antenatal education in Istanbul, Turkey. Participants were first-time expectant parents living in low and middle-income areas. After a formative study on the roles of various family members in health during the period surrounding a first birth, an antenatal-clinic-based education programme for women and for couples was carried out as a randomised, controlled study. Based on the results, separate community-based antenatal education programmes for expectant mothers and expectant fathers were tested. There was demand among many pregnant women and some of their husbands for including expectant fathers in antenatal education. In the short term, these programmes seemed to have positive effects on women and men's reproductive health knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. In the clinic-based programme the positive effects of including men were mainly in the area of post-partum family planning, while in the community-based programme positive effects among men were also seen in the areas of infant health, infant feeding and spousal communication and support. Free antenatal education should be made available to all expectant mothers and when possible, men should be included, either together with their wives or in a culture such as that of Turkey, in separate groups.

  6. Environments For Healthy Living (EFHL Griffith birth cohort study: characteristics of sample and profile of antenatal exposures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Cate M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Environments for Healthy Living (EFHL study is a repeated sample, longitudinal birth cohort in South East Queensland, Australia. We describe the sample characteristics and profile of maternal, household, and antenatal exposures. Variation and data stability over recruitment years were examined. Methods Four months each year from 2006, pregnant women were recruited to EFHL at routine antenatal visits on or after 24 weeks gestation, from three public maternity hospitals. Participating mothers completed a baseline questionnaire on individual, familial, social and community exposure factors. Perinatal data were extracted from hospital birth records. Descriptive statistics and measures of association were calculated comparing the EFHL birth sample with regional and national reference populations. Data stability of antenatal exposure factors was assessed across five recruitment years (2006–2010 inclusive using the Gamma statistic for ordinal data and chi-squared for nominal data. Results Across five recruitment years 2,879 pregnant women were recruited which resulted in 2904 live births with 29 sets of twins. EFHL has a lower representation of early gestational babies, fewer still births and a lower percentage of low birth weight babies, when compared to regional data. The majority of women (65% took a multivitamin supplement during pregnancy, 47% consumed alcohol, and 26% reported having smoked cigarettes. There were no differences in rates of a range of antenatal exposures across five years of recruitment, with the exception of increasing maternal pre-pregnancy weight (p=0.0349, decreasing rates of high maternal distress (p=0.0191 and decreasing alcohol consumption (p Conclusions The study sample is broadly representative of births in the region and almost all factors showed data stability over time. This study, with repeated sampling of birth cohorts over multiple years, has the potential to make important contributions to

  7. Micronutrient Status among Pregnant Women in Zinder, Niger and Risk Factors Associated with Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ryan Wessells

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Anemia and micronutrient (MN deficiencies in pregnant women are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. In Niger, 58.6% of pregnant women are anemic; however, MN statuses are unknown. The study objectives were to estimate the prevalence of MN deficiencies among pregnant women in Zinder, Niger and explore associated risk factors. Pregnant women living in randomly selected rural villages (n = 88 were included. Capillary and venous blood samples (n = 770 were analyzed for hemoglobin (Hb and plasma ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, zinc (pZn, retinol binding protein (RBP, folate and vitamin B12. C-reactive protein and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein were measured to adjust for inflammation. The prevalence of MN deficiencies in pregnant woman was high, indicative of a severe public health problem. Prevalence of iron deficiency was 20.7% and 35.7%, by ferritin (<15 µg/L and sTfR (>8.3 mg/L, respectively. In total, 40.7% of women had low pZn (<50 µg/dL, 79.7% had marginal RBP (<1.32 µmol/L, 44.3% of women had low folate (<10 nmol/L and 34.8% had low B12 concentrations (<148 pmol/L. Common risk factors associated with MN status included gravidity, mid-upper-arm circumference, geophagy, malaria, and result of the woman’s last pregnancy. Interventions to promote the strengthening of antenatal care, and access and adherence to nutrition and health interventions are critical among pregnant women in this population.

  8. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during preg

  9. The effect of zinc supplementation during pregnancy on immune response to Hib and BCG vaccines in Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osendarp, S.J.M.; Fuchs, G.J.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Mahmud, H.; Tofail, F.; Black, R.E.; Prabhakar, H.; Santosham, M.

    2006-01-01

    An essential role for zinc in development of the fetal immune system has been documented. However, the effect of antenatal zinc supplementation on infants' postnatal immune response to vaccinations is unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of zinc supplementation during

  10. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  11. The association between maternal dietary micronutrient intake and neonatal anthropometry - secondary analysis from the ROLO study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Horan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Micronutrients are necessary for fetal growth. However increasingly pregnant women are nutritionally replete and little is known about the effect of maternal micronutrient intakes on fetal adiposity in mothers with increased BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the association of maternal dietary micronutrient intake with neonatal size and adiposity in a cohort at risk of macrosomia.

  12. Combating Human Micronutrient Deficiencies through Soil Management Practices that Enhance Bioavailability of Nutrients to Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Meara, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient malnutrition affects the health and well being of 3 billion people globally. Identifying means to improve the micronutrient density in the edible portions of crops is an important way to combat nutrient deficiencies. By studying how plants obtain micronutrients from the soil, we can develop methods to enhance uptake. Although more…

  13. Expression of Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in the One Carbon Cycle in Rat Placenta is Determined by Maternal Micronutrients (Folic Acid, Vitamin B12 and Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinita Khot

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE, phosphatidylcholine (PC, in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  14. Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the one carbon cycle in rat placenta is determined by maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  15. Antenatal information sources for maternal and infant diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newby, Ruth; Brodribb, Wendy; Ware, Robert S; Davies, Peter S W

    2015-07-01

    This report describes information sources accessed by pregnant women around antenatal and early infant diet. Australian women in their first pregnancy (n = 277) responded to questionnaires online and on paper between June 2010 and March 2011 as part of the Feeding Queensland Babies Study. Antenatal information sources are reported for maternal diet, breastfeeding and formula-feeding. Pregnant women sought and encountered information for their own and their infants' diet from many sources. Health care professionals provided antenatal dietary information for 80% of respondents and infant feeding advice for 69%. Relatives or friends were the respondents' largest reported information source for infant feeding, reported by 78%. Information on artificial baby milk was accessed on television by 77% and on the internet by 52% of respondents. Health care professionals should proactively support clients' informational needs and address encountered nutrition misinformation. Further research is necessary to establish the nature and accuracy of dietary information in the mass media.

  16. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2012-02-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  17. HIV testing and treatment in the antenatal care setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coulter-Smith, S

    2010-01-01

    Routine linked HIV antenatal screening, with "opt-out", was introduced at the Rotunda in January 1998. This paper reviews the screening and subsequent pregnancy management and outcome in HIV positive women from 1998 to 2006. During this time 225 women (280 pregnancies) were HIV positive and 194 women subsequently delivered at the Rotunda, representing 233 liveborn infants. Overall anti-HIV prevalence was 0.42%, increasing from 0.06% in 1998 to 0.57% in 2006. Of 233 livebirths, 111 (48%) were delivered by spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD). HIV treatment was started pre-pregnancy in 14 (6%) pregnancies and antenatally in 208 (90%). The vertical transmission rate in mothers receiving >4 weeks of treatment was 0%. We conclude that routine antenatal HIV screening is effective and significantly benefits the health of mother and child.

  18. Abnormally invasive placenta-prevalence, risk factors and antenatal suspicion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurn, L; Lindqvist, P G; Jakobsson, M;

    2016-01-01

    of women at high risk will likely strengthen antenatal suspicion. Prior PPH is a novel risk factor associated with an increased prevalence of AIP. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: An ultrasound assessment in women with placenta praevia or prior CS may double the awareness for AIP.......OBJECTIVE: The objective was to investigate prevalence, estimate risk factors, and antenatal suspicion of abnormally invasive placenta (AIP) associated with laparotomy in women in the Nordic countries. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING AND POPULATION: A 3-year Nordic collaboration...... National health registries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence, risk factors, antenatal suspicion, birth complications, and risk estimations using aggregated national data. RESULTS: A total of 205 cases of AIP in association with laparotomy were identified, representing 3.4 per 10 000 deliveries. The single...

  19. Determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among pregnant women in Enugu, Southeastern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwu, E O; Olibe, A O; Obi, S N; Ugwu, A O

    2014-01-01

    Anemia in pregnancy is highly prevalent among antenatal clinic attendees in Enugu, Nigeria despite the practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with iron supplementation in pregnancy is compliance, and this may be a potential driver to the persistent high prevalence of anemia in this population. To find out the compliance rate and determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among pregnant women in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of eligible pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria between April 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. The knowledge of iron supplementation was 76.3% ( n = 302), however, the compliance rate was 65.9% ( n = 261). Tertiary level of education and high social class were factors significantly associated with compliance to iron supplementation after adjusting for other factors in the binary logistic regression analysis ( P compliance to iron supplementation included gastrointestinal side effects of iron supplements (41.7%), non-affordability of iron supplements (28.3%), and forgetfulness (15.0%) among the antenatal mothers. The compliance rate of 65.9% for iron supplementation by pregnant mothers in Enugu can further be improved by providing the drug free of charge in the short term and improvement in education and socioeconomic class of the populace in the long run.

  20. EFFECT OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN ANTENATAL MOTHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasooya Parail Sankaran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the effect of thyroid dysfunction in antenatal mothers in Alappuzha one of the coastal areas in South Kerala over a period from January 2012 to January 2015. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a descriptive study of the effect of thyroid dysfunction among pregnant ladies attending OBG Department in Government Medical College, Alappuzha, a rural medical college at coastal areas of Kerala over a period of 3 years. RESULTS The incidence is found to be maximum in the coastal area, i.e. 84.9%, but p-valve 0.625 is not statistically significant. Thyroid disorder is mostly seen in primigravida (57.8% and between the age of 20 and 25 yrs. (43.2% and the most commonly seen disorder among is subclinical hypothyroidism (73.7% (p valve <.005, which is statistically significant. There is significant increase in maternal complications like preeclampsia, (RR-8.54, p-value 0.014 recurrent abortion (RR-91.13, p-value 0.000, prolonged period of infertility (RR-55.16, p-value 0.000, anaemia (RR-11.37, p-value 0.003 is seen in subclinical hypothyroidism. The foetal complications seen are oligamnios (7.8%, MSAF (9.2%, foetal distress (12.1%, PROM (5.1% and FGR (10.9%. The neonates were admitted in NICU in view of NEC (1.5%, NNJ (24.1%, MAS (6.9%, TTNB (9.5% and HIE (2.9%. CONCLUSION The present study is intended to study the maternal and foetal effects of thyroid dysfunction. After the study, we concluded that there are many adverse maternal, foetal and neonatal effects in pregnancies complicated with thyroid dysfunction. In coastal area, the disease has got a high prevalence and hence there is a need for proper screening and early diagnosis. Proper treatment options are given to the patient.

  1. [Antenatal corticosteroid therapy and late preterm infant morbidity and mortality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gázquez Serrano, I M; Arroyos Plana, A; Díaz Morales, O; Herráiz Perea, C; Holgueras Bragado, A

    2014-12-01

    Late preterm infants (34-36 weeks gestation) have a morbidity rate significantly higher than those born at term. However, few interventions have been undertaken to reduce this increased morbidity and mortality. Antenatal corticosteroid administration could be an effective preventive measure. The aim of this study was to describe the morbidity associated with late prematurity in our institution, and determine if there are differences between those who received antenatal corticosteroids. A prospective observational study was conducted on late preterm infants born in a tertiary hospital from October 2011 until September 2012. Two groups were formed according to whether or not they had received antenatal steroids. The rates of morbidity and mortality for each of the groups were analysed and compared. There was a total of 4127 live newborns during the study period, of whom 3795 were term and 332 were preterm (the overall prematurity rate was 8.04%). There were 247 late preterm deliveries, representing 6% of live born infants, and 74.4% of all premature infants. Of late preterm infants, 63.2% were admitted to the Neonatal Unit and 29.6% had received antenatal steroids. The incidence of admission to the Neonatal Unit and Neonatal Intensive Care, transient tachypnea, need for respiratory support in the form of continuous positive pressure airway and oxygen therapy, incidence of hypoglycemia, feeding difficulty, and jaundice requiring phototherapy were significantly higher (P<.05) in the late preterm group that did not receive antenatal steroids. Our finding suggests that the administration of antenatal corticosteroids to patients at risk of 34-36 weeks delivery could significantly reduce the cost and acute morbidity associated with late preterm birth. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  3. Midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: Do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey. Cog

  4. Antenatal treatment in two Dutch families with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, L.A.; Been, J.V.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Rijper, E.A.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Incidental reports suggest that antenatal treatment of pyridoxine dependent seizures (PDS) may improve neurodevelopmental outcome of affected patients. Two families with PDS are reported, both with two affected siblings. Antenatal treatment with pyridoxine was instituted during the second pregnancy

  5. Antenatal treatment in two Dutch families with pyridoxine-dependent seizures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, L.A.; Been, J.V.; Struys, E.A.; Jakobs, C.; Rijper, E.A.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.

    2010-01-01

    Incidental reports suggest that antenatal treatment of pyridoxine dependent seizures (PDS) may improve neurodevelopmental outcome of affected patients. Two families with PDS are reported, both with two affected siblings. Antenatal treatment with pyridoxine was instituted during the second pregnancy

  6. Midwives' views on of appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Objective: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. Design: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.

  7. Midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests: Do they match clients' preferences?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, L.; Hutton, E.K.; Spelten, E.R.; Gitsels-van der Wal, J.T.; Dulmen, S. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: this study aims to provide insight into: (a) midwives' views on appropriate antenatal counselling for congenital anomaly tests, and (b) whether these views match clients' preferences regarding antenatal counselling. DESIGN: a comparative (midwives versus clients) questionnaire survey.

  8. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European count

  9. Variability of micronutrient content in enriched dairy and fruit products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de N.; Adam, S.G.N.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Graaf, de C.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate measures of micronutrient levels in newly developed enriched foods are indispensable for valid labelling, for determination of ultimate levels for possible claimed health effects and for safety. To date, only a limited amount of public literature is available on the reproducibility of labor

  10. Socioeconomic differences in micronutrient intake and status in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novakovic, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to evaluate micronutrient intake and status of socioeconomic disadvantaged populations, such as from Central and Eastern European (CEE) as compared to other European populations, and low socioeconomic status (SES) groups as compared to high SES groups within European count

  11. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise healt

  12. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise

  13. The gastric sleeve: losing weight as fast as micronutrients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, E.O.; Janssen, I.M.; Berends, F.J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, the laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has become popular as a single-stage procedure for the treatment of morbid obesity and its co-morbidities. However, the incidence of micronutrient deficiencies after LSG have hardly been researched. METHODS: From January 2005 to October

  14. A network biology model of micronutrient related health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, B. van; Fairweather-Tait, S.; Freidig, A.; Kardinaal, A.; Scalbert, A.; Wopereis, S.

    2008-01-01

    Micronutrients are involved in specific biochemical pathways and have dedicated functions in the body, but they are also interconnected in complex metabolic networks, such as oxidative-reductive and inflammatory pathways and hormonal regulation, in which the overarching function is to optimise healt

  15. Do multiple micronutrient interventions improve child health, growth, and development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Usha; Goldenberg, Tamar; Allen, Lindsay H

    2011-11-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies are common and often co-occur in many developing countries. Several studies have examined the benefits of providing multiple micronutrient (MMN) interventions during pregnancy and childhood, but the implications for programs remain unclear. The key objective of this review is to summarize what is known about the efficacy of MMN interventions during early childhood on functional outcomes, namely, child health, survival, growth, and development, to guide policy and identify gaps for future research. We identified review articles including meta-analyses and intervention studies that evaluated the benefits of MMN interventions (3 or more micronutrients) in children (child morbidity, anemia, and growth. Two studies found no effects on child mortality. The findings for respiratory illness and diarrhea are mixed, although suggestive of benefit when provided as fortified foods. There is evidence from several controlled trials (>25) and 2 meta-analyses that MMN interventions improve hemoglobin concentrations and reduce anemia, but the effects were small compared to providing only iron or iron with folic acid. Two recent meta-analyses and several intervention trials also indicated that MMN interventions improve linear growth compared to providing a placebo or single nutrients. Much less is known about the effects on MMN interventions during early childhood on motor and mental development. In summary, MMN interventions may result in improved outcomes for children in settings where micronutrient deficiencies are widespread.

  16. Micronutrient availability from steel slag amendment in peatmoss substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research was to determine the suitability of a steel slag product for supplying micronutrients to container-grown floriculture crops. Geranium (Pelargonium xhortorum 'Maverick Red') and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon 'Megabite') were grown in 11.4 cm containers with a substrate ...

  17. Soybean micronutrient content in irrigated plants grown in the Midsouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrients are essential to soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) but required in minute quantities. Concentrations and tissue contents of Fe, B, Zn, Mn and Cu were determined for two MG IV and one MG V irrigated cultivars grown in twin-rows in the Mississippi Delta on clay and sandy loam soil sites i...

  18. Quality of antenatal and childbirth care in northern Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, E; Williams, A; Williams, J; Loukanova, S; Temmerman, M

    2014-09-01

    The QUALMAT research project aims to improve maternal and newborn health by improving the quality of antenatal and childbirth care provided in primary healthcare facilities. Within the frame of this project, a comprehensive quality assessment took place in selected health centres in northern Ghana. The results of this assessment showed that overall quality of routine antenatal and childbirth care was satisfactory, although some critical gaps were identified. Counselling and health education practices need to be improved; laboratory investigations are often not performed; examination and monitoring of mother and newborn during childbirth are inadequate; partographs are often not used and poorly completed; and equipment to provide assisted vaginal deliveries was absent.

  19. A meta-analysis of pica and micronutrient status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Diana; Young, Sera L; Golden, Christopher D

    2015-01-01

    Pica is the craving for and consumption of nonfood items, including the ingestion of earth (geophagy), raw starch (amylophagy), and ice (pagophagy). Pica has long been associated with micronutrient deficiencies, but the strength of this relationship is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the association between pica behavior and the risk of being anemic or having low hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), or plasma zinc (Zn) concentrations. We systematically reviewed studies in which micronutrient levels were reported by pica status. We calculated the pooled odds ratio for anemia or weighted mean difference in Hb, Hct, or Zn concentrations between groups practicing or not practicing pica behaviors. Forty-three studies including 6,407 individuals with pica behaviors and 10,277 controls were identified. Pica was associated with 2.35 times greater odds of anemia (95% CI: 1.94-2.85, P < 0.001), lower Hb concentration (-0.65 g/dl, 95% CI: -0.83 to -0.48 g/dl, P < 0.001), lower Hct concentration (-1.15%, 95% CI: -1.61 to -0.70%, P < 0.001), and lower Zn concentration (-34.3 μg/dl, 95% CI: -59.58 to -9.02 μg/dl, P = 0.008). Statistical significance persisted after excluding outliers and in subgroup analyses by pica type and life stage. Pica is significantly associated with increased risk for anemia and low Hb, Hct, and plasma Zn. Although the direction of the causal relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiency is unknown, the magnitude of these relationships is comparable to other well-recognized causes of micronutrient deficiencies. Pica warrants greater public health attention; specifically the potential physiological mechanisms underpinning the relationship between pica and micronutrient deficiencies merit further study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  1. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickowitz, Amy; Rowland, Dominic; Powell, Bronwen; Salim, Mohammad Agus; Sunderland, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy makers may need to

  2. Forests, Trees, and Micronutrient-Rich Food Consumption in Indonesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Ickowitz

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiency remains a serious problem in Indonesia with approximately 100 million people, or 40% of the population, suffering from one or more micronutrient deficiencies. In rural areas with poor market access, forests and trees may provide an essential source of nutritious food. This is especially important to understand at a time when forests and other tree-based systems in Indonesia are being lost at unprecedented rates. We use food consumption data from the 2003 Indonesia Demographic Health Survey for children between the ages of one and five years and data on vegetation cover from the Indonesian Ministry of Forestry to examine whether there is a relationship between different tree-dominated land classes and consumption of micronutrient-rich foods across the archipelago. We run our models on the aggregate sample which includes over 3000 observations from 25 provinces across Indonesia as well as on sub-samples from different provinces chosen to represent the different land classes. The results show that different tree-dominated land classes were associated with the dietary quality of people living within them in the provinces where they were dominant. Areas of swidden/agroforestry, natural forest, timber and agricultural tree crop plantations were all associated with more frequent consumption of food groups rich in micronutrients in the areas where these were important land classes. The swidden/agroforestry land class was the landscape associated with more frequent consumption of the largest number of micronutrient rich food groups. Further research needs to be done to establish what the mechanisms are that underlie these associations. Swidden cultivation in is often viewed as a backward practice that is an impediment to food security in Indonesia and destructive of the environment. If further research corroborates that swidden farming actually results in better nutrition than the practices that replace it, Indonesian policy

  3. Micronutrient deficiencies in South African infants and the effect of a micronutrient-fortified complementary food on their nutritional status, growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    Oelofse, A.

    2001-01-01

    Consequences of micronutrient deficiencies in infants often include linear growth retardation, impaired psychomotor development and reduced appetite. Fortification of complementary food is one way of addressing micronutrient deficiencies in this age group. Knowledge about these deficiencies, food consumption patterns and appetite in infants is essential in planning micronutrient fortification intervention studies. In this thesis four studies are described, two of which studied the pr...

  4. Effect of maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega 3 fatty acids on liver fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Manglekar, Rupali R; Dangat, Kamini D; Kulkarni, Asmita V; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2012-01-01

    A disturbed fatty acid metabolism increases the risk of adult non-communicable diseases. This study examines the effect of maternal micronutrients on the fatty acid composition, desaturase activity, mRNA levels of fatty acid desaturases and transport proteins in the liver. Pregnant female rats were divided into 6 groups at 2 levels of folic acid both in the presence and absence of vitamin B(12). The vitamin B(12) deficient groups were supplemented with omega 3 fatty acid. An imbalance of maternal micronutrients reduces liver docosahexaenoic acid, increases Δ5 desaturase activity but decreases mRNA levels, decreases Δ6 desaturase activity but not mRNA levels as compared to control. mRNA level of Δ5 desaturase reverts back to the levels of the control group as a result of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation. Our data for the first time indicates that maternal micronutrients differentially alter the activity and expression of fatty acid desaturases in the liver.

  5. Low serum Vitamin C status among pregnant women attending antenatal care at general hospital Dawakin Kudu, Northwest Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin C levels are low in pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to determine serum Vitamins C levels among pregnant women attending antenatal care at a General Hospital in Dawakin Kudu, Kano, and this can help further research to determine the place of Vitamin C supplementation in pregnancy. Methods: This was a prospective study of 400 pregnant women who presented for antenatal care in General Hospital Dawakin Kudu, Kano, Nigeria. Research structured questionnaire was administered to 400 respondents. Determination of serum Vitamin C was done using appropriate biochemical methods. Results: Vitamin C deficiency was found in 79.5% of the participants. The values for Vitamin C were 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/dl during the first trimester, 0.50 ± 0.99 mg/dl in the second trimester, and 0.35 ± 0.36 mg/dl in the third trimester and P = 0.001. Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the serum Vitamins C concentration throughout the period of pregnancy with the highest levels in the second trimester. Therefore, Vitamin C supplementation is suggested during pregnancy, especially for those whose fruit and vegetable consumption is inadequate.

  6. Effect on longitudinal growth and anemia of zinc or multiple micronutrients added to vitamin A: a randomized controlled trial in children aged 6-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luabeya Kany-Kany A

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of zinc or multiple micronutrient supplementations in African children are uncertain. African children may differ from other populations of children in developing countries because of differences in the prevalence of zinc deficiency, low birth weight and preterm delivery, recurrent or chronic infections such as HIV, or the quality of complementary diets and genetic polymorphisms affecting iron metabolism. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether adding zinc or multiple micronutrients to vitamin A supplementation improves longitudinal growth or reduces prevalence of anemia in children aged 6-24 months. Methods Randomized, controlled double-blinded trial of prophylactic micronutrient supplementation to children aged 6-24 months. Children in three cohorts - 32 HIV-infected children, 154 HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 187 uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers - were separately randomly assigned to receive daily vitamin A (VA [n = 124], vitamin A plus zinc (VAZ [n = 123], or multiple micronutrients that included vitamin A and zinc (MM [n = 126]. Results Among all children there were no significant differences between intervention arms in length-for-age Z scores (LAZ changes over 18 months. Among stunted children (LAZ below -2 [n = 62], those receiving MM had a 0.7 Z-score improvement in LAZ versus declines of 0.3 in VAZ and 0.2 in VA (P = 0.029 when comparing effects of treatment over time. In the 154 HIV-uninfected children, MM ameliorated the effect of repeated diarrhea on growth. Among those experiencing more than six episodes, those receiving MM had no decline in LAZ compared to 0.5 and 0.6 Z-score declines in children receiving VAZ and VA respectively (P = 0.06 for treatment by time interaction. After 12 months, there was 24% reduction in proportion of children with anemia (hemoglobin below 11 g/dL in MM arm (P = 0.001, 11% in VAZ (P = 0.131 and 18% in VA (P = 0

  7. Current Information Gaps in Micronutrient Research, Programs and Policy: How Can We Fill Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lindsay H

    2016-01-01

    Micronutrient (MN) interventions have a very positive effect on public health and have been a major focus of nutrition research and policy for over 3 decades. Most MN policies are established by the World Health Organization based on available evidence from well-designed trials. These include recommendations on iron + folic acid supplements for pregnancy, high-dose vitamin A supplementation for children folic acid fortification can be harmful in population groups with a high prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency. The most effective dose of MNs has rarely been tested systematically. MN interventions alone are not very effective for improving the growth and development of young children. Newer methods for the analysis of MNs in breast milk are revealing low concentrations in many populations, so more information is needed on the effects of different interventions on milk nutrient content. We need to improve biomarkers of MN status and should measure multiple biological responses to MN interventions using modern nutritional science methods, including metabolomics, proteomics and epigenetics; these will reveal effects of MNs that are not yet fully appreciated.

  8. Impact of micronutrients sprinkle on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in Tonk district of Rajasthan state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Jyoti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In India, multiple micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major public health problem, especially for children below three years of age. It is a crucial period for the growth and development of children. There is lack of data from Rajasthan state on the effect of micronutrients supplementation on growth of children below three years of age. Aims & Objectives: To assess the impact of ICDS supplementary food with or without micronutrients sprinkles on weight and height of children aged 6-36 months in the Tonk district, Rajasthan state. Materials & Methods: The trial was conducted in the 15 Angan wadi centers, each from Tonk (rural and Malpura blocks of Tonk District in Rajasthan state. Children from both blocks were considered as experimental and control groups. Experimental (N=790 and Control groups (N=540 received ICDS supplementary food for six months with or without micronutrients sprinkles. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard techniques. Results: At baseline, children with severe underweight, severe stunting and severe wasting in experimental group stood at 19.2%, 19.3%, 7.3%, respectively, which declined to 14.9%, 15.3% and 6.3%, after intervention. Significant difference was observed in the mean weights of post intervention children between experimental and control groups, whereas, there was no significant difference in mean heights. In experimental group, statistical significant difference was also noted in the mean weights and heights of children between pre and post intervention periods. Conclusion: Micronutrients sprinkles can be effective in reducing malnutrition amongst vulnerable population.

  9. Enhancing normal labour by adopting antenatal physiotherapy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooplekha Chauhan

    2016-08-01

    Conclusions: This highlights the very need for physiotherapy to be inculcated into the curriculum during antenatal period with conducive maternal and foetal outcome as it inflates the chances of normal deliveries and abate the rates of cesarean section and subsequent, which is the dire need of the day. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2672-2676

  10. Knowledge and perceptions of antenatal services need and delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    access health services for disease control, a study was conducted to assess knowledge, ... and other essential service supplies, existence of user-fees in health facilities, and pregnant ... In the area of antenatal care (ANC) services, medical and ... The government .... making some women to miss IPTp in the recommended.

  11. Antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Subramanian; Sharma, Raju; Gamanagatti, Shivanand [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India); Gupta, Prerna; Kumar, Sunesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, New Delhi (India)

    2006-10-15

    Hydrometrocolpos is cystic dilatation of the vagina and uterus due to congenital vaginal obstruction. It may be secretory or urinary in character and manifests in the neonatal period with abdominal distension. Urinary hydrometrocolpos occurs in patients with urogenital sinus or cloacal anomaly. A rare case of antenatal MR diagnosis of urinary hydrometrocolpos due to urogenital sinus is presented. (orig.)

  12. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

  13. Variables influencing delay in antenatal clinic attendance among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A delay in deciding to seek antenatal care is predominant among pregnant teenagers in ... to the Lesotho Population Data Sheet of 2000, the doctor-patient ratio for this ... on health promotion in reproductive health, especially birth preparedness, and ... rates of teenage pregnancies in Lesotho and the consequences thereof.

  14. The quality of care in an antenatal clinic in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, M I

    1980-02-01

    As part of an operations research project aimed at improving outpatient services in Kenya, the quality of care in Kiambu District Hospital's antenatal clinic was monitored in 1974-76 with particular emphasis on the identification of high risk women. Of the 270 patients studied, 57 (21%) were considered by midwives to be at no risk in terms of their pregnancy and 213 (79%) were considered at risk. 46% of the care observed in this study was considered adequate by the audit method; however, an implicit judgement assessment of the same care rated only 19% as adequate. Since the evaluators were familiar with the working conditions and capabilities of the staff, these low performance statistics suggest that the quality of care being provided in antenatal clinics is a serious problem. Dramatic improvements can be recorded if more attention is given by midwives to obtaining a medical and obstetric history and using an antenatal card. There is a need for clearly defined criteria and instructions for categorizing and managing high and low risk groups of pregnant women. In-service training and clinical meetings are essential to ensure that midwives can interpret abnormal findings and estimate the fundal height of the uterus. Although antenatal cards that guide midwives in the categorization of risk factors are available in Kenya, they are frequently out of stock and replaced with hastily developed, inadequate substitute forms.

  15. Knowledge, attitude and practice study regarding anemia in antenatal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raksha M

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Assessments of knowledge and practice and health education are essential step towards prevention of anaemia in pregnancy. Educating antenatal women about the importance of diet and implementing this into practice will help in the prevention of anemia. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2101-2103

  16. Severe antenatally diagnosed renal disorders: background, prognosis and practical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbert, Wiebke; Kemper, Markus J

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays most renal disorders, especially urinary tract malformations and renal cystic disease, are diagnosed antenatally. In cases of severe bilateral disease, intrauterine renal dysfunction may lead to renal oligohydramnios (ROH), resulting in pulmonary hypoplasia which affects perinatal mortality and morbidity as well as the long-term outcome. However, some infants may only have mild pulmonary and renal disease, and advances in postnatal and dialysis treatment have resulted in improved short- and long-term outcome even in those infants with severe ROH. Here, we review the current state of knowledge and clinical experience of patients presenting antenatally with severe bilateral renal disorders and ROH. By addressing underlying mechanisms, intrauterine tools of diagnosis and treatment as well as published outcome data, we hope to improve antenatal counselling and postnatal care. KEY SUMMARY POINTS: 1. Nowadays most renal disorders are diagnosed antenatally, especially urinary tract malformations and renal cystic disease. 2. Severe kidney dysfunction may lead to renal oligohydramnios, which can cause pulmonary hypoplasia and is a risk factor of perinatal mortality and postnatal renal outcome. However, as considerable clinical heterogeneity is present, outcome predictions need to be treated with caution. 3. Advances in postnatal and dialysis treatment have resulted in improved short- and long-term outcomes even in infants with severe renal oligohydramnios. 4. A multidisciplinary approach with specialist input is required when counselling a family with an ROH-affected fetus as the decision-making process is very challenging.

  17. The antenatal prevention ofcongenital syphilis in a peri-urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    referred from the antenatal clinic to a separate sexually ... may be cost-effective ar an incidence as low as 5 per. 100 000.I ... A retrospective analysis of the records of Khayelirsha patients presenting ... central laboratory at GSH for a venereal disease research ... the delivery registers of the respective labour wards. Where the ...

  18. Prevalence and factors associated with late antenatal care visit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora

    Background: Adequate utilization of antenatal health care services is associated ... Using the formula n=z2p (100−p)/e2, marginal error(e) of 4 %, z at 95 % confidence interval of 1.96, ... cleaning and generation of frequency distribution tables.

  19. Meckel-Gruber syndrome: Antenatal diagnosis and ethical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sarar; Ibrahim, Fatima; Kamil, Kameel; Satti, Satti A

    2012-01-01

    Meckel-Gruber syndrome (MGS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by occipital encephalocele, polycystic kidneys and variable other congenital malformations. We report on a Sudanese patient with MGS diagnosed by antenatal ultrasound scan. Pregnancy was terminated at 25 weeks of gestation.

  20. Role of micronutrients in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight infecting Indian mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, A S; Singh, Dhiraj; Avtar, Ram; Kumar, Pawan

    2015-03-01

    Field experiments were carried out at Oilseeds Research Area of CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar during rabi, 2008-09 to 2011-12 to find out the possible role of soil application of different micronutrients alone and in combinations in defense to white rust and Alternaria blight diseases in Indian mustard [Brassica juncea (L.) Czern & Coss.]. Among the sole application of micronutrients, minimum disease severity of both white rust (35.0%) and Alternaria blight (31.8%) was observed when S @ 40 kg ha in the form of Gypsum was applied as basal dose in the soil. When Gypsum was supplemented with Borax @10 kg ha(-1) or with ZnSO4 @15 kg ha(-1) the level of tolerance seems to be improved for both the diseases as compared to the sole treatment of each nutrient, i.e., ZnSO4 @ 15 kg/ha, Borax @ 10 kg ha' and Gypsum @ 250 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, minimum disease severity of both white rust (31.3 %) and Alternaria blight (26.3 %) was observed with soil application of ZnSO4 @ 15 kg ha(-1) + Borax @ 10 kg ha(-1) + Gypsum @250 kg ha(-1) as basal dose as compared to the severity of white rust (43.6%) and Alternaria blight (38.6%) in untreated check. Significant increase in seed yield (1612 kg ha(-1)) was also recorded in above mentioned treatment as compared to the yield (1337 kg ha(-1)) in untreated check. These findings will also be helpful in maintaining soil health and minimizing the losses due to both the fungal diseases for eco-friendly sustainability of Indian mustard.

  1. Hydrothermally treated chitosan hydrogel loaded with copper and zinc particles as a potential micro-nutrient based antimicrobial feed additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban eRajasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that re-arranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml and zinc (800 μg/ml reduced the load of model gut-bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof of concept study, we show

  2. Micronutrients and women of reproductive potential: required dietary intake and consequences of dietary deficiency or excess. Part I--Folate, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Joe Leigh; Bailey, Lynn B; Pietrzik, Klaus; Shane, Barry; Holzgreve, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    This two-part review highlights micronutrients for which either public health policy has been established or for which new evidence provides guidance as to recommended intakes during pregnancy. One pivotal micronutrient is folate, the generic name for different forms of a water-soluble vitamin essential for the synthesis of thymidylate and purines and, hence, DNA. For non-pregnant adult women the recommended intake is 400 μg/day dietary folate equivalent. For women capable of becoming pregnant an additional 400 μg/day of synthetic folic acid from supplements or fortified foods is recommended to reduce the risk of neural tube defects (NTD). The average amount of folic acid received through food fortification (grains) in the US is only 128 μg/day, emphasising the need for the supplemental vitamin for women of reproductive age. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a cofactor required for enzyme reactions, including generation of methionine and tetrahydrofolate. B12 is found almost exclusively in foods of animal origin (meats, dairy products); therefore, vegetarians are at greatest risk for dietary vitamin B12 deficiency and should be supplemented. Vitamin B6 is required for many reactions, primarily in amino acid metabolism. Meat, fish and poultry are good dietary sources. Supplementation beyond routine prenatal vitamins is not recommended.

  3. Micronutrient Contents of Citrus Orchard Soils in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANGTAO

    1993-01-01

    Investigations were carried out on the micronutrient contents,of major citrus orchard soils (involving seven soil great groups in 8 provinces and an autonomous region of southern China),and an evaluation on the abundance and deficiency of available micronutrients in these soils was made in this paper.In southern China,citrus orchard soils derived from sandstone,sandy shale,Quaternary red clay,diluvial deposit,granite gneiss and neritic deposit were deficient in available Mo and B and low in Zn.Those developed on purple sandy shale,limestone and slope deposit were all in short supply of available Zn,B and Mo.Coastal solonchak was fairly abundant in B,but its available Fe,Zn and Mo contents were rather low.

  4. Milk and Dairy Products : A Unique Micronutrient Combination

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Milk and dairy products contain micronutrients such as minerals and vitamins, which contribute to multiple and different vital functions in the organism. The mineral fraction is composed of macroelements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl) and oligoelements (Fe, Cu, Zn, and Se). From a physicochemical point of view, the chemical forms, the associations with other ions or organic molecules, and the location of macroelements such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, and Cl in milk are relatively well described and unde...

  5. Fertilization with filter cake and micronutrients in plant cane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Cristiane Adorna

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The response of sugarcane to application of micronutrients is still not very well known. In view of the need for this information, the aim of this study was to evaluate the application of the micronutrients Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo to plant cane in three soils, with and without application of filter cake. This study consisted of three experiments performed in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, (in Igaraçu do Tiete, on an Oxisol; in Santa Maria da Serra, on an Entisol, both in the 2008/2009 growing season; and in Mirassol, on an Ultisol, in the 2009/2010 growing season in a randomized block design with four replications with a 8 x 2 factorial combination of micronutrients (1 - no application/control, 2 - addition of Zn, 3 - addition of Cu, 4 - addition of Mn 5 - addition of Fe, 6 - addition of B, 7 - addition of Mo, 8 - Addition of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo and filter cake (0 and 30 t ha-1 of filter cake in the furrow at planting. The application of filter cake was more efficient than of Borax in raising leaf B concentration to sufficiency levels for sugarcane in the Entisol, and it increased mean stalk yield in the Oxisol. In areas without filter cake application, leaf concentrations were not affected by the application of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, B, and Mo in the furrow at planting; however, Zn and B induced an increase in stalk and sugar yield in micronutrient-poor sandy soil.

  6. The Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies and  Inadequacies in the Middle East and Approaches to  Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Hwalla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies constitute a global health issue, particularly among countries in the Middle East. The objective of this review is to identify micronutrient deficits in the Middle East and to consider current and new approaches to address this problem. Based on the availability of more recent data, this review is primarily focused on countries that are in advanced nutrition transition. Prominent deficits in folate, iron, and vitamin D are noted among children/adolescents, women of childbearing age, pregnant women, and the elderly. Reports indicate that food fortification in the region is sporadic and ineffective, and the use of dietary supplements is low. Nutrition monitoring in the region is limited, and gaps in relevant information present challenges for implementing new policies and approaches to address the problem. Government‐sponsored initiatives are necessary to assess current dietary intakes/patterns, support nutrition education, and to reduce food insecurity, especially among vulnerable population groups. Public–private partnerships should be considered in targeting micronutrient fortification programs and supplementation recommendations as approaches to help alleviate the burden of micronutrient deficiencies and inadequacies in the Middle East.

  7. Micronutrients and Leptospirosis: A Review of the Current Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Heather S.; Mehta, Saurabh; Cárdenas, Washington B.; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses and represents a major threat to human health. Due to the high burden of disease, limitations in diagnostics, and limited coverage and availability of effective human and veterinary vaccines, leptospirosis remains an important neglected zoonotic disease. Improved surveillance and identification of modifiable risk factors for leptospirosis are urgently needed to inform preventive interventions and reduce the risk and severity of Leptospira infection. Methodology/Principal Findings This review was conducted to examine the evidence that links micronutrient status and Leptospira infection. A total of 56 studies were included in this review: 28 in vitro, 17 animal, and 11 observational human studies. Findings indicated that Leptospira infection is associated with higher iron and calcium concentrations and hypomagnesemia. Conclusions/Significance Few prospective studies and no randomized trials have been conducted to date to examine the potential role of micronutrients in Leptospira infection. The limited literature in this area constrains our ability to make specific recommendations; however, the roles of iron, calcium, and magnesium in leptospirosis represent important areas for future research. The role of micronutrients in leptospirosis risk and severity needs to be elucidated in larger prospective human studies to inform public health interventions. PMID:27387046

  8. The Queuine Micronutrient: Charting a Course from Microbe to Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Fergus

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Micronutrients from the diet and gut microbiota are essential to human health and wellbeing. Arguably, among the most intriguing and enigmatic of these micronutrients is queuine, an elaborate 7-deazaguanine derivative made exclusively by eubacteria and salvaged by animal, plant and fungal species. In eubacteria and eukaryotes, queuine is found as the sugar nucleotide queuosine within the anticodon loop of transfer RNA isoacceptors for the amino acids tyrosine, asparagine, aspartic acid and histidine. The physiological requirement for the ancient queuine molecule and queuosine modified transfer RNA has been the subject of varied scientific interrogations for over four decades, establishing relationships to development, proliferation, metabolism, cancer, and tyrosine biosynthesis in eukaryotes and to invasion and proliferation in pathogenic bacteria, in addition to ribosomal frameshifting in viruses. These varied effects may be rationalized by an important, if ill-defined, contribution to protein translation or may manifest from other presently unidentified mechanisms. This article will examine the current understanding of queuine uptake, tRNA incorporation and salvage by eukaryotic organisms and consider some of the physiological consequence arising from deficiency in this elusive and lesser-recognized micronutrient.

  9. Siderophore production by mycorrhizal sorghum roots under micronutrient deficient condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aliasgharzad

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available It has widely been accepted that mycorrhizal symbiosis improves micronutrients uptake by most of the plants. In this study, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. plants were grown in sterile perlite and were inoculated with either Glomus etunicatum (GE or G.intraradices (GI, while the control set was left un-inoculated. Rorison's nutrient solution with three levels of 0, half and full strength (C0, C0.5 and C1, respectively of Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn was applied to the pots during 85 days of growth period. Chrome azurol-S assay was used for determination of siderophores in root leachates on 45, 65 and 85 days after sowing (DAS. Siderophore production per unit volume of root was higher in mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. Both GE and GI were efficient fungi in this respect. Siderophore production was significantly induced at C0 level of the micronutrients. Amount of siderophores produced on 45 and 85 DAS was more than 65 DAS. Mycorrhizal root colonization by GE or GI was not significantly affected by micronutrient levels.

  10. School feeding contributes to micronutrient adequacy of Ghanaian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Buxton, Christiana; Kwara, Lugutuah; Mensah-Homiah, Joseph; Armar-Klemesu, Margaret; Brouwer, Inge D

    2014-09-28

    Without gains in nutritional outcomes, it is unlikely that school feeding programmes (SFP) could improve cognition and academic performance of schoolchildren despite the improvements in school enrolment. We compared the nutrient intake adequacy and Fe and nutritional status of SFP and non-SFP participants in a cross-sectional survey involving 383 schoolchildren (aged 5-13 years). Quantitative 24 h recalls and weighed food records, repeated in 20% subsample, were used to estimate energy and nutrient intakes adjusted for day-to-day variations. The probability of adequacy (PA) was calculated for selected micronutrients and the mean of all PA (MPA) was calculated. The concentrations of Hb, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) and anthropometric measurements were used to determine Fe and nutritional status. Energy and nutrient intakes and their adequacies were significantly higher among SFP participants (Pnutritional status indicators. The results also indicate an important role for micronutrient-dense foods in the achievement of micronutrient adequacy within SFP.

  11. Tulimbe Nutrition Project: a community-based dietary intervention to combat micronutrient malnutrition in rural southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhe, G

    1997-12-01

    This article describes the community-based nutrition intervention in rural southern Malawi. The program aims to reverse micronutrient deficiencies in vitamin A, iron, and zinc in a society where staple diets are plant-based and contain high levels of anti-nutrients. Anti-nutrients, such as polyphenols, dietary fiber, and phytates, inhibit absorption of iron and zinc. This population's diet was also low in dairy and meat products. The Tulimbe Nutrition Project aimed to modify and diversify diets rather than to supplement or fortify diets. This approach was more culturally acceptable and economically feasible. The approach required changing food selection patterns and methods of preparing and processing indigenous foods. The new diets aimed to enhance the availability, access, and use of micronutrient-rich foods throughout the year. The project was initiated in 1995 in two communities among 300 families with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years. A baseline assessment with interviews and focus groups was conducted. The assessment for children included a 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric measurement, and other clinical measurement. Anthropometric and dietary assessments were repeated at 6 and 12 months. New cultivars and technologies were introduced, such as soybeans, short-duration pigeon peas, groundnuts, sunflower seeds, and papaya seedlings. The Malawi Industrial Research and Technology Development Center built and installed solar dryers, seed oil presses, and ovens in each community. People were encouraged to include soaked and fermented maize flour and germinated cereal flours in infant and child porridges. Parents were educated about micronutrient-rich foods, meal frequencies, portion sizes, and food combinations. Information was provided through demonstrations, home visits, plays, songs, and booklets. The program evaluation is in progress.

  12. A three-part, mixed-effects model to estimate the habitual total vitamin D intake distribution from food and dietary supplements in Dutch young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.; Dodd, K.W.; Dekkers, A.L.M.; Veer, van 't P.; Ocke, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first a

  13. Iron Supplementation Affects Hematologic Biomarker Concentrations and Pregnancy Outcomes among Iron-Deficient Tanzanian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abioye, Ajibola I; Aboud, Said; Premji, Zulfiqar; Etheredge, Analee J; Gunaratna, Nilupa S; Sudfeld, Christopher R; Mongi, Robert; Meloney, Laura; Darling, Anne Marie; Noor, Ramadhani A; Spiegelman, Donna; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-06-01

    Iron deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient abnormality and the most common cause of anemia globally, worsening the burden of adverse pregnancy and child outcomes. We sought to evaluate the response of hematologic biomarkers to iron supplementation and to examine the predictors of the response to iron supplementation among iron-deficient pregnant women. We identified 600 iron-deficient (serum ferritin ≤12 μg/L) pregnant women, aged 18-45 y, presenting to 2 antenatal clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania using rapid ferritin screening tests, and prospectively followed them through delivery and postpartum. All women received 60 mg Fe and 0.25 mg folate daily from enrollment until delivery. Proportions meeting the thresholds representing deficient hematologic status including hemoglobin ferritin ≤12 μg/L, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) >4.4 mg/L, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) >70 mmol/L, or hepcidin ≤13.3 μg/L at baseline and delivery were assessed. The prospective change in biomarker concentration and the influence of baseline hematologic status on the change in biomarker concentrations were assessed. Regression models were estimated to assess the relation of change in biomarker concentrations and pregnancy outcomes. There was significant improvement in maternal biomarker concentrations between baseline and delivery, with increases in the concentrations of hemoglobin (mean difference: 15.2 g/L; 95% CI: 13.2, 17.2 g/L), serum ferritin (51.6 μg/L; 95% CI: 49.5, 58.8 μg/L), and serum hepcidin (14.0 μg/L; 95% CI: 12.4, 15.6 μg/L) and decreases in sTfR (-1.7 mg/L; 95% CI: -2.0, -1.3 mg/L) and ZPP (-17.8 mmol/L; 95% CI: -32.1, 3.5 mmol/L). The proportions of participants with low hemoglobin, ferritin, and hepcidin were 73%, 93%, and 99%, respectively, at baseline and 34%, 12%, and 46%, respectively, at delivery. The improvements in biomarker concentrations were significantly greater among participants with poor hematologic status at baseline - up

  14. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  15. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  16. Public health significance of supplementation or fortification of grain products with folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for supplemental folate can be traced to the initial phase of the discovery of this vitamin as a micronutrient for the prevention of pregnancy related anemia. In the post discovery era, folic acid was used primarily to prevent deficiency as manifested by low blood folate levels and megalob...

  17. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS (Hillan, 1999 also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba’s method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328

  18. RELATIONS AMONG SIX MICRONUTRIENTS IN GRAIN DETERMINED IN A MAIZE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Šimić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Limited results are published about the relations among micronutrients in cereal grains, although micronutrients play important physiological roles in animals and humans. The objective of this study was to determine relations among boron (B, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, molybdenum (Mo and zinc (Zn concentrations in grain of 297 genotypes of a maize population measured by inductively coupled plasma – optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES in two years. Correlation coefficients showed generally weak, though positive associations between individual micronutrient concentrations in both years. Principal component analysis revealed not the same relations among the micronutrients across two years, indicating the importance of environment. Still, close relations between Cu and Fe, and to lesser extent between B and Mo were observed in both years. Mn was consistently one of the least related micronutrients to others. Our results suggest that it is possible to improve density of various micronutrients in maize grain simultaneously, although the progress would be very slow.

  19. Enrichment of tropical peat with micronutrients for agricultural applications: evaluation of adsorption and desorption processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Camila de A.; Oliveira, Lilian K. de; Fraceto, Leonardo F.; Rosa, Andre H., E-mail: ahrosa@sorocaba.unesp.br [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental; Goveia, Danielle [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2014-01-15

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the adsorption and desorption of micronutrients in tropical peats, from the perspective of potential agricultural applications. Adsorption experiments were performed at different pH values, using solutions containing individual and multiple metal ions. Maximum adsorption capacity occurred at pH 6.0, and the order of affinity was Cu > Fe > Co > Ni > Zn = Mn. Release of the micronutrients was evaluated at different pH values, using an aqueous medium as well as soil and plants. Release of the micronutrients was most efficient at pH 6.0, and followed the order: Fe > Zn > Mn > Co = Ni > Cu. Micronutrient release to the soil was accompanied by uptake by the plant. The use of tropical peat enriched with micronutrients could contribute to improved agricultural productivity, since the release profile of the micronutrients can effectively stimulate plant growth. (author)

  20. Knowledge Attitude and Practice Regarding Micronutrient in Secondary School Student of Tribal Area in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modi Bhavesh, Patel Prakash, Sutariya Shailesh, Dave Paresh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iodine, vitamin A and iron are most important micronutrients in global public health terms; their lack represents a major threat to the health and development of populations the world over, particularly children in low-income countries. To combat the deficiency of micronutrients, awareness of their importance and their source plays vital role. Objective: to assess knowledge regarding important micronutrients in tribal students. Methodology: It is a cross sectional study conducted in 348 secondary school students of tribal area. Observations: Questionnaire regarding knowledge revealed that 83 (23.9% student had never heard of vitamin A, while 103 (29.6% and 72 (20.7% student had never heard of Iron and Iodine respectively. Gender wise analysis revealed that overall knowledge of micronutrients is comparatively higher among the girls. Recommendations: School children should be specially targeted in IEC campaign to decrease burden of micronutrient deficiency. Micronutrients should be included in school syllabus.

  1. Supplemental Colleges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Supplemental Colleges layer attempts to capture additional Post Secondary Education campuses of colleges and universities associated with a single campus listed...

  2. Determinants of the number of antenatal visits in a metropolitan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beeckman Katrien

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal care has a positive effect on pregnancy, both clinically and psychologically, but consensus about the optimal number of antenatal visits is lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the dynamics of the number of antenatal visits a woman receives. Independent effects of predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related determinants are examined. Methods Women were recruited in nine clinical centres in the Brussels Metropolitan region. Antenatal care use was measured prospectively. A Poisson regression model was applied to measure the independent effect of individual determinants on the number of antenatal visits. Results Data on antenatal care trajectories in 333 women were collected. The multivariate analyses showed that women with a Maghreb or Turkish origin had 14% fewer visits compared with European (EU15 women. More highly educated women had 22% more visits compared with those with a low education. Women with a high income had 14% more antenatal visits compared with those with a low income. Fewer antenatal visits were observed in multiparae (15%, women initiating care after 14 weeks of gestation (31%, women without medical risks during the pregnancy (12% and in women with a continuity of care index of 50% or more (12%. More visits were observed in delivering after week 37 (22% increase. Conclusions Predisposing and enabling factors have to be considered when antenatal care programmes are evaluated in a metropolitan area. Variations in the number of antenatal visits show that socially vulnerable women are more at risk of having fewer visits.

  3. Determinants of the number of antenatal visits in a metropolitan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeckman, Katrien; Louckx, Fred; Putman, Koen

    2010-09-01

    Antenatal care has a positive effect on pregnancy, both clinically and psychologically, but consensus about the optimal number of antenatal visits is lacking. This study aims to provide insight into the dynamics of the number of antenatal visits a woman receives. Independent effects of predisposing, enabling and pregnancy-related determinants are examined. Women were recruited in nine clinical centres in the Brussels Metropolitan region. Antenatal care use was measured prospectively. A Poisson regression model was applied to measure the independent effect of individual determinants on the number of antenatal visits. Data on antenatal care trajectories in 333 women were collected. The multivariate analyses showed that women with a Maghreb or Turkish origin had 14% fewer visits compared with European (EU15) women. More highly educated women had 22% more visits compared with those with a low education. Women with a high income had 14% more antenatal visits compared with those with a low income. Fewer antenatal visits were observed in multiparae (15%), women initiating care after 14 weeks of gestation (31%), women without medical risks during the pregnancy (12%) and in women with a continuity of care index of 50% or more (12%). More visits were observed in delivering after week 37 (22% increase). Predisposing and enabling factors have to be considered when antenatal care programmes are evaluated in a metropolitan area. Variations in the number of antenatal visits show that socially vulnerable women are more at risk of having fewer visits.

  4. Effect Of Supplementation On Haematological And Biochemical Parameters During Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra P

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred forty eight antenatal women were studied as supplemented (70 and non-supplemented (78 groups. The former group received nutritional supplementation in addition, to Iron, Folic acid and calcium tablets, which were given to both the groups. There was significant increase in the serum protein (p<0.001 and albumin (p<0.001 levels of the supplemented women. Haemoglobin was found to be increased in both the groups because of Iron therapy. But the increment was significantly higher (p<0.001 in supplemented group. Thus apart from Iron and Folic Acid, a diet rich in proteins (11 gm with calories (330 kcal is essential during pregnancy, at least for a period of 100 days.

  5. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  6. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care

    OpenAIRE

    JM Mathibe-Neke

    2008-01-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women’s health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-de...

  7. Antenatal diagnosis of Patau syndrome with previous anomalous baby

    OpenAIRE

    Keerthi Kocherla; Vasantha Kocherla

    2014-01-01

    Patau syndrome is the least common and most severe of the viable autosomal trisomies with median survival of fewer than 3 days was first identified as a cytogenetic syndrome in 1960. Patau syndrome is caused by an extra copy of chromosome 13. In this case report, we present antenatal imaging findings and gross foetal specimen correlation of foetus with Patau syndrome confirmed by karyotyping in third gravida who had significant previous obstetric history of gastrochisis in monochorionic and...

  8. Preparation and Bioavailability Analysis of Ferrous Bis Alanine Chelate as a New Micronutrient for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly. Results: Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (p<0.05) and also group II, which received ferrous sulfate.7H2O (p<0.05). It indicates that the new formulation considerably improves the blood iron status compared with the conventional iron compounds. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in the serum iron between group IV and group III, which received ferrous bis glycine. Conclusion: The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. PMID:27766225

  9. Preparation and Bioavailability Analysis of Ferrous Bis Alanine Chelate as a New Micronutrient for Treatment of Iron Deficiency Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Marzieh; Saadat, Ebrahim; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Dorkoosh, Farid

    2016-09-01

    Purpose: One of the most nutritional disorders around the world is iron deficiency. A novel iron compound was synthesized by chelating ferrous ions with alanine for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia. Methods: The newly synthesized compound was characterized both qualitatively and quantitatively by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The bioavailability of newly synthesized iron micronutrient was evaluated in four groups of Wistar rats. The group I was a negative control group and the other three groups received three different iron formulations. After 14 days, the blood samples were taken and analyzed accordingly. Results: Calculations showed that more than 91.8% of iron was incorporated in the chelate formulation. In vivo studies showed that serum iron, total iron binding capacity and hemoglobin concentrations were significantly increased in group IV, which received ferrous bis alanine chelate compared with the negative control group (pferrous sulfate.7H2O (pferrous bis glycine. Conclusion: The results showed better bioavailability of ferrous bis alanine as a new micronutrient for treatment of iron deficiency anemia in comparison with ferrous sulfate. Ferrous bis alanine could be considered as a suitable supplement for prevention and treatment of iron deficiency anemia.

  10. FOOD SUPPLEMENTS BASED ON VEGETABLE RAW MATERIALS IN THE PRODUCTION OF BAKED GOODS AND PASTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Tamazova S. U.; Lisovoy V. V.; Pershakova T. V.; Kasimirova M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The article provides an analysis of currently known technologies and methods of production of food supplements based on vegetable raw materials. It has been established that a great interest from the standpoint of macro and micronutrients we have for nutritional supplements baseв on artichoke. Our analysis led to the conclusion that, despite the significant number of developed and implemented newest technologies, the development of complex processing of vegetable raw materials to produce diet...

  11. Personalized Antenatal Consultations for Preterm Labor: Responding to Mothers' Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Nathalie; Nadeau, Sophie; Barbier, Alexandre; Janvier, Annie; Payot, Antoine

    2016-11-01

    To explore prospective mothers' perspectives regarding antenatal consultations by neonatology teams for threatened preterm delivery. In a prospective multicenter study, women at risk of preterm delivery between 26 and 32 weeks of gestational age were surveyed during the 72 hours following their antenatal consultation. The questionnaire used was developed and validated during a single-center study. Over 18 months, 229 mothers completed the survey (73% response rate), at a median gestational age of 30 weeks. Spouses/partners were present for 49% of consultations. Most women (90%) reported a positive experience. They found it important to discuss the outcomes of prematurity (96%), but 39% of them reported receiving too much information. Women wanted their spouse/partner to be present (71%) and wished to discuss parental concerns: their roles as mother of a premature baby (82%), their integration in their baby's care (83%), and a better understanding of the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) environment, including antenatal NICU visits (69%). The majority (56%) wanted a follow-up consultation: this was less likely if a NICU visit had been offered (P child-centered information. Although clinicians follow these guidelines, mothers want personalized information focusing on their individual concerns and questions, such as what they can do for their baby, how NICUs work, and the integration of their family. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dimensions of quality of antenatal care service at Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman El Gammal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 5 th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC, quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider′s satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ° 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians′ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement.

  13. Antenatal screening and the gendering of genetic responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Kate

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to explore men's and women's perceptions of antenatal blood screening. The study will assess the impact of these perceptions on decision-making regarding diagnostic testing and selective abortion, and on parental feelings of genetic responsibility. By exploring gender and antenatal screening in this way, the research aims to contribute to our understanding of lay perceptions of genetic screening and increase our knowledge of the decision-making process in screening. Research design This qualitative study will be based on semi-structured interviews with twenty pregnant women and twenty male partners in the post-industrial city of Sheffield, UK. All interviews will be taped, transcribed and analysed thematically using NVIVO, a qualitative software package. Discussion The findings of this study have relevance to existing debates on the social and ethical implications of reproductive genetics. A better understanding of male and female perceptions of the screening process could improve guidance and practice in antenatal screening and genetic counselling. It will also inform and contribute to the development of theory on gender and genetic screening.

  14. Vitamin D supplements in the Indian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Lhamo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is now known that vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide health problem. In our country, as food fortification is lacking, supplementation with pharmaceutical preparations is the only means of treatment of vitamin D deficiency. We aimed to study the composition and availability of various vitamin D preparations in the Indian market, data about which was collected from annual drug compendium. The preparations were assessed for total number, different formulations, constituents and amount of each constituent present in the formulation. Vitamin D3 is available in the form of cholecalciferol, alfacalcidiol and calcitriol as single ingredient products and in combination with calcium and other micronutrients. Most of the supplements contain calcitriol (46.5% or alfacalcidiol (43% as tablets (51.1% and capsules (35.2%. Cholecalciferol, the preferred form for prophylaxis and treatment of vitamin D deficient states, constitutes only 10% of the available market preparations. High market sales of calcium supplements containing calcitriol indicate increasing intake of calcitriol rather than cholecalciferol; which could predispose to toxicity. There is a need for marketing and rational prescribing of the appropriate vitamin D supplement in ostensibly healthy Indian population. Implementation of population-based education and intervention programmes with enforcement of strict regulations could generate awareness and curb unsupervised intake of vitamin D containing dietary supplements. This health challenge mandates effective nutritional policies, fortification and supplementation programmes and partnership between government, healthcare and industry to safeguard the health of Indian population at large.

  15. Antioxidant nutrition in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr and post-smolt, fed diets with high inclusion of plant ingredients and graded levels of micronutrients and selected amino acids

    OpenAIRE

    Kristin Hamre; Sissener, Nini H.; Erik-Jan Lock; Olsvik, Pål A; Marit Espe; Bente E Torstensen; Joana Silva; Johan Johansen; Rune Waagbø; Gro-Ingunn Hemre

    2016-01-01

    The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antiox...

  16. Sports Supplements

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not getting the whole story about how supplements work, if they are really effective, and the risks you take by using them. Androstenedione and DHEA ... like testicular cancer, infertility, stroke, and an increased risk of heart ... height. Natural steroid supplements can also cause breast development ...

  17. Multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits decreased prevalence of anemia and improved micronutrient status and effectiveness of deworming in rural Vietnamese school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, Tran Thuy; Winichagoon, Pattanee; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine A; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Wasantwisut, Emorn; Furr, Harold; Wieringa, Frank T

    2009-05-01

    Concurrent micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent among Vietnamese school children. A school-based program providing food fortified with multiple micronutrients could be a cost-effective and sustainable strategy to improve health and cognitive function of school children. However, the efficacy of such an intervention may be compromised by the high prevalence of parasitic infestation. To evaluate the efficacy of school-based intervention using multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits with or without deworming on anemia and micronutrient status in Vietnamese schoolchildren, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 510 primary schoolchildren, aged 6-8 y, in rural Vietnam. Albendazole (Alb) (400 mg) or placebo was given at baseline. Nonfortified or multi-micronutrient-fortified biscuits including iron (6 mg), zinc (5.6 mg), iodine (35 microg), and vitamin A (300 microg retinol equivalents) were given 5 d/wk for 4 mo. Multi-micronutrient fortification significantly improved the concentrations of hemoglobin (+1.87 g/L; 95% CI: 0.78, 2.96), plasma ferritin (+7.5 microg/L; 95% CI: 2.8, 12.6), body iron (+0.56 mg/kg body weight; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.84), plasma zinc (+0.61 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.26, 0.95), plasma retinol (+0.041 micromol/L; 95% CI: 0.001, 0.08), and urinary iodine (+22.49 micromol/L; 95% CI: 7.68, 37.31). Fortification reduced the risk of anemia and deficiencies of zinc and iodine by >40%. Parasitic infestation did not affect fortification efficacy, whereas fortification significantly enhanced deworming efficacy, with the lowest reinfection rates in children receiving both micronutrients and Alb. Multi-micronutrient fortification of biscuits is an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of Vietnamese schoolchildren and enhances effectiveness of deworming.

  18. Effects of Micronutrients on Oxidative Stress and Islet Function in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Rats: Relationships to Th2 Type Cytokines, Interleukin-4, and Interluekin-10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gui-zhen; LI Mei-hua; SONG Yang; LIU Ting; GAO Shen; SUN Ying

    2007-01-01

    To observe the effects of the micronutrients on oxidative and autoimmune destruction of islets so as to prevent a person from the onset and development of type 1 Diabetes Mellitus(T1DM), the interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 expressions of lymphocytes in peripheral blood and spleen of T1 DM rats were determined by flow cytometry. GSH-Px activity and MDA level in the rats' pancreas were measured using biochemical methods. The insulin contents in serum and β cell insulin secret storage were tested by RIA and IHC, respectively. There was an increase in the percentages of 1L-4 and IL-10 positive lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and spleen of the groups of rats supplemented with various combinations of micronutrients(p <0. 01 and p <0. 05, respectively); the blood glucose concentration decreased (p<0.05); both the functional β cell in islets and the insulin content in pancreatic tissue increased(p<0.05 and p<0.01); the GSH-Px activity and MDA level of pancreas in the rats enhanced and decreased respectively(p<0.01 and p<0.05). The results suggest that micronutrients may alleviate the islet lesions by upregulating the expressions of IL-4 and IL-10 and lowering oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  19. Analysis of Antenatal Care and its Related Factors among Married Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-qing MI; Xi-kuan CHEN; Er-Sheng Gao

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the related factors of antenatal care Methods The data derived from National Demography and Reproductive Health Survey in 1997 conducted by National Population and Family Planning Commission. 11 892 women who had given birth to at least one survival child were involved in this study. SAS software was used in multivariate analysis.Results The average rate of general antenatal care is 57.3% and has increased dramatically in the recent 30 years. The major reason why most subjects didn't have antenatal care was lacking the recognition of the importance of antenatal care. The antenatal care was associated with residence in rural area or urban area, age, educational level, parity of the last birth, local average income, distance between home and township in rural area and so on.Conclusion Women of childbearing age need to improve their health knowledge; the government should increase the availability of antenatal care.

  20. Effect of Supplementation with Zinc and other Micronutrients on Malaria in Tanzanian Children: A Randomised Trial.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Malaria is a serious global public-health problem. Half of the world's population is at risk of this parasitic disease, which kills a million people (mainly children living in sub-Saharan Africa) every year. Malaria is transmitted to people through the bites of infected night-flying mosquitoes. Soon after entering the human body, the parasite begins to replicate in red blood cells, bursting out every 2–3 days and infecting more red blood cells. The presence of the ...

  1. Micronutrient status and effects of supplementation in anemic pregnant women in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background  Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major nutrition related problem in China, especially affecting pregnant women,like in most developing countries. Deficiencies of vitamins also play an important role, such that iron, retinol and riboflavin deficiencies tend to coe

  2. Micronutrient status and effects of supplementation in anemic pregnant women in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background  Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a major nutrition related problem in China, especially affecting pregnant women,like in most developing countries. Deficiencies of vitamins also play an important role, such that iron, retinol and riboflavin deficiencies tend to

  3. [To the question of rational nutrition, micronutrient status correction, prevention and treatment of iron deficiency in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayupova, I M

    2015-01-01

    In the article the features of healthy nutrition in pregnant women suffering from iron deficiency has been discussed. The criteria for diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy, the stage of the disease development, the specifics of iron deficiency during gestation, the need in this trace element in pregnant women have been defined. The necessity of an adequate selection of a balanced diet during pregnancy complicated with anemia has been based. Iron content in food products along with the extent of absorption depending upon the origin of the product have been considered. The compounds that contribute to a better absorption of iron, as well as medicinal substances that prevent its absorption have been presented. Special attention is paid to the questions of preventative measures in preventing anemia in pregnant women. In addition to a balanced diet and iron preparations for treatment and prevention of anemia, the appointment of vitamin-mineral supplements and specialized foods for pregnant enriched with micronutrients has been substantiated.

  4. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Niedzwiecki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay, MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography, cell invasion (through Matrigel and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase. In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and

  5. Micronutrient Synergy in the Fight against Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roomi, M. Waheed; Roomi, Nusrath W.; Kalinovsky, Tatiana; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra, E-mail: a.niedz@drrath.com; Rath, Matthias [Dr. Rath Research Institute, 1260 Memorex Drive, Santa Clara, CA 95050 (United States)

    2012-03-23

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), once thought to be a rare tumor in North America, has rapidly increased in recent years in the United States. Current treatment modalities to halt the progression of this disease are only marginally effective. The mainstay treatment is liver transplantation, which is often confronted with donor shortage. Invasion, metastasis and recurrence contribute to the high mortality rate of this disease. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) have been associated with the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease. We have developed strategies to strengthen the ECM collagen and inhibit MMPs through micronutrients such as lysine, proline and ascorbic acid. Addition of epigallocatechin gallate or green tea extract to these micronutrients synergistically enhanced anti-carcinogenic activity in HepG2 cells. Addition of certain other micronutrients, such as N-acetylcysteine, selenium, copper and zinc (NM) synergistically enhanced the anticancer activity of the mixture in a model of hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cells. In vitro studies using HepG2 demonstrated that NM was very effective in inhibiting cell proliferation (by MTT assay), MMPs secretion (by gelatinase zymography), cell invasion (through Matrigel) and induction of apoptosis (by live green caspase). In addition, NM was shown to down-regulate urokinase plasminogen activator (by fibrin zymography) and up-regulate tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (by reverse zymography) in another HCC cell line, SK-Hep-1. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities were further modulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induction and inhibited by NM. In previous studies, NM inhibited Sk-Hep-1 xenografts in nude mice and also inhibited hepatic metastasis of B16FO melanoma cells. Our results suggest that NM is an excellent candidate for therapeutic use in the treatment HCC by inhibiting critical parameters in cancer development and progression

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites.

  7. ECONOMICAL BASIS TO ADDRESS MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCIES IN DEVELOPING WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition has been called by economists at the World Bank as the “non-human face” of poverty,1 Adults who were malnourished as children earn at least 20% less on average than those who weren’t , 2.Malnutrition is often caused by underlying economics, i.e. the lack of money. Economics is very important in regards to malnutrition; it allows an individual to purchase nutrients. In many places around the world, a lack of money prevents the purchase of a variety of foods. The lack in variety usually leads to micronutrient malnutrition. Economics also decides the production of food in all countries around the world and the ability of a country to overcome difficult times. Thus economics affects ALL people at ALL levels of society, 3.Micronutrient deficiencies also known as ‘hidden hunger’ are determining and aggravating factors for health status and quality of life. It is estimated half of anaemia cases are due to iron deficiency , 4.  Almost half of children in low- and middle-income countries – 47% of under-fives are affected by anaemia, impairing cognitive and physical development,5. Iodine deficiency is the greatest single cause of mental retardation and brain damage. Coincidently,  the number of countries in which iodine-deficiency disorders were considered a public health concern reduced by 43% between 1993 and 2007,6.  Zinc deficiency affects children’s health and physical growth; it is also essential for mothers during pregnancy. It is estimated to cause 4% of deaths in pre-school aged children in lower-income countries. 7 . The Global Burden of Disease estimates showed that among the 26 major risk factors of the global burden of disease,8 iron deficiency ranks ninth overall, zinc deficiency is eleventh, and vitamin A deficiency, is thirteenth. Annually each developing country of the world are losing over millions or billions US $ in Gross Domestic Product (GDP to vitamins and minerals deficiencies. But scaling up core

  8. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MANRTINW.BLOEM; REGINGMOENCH-PFANNER; 等

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s,the international development banks and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals(IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015,These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty.A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs,There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to resch these challenging goals by the year 2015,This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  9. Combating Micronutrient Deficiencies—An Important Component of Poverty Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1990s, the international development banks and theInternational Monetary Fund (IMF) convened to outline seven International Development Goals (IDGs) to reduce poverty by 2015. These goals incorporated both the economic and social dimensions of poverty. A two-thirds reduction of child mortality and a three-fourths reduction of maternal mortality from rates in 1990 by 2015 are two of these seven IDGs. There is a need for better combinations of cost-effective strategies to reach these challenging goals by the year 2015. This paper discusses the potential usefulness of micronutrient deficiency control programs for this purpose.

  10. [Mediterranean diet, micronutrients and prostate carcinoma: a rationale approach to primary prevention of prostate cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miano, Lucio

    2003-09-01

    Cancer of the prostate is one of the most commonly diagnosed solid malignancies and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in men living in Italy. With an ageing population, the number of men living with early stages of prostate cancer is expected to increase. There is an impelling need to prevent the onset of the cancer or delay the progression of carcinogenesis in this organ. The chemoprevention of cancer is a relatively new concept defined as the administration of pharmacological agents (drug or diet-derived supplements) to prevent, delay or reverse the carcinogenesis. Epidemiological data showing ethnic and geographic variations in the incidence of, and mortality from, prostate cancer have suggested that the consumption of dietary factors may be protective. There is increasing evidence that diet (particularly dietary fat intake) may play a significant role in early prostate carcinogenesis. Dietary micronutrients and antioxidants are under intense scrutiny. These factors include the vitamin D and E, lycopene, selenium, zinc, poliphenols, isoflavonoids, and phytoestrogens (especially soy products and green tea). The old Mediterranean diet (based on cereals, vegetables, polyunsaturated fats, fruits, fish and low quantities of dairy products and meat) is now sparingly adopted because of the globalisation of the food chain which now involves also our country. Nevertheless, our traditional dietary habits are considered of great value in the prevention of cardiovascular or cancerous diseases and particularly of prostate cancer.

  11. Zinc absorption from micronutrient powder is low but is not affected by iron in Kenyan infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward; Ikemeri, Justus; Westcott, Jamie; Kemp, Jennifer; Culbertson, Diana; Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael; Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-12-01

    Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP) on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively); a control (C) group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day) was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM) TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10) and MNP - Fe (n = 9) groups: 0.85 (0.22) and 0.72 (0.19), respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9): 0.24 (0.03) (p = 0.04). Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups' mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  12. Zinc Absorption from Micronutrient Powder Is Low but Is not Affected by Iron in Kenyan Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Esamai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively; a control (C group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10 and MNP − Fe (n = 9 groups: 0.85 (0.22 and 0.72 (0.19, respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9: 0.24 (0.03 (p = 0.04. Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations.

  13. Zinc Absorption from Micronutrient Powder Is Low but Is not Affected by Iron in Kenyan Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward; Ikemeri, Justus; Westcott, Jamie; Kemp, Jennifer; Culbertson, Diana; Miller, Leland V.; Hambidge, K. Michael; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP) on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively); a control (C) group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day) was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM) TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10) and MNP − Fe (n = 9) groups: 0.85 (0.22) and 0.72 (0.19), respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9): 0.24 (0.03) (p = 0.04). Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations. PMID:25493942

  14. A prospective study of maternal fatty acids, micronutrients and homocysteine and their association with birth outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Nisha S; Pisal, Hemlata R; Mehendale, Savita S; Joshi, Sadhana R

    2015-10-01

    Our earlier studies both in animals and in humans have indicated that micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are interlinked in the one-carbon cycle, which plays an important role in fetal 'programming' of adult diseases. The present study examines the levels of maternal and cord plasma fatty acids, maternal folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine in healthy mothers at various time points during pregnancy and also examine an association between them. A longitudinal study of 106 normal pregnant women was carried out, and maternal blood was collected at three time points, viz., T1 = 16-20th week, T2 = 26-30th week and T3 = at delivery. Cord blood was collected at delivery. Fatty acids were estimated using a gas chromatograph. Levels of folate, vitamin B12 and homocysteine were estimated by the chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) technology. Maternal plasma folate (P homocysteine levels were highest (P homocysteine at T2 (P homocysteine at T1 were inversely associated with baby weight at delivery. Our study provides evidence for the associations of folic acid, vitamin B12, homocysteine with DHA and baby weight, suggesting that a balanced dietary supplementation of folate-vitamin B12-DHA during pregnancy may be beneficial.

  15. Cardiovascular risk factors in children after repeat doses of antenatal glucocorticoids: an RCT

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKinlay, Christopher J D; Cutfield, Wayne S; Battin, Malcolm R; Dalziel, Stuart R; Crowther, Caroline A; Harding, Jane E

    2015-01-01

    .... We assessed whether exposure to repeat antenatal betamethasone increased risk factors for later cardiometabolic disease in children whose mothers participated in the Australasian Collaborative Trial...

  16. Consumers attitudes and beliefs towards the receipt of antenatal corticosteroids and use of clinical practice guidelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGoldrick, E L; Crawford, T; Brown, J A; Groom, K M; Crowther, C A

    2016-01-01

    ...) demonstrating scepticism towards their purpose and applicability to their needs. There is no information pertaining to consumers' views and attitudes on the receipt of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS...

  17. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  18. Successful food-based programmes, supplementation and fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannar, M G Venkatesh

    2006-12-01

    This review highlights interventions and delivery mechanisms to alleviate macro- and micronutrient deficiencies in preschool children. These deficiencies can be addressed through an integrated combination of improved dietary intake, supplementation, commercial and home-based fortification of complementary foods. Several developed and developing countries have implemented successful approaches to eliminate protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies with sustained impact. These include provision of oral supplements in capsule, tablet or syrup form. Certain micronutrients (eg, vitamin A) can be provided as high-dose supplements twice per year. Most other vitamins and minerals (eg, iron, zinc, iodine) need to be provided in daily doses. Fortified complementary foods provided through public feeding programmes and commercially marketed foods have also made a positive impact. There is growing evidence of the impact of home-based fortification of complementary foods using premixes in single-serving sachets. The fortification of commercially marketed staple foods such as cereal flours, cooking oils and dairy products could have a small but significant impact on preschool children. Cereal flours with iron, folic acid and other nutrients have expanded rapidly, with evidence of impact. A key need is to deliver micronutrients to remote and impoverished populations in an affordable and sustainable manner. Government commitment, clear policy and programme direction, advocacy and communication combined with a strong public-private partnership is essential for successful programmes. Often a period of voluntary fortification needs to be followed by mandatory requirement to ensure full compliance and sustained impact. The review concludes that proven technologies, communications and infrastructure can be harnessed to ensure that the nutrient needs of preschool children are met. When administered systematically with the commitment of and participation by the public and

  19. Gut microbiota in Malawian infants in a nutritional supplementation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Yin Bun; Xu, Ying; Mangani, Charles; Fan, Yue-Mei; Dewey, Kathryn G; Salminen, Seppo Jaakko; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether two forms of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) or a micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend were associated with development of the gut microbiota in Malawian infants, to assess the microbiota profiles at the age of 6 and 18 months and to follow the changes during the 12-month period. This was a substudy of a 4-arm randomised controlled trial conducted in rural Malawi. Infants at the age of 6 months were randomised to receive no supplement during the primary follow-up period (control), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with milk protein base (milk LNS), 54 g/day of micronutrient-fortified LNS with soya protein base (soya LNS), or 71 g/day of micronutrient-fortified corn-soya blend for 12 months. Stool samples were collected at baseline (6 months) and end of trial (18 months). The 16S rRNA gene was amplified and subjected to multiplex sequencing. A total of 213 infants had paired microbiota data at 6 and 18 months of age. The Dirichlet-multinomial test showed no significant difference in microbiota profile between the four intervention groups at either age (each P > 0.10). Bifidobacterium longum was most abundant at both ages. Lactobacillus ruminis, Shigella and Salmonella were present. The abundance of Prevotella and Faecalibacterium increased with age (each P < 0.001), while Bifidobacteriaceae and Enterobacteriaceae exhibited significant decrease (each P < 0.001). Nutritional supplementation by LNS or corn-soya blend for twelve months did not affect the gut microbiota profile in the rural Malawian context. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Prevalence of Antenatal Depression and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Okechukwu; Ajayi, IkeOluwapo

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of antenatal depression (AD) and associated risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Abeokuta North Local Government Area, Nigeria, was determined. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted, interviewing 314 pregnant women selected by multistage sampling technique from among those attending antenatal clinics. Information was collected using structured questionnaire and a screening tool, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), to assess probable depression. Results. The prevalence of antenatal depression was 24.5%. There were significant associations between antenatal depression and attending public health facility (P = 0.000), young maternal age (P = 0.012), single marital status (P = 0.010), not having formal education (P = 0.022), large family size (P = 0.029), planned pregnancy (P = 0.014), coexisting medical conditions (P = 0.034), history of previous caesarian section (P = 0.032), drinking alcohol during pregnancy (P = 0.004), and gender based abuse (P = 0.001). On health seeking behaviour for antenatal depression among depressed pregnant women, most, 68.9%, consulted their husbands about their symptoms; 57.3% took the decision to get treatment from doctors, and 52% sought prayer in the church. Conclusion. Antenatal depression is prevalent in this study population. Interventions to address its risk factors should be carried out and physicians should suspect depression in pregnant women reporting alcohol use and gender abuse.

  1. Quality of antenatal care provided by nurse midwives in an Urban health centre with regard to low-risk antenatal mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Angeline Pricilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:India contributes to 19% of the global maternal deaths. Good quality antenatal care can prevent maternal deaths by early detection of complications and maintaining maternal health. There are few studies documenting quality of antenatal care in India. This study aimed to document the antenatal services provided by nurse midwives to low-risk pregnant mothers from an urban population. Aims: The primary objective was to describe the quality of the antenatal care provided by nurse midwives of an urban health centre with regard to low-risk mothers. The secondary objective was to document the maternal and early neonatal outcomes of the enrolled mothers during the period of study. Methods: This prospective cohort study was done on 200 pregnant women who had antenatal care by nurse midwives between April 2014 and November 2014. The quality of care was assessed by a checklist adapted from World Health Organization (WHO. Results: We report that the quality of antenatal care for all domains was above 90% except for the health education domain, which was poor with regard to breastfeeding and family planning in the enrolled 200 pregnant women. Conclusion: Our study concluded that trained nurse midwives when regularly monitored, audited and linked with reliable referral facilities can deliver good quality antenatal care.

  2. Nutrition meets the microbiome: micronutrients and the microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesalski, Hans K

    2016-05-01

    There is increasing evidence that food is an important factor that influences and shapes the composition and configuration of the gut microbiota. Most studies have focused on macronutrients (fat, carbohydrate, protein) in particular and their effects on the gut microbiota. Although the microbiota can synthesize different water-soluble vitamins, the effects of vitamins synthesized within the microbiota on systemic vitamin status are unclear. Few studies exist on the shuttling of vitamins between the microbiota and intestine and the impact of luminal vitamins on the microbiota. Studying the interactions between vitamins and the microbiota may help to understand the effects of vitamins on the barrier function and immune system of the intestinal tract. Furthermore, understanding the impact of malnutrition, particularly low micronutrient supply, on microbiota development, composition, and metabolism may help in implementing new strategies to overcome the deleterious effects of malnutrition on child development. This article reviews data on the synthesis of different micronutrients and their effects on the human microbiota, and further discusses the consequences of malnutrition on microbiota composition.

  3. A three-part, mixed-effects model to estimate the habitual total vitamin D intake distribution from food and dietary supplements in Dutch young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkaik-Kloosterman, Janneke; Dodd, Kevin W; Dekkers, Arnold L M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Ocké, Marga C

    2011-11-01

    Statistical modeling of habitual micronutrient intake from food and dietary supplements using short-term measurements is hampered by heterogeneous variances and multimodality. Summing short-term intakes from food and dietary supplements prior to simple correction for within-person variation (first add then shrink) may produce estimates of habitual total micronutrient intake so badly biased as to be smaller than estimates of habitual intake from food sources only. A 3-part model using a first shrink then add approach is proposed to estimate the habitual micronutrient intake from food among nonsupplement users, food among supplement users, and supplements. The population distribution of habitual total micronutrient intake is estimated by combining these 3 habitual intake distributions, accounting for possible interdependence between Eq. 2 and 3. The new model is an extension of a model developed by the USA National Cancer Institute. Habitual total vitamin D intake among young children was estimated using the proposed model and data from the Dutch food consumption survey (n = 1279). The model always produced habitual total intakes similar to or higher than habitual intakes from food sources only and also preserved the multimodal shape of the observed total vitamin D intake distribution. This proposed method incorporates several sources of covariate information that should provide more precise estimates of the habitual total intake distribution and the proportion of the population with intakes below/above cutpoint values. The proposed methodology could be useful for other complex situations, e.g. where high concentrations of micronutrients appear in episodically consumed foods.

  4. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  5. Biofortification: How can we exploit plant science and biotechnology to reduce micronutrient deficiencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throughout the developing world, the long-term consequences of insufficient amounts of essential micronutrients in the human diet can be more devastating than low energy intake. Micronutrients are involved in all aspects of development, growth, and physiology of the human body (including from early ...

  6. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal preg

  7. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  8. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical t

  9. Micronutrient status in anemic and non-anemic Chinese women in the third trimester of pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, A.G.; Schouten, E.G.; Wang, Y.; Xu, R.X.; Zheng, M.C.; Li, Y.; Wang, Q.Z.; Sun, Y.Y.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a major nutrition related problem in China. In addition to iron deficiency this may be due to deficiencies of other micronutrients. Objective: To describe the micronutrient status of anemic and non-anemic pregnant women in China. Subjects and Methods: 734 clinically normal

  10. EURRECA/WHO Workshop report: "Deriving micronutrient recommendations: updating best practices"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van 't P.; Heseker, H.; Grammatikaki, E.; Benetou, V.; Gregoric, M.; Margaritis, I.; Raats, M.M.; Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the outcome of the workshop ‘Deriving Micronutrient Recommendations: Updating Best Practices’ which took place in Brussels in April 2012. The workshop was organised jointly by the European Micronutrient Recommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence and the World Health

  11. Micronutrients, N-Acetyl Cysteine, Probiotics and Prebiotics, A Review of Effectiveness in Reducing HIV Progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G.K. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  12. Micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics and prebiotics, a review of effectiveness in reducing HIV progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J. Hemsworth (Jaimie); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractLow serum concentrations of micronutrients, intestinal abnormalities, and an inflammatory state have been associated with HIV progression. These may be ameliorated by micronutrients, N-acetyl cysteine, probiotics, and prebiotics. This review aims to integrate the evidence from clinical

  13. Symposium report: Effective and safe micronutrient interventions, weighing the risks against the benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient fortification of staple foods can be an effective strategy to combat micronutrient malnutrition. When planning on fortification, challenges faced include the collection of essential information on population food and nutrient intake patterns, as well as the use of this information in a...

  14. Supplemental information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Supplemental information showing results of inter-comparison between C-PORT, AERMOD and R-LINE dispersion algorithms. This dataset is associated with the following...

  15. Nutritional supplements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Gry Bjerg; Andersen, Jens Rikardt

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have indicated that cancer patients have significantly altered taste sensitivity without specifying the preferences. One of the related problems is low compliance to nutritional therapy with oral nutritional supplements (ONS) in patients suffering severe weight loss...

  16. Determinants for refusal of HIV testing among women attending for antenatal care in Gambella Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanta Wondimagegn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Gambella region, inhabitants owe socio-cultural factors that might favor refusal for HIV testing service utilization among Antenatal Care attendees. Objective To assess determinants for refusal of HIV testing service utilization among ANC attendees in Gambella Region. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted among ANC attendees from March 2008 to May 2008 in four selected health facilities of Gambella region. Sample size of 332 participants (83 who refused HIV testing and 249 who accepted HIV testing were taken for the study. The study was supplemented with four focus group discussions. Multivariate binary logistic regression was employed to control for confounding factors. Results When adjusted with other factors pregnant women with 2–3 live births in the past; who claimed divorce as a perceived response of their husband following HIV positive test result; who had not sought agreement from their husband for testing; disclosure of test for husband and being from certain ethnic group (E.g. Mejenger were independent predictors for refusal of HIV testing among ANC attendees. Conclusion and recommendation Based on the findings, the following recommendations were forwarded: Provision of innovative information and education on the pre-test session for those pregnant women having two or more children; community involvement to tackle stigma; women empowerment; designing couple friendly counseling service; and fighting harmful traditional practices related with decision of HIV testing.

  17. The expectations of pregnant women regarding antenatal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathibe-Neke, J M

    2008-09-01

    From a feminist perspective, research on childbirth and women's health is a means to a positive change that is conducted in partnership with women for their benefit. A patient-led National Health System (NHS) (Hillan, 1999) also calls for consultation with patients and the wider public for shaping the current and future health services. This study was aimed at exploring and describing the expectations that pregnant women have regarding antenatal care service by the midwife practitioner. In-depth interviews were conducted in an antenatal unit of an Academic Hospital in Gauteng Povince. Data saturation was reached with a sample of eighteen pregnant women who were conveniently selected. Data analysis ran concurrently with data collection. A manual content analysis as described by Tesch was used. Lincoln and Guba's method of ensuring trustworthiness was adopted (Lincoln & Guba, 1985:328) Literature was undertaken to compare the findings of this study with those of other previous studies. Women displayed several common expectations that led to the saturation of data. It also became apparent from the findings that each woman had varied expectations. There were also some commonalities within the women's expectations. Health care, as the major expectation and a basic human right, appeared to be basically fulfilled, with the exception of interactional characteristics such as the communication of information, guidance, involvement, the understanding and explanation of aspects, freedom of choice, punctuality, individualized care and continuity of care. The conclusions that were reached let to recommendations for nursing practice, education, research and the formulation of guidelines for the midwife practitioner for the implementation of effective antenatal care, based on the identified expectations.

  18. Prematuridad extrema y uso materno de corticoides antenatal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Acosta Díaz

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar el uso de corticoides antenatal en las madres con amenaza de parto pretérmino y el efecto sobre los recién nacidos prematuros extremos, se realizó un estudio prospectivo, longitudinal, y analítico entre todos los niños nacidos vivos con edad gestacional menor de 31 semanas y peso inferior a 1 500 g, ocurridos en el Hospital Ginecoobstétrico Provincial Docente "Justo Legón Padilla" de Pinar del Río, desde enero de 1997 hasta julio de 1998. Se estudiaron los 53 niños con estas características. Los datos que se obtuvieron se depositaron en base de datos; para el procesamiento estadístico, se aplicó la prueba de chi cuadrado, con un nivel de significación de p In order to evaluate the antenatal use of adrenal cortex hormones in mothers with preterm delivery threat and its effect on extreme premature infants, it was conducted a prospective, longitudinal and analytical study among the live births with gestational age under 31 weeks and a weight lower than 1 500 g registered at "Justo Legón Padilla" Provincial Gynecoobstetric Teaching Hospital, in Pinar del Río, from January, 1997, to July, 1998. 53 children with these characteristics were studied. The collected data were entered in databases. The chi square test with a level of significance of p<0.05 was used for the statistical processing. Steroids were administered to 32 mothers. A statistically significant reduction of the hyaline membrane disease, the use of ventilation, the complications and mortality was observed with the antenatal use of maternal adrenal cortex hormones. There were no statistically significant differences between the study and the control group as regards sex, mean gestational age (29.0/28.9 weeks and weights (1207.9/1180.0 g.

  19. Efficacy of a multi micronutrient-fortified drink in improving iron and micronutrient status among schoolchildren with low iron stores in India: A randomised, double-masked placebo-controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multiple micronutrient-fortified drink could be an effective strategy to combating micronutrient deficiencies in school-going children. Our objective was to assess the efficacy of a multiple micronutrient-fortified drink in reducing iron deficiency (ID), ID anemia (IDA), anemia and improving micro...

  20. Antenatal testing for cystic fibrosis in Cuba, 1988-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Teresa; López, Ixchel; Clark, Yulia; Piloto, Yaixa; González, Laura; Gómez, Manuel; García, Marileivis; Reyes, Lidice; Rodríguez, Fidel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem autosomal recessive disease with wide variability in clinical severity. It is incurable and characterized by elevated and premature mortality, as well as poor quality of life. Its frequency, lethality and devastating impact on both the physical and psychological wellbeing of patients and their families, make it a serious health problem. Its frequency in Cuba is 1 in 9862 live births, where marked molecular heterogeneity of the CFTR gene makes molecular diagnosis difficult. Six mutations have been identified that together enable molecular characterization of only 55.5% of cystic fibrosis chromosomes. This paper presents national results of antenatal diagnostic testing, using direct and indirect methods, for detection of cystic fibrosis. OBJECTIVE Characterize the Cuban public health system's experience with antenatal molecular testing for cystic fibrosis from 1988 through 2011. METHODS A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with results of antenatal diagnostic testing of amniotic fluid, performed nationwide from 1988 through 2011, for 108 fetuses of couples with some risk of having children affected by cystic fibrosis, who requested testing. Polymerase chain reaction detected mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A, and markers XV2C and KM19. Data were analyzed using absolute frequencies and percentages, and presented in tables. RESULTS For 93 cases (86.1%), testing for cystic fibrosis was done using direct analysis of mutations p.F508del, p.G542X, p.R1162X, p.R334W, p.R553X and c.3120+1G>A; five cases (4.6%) were tested indirectly using markers XV2C/Taq I and KM19/Pst I; and 10 (9.3%) were tested using a combination of the two methods. A total of 72 diagnoses (66.7% of studies done) were concluded, of which there were 20 healthy fetuses, 16 affected, 27 carrier, and 9 who were either healthy or carriers of an unknown mutation. CONCLUSIONS Direct or indirect molecular study was